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Sample records for decreased angiotensin ii

  1. GPR30 decreases cardiac chymase/angiotensin II by inhibiting local mast cell number

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhuo; Wang, Hao; Lin, Marina; Groban, Leanne

    2015-03-27

    Chronic activation of the novel estrogen receptor GPR30 by its agonist G1 mitigates the adverse effects of estrogen (E2) loss on cardiac structure and function. Using the ovariectomized (OVX) mRen2.Lewis rat, an E2-sensitive model of diastolic dysfunction, we found that E2 status is inversely correlated with local cardiac angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, likely via Ang I/chymase-mediated production. Since chymase is released from cardiac mast cells during stress (e.g., volume/pressure overload, inflammation), we hypothesized that GPR30-related cardioprotection after E2 loss might occur through its opposing actions on cardiac mast cell proliferation and chymase production. Using real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis, we found mast cell number, chymase expression, and cardiac Ang II levels were significantly increased in the hearts of OVX-compared to ovary-intact mRen2.Lewis rats and the GPR30 agonist G1 (50 mg/kg/day, s.c.) administered for 2 weeks limited the adverse effects of estrogen loss. In vitro studies revealed that GPR30 receptors are expressed in the RBL-2H3 mast cell line and G1 inhibits serum-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by cell counting, BrdU incorporation assay, and Ki-67 staining. Using specific antagonists to estrogen receptors, blockage of GPR30, but not ERα or ERβ, attenuated the inhibitory effects of estrogen on BrdU incorporation in RBL-2H3 cells. Further study of the mechanism underlying the effect on cell proliferation showed that G1 inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression in RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. - Highlights: • GPR30 activation limits mast cell number in hearts from OVX mRen2.Lewis rats. • GPR30 activation decreases cardiac chymase/angiotensin II after estrogen loss. • GPR30 activation inhibits RBL-2H3 mast cell proliferation and CDK1 expression.

  2. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  3. Inactivation of the EP3 receptor attenuates the Angiotensin II pressor response via decreasing arterial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Miao, Yifei; Zhang, Yahua; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Tian, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guangrui; Pu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jihong; Gao, Yuansheng; Wang, Shiqiang; Breyer, Matthew D.; Wang, Nanping; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Yu; Breyer, Richard M; Guan, Youfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present studies aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype 3 (EP3) in regulating blood pressure. Methods and Results Mice bearing a genetic disruption of the EP3 gene (EP3−/−) exhibited reduced baseline mean arterial pressure monitored by both tail-cuff and carotid arterial catheterization. The pressor responses induced by EP3 agonists M&B28767 and sulprostone were markedly attenuated in EP3−/− mice, while the reduction of BP induced by PGE2 was comparable in both genotypes. Vasopressor effect of acute or chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) was attenuated in EP3−/− mice. AngII–induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries decreased in EP3−/− group. In mesenteric arteries from wild type mice, AngII–induced vasoconstriction was inhibited by EP3 selective antagonist DG-041 or L798106. The expression of Arhgef-1 is attenuated in EP3 deficient mesenteric arteries. EP3 antagonist DG-041 diminished AngII-induced phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 in isolated mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), AngII induced intracellular Ca2+ increase was potentiated by EP3 agonist sulprostone, while inhibited by DG-041. Conclusions Activation of the EP3 receptor raises baseline blood pressure and contributes to AngII-dependent hypertension at least partially via enhancing Ca2+ sensitivity and intracellular calcium concentration in VSMCs. Selective targeting of the EP3 receptor may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:23065824

  4. Angiotensin II receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Yee, Daniel K; Fluharty, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Angiotensin II plays a key role in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. To correct body fluid deficits that occur during hypovolaemia, an animal needs to ingest both water and electrolytes. Thus, it is not surprising that angiotensin II, which is synthesized in response to hypovolaemia, acts centrally to increase both water and NaCl intake. Here, we review findings relating to the properties of angiotensin II receptors that give rise to changes in behaviour. Data are described to suggest that divergent signal transduction pathways are responsible for separable behavioural responses to angiotensin II, and a hypothesis is proposed to explain how this divergence may map onto neural circuits in the brain.

  5. Alkaloids of Nitraria sibirica Pall. decrease hypertension and albuminuria in angiotensin II-salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Mahinur; Yi, Yang; Chen, Ling-Dan; Aisa, Haji Akber; Wang, Mong-Heng

    2014-04-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Nitraria sibirica Pall. (Nitrariaceae) is used to treat hypertension. This study determined the effects of the total alkaloids of the leaves of Nitraria sibirica (NSTA) on blood pressure and albuminuria in mice treated with angiotensin II and a high-salt diet (ANG/HS). Adult mice were divided into three groups: control; infused with angiotensin II and fed a diet containing 4% NaCl (ANG/HS; and ANG/HS plus injection of NSTA (1 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), i.p.). After treatment of these regimens, daily water and food intake, kidney weight, blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, renal concentrations of inflammatory markers, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the expression of renal fibrosis markers were determined. Compared to the control group, the ANG/HS group had higher blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. Treatment with NSTA in ANG/HS mice for three weeks significantly reduced blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. ANG/HS treatment caused elevated levels of sICAM-1 and MCP-1, as well as increased fibrosis markers. Concurrent treatment with ANG/HS and NSTA attenuated the levels and expression of renal inflammatory and fibrosis markers. Treatment with NSTA effectively reduces hypertension-induced albuminuria through the reduction of renal inflammatory and fibrosis markers.

  6. Pressor doses of angiotensin II increase hepatic glucose output and decrease insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, R H

    1996-02-01

    The metabolic effects of angiotensin II (AII) were studied under steady-state conditions of euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia in anaesthetized rats. Pressor doses of AII (50 and 400 ng/kg per min) had dose-dependent hypertensive and hyperglycaemic effects during glucose clamp studies. Glucose turnover measurements showed that hepatic glucose output (HGO) increased equally at both pressor doses compared with either saline infusion or AII infusion at a dose without a pressor effect (20 ng/kg per min); however, glucose disposal increased significantly only at 50 ng/kg per min. Infusion of the AII receptor antagonist, saralasin, did not itself alter glucose output or disposal significantly, but it abolished the effects of a simultaneous infusion of AII. It is concluded that pressor doses of AII increase HGO by a receptor-mediated mechanism that is not related to the pressor response to the hormone. The hyperglycaemic reaction to this metabolic effect of AII is partially offset by increased glucose disposal at lower doses. The physiological significance of these metabolic actions of AII remains to be established, but they raise the possibility that AII could potentially play a role in glucose homeostasis in vivo. PMID:8699145

  7. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  8. Dietary peptides from the non-digestible fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. decrease angiotensin II-dependent proliferation in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells through the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vital, Diego A; Liang, Katie; González de Mejía, Elvira; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to determine the ability of peptides present in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans to decrease angiotensin II (AngII) through the blockade of RAS and its effect on the proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Pure synthesized peptides GLTSK and GEGSGA and the peptide fractions (PF) of cultivars Azufrado Higuera and Bayo Madero were used. The cells were pretreated with pure peptides, PF or AGT at their IC50 or IC25 values, in comparison with the simultaneous treatment of peptides and AGT. For western blot and microscopy analysis, 100 μM and 0.5 mg mL(-1) were used for pure peptides and PF treatments, respectively. According to the ELISA tests, GLTSK and GEGSGA decreased (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AGT to angiotensin I (AngI) by 38 and 28%, respectively. All the peptides tested reduced (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AngI to AngII from 38 to 50%. When the cells were pretreated with both pure peptides and PF before exposure to AGT, the effectiveness inhibiting cell proliferation was higher than the simultaneous treatment suggesting their preventive effects. GLTSK and GEGSGA interacted with the catalytic site of renin, the angiotensin-I converting enzyme, and the AngII receptor, mainly through hydrogen bonds, polar, hydrophobic and cation-π interactions according to molecular docking. Through confocal microscopy, it was determined that GLTSK and GEGSGA caused the decrease (p < 0.05) of AngII-dependent STAT3 nuclear activation in HCT116 cells by 66 and 23%, respectively. The results suggest that peptides present in the common bean NDF could potentially ameliorate the effects of RAS overexpression in colorectal cancer. PMID:27156533

  9. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    1988-05-01

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration of 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.

  10. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  11. A peripherally administered, centrally acting angiotensin II AT2 antagonist selectively increases brain AT1 receptors and decreases brain tyrosine hydroxylase transcription, pituitary vasopressin and ACTH.

    PubMed

    Macova, Miroslava; Pavel, Jaroslav; Saavedra, Juan M

    2009-01-23

    The physiological actions of brain Angiotensin II AT(2) receptors and their relationship to Angiotensin II AT(1) receptors remain controversial. To further clarify their role, we determined to what extent systemic administration of an AT(2) receptor antagonist affected AT(2) receptor binding within the brain and the expression of AT(1) receptors. For this purpose, we subcutaneously administered the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg/day) to adult male rats for two weeks via osmotic minipumps. We also studied the content of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone and vasopressin, representative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, and the tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the locus coeruleus as a measure of central norepinephrine function. We found significant decreases in AT(2) receptor binding in brain areas inside the blood brain barrier, the inferior olive and the locus coeruleus. AT(2) receptor blockade increased AT(1) receptor binding and mRNA expression not only in the subfornical organ and the median eminence, situated outside the blood brain barrier, but also in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, located inside the blood brain barrier. These changes paralleled decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the locus coeruleus and decreased pituitary adrenocorticotropic and vasopressin content. Our results demonstrate that sustained peripheral administration of an AT(2) antagonist decreases binding to brain AT(2) receptors, indicating that this drug is a useful tool for the study of their central role. AT(2) receptor activity inhibition up-regulates AT(1) receptor expression in specific brain areas. Blockade of brain AT(2) receptors is compatible with enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreased central sympathetic system activity.

  12. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockade decreases CTGF/CCN2-mediated damage and fibrosis in normal and dystrophic skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Morales, María Gabriela; Cabrera, Daniel; Vio, Carlos P; Brandan, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2) is mainly involved in the induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The levels of CTGF correlate with the degree and severity of fibrosis in many tissues, including dystrophic skeletal muscle. The CTGF overexpression in tibialis anterior skeletal muscle using an adenoviral vector reproduced many of the features observed in dystrophic muscles including muscle damage and regeneration, fibrotic response and decrease in the skeletal muscle strength. The renin–angiotensin system is involved in the genesis and progression of fibrotic diseases through its main fibrotic components angiotensin-II and its transducer receptor AT-1. The use of AT-1 receptor blockers (ARB) has been shown to decrease fibrosis. In this paper, we show the effect of AT-1 receptor blockade on CTGF-dependent biological activity in skeletal muscle cells as well as the response to CTGF overexpression in normal skeletal muscle. Our results show that in myoblasts ARB decreased CTGF-mediated increase of ECM protein levels, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK-1/2) phosphorylation and stress fibres formation. In tibialis anterior muscle overexpressing CTGF using an adenovirus, ARB treatment decreased CTGF-mediated increase of ECM molecules, α-SMA and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation levels. Quite remarkable, ARB was able to prevent the loss of contractile force of tibialis anterior muscles overexpressing CTGF. Finally, we show that ARB decreased the levels of fibrotic proteins, CTGF and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation augmented in a dystrophic skeletal muscle from mdx mice. We propose that ARB is a novel pharmacological tool that can be used to decrease the fibrosis induced by CTGF in skeletal muscle associated with muscular dystrophies. PMID:21645240

  13. Upregulation of ERK1/2-eNOS via AT2 Receptors Decreases the Contractile Response to Angiotensin II in Resistance Mesenteric Arteries from Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagihara, Graziela N.; Lobato, Nubia S.; Filgueira, Fernando P.; Akamine, Eliana H.; Aragão, Danielle S.; Casarini, Dulce E.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been clearly established that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS) are important mediators of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via AT1 receptors in the vasculature. However, evidence for a role of these kinases in changes of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in obesity is still lacking. Here we sought to determine whether vascular MAPKs are differentially activated by Ang II in obese animals. The role of AT2 receptors was also evaluated. Male monosodium glutamate-induced obese (obese) and non-obese Wistar rats (control) were used. The circulating concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, determined by HPLC, were increased in obese rats. Ang II-induced isometric contraction was decreased in endothelium-intact resistance mesenteric arteries from obese compared with control rats and exhibited a retarded AT1 receptor antagonist response. Blocking of AT2 receptors and inhibition of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) restored Ang II-induced contraction in obese rats. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein expression of AT2 receptors in arteries from obese rats. Basal and Ang II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also increased in obese rats. Blockade of either AT1 or AT2 receptors corrected the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in arteries from obese rats to levels observed in control preparations. Phosphorylation of eNOS was increased in obese rats. Incubation with the ERK1/2 inhibitor before Ang II stimulation did not affect eNOS phosphorylation in control rats; however, it corrected the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in obese rats. These results clearly demonstrate that enhanced AT2 receptor and ERK1/2-induced, NO-mediated vasodilation reduces Ang II-induced contraction in an endothelium-dependent manner in obese rats. PMID:25170617

  14. N- and C-terminal structure-activity study of angiotensin II on the angiotensin AT2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Bouley, R; Pérodin, J; Plante, H; Rihakova, L; Bernier, S G; Maletínská, L; Guillemette, G; Escher, E

    1998-02-19

    ]angiotensin II. Aliphatic residues, especially those of reduced size, caused a significant decrease in affinity especially [Sarcosine1, Gly8]angiotensin II who showed a 30-fold decrease. Introduction of a positive charge (Lys) at position 8 reduced the affinity even further. Stereoisomers in position 8 (L-->D configuration) also induced lower affinities. The angiotensin AT2 receptor display a structure-activity relationship similar to that observed on the AT1 receptor for the C-terminal position of the peptide hormone. Position 1 structure-activity relationships are however fundamentally different between the angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor. PMID:9570482

  15. Sanguinarine inhibits angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac cells via restoring reactive oxygen species-mediated decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN; JIAO, RONG; MA, ZHEN-GUO; LIU, WEI; WU, QING-QING; YANG, ZHENG; LI, FANG-FANG; YUAN, YUAN; BIAN, ZHOU-YAN; TANG, QI-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Cell apoptosis induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) has a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sanguinarine (SAN), a drug which was proved to have anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and immune enhancing effects, can abolish cell apoptosis induced by Ang II. In the present study, H9c2 cardiac cells were stimulated with 10 µM Ang II with or without SAN. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed using JC-1 staining. Furthermore, mRNA expression of NOX2 was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) as well as cleaved (c)-caspase 3 and -9 were detected by western blot analysis, and the activity of caspase 3 and -9 was detected using an ELISA. The results of the present study showed that NOX2 expression and ROS generation induced by Ang II were inhibited by SAN, and the Ang 2-induced MMP loss was also ameliorated. Furthermore, Ang II-induced H9c2 cardiac cell apoptosis as well as c-caspase 3 and -9 levels were significantly reduced by SAN. Investigation of the possible pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of SAN showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased, while that of Bax was increased following stimulation with Ang II, which was reversed following treatment with SAN. In addition, Ang II enhanced the activity of caspase 9 and cleaved downstream caspases such as caspase-3, initiating the caspase cascade, while pre-treatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with SAN blocked these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that SAN inhibits the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac cells induced by Ang II, most likely via restoring

  16. Intracellular angiotensin II activates rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A; Motoc, Dana; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2011-09-01

    Angiotensin II is a modulator of myometrial activity; both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors are expressed in myometrium. Since in other tissues angiotensin II has been reported to activate intracellular receptors, we assessed the effects of intracellular administration of angiotensin II via microinjection on myometrium, using calcium imaging. Intracellular injection of angiotensin II increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was abolished by the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan but not by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD-123319. Disruption of the endo-lysosomal system, but not that of Golgi apparatus, prevented the angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Blockade of AT(1) receptor internalization had no effect, whereas blockade of microautophagy abolished the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) produced by intracellular injection of angiotensin II; this indicates that microautophagy is a critical step in transporting the peptide into the endo-lysosomes lumenum. The response to angiotensin II was slightly reduced in Ca(2+)-free saline, indicating a major involvement of Ca(2+) release from internal stores. Blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors with heparin and xestospongin C or inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U-73122 abolished the response to angiotensin II, supporting the involvement of PLC-IP(3) pathway. Angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was slightly reduced by antagonism of ryanodine receptors. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that in myometrial cells, intracellular angiotensin II activates AT(1)-like receptors on lysosomes and activates PLC-IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum; the response is further augmented by a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release mechanism via ryanodine receptors activation.

  17. Angiotensin II and renal tubular ion transport.

    PubMed

    Valles, Patricia; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2005-08-29

    Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, also participates in the regulation of renal sodium and water excretion, not only via a myriad of effects on renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate, and regulation of aldosterone secretion, but also via direct effects on renal tubule transport. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates H+ secretion and HCO3- reabsorption in both proximal and distal tubules and regulates H+-ATPase activity in intercalated cells of the collecting tubule. Different results regarding the effect of angiotensin II on bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion have been reported at the functional level, depending on the angiotensin II concentration and tubule segment studied. It is likely that interstitial angiotensin II is more important in regulating hemodynamic and transport functions than circulating angiotensin II. In proximal tubules, stimulation of bicarbonate reabsorption, Na+/H+-exchange, and Na+/HCO3- cotransport has been found using low concentrations (<10(-9) M), while inhibition of bicarbonate reabsorption has been documented using concentrations higher than 10(-8) M. Evidence for the regulation of H+-ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro by trafficking/exocytosis has been provided. An additional level of H+-ATPase regulation via protein synthesis may be important as well. Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule. Interestingly, in this part of the nephron, the effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II are not sodium dependent, whereas in the cortical collecting duct, both aldosterone and angiotensin II, by contrast, affect H+ secretion by sodium-dependent mechanisms.

  18. Circulating angiotensin II deteriorates left ventricular function with sympathoexcitation via brain angiotensin II receptor

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Keisuke; Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Sympathoexcitation contributes to the progression of heart failure. Activation of brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R) causes central sympathoexcitation. Thus, we assessed the hypothesis that the increase in circulating angiotensin II comparable to that reported in heart failure model affects cardiac function through the central sympathoexcitation via activating AT1R in the brain. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II for 14 days increased the circulating angiotensin II level comparable to that reported in heart failure model rats after myocardial infarction. In comparison with the control, angiotensin II infusion increased 24 hours urinary norepinephrine excretion, and systolic blood pressure. Angiotensin II infusion hypertrophied left ventricular (LV) without changing chamber dimensions while increased end-diastolic pressure. The LV pressure–volume relationship indicated that angiotensin II did not impact on the end-systolic elastance, whereas significantly increased end-diastolic elastance. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of AT1R blocker, losartan, attenuated these angiotensin II-induced changes. In conclusion, circulating angiotensin II in heart failure is capable of inducing sympathoexcitation via in part AT1R in the brain, subsequently leading to LV diastolic dysfunction. PMID:26290529

  19. Angiotensin II: multitasking in the brain.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M; Benicky, Julius; Zhou, Jin

    2006-03-01

    In addition to controlling systemic blood pressure, angiotensin II (Ang II) has several roles in the brain, including the regulation of cerebrovascular flow and the reaction to stress. In order to clarify the central effects of Ang II and its type 1 (AT1) receptors, we reviewed the literature reporting recent research on the effects of pretreatment with the AT1-receptor blocker, candesartan, on experimental ischemia, cerebrovascular remodeling, and inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and the responses to stress induced by isolation and by cold-restraint. Angiotensin II regulates the brain circulation through stimulation of AT1-receptors located in the cerebrovascular endothelium and central pathways. SHRs express greater numbers of endothelial AT1-receptors and a central sympathetic overdrive, resulting in pathological cerebrovascular growth, inflammation, decreased cerebrovascular compliance, and enhanced vulnerability to brain ischemia. Sustained central AT1-receptor antagonism reverses these effects. Sustained reduction of AT1-receptor stimulation before stress prevents the hormonal and sympathoadrenal stress responses during isolation and prevents the gastric ulceration stress response to cold-restraint, indicating that increased AT1-receptor stimulation is essential to enhance the central sympathetic response and the formation and release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin that occur during stress. AT1-receptor blocking agents reverse the cortical alterations in CRF1 and benzodiazepine receptors characteristic of isolation stress, effects probably related to their anti-anxiety effect in rodents. Sustained reduction of Ang II tone by AT1-receptor antagonism could be considered as a preventive and therapeutic approach for brain ischemia and stress-related and mood disorders. Additional preclinical studies and controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this novel therapeutic approach.

  20. Glial high-affinity binding site with specificity for angiotensin II not angiotensin III: a possible N-terminal-specific converting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Printz, M.P.; Jennings, C.; Healy, D.P.; Kalter, V.

    1986-01-01

    Anomalous binding properties of angiotensin II to fetal rat brain primary cultures suggested a possible contribution from contaminating glia. To investigate this possibility, cultures of C6 glioma, a clonal rat cell line, were examined for the presence of angiotensin II receptors. A specific high-affinity site for (/sup 125/I)angiotensin II was measured both by traditional methodology using whole cells and by autoradiography. This site shared properties similar to that found with the brain cells, namely low ligand internalization and markedly decreased affinity for N-terminal sarcosine or arginine-angiotensin analogs. The competition rank order was angiotensin II much greater than (Sar1,Ile8)angiotensin II greater than or equal to des(Asp1,Arg2)angiotensin II. Angiotensin III did not compete for binding to the site. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the ligand either in the incubation or bound to the site was stable at 15 degrees C, but there was very rapid and extensive degradation by the C6 glioma cells at 37 degrees C. It is concluded that the site exhibits unusual N-terminal specificity for angiotensin with nanomolar affinity for angiotensin II. If angiotensin III is an active ligand in the brain, the site may have a converting enzyme function. Alternatively, it may form the des-Asp derivatives of angiotensin for subsequent degradation by other enzymatic pathways. Either way, it is proposed that the site may modulate the brain-angiotensin system.

  1. Angiotensin II reduces calcium uptake into bone.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Scott J; Bergstrom, William H; Shoemaker, Lawrence R; Welch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Children with neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) have hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and osteopenia. A complex of basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan has been identified in the serum and urine of NBS patients. This complex increases bone resorption in a bone disc bioassay system. Angiotensin II (AT II), which is increased in Bartter syndrome, increases the synthesis of b-FGF by cultured endothelial cells. Addition of 10(-8) M AT II to the bioassay, a concentration reported in Bartter syndrome patients, significantly decreased calcium uptake into bone discs [E/C 0.60 (0.04), P < 0.001 compared with buffer, normal E/C >0.90]. Adding b-FGF monoclonal antibody at 10 microg/ml [E/C 0.90 (0.06), P=NS] or indomethacin [E/C 1.00 (0.03), P=NS] to 10(-8 )M AT II neutralized this effect. In separate experiments, newborn rats were given intraperitoneal injections of AT II. Bone discs from these animals were used in the bioassay system and calcium uptake was markedly reduced compared with discs from rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline [AT II 6.6 x 10(-9), E/C 0.10 (0.04), P<0.001, AT II 3.3 x 10(-8), E/C 0.10 (0.05), P<0.001]. AT II decreases calcium uptake in the bone disc bioassay system. This effect can be abrogated by antibody to b-FGF or prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that in children with NBS, elevated levels of AT II stimulate local skeletal b-FGF synthesis, with a resultant increase in bone resorption via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway. PMID:14648327

  2. Angiotensin II disrupts inhibitory avoidance memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Zinn, Carolina G; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2006-08-01

    The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in learning and memory, but the actual role of angiotensin II (A(II)) and its metabolites in this process has been difficult to comprehend. This has been so mainly due to procedural issues, especially the use of multi-trial learning paradigms and the utilization of pre-training intracerebroventricular infusion of RAS-acting compounds. Here, we specifically analyzed the action of A(II) in aversive memory retrieval using a hippocampal-dependent, one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) in combination with stereotaxically localized intrahippocampal infusion of drugs. Rats bilaterally implanted with infusion cannulae aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in IA and tested for memory retention 24 h later. We found that when given into CA1 15 min before IA memory retention test, A(II), but not angiotensin IV or angiotensin(1-7) induced a dose-dependent and reversible amnesia without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior or anxiety state. The effect of A(II) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the A(II)-type 2 receptor (AT(2)) antagonist PD123319 but not by the A(II)-type 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan. By themselves, neither PD123319 nor losartan had any effect on memory expression. Our data indicate that intra-CA1 A(II) hinders retrieval of avoidance memory through a process that involves activation of AT(2) receptors.

  3. Angiotensin II during Experimentally Simulated Central Hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, such as the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies, investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia. To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE for studies that measured variables of the renin–angiotensin system or its effect during simulated hypovolemia. Twelve articles, using one of the three models, were included and showed a possible organ-protective effect and an effect on the sympathetic system of angiotensin II during hypovolemia. The results support the possible organ-protective vasodilatory role for the AT2-receptor during hypovolemia on both the kidney and the splanchnic tissue. PMID:26973842

  4. Lack of protein kinase C-α leads to impaired urine concentrating ability and decreased aquaporin-2 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thai, Tiffany L; Blount, Mitsi A; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2012-07-01

    Regulation of water and urea transport in the inner medullary collecting duct is essential for urine concentration. Aquaporin (AQP)2 water channels and urea transporter (UT)-A1 are inserted into the apical membrane upon phosphorylation of the channels to allow the transcellular movement of water and urea. Since ANG II activates PKC in many cell types, we tested the hypothesis that ANG II-induced regulation of water and urea transport is mediated by PKC. Osmotic minipumps delivered ANG II to wild-type (WT) or PKC-α(-/-) mice for 7 days. Inner medullas were harvested, and protein abundance was determined by immunoblot. ANG II increased systolic blood pressure to a similar degree in WT and PKC-α(-/-) mice. ANG II had no effect on the urine output of WT mice but increased that of PKC-α(-/-) mice. In accordance with observed differences in urine output, AQP2 abundance was unchanged in ANG II-treated WT animals but was decreased in PKC-α(-/-) mice. No change in membrane accumulation was seen. Phosphorylation of the cAMP-induced transcription factor CREB was decreased in PKC-α(-/-) mice in response to ANG II with no change in overall CREB abundance. ANG II did not alter the abundance of UT-A1 protein in WT or PKC-α(-/-) mice. Phosphorylation and overall abundance of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein, a transcription factor that regulates UT-A1, were also unaltered by ANG II in either group. We conclude that PKC-α protects against ANG II-induced decreases in urine concentrating ability by maintaining AQP2 levels through CREB phosphorylation. PMID:22492943

  5. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  6. Angiotensin II stimulates phospholipases C and A/sub 2/ in cultured rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlondorff, D.; DeCandido, S.; Satriano, J.A.

    1987-07-01

    Angiotensin II stimulates prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 2/ formation in mesangial cells cultured from rat renal glomeruli. The interactions between angiotensin II and PGE/sub 2/ are important in modulating glomerular function. The authors examined the mechanism for stimulation of PGE/sub 2/ production in mesangial cells using the putative diacylglycerol-lipase inhibitor RHC 80267 and trifluoperazine (TFP), an agent interfering with Ca/sup 2 +/-CaM-mediated processes. Although RHC 80267 inhibited diacylglycerol-lipase activity in mesangial cells, it did not influence PGE/sub 2/ production in response to either angiotensin II or A23187. TFP also decreased /sup 14/C release in response to either angiotensin II of A23187. In contrast, TFP (50 ..mu..M) inhibited basal PGE/sub 2/ production and stimulation by angiotensin II and A23187. TFP also decreased /sup 14/C release in response to angiotensin from cells prelabeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid, which was associated with inhibition of /sup 14/C loss from phosphatidylinositol. In cells prelabeled with /sup 32/P, orthophosphate angiotensin II caused a rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. TFP enhanced formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate both under basal- and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. Thus TFP did not inhibit phospholipase C activation by angiotensin. Angiotensin II caused marked increases in (/sup 32/P)lysophospholipids, indicating activation of also phospholipase A/sub 2/. Taken together, these results are consistent with stimulation of both phospholipase C and A/sub 2/ by angiotensin, the latter step responsible for the release of arachidonic acid and PGE/sub 2/ formation.

  7. Angiotensin II: role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Córdova, Gonzalo; Salas, José Diego

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, the main protein reservoir in the body, is a tissue that exhibits high plasticity when exposed to changes. Muscle proteins can be mobilized into free amino acids when skeletal muscle wasting occurs, a process called skeletal muscle atrophy. This wasting is an important systemic or local manifestation under disuse conditions (e.g., bed rest or immobilization), in starvation, in older adults, and in several diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting imply the activation of specific signaling pathways which ultimately manage muscle responses to modulate biological events such as increases in protein catabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death by apoptosis. Many factors have been involved in the generation and maintenance of atrophy in skeletal muscle, among them angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Together with Ang-II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the Ang-II receptor type 1 (AT-1 receptor) are expressed in skeletal muscle, forming an important local axis that can regulate its function. In many of the conditions that lead to muscle wasting, there is an impairment of RAS in a global or local fashion. At this point, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest the participation of Ang-II, ACE, and AT-1 receptor in the generation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Interestingly, the Ang-II participation in muscle atrophy is strongly ligated to the regulation of hypertrophic activity of factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this article, we reviewed the current state of Ang-II and RAS function on skeletal muscle wasting and its possible use as a therapeutic target to improve skeletal muscle function under atrophic conditions.

  8. Pancreatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves glycemia in angiotensin II-infused mice

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H.; Xia, Huijing; Pedersen, Kim Brint; Speth, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    An overactive renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although ACE2 overexpression has been shown to be protective against the overactive RAS, a role for pancreatic ACE2, particularly in the islets of Langerhans, in regulating glycemia in response to elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) levels remains to be elucidated. This study examined the role of endogenous pancreatic ACE2 and the impact of elevated Ang II levels on the enzyme's ability to alleviate hyperglycemia in an Ang II infusion mouse model. Male C57bl/6J mice were infused with Ang II or saline for a period of 14 days. On the 7th day of infusion, either an adenovirus encoding human ACE2 (Ad-hACE2) or a control adenovirus (Ad-eGFP) was injected into the mouse pancreas. After an additional 7–8 days, glycemia and plasma insulin levels as well as RAS components expression and oxidative stress were assessed. Ang II-infused mice exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets compared with control mice. This phenotype was associated with decreased ACE2 expression and activity, increased Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression, and increased oxidative stress in the mouse pancreas. Ad-hACE2 treatment restored pancreatic ACE2 expression and compensatory activity against Ang II-mediated impaired glycemia, thus improving β-cell function. Our data suggest that decreased pancreatic ACE2 is a link between overactive RAS and impaired glycemia in T2DM. Moreover, maintenance of a normal endogenous ACE2 compensatory activity in the pancreas appears critical to avoid β-cell dysfunction, supporting a therapeutic potential for ACE2 in controlling diabetes resulting from an overactive RAS. PMID:23462816

  9. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog attenuates angiotensin II hypertension and kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Hye; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Campbell, William B; Imig, John D

    2014-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) contribute to blood pressure regulation leading to the concept that EETs can be therapeutically targeted for hypertension and the associated end organ damage. In the present study, we investigated anti-hypertensive and kidney protective actions of an EET analog, EET-B in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. EET-B was administered in drinking water for 14 days (10 mg/kg/d) and resulted in a decreased blood pressure elevation in ANG II hypertension. At the end of the two-week period, blood pressure was 30 mmHg lower in EET analog-treated ANG II hypertensive rats. The vasodilation of mesenteric resistance arteries to acetylcholine was impaired in ANG II hypertension; however, it was improved with EET-B treatment. Further, EET-B protected the kidney in ANG II hypertension as evidenced by a marked 90% decrease in albuminuria and 54% decrease in nephrinuria. Kidney histology demonstrated a decrease in renal tubular cast formation in EET analog-treated hypertensive rats. In ANG II hypertension, EET-B treatment markedly lowered renal inflammation. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 excretion was decreased by 55% and kidney macrophage infiltration was reduced by 52% with EET-B treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that EET-B has anti-hypertensive properties, improves vascular function, and decreases renal inflammation and injury in ANG II hypertension.

  10. Angiotensin II: Immunohistochemical Study in Sardinian Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Demurtas, P.; Corrias, M.; Zucca, I.; Piras, F.; Sirigu, P.; Perra, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal effector peptide of the RAS system. It has a pleiotropic effect and, beside its physiological role, it has the property to stimulate angiogenesis and activate multiple signalling pathways related to cell proliferation. The purpose of the study was to determinate the Ang II expression and localization in Sardinian pterygium and normal conjunctiva by immunohistochemistry, and its possible involvement in the development and progression of the disease. Twenty-three pterygiums and eleven normal conjunctiva specimens obtained from Sardinian patients, were processed for paraffin embedding and assessed for the immunohistochemi-cal revelation of Ang II. Significant Ang II expression was identified in pterygium and conjunctiva. Particularly, thirteen pterygium specimens (n=13) displayed exclusively moderate to strong nuclear staining; some specimens (n=5) showed exclusively a moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, and few specimens (n=2) displayed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Only 3 specimens were negative. Statistical significance difference in respect of nuclear and cytoplasmic localization was observed between normal conjunctiva and pterygium (P=0.020). The results showed a predominant intranuclear localization of Ang II in pterygium epithelial cells, in spite of conjunctiva that mainly showed cytoplasmic localization. These findings suggest a possible role for Ang II in the development and/or progression of pterygium mediated by the activation of local RAS system. PMID:25308851

  11. Gender differences in response to acute and chronic angiotensin II infusion: a translational approach

    PubMed Central

    Toering, Tsjitske J; van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Visser, Folkert W; Buikema, Hendrik; Navis, Gerjan; Faas, Marijke M; Lely, A Titia

    2015-01-01

    Women with renal disease progress at a slower rate to end stage renal disease than men. As angiotensin II has both hemodynamic and direct renal effects, we hypothesized that the female protection may result from gender differences in responses to angiotensin II. Therefore, we studied gender differences in response to angiotensin II, during acute (human) and chronic (rats) angiotensin II administration. In young healthy men (n = 18) and women (n = 18) we studied the responses of renal hemodynamics (125I-iothalamate and 131I-Hippuran) and blood pressure to graded angiotensin II infusion (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 ng/kg/min for 1 h). Men had increased responses of diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01), mean arterial pressure (P = 0.05), and a more pronounced decrease in effective renal plasma flow (P = 0.009) than women. We measured the changes in proteinuria and blood pressure in response to chronic administration (200 ng/kg/min for 3 weeks) of angiotensin II in rats. Male rats had an increased response of proteinuria compared with females (GEE analysis, P = 0.001). Male, but not female, angiotensin II-treated rats had increased numbers of renal interstitial macrophages compared to sham-treated rats (P < 0.001). In conclusion, gender differences are present in the response to acute and chronic infusion of angiotensin II. Difference in angiotensin II sensitivity could play a role in gender differences in progression of renal disease. PMID:26149279

  12. Identification of angiotensin II receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, A.T.; Herblin, W.F.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L.; )

    1989-11-30

    We have demonstrated the existence of two distinct subtypes of the angiotensin II receptor in the rat adrenal gland using radioligand binding and tissue section autoradiography. The identification of the subtypes was made possible by the discovery of two structurally dissimilar, nonpeptide compounds, DuP 753 and EXP655, that show reciprocal selectivity for the two subtypes. In the rat adrenal cortex, DuP 753 inhibited 80% of the total AII binding with an IC50 value on the sensitive sites of 2 x 10(-8) M, while EXP655 displaced only 20%. In the rat adrenal medulla, EXP655 gave 90% inhibition of AII binding with an IC50 value of 3.0 x 10(-8) M, while DuP 753 was essentially inactive. The combination of the two compounds completely inhibited AII binding in both tissues.

  13. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in rats with heart failure. Role of kinins and angiotensin II type 2 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y H; Yang, X P; Sharov, V G; Nass, O; Sabbah, H N; Peterson, E; Carretero, O A

    1997-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) improve cardiac function and remodeling and prolong survival in patients with heart failure (HF). Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1-ant) may have a similar beneficial effect. In addition to inhibition of the RAS, ACEi may also act by inhibiting kinin destruction, whereas AT1-ant may block the RAS at the level of the AT1 receptor and activate the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor. Using a model of HF induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in rats, we studied the role of kinins in the cardioprotective effect of ACEi. We also investigated whether an AT1-ant has a similar effect and whether these effects are partly due to activation of the AT2 receptor. Two months after MI, rats were treated for 2 mo with: (a) vehicle; (b) the ACEi ramipril, with and without the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant (B2-ant); or (c) an AT1-ant with and without an AT2-antagonist (AT2-ant) or B2-ant. Vehicle-treated rats had a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV) as well as interstitial collagen deposition and cardiomyocyte size, whereas ejection fraction was decreased. Left ventricular remodeling and cardiac function were improved by the ACEi and AT1-ant. The B2-ant blocked most of the cardioprotective effect of the ACEi, whereas the effect of the AT1-ant was blocked by the AT2-ant. The decreases in LVEDV and LVESV caused by the AT1-ant were also partially blocked by the B2-ant. We concluded that (a) in HF both ACEi and AT1-ant have a cardioprotective effect, which could be due to either a direct action on the heart or secondary to altered hemodynamics, or both; and (b) the effect of the ACEi is mediated in part by kinins, whereas that of the AT1-ant is triggered by activation of the AT2 receptor and is also mediated in part by kinins. We speculate that in HF, blockade of AT1 receptors increases both renin and

  14. Angiotensin II alters blood flow distribution in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Slivkoff, M D; Warburton, S J

    2001-01-01

    In toads, angiotensin II (ANG II) induces the water absorption response (WR) during which the seat patch (pelvic+inner-thigh skin) is pressed to a wet substrate from which water flows osmotically into the animal. Since ANG II is a potent vasoconstrictor, it has the potential to redistribute blood flow. To determine the regional circulatory effects of ANG II, we used microsphere methods to measure relative changes in blood flow to several skin regions and other organs before and after ANG II administration in terrestrial toads and aquatic bullfrogs. In toads, after ANG II administration, seat patch and bladder blood flow increased by 264.2%+/-197.6% and 287.2%+/-86.7%, respectively (P<0.05), while dorsal and pectoral skin flow decreased by 48.0%+/-19.4% and 21.3%+/-25.4%, respectively (P<0.05). In bullfrogs, ANG II caused no significant changes in blood flow. Our results support our hypothesis that, in toads, ANG II increases and decreases blood flow to regions of the body associated with water gain and water loss, respectively.

  15. DIOL Triterpenes Block Profibrotic Effects of Angiotensin II and Protect from Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-López, Raquel; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Gómez-Hurtado, Nieves; Delgado, Carmen; Visitación Bartolomé, Maria; San Román, José Alberto; Cordova, Claudia; Lahera, Vicente; Nieto, Maria Luisa; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background The natural triterpenes, erythrodiol and uvaol, exert anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxing and anti-proliferative effects. Angiotensin II is a well-known profibrotic and proliferative agent that participates in the cardiac remodeling associated with different pathological situations through the stimulation and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the preventive effects of the natural triterpenes erythrodiol and uvaol on the proliferation and collagen production induced by angiotensin II in cardiac myofibroblasts. Their actions on cardiac hypertrophy triggered by angiotensin II were also studied. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of erythrodiol and uvaol on angiotensin II-induced proliferation was evaluated in cardiac myofibroblasts from adult rats in the presence or the absence of the inhibitors of PPAR-γ, GW9662 or JNK, SP600125. The effect on collagen levels induced by angiotensin II was evaluated in cardiac myofibroblasts and mouse heart. The presence of low doses of both triterpenes reduced the proliferation of cardiac myofibroblasts induced by angiotensin II. Pretreatment with GW9662 reversed the effect elicited by both triterpenes while SP600125 did not modify it. Both triterpenes at high doses produced an increase in annexing-V binding in the presence or absence of angiotensin II, which was reduced by either SP600125 or GW9662. Erythrodiol and uvaol decreased collagen I and galectin 3 levels induced by angiotensin II in cardiac myofribroblasts. Finally, cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular remodeling, fibrosis, and increases in myocyte area and brain natriuretic peptide levels observed in angiotensin II-infused mice were reduced in triterpene-treated animals. Conclusions/Significance Erythrodiol and uvaol reduce cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricle remodeling induced by angiotensin II in mice by diminishing fibrosis and myocyte area. They also modulate growth and survival of cardiac

  16. The Role of Angiotensin II and Cyclic AMP in Alveolar Active Sodium Transport

    PubMed Central

    Ismael-Badarneh, Reem; Guetta, Julia; Klorin, Geula; Berger, Gidon; Abu-saleh, Niroz; Abassi, Zaid; Azzam, Zaher S.

    2015-01-01

    Active alveolar fluid clearance is important in keeping airspaces free of edema. Angiotensin II plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart failure and others. However, little is known about its contribution to alveolar fluid clearance. Angiotensin II effects are mediated by two specific receptors; AT1 and AT2. The localization of these two receptors in the lung, specifically in alveolar epithelial cells type II, was recently reported. We hypothesize that Angiotensin II may have a role in the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance. We investigated the effect of Angiotensin II on alveolar fluid clearance in rats using the isolated perfused lung model and isolated rat alveolar epithelial cells. The rate of alveolar fluid clearance in control rats was 8.6% ± 0.1 clearance of the initial volume and decreased by 22.5%, 28.6%, 41.6%, 48.7% and 39% in rats treated with 10-10 M, 10-9 M, 10-8 M, 10-7 M or 10-6 M of Ang II respectively (P < 0.003). The inhibitory effect of Angiotensin II was restored in losartan, an AT1 specific antagonist, pretreated rats, indicating an AT1 mediated effect of Ang II on alveolar fluid clearance. The expression of Na,K-ATPase proteins and cAMP levels in alveolar epithelial cells were down-regulated following the administration of Angiotensin II; suggesting that cAMP may be involved in AngII-induced reduced Na,K-ATPase expression, though the contribution of additional factors could not be excluded. We herein suggest a novel mechanism of clinical relevance by which angiotensin adversely impairs the ability of the lungs to clear edema. PMID:26230832

  17. Angiotensin II binding to cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: identification of angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.; Printz, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    Physiological experiments have provided evidence that angiotensin II stimulates catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. Their laboratory and others have now shown by receptor autoradiography the presence of angiotensin II receptors (AIIR) in bovine and rat adrenal medulla. In order to extend these studies they have undertaken to define AIIR on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were isolated using the method of Levitt including cell enrichment with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Primary cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells were maintained in DME/F12 medium containing 10% FCS. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, PNMT, DBH and Chromagranin A. Cultured cells bind with high affinity and specificity (/sup 125/I)-ANG II yielding a K/sub D/ of 0.74 nM and B/sub max/ of 24,350 sites/cell. After Percoll treatment values of .77 nm and 34,500 sites/cell are obtained. K/sub D/ values are in close agreement with that obtained in adrenal slices by Healy. Competition studies identify a rank order of binding by this receptor similar to that of other tissues. They conclude that cultured chromaffin cells provide a suitable model system for the investigation and characterization of the ANG II receptor and for cellular studies of its functional significance.

  18. Participation of angiotensin II in learning and memory. II. Interactions of angiotensin II with dopaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Yonkov, D I; Georgiev, V P; Opitz, M J

    1986-04-01

    The effect of angiotensin II (ATII) and of its interactions with dopaminergic drugs injected post-trial on retention in active avoidance tasks in shuttle-box-trained rats were studied. ATII at doses of 0.10 and 0.50 micrograms administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) immediately after training improved retention. The dopaminergic receptor agonist apomorphine at a dose of 0.10 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) facilitated retention whereas elymoclavine (a dopaminergic agonist) at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg i.p. had no effect. ATII at a dose of 0.10 micrograms i.c.v. administered after apomorphine 0.10 mg/kg or elymoclavine 2.5 mg/kg exerted a stronger retention-facilitating effect. The dopaminergic receptor antagonist haloperidol at a dose of 1 mg/kg i.p. markedly impaired retention. ATII at a dose of 0.50 micrograms administered after haloperidol (1 mg/kg) did not exercise its retention-facilitating effect. It is concluded that the retention facilitating effects of ATII are realized through interactions with brain dopaminergic transmission.

  19. Angiotensin II formation in the intact human heart. Predominance of the angiotensin-converting enzyme pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, L S; Abraham, W T; Meixell, G E; Vamvakias, B N; Quaife, R A; Lowes, B D; Roden, R L; Peacock, S J; Groves, B M; Raynolds, M V

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the contribution of myocardial tissue angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the human heart is low compared with non-ACE pathways. However, little is known about the actual in vivo contribution of these pathways to Ang II formation in the human heart. To examine angiotensin II formation in the intact human heart, we administered intracoronary 123I-labeled angiotensin I (Ang I) with and without intracoronary enalaprilat to orthotopic heart transplant recipients. The fractional conversion of Ang I to Ang II, calculated after separation of angiotensin peptides by HPLC, was 0.415 +/- 0.104 (n = 5, mean +/- SD). Enalaprilat reduced fractional conversion by 89%, to a value of 0.044 +/- 0.053 (n = 4, P = 0.002). In a separate study of explanted hearts, a newly developed in vitro Ang II-forming assay was used to examine cardiac tissue ACE activity independent of circulating components. ACE activity in solubilized left ventricular membrane preparations from failing hearts was 49.6 +/- 5.3 fmol 125I-Ang II formed per minute per milligram of protein (n = 8, +/- SE), and 35.9 +/- 4.8 fmol/min/mg from nonfailing human hearts (n = 7, P = 0.08). In the presence of 1 microM enalaprilat, ACE activity was reduced by 85%, to 7.3 +/- 1.4 fmol/min/mg in the failing group and to 4.6 +/- 1.3 fmol/min/mg in the nonfailing group (P < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant pathway for angiotensin II formation in the human heart is through ACE. Images PMID:7657820

  20. Effect of chronic intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion on vasopressin release in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, G. H.; Chee, O.; Riggs, R. V.; Keil, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the chronic infusion of angiotensin II into the lateral cerebral ventricle on the release of arginine vasopressin in rats are investigated. Rats were subjected to a continuous infusion of angiotensin at a rate of 1 microgram/h for five days, during which they were offered water, isotonic saline or hypertonic saline ad libitum or 40 ml water/day, and fluid intake, changes in body weight, plasma sodium ion concentrations and plasma and pituitary arginine vasopressin levels were measured. Angiotensin II is found to increase the fluid intake of rats given isotonic saline and decrease plasma sodium ion levels with no changes in plasma or pituitary arginine vasopressin in those given water or isotonic saline. However, in rats given hypertonic saline, plasma sodium concentrations remained at control levels while plasma vasopressin increased, and in water-restricted rats the effects of angiotensin II were intermediate. Results thus demonstrate that angiotensin II-stimulated arginine vasopressin release is reduced under conditions in which plasma sodium ion concentration becomes dilute, compatible with a central role of angiotensin in the regulation of salt and water balance.

  1. 6β-Hydroxytestosterone, a Cytochrome P450 1B1-Testosterone-Metabolite, Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced Renal Dysfunction in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Kara, Mehmet; Brand, David D; Katsurada, Akemi; Majid, Dewan S A; Navar, L Gabriel; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2016-05-01

    6β-Hydroxytestosterone, a cytochrome P450 1B1-derived metabolite of testosterone, contributes to the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology. In view of the critical role of angiotensin II in the maintenance of renal homeostasis, development of hypertension, and end-organ damage, this study was conducted to determine the contribution of 6β-hydroxytestosterone to angiotensin II actions on water consumption and renal function in male Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. Castration of Cyp1b1(+/+) mice or Cyp1b1(-/-) gene disruption minimized the angiotensin II-induced increase in water consumption, urine output, proteinuria, and sodium excretion and decreases in urine osmolality. 6β-Hydroxytestosterone did not alter angiotensin II-induced increases in water intake, urine output, proteinuria, and sodium excretion or decreases in osmolality in Cyp1b1(+/+) mice, but restored these effects of angiotensin II in Cyp1b1(-/-) or castrated Cyp1b1(+/+) mice. Cyp1b1 gene disruption or castration prevented angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, urinary excretion of angiotensinogen, expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. 6β-Hydroxytestosterone did not alter angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, urinary excretion of angiotensinogen, expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, or angiotensin-converting enzyme in Cyp1b1(+/+)mice. However, in Cyp1b1(-/-) or castrated Cyp1b1(+/+) mice, it restored these effects of angiotensin II. These data indicate that 6β-hydroxytestosterone contributes to increased thirst, impairment of renal function, and end-organ injury associated with angiotensin II-induced hypertension in male mice and that cytochrome P450 1B1 could serve as a novel target for treating renal disease and hypertension in male mice.

  2. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-Tao; Li, Peng-Yang; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Yi, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are widely used drugs that are proven to reduce cardiovascular disease events; however, several recent meta-analyses yielded conflicting conclusions regarding the relationship between ARB and cancer incidence, especially when ARB are combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). We investigated the risk of cancer associated with ARB at different background ACEI levels. Search of PubMed and EMBASE (1966 to December 17, 2015) without language restriction. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) had at least 12 months of follow-up data and reported cancer incidence was included. Study characteristics, quality, and risk of bias were assessed by 2 reviewers independently. Nineteen RCTs including 148,334 patients were included in this study. Random-effects model meta-analyses were used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) of cancer risk. No excessive cancer risk was observed in our analyses of ARB alone versus placebo alone without background ACEI use (risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.18, P = 0.05); ARB alone versus ACEI alone (RR 1.03, 95%CI 0.94–1.14, P = 0.50); ARB plus partial use of ACEI versus placebo plus partial use of ACEI (RR 0.97, 95%CI 0.90–1.04, P = 0.33); and ARB plus ACEI versus ACEI (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.79–1.24, P = 0.95). Lack of long-term data, inadequate reporting of safety data, significant heterogeneity in underlying study populations, and treatment regimens. ARB have a neutral effect on cancer incidence in randomized trials. We observed no significant differences in cancer incidence when we compared ARB alone with placebo alone, ARB alone with ACEI alone, ARB plus partial use of ACEI with placebo plus partial use of ACEI, or ARB plus ACEI combination with ACEI. PMID:27149494

  3. Origin of the angiotensin II secreted by cells.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1994-03-01

    Circulating angiotensin II is unique in that it is formed in the blood by the interaction of circulating proteins. There are in addition many local renin-angiotensin systems in tissues in which angiotensin II is apparently secreted by various types of cells. This brief review considers the possible pathways for synthesis of locally produced angiotensin II in the brain, the anterior pituitary, the testes, the ovaries, the adrenal cortex, the kidneys, the heart, blood vessel walls, and brown and white fat. Synthesis by cells in culture is also reviewed. The possibility that certain cells contain a complete intracellular renin-angiotensin system is not ruled out, but there are problems with this hypothesis. Proteases other than renin may be involved, and there may be different pathways in different tissues. However, it appears that at least in some tissues, angiotensinogen is produced in one population of cells and transported in a paracrine fashion to other renin-containing cells, where it serves as the substrate for production of angiotensin II.

  4. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  5. Selective hypoaldosteronism in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome: insensitivity to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Otabe, S; Muto, S; Asano, Y; Ohbu, E; Koyama, K; Okita, N; Yamada, K; Nonaka, K

    1991-01-01

    A 51-year-old Japanese woman with hypokalemia due to distal renal tubular acidosis associated with Sjögren's syndrome exhibited a decreased plasma aldosterone level despite elevated plasma renin activity. Our studies revealed selective hypoaldosteronism with normal adrenoglucocorticoid function. In the presence of a low level of serum potassium (3.6 mEq/l), plasma levels of deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were normal, while plasma aldosterone was very low. The levels of these three mineralocorticoids showed only minor changes during infusion of angiotensin II. Furosemide administration under almost the same level of serum potassium (3.7 mEq/l) resulted in only a slight increase of plasma aldosterone. Since hypokalemia might possibly suppress the synthesis of aldosterone in the zona glomerulosa, angiotensin II was also infused under a normal level of potassium (4.3 mEq/l). However, angiotensin II also failed to stimulate any secretion of aldosterone, despite a progressive rise in blood pressure and sufficient suppression of plasma renin activity. On the other hand, rapid ACTH administration in the presence of 4.4 mEq/l of serum potassium increased both plasma aldosterone and cortisol. These results suggest that adrenal insensitivity to angiotensin II was the cause of the selective hypoaldosteronism in our patient, possibly due to a dysfunction of adrenal angiotensin II receptors, a disorder of postreceptors or both.

  6. Cellular mechanisms mediating rat renal microvascular constriction by angiotensin II.

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, T; Suzuki, H; Fujiwara, K; Kanno, Y; Ohno, Y; Hayashi, K; Nagahama, T; Saruta, T

    1997-01-01

    To assess cellular mechanisms mediating afferent (AA) and efferent arteriolar (EA) constriction by angiotensin II (AngII), experiments were performed using isolated perfused hydronephrotic kidneys. In the first series of studies, AngII (0.3 nM) constricted AAs and EAs by 29+/-3 (n = 8, P < 0.01) and 27+/-3% (n = 8, P < 0.01), respectively. Subsequent addition of nifedipine restored AA but not EA diameter. Manganese (8 mM) reversed EA constriction by 65+/-9% (P < 0.01). In the second group, the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (10 microM), a Gi/Go protein antagonist, abolished AngII- induced EA (n = 6) but not AA constriction (n = 6). In the third series of experiments, treatment with 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl-N, N-diphenyl-carbamate (200 microM), a phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked both AA and EA constriction by AngII (n = 6 for each). In the fourth group, thapsigargin (1 microM) prevented AngII-induced AA constriction (n = 8) and attenuated EA constriction (8+/-2% decrease in EA diameter at 0.3 nM AngII, n = 8, P < 0.05). Subsequent addition of manganese (8 mM) reversed EA constriction. Our data provide evidence that in AAs, AngII stimulates phospholipase C with subsequent calcium mobilization that is required to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels. Our results suggest that AngII constricts EAs by activating phospholipase C via the Gi protein family, thereby eliciting both calcium mobilization and calcium entry. PMID:9329977

  7. Angiotensin 1-7 Protects against Angiotensin II-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction via Mas Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Dharmani; Lau, Yeh Siang; Lau, Wai Chi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin 1–7 (Ang 1–7) counter-regulates the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II (Ang II). The present study investigated the protective effect of Ang 1–7 against Ang II-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and endothelial dysfunction. Ex vivo treatment with Ang II (0.5 μM, 24 hours) impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in mouse aortas; this harmful effect of Ang II was reversed by co-treatment with ER stress inhibitors, l4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) as well as Ang 1–7. The Mas receptor antagonist, A779, antagonized the effect of Ang 1–7. The elevated mRNA expression of CHOP, Grp78 and ATF4 or protein expression of p-eIF2α and ATF6 (ER stress markers) in Ang II-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse aortas were blunted by co-treatment with Ang 1–7 and the latter effect was reversed by A779. Furthermore, Ang II-induced reduction in both eNOS phosphorylation and NO production was inhibited by Ang 1–7. In addition, Ang 1–7 decreased the levels of ER stress markers and augmented NO production in HUVECs treated with ER stress inducer, tunicamycin. The present study provides new evidence for functional antagonism between the two arms of the renin-angiotensin system in endothelial cells by demonstrating that Ang 1–7 ameliorates Ang II-stimulated ER stress to raise NO bioavailability, and subsequently preserves endothelial function. PMID:26709511

  8. Effect of intracerebroventricular administration of angiotensin II on emetic reflex in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y K; Chugh, A; Bhandari, P; Seth, S D

    1989-06-01

    Area postrema is rich in angiotensin II receptors and intravenous (iv) administration of angiotensin II has been reported to elicit emesis. However, in the present study intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of angiotensin II up to a dose of 10 micrograms failed to elicit emesis. It is suggested that presence of a cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier in area postrema most probably prevents access of icv angiotensin II to its receptors which are otherwise accessible on iv administration. PMID:2583747

  9. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression is suppressed by angiotensin II via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuya; Li, Ying; Miao, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Nan; Su, Guohai; Cai, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) in rat primary cardiomyocytes, and to investigate the potential association between angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and these effects. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 3-day-old Wistar rats, and were cultured and identified. Subsequently, the expression levels of Angptl2 were detected following incubation with various concentrations of AngII for various durations using western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Finally, under the most appropriate conditions (100 nmol/l AngII, 24 h), the cardiomyocytes were divided into six groups: Normal, AngII, AngII + losartan, normal + losartan, AngII + PD123319 and normal + PD123319 groups, in order to investigate the possible function of AT1R in Angptl2 suppression. Losartan and PD123319 are antagonists of AT1R and angiotensin II type 2 receptor, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was analyzed using Student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance. The results demonstrated that Angptl2 expression was evidently suppressed (P<0.05) following incubation with 100 nmol/l AngII for 24 h. Conversely, the expression levels of Angptl2 were significantly increased in the AngII + losartan group compared with the AngII group (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was detected between the AngII + PD123319, normal + losartan or normal + PD123319 groups and the normal group. The present in vitro study indicated that AngII was able to suppress Angptl2 expression, whereas losartan was able to significantly reverse this decrease by inhibiting AT1R. PMID:27483989

  10. The Effects of Angiotensin II on Renal Water and Electrolyte Excretion in Normal and Caval Dogs*

    PubMed Central

    Porush, Jerome G.; Kaloyanides, George J.; Cacciaguida, Roy J.; Rosen, Stanley M.

    1967-01-01

    The effects of intravenous administration of angiotensin II on renal water and electrolyte excretion were examined during hydropenia, water diuresis, and hypotonic saline diuresis in anesthetized normal dogs and dogs with thoracic inferior vena cava constriction and ascites (caval dogs). The effects of unilateral renal artery infusion of a subpressor dose were also examined. During hydropenia angiotensin produced a decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption, with a considerably greater natriuresis in caval dogs, and associated with a decrease in free water reabsorption (TcH2O). Water and hypotonic saline diuresis resulted in an augmented angiotensin natriuresis, with a greater effect still observed in caval dogs. In these experiments free water excretion (CH2O) was limited to 8-10% of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), although distal sodium load increased in every instance. In the renal artery infusion experiments a significant ipsilateral decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption was induced, particularly in caval dogs. These findings indicate that angiotensin has a direct effect on renal sodium reabsorption unrelated to a systemic circulatory alteration. The attenuation or prevention of the falls in GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) usually induced by angiotensin may partially account for the greater natriuretic response in caval dogs and the augmentation during water or hypotonic saline diuresis. However, a correlation between renal hemodynamics and the degree of natriuresis induced was not always present and, furthermore, GFR and ERPF decreased significantly during the intrarenal artery infusion experiments. Therefore, the present experiments indicate that another mechanism is operative in the control of the angiotensin natriuresis and suggest that alterations in intrarenal hemodynamics may play a role. The decrease in TcH2O and the apparent limitation of CH2O associated with an increase in distal sodium load localize the site of action of angiotensin

  11. RGS4 inhibits angiotensin II signaling and macrophage localization during renal reperfusion injury independent of vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Paul; Jin, Xiaohua; Proctor, Brandon M.; Farley, Michelle; Roy, Nilay; Chin, Matthew S.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Vollmann, Elisabeth; Perro, Mario; Hoffman, Ryan J.; Chung, Joseph; Chauhan, Nikita; Mistri, Murti; Muslin, Anthony J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Siedlecki, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is a major contributor to the severity of acute kidney injury. In the context of vasospasm-independent reperfusion injury we studied the potential anti-inflammatory role of the Gα-related RGS protein, RGS4. Transgenic RGS4 mice were resistant to 25 minute injury, although post-ischemic renal arteriolar diameter was equal to the wild type early after injury. A 10 minute unilateral injury was performed to study reperfusion without vasospasm. Eighteen hours after injury blood flow was decreased in the inner cortex of wild type mice with preservation of tubular architecture. Angiotensin II levels in the kidneys of wild type and transgenic mice were elevated in a sub-vasoconstrictive range 12 and 18 hours after injury. Angiotensin II stimulated pre-glomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to secrete the macrophage chemoattractant, RANTES; a process decreased by angiotensin II R2 (AT2) inhibition. However, RANTES increased when RGS4 expression was suppressed implicating Gα protein activation in an AT2-RGS4-dependent pathway. RGS4 function, specific to VSMC, was tested in a conditional VSMC-specific RGS4 knockout showing high macrophage density by T2 MRI compared to transgenic and non-transgenic mice after the 10 minute injury. Arteriolar diameter of this knockout was unchanged at successive time points after injury. Thus, RGS4 expression, specific to renal VSMC, inhibits angiotensin II-mediated cytokine signaling and macrophage recruitment during reperfusion, distinct from vasomotor regulation. PMID:25469849

  12. Retrieval improvement is induced by water shortage through angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) has an evolutionary preserved role in determining adaptative responses to water-shortages. In addition, it has been shown to modulate diverse phases of memory. Still, it is not clear whether ANGII improves or spoils memory. We demonstrated that endogenous angiotensins enhance consolidation of a long-term associative memory in the crab Chasmagnathus and that water shortage improves memory consolidation through brain ANGII actions. Here, we show that weakly trained crabs, when water-deprived, exhibit enhanced retrieval. Subsequently, memory retention is indistinguishable from that of strongly trained crabs. ANGII, but not angiotensin IV, is a necessary and sufficient condition for such enhancing effect. We conclude that ANGII released due to water shortage leads to enhanced memory retrieval. Thus, it seems that ANGII has an evolutionary preserved role as a multifunction coordinator that enables an adaptative response to water-shortage. The facilitation of memory consolidation and retrieval would be among those coordinated functions.

  13. Retrieval improvement is induced by water shortage through angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) has an evolutionary preserved role in determining adaptative responses to water-shortages. In addition, it has been shown to modulate diverse phases of memory. Still, it is not clear whether ANGII improves or spoils memory. We demonstrated that endogenous angiotensins enhance consolidation of a long-term associative memory in the crab Chasmagnathus and that water shortage improves memory consolidation through brain ANGII actions. Here, we show that weakly trained crabs, when water-deprived, exhibit enhanced retrieval. Subsequently, memory retention is indistinguishable from that of strongly trained crabs. ANGII, but not angiotensin IV, is a necessary and sufficient condition for such enhancing effect. We conclude that ANGII released due to water shortage leads to enhanced memory retrieval. Thus, it seems that ANGII has an evolutionary preserved role as a multifunction coordinator that enables an adaptative response to water-shortage. The facilitation of memory consolidation and retrieval would be among those coordinated functions. PMID:15721803

  14. Expression of Angiotensin II Receptor-1 in Human Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Yuki; Matsuo, Kosuke; Murata, Minako; Yudoh, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Beppu, Moroe; Inaba, Yutaka; Saito, Tomoyuki; Kato, Tomohiro; Masuko, Kayo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Besides its involvement in the cardiovascular system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAS) system has also been suggested to play an important role in inflammation. To explore the role of this system in cartilage damage in arthritis, we investigated the expression of angiotensin II receptors in chondrocytes. Methods. Articular cartilage was obtained from patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and traumatic fractures who were undergoing arthroplasty. Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro with or without interleukin (IL-1). The expression of angiotensin II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R) mRNA by the chondrocytes was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AT1R expression in cartilage tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The effect of IL-1 on AT1R/AT2R expression in the chondrocytes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and flow cytometry. Results. Chondrocytes from all patient types expressed AT1R/AT2R mRNA, though considerable variation was found between samples. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed AT1R expression at the protein level. Stimulation with IL-1 enhanced the expression of AT1R/AT2R mRNA in OA and RA chondrocytes. Conclusions. Human articular chondrocytes, at least partially, express angiotensin II receptors, and IL-1 stimulation induced AT1R/AT2R mRNA expression significantly. PMID:23346400

  15. Reciprocal roles of angiotensin II and Angiotensin II Receptors Blockade (ARB) in regulating Cbfa1/RANKL via cAMP signaling pathway: possible mechanism for hypertension-related osteoporosis and antagonistic effect of ARB on hypertension-related osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Xu; Zhou, Yi; Li, Ji-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Animal and epidemiological studies demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with increased calcium loss, elevated parathyroid hormone, and increased calcium movement from bone. However, the mechanism responsible for hypertension-related osteoporosis remains elusive. Recent epidemiological studies indicate the benefits of Angiotensin II Receptors Blockade (ARB) on decreasing fracture risks. Since receptors for angiotensin II, the targets of ARB, are expressed in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, we postulated that angiotensin II plays an important role in hypertension-related osteoporosis. Cbfa1 and RANKL, the important factors for maintaining bone homeostasis and key mediators in controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, are both regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling. Angiotensin II along with factors such as LDL, HDL, NO and homocysteine that are commonly altered both in hypertension and osteoporosis, can down-regulate the expression of Cbfa1 but up-regulate RANKL expression via the cAMP signaling pathway. We thus hypothesized that, by altering the ratio of Cbfa1/RANKL expression via the cAMP-dependent pathway, angiotensin II differently regulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation leading to enhanced bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Since ARB can antagonize the adverse effect of angiotensin II on bone by lowering cAMP levels and modifying other downstream targets, including LDL, HDL, NO and Cbfa1/RANKL, we propose the hypothesis that the antagonistic effects of ARB may also be exerted via cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:21845073

  16. Angiotensin II modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Iwata, Shusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-04-10

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying gustatory detection of dietary sodium is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that Angiotensin II (AngII), a major mediator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis, modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities, and that this modulation critically influences ingestive behaviors in mice. Gustatory nerve recording demonstrated that AngII suppressed amiloride-sensitive taste responses to NaCl. Surprisingly, AngII also enhanced nerve responses to sweeteners, but had no effect on responses to KCl, sour, bitter, or umami tastants. These effects of AngII on nerve responses were blocked by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist CV11974. In behavioral tests, CV11974 treatment reduced the stimulated high licking rate to NaCl and sweeteners in water-restricted mice with elevated plasma AngII levels. In taste cells AT1 proteins were coexpressed with αENaC (epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, an amiloride-sensitive salt taste receptor) or T1r3 (a sweet taste receptor component). These results suggest that the taste organ is a peripheral target of AngII. The specific reduction of amiloride-sensitive salt taste sensitivity by AngII may contribute to increased sodium intake. Furthermore, AngII may contribute to increased energy intake by enhancing sweet responses. The linkage between salty and sweet preferences via AngII signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes. PMID:23575826

  17. Heterogeneity of angiotensin II receptors in membranes of developing rat metanephros.

    PubMed

    Uva, B; Vallarino, M; Ghiani, P

    1985-10-01

    Specific and high affinity binding sites for angiotensin II were demonstrated in the membranes of the developing rat metanephros during the second half of pregnancy and in the newborn by binding studies with 125I angiotensin II. Only one type of angiotensin receptor was found during intrauterine life while after birth two classes of angiotensin receptors were present in the membranes of the cortical renal tissue.

  18. Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Agata, Jun; Ura, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Hideaki; Shinshi, Yasuyuki; Sasaki, Haruki; Hyakkoku, Masaya; Taniguchi, Shinya; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2006-11-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used for the treatment of hypertension. It is believed that treatment with an ARB increases the level of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) because of a lack of negative feedback on renin activity. However, Ichikawa (Hypertens Res 2001; 24: 641-646) reported that long-term treatment of hypertensive patients with olmesartan resulted in a reduction in plasma Ang II level, though the mechanism was not determined. It has been reported that angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-(1-7)) potentiates the effect of bradykinin and acts as an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is known that ACE2, which was discovered as a novel ACE-related carboxypeptidase in 2000, hydrolyzes Ang I to Ang-(1-9) and also Ang II to Ang-(1-7). It has recently been reported that olmesartan increases plasma Ang-(1-7) through an increase in ACE2 expression in rats with myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that over-expression of ACE2 may be related to a reduction in Ang II level and the cardioprotective effect of olmesartan. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg/day of olmesartan for 4 weeks to 12-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) significantly reduced blood pressure and left ventricular weight compared to those in SHRSP given a vehicle. Co-administration of olmesartan and (D-Ala7)-Ang-(1-7), a selective Ang-(1-7) antagonist, partially inhibited the effect of olmesartan on blood pressure and left ventricular weight. Interestingly, co-administration of (D-Ala7)-Ang-(1-7) with olmesartan significantly increased the plasma Ang II level (453.2+/-113.8 pg/ml) compared to olmesartan alone (144.9+/-27.0 pg/ml, p<0.05). Moreover, olmesartan significantly increased the cardiac ACE2 expression level compared to that in Wistar Kyoto rats and SHRSP treated with a vehicle. Olmesartan significantly improved cardiovascular remodeling and cardiac nitrite/ nitrate content, but co-administration of olmesartan and (D-Ala7)-Ang-(1-7) partially reversed

  19. Angiotensin-(1-7) regulates Angiotensin II-induced VCAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ren, Jingyi; Chan, Kenneth; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We for the first time found that Ang-(1-7) inhibits Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on VCAM-1 is mediated by MAS receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ang-(1-7) is due to the suppression of NF-kappaB translocation. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) are key effector peptides in the renin-angiotensin system. Increased circulatory Ang II level is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, whether Ang-(1-7) regulates the action of Ang II on vascular endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the context of atherogenesis, specifically endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression that is implicated in early plaque formation. The results show that Ang II increased VCAM-1 mRNA expression and protein displayed on EC surface, while Ang-(1-7) alone exerted no effects. However, Ang-(1-7) significantly suppressed Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Ang-(1-7) also inhibited the Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity driven by transcription factor NF-KappaB. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA showed that Ang II facilitated the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in ECs, and this was attenuated by the presence of Ang-(1-7). The inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were all reversed by the competitive antagonist of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor. Our results suggest that Ang-(1-7) mediates its affects on ECs through the Mas receptor, and negatively regulates Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression by attenuating nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.

  20. Angiotensin II receptor alterations during pregnancy in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.P.; Venuto, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Despite activation of the renin-angiotensin system during pregnancy, renal and peripheral vascular blood flows increase, and the systemic blood pressure and the pressor response to exogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) fall. Gestational alterations in Ang II receptors could contribute to these changes. Ang II binding parameters were determining utilizing SVI-Ang II in vascular (glomeruli and mesenteric arteries) and nonvascular (adrenal glomerulosa) tissues from 24- to 28-day pregnant rabbits. Comparisons were made utilizing tissues from nonpregnant rabbits. Binding site concentrations (N) and dissociation constants (K/sub d/) were obtained by Scatchard analyses of binding inhibition data. Meclofenamate (M) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, reduces plasma renin activity, and enhances the pressor response to infused Ang II in pregnant rabbits. Administration of M to pregnant rabbits increased N in glomerular and in mesenteric artery membranes. These data demonstrate that Ang II receptors in glomeruli and mesenteric arteries are down regulated during gestation in rabbits. Elevated endogenous Ang II during pregnancy in rabbits may contribute to the down regulation of vascular Ang II receptors.

  1. New Perspectives in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) II: Albumin Suppresses Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Fagyas, Miklós; Úri, Katalin; Siket, Ivetta M.; Fülöp, Gábor Á.; Csató, Viktória; Daragó, Andrea; Boczán, Judit; Bányai, Emese; Szentkirályi, István Elek; Maros, Tamás Miklós; Szerafin, Tamás; Édes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Tóth, Attila

    2014-01-01

    About 8% of the adult population is taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease including hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. These drugs decrease mortality by up to one-fifth in these patients. We and others have reported previously that endogenous inhibitory substances suppress serum ACE activity, in vivo, similarly to the ACE inhibitor drugs. Here we have made an effort to identify this endogenous ACE inhibitor substance. ACE was crosslinked with interacting proteins in human sera. The crosslinked products were immunoprecipitated and subjected to Western blot. One of the crosslinked products was recognized by both anti-ACE and anti-HSA (human serum albumin) antibodies. Direct ACE-HSA interaction was confirmed by binding assays using purified ACE and HSA. HSA inhibited human purified (circulating) and human recombinant ACE with potencies (IC50) of 5.7±0.7 and 9.5±1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Effects of HSA on the tissue bound native ACE were tested on human saphenous vein samples. Angiotensin I evoked vasoconstriction was inhibited by HSA in this vascular tissue (maximal force with HSA: 6.14±1.34 mN, without HSA: 13.54±2.63 mN), while HSA was without effects on angiotensin II mediated constrictions (maximal force with HSA: 18.73±2.17 mN, without HSA: 19.22±3.50 mN). The main finding of this study is that HSA was identified as a potent physiological inhibitor of the ACE. The enzymatic activity of ACE appears to be almost completely suppressed by HSA when it is present in its physiological concentration. These data suggest that angiotensin I conversion is limited by low physiological ACE activities, in vivo. PMID:24691203

  2. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. PMID:27063446

  3. Comparative effects of contraction and angiotensin II on growth of adult feline cardiocytes in primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, H.; Zile, M. R.; Ivester, C. T.; Cooper, G. 4th; McDermott, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether angiotensin II causes growth of adult feline cardiocytes in long-term culture, 2) to compare the growth effects of angiotensin II with those resulting from electrically stimulated contraction, and 3) to determine whether the anabolic effects of contraction are exerted via the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Adult feline cardiocytes were cultured on laminin-coated trays in a serum-free medium. Cardiocytes were either electrically stimulated to contract (1 Hz, 5-ms pulse duration, alternating polarity) or were nonstimulated and quiescent. Quiescent cells were studied as controls and after treatment with angiotensin II (10(-8) M), losartan (10(-6) M; an angiotensin type 1-receptor antagonist), or angiotensin II plus losartan. Contracting cells were studied in the presence and absence of angiotensin II or losartan. In quiescent cardiocytes, angiotensin II treatment on day 7 significantly increased protein synthesis rates by 22% and protein content per cell by 17%. The effects of angiotensin II were completely blocked by losartan. Electrically stimulated contraction on days 4 and 7 in culture significantly increased protein synthesis rate by 18 and 38% and protein content per cell by 19 and 46%, respectively. Angiotensin II treatment did not further increase protein synthesis rate or protein content in contracting cardiocytes. Furthermore, losartan did not block the anabolic effects of contraction on protein synthesis rates or protein content. In conclusion, angiotensin II can exert a modest anabolic effect on adult feline cardiocytes in culture. In contracting feline cardiocytes, angiotensin II has no effect on growth. Growth caused by electrically stimulated contraction occurs more rapidly and is greater in magnitude than that caused by angiotensin II. Growth of contracting adult feline cardiocytes is not dependent on activation of the angiotensin receptor.

  4. Sustained diacylglycerol formation from inositol phospholipids in angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Griendling, K.K.; Rittenhouse, S.E.; Brock, T.A.; Ekstein, L.S.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.; Alexander, R.W.

    1986-05-05

    Angiotensin II acts on cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells to stimulate phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides and subsequent formation of diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates. In intact cells, angiotensin II induces a dose-dependent increase in diglyceride which is detectable after 5 s and sustained for at least 20 min. Angiotensin II (100 nM)-stimulated diglyceride formation is biphasic, peaking at 15 s (227 +/- 19% control) and at 5 min (303 +/- 23% control). Simultaneous analysis of labeled inositol phospholipids shows that at 15 s phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) decline to 52 +/- 6% control and 63 +/- 5% control, respectively, while phosphatidylinositol (PI) remains unchanged. In contrast, at 5 min, PIP2 and PIP have returned toward control levels (92 +/- 2 and 82 +/- 4% control, respectively), while PI has decreased substantially (81 +/- 2% control). The calcium ionophore ionomycin (15 microM) stimulates diglyceride accumulation but does not cause PI hydrolysis. 4 beta-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, inhibits early PIP and PIP2 breakdown and diglyceride formation, without inhibiting late-phase diglyceride accumulation. Thus, angiotensin II induces rapid transient breakdown of PIP and PIP2 and delayed hydrolysis of PI. The rapid attenuation of polyphosphoinositide breakdown is likely caused by a protein kinase C-mediated inhibition of PIP and PIP2 hydrolysis. While in vascular smooth muscle stimulated with angiotensin II inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation is transient, diglyceride production is biphasic, suggesting that initial and sustained diglyceride formation from the phosphoinositides results from different biochemical and/or cellular processes.

  5. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 promotes angiotensin II sensitivity in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Suzanne D; Zsengellér, Zsuzsanna K; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Lo, Agnes S; Rajakumar, Augustine; DuPont, Jennifer J; McCurley, Amy; Moss, Mary E; Zhang, Dongsheng; Clark, Christopher D; Wang, Alice; Seely, Ellen W; Kang, Peter M; Stillman, Isaac E; Jaffe, Iris Z; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in which patients develop profound sensitivity to vasopressors, such as angiotensin II, and is associated with substantial morbidity for the mother and fetus. Enhanced vasoconstrictor sensitivity and elevations in soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1), a circulating antiangiogenic protein, precede clinical signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Here, we report that overexpression of sFlt1 in pregnant mice induced angiotensin II sensitivity and hypertension by impairing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and promoting oxidative stress in the vasculature. Administration of the NOS inhibitor l-NAME to pregnant mice recapitulated the angiotensin sensitivity and oxidative stress observed with sFlt1 overexpression. Sildenafil, an FDA-approved phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor that enhances NO signaling, reversed sFlt1-induced hypertension and angiotensin II sensitivity in the preeclampsia mouse model. Sildenafil treatment also improved uterine blood flow, decreased uterine vascular resistance, and improved fetal weights in comparison with untreated sFlt1-expressing mice. Finally, sFLT1 protein expression inversely correlated with reductions in eNOS phosphorylation in placental tissue of human preeclampsia patients. These data support the concept that endothelial dysfunction due to high circulating sFLT1 may be the primary event leading to enhanced vasoconstrictor sensitivity that is characteristic of preeclampsia and suggest that targeting sFLT1-induced pathways may be an avenue for treating preeclampsia and improving fetal outcomes. PMID:27270170

  6. Angiotensin-II blockage, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in physically independent older adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Vinícius A.; Probst, Vanessa S.; Nogari, Bruna M.; Teixeira, Denilson C.; Felcar, Josiane M.; Santos, Denis C.; Gomes, Marcus Vinícius M.; Andraus, Rodrigo A. C.; Fernandes, Karen B. P.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the exercise capacity and muscle strength in elderly people using drugs for angiotensin-II blockage. [Subjects and Methods] Four hundred and seven older adults were recruited for this study. Data about comorbidities and medication use were recorded and the individuals were divided into three groups: control group- elderly people with normal exercise capacity (n=235); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group − individuals using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (n=140); and angiotensin-II receptor blocker group- patients using angiotensin-II receptor blockers (n= 32). Exercise capacity was evaluated by a 6-minute walking test and muscle strength was measured using a handgrip dynamometer. [Results] Patients from the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (mean: 99 ± 12%) and the angiotensin-II receptor blocker group (mean: 101 ± 14%) showed higher predicted values in the 6-minute walking test than the control group patients (mean: 96 ± 10%). Patients from the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (mean: 105 ± 19%) and the angiotensin-II receptor blocker group (mean: 105.1 ± 18.73%) showed higher predicted values of muscle strength than control group patients (mean: 98.15 ± 18.77%). [Conclusion] Older adults using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers have better functional exercise capacity and muscle strength. PMID:27065543

  7. Angiotensin-II blockage, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in physically independent older adults.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vinícius A; Probst, Vanessa S; Nogari, Bruna M; Teixeira, Denilson C; Felcar, Josiane M; Santos, Denis C; Gomes, Marcus Vinícius M; Andraus, Rodrigo A C; Fernandes, Karen B P

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the exercise capacity and muscle strength in elderly people using drugs for angiotensin-II blockage. [Subjects and Methods] Four hundred and seven older adults were recruited for this study. Data about comorbidities and medication use were recorded and the individuals were divided into three groups: control group- elderly people with normal exercise capacity (n=235); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group - individuals using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (n=140); and angiotensin-II receptor blocker group- patients using angiotensin-II receptor blockers (n= 32). Exercise capacity was evaluated by a 6-minute walking test and muscle strength was measured using a handgrip dynamometer. [Results] Patients from the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (mean: 99 ± 12%) and the angiotensin-II receptor blocker group (mean: 101 ± 14%) showed higher predicted values in the 6-minute walking test than the control group patients (mean: 96 ± 10%). Patients from the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (mean: 105 ± 19%) and the angiotensin-II receptor blocker group (mean: 105.1 ± 18.73%) showed higher predicted values of muscle strength than control group patients (mean: 98.15 ± 18.77%). [Conclusion] Older adults using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers have better functional exercise capacity and muscle strength.

  8. How does angiotensin II increase cardiac dopamine-beta-hydroxylation?

    PubMed

    Chevillard, C; Duchene, N; Alexandre, J M

    1975-03-01

    The potent accelerating effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on caridac dopamine beta-hydroxylation was studied on slices of rat heart. Ang II did not affect the kinetics of beta-hydroxylation but it increased the axonal uptake of dopamine, and, concomitant with the acceleration of biosynthesis, it enhanced the accumulation of dopamine into tissue. Puromycin, in contrast to actinomycin D, antagonized the stimulation of dopamine beta-hydroxylation by Ang II, but did not suppress the rise in cardiac dopamine. Therefore, to promote the acceleration of dopamine beta-hydroxylation, (i) the rise in tissue dopamine available for conversion appeared to be insufficient, (ii) the formation of new proteins by activation of traduction seemed to constitute the basic mechanism of Ang II action.

  9. Chronic angiotensin II infusion modulates angiotensin II type I receptor expression in the subfornical organ and the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fabíola C; Braga, Valdir A

    2011-12-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin II (Ang II) has profound effects on the central nervous system, including regulation of vasopressin secretion and modulation of sympathetic outflow. However, the mechanism by which circulating Ang II affects the central nervous system remains largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of Ang II activate angiotensin type I (AT1) receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO), increasing the Ang II signalling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Male Wistar rats were subcutaneously implanted with two 14-day osmotic minipumps filled with Ang II (150 ng/kg/minute), Losartan (10mg/kg/day), or saline. In addition, AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the SFO and RVLM were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Infusion of Ang II-induced hypertension (134 ± 10 mmHg vs 98 ± 9 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05), which was blunted by concomitant infusion of Losartan (105 ± 8 vs 134 ± 10 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05). In addition, hexamethonium produced a greater decrease in blood pressure in Ang II-infused rats. Real time PCR revealed that chronic Ang II infusion induced an increase in AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the RVLM and a decrease in the SFO. Taken together, using combined in vivo and molecular biology approaches, our data suggest that Ang II-induced hypertension is mediated by an increase in sympathetic nerve activity, which seems to involve up-regulation of AT1 receptors in the RVLM and down-regulation of AT1 receptors in the SFO. PMID:21393361

  10. Differential brain angiotensin-II type I receptor expression in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A

    2011-09-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin-II (Ang-II) has profound effects in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that Ang-II-dependent hypertension involves differential Ang-II type I (AT(1)) receptors expression in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Male Wistar rats were implanted with 14-day osmotic minipump filled with Ang-II (150 ng/kg/min) or saline. AT(1) receptor mRNA levels were detected in the SFO and RVLM by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ang-II caused hypertension (134 ± 10 mmHg vs. 98 ± 9 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05). RT-PCR revealed that Ang-II infusion induced increased AT(1) receptor mRNA levels in RVLM and decreased in SFO. Our data suggest that Ang-II-induced hypertension involves differential expression of brain AT(1) receptors. PMID:21897104

  11. Angiotensin II prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and vascular changes in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.; Mullen, M.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Maruyama, K.; O'Brodovich, H.; Olley, P.M. )

    1988-03-01

    Angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, has been previously demonstrated to produce a secondary vasodilatation due to release of prostaglandins. Because of this effect, the authors investigated whether infusion of exogenous angiotensin II via miniosmopumps in rats during a 1-wk exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia might prevent pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes. They instrumented the rats with indwelling cardiovascular catheters and compared the hemodynamic and structural response in animals given angiotensin II, indomethacin in addition to angiotensin II (to block prostaglandin production), or saline with or without indomethacin. They then determine whether angiotensin II infusion also prevents acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. They observed that exogenous angiotensin II infusion abolished the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy, and the vascular changes induced during chronic hypoxia in control saline-infused rats with or without indomethacin. The protective effects of angiotensin II was lost when indomethacin was given to block prostaglandin synthesis. During acute hypoxia, both antiotensin II and prostacyclin infusion similarly prevented the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed in saline-infused rats and in rats given indomethacin or saralasin in addition to angiotensin II. Thus exogenous angiotensin II infusion prevents chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, associated right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes and blocks acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and this is likely related to its ability to release vasodilator prostaglandins.

  12. SREBP-1 Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced TGF-β1 Upregulation and Glomerular Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tony N.; Chen, Xing; Li, Renzhong; Gao, Bo; Mohammed-Ali, Zahraa; Lu, Chao; Yum, Victoria; Dickhout, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II is an important mediator of CKD of diverse etiology. A common pathologic feature of CKD is glomerular fibrosis, a central mediator of which is the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β. The mechanisms underlying the induction of TGF-β and matrix by angiotensin II are not completely understood. Recent studies showed that overexpression of the transcription factor SREBP-1 induces glomerular sclerosis and that angiotensin II can activate SREBP-1 in tubular cells. We thus studied whether SREBP-1 is activated by angiotensin II and mediates angiotensin II–induced profibrogenic responses in primary rat mesangial cells. Treatment of cells with angiotensin II induced the upregulation and activation of SREBP-1. Angiotensin II–induced activation of SREBP-1 required signaling through the angiotensin II type I receptor and activation of PI3K/Akt in addition to the chaperone SCAP and protease S1P. Notably, angiotensin II-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress was identified as a key mediator of Akt-SREBP-1 activation, and inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress or SREBP-1 prevented angiotensin II–induced SREBP-1 binding to the TGF-β promoter, TGF-β upregulation, and downstream fibronectin upregulation. Endoplasmic reticulum stress alone, however, did not induce TGF-β upregulation despite activating SREBP-1. Although not required for SREBP-1 activation by angiotensin II, EGF receptor signaling was necessary for activation of the SREBP-1 cotranscription factor Sp1, which provided a required second signal for TGF-β upregulation. In vivo, endoplasmic reticulum stress and SREBP-1-dependent effects were induced in glomeruli of angiotensin II-infused mice, and administration of the SREBP inhibitor fatostatin prevented angiotensin II–induced TGF-β upregulation and matrix accumulation. SREBP-1 and endoplasmic reticulum stress thus provide potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of CKD. PMID:25398788

  13. Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced vascular changes by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Fornai, Matteo; Duranti, Emiliano; Antonioli, Luca; Rugani, Ilaria; Aydinoglu, Fatma; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Taddei, Stefano; Blandizzi, Corrado; Virdis, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1 participate in vascular damage induced by angiotensin II. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-infused rats. Experimental Approach Male rats received angiotensin II (120 ng·kg−1·min−1, subcutaneously) for 14 days with or without rosuvastatin (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, oral gavage) or vehicle. Vascular functions and morphological parameters were assessed by pressurized myography. Key Results In angiotensin II-infused rats, ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated compared with controls, less sensitive to L-NAME, enhanced by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or SQ-29548 (prostanoid TP receptor antagonist), and normalized by the antioxidant ascorbic acid or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. After rosuvastatin, relaxations to ACh were normalized, fully sensitive to L-NAME, and no longer affected by SC-560, SQ-29548 or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Angiotensin II enhanced intravascular superoxide generation, eutrophic remodelling, collagen and fibronectin depositions, and decreased elastin content, resulting in increased vessel stiffness. All these changes were prevented by rosuvastatin. Angiotensin II increased phosphorylation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox and its binding to subunit p67phox, effects inhibited by rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin down-regulated vascular Nox4/NAD(P)H isoform and COX-1 expression, attenuated the vascular release of 6-keto-PGF1α, and enhanced copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase expression. Conclusion and Implications Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced alterations in resistance arteries in terms of function, structure, mechanics and composition. These effects depend on restoration of NO availability, prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidant excess, reversal of COX-1 induction and its prostanoid production, and stimulation of

  14. Midkine, a newly discovered regulator of the renin-angiotensin pathway in mouse aorta: significance of the pleiotrophin/midkine developmental gene family in angiotensin II signaling.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, Laura; Herradon, Gonzalo; Nguyen, Trang; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Deuel, Thomas F

    2005-07-29

    We previously demonstrated that pleiotrophin (PTN the protein, Ptn the gene) highly regulates the levels of expression of the genes encoding the proteins of the renin-angiotensin pathway in mouse aorta. We now demonstrate that the levels of expression of these same genes are significantly regulated in mouse aorta by the PTN family member midkine (MK the protein, Mk the gene); a 3-fold increase in expression of renin, an 82-fold increase in angiotensinogen, a 6-fold decrease in the angiotensin converting enzyme, and a 6.5-fold increase in the angiotensin II type 1 and a 9-fold increase in the angiotensin II type 2 receptor mRNAs were found in Mk-/- mouse aorta in comparison with the wild type (WT, +/+). The results in Mk-/- mice are remarkably similar to those previously reported in Ptn-/- mouse aorta, with the single exception of that the levels of the angiotensinogen gene expression in Ptn-/- mice are equal to those in WT+/+ mouse aorta, and thus, in contrast to Mk gene expression unaffected by levels of Ptn gene expression. The data indicate that MK and PTN share striking but not complete functional redundancy. These data support potentially high levels importance of MK and the MK/PTN developmental gene family in downstream signals initiated by angiotensin II either in development or in the many pathological conditions in which MK expression levels are increased, such as atherosclerosis and many human neoplasms that acquire constitutive endogenous Mk gene expression by mutation during tumor progression and potentially provide a target through the renin-angiotensin pathway to treat advanced malignancies.

  15. Cognitive effects attributed to angiotensin II may result from its conversion to angiotensin IV.

    PubMed

    Braszko, Jan Jozef; Walesiuk, Anna; Wielgat, Przemyslaw

    2006-09-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the facilitation of learning and improvement of memory observed after an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) is, in fact, caused by its derivative angiotensin IV (Ang IV). We ran two memory tests as well as an auxiliary test assessing motor performance in rats injected (i.c.v., 1 nmol in 2 microl saline) with Ang II or Ang IV. There were separate groups receiving peptide or saline five, 10 and 15 minutes before testing. Ang IV significantly increased step-through latencies in a passive avoidance paradigm as well as improved discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar objects in an object recognition test in all groups showing better retrieval of memory of aversive as well as appetitive stimuli in the peptide-treated groups regardless of the time of its injection. In contrast, rats treated with Ang II demonstrated significant improvement of memory of aversive and appetitive stimuli in the same tests only 15 minutes after its i.c.v. injection, with no effect in the groups injected five minutes before testing and slight efficacy in those injected 10 minutes before the test. Numbers of crossings, rearings and bar approaches in an open field were similar both in the peptide-treated and control groups making it unlikely that changes in motor performance affected the memory tests. In line with the present views on the intracellular metabolism of Ang II, these results suggest degradation to Ang IV by aminopeptidases A and N is necessary before the cognitive effects can occur.

  16. Angiotensin II centrally induces frequent detrusor contractility of the bladder by acting on brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Bunya; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Higashi, Youichirou; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Saito, Motoaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the brain as a neurotransmitter and is involved in psychological stress reactions, for example through activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ang II on the micturition reflex, which is potentially affected by the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and brain Ang II receptors in urethane-anesthetized (1.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) male rats. Central administration of Ang II (0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 nmol per rat, intracerebroventricularly, icv) but not vehicle rapidly and dose-dependently decreased the urinary bladder intercontraction interval, without altering the bladder detrusor pressure. Central administration of antagonists of Ang II type 1 but not type 2 receptors inhibited the Ang II-induced shortening of intercontraction intervals. Administration of the highest dose of Ang II (0.07 nmol per rat, icv) but not lower doses (0.01 and 0.02 nmol per rat, icv) elevated the plasma concentration of adrenaline. Bilateral adrenalectomy reduced Ang II-induced elevation in adrenaline, but had no effect on the Ang II-induced shortening of the intercontraction interval. These data suggest that central administration of Ang II increases urinary frequency by acting on brain Ang II type 1 receptors, independent of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. PMID:26908391

  17. Central effects of angiotensin II, its fragment and analogues.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, V P; Klousha, V E; Petkov, V D; Markovska, V L; Svirskis, S V; Mountsinietse, R K; Anouans, Z E

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the octapeptide angiotensin II (AT II), its fragment Ile8 AT3-8 and the analogues Sar1 Ala8 AT II, Ala8 AT II and Ile8 AT II were studied with respect to: the level of biogenic amines (DA, 5-HT and their metabolites HVA and 5-HIAA) in the forebrain; the behaviour of the animals--haloperidol catalepsy, apomorphine stereotypy, unconditioned jumping reaction (UJR), convulsive threshold. Good correlation was found between the biochemical and behavioural effects. The fragment of AT II where phenylalanine is substituted at the C-terminal by Ile reduces the haloperidol-increased content of HVA, potentiates apomorphine stereotypy and reduces catalepsy, whereas the AT II analogues (where the C-terminal phenylalanine is substituted by Ala, and the N-terminal--by Sar) potentiate the effect of haloperidol increasing the HVA content, reduce apomorphine stereotypy and potentiate catalepsy; saralasine independently applied induces brief catalepsy; AT II, its fragment and analogues inhibit UJR, in combination with amphetamine and PTZ this effect becomes deeper; the duration of hexobarbital sleep is increased. The peptides investigated increase the convulsive threshold. The results show that the hexapeptide fragment has preserved the effects of AT II, whereas in the analogues (with changed C- and N-terminals) they are changed. The results obtained may be explained with the modulating influence of AT II-receptors on the DA-ergic receptors in the brain structures with which AT II and its fragment and analogues enter in contact.

  18. The Cooperative Effect of Local Angiotensin-II in Liver with Adriamycin Hepatotoxicity on Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Eylem; Guven, Celal; Sahin, Leyla; Dursun, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Background Adriamycin (ADR) is a drug used clinically for anticancer treatment; however, it causes adverse effects in the liver. The mechanism by which these adverse effects occur remains unclear, impeding efforts to enhance the therapeutic effects of ADR. Its hepatotoxicity might be related to increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. The interaction between ADR and the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the liver is unclear. ADR might activate the RAS. Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) leads to ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study we investigated whether ADR’s hepatotoxicity interacts with local RAS in causing oxidative stress resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat liver. Material/Methods Rats were divided into 5 groups: control, ADR, co-treated ADR with captopril, co-treated ADR with Aliskiren, and co-treated ADR with both captopril and Aliskiren. Mitochondria and cytosol were separated from the liver, then biochemical measurements were made from them. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP levels were evaluated. Results ADR remarkably decreased MMP and ATP in liver mitochondria (p<0.05). Co-administration with ADR and Aliskiren and captopril improved the dissipation of MMP (p<0.05). The decreased ATP level was restored by treatment with inhibitors of ACE and renin. Conclusions Angiotensin-II may contribute to hepatotoxicity of in the ADR via mitochondrial oxidative production, resulting in the attenuation of MMP and ATP production. PMID:27019222

  19. Angiotensin II Signaling in Human Preadipose Cells: Participation of ERK1,2-Dependent Modulation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Dünner, Natalia; Quezada, Carolina; Berndt, F. Andrés; Cánovas, José; Rojas, Cecilia V.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system expressed in adipose tissue has been implicated in the modulation of adipocyte formation, glucose metabolism, triglyceride accumulation, lipolysis, and the onset of the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. As we investigated angiotensin II signal transduction mechanisms in human preadipose cells, an interplay of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and Akt/PKB became evident. Angiotensin II caused attenuation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), at serine 473; the p-Akt/Akt ratio decreased to 0.5±0.2-fold the control value without angiotensin II (p<0.001). Here we report that the reduction of phosphorylated Akt associates with ERK1,2 activities. In the absence of angiotensin II, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a 2.1±0.5 (p<0.001) and 1.4±0.2-fold (p<0.05) increase in the p-Akt/Akt ratio, respectively. In addition, partial knockdown of ERK1 protein expression by the short hairpin RNA technique also raised phosphorylated Akt in these cells (the p-Akt/Akt ratio was 1.5±0.1-fold the corresponding control; p<0.05). Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 prevented the reduction of p-Akt/Akt by angiotensin II. An analogous effect was found on the phosphorylation status of Akt downstream effectors, the forkhead box (Fox) proteins O1 and O4. Altogether, these results indicate that angiotensin II signaling in human preadipose cells involves an ERK1,2-dependent attenuation of Akt activity, whose impact on the biological functions under its regulation is not fully understood. PMID:24098385

  20. RGS4 inhibits angiotensin II signaling and macrophage localization during renal reperfusion injury independent of vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Pang, Paul; Jin, Xiaohua; Proctor, Brandon M; Farley, Michelle; Roy, Nilay; Chin, Matthew S; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Vollmann, Elisabeth; Perro, Mario; Hoffman, Ryan J; Chung, Joseph; Chauhan, Nikita; Mistri, Murti; Muslin, Anthony J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Siedlecki, Andrew M

    2015-04-01

    Vascular inflammation is a major contributor to the severity of acute kidney injury. In the context of vasospasm-independent reperfusion injury we studied the potential anti-inflammatory role of the Gα-related RGS protein, RGS4. Transgenic RGS4 mice were resistant to 25 min injury, although post-ischemic renal arteriolar diameter was equal to the wild type early after injury. A 10 min unilateral injury was performed to study reperfusion without vasospasm. Eighteen hours after injury, blood flow was decreased in the inner cortex of wild-type mice with preservation of tubular architecture. Angiotensin II levels in the kidneys of wild-type and transgenic mice were elevated in a sub-vasoconstrictive range 12 and 18 h after injury. Angiotensin II stimulated pre-glomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to secrete the macrophage chemoattractant RANTES, a process decreased by angiotensin II R2 (AT2) inhibition. However, RANTES increased when RGS4 expression was suppressed implicating Gα protein activation in an AT2-RGS4-dependent pathway. RGS4 function, specific to VSMC, was tested in a conditional VSMC-specific RGS4 knockout showing high macrophage density by T2 MRI compared with transgenic and non-transgenic mice after the 10 min injury. Arteriolar diameter of this knockout was unchanged at successive time points after injury. Thus, RGS4 expression, specific to renal VSMC, inhibits angiotensin II-mediated cytokine signaling and macrophage recruitment during reperfusion, distinct from vasomotor regulation. PMID:25469849

  1. RGS4 inhibits angiotensin II signaling and macrophage localization during renal reperfusion injury independent of vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Pang, Paul; Jin, Xiaohua; Proctor, Brandon M; Farley, Michelle; Roy, Nilay; Chin, Matthew S; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Vollmann, Elisabeth; Perro, Mario; Hoffman, Ryan J; Chung, Joseph; Chauhan, Nikita; Mistri, Murti; Muslin, Anthony J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Siedlecki, Andrew M

    2015-04-01

    Vascular inflammation is a major contributor to the severity of acute kidney injury. In the context of vasospasm-independent reperfusion injury we studied the potential anti-inflammatory role of the Gα-related RGS protein, RGS4. Transgenic RGS4 mice were resistant to 25 min injury, although post-ischemic renal arteriolar diameter was equal to the wild type early after injury. A 10 min unilateral injury was performed to study reperfusion without vasospasm. Eighteen hours after injury, blood flow was decreased in the inner cortex of wild-type mice with preservation of tubular architecture. Angiotensin II levels in the kidneys of wild-type and transgenic mice were elevated in a sub-vasoconstrictive range 12 and 18 h after injury. Angiotensin II stimulated pre-glomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to secrete the macrophage chemoattractant RANTES, a process decreased by angiotensin II R2 (AT2) inhibition. However, RANTES increased when RGS4 expression was suppressed implicating Gα protein activation in an AT2-RGS4-dependent pathway. RGS4 function, specific to VSMC, was tested in a conditional VSMC-specific RGS4 knockout showing high macrophage density by T2 MRI compared with transgenic and non-transgenic mice after the 10 min injury. Arteriolar diameter of this knockout was unchanged at successive time points after injury. Thus, RGS4 expression, specific to renal VSMC, inhibits angiotensin II-mediated cytokine signaling and macrophage recruitment during reperfusion, distinct from vasomotor regulation.

  2. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  3. Hyperhydrating effect of acute administration of angiotensin II in rats.

    PubMed

    Fregly, M J; Wilson, K M; Rowland, N E; Cade, J R

    1992-01-01

    Water intake, urine output, and fluid exchange (water intake less urine output) were measured in rats at hourly intervals for 7 hours and at 24 hours following acute administration of angiotensin II (AII, 200 micrograms/kg SC). AII induced the expected abrupt increase in water intake and a more gradual increase in urine output. The change in fluid exchange (fluid exchange of the AII-treated group less fluid exchange of controls) became positive within the first hour after treatment with AII, decreased linearly with time, and reached 0 at approximately 10 to 12 hours after treatment with AII. When AII was administered intracerebroventricularly (50 ng), similar results were observed. In this case, the change in fluid exchange (delta F) reached 0 in about 6 hours. Imposition of a water load (1% of body weight, IP) on the group receiving AII SC failed to affect the time required for delta F to reach 0 if the water load was disregarded. However, inclusion of the load as a part of intake extended the time the rats remained in positive fluid balance beyond that of the nonloaded, AII-treated control group. In the case of the larger water load (3% of body weight, IP), delta F returned to that of controls in about 4 to 5 hours if the water load was disregarded. However, inclusion of the load as part of intake extended the period of hyperhydration well beyond that of both the nonloaded, AII-treated group and the AII-treated group given the 1% load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Angiotensin II induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, X L; Tummala, P E; Olbrych, M T; Alexander, R W; Medford, R M

    1998-11-01

    Monocyte infiltration into the vessel wall, a key initial step in the process of atherosclerosis, is mediated in part by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Hypertension, particularly in the presence of an activated renin-angiotensin system, is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. To investigate a potential molecular basis for a link between hypertension and atherosclerosis, we studied the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on MCP-1 gene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Rat smooth muscle cells treated with Ang II exhibited a dose-dependent increase in MCP-1 mRNA accumulation that was prevented by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. Ang II also activated MCP-1 gene transcription. Inhibition of NADH/NADPH oxidase, which generates superoxide and H2O2, with diphenylene iodonium or apocynin decreased Ang II-induced MCP-1 mRNA accumulation. Induction of MCP-1 gene expression by Ang II was inhibited by catalase, suggesting a second messenger role for H2O2. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059 inhibited Ang II-induced MCP-1 gene expression, consistent with a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling mechanism. Ang II may thus promote atherogenesis by direct activation of MCP-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  5. Comparison of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in pregnant sheep during late gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Forhead, A. J.; Whybrew, K.; Hughes, P.; Broughton Pipkin, F.; Sutherland, M.; Fowden, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of antagonism of the maternal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with either an angiotensin II type 1-(AT1) specific receptor blocker (GR138950) or an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (captopril) were compared in chronically-catheterised ewes and their foetuses during late gestation. 2. Daily from 127 +/- 1 days of gestation until parturition at 145 +/- 2 days, each ewe received i.v. either GR138950 (3 mg kg-1; n = 10), captopril (3 mg kg-1; n = 6) or an equivalent volume of vehicle solution (0.9% w/v saline; n = 10). 3. Within 2 h of drug administration, GR138950 abolished the maternal, but not the foetal, pressor responses to angiotensin II (AII; 100-188 ng kg-1, i.v.; P < 0.05), whereas captopril abolished both the maternal and foetal pressor responses to angiotensin I (AI; 400-750 ng kg-1, i.v.; P < 0.05). 4. On the first day of treatment, maternal blood pressure decreased in all GR138950-treated (-21 +/- 4 mmHg; P < 0.05) and captopril-treated (-13 +/- 5 mmHg; P > 0.05) ewes at 2 h after drug administration. Captopril also significantly decreased foetal blood pressure by 5 +/- 1 mmHg (P < 0.05). However, foetal blood pressure in the GR138950-treated animals remained unchanged. Maternal and foetal heart rates were unaffected by any treatment. Uterine blood flow was significantly reduced within 2 h of both GR138950 (-130 +/- 20 ml min-1; P < 0.05) and captopril (-72 +/- 16 ml min-1; P < 0.05) administration. 5. On the first day of treatment, maternal arterial haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and oxygen (O2) content increased at 2 h in all GR138950-treated and captopril-treated ewes. Foetal arterial pH and oxygenation (O2 content, O2 saturation and Pao2) were reduced by a similar extent in both groups of drug-treated ewes. 6. After one week of daily GR138950 administration, maternal blood pressure decreased from a pretreatment value of 96 +/- 5 mmHg on day 1 to 79 +/- 2 mmHg by day 7 (P < 0.05). Captopril treatment had no long-term effect on

  6. Norepinephrine metabolism in neuronal cultures is increased by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Shalit, S.L.; Kalberg, C.J.; Raizada, M.K.

    1987-06-01

    In this study the authors have examined the actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) on catecholamine metabolism in neuronal brain cell cultures prepared from the hypothalamus and brain stem. Neuronal cultures prepared from the brains of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit specific neuronal uptake mechanisms for both norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), and also monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity. Separate neuronal uptake sites for NE and DA were identified by using specific neuronal uptake inhibitors for each amine. In previous studies, they determined that ANG II (10 nM-1 ..mu..M) stimulates increased neuronal (/sup 3/H)NE uptake by acting as specific receptors. They have confirmed these results here and in addition have shown that ANG II has not significant effects on neuronal (/sup 3/H)DA uptake. These results suggest that the actions of ANG II are restricted to the NE transporter in neuronal cultures. It is possible that ANG II stimulates the intraneuronal metabolism of at least part of the NE that is taken up, because the peptide stimulates MAO activity, an effect mediated by specific ANG II receptors. ANG II had no effect on COMT activity in neuronal cultures. Therefore, the use of neuronal cultures of hypothalamus and brain stem they have determined that ANG II can specifically alter NE metabolism in these areas, while apparently not altering DA metabolism.

  7. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α is critical for angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nayaab S; Song, Chi Young; Jennings, Brett L; Estes, Anne M; Fang, Xiao R; Bonventre, Joseph V; Malik, Kafait U

    2015-04-01

    Angiotensin II activates cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA2α) and releases arachidonic acid from tissue phospholipids, which mediate or modulate ≥1 cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II and has been implicated in hypertension. Because arachidonic acid release is the rate limiting step in eicosanoid production, cPLA2α might play a central role in the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II infusion for 13 days by micro-osmotic pumps on systolic blood pressure and associated pathogenesis in wild type (cPLA2α(+/+)) and cPLA2α(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II-induced increase in systolic blood pressure in cPLA2α(+/+) mice was abolished in cPLA2α(-/-) mice; increased systolic blood pressure was also abolished by the arachidonic acid metabolism inhibitor, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid in cPLA2α(+/+) mice. Angiotensin II in cPLA2α(+/+) mice increased cardiac cPLA2 activity and urinary eicosanoid excretion, decreased cardiac output, caused cardiovascular remodeling with endothelial dysfunction, and increased vascular reactivity in cPLA2α(+/+) mice; these changes were diminished in cPLA2α(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II also increased cardiac infiltration of F4/80(+) macrophages and CD3(+) T lymphocytes, cardiovascular oxidative stress, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers p58(IPK), and CHOP in cPLA2α(+/+) but not cPLA2α(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II increased cardiac activity of ERK1/2 and cSrc in cPLA2α(+/+) but not cPLA2α(-/-) mice. These data suggest that angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes are mediated by cPLA2α activation, most likely through the release of arachidonic acid and generation of eicosanoids with predominant prohypertensive effects and activation of ≥1 signaling molecules, including ERK1/2 and cSrc.

  8. A specific binding site recognizing a fragment of angiotensin II in bovine adrenal cortex membranes.

    PubMed

    Bernier, S G; Fournier, A; Guillemette, G

    1994-12-12

    We have characterized a specific binding site for angiotensin IV in bovine adrenal cortex membranes. Pseudo-equilibrium studies at 37 degrees C for 2 h have shown that this binding site recognizes angiotensin IV with a high affinity (Kd = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM). The binding site is saturable and relatively abundant (maximal binding capacity around 0.5 pmol/mg protein). Non-equilibrium kinetic analyses at 37 degrees C revealed a calculated kinetic Kd of 47 pM. The binding site is pharmacologically distinct from the classic angiotensin receptors AT1 or AT2. Competitive binding studies with bovine adrenal cortex membranes demonstrated the following rank order of effectiveness: angiotensin IV (Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) = angiotensin II-(3-7) (Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro) > angiotensin III (Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > or = angiotensin II-(4-7) (Tyr-Ile-His-Pro) > angiotensin II (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > angiotensin II-(1-6) (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His) > angiotensin II-(4-8) (Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > > > angiotensin II-(3-6) (Val-Tyr-Ile-His), angiotensin II-(4-6) (Tyr-Ile-His), L-158,809 (5,7-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-[(2'(1-H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-y l) methyl]-3-H-imidazo[4,5-beta]pyridine H2O) and PD 123319 (1-[4-(dimethylamino)3-methylphenyl]methyl-5-(diphenylacetyl)4,5,6 ,7- tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid). The divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ were shown to diminish the binding of 125I-angiotensioffn IV to bovine adrenal cortex membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  10. Improving vagal activity ameliorates cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II: in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Jun; Huang, Ning; Lu, Yi; Zhao, Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yong-hua; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling is characterized by overactivity of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and withdrawal of vagal activity. We hypothesized that improving vagal activity could attenuate cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction (AAC) with or without pyridostigmine (PYR) (31 mg/kg/d). After 8 weeks, PYR significantly decreased Ang II level, AT1 protein expression, and collagen deposition in cardiac tissue and improved heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac function, which were abolished by atropine. In vitro, treatment of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with Ang II (10−7 M) increased cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and secretory properties, which were significantly diminished by acetylcholine (ACh, 10−6 M). Subsequently, Ang II significantly increased collagen type I expression as well as metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and activity. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation presented a similar trend. Notably, the knockdown of the acetylcholine M2 receptor by siRNA could abolish ACh anti-fibrotic action. These data implicated cholinesterase inhibitor can increase vagal activity and reduce local Ang II level, and ACh inhibit Ang II pro-fibrotic effects. Our findings suggested that the parasympathetic nervous system can serve as a promising target for cardiac remodeling treatment. PMID:26596640

  11. Cardiac steatosis potentiates angiotensin II effects in the heart.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Denis J; Cardema, Michelle C; Ni, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Gardner, David G

    2015-02-15

    Lipid accumulation in the heart is associated with obesity and diabetes and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The renin-angiotensin system is also thought to contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in obese and diabetic patients. We hypothesized that the presence of lipid within the myocyte might potentiate the cardiomyopathic effects of ANG II in the cardiac diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) transgenic mouse model of myocyte steatosis. Treatment with ANG II resulted in a similar increase in blood pressure in both nontransgenic and DGAT1 transgenic mice. However, ANG II in DGAT1 transgenic mice resulted in a marked increase in interstitial fibrosis and a reduction in systolic function compared with nontransgenic littermates. Lipidomic analysis revealed that >20% of lipid species were significantly altered between nontransgenic and DGAT1 transgenic animals, whereas 3% were responsive to ANG II administration. ROS were also increased by ANG II in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. ANG II treatment resulted in increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and the type I TGF-β receptor as well as increased phosphorylation of Smad2 in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. Injection of neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β resulted in a reduction in fibrosis in DGAT1 transgenic hearts treated with ANG II. These results suggest that myocyte steatosis amplifies the fibrotic effects of ANG II through mechanisms that involve activation of TGF-β signaling and increased production of ROS. PMID:25485904

  12. Angiotensin II receptors in rabbit renal preglomerular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.P.; Venuto, R.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the specific sites within the renal microcirculation affected by angiotensin II (ANG II). Under some conditions, ANG II can elicit direct vasoconstrictor responses in the preglomerular vessels and efferent arterioles. These experiments were designed to evaluate the binding of {sup 125}I-ANG II in preglomerular vessels. Arcuate and interlobular arteries, with attached proximal segments of afferent arterioles, were microdissected from rabbit renal cortexes. A membrane preparation was obtained from the pooled freshly dissected vessels and utilized in an ANG II radioreceptor assay on the same day. The dissociation of bound ANG II was enhanced in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable analogue of GTP. Linear Scatchard plots were obtained, indicating the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites. In conclusion, there is a single class of specific ANG II receptors in preglomerular vessels. The K{sub D} and N are similar, but the binding inhibition potencies of selected ANG analogues differ in renal and extrarenal vascular tissues. Intrarenal vascular receptors also appear to differ from glomerular receptors. Furthermore, these data support the concept that ANG II may affect renal vascular resistance at sites proximal to the distal afferent arterioles.

  13. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, MIAO-QIAN; SU, FEI-FEI; XU, XUAN; LIU, XIONG-TAO; WANG, HONG-TAO; ZHANG, WEI; LI, XUE; LIAN, CHENG; ZHENG, QIANG-SUN; FENG, ZHI-CHUN

    2016-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase-3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII-induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced p-Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII-induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26862035

  14. Novel EGFR inhibitors attenuate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kesong; Tian, Xinqiao; Qian, Yuanyuan; Skibba, Melissa; Zou, Chunpeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Zheng; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an important risk factor for heart failure. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this current study was to examine the role of EGFR in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we observed that both Ang II and EGF could increase the phospohorylation of EGFR and protein kinase B (AKT)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and then induce cell hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic silencing significantly reduced Ang II-induced EGFR signalling pathway activation, hypertrophic marker overexpression, and cell hypertrophy. In addition, our results showed that Ang II-induced EGFR activation is mediated by c-Src phosphorylation. In vivo, Ang II treatment significantly led to cardiac remodelling including cardiac hypertrophy, disorganization and fibrosis, accompanied by the activation of EGFR signalling pathway in the heart tissues, while all these molecular and pathological alterations were attenuated by the oral administration with EGFR inhibitors. In conclusion, the c-Src-dependent EGFR activation may play an important role in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and inhibition of EGFR by specific molecules may be an effective strategy for the treatment of Ang II-associated cardiac diseases. PMID:26762600

  15. Central Renin-Angiotensin System Activation and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat Diet Sensitize Angiotensin II-Elicited Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baojian; Thunhorst, Robert L; Yu, Yang; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Felder, Robert B; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to promote renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammation in the brain and to be accompanied by increased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. Our previous studies demonstrated that administration of a subpressor dose of angiotensin (Ang) II sensitizes subsequent Ang II-elicited hypertension. The present study tested whether high-fat diet (HFD) feeding also sensitizes the Ang II-elicited hypertensive response and whether HFD-induced sensitization is mediated by an increase in renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammatory mechanisms in the brain. HFD did not increase baseline blood pressure, but enhanced the hypertensive response to Ang II compared with a normal-fat diet. The sensitization produced by the HFD was abolished by concomitant central infusions of either a tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, or an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline. Furthermore, central pretreatment with tumor necrosis factor-α mimicked the sensitizing action of a central subpressor dose of Ang II, whereas central pentoxifylline or minocycline abolished this Ang II-induced sensitization. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of lamina terminalis tissue indicated that HFD feeding, central tumor necrosis factor-α, or a central subpressor dose of Ang II upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines, whereas inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and of inflammation reversed these changes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by upregulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system and of central proinflammatory cytokines.

  16. Purification of an angiotensin II binding protein by using antibodies to a peptide encoded by angiotensin II complementary RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, T.S.; Dion, L.D.; Bost, K.L.; Oparil, S.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    The authors have generated a monospecific antibody to a synthetic peptide encoded by an RNA complementary to the mRNA for angiotensin II (AII) and determined whether this antibody recognizes the AII receptor. They demonstrate that the antibody competes specifically with /sup 125/I-labeled AII for the same binding site on rat adrenal membranes. Furthermore, they show this antibody inhibits the secretion of aldosterone from cultured rat adrenal cells, suggesting that the antibody recognizes the biologically relevant AII receptor. Finally, they demonstrate that antibody to the complementary peptide can be used to immunoaffinity-purify a protein of M/sub r/ 66,000 that specifically binds radiolabeled AII.

  17. The angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carla; Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Simon, Felipe; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang (1-7)] is a peptide belonging to the non-classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang (1-7), through its receptor Mas, has an opposite action to angiotensin II (Ang II), the typical peptide of the classical RAS axis. Ang II produces skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterised by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is the decrease of the myofibrillar proteins produced by the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), evidenced by the increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. In addition, it has been described that Ang II also induces myonuclear apoptosis during muscle atrophy. We assessed the effects of Ang (1-7) and Mas participation on myonuclear apoptosis during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II. Our results show that Ang (1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by Ang II in the diaphragm muscles and decreases several events associated with apoptosis in the diaphragm (increased apoptotic nuclei, increased expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased caspase-3 activity and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Concomitantly, Ang (1-7) also attenuates the decrease in fibre diameter and muscle strength, and prevents the increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 during the muscle wasting induced by Ang II. Interestingly, these effects of Ang (1-7) are dependent on the Mas receptor. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Ang (1-7) prevents myonuclear apoptosis during the recovery of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II.

  18. Quantitative autoradiography of angiotensin II receptors in brain and kidney: focus on cardiovascular implications

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlert, D.R.; Speth, R.C.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative techniques of receptor autoradiography have been applied to localize (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in brain and kidney. High densities of autoradiographic grains, indicating the presence of angiotensin II receptors, have been localized to several rat brain nuclei including the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, anterior pituitary, locus coeruleus and several hypothalamic nuclei. Cat thoracic spinal cord exhibited a high density of sites over the intermedio-lateral cell column. In sections of rat kidney, angiotensin II receptors were detected in the glomerulus, vasa recta and ureter. The cardiovascular implications of these results are apparent and relate angiotensin II to hypertensive mechanisms. Thus, angiotensin II represents an endocoid which is involved in control of blood pressure through its effects on peripheral organs as well as the central nervous system.

  19. Cytoplasmic translocation of HuR contributes to angiotensin II induced cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Danna; Ge, Lan; Gao, Yan; Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Haichang; Yang, Guodong

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is one of the key structural changes of the hypertrophied left ventricle in hypertensive heart disease. Increased angiotensin II was found to be important in the hypertension related fibrosis, while the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we found that angiotensin II dose-dependently increased the expression of Col1a1, Col3a1 and α-smooth muscle actin, which were blocked by ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Mechanistically, angiotensin II induced robust ROS generation, which in turn induced cytoplasmic translocation of RNA binding protein HuR. Cytoplasmic translocated HuR increased TGFβ pathway activity and subsequent collagen synthesis. In contrast, knockdown of HuR nearly blocked angiotensin II induced TGFβ activation and collagen synthesis. Taken together, we here identified that angiotensin II promotes collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblast through ROS-HuR-TGFβ pathway.

  20. Cytoplasmic translocation of HuR contributes to angiotensin II induced cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Danna; Ge, Lan; Gao, Yan; Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Haichang; Yang, Guodong

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is one of the key structural changes of the hypertrophied left ventricle in hypertensive heart disease. Increased angiotensin II was found to be important in the hypertension related fibrosis, while the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we found that angiotensin II dose-dependently increased the expression of Col1a1, Col3a1 and α-smooth muscle actin, which were blocked by ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Mechanistically, angiotensin II induced robust ROS generation, which in turn induced cytoplasmic translocation of RNA binding protein HuR. Cytoplasmic translocated HuR increased TGFβ pathway activity and subsequent collagen synthesis. In contrast, knockdown of HuR nearly blocked angiotensin II induced TGFβ activation and collagen synthesis. Taken together, we here identified that angiotensin II promotes collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblast through ROS-HuR-TGFβ pathway. PMID:26093296

  1. Identification and characterization of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was demonstrated by radioligand binding. A single class of finding sites with a K/sub D/ of 0.7 nM was characterized. The use of radioligands also allows the localization of receptors by autoradiography. Autoradiography demonstrated that approximately 50% of the isolated cells bound angiotensin II. It was of interest to see if angiotensin II bound to a cell that possessed a certain phenotype. In order to evaluate this possibility a technique was developed that combined autoradiography and immunocytochemistry. Results indicated that angiotensin II binding sites were not localized preferentially to either norepinephrine or epinephrine cells. Binding of angiotensin II was associated with the release of intracellular catecholamine stores. Cells were pre-loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and secretion was monitored by following radioactivity released into the supernatant. Alternatively, release of endogenous catecholamines was determined by fluorometric assay.

  2. Low-Salt Diet and Circadian Dysfunction Synergize to Induce Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David J R; Bagi, Zsolt; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Kitchens, Julia; Cassis, Lisa A; Stepp, David W; Rudic, R Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure exhibits a robust circadian rhythm in health. In hypertension, sleep apnea, and even shift work, this balanced rhythm is perturbed via elevations in night-time blood pressure, inflicting silent damage to the vasculature and body organs. Herein, we examined the influence of circadian dysfunction during experimental hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry to measure ambulatory blood pressure and activity, the effects of angiotensin II administration were studied in wild-type (WT) and period isoform knockout (KO) mice (Per2-KO, Per2, 3-KO, and Per1, 2, 3-KO/Per triple KO [TKO] mice). On a normal diet, administration of angiotensin II caused nondipping blood pressure and exacerbated vascular hypertrophy in the Period isoform KO mice relative to WT mice. To study the endogenous effects of angiotensin II stimulation, we then administered a low-salt diet to the mice, which does stimulate endogenous angiotensin II in addition to lowering blood pressure. A low-salt diet decreased blood pressure in wild-type mice. In contrast, Period isoform KO mice lost their circadian rhythm in blood pressure on a low-salt diet, because of an increase in resting blood pressure, which was restorable to rhythmicity by the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. Chronic administration of low salt caused vascular hypertrophy in Period isoform KO mice, which also exhibited increased renin levels and altered angiotensin 1 receptor expression. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may act to inhibit or control renin/angiotensin signaling. Moreover, circadian disorders such as sleep apnea and shift work may alter the homeostatic responses to sodium restriction to potentially influence nocturnal hypertension.

  3. Ets-1 upregulation mediates angiotensin II-related cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guanghua; Han, Zhenhua; Meng, Zhe; Wei, Jin; Gao, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Ets-1, the prototypical member of the family of Ets transcription factors, has been shown to participate in tissue fibrotic remodeling. However, its role in cardiac fibrosis has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Ets-1 in profibrotic actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and in the in vivo heart. In growth-arrested CFs, Ang II induced Ets-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Ang II type 1 receptor blocker losartan, protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 partly inhibited this induction accompanied with impaired cell proliferation and production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein, the two downstream targets of Ets-1. Knockdown of Ets-1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the inductive effects of Ang II on cell proliferation and expression of CTGF and PAI-1. Moreover, the levels of Ets-1, PAI-1 and CTGF protein were simultaneously upregulated in left ventricle of Ang II-infused rats in parallel with an increase in the activation of ERK and JNK. Our data suggest that Ets-1 may mediate Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic effects.

  4. Angiotensin II regulates growth of the developing papillas ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Song, Renfang; Preston, Graeme; Khalili, Ali; El-Dahr, Samir S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lack of angiotensin (ANG) II production in angiotensinogen (AGT)-deficient mice or pharmacologic antagonism of ANG II AT1 receptor (AT1R) impairs growth of the developing papillas ex vivo, thus contributing to the hypoplastic renal medulla phenotype observed in AGT- or AT1R-null mice. Papillas were dissected from Hoxb7GFP+ or AGT+/+, +/−, −/− mouse metanephroi on postnatal day P3 and grown in three-dimentional collagen matrix gels in the presence of media (control), ANG II (10−5 M), or the specific AT1R antagonist candesartan (10−6 M) for 24 h. Percent reduction in papillary length was attenuated in AGT+/+ and in AGT+/− compared with AGT−/− (−18.4 ± 1.3 vs. −32.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.05, −22.8 ± 1.3 vs. −32.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.05, respectively). ANG II blunted the decrease in papilla length observed in respective media-treated controls in Hoxb7GFP+ (−1.5 ± 0.3 vs. −10.0 ± 1.4%, P < 0.05) or AGT+/+, +/−, and −/− papillas (−12.8 ± 0.7 vs. −18.4 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05, −16.8 ± 1.1 vs. −23 ± 1.2%, P < 0.05; −26.2 ± 1.6 vs. −32.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, percent decrease in the length of Hoxb7GFP+ papillas in the presence of the AT1R antagonist candesartan was higher compared with control (−24.3 ± 2.1 vs. −10.5 ± 1.8%, P < 0.05). The number of proliferating phospho-histone H3 (pH3)-positive collecting duct cells was lower, whereas the number of caspase 3-positive cells undergoing apoptosis was higher in candesartan- vs. media-treated papillas (pH3: 12 ± 1.4 vs. 21 ± 2.1, P < 0.01; caspase 3: 3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.2, P < 0.01). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that AT1R signaling regulates the expression of genes implicated in morphogenesis of the renal medulla. We conclude that AT1R prevents shrinkage of the developing papillas observed ex vivo via control of Wnt7b, FGF7, β-catenin, calcineurin B1, and α3 integrin gene expression, collecting duct cell

  5. Metabolic Actions of Angiotensin II and Insulin: A Microvascular Endothelial Balancing Act

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Yavuz, Shazene

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic actions of insulin to promote glucose disposal are augmented by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent increases in microvascular blood flow to skeletal muscle. The balance between NO-dependent vasodilator actions and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor actions of insulin is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent (PI3K) - and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent signaling in vascular endothelium, respectively. Angiotensin II acting on AT2 receptor increases capillary blood flow to increase insulin-mediated glucose disposal. In contrast, AT1 receptor activation leads to reduced NO bioavailability, impaired insulin signaling, vasoconstriction, and insulin resistance. Insulin-resistant states are characterized by dysregulated local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Under insulin-resistant conditions, pathway-specific impairment in PI3K-dependent signaling may cause imbalance between production of NO and secretion of endothelin-1, leading to decreased blood flow, which worsens insulin resistance. Similarly, excess AT1 receptor activity in the microvasculature may selectively impair vasodilation while simultaneously potentiating the vasoconstrictor actions of insulin. Therapeutic interventions that target pathway-selective impairment in insulin signaling and the imbalance in AT1 and AT2 receptor signaling in microvascular endothelium may simultaneously ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss molecular mechanisms in the endothelium underlying microvascular and metabolic actions of insulin and Angiotensin II, the mechanistic basis for microvascular endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in RAAS dysregulated clinical states, and the rationale for therapeutic strategies that restore the balance in vasodilator and constrictor actions of insulin and Angiotensin II in the microvasculature. PMID:22684034

  6. Investigations in foot shock stress of variable intensity in mice: Adaptation and role of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-08-15

    The present study investigated the stress adaptation and role of angiotensin in response to repeated exposures of electric foot shocks of varying intensity. Mice were subjected to moderate (0.5mA) or severe (1.5mA) electric foot shocks for 1h for 5 days. Stress-induced behavioral changes were assessed by actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were measured as an index of HPA axis. Telmisartan (a selective AT1 receptor blocker) was employed as a pharmacological tool. A single exposure of moderate and severe stress produced behavioral deficits and increased the corticosterone levels. The restoration of these alterations was observed in response to repeated exposures of moderate stress, while no adaptation was observed in severe foot shock stress. A single administration of telmisartan (5mg/kg) exacerbated the moderate stress-induced decrease in behavioral activity and increase in corticosterone levels on the first day of stress exposure, suggesting the anti-stress role of angiotensin. In contrast, telmisartan normalized severe stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations suggesting the stress inducing actions of angiotensin. Furthermore, treatment with telmisartan abolished the stress adaptive response following repeated exposures of moderate stress suggesting that angiotensin has an adaptive role. It is concluded that there is a differential adaptive response in foot shock stress depending upon the severity of stress. Angiotensin II may act as an anti-stress agent and helps to promote the adaptation during medium stress, whereas it may promote stress response during severe stress.

  7. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J W; Antane, M; Nguyen, T T; Collini, M D; Antane, S; Bender, R; Hartupee, D; White, V; McCallum, J; Park, C H

    1994-02-18

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II (A II) antagonists was synthesized and tested for antagonism of A II. Compounds with a biphenylyltetrazole pharmacophore and small alkyl groups at the 2- and 4-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring were found to be the most potent in an AT1 receptor binding assay and in blocking the A II pressor response in anesthetized, ganglion-blocked A II-infused rats. 5,8-Dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-8-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one (4a) was one of the more potent compounds in the binding assay and was the most efficacious compound in the A II-infused rat model. Further study of 4a in Goldblatt (2K-1C) rats showed the compound to have oral bioavailability and to be an efficacious and potent compound in a high renin form of hypertension.

  8. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Renita E.; Yadid, Moran; McCain, Megan L.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Pasqualini, Francesco S.; Park, Sung-Jin; Cho, Alexander; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models offer the ability to study specific systemic features in isolation to better understand underlying mechanisms that lead to dysfunction. Here, we present a cardiac dysfunction model using angiotensin II (ANG II) to elicit pathological responses in a heart-on-a-chip platform that recapitulates native laminar cardiac tissue structure. Our platform, composed of arrays of muscular thin films (MTF), allows for functional comparisons of healthy and diseased tissues by tracking film deflections resulting from contracting tissues. To test our model, we measured gene expression profiles, morphological remodeling, calcium transients, and contractile stress generation in response to ANG II exposure and compared against previous experimental and clinical results. We found that ANG II induced pathological gene expression profiles including over-expression of natriuretic peptide B, Rho GTPase 1, and T-type calcium channels. ANG II exposure also increased proarrhythmic early after depolarization events and significantly reduced peak systolic stresses. Although ANG II has been shown to induce structural remodeling, we control tissue architecture via microcontact printing, and show pathological genetic profiles and functional impairment precede significant morphological changes. We assert that our in vitro model is a useful tool for evaluating tissue health and can serve as a platform for studying disease mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutics. PMID:26808388

  9. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip.

    PubMed

    Horton, Renita E; Yadid, Moran; McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Pasqualini, Francesco S; Park, Sung-Jin; Cho, Alexander; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models offer the ability to study specific systemic features in isolation to better understand underlying mechanisms that lead to dysfunction. Here, we present a cardiac dysfunction model using angiotensin II (ANG II) to elicit pathological responses in a heart-on-a-chip platform that recapitulates native laminar cardiac tissue structure. Our platform, composed of arrays of muscular thin films (MTF), allows for functional comparisons of healthy and diseased tissues by tracking film deflections resulting from contracting tissues. To test our model, we measured gene expression profiles, morphological remodeling, calcium transients, and contractile stress generation in response to ANG II exposure and compared against previous experimental and clinical results. We found that ANG II induced pathological gene expression profiles including over-expression of natriuretic peptide B, Rho GTPase 1, and T-type calcium channels. ANG II exposure also increased proarrhythmic early after depolarization events and significantly reduced peak systolic stresses. Although ANG II has been shown to induce structural remodeling, we control tissue architecture via microcontact printing, and show pathological genetic profiles and functional impairment precede significant morphological changes. We assert that our in vitro model is a useful tool for evaluating tissue health and can serve as a platform for studying disease mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutics.

  10. Female protection from slow-pressor effects of angiotensin II involves prevention of ROS production independent of NMDA receptor trafficking in hypothalamic neurons expressing angiotensin 1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Marques-Lopes, Jose; Lynch, Mary-Katherine; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Waters, Elizabeth M; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M; Milner, Teresa A

    2015-03-01

    Renin–angiotensin system overactivity, upregulation of postsynaptic NMDA receptor function, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are hallmarks of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension, which is far more common in young males than in young females. We hypothesize that the sex differences in hypertension are related to differential AngII-induced changes in postsynaptic trafficking of the essential NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit and ROS production in PVN cells expressing angiotensin Type 1a receptor (AT1aR). We tested this hypothesis using slow-pressor (14-day) infusion of AngII (600 ng/kg/min) in mice, which elicits hypertension in males but not in young females. Two-month-old male and female transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in AT1aR-containing cells were used. In males, but not in females, AngII increased blood pressure and ROS production in AT1aR–EGFP PVN cells at baseline and following NMDA treatment. Electron microscopy showed that AngII increased cytoplasmic and total GluN1–silver-intensified immunogold (SIG) densities and induced a trend toward an increase in near plasmalemmal GluN1–SIG density in AT1aR–EGFP dendrites of males and females. Moreover, AngII decreased dendritic area and diameter in males, but increased dendritic area of small (<1 µm) dendrites and decreased diameter of large (>1 µm) dendrites in females. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that AT1aR and estrogen receptor β do not colocalize, suggesting that if estrogen is involved, its effect is indirect. These data suggest that the sexual dimorphism in AngII-induced hypertension is associated with sex differences in ROS production in AT1aR-containing PVN cells but not with postsynaptic NMDA receptor trafficking. PMID:25559190

  11. Angiotensin II receptor blockers for the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    See, S

    2001-11-01

    The rising incidence of stroke, congestive heart failure (CHF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) has signalled a need to increase awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. There continues to be a need for effective antihypertensive medications since hypertension is a major precursor to various forms of cardiovascular disease. The renin-angiotensin (AT) aldosterone system (RAAS) is a key component to the development of hypertension and can be one target of drug therapy. Angotensin II (ATII) receptor blockers (ARBs) are the most recent class of agents available to treat hypertension, which work by by inhibiting ATII at the receptor level. Currently, national consensus guidelines recommend that ARBs should be reserved for hypertensive patients who cannot tolerate angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs). ARBs, however, are moving to the forefront of therapy with a promising role in the area of renoprotection and CHF. Recent trials such as the The Renoprotective Effect of the Angiotensin-Receptor Antagonist Irbesartan in Patients with Nephropathy Due to Type 2 Diabetes Trial (IDNT), the Effect of Irbesartan on the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (IRMA2), and The Effects of Losartan on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy (RENAAL) study have demonstrated the renoprotective effects of ARBs in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) adds to the growing body of evidence that ARBs may improve morbidity and mortality in CHF patients. As a class, ARBs are well tolerated and have a lower incidence of cough and angioedema compared to ACEIs. This article reviews the differences among the ARBs, existing efficacy data in hypertension, and explores the role of ARBs in CHF and renal disease.

  12. Arsenic causes aortic dysfunction and systemic hypertension in rats: Augmentation of angiotensin II signaling.

    PubMed

    Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Gupta, Priyanka; Kandasamy, Kannan; Choudhury, Soumen; Kutty, Harikumar Sankaran; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2015-07-25

    The groundwater pollutant arsenic can cause various cardiovascular disorders. Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, plays an important role in vascular dysfunction by promoting changes in endothelial function, vascular reactivity, tissue remodeling and oxidative stress. We investigated whether modulation of angiotensin II signaling and redox homeostasis could be a mechanism contributing to arsenic-induced vascular disorder. Rats were exposed to arsenic at 25, 50 and 100ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water consecutively for 90 days. Blood pressure was recorded weekly. On the 91st day, the rats were sacrificed for blood collection and isolation of thoracic aorta. Angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II levels were assessed in plasma. Aortic reactivity to angiotensin II was assessed in organ-bath system. Western blot of AT1 receptors and G protein (Gαq/11), ELISA of signal transducers of MAP kinase pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed in aorta. Arsenic caused concentration-dependent increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure from the 10th, 8th and 7th week onwards, respectively. Arsenic caused concentration-dependent enhancement of the angiotensin II-induced aortic contractile response. Arsenic also caused concentration-dependent increase in the plasma levels of angiotensin II and angiotensin converting enzyme and the expression of aortic AT1 receptor and Gαq/11 proteins. Arsenic increased aortic protein kinase C activity and the concentrations of protein tyrosine kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Further, arsenic increased aortic mRNA expression of Nox2, Nox4 and p22phox, NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation. The results suggest that arsenic-mediated enhancement of angiotensin II signaling could be an important mechanism in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder, where ROS could augment the angiotensin II signaling through activation

  13. Reduced proximal tubule angiotensin II receptor expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H F; Burns, K D; Harris, R C

    1994-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, including decreases in glomerular angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor density. Since Ang II regulates proximal tubule transport function, the present studies examined whether diabetes altered expression of proximal tubule receptors. In basolateral membranes from 14 day streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, specific binding of 125I Ang II was decreased to 53 +/- 8% of control (3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 fmol/mg protein; N = 7; P < 0.02). Similarly, in proximal tubule brush border membranes from diabetic animals, specific binding was decreased to 63 +/- 11% of control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 fmol/mg protein; N = 9; P < 0.05). Concomitant insulin treatment reversed the decrease in specific binding of 125I Ang II to basolateral membranes (109 +/- 26% of control; N = 3) and to brush border membranes (85 +/- 17% of control; N = 6). In order to determine if changes in expression of type-1 Ang II receptors (AT1R) accompanied the changes in binding, quantitative polymerase chain reaction of AT1R mRNA was performed and expressed as the ratio of the amplified AT1R to that of an Msc1/Msc1 internal deletion mutant and normalized to that of beta-actin. In total RNA from proximal tubule suspensions of diabetic animals, AT1R mRNA expression decreased by 38% (21 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 cpm AT1R/cpm deletion mutant/cpm beta actin/10(6); N = 4; P < 0.0025). Insulin treatment reverted AT1R mRNA expression to control levels (22 +/- 3 cpm AT1R/cpm deletion mutant/cpm beta actin/10(6); P < 0.001 compared to the untreated group).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7700017

  14. Comparing Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on Benefits Beyond Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the main regulators of blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and volume homeostasis in normal physiology, and contributes to the development of renal and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Therefore, pharmacologic blockade of RAAS constitutes an attractive strategy in preventing the progression of renal and CV diseases. This concept has been supported by clinical trials involving patients with hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and heart failure, and those after myocardial infarction. The use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in clinical practice has increased over the last decade. Since their introduction in 1995, seven ARBs have been made available, with approved indications for hypertension and some with additional indications beyond blood pressure reduction. Considering that ARBs share a similar mechanism of action and exhibit similar tolerability profiles, it is assumed that a class effect exists and that they can be used interchangeably. However, pharmacologic and dosing differences exist among the various ARBs, and these differences can potentially influence their individual effectiveness. Understanding these differences has important implications when choosing an ARB for any particular condition in an individual patient, such as heart failure, stroke, and CV risk reduction (prevention of myocardial infarction). A review of the literature for existing randomized controlled trials across various ARBs clearly indicates differences within this class of agents. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of ARBs in the prevention and reduction of CV rates of morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. PMID:20524096

  15. Protective effect of long-term angiotensin II inhibition.

    PubMed

    Basso, Nidia; Cini, Rosa; Pietrelli, Adriana; Ferder, León; Terragno, Norberto A; Inserra, Felipe

    2007-09-01

    Experimental studies indicate that angiotensin II (ANG II) through its type 1 receptor (AT(1)) promotes cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze whether chronic long-term inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can prevent most of the deleterious effects due to aging in the cardiovascular system of the normal rat. The main objective was to compare two strategies of ANG II blockade: a converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) and an AT(1) receptor blocker (AT(1)RB). A control group remained untreated; treatment was initiated 2 wk after weaning. A CEI, enalapril (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), or an AT(1)RB, losartan (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), was used to inhibit the RAS. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and water and food intake were recorded over the whole experimental period. Heart, aorta, and mesenteric artery weight as well as histological analysis of cardiovascular structure were performed at 6 and 18 mo. Twenty animals in each of the three experimental groups were allowed to die spontaneously. The results demonstrated a significant protective effect on the function and structure of the cardiovascular system in all treated animals. Changes observed at 18 mo of age in the hearts and aortas were quite significant, but each treatment completely abolished this deterioration. The similarity between the results detected with either enalapril or losartan treatment clearly indicates that most of the effects are exerted through AT(1) receptors. An outstanding finding was the significant and similar prolongation of life span in both groups of treated animals compared with untreated control animals. PMID:17557916

  16. Effect of angiotensin II on uterine and systemic vasculature in pregnant sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Naden, R P; Rosenfeld, C R

    1981-01-01

    The response of uteroplacental blood flow (UBF) to angiotensin II is controversial. Moreover, the relationship of the uterine and systemic responses to infused angiotensin II is not well understood. Thus, in eight chronically instrumented, near-term pregnant sheep, we have determined the relationships between the dose and duration of constant systemic infusions of angiotensin II ([Val5] ANG II) and changes in UBF, uterine vascular resistance (UVR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). [Val5] ANG II caused dose-dependent increases in UVR and MAP at all doses studied (P less than 0.05). The response in UBF was bidirectional, with increases at doses less than or equal to 1.15 microgram/min and decreases at greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min (P less than 0.05). Increases in UBP occurred when the relative rise (delta) in MAP greater than delta UVR, whereas UBF was unchanged when delta MAP = delta UVR and decreased when delta MAP less than delta UVR. SVR also rose in a dose-dependent fashion (P less than 0.05); delta SVR was greater than delta UVR at doses less than or equal to 2.29 micrograms [Val5] ANG II/min (P less than 0.01). In studies of the effect of duration of [Val5] ANG II infusions, UBF increased at all doses during the 1st min, followed by stabilization at 4--5 min, with eventual decreases at doses greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min and increases at doses less than 2.29 micrograms/min. The relationship between the changes in MAP and UVR to the response of UBF was as noted above. It is evident that (a) [Val5] NAG II is uterine vasoconstrictor, (b) changes in UBF are dependent upon relative changes in perfusion pressure and UVR, which in turn are dependent upon both the dose and duration of a [Val5] ANG II infusion, and (c) the uteroplacental vasculature is relatively refractory to the vasoconstricting effects of low doses of [Val5] ANG II. PMID:7263862

  17. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Miao-Qian; Su, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xuan; Liu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue; Lian, Cheng; Zheng, Qiang-Sun; Feng, Zhi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)‑induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase‑3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII‑induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII‑induced p‑Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase‑3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII‑induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII‑induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  18. Lovastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat heart cells.

    PubMed

    Oi, S; Haneda, T; Osaki, J; Kashiwagi, Y; Nakamura, Y; Kawabe, J; Kikuchi, K

    1999-07-01

    Angiotensin II activates p21ras, and mediates cardiac hypertrophic growth through the type 1 angiotensin II receptor in cardiac myocytes. An inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase has been shown to block the post-translational farnesylation of p21ras and inhibit protein synthesis in several cell types. Primary cultures of neonatal cardiac myocytes were used to determine whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, lovastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin inhibit the angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic growth. Angiotensin II (10(-6) M) significantly increased protein-DNA ratio, RNA-DNA ratio, ratios of protein synthesis and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. Lipid-soluble HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, lovastatin (10(-6) M) and simvastatin (10(-6) M) partially and significantly inhibited the angiotensin II-induced increases in these parameters, but a water-soluble HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin (10(-6) M) did not. Mevalonate (10(-4) M) overcame the inhibitory effects of lovastatin and simvastatin on angiotensin II-induced increases in these parameters. A selective protein kinase C inhibitor, calphostin C (10(-6) M) partially and significantly prevented angiotensin II-induced increases in these parameters, and treatment with both lovastatin and calphostin C inhibited completely. Angiotensin II increased p21ras activity and membrane association, and lovastatin inhibited them. These studies demonstrate that a lipid-soluble HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, may prevent angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, at least in part, through p21ras/MAP kinase pathway, which is linked to mevalonate metabolism.

  19. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  20. Properly timed exposure to central ANG II prevents behavioral sensitization and changes in angiotensin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Whalen, Philip E; Speth, Robert C; Clark, Stewart D; Daniels, Derek

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate ANG II lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of ANG II, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given ANG II either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of ANG II had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of ANG II was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of ANG II sensitized the dipsogenic response to ANG II, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of (125)I-Sar(1)-ANG II binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus after 5 days of single daily injections of ANG II; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily ANG II injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily ANG II.

  1. The effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers on hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Marissa L.; Cruz, Jennifer L.; Vanderman, Adam J.; Brown, Jamie N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to explore the efficacy of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for the treatment of hyperuricemia in individuals diagnosed with gout or hyperuricemia defined as ⩾7 mg/dl at baseline. A literature search of MEDLINE (1946 to June 2015) and EMBASE (1947 to June 2015) was conducted. The following search terms were used: ‘uric acid’, ‘urate transporter’, ‘gout’, ‘angiotensin II receptor blockers’, ‘hyperuricemia’ and the names for individual ARBs, as well as any combinations of these terms. Studies were excluded that did not explore fractional excretion or serum uric acid as an endpoint, if patients did not have a diagnosis of gout or hyperuricemia at baseline, or if they were non-English language. A total of eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the eight studies identified, six explored ARB monotherapy and two studies investigated ARBs as adjunct therapy. Losartan demonstrated statistically significant reductions in serum uric acid levels or increases in fractional excretion of uric acid in all studies, whereas no other ARB reached statistical benefit. The effect of ARBs on the occurrence of gout attacks or other clinical outcomes were not represented. Four studies evaluated safety effects of these agents indicating abnormalities such as minor changes in lab values. In conclusion, losartan is the only ARB that has consistently demonstrated a significant reduction in serum uric acid levels, although the significance of impacting clinical outcomes remains unknown. Losartan appears to be a safe and efficacious agent to lower serum uric acid levels in patients with hyperuricemia. PMID:26568810

  2. Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1988-02-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

  3. Relationship between angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II correlates with hemodynamic changes in human liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Walkíria Wingester; Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr, Antônio; Pereira, Regina Maria; da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata; Almeida, Jerusa; Nadu, Ana Paula; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To measure circulating angiotensins at different stages of human cirrhosis and to further evaluate a possible relationship between renin angiotensin system (RAS) components and hemodynamic changes. METHODS: Patients were allocated into 4 groups: mild-to-moderate liver disease (MLD), advanced liver disease (ALD), patients undergoing liver transplantation, and healthy controls. Blood was collected to determine plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7) levels using radioimmunoassays. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood was simultaneously obtained from the portal vein and radial artery in order to measure RAS components. RESULTS: PRA and angiotensins were elevated in ALD when compared to MLD and controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, Ang II was significantly reduced in MLD. Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were increased in MLD when compared to controls and ALD. During transplantation, Ang II levels were lower and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were higher in the splanchnic circulation than in the peripheral circulation (0.52 ± 0.08 vs 0.38 ± 0.04, P < 0.02), whereas the peripheral circulating Ang II/Ang I ratio was elevated in comparison to splanchnic levels (0.18 ± 0.02 vs 0.13 ± 0.02, P < 0.04). Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios positively correlated with cardiac output (r = 0.66) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.70). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the relationship between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II may play a role in the hemodynamic changes of human cirrhosis. PMID:19469002

  4. Angiotensin type 1a receptor deficiency decreases amyloid β-protein generation and ameliorates brain amyloid pathology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Matsumoto, Yukino; Murakami, Saki; Sugakawa, Yusuke; Kami, Ayako; Tanabe, Chiaki; Maeda, Tomoji; Michikawa, Makoto; Komano, Hiroto; Zou, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by neuronal loss and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) and lowering the generation of Aβ is a pivotal approach in the strategy of Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Midlife hypertension is a major risk factor for the future onset of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease and the use of some antihypertensive drugs may decrease the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. However, it is largely unknown how the blood pressure regulation system is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we found that the deficiency of angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1a), a key receptor for regulating blood pressure, significantly decreased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. The lack of AT1a inhibited the endocleavage of presenilin-1 (PS1), which is essential for γ-secretase complex formation and Aβ generation. Notably, the ligand of AT1a, angiotensin II, enhanced Aβ generation, PS1 endocleavage and γ-secretase complex formation. Our results suggest that AT1a activation is closely associated with Aβ generation and brain amyloid accumulation by regulating γ-secretase complex formation. Thus, removal of life style factors or stresses that stimulate AT1a to elevate blood pressure may decrease Aβ generation and brain amyloid accumulation, thereby preventing the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26154270

  5. Caveolae regulate vasoconstriction of conduit arteries to angiotensin II in hindlimb unweighted rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Bai, Yungang; Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Yaoping; Liu, Yonghong; Xie, Xiaoping; Ma, Jin; Bao, Junxiang

    2015-10-15

    Weightlessness induces the functional remodelling of arteries, but the changes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-elicited vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanism have never been reported. Caveolae are invaginations of the cell membrane crucial for the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, so we investigated the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to simulated weightlessness and the role of caveolae in it. The 4 week hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was measured by isometric force recording. The morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscope. The binding of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 ) and caveolin-1 (cav-1) was examined by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot. We found that the maximal developing force (E(max)) of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was decreased in abdominal aorta by 30.6%, unchanged in thoracic aorta and increased in carotid artery by 17.9% after HU, while EC50 of the response was increased in all three arteries (P < 0.05). AT1 desensitization upon activation was significantly reduced by HU in all three arteries, as was the number of caveolae (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ang II promoted the binding of AT1 and cav-1 significantly in control but not HU arteries. Both the number of caveolae and the binding of AT1 and cav-1 in HU arteries were restored by cholesterol pretreatment which also reinstated the change in EC50 as well as the level of AT1 desensitization. These results indicate that modified caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells could interfere with the binding of AT1 and cav-1 mediating the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to HU.

  6. Endothelial AT₁ and AT₂ pathways in aortic responses to angiotensin II after stress and ethanol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Stress and ethanol are important cardiovascular risk factors. Their vascular and blood pressure (BP) effects were evaluated alone and in combination. Adult male Wistar rats (8-10 per group) were separated into control, ethanol (ethanol 20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (restraint 1 h/d 5 d/week for 6 weeks), and ethanol/stress (in combination) groups. Systolic BP was evaluated weekly. Concentration-response curves for contractile responses to angiotensin II in the absence and the presence of losartan (AT1-blocker), PD123-319 (AT2-blocker), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) were obtained in isolated intact and endothelium-denuded aortas. Effective concentration 50% (EC50) and maximum response (MR) were compared among groups using MANOVA/Tukey tests. Stress and stress plus ethanol increased BP. Ethanol and stress, alone and in combination, did not alter angiotensin responses of intact aortas. PD123-319 decreased MR to angiotensin II in intact aortas from the ethanol and ethanol/stress groups relative to control in the presence of PD123-319. Losartan increased MR to angiotensin II in intact aortas from the stress and ethanol/stress groups relative to control in the presence of losartan. None of the protocols altered angiotensin responses of denuded aortas. Neither indomethacin nor L-NAME altered angiotensin responses of intact aortas from the experimental groups. Thus ethanol and ethanol plus stress may alter endothelial signaling via AT1-receptors, without changing systemic BP. Stress and stress plus ethanol may alter endothelial signaling via AT2-receptors, and thereby increase BP. Knowledge of such vascular changes induced by stress and/or ethanol may contribute to understanding adverse cardiovascular effects of stress and ethanol consumption in humans.

  7. Activation of central PPAR-γ attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the brain contribute to hypertension through effects on fluid intake, vasopressin release, and sympathetic nerve activity. We recently reported that activation of brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in heart failure rats reduced inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and ameliorated the peripheral manifestations of heart failure. We hypothesized that the activation of brain PPAR-γ might have beneficial effects in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats received a 2-week subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (120 ng/kg per minute) combined with a continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle, the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (3 nmol/h) or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (7 nmol/h). Angiotensin II+vehicle rats had increased mean blood pressure, increased sympathetic drive as indicated by the mean blood pressure response to ganglionic blockade, and increased water consumption. PPAR-γ mRNA in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was unchanged, but PPAR-γ DNA-binding activity was reduced. mRNA for interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor was augmented in both nuclei, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activity was increased. The plasma vasopressin response to a 6-hour water restriction also increased. These responses to angiotensin II were exacerbated by GW9662 and ameliorated by pioglitazone, which increased PPAR-γ mRNA and PPAR-γ DNA-binding activity in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Pioglitazone and GW9662 had no effects on control rats. The results suggest that activating brain PPAR-γ to reduce central inflammation and brain renin-angiotensin system activity may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

  8. Activation of Central PPAR-γ Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the brain contribute to hypertension through effects on fluid intake, vasopressin release, and sympathetic nerve activity. We recently reported that activation of brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in heart failure rats reduced inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and ameliorated the peripheral manifestations of heart failure. We hypothesized that activation of brain PPAR-γ might have beneficial effects in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats received a 2-week subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (120 ng/kg/min) combined with a continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle, the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (3 nmol/h) or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (7 nmol/h). Angiotensin II+vehicle rats had increased mean blood pressure, increased sympathetic drive as indicated by the mean blood pressure response to ganglionic blockade, and increased water consumption. PPAR-γ mRNA in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was unchanged, but PPAR-γ DNA binding activity was reduced. mRNA for interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and angiotensin II type-1 receptor was augmented in both nuclei, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activity was increased. The plasma vasopressin response to a 6-hour water restriction also increased. These responses to angiotensin II were exacerbated by GW9662 and ameliorated by pioglitazone, which increased PPAR-γ mRNA and PPAR-γ DNA binding activity in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Pioglitazone and GW9662 had no effects on control rats. The results suggest that activating brain PPAR-γ to reduce central inflammation and brain renin-angiotensin system activity may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26101342

  9. Acute angiotensin II increases plasma F2-isoprostanes in salt-replete human hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Laine J; Morrow, Jason D; Sawathiparnich, Pairunyar; Williams, Gordon H; Vaughan, Douglas E; Brown, Nancy J

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II induces oxidative stress in vitro and in animal models of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II increases oxidative stress in human hypertension, as assessed by plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations. Plasma F2-isoprostanes, hemodynamic and endocrine parameters were measured at baseline and following a 55 min infusion of 3 ng/kg/min Ang II in 13 normotensive and 13 hypertensive volunteers ingesting a high- (200 mmol/d) or low- (10 mmol/d) sodium diet. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and body mass index were higher in hypertensive subjects. Ang II infusion increased MAP (p<.001) and plasma aldosterone concentrations (p<.001) and decreased plasma renin activity (p<.001) and renal plasma flow (p<.001) to a similar extent in both groups. Plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations were similar at baseline. There was no effect of Ang II on F2-isoprostane concentrations during low-salt intake in either group (normotensive 51.7 +/- 7.1 to 53.7 +/- 6.5 pg/ml and hypertensive 52.2 +/- 8.2 to 56.2 +/- 10.0 pg/ml; mean +/- SE). During high-salt intake, Ang II increased F2-isoprostane concentrations in the hypertensive group (52.3 +/- 7.2 to 63.2 +/- 10.4 pg/ml, p=0.010) but not in the normotensive group (54.2 +/- 4.4 to 58.9 +/- 6.6 pg/ml, p=0.83). Acute Ang II infusion increases oxidative stress in vivo in hypertensive humans. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to oxidative stress in human cardiovascular disease.

  10. Role of angiotensin II and alpha-adrenergic receptors during estrogen-induced vasodilation in ewes.

    PubMed

    Davis, L E; Magness, R R; Rosenfeld, C R

    1992-11-01

    Estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) produces uterine and systemic vasodilation in nonpregnant ewes without altering mean arterial pressure (MAP). Mechanisms responsible for maintaining MAP and thus uterine blood flow (UBF) may include activation of the renin-angiotensin and/or adrenergic systems. We therefore investigated the effects of systemic blockade of angiotensin II (ANG II) and/or alpha-adrenergic receptors in nonpregnant, castrated ewes, using saralasin (Sar) and/or phentolamine (Phen) in the presence or absence of intravenous E2 beta (1.0 microgram/kg). In nonestrogenized ewes neither antagonist alone had substantial cardiovascular effects; however, Sar + Phen decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) 20 +/- 7.4% (SE) and increased heart rate (HR) 50 +/- 19% (P < 0.01); MAP and UBF were unaffected. Following E2 beta treatment SVR fell 17 +/- 2.4% (P < 0.01), UBF increased more than fourfold, and MAP was unchanged. Compared with E2 beta alone, Phen + E2 beta decreased SVR 42 +/- 4.7%, and MAP fell 11 +/- 1.8% (P < 0.05) despite 40-50% increases in HR and cardiac output (P < 0.05). Responses to Sar + E2 beta were similar to E2 beta alone, except for a fall in MAP, whereas responses to Sar + Phen + E2 beta resembled those of Phen + E2 beta. E2 beta-induced uterine vasodilation was unaltered by Sar and/or Phen. During E2 beta-induced vasodilation, MAP is maintained by enhanced activation of the alpha-adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems; however, uterine vascular responses to E2 beta are independent of both systems and perfusion pressure.

  11. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D.; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  12. Opposite effects of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 activity on the pressor response to angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhonghua; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Langenbach, Robert I.; Breyer, Richard M.; Redha, Reyadh; Morrow, Jason D.; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic use of cyclooxygenase-inhibiting (COX-inhibiting) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is often complicated by renal side effects including hypertension and edema. The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the roles of COX1 and COX2 in regulating blood pressure and renal function. COX2 inhibitors or gene knockout dramatically augment the pressor effect of angiotensin II (Ang II). Unexpectedly, after a brief increase, the pressor effect of Ang II was abolished by COX1 deficiency (either inhibitor or knockout). Ang II infusion also reduced medullary blood flow in COX2-deficient but not in control or COX1-deficient animals, suggesting synthesis of COX2-dependent vasodilators in the renal medulla. Consistent with this, Ang II failed to stimulate renal medullary prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin I2 production in COX2-deficient animals. Ang II infusion normally promotes natriuresis and diuresis, but COX2 deficiency blocked this effect. Thus, COX1 and COX2 exert opposite effects on systemic blood pressure and renal function. COX2 inhibitors reduce renal medullary blood flow, decrease urine flow, and enhance the pressor effect of Ang II. In contrast, the pressor effect of Ang II is blunted by COX1 inhibition. These results suggest that, rather than having similar cardiovascular effects, the activities of COX1 and COX2 are functionally antagonistic. PMID:12093889

  13. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonist attenuate tumor growth via polarization of neutrophils toward an antitumor phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Noh, Jae Myoung; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Ham, Hwa-Yong; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Yun, Young-Jin; Kim, Min-Ju; Kwon, Min-Soo; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor microenvironments polarize neutrophils to protumoral phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) antagonist attenuate tumor growth via polarization of neutrophils toward an antitumoral phenotype. The ACEis or AGTR1 antagonist enhanced hypersegmentation of human neutrophils and increased neutrophil cytotoxicity against tumor cells. This neutrophil hypersegmentation was dependent on the mTOR pathway. In a murine tumor model, ACEis and AGTR1 antagonist attenuated tumor growth and enhanced neutrophil hypersegmentation. ACEis inhibited tumor-induced polarization of neutrophils to a protumoral phenotype. Neutrophil depletion reduced the antitumor effect of ACEi. Together, these data suggest that the modulation of Ang II pathway attenuates tumor growth via polarization of neutrophils to an antitumoral phenotype. PMID:26942086

  14. Mechanisms underlying angiotensin II-induced calcium oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Aurélie; Pallone, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]cyt) oscillations in medullary pericytes, we expanded a prior model of ion fluxes. ANG II stimulation was simulated by doubling maximal inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production and imposing a 90% blockade of K+ channels. We investigated two configurations, one in which ryanodine receptors (RyR) and IP3 receptors (IP3R) occupy a common store and a second in which they reside on separate stores. Our results suggest that Ca2+ release from stores and import from the extracellular space are key determinants of oscillations because both raise [Ca] in subplasmalemmal spaces near RyR. When the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) threshold of RyR is exceeded, the ensuing Ca2+ release is limited by Ca2+ reuptake into stores and export across the plasmalemma. If sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps do not remain saturated and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores are replenished, that phase is followed by a resumption of leak from internal stores that leads either to [Ca]cyt elevation below the CICR threshold (no oscillations) or to elevation above it (oscillations). Our model predicts that oscillations are more prone to occur when IP3R and RyR stores are separate because, in that case, Ca2+ released by RyR during CICR can enhance filling of adjacent IP3 stores to favor a high subsequent leak that generates further CICR events. Moreover, the existence or absence of oscillations depends on the set points of several parameters, so that biological variation might well explain the presence or absence of oscillations in individual pericytes. PMID:18562632

  15. Leptin Mediates High-Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-Elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Felder, Robert B; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin II administration that is mediated at least, in part, by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines. This study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of angiotensin II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokine mechanisms. Rats fed an HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels, and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of angiotensin II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist irbesartan, the tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in the lamina terminalis and paraventricular nucleus. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis, and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of angiotensin II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines.

  16. Angiotensin II stimulates sodium-dependent proton extrusion in perfused ferret heart.

    PubMed

    Grace, A A; Metcalfe, J C; Weissberg, P L; Bethell, H W; Vandenberg, J I

    1996-06-01

    The Na+/H+ antiport and Na(+)-HCO3- coinflux carrier contribute to recovery from intracellular acidosis in cardiac tissue. The effects of angiotensin II (10(-12)-10(-6) M) on H+ fluxes after intracellular acid loading and during reperfusion after myocardial ischemia have been investigated in the isovolumic, Langendorff-perfused ferret heart. Intracellular pH (pHi) was estimated using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy from the chemical shift of intracellular deoxyglucose-6-phosphate or inorganic phosphate. Angiotensin II produced concentration-dependent stimulation (maximum at 10(-6) M: 67%) of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA)-sensitive Na(+)-dependent of H+ efflux consistent with stimulation of the Na+/H+ antiport. Half-maximal stimulation of H+ efflux occurred at approximately 10(-9) M, which is close to the dissociation constant of the cardiac angiotensin AT1 receptor. Stimulation via this receptor was confirmed with the nonpeptide AT1 receptor blocker, GR-117289. Angiotensin II had less pronounced effects on HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery after acid loading with no effect on pHi recovery after intracellular alkalosis. During reperfusion, angiotensin II significantly increased H+ extrusion but impaired contractile recovery. The results support the hypothesis that angiotensin II facilitates H+ extrusion in the heart. This may help maintain physiological homeostasis, but the hypothesized obligated Na+ influx could exacerbate cellular dysfunction during reperfusion. PMID:8764151

  17. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, F.A.O.; Quirion, R.; Saavedra, J.M.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The /sup 125/I-labeled agonist analog (1-sarcosine)-angiotensin II ((Sar/sup 1/)AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (K/sub a/ = 2 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. 75 references, 2 figures.

  18. Conformational restriction of angiotensin II: cyclic analogues having high potency.

    PubMed

    Spear, K L; Brown, M S; Reinhard, E J; McMahon, E G; Olins, G M; Palomo, M A; Patton, D R

    1990-07-01

    Cyclic analogues of angiotensin II (AII) were synthesized by connecting the side chains of residues 3 and 5 via a disulfide bridge. Appropriate conformational constraints afforded an analogue, [Hcy3,5]AII, having high contractile activity (pD2 = 8.48 vs 8.81 for AII) and excellent binding affinity (IC50 = 2.1 nM vs 2.2 nM for AII). This type of cyclization was also used to prepare a highly potent AII antagonist, [Sar1,Hcy3,5,Ile8]AII (pA2 = 9.09 vs 9.17 for [Sar1, Ile8]AII; IC50 = 0.9 nM vs 1.9 nM for [Sar1,Ile8]AII). Model building suggests that this ring structure is consistent with a receptor-bound conformation having any of a variety of three-residue turns, including a gamma-turn. In contrast, the receptor-bound conformation of AII does not appear to accommodate a beta-turn or an alpha-helix which includes residues 3-5.

  19. p38 MAPK Inhibition Improves Synaptic Plasticity and Memory in Angiotensin II-dependent Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hai-long; Hu, Wei-yuan; Jiang, Li-hong; Li, Le; Gaung, Xue-feng; Xiao, Zhi-cheng

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension-related cognitive impairment has not been sufficiently clarified, new molecular targets are needed. p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in hypertensive target organ damage. Activated p38 MAPK was seen in AD brain tissue. In this study, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA1 was decreased, the density of the dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells was reduced, the p-p38 protein expression in hippocampus was elevated, and cognitive function was impaired in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive C57BL/6 mice. In vivo, using a p38 heterozygous knockdown mice (p38KI/+) model, we showed that knockdown of p38 MAPK in hippocampus leads to the improvement of cognitive function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in angiotensin II-dependent p38KI/+ hypertensive mice. In vitro, LTP was improved in hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 hypertensive mice by treatment with p38MAPK inhibitor SKF86002. Our data demonstrated that p38 MAPK may be a potential therapeutic target for hypertension-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27283322

  20. Protective effects of diltiazem against vascular endothelial cell injury induced by angiotensin-II and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Minggao; Li, Jing; Meng, Guo; Liu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    To provide pharmacological data for future clinical studies, this study investigated the protective effects of diltiazem on vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury induced by angiotensin-II (AngII), hypoxia, and a combination of both treatments. The concentration of intracellular free calcium and the mitochondrial membrane potential in VEC were assessed as indicators of cell injury. An in vivo hypoxic animal model was used to test the protective effect of diltiazem on vascular endothelial tissues. Our study showed that AngII and hypoxia decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in VEC, which was significantly inhibited by diltiazem. Diltiazem protected against VEC injury induced by the increased concentration of intracellular free calcium, which was associated with AngII and hypoxia. Diltiazem reduced the apoptosis of rat VEC under a sustained hypoxic condition. In addition, it reduced AngII and endothelin I levels in rat vascular endothelial tissues. Our study confirmed that AngII and hypoxia induced VEC injury by regulating the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular free calcium. Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, protected VEC from AngII- and hypoxia-induced injury. PMID:25661249

  1. Serum levels of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II in patients treated by surgical excision, propranolol and captopril for problematic proliferating infantile haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, L; Baillie, R; Itinteang, T; de Jong, S; Marsh, R; Leadbitter, P; Tan, S T

    2016-03-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the biology of infantile haemangioma (IH) and its accelerated involution induced by β-blockers was first proposed in 2010. This led to the first clinical trial in 2012 using low-dose captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, demonstrating a similar response in these tumours. This study aimed to compare serial serum levels of the components of the RAS in patients before and after surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment for problematic proliferating IH. Patients with problematic proliferating IH underwent measurements of serum levels of plasma renin activity (PRA), ACE and angiotensin II (ATII) before, and 1-2 and 6 months following surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment. This study included 27 patients undergoing surgical excision (n = 8), propranolol (n = 11) and captopril (n = 8) treatment. Treatment with either surgical excision or propranolol resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of PRA. Surgical excision or captopril treatment led to significant decline in the mean levels of ATII. All three treatment modalities had no significant effect on the mean levels of ACE. This study demonstrates the effect of surgical excision, propranolol and captopril treatment in lowering the levels of PRA and ATII, but not ACE, supporting a mechanistic role for the RAS in the biology of IH.

  2. Serum levels of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II in patients treated by surgical excision, propranolol and captopril for problematic proliferating infantile haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, L; Baillie, R; Itinteang, T; de Jong, S; Marsh, R; Leadbitter, P; Tan, S T

    2016-03-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the biology of infantile haemangioma (IH) and its accelerated involution induced by β-blockers was first proposed in 2010. This led to the first clinical trial in 2012 using low-dose captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, demonstrating a similar response in these tumours. This study aimed to compare serial serum levels of the components of the RAS in patients before and after surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment for problematic proliferating IH. Patients with problematic proliferating IH underwent measurements of serum levels of plasma renin activity (PRA), ACE and angiotensin II (ATII) before, and 1-2 and 6 months following surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment. This study included 27 patients undergoing surgical excision (n = 8), propranolol (n = 11) and captopril (n = 8) treatment. Treatment with either surgical excision or propranolol resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of PRA. Surgical excision or captopril treatment led to significant decline in the mean levels of ATII. All three treatment modalities had no significant effect on the mean levels of ACE. This study demonstrates the effect of surgical excision, propranolol and captopril treatment in lowering the levels of PRA and ATII, but not ACE, supporting a mechanistic role for the RAS in the biology of IH. PMID:26612192

  3. Neonatal handling reduces angiotensin II receptor density in the medial preoptic area and paraventricular nucleus but not in arcuate nucleus and locus coeruleus of female rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cármen Marilei; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Franskoviaki, Inélia; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal handling alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonads axis (HPG) in adult animals, and angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates the functions in these axes. We tested whether neonatal handling could change the density of Ang II receptors in some central areas in female rats. Results showed decreased density of the Ang II receptors in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the neonatal handled group.

  4. Debate: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers--a gap in evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen G; White, William B

    2003-05-22

    In this article, 2 leading physicians debate the strength of outcome data on the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renovascular events. Dr. Stephen G. Ball notes that the efficacy of ACE inhibitors for reducing the risk for myocardial infarction independent of their effects on blood pressure is controversial. In the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study, ramipril treatment in high-risk patients was associated with a 20% reduction in the risk for myocardial infarction; mean reduction in blood pressure was 3 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 1 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure. The HOPE investigators propose that the 20% reduction was much greater than would be expected based on the observed blood pressure reduction. However, a meta-regression analysis of blood pressure reduction in >20 antihypertensive therapy outcome trials found that the reduction in myocardial infarction risk with ramipril observed in HOPE was consistent with the modest blood pressure reduction seen with that agent. Nevertheless, there are convincing data for prevention of myocardial infarction with ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure, including those with heart failure after myocardial infarction, as well as supportive evidence from studies in patients with diabetes mellitus and concomitant hypertension. On the other hand, Dr. William B. White takes the position that ARBs are well-tolerated antihypertensive agents that specifically antagonize the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor and provide a more complete block of the pathologic effects of angiotensin II-which are mediated via the AT(1) receptor-than ACE inhibitors. The Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly (ELITE) II study and the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (ValHeFT) suggest that ARBs reduce the risk for mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. The Losartan

  5. Debate: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers--a gap in evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen G; White, William B

    2003-05-22

    In this article, 2 leading physicians debate the strength of outcome data on the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renovascular events. Dr. Stephen G. Ball notes that the efficacy of ACE inhibitors for reducing the risk for myocardial infarction independent of their effects on blood pressure is controversial. In the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study, ramipril treatment in high-risk patients was associated with a 20% reduction in the risk for myocardial infarction; mean reduction in blood pressure was 3 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 1 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure. The HOPE investigators propose that the 20% reduction was much greater than would be expected based on the observed blood pressure reduction. However, a meta-regression analysis of blood pressure reduction in >20 antihypertensive therapy outcome trials found that the reduction in myocardial infarction risk with ramipril observed in HOPE was consistent with the modest blood pressure reduction seen with that agent. Nevertheless, there are convincing data for prevention of myocardial infarction with ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure, including those with heart failure after myocardial infarction, as well as supportive evidence from studies in patients with diabetes mellitus and concomitant hypertension. On the other hand, Dr. William B. White takes the position that ARBs are well-tolerated antihypertensive agents that specifically antagonize the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor and provide a more complete block of the pathologic effects of angiotensin II-which are mediated via the AT(1) receptor-than ACE inhibitors. The Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly (ELITE) II study and the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (ValHeFT) suggest that ARBs reduce the risk for mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. The Losartan

  6. Repeated administration of angiotensin II reduces its dipsogenic effect without affecting saline intake.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2010-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts at central type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase intake of water and saline. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid desensitization of the AT(1) receptor after Ang II exposure, and behavioural studies in rats suggest that exposure to Ang II decreases the dipsogenic potency of subsequent Ang II. Nevertheless, the effect of repeated Ang II injections on saline intake remains untested, and a reliable protocol for examining this purported behavioural desensitization has not emerged from the literature. To address these issues, we established a reliable approach to study Ang II-induced dipsetic desensitization and used this approach to test the requirement of central AT(1) receptors and the specificity of the effect for water intake. Rats given a treatment regimen of three injections of Ang II (300 ng, intracerebroventricular), each separated by 20 min, drank less water than control rats after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. The effect was relatively short lasting, dependent on the dose and timing of Ang II, and was almost completely blocked by the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan. In further testing, when rats were given access to both water and 1.5% saline, animals that received an Ang II treatment regimen drank less water than control animals, but saline intake was unaffected. These data support previous suggestions that Ang II-induced water and saline intakes are separable. Given the role of G protein uncoupling in desensitization of the AT(1) receptor, these data are consistent with the emerging hypothesis that AT(1) receptor G protein-dependent intracellular signalling pathways are more relevant for water, but not saline, intake.

  7. Metformin treatment improves erectile function in an angiotensin II model of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Labazi, Hicham; Wynne, Brandi M.; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increased angiotensin II (AngII) levels cause hypertension, which is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Studies have demonstrated that increased AngII levels in penile tissue are associated with ED. A recent study showed that metformin treatment restored nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein expression in penile tissue in obese rats; however, whether metformin treatment can be beneficial and restore erectile function in a model of ED has not yet been established. Aim The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that AngII induces ED by means of increased corpus cavernosum contraction, and that metformin treatment will reverse ED in AngII-treated rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with mini-osmotic pumps containing saline or AngII (70 ng/min, 28 days). Animals were then treated with metformin or vehicle during the last week of AngII infusion. Main Outcome Measures Intracavernosal pressure (ICP); corpus cavernosum contraction and relaxation; nNOS protein expression; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation. Results AngII induced ED was accompanied with an increase in corpus cavernusom contractility, decreased nitrergic relaxation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Metformin treatment improved erectile function in the AngII-treated rats by reversing the increased contraction and decreased relaxation. Metformin treatment also resulted in an increase in eNOS phosphorylation at ser1177. Conclusions Metformin treatment increased eNOS phosphorylation and improved erectile function in AngII hypertensive rats by re-establishing normal cavernosal smooth muscle tone. PMID:23889981

  8. Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting: potential therapeutic targets for cardiac cachexia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tabony, A Michael; Galvez, Sarah; Mitch, William E; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors are involved in the development of cachexia, and there is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in this process. Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. In rodent models, an increase in systemic Ang II leads to weight loss through increased protein breakdown, reduced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and decreased appetite. Ang II activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system via generation of reactive oxygen species and via inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and disrupts normal energy balance. Ang II also increases cytokines and circulating hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A, glucocorticoids and myostatin, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II acts on hypothalamic neurons to regulate orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide-Y, orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone, leading to reduced appetite. Also, Ang II may regulate skeletal muscle regenerative processes. Several clinical studies have indicated that blockade of Ang II signaling via ACE inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers prevents weight loss and improves muscle strength. Thus the RAS is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with CHF and CKD. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting.

  9. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  10. [Advance in Research of Angiotensin II and Its Receptor and Malignant Tumor].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lulu; Shi, Jian

    2016-09-20

    Angiotensin AngII, a linear small peptide,which is composed of eight amino acids, is the main effectors of renin-angiotensin systen (Renin-angiotensin system, RAS). AngII, a main biopolypeptide of the RAS, has important pathophysiologic in effects participating in cardiac hypertrophy, vascular cell proproliferation, inflammation and tissue remodeling through G-protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, Ang II can promote tumor cell proliferation, tumor vessel formation and inhibit the differentiation of the tumor cells. This suggests that inhibit the production of AngII or block its effect is expected to become a new measure for the treatment of malignant tumors. This article reviews the advances in research on the relationship between AngII and its receptor and malignant tumor in recent years. PMID:27666553

  11. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27630693

  12. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27630693

  14. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Men Does Not Attenuate Angiotensin II-Induced Venoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Christoph; Guenther, Kristina; Hermann, Cosima; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Schroeder, Christoph; Haufe, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg) or positive control irbesartan (150 mg) for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II–induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; P<0.05) compared to 65%±11% before and 73%±11% after 30 days of atorvastatin treatment. Plasma angiotensin levels increased significantly after irbesartan treatment (Ang II: 17±22 before vs 52±40 pg/mL after [p = 0.048]; Ang-(1–7): 18±10 before vs 37±14 pg/mL after [p = 0.002]) compared to atorvastatin treatment (Ang II: 9±4 vs 11±10 pg/mL [p = 0.40]; Ang-(1–7): 24±9 vs 32±8 pg/mL [p = 0.023]). Our study suggests that statin treatment does not elicit major changes in angiotensin II-mediated venoconstriction or in circulating angiotensin II levels whereas angiotensin-(1–7) levels increased modestly. The discrepancy between local vascular and systemic angiotensin II responses might suggest that statin treatment interferes with blood pressure buffering reflexes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024 PMID:25264877

  15. Sirtuin3 Dysfunction Is the Key Determinant of Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance by Angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Macconi, Daniela; Perico, Luca; Longaretti, Lorena; Morigi, Marina; Cassis, Paola; Buelli, Simona; Perico, Norberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiotensin II promotes insulin resistance. The mechanism underlying this abnormality, however, is still poorly defined. In a different setting, skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling are regulated by Sirtuin3. Objective Here, we investigate whether angiotensin II-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is associated with Sirtuin3 dysregulation and whether pharmacological manipulation of Sirtuin3 confers protection. Study Design Parental and GLUT4-myc L6 rat skeletal muscle cells exposed to angiotensin II are used as in vitro models of insulin resistance. GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake, intracellular molecular signals such as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, Sirtuin3 protein expression and activity, along with its downstream targets and upstream regulators, are analyzed both in the absence and presence of acetyl-L-carnitine. The role of Sirtuin3 in GLUT4 translocation and intracellular molecular signaling is also studied in Sirtuin3-silenced as well as over-expressing cells. Results Angiotensin II promotes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells via mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting in a two-fold increase in superoxide generation. In this context, reactive oxygen species open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and significantly lower Sirtuin3 levels and activity impairing the cell antioxidant defense. Angiotensin II-induced Sirtuin3 dysfunction leads to the impairment of AMP-activated protein kinase/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase signaling. Acetyl-L-carnitine, by lowering angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial superoxide formation, prevents Sirtuin3 dysfunction. This phenomenon implies the restoration of manganese superoxide dismutase antioxidant activity and AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Acetyl-L-carnitine protection is abrogated by specific Sirtuin3 siRNA. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that angiotensin II-induced insulin resistance fosters mitochondrial superoxide generation, in

  16. Potassium Supplementation Prevents Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Stimulation During Angiotensin II Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veiras, Luciana C; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; McDonough, Alicia A

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion. AngII-infused rats exhibited lower plasma [K(+)] versus controls (3.6±0.2 versus 4.5±0.1 mmol/L; P<0.05), suggesting that AngII-mediated epithelial Na(+) channel activation provokes K(+) depletion. The second aim tested whether doubling dietary potassium intake from 1% (A1K) to 2% (A2K) would prevent K(+) depletion during AngII infusion and, thus, prevent NCC accumulation. A2K-fed rats exhibited normal plasma [K(+)] and 2-fold higher K(+) excretion and plasma [aldosterone] versus A1K. In A1K rats, NCC, NCCpS71, and NCCpT53 abundance increased 1.5- to 3-fold versus controls (P<0.05). The rise in NCC and NCCp abundance was prevented in the A2K rats, yet blood pressure did not significantly decrease. Epithelial Na(+) channel subunit abundance and cleavage increased 1.5- to 3-fold in both A1K and A2K; ROMK (renal outer medulla K(+) channel abundance) abundance was unaffected by AngII or dietary K(+) In summary, the accumulation and phosphorylation of NCC seen during chronic AngII infusion hypertension is likely secondary to potassium deficiency driven by epithelial Na(+) channel stimulation.

  17. Potassium Supplementation Prevents Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Stimulation During Angiotensin II Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veiras, Luciana C; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; McDonough, Alicia A

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion. AngII-infused rats exhibited lower plasma [K(+)] versus controls (3.6±0.2 versus 4.5±0.1 mmol/L; P<0.05), suggesting that AngII-mediated epithelial Na(+) channel activation provokes K(+) depletion. The second aim tested whether doubling dietary potassium intake from 1% (A1K) to 2% (A2K) would prevent K(+) depletion during AngII infusion and, thus, prevent NCC accumulation. A2K-fed rats exhibited normal plasma [K(+)] and 2-fold higher K(+) excretion and plasma [aldosterone] versus A1K. In A1K rats, NCC, NCCpS71, and NCCpT53 abundance increased 1.5- to 3-fold versus controls (P<0.05). The rise in NCC and NCCp abundance was prevented in the A2K rats, yet blood pressure did not significantly decrease. Epithelial Na(+) channel subunit abundance and cleavage increased 1.5- to 3-fold in both A1K and A2K; ROMK (renal outer medulla K(+) channel abundance) abundance was unaffected by AngII or dietary K(+) In summary, the accumulation and phosphorylation of NCC seen during chronic AngII infusion hypertension is likely secondary to potassium deficiency driven by epithelial Na(+) channel stimulation. PMID:27600183

  18. Angiotensin II Stimulation of DPP4 Activity Regulates Megalin in the Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya; Zuberek, Marcin; Duta, Cornel; Meuth, Alex; Sowers, James R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Nistala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is a marker of incipient kidney injury in many disorders, including obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that megalin, a receptor endocytotic protein in the proximal tubule, is downregulated in obese mice, which was prevented by inhibition of dipeptidyl protease 4 (DPP4). Obesity is thought to be associated with upregulation of intra-renal angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II suppresses megalin expression in proximal tubule cells in vitro. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II will suppress megalin protein via activation of DPP4. We used Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) infusion in mice and Ang II (10−8 M) treatment of T35OK-AT1R proximal tubule cells to test our hypothesis. Ang II-infused mouse kidneys displayed increases in DPP4 activity and decreases in megalin. In proximal tubule cells, Ang II stimulated DPP4 activity concurrent with suppression of megalin. MK0626, a DPP4 inhibitor, partially restored megalin expression similar to U0126, a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor and AG1478, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Similarly, Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation was suppressed with MK0626 and Ang II-induced DPP4 activity was suppressed by U0126. Therefore, our study reveals a cross talk between AT1R signaling and DPP4 activation in the regulation of megalin and underscores the significance of targeting DPP4 in the prevention of obesity related kidney injury progression. PMID:27213360

  19. Effect of Lysyl Oxidase Inhibition on Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension, Remodeling, and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Eberson, Lance S.; Sanchez, Pablo A.; Majeed, Beenish A.; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Secomb, Timothy W.; Larson, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces altered vascular stiffness through responses including both structural and material remodeling. Concurrent with remodeling is the induction of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) through which ECM proteins are cross-linked. The study objective was to determine the effect of LOX mediated cross-linking on vascular mechanical properties. Three-month old mice were chronically treated with Ang II with or without the LOX blocker, β -aminopropionitrile (BAPN), for 14 days. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) from Doppler measurements of the aortic flow wave was used to quantify in vivo vascular stiffness in terms of an effective Young’s modulus. The increase in effective Young’s modulus with Ang II administration was abolished with the addition of BAPN, suggesting that the material properties are a major controlling element in vascular stiffness. BAPN inhibited the Ang II induced collagen cross-link formation by 2-fold and PWV by 44% (P<0.05). Consistent with this observation, morphometric analysis showed that BAPN did not affect the Ang II mediated increase in medial thickness but significantly reduced the adventitial thickness. Since the hypertensive state contributes to the measured in vivo PWV stiffness, we removed the Ang II infusion pumps on Day 14 and achieved normal arterial blood pressures. With pump removal we observed a decrease of the PWV in the Ang II group to 25% above that of the control values (P=0.002), with a complete return to control values in the Ang II plus BAPN group. In conclusion, we have shown that the increase in vascular stiffness with 14 day Ang II administration results from a combination of hypertension-induced wall strain, adventitial wall thickening and Ang II mediated LOX ECM cross-linking, which is a major material source of vascular stiffening, and that the increased PWV was significantly inhibited with co-administration of BAPN. PMID:25875748

  20. Perioperative management of patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: a quality improvement audit.

    PubMed

    Vijay, A; Grover, A; Coulson, T G; Myles, P S

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients continuing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers on the day of surgery are more likely to have significant intraoperative hypotension, higher rates of postoperative acute kidney injury, and lower incidences of postoperative atrial fibrillation. However, many of these studies were prone to bias and confounding, and questions remain over the validity of these outcomes. This observational, before-and-after quality improvement audit aimed to assess the effect of withholding these medications on the morning of surgery. We recruited 323 participants, with 83 (26%) having their preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) withheld on the day of surgery. There were only very small Spearman rank-order correlations between time since last dose of these medications (rho -0.12, P=0.057) and intraoperative and recovery room intravenous fluid administration (rho -0.11, P=0.042). There was no statistically significant difference between the continued or withheld groups in vasopressor (metaraminol use 3.5 [1.5-8.3] mg versus 3.5 [1.5-8.5] mg, P=0.67) or intravenous fluid administration (1000 ml [800-1500] ml versus 1000 [800-1500] ml, P=0.096), nor rates of postoperative acute kidney injury (13% vs 18%, P=0.25) or atrial fibrillation (15% versus 18%, P=0.71). This audit found no significant differences in measured outcomes between the continued or withheld ACEi/ARB groups. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the possibility of confounding and an insufficient sample size. However, as the finding is in contrast to many previous studies, future prospective randomised clinical trials are required to answer this important question.

  1. Perioperative management of patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: a quality improvement audit.

    PubMed

    Vijay, A; Grover, A; Coulson, T G; Myles, P S

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients continuing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers on the day of surgery are more likely to have significant intraoperative hypotension, higher rates of postoperative acute kidney injury, and lower incidences of postoperative atrial fibrillation. However, many of these studies were prone to bias and confounding, and questions remain over the validity of these outcomes. This observational, before-and-after quality improvement audit aimed to assess the effect of withholding these medications on the morning of surgery. We recruited 323 participants, with 83 (26%) having their preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) withheld on the day of surgery. There were only very small Spearman rank-order correlations between time since last dose of these medications (rho -0.12, P=0.057) and intraoperative and recovery room intravenous fluid administration (rho -0.11, P=0.042). There was no statistically significant difference between the continued or withheld groups in vasopressor (metaraminol use 3.5 [1.5-8.3] mg versus 3.5 [1.5-8.5] mg, P=0.67) or intravenous fluid administration (1000 ml [800-1500] ml versus 1000 [800-1500] ml, P=0.096), nor rates of postoperative acute kidney injury (13% vs 18%, P=0.25) or atrial fibrillation (15% versus 18%, P=0.71). This audit found no significant differences in measured outcomes between the continued or withheld ACEi/ARB groups. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the possibility of confounding and an insufficient sample size. However, as the finding is in contrast to many previous studies, future prospective randomised clinical trials are required to answer this important question. PMID:27246933

  2. Angiotensin II stimulates expression of the chemokine RANTES in rat glomerular endothelial cells. Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, G; Ziyadeh, F N; Thaiss, F; Tomaszewski, J; Caron, R J; Wenzel, U; Zahner, G; Helmchen, U; Stahl, R A

    1997-01-01

    Glomerular influx of monocytes/macrophages (M/M) occurs in many immune- and non-immune-mediated renal diseases. The mechanisms targeting M/M into the glomerulus are incompletely understood, but may involve stimulated expression of chemokines. We investigated whether angiotensin II (ANG II) induces the chemokine RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells of the rat and in vivo. ANG II stimulated mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells. The ANG II-induced RANTES protein was chemotactic for human monocytes. Surprisingly, the ANG II-stimulated RANTES expression was transduced by AT2 receptors because the AT2 receptor antagonists PD 123177 and CGP-42112A, but not an AT1 receptor blocker, abolished the induced RANTES synthesis. Intraperitoneal infusion of ANG II (500 ng/h) into naive rats for 4 d significantly stimulated glomerular RANTES mRNA and protein expression compared with solvent-infused controls. Immunohistochemistry revealed induction of RANTES protein mainly in glomerular endothelial cells and small capillaries. Moreover, ANG II- infused animals exhibited an increase in glomerular ED-1- positive cells compared with controls. Oral treatment with PD 123177 (50 mg/liter drinking water) attenuated the glomerular M/M influx without normalizing the slightly elevated systolic blood pressure caused by ANG II infusion, suggesting that the effects on blood pressure and RANTES induction can be separated. We conclude that the vasoactive peptide ANG II may play an important role in glomerular chemotaxis of M/M through local induction of the chemokine RANTES. The observation that the ANG II- mediated induction of RANTES is transduced by AT2 receptors may influence the decision as to which substances might be used for the therapeutic interference with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:9276721

  3. Characterization of angiotensin II binding sites in African Green monkey uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, E.P.; Wright, J.W.; Harding, J.W.

    1985-01-14

    The observation that there are significant differences in the concentration, affinity, and specificity of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral angiotensin receptors among several different mammalian species, including the African Green monkey, led to the detailed analysis of /sup 125/I-angiotensin II binding in the uterus of the African Green monkey. The B/sub max/ for angiotensin receptors in uterine tissue from this species is 56.6 +/- 8.7 fmole per mg protein. The K/sub d/ for angiotensin II is .601 +/- .108 mM. The specificity of the receptor is similar to that reported for the uterus of the rat and dog. These results indicate that the angiotensin II receptors, although nearly absent from the CNS of the African Green monkey, are found in the uterus and are very similar to uterine receptors previously characterized in the rat and dog and support the use of these species as appropriate models for studying the biochemistry of angiotensin binding in the uterus. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Structural characterization of a diuretic peptide from the central nervous system of the leech Erpobdella octoculata. Angiotensin II Amide.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Bulet, P; Wattez, C; Verger-Bocquet, M; Malecha, J

    1995-01-27

    Purification of a material immunoreactive to an antiserum against angiotensin II and present in the central nervous system of the pharyngobdellid leech Erpobdella octoculata was performed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography combined with both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot immunobinding assays for angiotensin II. Establishment of the amino acid sequence by Edman degradation, electrospray, and fast atom bombardement mass spectrometry measurements and enzymatic treatment by carboxypeptidase A indicated that this "central" angiotensin II-like material, the first one fully characterized in the animal kingdom, is an angiotensin II amide. This finding constitutes also the first biochemical characterization of a peptide of the angiotensin family in an invertebrate. Synthetic angiotensin II amide exerts, when injected in leeches, a diuretic effect and is, 1 and 2 h postinjection, 100-fold more potent than vertebrate angiotensin II. An identification of the proteins immunoreactive to an antiserum against angiotensin II performed at the level of both central nervous system extracts and in vitro central nervous system-translated RNA products indicated that in the two cases, two proteins were detected. Their molecular masses, which were, respectively, approximately 14 and approximately 18 kDa for the central nervous system extracts and approximately 15 and approximately 19 kDa for in vitro central nervous system-translated RNA products, differ from that of angiotensinogen (approximately 60 kDa), the precursor of vertebrate angiotensin II.

  5. Calcium channel blockade attenuates angiotensin II-induced drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Calcagnetti, D J; Schechter, M D

    1993-01-01

    Lateral ventricular administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) produces potent dipsogenic effects in water-sated rats. ANG II seems to require functional voltage-gated calcium channels on neurons throughout circumventricular brain sites to exert its effects. Although there are at least three types of calcium channels, only L-type calcium channel-blocking drugs have been reported to decrease drinking. (4-(4-Benzofurazanyl)-1-4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridine-dic arb oxylic acid methyl 1-methyl-ethyl ester) [PN 200-110; isradipine (ISR)], a selective L-type calcium channel blocker, has been shown to attenuate significantly the intake of sweetened water in water-sated rats following either peripheral or ICV administration, but ISR does not affect plain-water intake in water-deprived rats. The present experiment was designed to determine whether ISR would attenuate ANG II-induced drinking that is not either motivated by palatability or dependent on deprivation. Rats, each fitted with chronic indwelling ventricular cannulae, were pretreated with ISR (0.3, 3.0, and 30 micrograms/rat; ICV). ANG II (40 ng/rat; ICV) was administered 10 min later and rats were allowed free access to water for 15 min. Injections of ANG II plus saline and ANG II plus the ISR vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) did not attenuate ANG II-induced polydipsia, whereas ANG II+ISR (0.3 and 3.0 micrograms) attenuated ANG II-induced drinking to 62 and 22% of control, respectively. Results with the 30-micrograms dose were not different from the 3.0 dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Alpha-adrenergic regulation of angiotensin II receptors in neuronal cultures from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Watkins, L.L.; Raizada, M.K.

    1986-03-05

    Our previous studies have suggested that endogenous catecholamine (CA) levels are important regulators of angiotensin II receptors (AngII-R) in neuronal cultures. The present study was undertaken to determine the possible mechanisms by which CA exert their effects on AngII-R. Incubation of neuronal cultures with norepinephrine (NE) resulted in time and dose dependent decreases in (/sup 125/I)-AngII specific binding. A maximal effect of 60-70% was observed between 4-8 hours at 1..mu..M NE, which was the result of a decrease in Bmax (104 +/- 16.3 fmol/mg protein in controls vs 41.4 +/- 9.3 fmol/mg protein in NE treated) and little change in Kd. Similar effects were observed when neuronal cultures were incubated with dopamine (DA) or phenylephrine, but serotonin, epinephrine and isoproterenol had no effect. The NE and DA stimulated decrease in AngII-R appears to be an ..cap alpha../sub 1/=adrenergic receptor mediated phenomenon because it is abolished by coincubation with prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-antagonist) and not by ..cap alpha../sub 2/- or ..beta..-antagonists. Similar incubations of neuronal cultures with NE also caused a time and dose dependent downregulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors. Taken together these observations indicate that the NE induced downregulation of AngII-R is mediated by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-receptors, and suggest that one possible mechanism may be the cointernalization of both ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and AngII-R stimulated by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic agonists.

  7. Evidence for extracellular, but not intracellular, generation of angiotensin II in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, H.; Khosla, M.C.; Bumpus, M.; Husain, A. )

    1988-11-01

    Based on the observation that high levels of renin and angiotensin II (Ang II) are found in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), it has been postulated that Ang II is formed intracellularly by the renin-converting enzyme cascade in this tissue. To test this hypothesis, the authors examined renin-angiotensin system components in subcellular fractions of the rat adrenal ZG. Renin activity and immunoreactive-Ang II (IR-Ang II) were observed in vesicular fractions but were not colocalized. In addition, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, and converting enzyme were not observed in the renin or IR-Ang II-containing vesicular fractions. These data do not support the hypothesis that Ang II is formed intracellularly within the renin-containing vesicles of the ZG. Rather, since modulatable renin release from adrenal ZG slices was observed and renin activity was found in dense vesicular fractions (33-39% sucrose), it is likely that Ang II formation in the ZG is extracellular and initiated by the release of vesicular renin. In ZG lysomal fractions {sup 125}I-labeled Ang II was degraded to {sup 125}I-labeled des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II. Since Ang II antibodies do not recognize des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II, these finding explain why IR-Ang II in the ZG is due predominantly to Ang II and not to its C-terminal immunoreactive fragments.

  8. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao; Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping; Wang, Chunhua

    2013-11-15

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of novel angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonists as anti-hypertension drugs.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaolu; Zhu, Weibo; Zhang, Ruijing; Wen, Caihong; Wang, Li; Yan, Yijia; Tang, Hesheng; Chen, Zhilong

    2016-05-01

    Three new angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonists, 1, 2 and 3 were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The AT1 receptor-binding assays in vitro showed that all the synthesized compounds had nanomolar affinity for the AT1 receptor. From which compound 3 was found to be the most potent ligands with an IC50 value of 2.67±0.23 nM. Biological evaluation in vivo revealed that all the compounds could cause significant decrease on MBP in a dose dependent manner in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and compound 3 especially showed an efficient and long-lasting effect in reducing blood pressure, whose maximal response lowered 41 mmHg of MBP at 10mg/kg and 62 mmHg at 15 mg/kg after oral administration, the significant anti-hypertensive effect lasted beyond 12 h, which is better than the reference compound losartan. The pharmacokinetic experiments showed that compound 3 could be absorbed efficiently and metabolized smoothly both in blood and in tissues in Wistar rats. The acute toxicity assay suggested that it has low toxicity with the LD50 value of 2974.35 mg/kg. These results demonstrate that compound 3 is a potent angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist which could be considered as a novel anti-hypertension candidate and deserved for further investigation. PMID:27004954

  10. Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan attenuates aortic stiffening and remodelling in STZ-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevention or attenuation of diabetic vascular complications includes anti-hypertensive treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on account of their protective effects beyond blood pressure reduction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on blood pressure, aortic stiffening, and aortic remodelling in experimental type 1 diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. One diabetic group was treated for 10 weeks with telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day p/o). Pressure-independent aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured under anaesthesia after intravenous infusion of phenylephrine and nitroglycerine. Aortic wall samples were collected for histomorphometrical analysis. Results Untreated diabetes imposed differential effects on aortic stiffening, as demonstrated by increased isobaric PWV over a range of high blood pressures, but not at lower blood pressures. This was associated with loss and disruption of elastin fibres and an increase in collagen fibres in the aortic media. Treatment with telmisartan decreased resting blood pressure, reduced aortic stiffness, and partially prevented the degradation of elastin network within the aortic wall. Conclusions Telmisartan improved the structural and functional indices of aortic stiffening induced by untreated STZ-diabetes, demonstrating the importance of ARBs in the therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications. PMID:24920962

  11. Class A scavenger receptor deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lingling; Li, Xiaoyu; Fang, Ru; Wang, Zhuoyun; Xu, Yiming; Zhang, Hanwen; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xudong; Ben, Jingjing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that participates in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Here we evaluated the role of SR-A in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling. Chronic infusion of Ang II leads to an increased systolic blood pressure both in SR-A knockout (SR-A(-/-)) and wild type (SR-A(+/+)) mice with no significant difference between these two groups. SR-A(-/-) hypertensive mice, however, exhibited a marked augmentation of arterial wall thickening and vascular cell proliferation compared with SR-A(+/+) hypertensive mice. M1 macrophage markers were increased whereas M2 macrophage markers were decreased in vascular tissues of SR-A(-/-) mice. Co-culture experiments revealed that more pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α were produced by SR-A(-/-) peritoneal macrophages leading to a stronger proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In addition, SR-A(-/-) macrophages were more prone to lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 differentiation while resisting interleukin-4-induced M2 differentiation. Importantly, transplantation of SR-A(-/-) bone marrow into SR-A(+/+) mice significantly augmented Ang II-induced vascular remodeling. These results show that SR-A is critical for Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by regulating macrophage polarization. Therefore, SR-A may be a useful therapeutic target for the intervention of hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:24875449

  12. Angiotensin II diminishes the effect of SGK1 on the WNK4-mediated inhibition of ROMK1 channels.

    PubMed

    Yue, Peng; Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Pan, Chunyang; Xing, Wenming; Wang, WenHui

    2011-02-01

    ROMK1 channels are located in the apical membrane of the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct and mediate the potassium secretion during normal dietary intake. We used a perforated whole-cell patch clamp to explore the effect of angiotensin II on these channels in HEK293 cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ROMK1. Angiotensin II inhibited ROMK1 channels in a dose-dependent manner, an effect abolished by losartan or by inhibition of protein kinase C. Furthermore, angiotensin II stimulated a protein kinase C-sensitive phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 within c-Src. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase attenuated the effect of angiotensin II. Western blot studies suggested that angiotensin II inhibited ROMK1 channels by enhancing its tyrosine phosphorylation, a notion supported by angiotensin II's failure to inhibit potassium channels in cells transfected with the ROMK1 tyrosine mutant (R1Y337A). However, angiotensin II restored the with-no-lysine kinase-4 (WNK4)-induced inhibition of R1Y337A in the presence of serum-glucocorticoids-induced kinase 1 (SGK1), which reversed the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on ROMK1. Moreover, protein tyrosine kinase inhibition abolished the angiotensin II-induced restoration of WNK4-mediated inhibition of ROMK1. Angiotensin II inhibited ROMK channels in the cortical collecting duct of rats on a low sodium diet, an effect blocked by protein tyrosine kinase inhibition. Thus, angiotensin II inhibits ROMK channels by two mechanisms: increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of the channel and synergizing the WNK4-induced inhibition. Hence, angiotensin II may have an important role in suppressing potassium secretion during volume depletion. PMID:20927043

  13. The angiotensin hexapeptide 3-8 fragment potently inhibits [125I]angiotensin II binding to non-AT1 or -AT2 recognition sites in bovine adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, M F; Gessner, G W; Ly, C Q

    1992-08-25

    In the present studies, ligand competition experiments were conducted to examine the ability of angiotensin II peptide agonists and nonpeptide AT1- and AT2-selective receptor antagonists to inhibit the binding of [125I]angiotensin II to bovine adrenal cortical membranes. Angiotensin II, angiotensin III, the All-(3-8) hexapeptide fragment of angiotensin II, and the AT1-selective receptor antagonist L-158,809, inhibited [125I]angiotensin II binding in a biphasic fashion indicative of a ligand interaction at more than one recognition site. Approximately 20% of low affinity [125I]angiotensin II binding was inhibited only by high micromolar concentrations of L-158,809. RG 13647 (1(-1,4-benzodioxan-2-methyl)-5-diphenylacetyl-4,5,6,7-tetra hydro-1H-imidazo- [4,5,c]-pyridine-6-carboxylic acid) represents a potent and AT2-selective analog of PD 123177 and showed weak activity in competing for [125I]angiotensin II binding with an IC50 value of 100 microM. When subsequent competition studies were conducted in the presence of 1 microM L-158,809 to block [125I]angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor subtype, the angiotensin II agonists produced monophasic inhibition curves with AII-(3-8) showing the greatest activity (IC50 = 6 nM) followed by angiotensin III (IC50 = 15 nM) much greater than angiotensin II (IC50 = 110 nM). RG 13647 was not found to significantly inhibit this portion of [125I]angiotensin II binding. These data demonstrate that bovine adrenal cortex contains both the AT1 receptor subtype, as well as, a novel class of [125I]angiotensin II recognition sites which may be analogous to the recently described angiotensin IV (AT4) receptor.

  14. Humid heat exposure induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the angiotensin II signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Yuan, Binbin; Dong, Wenpeng; Yang, Bo; Yang, Yongchao; Lin, Xi; Gong, Gu

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to humid heat stress leads to the initiation of serious physiological dysfunction that may result in heat-related diseases, including heat stroke, heat cramp, heat exhaustion, and even death. Increasing evidences have shown that the humid heat stress-induced dysfunction of the cardiovascular system was accompanied with severe cardiomyocyte injury; however, the precise mechanism of heat stress-induced injury of cardiomyocyte remains unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that humid heat stress promoted oxidative stress through the activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiomyocytes. To test our hypothesis, we established mouse models of humid heat stress. Using the animal models, we found that Ang II levels in serum were significantly up-regulated and that the Ang II receptor AT1 was increased in cardiomyocytes. The antioxidant ability in plasma and heart tissues which was detected by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was also decreased with the increased ROS production under humid heat stress, as was the expression of antioxidant genes (SOD2, HO-1, GPx). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan, effectively relieved oxidative stress, blocked Ang II signaling pathway and suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by humid heat stress. In addition, overexpression of antioxidant genes reversed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by Ang II. Overall, these results implied that humid heat stress increased oxidative stress and caused apoptosis of cardiomyocytes through the Ang II signaling pathway. Thus, targeting the Ang II signaling pathway may provide a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases caused by humid heat stress.

  15. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling via antioxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Takumi; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Imanishi, Masaki; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Fujii, Shoko; Tominaga, Erika; Tsuneishi, Teppei; Horinouchi, Yuya; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Tomita, Shuhei; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Minakuchi, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Nifedipine is unstable under light and decomposes to a stable nitroso analog, nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF). The ability of NO-NIF to block calcium channels is quite weak compared with that of nifedipine. Recently, we have demonstrated that NO-NIF reacts with unsaturated fatty acid leading to generate NO-NIF radical, which acquires radical scavenging activity. However, the effects of NO-NIF on the pathogenesis related with oxidative stress, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO-NIF on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular remodeling. Ang II-induced thickening and fibrosis of aorta were inhibited by NO-NIF in mice. NO-NIF decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aorta and urinary 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine. Ang II-stimulated mRNA expressions of p22(phox), CD68, F4/80, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and collagen I in the aorta were inhibited by NO-NIF. Moreover, NO-NIF inhibited Ang II-induced cell migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). NO-NIF reduced Ang II-induced ROS to the control level detected by dihydroethidium staining and lucigenin chemiluminescence assay in VSMCs. NO-NIF suppressed phosphorylations of Akt and epidermal growth factor receptor induced by Ang II. However, NO-NIF had no effects on intracellular Ca(2+) increase and protein kinase C-δ phosphorylation induced by Ang II in VSMCs. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated the continuous generation of NO-NIF radical of reaction with cultured VSMCs. These findings suggest that NO-NIF improves Ang II-induced vascular remodeling via the attenuation of oxidative stress.

  16. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in normotensive type II diabetics with persistent mild proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Stornello, M; Valvo, E V; Scapellato, L

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of enalapril on proteinuria, 16 normotensive type II diabetics with persistent proteinuria were studied. At random, the patients were allocated to enalapril (5 mg once a day) or placebo, in a double-blind fashion, for 12 months. Blood pressure, heart rate, urinary albumin excretion, plasma renin activity and aldosterone, blood glucose, serum fructosamine, urine urea and body weight were checked monthly during the run-in period and every 2 months during the treatment period. The kidney function was studied at the beginning of the study and during the sixth and 12th months. Enalapril decreased urinary albumin excretion in our patients in the absence of any effect on blood pressure and kidney function. Our data may be interpreted on the basis of a direct vascular effect of enalapril that is probably related to a tissue mechanism consisting of reduced angiotensin formation, increased kinins, or both, or of other unknown factors.

  17. The effect of angiotensin II on in vivo albumin transport in normal rabbit aortic tissue.

    PubMed

    Feig, L A; Peppas, N A; Colton, C K; Smith, K A; Lees, R S

    1982-09-01

    Angiotensin II and other vasoactive amines may have a direct effect on the permeability of the arterial wall. We have investigated the effect of angiotensin II in vivo albumin transport across the aortic wall in rabbits following intravenous injection of [125I]albumin. Transmural concentration profiles of 125I-labeled albumin across the intima and media of the aorta, generated during 25 min of either angiotensin or saline infusion, were measured by a serial-sectioning technique. The uptake of labeled albumin through the aortic wall was found to be dependent on position and to increase from the descending thoracic up to the arch. Angiotensin infusion increased albumin uptake in the region of the aorta proximal to the first pair of intercostal arteries and magnified the position dependence. Angiotensin infusion did not change the uptake of albumin in the descending thoracic aorta between intercostal arteries. The arterial blood pressure elevation associated with angiotensin infusion was not of prime importance in producing the uptake patterns described above.

  18. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonist combined with calcium channel blocker or diuretic for essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ishimitsu, Toshihiko; Numabe, Atsushi; Masuda, Toshihide; Akabane, Tomoyuki; Okamura, Atsushi; Minami, Junichi; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2009-11-01

    To achieve the target blood pressure recommended by the latest guidelines, multiple antihypertensive drugs are needed in most patients. In this study, the efficacy of treatment using an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or a diuretic was compared from multiple perspectives in patients with hypertension. Twenty-nine patients with essential hypertension, who had failed to achieve their target blood pressure (<130/85 mm Hg for patients <65 years old and <140/90 mm Hg for those >/=65 years) when treated with the ARB olmesartan at 20 mg day(-1), were additionally given 8-16 mg day(-1) of the CCB azelnidipine or 1-2 mg day(-1) of trichlormethiazide (a thiazide diuretic) in a randomized crossover manner for 4 months each. At the end of each combination therapy period, blood and urine samples were collected and arterial stiffness was evaluated by measuring the cardio-ankle pulse wave velocity. Compared with monotherapy, the blood pressure was reduced similarly by adding azelnidipine (-12/-10 mm Hg) or trichlormethiazide (-14/-9 mm Hg). The heart rate was decreased with the CCB by 4 b.p.m. (P<0.05), whereas it was unchanged with the thiazide. Serum K, lipids and blood glucose were not significantly changed with either combination, whereas serum uric acid was increased with the thiazide (P<0.01) but was unchanged with azelnidipine. Plasma levels of renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were also increased with the thiazide period, whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein were decreased with azelnidipine. In addition, the cardio-ankle vascular index, a parameter of arterial stiffness, was decreased with the azelnidipine period but was unchanged with the thiazide period (P<0.01). It is suggested that the combination of olmesartan and azelnidipine has advantages over the combination of olmesartan and a thiazide with respect to avoiding hyperuricemia, sympathetic activation, renin-angiotensin

  19. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1{beta}-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanqin; Zhi, Hui; Hou, Xiuyun; Jiang, Bingbing

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk and gene expression. {yields} Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} Angiotensin II modulates NF-{kappa}B responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk. {yields} ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1{beta}-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1{beta}-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1{beta}, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that angiotensin

  20. [Angiotensin II-receptor antagonists compared to other antihypertensives: still insufficient evidence for reducing the risk of cerebrovascular incidents].

    PubMed

    Meerum Terwogt, J M; Koopmans, R P; Roos, Y B W E M; van Montfrans, G A

    2008-01-12

    --There is growing evidence that angiotensin II-receptor antagonists may have protective effects for preventing cerebrovascular incidents. --It is unlikely that these effects are due only to a decrease in blood pressure. --One hypothesis is that high concentrations ofangiotensin II result in improved cerebral perfusion ofangiotensin type 2-receptor mediated mechanisms such as local vasodilatation and angiogenesis. --Several clinical and preclinical studies support this hypothesis. --The results of these studies are discussed in this overview. There is still insufficient evidence that a protective effect on the brain occurs.

  1. Separation and detection of angiotensin peptides by Cu(II) complexation and capillary electrophoresis with UV and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Nathan A; Garrison, Kenneth E; Lunte, Susan M

    2002-06-01

    The use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-capillary Cu(II) complexation for the determination of angiotensin and its metabolites is described. The resulting copper-peptide complexes can be detected using either UV or electrochemical (EC) detection. Optimal reaction and separation conditions for the angiotensin peptides were first determined using CE with UV detection. With UV detection, the limit of detection (signal-to noise ratio S/N = 3) for native angiotensin II was 18 microM, while the limit of detection (LOD) obtained for the copper-angiotensin II complex is 2 microM. CE with EC detection was then evaluated, yielding significantly lower LODs--2 microM for native angiotensin II and 200 nM for the copper-angiotensin II complex. The addition of copper to the run buffer improved the separation and sensitivity for both CE-UV and CE-EC detection. The method was demonstrated by monitoring the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in plasma via angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and subsequent inhibition of ACE by captopril. PMID:12179974

  2. Histamine 3 receptor activation reduces the expression of neuronal angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Levi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H₃) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT₁) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H₃ receptors and AT₁ receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H₃/AT₁ receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H₃ receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT₁ receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H₃ receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H₃ receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT₁ receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H₃ receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT₁ receptor expression. Thus, H₃ receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT₁ receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined

  3. Histamine 3 Receptor Activation Reduces the Expression of Neuronal Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H3) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H3 receptors and AT1 receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H3/AT1 receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H3 receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT1 receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-l-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H3 receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H3 receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT1 receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H3 receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT1 receptor expression. Thus, H3 receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT1 receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined attenuation of angiotensin II and

  4. Effect of Angiotensin II and Small GTPase Ras Signaling Pathway Inhibition on Early Renal Changes in a Murine Model of Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B.; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G.; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T.; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis. PMID:25101263

  5. Effect of angiotensin II and small GTPase Ras signaling pathway inhibition on early renal changes in a murine model of obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis.

  6. Electrospray ionization mass spectral characteristics and fragmentation mechanisms of Angiotensin II and its analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihui; Yuan, Gu

    2006-05-01

    The characteristic fragmentation pathways of Angiotensin II and eight analogues were investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The main fragmentations involve the cleavages of the CCO and CONH bonds with the loss of water, ammonia or carbon monoxide and rearrangements involving hydrogen atoms, and the MS/MS spectra give significant sequence information of these octapeptides. In addition, the two members of the analogues with the same mass and different elemental composition can be distinguished by the MS/MS spectra of [M + H]+ and fragment ions. These results show that ESI tandem mass spectrometry is an excellent tool for the structural identification of Angiotensin II and its analogues.

  7. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan suppresses proliferation and fibrosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination has poor clinical prognosis because of the presence of rich stromal fibrosis and acquired drug resistance. Recently, Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers such as candesartan have attracted attention for their potential anti-fibrotic activity. We examined whether candesartan could attenuate tumor proliferation and fibrosis through the interaction between gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) cells and human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Candesartan significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like change, while tumor proliferation and stromal fibrosis were impaired. Targeting the Angiotensin II signaling pathway may therefore be an efficient strategy for treatment of tumor proliferation and fibrosis. PMID:25224569

  8. Low-dose enalapril reduces angiotensin II and attenuates diabetic-induced cardiac and autonomic dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Malfitano, Christiane; De Angelis, Kátia; Fernandes, Tiago; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Rosa, Kaleizu; Pazzine, Mariana; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ronchi, Fernanda Aparecida; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Irigoyen, Maria-Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Activation of renin-angiotensin system has been linked to cardiovascular and autonomic dysfunctions in diabetes. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), enalapril, on cardiac and autonomic functions in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg), and rats were treated with enalapril (1 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)). After 30 days, evaluations were performed in control, diabetic, and enalapril-treated groups. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and through cannulation of the left ventricle (at baseline and in response to volume overload). Heart rate and systolic blood pressure variabilities were evaluated in the time and frequency domains. Streptozotocin rats had left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, expressed by reduced ejection fraction and increased isovolumic relaxation time. The ACEI prevented these changes, improved diastolic cardiac responses to volume overload and total power of heart rate variability, reduced the ACE1 activity and protein expression and cardiac angiotensin (Ang) II levels, and increased angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity, despite unchanged blood pressure. Correlations were obtained between Ang II content with systolic and diastolic functions and heart rate variability. These findings provide evidence that the low-dose ACEI prevents autonomic and cardiac dysfunctions induced by diabetes without changing blood pressure and associated with reduced cardiac Ang II and increased angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity. PMID:21921804

  9. Diminazene aceturate, an angiotensin-converting enzyme II activator, prevents gastric mucosal damage in mice: Role of the angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luan Kelves M; Nicolau, Lucas A D; Sousa, Nayara A; Araújo, Thiago S L; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Costa, Douglas S; Souza, Fabiana M; Pacífico, Dvison M; Martins, Conceição S; Silva, Renan O; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2016-07-15

    The angiotensin (Ang) II converting enzyme (ACE II) pathway has recently been shown to be associated with several beneficial effects in various organisms, including gastroprotection. ACE II is responsible for converting Ang II into an active peptide, Ang-(1-7), which in turn binds the Mas receptor. Recent studies have shown that diminazene aceturate (Dize) a trypanocidal used in animals, activates ACE II. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of Dize via the ACE II/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and acetic acid in mice. The results showed that Dize could promote gastric protection via several mechanisms, including increased levels of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory factors (e.g., decreasing tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression and reducing myeloperoxidase activity), maturation of collagen fibers, and promotion of re-epithelialization and regeneration of gastric tissue in different injury models. Thus, Dize represents a novel potential gastroprotective agent. PMID:27241079

  10. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  11. Castration of male mice prevents the progression of established angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Thatcher, Sean; Wu, Congqing; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Male sex is a non-modifiable risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. Similar to humans, male mice are more susceptible to angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAAs than females. Previous studies demonstrated that castration of males markedly reduced the formation of AngII-induced AAAs. Progression of AAA size is associated with increased risk of aneurysm rupture. In this study, we hypothesized that castration of male mice would reduce the progression of established AngII-induced AAAs. Methods Male apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice were infused with AngII for 1 month to induce AAA formation. Aortic diameters were measured by ultrasound and mice were stratified into 2 groups that were either sham-operated or castrated. AngII infusions were continued for a further 2 months. Ultrasound was used to quantify lumen diameters, and excised aortas were processed for quantification of AAA size, volume, and tissue characteristics. Results Sham-operated mice exhibited progressive dilation of suprarenal aortic lumen diameters during continued AngII infusion. Castration significantly decreased aortic lumen diameters (study endpoint: 1.88 ± 0.05 mm vs 1.63 ± 0.04 mm; P<.05; sham-operated [n = 15] vs castration [n = 17], respectively). However, maximal external AAA diameters were not significantly different between sham-operated and castrated mice. The vascular volume/lumen volume ratio of excised AAAs imaged by ultrasound was significantly increased by castration (sham-operated, 4.8 ± 0.9; castration, 9.5 ± 2.0 %; n = 11/group; P<.05). Moreover, compared to thin walled AAAs of sham-operated mice, aneurysm sections from castrated mice exhibited increased smooth muscle -actin and collagen. Conclusions Removal of endogenous male hormones by castration selectively reduces aortic lumen expansion while not altering the external AAA dimensions. PMID:24439319

  12. Behavioural activity of angiotensin II (3-7)4Phe--analogue of natural fragment 3-7 of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Hoły, Z; Wiśniewski, K; Jachimowicz, A; Braszko, J

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of pentapeptide 3-7 angiotensin II [AII(3-7)], its analogue 3-7(4)Phe [AII(3-7)4Phe] and angiotensin II (AII) on the behaviour of adult male rats. The motility, stereotypy, spatial performance, learning of conditioned and passive avoidance responses allowing to avoid aversive stimulation were estimated. Examined peptides at the dose 1 nmol injected intracerebroventricularly 15 min before the experiment did not produce specific changes in psychomotor activity in the "open field" test and in retention of the spatial task in the Morris water maze. The rate of acquisition of conditioned avoidance responses was stimulated by AII(3-7)4Phe, AII(3-7) and AII administration. In the passive avoidance situation AII improved retention of the responses whereas analogue AII(3-7)4Phe and fragment 3-7 caused similar though less pronounced effect. All the peptides applied immediately before the experiment intensified stereotypy, a behaviour evoked by of apomorphine-1 mg/kg and amphetamine-7.5 mg/kg intraperitonealy injection. These results show similar psychotropic activity of analogue AII(3-7)4Phe, comparable with the activity of natural fragment 3-7 of angiotensin II.

  13. Des-aspartate angiotensin I (DAA-I) reduces endothelial dysfunction in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat through inhibition of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Loh, Wei Mee; Ling, Wei Chih; Murugan, Dharmani D; Lau, Yeh Siang; Achike, Francis I; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2015-08-01

    Des-aspartate angiotensin I (DAA-I), an endogenous nonapeptide, counteracts several effects of angiotensin II on vascular tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute protective effect of DAA-I on endothelial function in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as well as its effect on angiotensin II-induced contractions and oxidative stress. Aortic rings were incubated with DAA-I (0.1μM) for 30min prior to the assessment of angiotensin II-induced contractions (0.1nM-10μM) in WKY and SHR aortas. Total nitrate and nitrite levels were assessed using a colorimetric method and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of DAA-I was also assessed against endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Angiotensin II-induced contractions were significantly reduced by DAA-I, losartan and tempol. Incubation with ODQ (soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) and removal of the endothelium prevented the reduction of angiotensin II-induced contractions by DAA-I. Total nitrate and nitrite levels were increased in DAA-I, losartan and tempol treated-SHR tissues while ROS level was reduced by DAA-I and the latter inhibitors. In addition, DAA-I significantly improved the impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation in SHR aortas whilst sodium nitroprusside-induced endothelium-independent relaxation remained unaffected. The present findings indicate that improvement of endothelial function by DAA-I in the SHR aorta is mediated through endothelium-dependent release of nitric oxide and inhibition of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25869508

  14. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-03-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

  15. The 3-7 fragment of angiotensin II is probably responsible for its psychoactive properties.

    PubMed

    Braszko, J J; Własienko, J; Koziołkiewicz, W; Janecka, A; Wiśniewski, K

    1991-02-22

    The abilities of angiotensin II-(3-7)-pentapeptide (A-II-(3-7), 1 nmol) and angiotensin II (A-II, 1 nmol) to influence rat's psychomotor and cognitive behaviours were compared. Both peptides, given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), 15 min before the experiment, increased number of crossings, rearings and bar approaches in the open field. A-II-(3-7) as well as A-II, at the same doses and routes, significantly intensified stereotypy produced by apomorphine (1 mg/kg) and amphetamine (6.5 mg/kg), both given intraperitoneally. The 3-7 fragment of A-II and A-II in equimolar doses (1 nmol, i.c.v.) were similarly effective in improving learning of conditioned avoidance responses and recall of a passive avoidance behaviour. Taken together, these data and our previous findings indicate that, in rats, the 3-7 fragment of A-II is responsible for the psychoactive properties of angiotensins.

  16. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  17. Region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity in angiotensin II-salt hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Osborn, John W; Fink, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    It is now well accepted that many forms of experimental hypertension and human essential hypertension are caused by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. However, the role of region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been difficult to determine because methods for chronic measurement of SNA in conscious animals have not been available. We have recently combined indirect, and continuous and chronic direct, assessment of region-specific SNA to characterize hypertension produced by administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) to rats consuming a high-salt diet (Ang II-salt hypertension). Angiotensin II increases whole-body noradrenaline (NA) spillover and depressor responses to ganglionic blockade in rats consuming a high-salt diet, but not in rats on a normal-salt diet. Despite this evidence for increased 'whole-body SNA' in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats, renal SNA is decreased in this model and renal denervation does not attenuate the steady-state level of arterial pressure. In addition, neither lumbar SNA, which largely targets skeletal muscle, nor hindlimb NA spillover is changed from control levels in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. However, surgical denervation of the splanchnic vascular bed attenuates/abolishes the increase in arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance, as well as the decrease in vascular capacitance, observed in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. We hypothesize that the 'sympathetic signature' of Ang II-salt hypertension is characterized by increased splanchnic SNA, no change in skeletal muscle SNA and decreased renal SNA, and this sympathetic signature creates unique haemodynamic changes capable of producing sustained hypertension. PMID:19717492

  18. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production by nitric oxide synthase in thick ascending limbs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Saikumar, Jagannath H; Massey, Katherine J; Hong, Nancy J; Dominici, Fernando P; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to become a source of superoxide (O2 (-)) via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent process in endothelial cells. Ang II stimulates both NO and O2 (-) production in thick ascending limbs. We hypothesized that Ang II causes O2 (-) production by NOS in thick ascending limbs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. NO production was measured in isolated rat thick ascending limbs using DAF-FM, whereas O2 (-) was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions using the lucigenin assay. Consistent stimulation of NO was observed with 1 nmol/L Ang II (P < 0.001; n = 9). This concentration of Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) production by 50% (1.77 ± 0.26 vs. 2.62 ± 0.36 relative lights units (RLU)/s/μg protein; P < 0.04; n = 5). In the presence of the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) decreased from 2.02 ± 0.29 to 1.10 ± 0.11 RLU/s/μg protein (P < 0.01; n = 8). L-arginine alone did not change Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) (2.34 ± 0.22 vs. 2.29 ± 0.29 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 5). In the presence of Ang II plus the PKC α/β1 inhibitor Gö 6976, L-NAME had no effect on O2 (-) production (0.78 ± 0.23 vs. 0.62 ± 0.11 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 7). In the presence of Ang II plus apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, L-NAME did not change O2 (-) (0.59 ± 0.04 vs. 0.61 ± ×0.08 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 5). We conclude that: (1) Ang II causes NOS to produce O2 (-) in thick ascending limbs via a PKC- and NADPH oxidase-dependent process; and (2) the effect of Ang II is not due to limited substrate.

  19. Interaction of angiotensin II with the C-terminal 300-320 fragment of the rat angiotensin II receptor AT1a monitored by NMR.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Nicola; Gaggelli, Elena; Gaggelli, Nicola; Lozzi, Luisa; Neri, Paolo; Valensin, Daniela; Valensin, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Interaction between angiotensin II (Ang II) and the fragment peptide 300-320 (fCT300-320) of the rat angiotensin II receptor AT1a was demonstrated by relaxation measurements, NOE effects, chemical shift variations, and CD measurements. The correlation times modulating dipolar interactions for the bound and free forms of Ang II were estimated by the ratio of the nonselective and single-selective longitudinal relaxation rates. The intermolecular NOEs observed in NOESY spectra between HN protons of 9Lys(fCT) and 6His(ang), 10Phe(fCT) and 8Phe(ang), HN proton of 3Tyr(fCT) and Halpha of 4Tyr(ang), 5Phe(fCT)Hdelta and Halpha of 4Tyr(ang) indicated that Ang II aromatic residues are directly involved in the interaction, as also verified by relaxation data. Some fCT300-320 backbone features were inferred by the CSI method and CD experiments revealing that the presence of Ang II enhances the existential probability of helical conformations in the fCT fragment. Restrained molecular dynamics using the simulated annealing protocol was performed with intermolecular NOEs as constraints, imposing an alpha-helix backbone structure to fCT300-320 fragment. In the built model, one strongly preferred interaction was found that allows intermolecular stacking between aromatic rings and forces the peptide to wrap around the 6Leu side chain of the receptor fragment.

  20. Hormonal stimulation of mitochondrial glutaminase. Effects of vasopressin, angiotensin II, adrenaline and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Corvera, S; García-Sáinz, J A

    1983-01-01

    Adrenaline (through alpha 1-adrenoceptors), vasopressin and angiotensin II stimulate mitochondrial glutaminase activity. This stimulation probably contributes to the ureogenic effect of these hormones. The activity of the enzyme is sensitive to Ca2+ depletion. A role of Ca2+ in hormonal modulation of glutaminase activity is suggested. PMID:6870814

  1. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production in the thick ascending limb by activating NOX4

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nancy J.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulates production of superoxide (O2−) by NADPH oxidase (NOX) in medullary thick ascending limbs (TALs). There are three isoforms of the catalytic subunit (NOX1, 2, and 4) known to be expressed in the kidney. We hypothesized that NOX2 mediates ANG II-induced O2− production by TALs. To test this, we measured NOX1, 2, and 4 mRNA and protein by RT-PCR and Western blot in TAL suspensions from rats and found three catalytic subunits expressed in the TAL. We measured O2− production using a lucigenin-based assay. To assess the contribution of NOX2, we measured ANG II-induced O2− production in wild-type and NOX2 knockout mice (KO). ANG II increased O2− production by 346 relative light units (RLU)/mg protein in the wild-type mice (n = 9; P < 0.0007 vs. control). In the knockout mice, ANG II increased O2− production by 290 RLU/mg protein (n = 9; P < 0.007 vs. control). This suggests that NOX2 does not contribute to ANG II-induced O2− production (P < 0.6 WT vs. KO). To test whether NOX4 mediates the effect of ANG II, we selectively decreased NOX4 expression in rats using an adenovirus that expresses NOX4 short hairpin (sh)RNA. Six to seven days after in vivo transduction of the kidney outer medulla, NOX4 mRNA was reduced by 77%, while NOX1 and NOX2 mRNA was unaffected. In control TALs, ANG II stimulated O2− production by 96%. In TALs transduced with NOX4 shRNA, ANG II-stimulated O2− production was not significantly different from the baseline. We concluded that NOX4 is the main catalytic isoform of NADPH oxidase that contributes to ANG II-stimulated O2− production by TALs. PMID:22875785

  2. The role of IL-6 in the physiologic versus hypertensive blood pressure actions of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Manhiani, M Marlina; Seth, Dale M; Banes-Berceli, Amy K L; Satou, Ryosuke; Navar, L Gabriel; Brands, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a critical physiologic regulator of volume homeostasis and mean arterial pressure (MAP), yet it also is known to induce immune mechanisms that contribute to hypertension. This study determined the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the physiologic effect of AngII to maintain normal MAP during low-salt (LS) intake, and whether hypertension induced by plasma AngII concentrations measured during LS diet required IL-6. IL-6 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were placed on LS diet for 7 days, and MAP was measured 19 h/day with telemetry. MAP was not affected by LS in either group, averaging 101 ± 4 and 100 ± 4 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively, over the last 3 days. Seven days of ACEI decreased MAP ∼25 mmHg in both groups. In other KO and WT mice, AngII was infused at 200 ng/kg per minute to approximate plasma AngII levels during LS. Surgical reduction of kidney mass and high-salt diet were used to amplify the blood pressure effect. The increase in MAP after 7 days was not different, averaging 20 ± 5 and 22 ± 6 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer of activated transcription (STAT3) phosphorylation were not affected by LS, but were increased by AngII infusion at 200 and 800 ng/kg per minute. These data suggest that physiologic levels of AngII do not activate or require IL-6 to affect blood pressure significantly, whether AngII is maintaining blood pressure on LS diet or causing blood pressure to increase. JAK2/STAT3 activation, however, is tightly associated with AngII hypertension, even when caused by physiologic levels of AngII. PMID:26486161

  3. Different reactivity to angiotensin II of peripheral and renal arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effect of acute and chronic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidi, E.; Hollenberg, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    We assessed renal blood flow and pressor responses to graded angiotensin II doses in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats ingesting a diet containing 1.6% sodium basally and after acute and chronic angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril. In the basal state the pressor response to angiotensin II was enhanced (P<0.0005) and the renal vascular response was blunted (P<0.005) in SHR compared with WKY rats. After acute captopril administration the pressor response was enhanced in both strains, and the difference between them was maintained, while the renal vascular response was enhanced in both, but more in SHR, so that the renal vascular response in the SHR became larger than in WKY (P<0.0001). Chronic captopril treatment blunted both pressor and renal responses in WKY rats, but only the pressor response in SHR. The renal vessels of SHR seem to be different from those of WKY rats in reaction to exogenous angiotensin II, and in response to both acute administration of captopril (probably acting through blockade of angiotensin II production) and chronic administration of captopril (probably acting mainly through accumulation of kinin or production of prostaglandins).

  4. Chronic resveratrol reverses a mild angiotensin II-induced pressor effect in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to reduce blood pressure in animal models of hypertension, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that resveratrol infusion increases sodium excretion. We hypothesized that chronic ingestion of resveratrol would reduce angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in blood pressure by decreasing oxidative stress and by also decreasing sodium reabsorption through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. We infused rats with vehicle or 80 μg Ang II/d over 4 weeks. Vehicle or Ang II-infused rats were individually housed, pair fed, and placed on a diet of normal chow or normal chow plus 146 mg resveratrol/d. Groups included 1) control, 2) resveratrol-fed, 3) Ang II-treated, and 4) Ang II plus resveratrol. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff. During the 4th week, rats were placed in metabolic caging for urine collection. NO2/NO3 and 8-isoprostane excretion were measured. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure in the 1st week by +14±5 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 3 and +10±3 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 4, respectively. Blood pressure was unchanged in Groups 1 and 2. After 4 weeks, blood pressure remained elevated in Group 3 rats with Ang II (+9±3 mmHg, P<0.05), but in Group 4, blood pressure was no longer elevated (+2±2 mmHg). We found no significant differences between the groups in sodium excretion or cumulative sodium balance (18.49±0.12, 17.75±0.16, 17.97±0.17, 18.46±0.18 μEq Na+/7 d in Groups 1-4, respectively). Urinary excretion of NO2/NO3 in the four groups was 1) 1631±207 μmol/24 h, 2) 1045±236 μmol/24 h, 3) 1490±161 μmol/24 h, and 4) 609±17 μmol/24 h. 8-Isoprostane excretion was 1) 63.85±19.39 nmol/24 h, 2) 73.57±22.02 nmol/24 h, 3) 100.69±37.62 nmol/24 h, and 4) 103.00±38.88 nmol/24 h. We conclude that chronic resveratrol supplementation does not blunt Ang II-increased blood pressure, and while resveratrol has mild depressor effects, these do not seem to be due to natriuresis or enhanced renal nitric oxide

  5. Chronic resveratrol reverses a mild angiotensin II-induced pressor effect in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to reduce blood pressure in animal models of hypertension, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that resveratrol infusion increases sodium excretion. We hypothesized that chronic ingestion of resveratrol would reduce angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in blood pressure by decreasing oxidative stress and by also decreasing sodium reabsorption through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. We infused rats with vehicle or 80 μg Ang II/d over 4 weeks. Vehicle or Ang II-infused rats were individually housed, pair fed, and placed on a diet of normal chow or normal chow plus 146 mg resveratrol/d. Groups included 1) control, 2) resveratrol-fed, 3) Ang II-treated, and 4) Ang II plus resveratrol. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff. During the 4th week, rats were placed in metabolic caging for urine collection. NO2/NO3 and 8-isoprostane excretion were measured. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure in the 1st week by +14±5 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 3 and +10±3 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 4, respectively. Blood pressure was unchanged in Groups 1 and 2. After 4 weeks, blood pressure remained elevated in Group 3 rats with Ang II (+9±3 mmHg, P<0.05), but in Group 4, blood pressure was no longer elevated (+2±2 mmHg). We found no significant differences between the groups in sodium excretion or cumulative sodium balance (18.49±0.12, 17.75±0.16, 17.97±0.17, 18.46±0.18 μEq Na+/7 d in Groups 1–4, respectively). Urinary excretion of NO2/NO3 in the four groups was 1) 1631±207 μmol/24 h, 2) 1045±236 μmol/24 h, 3) 1490±161 μmol/24 h, and 4) 609±17 μmol/24 h. 8-Isoprostane excretion was 1) 63.85±19.39 nmol/24 h, 2) 73.57±22.02 nmol/24 h, 3) 100.69±37.62 nmol/24 h, and 4) 103.00±38.88 nmol/24 h. We conclude that chronic resveratrol supplementation does not blunt Ang II-increased blood pressure, and while resveratrol has mild depressor effects, these do not seem to be due to natriuresis or enhanced renal nitric oxide

  6. Orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner inhibits angiotensin II- stimulated PAI-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Min, Ae-Kyung; Ryu, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Park, Young Joo; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Wan-Ju; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2010-01-31

    Angiotensin II is a major effector molecule in the development of cardiovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II promotes cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation through the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. Previously, we demonstrated that small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver through the inhibition of TGF-beta signaling pathways. Here, we investigated whether SHP inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 expression in VSMCs. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP (Ad- SHP) in VSMCs inhibited angiotensin II- and TGF-beta-stimulated PAI-1 expression. Ad-SHP also inhibited angiotensin II-, TGF-beta- and Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activity, and angiotensin II-stimulated AP-1 activity. The level of PAI-1 expression was significantly higher in VSMCs of SHP(-/-) mice than wild type mice. Moreover, loss of SHP increased PAI-1 mRNA expression after angiotensin II treatment. These results suggest that SHP inhibits PAI-1 expression in VSMCs through the suppression of TGF-beta/Smad3 and AP-1 activity. Thus, agents that target the induction of SHP expression in VSMCs might help prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  7. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in animal models of vascular, cardiac, metabolic and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C; Brunner, Hans R; Foster, Carolyn; Huo, Yong

    2016-08-01

    We have reviewed the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (ARBs) in various animal models of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac function, hypertrophy and fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and renal function and morphology. Those of azilsartan and telmisartan have been included comprehensively whereas those of other ARBs have been included systematically but without intention of completeness. ARBs as a class lower blood pressure in established hypertension and prevent hypertension development in all applicable animal models except those with a markedly suppressed renin-angiotensin system; blood pressure lowering even persists for a considerable time after discontinuation of treatment. This translates into a reduced mortality, particularly in models exhibiting marked hypertension. The retrieved data on vascular, cardiac and renal function and morphology as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism are discussed to address three main questions: 1. Can ARB effects on blood vessels, heart, kidney and metabolic function be explained by blood pressure lowering alone or are they additionally directly related to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system? 2. Are they shared by other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, e.g. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors? 3. Are some effects specific for one or more compounds within the ARB class? Taken together these data profile ARBs as a drug class with unique properties that have beneficial effects far beyond those on blood pressure reduction and, in some cases distinct from those of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The clinical relevance of angiotensin receptor-independent effects of some ARBs remains to be determined. PMID:27130806

  8. Lack of angiotensin II conversion to angiotensin III increases water but not alcohol consumption in aminopeptidase A-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Faber, Franziska; Gembardt, Florian; Sun, Xiaoou; Mizutani, Shigehiko; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Walther, Thomas

    2006-09-11

    Elevated central concentrations of the vasopressor octapeptide angiotensin (Ang) II increase the water intake in mammals. Recently, we showed that central AngII is also crucial in alcohol-consuming behavior. Since the heptapeptide AngIII, an AngII metabolite, is discussed to mediate AngII-related effects, we investigated water and alcohol consumption in mice, genetically deficient in aminopeptidase A (APA), a peptidase responsible for AngII conversion to AngIII. Sixteen male APA-deficient mice and their age matched wild-type controls were monitored on their water intake under basal conditions and total fluid and alcohol intake before and after social stress in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Alterations were connected to the regulation in activity of Ang-related peptidases (APA, ACE; ACE2) in brain regions involved in alcohol intake and peripheral organs. In comparison to their wild-type controls, APA-deficient mice drank significantly more water but not more alcohol at all investigated time points. A reduction in water intake, as observed in wild-type animals after social stress, did not occur in knockout mice. However, the reduction in alcohol consumption after social stress was significantly reduced in both strains. Alcohol consumption upregulated all three peptidases in the kidney, but not in lung. Notable, renal ACE2 activity was significantly higher in APA-deficient mice under basal condition. While the inhibition of AngII metabolism to AngIII does not influence the alcohol intake, water consumption in mice deficient for APA was significantly elevated. These differences induced by an altered AngII/AngIII ratio oppose the hypothesis that central AngII and AngIII act in a congruent pattern.

  9. Life and death in the microcirculation: a role for angiotensin II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II (ANGII) plays a critical role in the maintenance of the microcirculation and in the anatomical loss of microvessels (rarefaction) that occurs in low renin forms of hypertension and in animals fed a high-salt diet. Elevations in sodium intake can trigger a series of hemodynamic and hormonal responses culminating in a substantial rarefaction of small arterioles and capillaries in both normal and reduced renal mass hypertensive rats. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, Northern blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of microdissected blood vessels were used to localize ANGII receptors in the microcirculation. Chronic infusion of ANGII and other physiologic and pharmacologic manipulations of the reninangiotensin system in rats was combined with morphologic and mathematical analysis of the network architecture. RESULTS: We have shown that rarefaction of the microcirculation can cause an increase in total peripheral resistance, reduced tissue perfusion, decreased oxygen delivery, and impaired organ function. Although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood, a number of key observations point to a role for the renin-angiotensin system in this effect. First, ANGII infused systemically at subpressor levels, or locally into the skeletal muscle interstitium, can induce significant microvessel growth. Second, localization of ANGII receptor proteins by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and RNA localization by RT-PCR confirm the presence of AT1 receptors, which are growth-stimulatory, and AT2 receptors, which are growth-inhibitory in the microcirculation. Third, maintenance of ANGII at normal levels during periods of hypertension or high-salt diet completely eliminates rarefaction. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that ANGII acting through AT1- and AT2-receptor mechanisms modulate vessel density during high-salt diet and hypertension.

  10. Serotonin uptake rates in platelets from angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Fletcher, Terry W; Li, Yicong; Rusch, Nancy J; Kilic, Fusun

    2013-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that contributes to hypertension. Although platelets in blood from hypertensive subjects have an abnormal biological profile, it is unclear if circulating Ang II influences platelet aggregation or thrombus formation. One of the abnormalities presented to the platelets during hypertension is an elevated plasma concentration of serotonin (5-HT) caused by reduced 5-HT uptake secondary to loss of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) on the platelet plasma membrane. In the current study, we evaluated in vivo platelet function after 7 days of subcutaneous Ang II infusion to establish hypertension in mice and additionally assessed the biology of isolated platelets exposed to Ang II in vitro. The administration of Ang II elevated systolic blood pressure, but markers of platelet activation including P-selectin and (PE)Jon/A staining were not changed. However, the aggregation response to collagen was reduced in isolated platelets from Ang II-infused mice, which also showed reduced 5-HT uptake by SERT. In vitro exposure of isolated platelets to Ang II also resulted in a loss of surface SERT associated with a reduced aggregation response to collagen. These abnormalities were reversed by increasing concentrations of the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Interestingly, SERT KO mice failed to fully develop hypertension in response to Ang II infusion and isolated platelets from these animals were insensitive to the anti-aggregatory influence of Ang II. Thus, Ang II blunts the aggregation responses of platelets and the mechanism underlying this action may involve a loss of SERT on the platelet plasma membrane. The latter event depletes intracellular 5-HT in platelets, an event that is associated with reduced aggregation. The widespread use of antihypertensive drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system suggest the potential clinical utility of our findings and emphasize the importance of understanding

  11. Serotonin uptake rates in platelets from angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preeti; Fletcher, Terry W.; Li, Yicong; Rusch, Nancy J.; Kilic, Fusun

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that contributes to hypertension. Although platelets in blood from hypertensive subjects have an abnormal biological profile, it is unclear if circulating Ang II influences platelet aggregation or thrombus formation. One of the abnormalities presented to the platelets during hypertension is an elevated plasma concentration of serotonin (5-HT) caused by reduced 5-HT uptake secondary to loss of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) on the platelet plasma membrane. In the current study, we evaluated in vivo platelet function after 7 days of subcutaneous Ang II infusion to establish hypertension in mice and additionally assessed the biology of isolated platelets exposed to Ang II in vitro. The administration of Ang II elevated systolic blood pressure, but markers of platelet activation including P-selectin and PEJon/A staining were not changed. However, the aggregation response to collagen was reduced in isolated platelets from Ang II-infused mice, which also showed reduced 5-HT uptake by SERT. In vitro exposure of isolated platelets to Ang II also resulted in a loss of surface SERT associated with a reduced aggregation response to collagen. These abnormalities were reversed by increasing concentrations of the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Interestingly, SERT KO mice failed to fully develop hypertension in response to Ang II infusion and isolated platelets from these animals were insensitive to the anti-aggregatory influence of Ang II. Thus, Ang II blunts the aggregation responses of platelets and the mechanism underlying this action may involve a loss of SERT on the platelet plasma membrane. The latter event depletes intracellular 5-HT in platelets, an event that is associated with reduced aggregation. The widespread use of antihypertensive drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system suggest the potential clinical utility of our findings and emphasize the importance of understanding the

  12. Angiotensin-(1-7) acts as a vasodepressor agent via angiotensin II type 2 receptors in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Walters, Pia E; Gaspari, Tracey A; Widdop, Robert E

    2005-05-01

    Given that angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]) has been frequently reported to exert direct in vitro vascular effects but less often in vivo, we investigated whether a vasodepressor effect of Ang-(1-7) could be unmasked acutely in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) against a background of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured over a 5-day protocol in various groups of rats randomized to receive the following drug combinations: saline, AT1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist candesartan (0.01 or 0.1 mg/kg IV) alone, Ang-(1-7) (5 pmol/min) alone, candesartan plus Ang-(1-7), and candesartan plus Ang-(1-7) and angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor (AT2R) antagonist PD123319 (50 microg/kg per minute). In Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, saline, Ang-(1-7), or candesartan alone caused no significant alteration in MAP, whereas Ang-(1-7) coadministered with candesartan caused a marked, sustained reduction in MAP. A similar unmasking of a vasodepressor response to Ang-(1-7) during AT1R blockade was observed in SHR. Moreover, the AT(2)R antagonist PD123319 markedly attenuated the enhanced depressor response evoked by the Ang-(1-7)/candesartan combination in SHR and WKY rats, whereas in other experiments, the putative Ang-(1-7) antagonist A-779 (5 and 50 pmol/min) did not attenuate this vasodepressor effect. In separate experiments, the bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (100 microg/kg IV) or the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 mg/kg IV) abolished the depressor effect of Ang-(1-7) in the presence of candesartan. Collectively, these results suggest that Ang-(1-7) evoked a depressor response during AT1R blockade via activation of AT2R, which involves the bradykinin-NO cascade.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (P<0.05) in LXSN rats (23+/-1, 37+/-2, and 52+/-2 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng). Importantly, treating LSN-HHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli.

  14. Angiopoietin-2 attenuates angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyou; Moran, Corey S.; Trollope, Alexandra F.; Woodward, Lynn; Kinobe, Robert; Rush, Catherine M.; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation are implicated in aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis and regulated by angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2). The effect of Angpt2 administration on experimental aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis was examined. Six-month-old male apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE−/−) mice were infused with angiotensin II (AngII) and administered subcutaneous human Fc-protein (control) or recombinant Angpt2 (rAngpt2) over 14 days. Administration of rAngpt2 significantly inhibited AngII-induced aortic dilatation and rupture of the suprarenal aorta (SRA), and development of atherosclerosis within the aortic arch. These effects were blood pressure and plasma lipoprotein independent and associated with Tie2 activation and down-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) within the SRA. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and interleukin-6 were significantly lower in mice receiving rAngpt2. Immunostaining for the monocyte/macrophage marker MOMA-2 and the angiogenesis marker CD31 within the SRA were less in mice receiving rAngpt2 than controls. The percentage of inflammatory (Ly6Chi) monocytes within the bone marrow was increased while that in peripheral blood was decreased by rAngpt2 administration. In conclusion, administration of rAngpt2 attenuated angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice associated with reduced aortic inflammation and angiogenesis. Up-regulation of Angpt2 may have potential therapeutic value in patients with aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis. PMID:27767064

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-α produced in the kidney contributes to angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiandong; Patel, Mehul B; Griffiths, Robert; Mao, Alice; Song, Young-soo; Karlovich, Norah S; Sparks, Matthew A; Jin, Huixia; Wu, Min; Lin, Eugene E; Crowley, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Immune system activation contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and the resulting progression of chronic kidney disease. In this regard, we recently identified a role for proinflammatory Th1 T-lymphocyte responses in hypertensive kidney injury. Because Th1 cells generate interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we hypothesized that interferon-γ and TNF-α propagate renal damage during hypertension induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, after confirming that mice genetically deficient of Th1 immunity were protected from kidney glomerular injury despite a preserved hypertensive response, we subjected mice lacking interferon-γ or TNF-α to our model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease. Interferon deficiency had no impact on blood pressure elevation or urinary albumin excretion during chronic angiotensin II infusion. By contrast, TNF-deficient (knockout) mice had blunted hypertensive responses and reduced end-organ damage in our model. As angiotensin II-infused TNF knockout mice had exaggerated endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney and enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability, we examined the actions of TNF-α generated from renal parenchymal cells in hypertension by transplanting wild-type or TNF knockout kidneys into wild-type recipients before the induction of hypertension. Transplant recipients lacking TNF solely in the kidney had blunted hypertensive responses to angiotensin II and augmented renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, confirming a role for kidney-derived TNF-α to promote angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation by limiting renal nitric oxide generation.

  16. Long-Term Reduction of High Blood Pressure by Angiotensin II DNA Vaccine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nakagami, Futoshi; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Shimamura, Munehisa; Kurinami, Hitomi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to design DNA vaccines for high blood pressure and eventually develop human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months. Systolic blood pressure was consistently lower in hepatitis B core-Ang II group after immunization, whereas blood pressure reduction was continued for at least 6 months. Perivascular fibrosis in heart tissue was also significantly decreased in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. Survival rate was significantly improved in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. This study demonstrated that Ang II DNA vaccine to spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly lowered high blood pressure for at least 6 months. In addition, Ang II DNA vaccines induced an adequate humoral immune response while avoiding the activation of self-reactive T cells, assessed by ELISPOT assay. Future development of DNA vaccine to treat hypertension may provide a new therapeutic option to treat hypertension. PMID:26015450

  17. Investigation of long chain omega-3 PUFAs on arterial blood pressure, vascular reactivity and survival in angiotensin II-infused Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S; Nataatmadja, Maria; Vella, Rebecca K; Fenning, Andrew S; Brooks, Peter R; Russell, Fraser D

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory vascular disease. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in an angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model of AAA. This study investigated the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in fourteen angiotensin II-infused ApoE(-/-) male mice. Blood pressure was obtained using a non-invasive tail cuff method and whole blood was collected by cardiac puncture. Vascular reactivity of the thoracic aorta was assessed using wire myography and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by immunohistochemistry. A high LC n-3 PUFA diet increased the omega-3 index and reduced the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio. At day 10 post-infusion with angiotensin II, there was no difference in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure in mice fed the high or low n-3 PUFA diets. The high LC n-3 PUFA diet resulted in a non-significant trend for delay in time to death from abdominal aortic rupture. Vascular reactivity and eNOS activation remained unchanged in mice fed the high compared to the low LC n-3 PUFA diet. This study argues against direct improvement in vascular reactivity in ApoE(-/-) mice that were supplemented with n-3 PUFA for 8 weeks prior to infusion with angiotensin II.

  18. Activation of calcineurin in human failing heart ventricle by endothelin-1, angiotensin II and urotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, Joan; Wang, Jianchun; Russell, Fraser D; Molenaar, Peter

    2005-06-01

    1 The calcineurin (CaN) enzyme-transcriptional pathway is critically involved in hypertrophy of heart muscle in some animal models. Currently there is no information concerning the regulation of CaN activation by endogenous agonists in human heart. 2 Human right ventricular trabeculae from explanted human (14 male/2 female) failing hearts were set up in a tissue bath and electrically paced at 1 Hz and incubated with or without 100 nM endothelin-1 (ET-1), 10 M, angiotensin-II (Ang II) or 20 nM human urotensin-II (hUII) for 30 min. Tissues from four patients were incubated with 200 nM tacrolimus (FK506) for 30 min and then incubated in the presence or absence of ET-1 for a further 30 min. 3 ET-1 increased contractile force in all 13 patients (P<0.001). Ang II and hUII increased contractile force in three out of eight and four out of 10 patients but overall nonsignificantly (P>0.1). FK506 had no effect on contractile force (P=0.12). 4 ET-1, Ang II and hUII increased calcineurin activity by 32, 71 and 15%, respectively, while FK506 reduced activity by 34%. ET-1 in the presence of FK506 did not restore calcineurin activity (P=0.1). 5 There was no relationship between basal CaN activity and expression levels in the right ventricle. Increased levels of free phosphate were detected in ventricular homogenates that were incubated with PKC(epsilon) compared to samples incubated without PKC(epsilon). 6 Endogenous cardiostimulants which activate G(alpha)q-coupled receptors increase the activity of calcineurin in human heart following acute (30 min) exposure. PKC may contribute to this effect by increasing levels of phosphorylated calcineurin substrate.

  19. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and PKC-{alpha} are involved in the inhibitory effects of Ib, a novel nonpeptide AngiotensinII subtype AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist, on AngiotensinII-induced vascular contraction in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Wang Wei; Wang Qiujuan Wu Jinhui; Xu Jinyi; Wu Xiaoming

    2007-12-07

    The vasoactive peptide AngiotensinII (AngII) is an important factor in the cardiovascular system, exerting most of its effects through AngII receptor type 1 (AT{sub 1}). Ib, a new nonpeptide AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist, has been observed to play a positive role in the treatment of hypertension in preclinical tests. In this study, the inhibitory effects of Ib on AngII-induced vascular contraction in vitro were investigated, and its molecular mechanisms were further explored. In endothelium-denuded aortic rings from rabbits, Ib produced a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve for AngII with a decrease in the maximal contractile response and the pD{sub 2}{sup '} was 7.29. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the specific binding of [{sup 125}I]AngII to AT{sub 1} receptors was inhibited by Ib in a concentration-dependent manner with IC{sub 50} value of 0.96 nM. Ib could inhibit both AngII-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization from internal stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx. Moreover, the translocation of PKC-{alpha} stimulated by AngII was inhibited by Ib. Thus, the inhibitory effects of Ib might be related with the depression on AngII-induced increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and translocation of PKC-{alpha} through blocking AT{sub 1} receptors.

  20. Key features of candesartan cilexetil and a comparison with other angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sever, P S

    1999-01-01

    Current research on angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists (AIIRAs) and selected studies presented at the recent symposium held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, on 6 June 1998, titled 'Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists are NOT all the Same' are reviewed. AIIRAs offer a number of potential advantages over alternative antihypertensive agents acting via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. They combine blood pressure-lowering effects at least equivalent to those of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, coupled with placebo-like tolerability. Candesartan cilexetil is a novel AIIRA that has demonstrated clinical efficacy superior to losartan, has a sustained duration of action over 24 hours (trough:peak ratio close to 100%) and is well tolerated in patients with essential hypertension. Candesartan cilexetil has a rapid onset of action (approximately 80% of total blood pressure reduction within the first 2 weeks) and dose-dependent effects on blood pressure, is comparable in efficacy to a number of classes of antihypertensives, and is effective in combination therapy (eg, with hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine). This favourable profile may be due in part to the highly selective, tight binding to and slow dissociation of candesartan from the AT1 receptor. Preliminary studies suggest that candesartan cilexetil also protects end organs (kidney, heart, vasculature, and brain) beyond blood pressure control. PMID:10076915

  1. Angiotensin II receptor binding in the rat hypothalamus and circumventricular organs during dietary sodium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Mendelsohn, F A

    1989-10-01

    The effect of dietary sodium intake on angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor binding in the rat brain was studied using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. After 2 weeks of sodium deprivation, the peripheral angiotensin system was activated as shown by increased plasma renin activity (4-fold) and plasma aldosterone concentration (approximately 40-fold). At the same time, Ang II receptor binding in the adrenal glomerulosa zone increased by 40%. Frozen brain sections prepared from 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 control, 6 sodium-deprived) were incubated with 125I[Sar1, Ile8] Ang II, exposed to X-ray film, and Ang II receptor binding in individual brain nuclei was quantitated by computerized densitometry. Ang II binding in the area postrema was significantly suppressed in the sodium-deprived rats (60% of control; p less than 0.05). No change was observed in the other circumventricular organs studied, the subfornical organ or organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Ang II binding in the solitary tract nucleus was not affected by the dietary salt treatment. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, there was a small (9%) but significant (p less than 0.001) increase in Ang II receptor binding in the sodium-deprived group. However, no change was observed in the hypothalamic median preoptic or suprachiasmatic nuclei, areas with similarly high Ang II receptor binding. These results suggest that only a limited subset of brain Ang II receptors respond to sodium deprivation and do so in a region-specific manner. These results support evidence that the central angiotensin system may contribute to the regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.

  2. Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction by Fine Concentrated Ambient Particles (CAPs) are Mediated by Angiotensin-II

    PubMed Central

    Ghelfi, Elisa; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Lawrence, Joy; Millet, Emil; Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to fine Concentrated Ambient Particles (CAPs) increases cardiac oxidants by mechanisms involving modulation of the sympathovagal tone on the heart. Angiotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor and a sympatho-excitatory peptide involved in the regulation of blood pressure. We hypothesized that increases in angiotensin-II after fine PM exposure could be involved in the development of cardiac oxidative stress. Adult rats were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (Benazepril ®), or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB, Valsartan ®) before exposure to fine PM aerosols or filtered air. Exposures were carried out for 5 hours in the chamber of the Harvard Fine Particle Concentrator (fine PM mass concentration: 440 ± 80 μg/m3). At the end of the exposure the animals were tested for in situ chemiluminescence (CL) of the heart, TBARS and for plasma levels of angiotensin-II. Also, continuous ECG measurements were collected on a subgroup of exposed animals. PM exposure was associated with statistically significant increases in plasma angiotensin concentrations. Pretreatment with the ACE inhibitor effectively lowered angiotensin concentration, whereas ARB treatment led to increases in angiotensin above the PM-only level. PM exposure also led to significant increases in heart oxidative stress (CL, TBARs), and a shortening of the T-end to T-peak interval on the ECG that were prevented by treatment with both the ACE inhibitor and ARB. These results show that ambient fine particles can increase plasma levels of angiotensin-II and suggest a role of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of particle-related acute cardiac events. PMID:20718632

  3. Effects of angiotensin II blockade on inflammation-induced alterations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Hanafy, S; Dagenais, N J; Dryden, W F; Jamali, F

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inflammation elevates plasma verapamil concentrations but diminishes pharmacological response. Angiotensin II is a pro-inflammatory mediator. We examined the effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of verapamil, as well as the binding properties and amounts of its target protein in calcium channels, in a rat model of inflammation. Experimental approach: We used 4 groups of male Sprague–Dawley rats (220–280 g): inflamed-placebo, inflamed-treated, control-placebo and control-treated. Inflammation as pre-adjuvant arthritis was induced by injecting Mycobacterium butyricum on day 0. From day 6 to 12, 30 mg kg−1 oral valsartan or placebo was administered twice daily. On day 12, a single oral dose of 25 mg kg−1 verapamil was administered and prolongation of the PR interval measured and plasma samples collected for verapamil and nor-verapamil analysis. The amounts of the target protein Cav1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels in heart was measured by Western blotting and ligand binding with 3H-nitrendipine. Key results: Inflammation reduced effects of verapamil, although plasma drug concentrations were increased. This was associated with a reduction in ligand binding capacity and amount of the calcium channel target protein in heart extracts. Valsartan significantly reversed the down-regulating effect of inflammation on verapamil's effects on the PR interval, and the lower level of protein binding and the decreased target protein. Conclusions and implications: Reduced responses to calcium channel blockers in inflammatory conditions appeared to be due to a reduced amount of target protein that was reversed by the angiotensin II antagonist, valsartan. PMID:17965735

  4. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells play a protective role in angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysm formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yodoi, Keiko; Yamashita, Tomoya; Sasaki, Naoto; Kasahara, Kazuyuki; Emoto, Takuo; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kita, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Mizoguchi, Taiji; Sparwasser, Tim; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to play a protective role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation, it remains unclear whether expansion of endogenous Foxp3(+) Tregs prevents AAA. In the current study, we determined the effects of endogenous Foxp3(+) Treg expansion or depletion in an experimental model of AAA. We continuously infused 12-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-cholesterol diet with angiotensin II (n=60) or normal saline (n=12) by implanting osmotic mini-pumps and evaluated AAA formation at 16 weeks. The angiotensin II-infused mice received interleukin-2/anti-interleukin-2 monoclonal antibody complex (interleukin-2 complex; n=31) or PBS (n=29). Eighty-one percent of angiotensin II-infused mice developed AAA, with 42% mortality possibly because of aneurysm rupture. Interleukin-2 complex treatment systemically increased the number of Foxp3(+) Tregs and significantly decreased the incidence (52%) and mortality (17%) of AAA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced accumulation of macrophages and increased numbers of Foxp3(+) Tregs in aneurysmal tissues, suggesting that expansion of Tregs may suppress local inflammation in the vessel wall and provide protection against AAA formation. Furthermore, genetic depletion of Foxp3(+) Tregs led to a significant increase in the mortality of AAA, suggesting the protective role of Foxp3(+) Tregs against AAA. Our findings suggest that Foxp3(+) Tregs may play a protective role in AAA formation and that promotion of an endogenous regulatory immune response may be a potentially valuable therapeutic approach for preventing AAA. PMID:25601931

  5. Angiotensin II contributes to podocyte injury by increasing TRPC6 expression via an NFAT-mediated positive feedback signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Tom; Sloan, Alexis J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Flesche, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Kistler, Andreas D; Bakker, Marinka; Bindels, Rene J M; de Boer, Rudolf A; Möller, Clemens C; Hamming, Inge; Navis, Gerjan; Wetzels, Jack F M; Berden, Jo H M; Reiser, Jochen; Faul, Christian; van der Vlag, Johan

    2011-10-01

    The transient receptor potential channel C6 (TRPC6) is a slit diaphragm-associated protein in podocytes involved in regulating glomerular filter function. Gain-of-function mutations in TRPC6 cause hereditary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and several human acquired proteinuric diseases show increased glomerular TRPC6 expression. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key contributor to glomerular disease and may regulate TRPC6 expression in nonrenal cells. We demonstrate that AngII regulates TRPC6 mRNA and protein levels in cultured podocytes and that AngII infusion enhances glomerular TRPC6 expression in vivo. In animal models for human FSGS (doxorubicin nephropathy) and increased renin-angiotensin system activity (Ren2 transgenic rats), glomerular TRPC6 expression was increased in an AngII-dependent manner. TRPC6 expression correlated with glomerular damage markers and glomerulosclerosis. We show that the regulation of TRPC6 expression by AngII and doxorubicin requires TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) influx and the activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin and its substrate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Accordingly, calcineurin inhibition by cyclosporine decreased TRPC6 expression and reduced proteinuria in doxorubicin nephropathy, whereas podocyte-specific inducible expression of a constitutively active NFAT mutant increased TRPC6 expression and induced severe proteinuria. Our findings demonstrate that the deleterious effects of AngII on podocytes and its pathogenic role in glomerular disease involve enhanced TRPC6 expression via a calcineurin/NFAT positive feedback signaling pathway. PMID:21839714

  6. Diabetic state, high plasma insulin and angiotensin II combine to augment endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction via ETA receptors and ERK

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, T; Nogami, T; Taguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kamata, K

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Mechanisms associated with the enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in hyperinsulinaemic diabetes have been examined using the rat aorta. Functions for angiotensin II, endothelin-1 receptor expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) have been investigated. Experimental approach: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were infused with angiotensin II or, following insulin treatment, were treated with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Contractions of aortic strips with or without endothelium, in response to endothelin-1 and angiotensin II, were examined in vitro. Aortic ETA receptors and ERK/MEK expression were measured by western blotting. Key results: Insulin-treated diabetic rats exhibited increases in plasma insulin, angiotensin II and endothelin-1. The systolic blood pressure and endothelin-1-induced contractile responses in aortae in vitro were enhanced in insulin-treated diabetic rats and blunted by chronic losartan administration. LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) and/or PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) diminished the enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in aortae from insulin-treated diabetic rats. ETA and ETB receptors, ERK-1/2 and MEK-1/2 protein expression and endothelin-1-stimulated ERK phosphorylation were all increased in aortae from insulin-treated diabetic rats. Such increases were blunted by chronic losartan administration. Endothelin-1-induced contraction was significantly higher in aortae from angiotensin II-infused diabetic rats. angiotensin II-infusion increased ERK phosphorylation, but the expression of endothelin receptors and ERK/MEK proteins remained unchanged. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that the combination of high plasma angiotensin II and insulin with a diabetic state induced enhancement of endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction, ETA receptor expression and ERK expression/activity in the aorta. Losartan improved both the diabetes

  7. Angiotensin II induces phosphatidic acid formation in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts: evaluation of the roles of phospholipases C and D.

    PubMed

    Booz, G W; Taher, M M; Baker, K M; Singer, H A

    1994-12-21

    Phosphatidic acid has been proposed to contribute to the mitogenic actions of various growth factors. In 32P-labeled neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, 100 nM [Sar1]angiotensin II was shown to rapidly induce formation of 32P-phosphatidic acid. Levels peaked at 5 min (1.5-fold above control), but were partially sustained over 2 h. Phospholipase D contributed in part to phosphatidic acid formation, as 32P- or 3H-phosphatidylethanol was produced when cells labeled with [32P]H3PO4 or 1-O-[1,2- 3H]hexadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were stimulated in the presence of 1% ethanol. [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phospholipase D activity was transient and mainly mediated through protein kinase C (PKC), since PKC downregulation reduced phosphatidylethanol formation by 68%. Residual activity may have been due to increased intracellular Ca2+, as ionomycin also activated phospholipase D in PKC-depleted cells. Phospholipase D did not fully account for [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid: 1) compared to PMA, a potent activator of phospholipase D, [Sar1]angiotensin II produced more phosphatidic acid relative to phosphatidylethanol, and 2) PKC downregulation did not affect [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid formation. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59949 depressed [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid formation by only 21%, indicating that activation of a phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase also can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid. Thus, additional pathways not involving phospholipases C and D, such as de novo synthesis, may contribute to [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid in these cells. Finally, as previously shown for [Sar1]angiotensin II, phosphatidic acid stimulated mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers as treatments for inflammatory brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    SAAVEDRA, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of brain AngII (angiotensin II) depend on AT1 receptor (AngII type 1 receptor) stimulation and include regulation of cerebrovascular flow, autonomic and hormonal systems, stress, innate immune response and behaviour. Excessive brain AT1 receptor activity associates with hypertension and heart failure, brain ischaemia, abnormal stress responses, blood–brain barrier breakdown and inflammation. These are risk factors leading to neuronal injury, the incidence and progression of neurodegerative, mood and traumatic brain disorders, and cognitive decline. In rodents, ARBs (AT1 receptor blockers) ameliorate stress-induced disorders, anxiety and depression, protect cerebral blood flow during stroke, decrease brain inflammation and amyloid-β neurotoxicity and reduce traumatic brain injury. Direct anti-inflammatory protective effects, demonstrated in cultured microglia, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, neurons and human circulating monocytes, may result not only in AT1 receptor blockade, but also from PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) stimulation. Controlled clinical studies indicate that ARBs protect cognition after stroke and during aging, and cohort analyses reveal that these compounds significantly reduce the incidence and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. ARBs are commonly used for the therapy of hypertension, diabetes and stroke, but have not been studied in the context of neurodegenerative, mood or traumatic brain disorders, conditions lacking effective therapy. These compounds are well-tolerated pleiotropic neuroprotective agents with additional beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic profiles, and their use in central nervous system disorders offers a novel therapeutic approach of immediate translational value. ARBs should be tested for the prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, affective disorders, such as co-morbid cardiovascular disease and depression, and traumatic

  9. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Dependent GLP-1 and PYY Secretion in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Ramona; Rievaj, Juraj; Larraufie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan. Ang II raised intracellular calcium levels in L cells in primary cultures, recorded by live-cell imaging of L cells specifically expressing the fluorescent calcium sensor GCaMP3. In Ussing chamber recordings, Ang II reduced short circuit currents in mouse distal colon preparations, which was antagonized by candesartan or a specific neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibitor but insensitive to amiloride. We conclude that Ang II stimulates PYY secretion, in turn inhibiting epithelial anion fluxes, thereby reducing net fluid secretion into the colonic lumen. Our findings highlight an important role of colonic L cells in whole-body fluid homeostasis by controlling water loss through the intestine. PMID:27447725

  10. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  11. Inhibition by trifluoperazine of glycogenolytic effects of phenylephrine, vasopressin, and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Koide, Y; Kimura, S; Tada, R; Kugai, N; Yamashita, K

    1982-06-01

    The effects of trifluoperazine on the activation of glycogenolysis by various hormones were studied in perfused rat liver. Trifluoperazine significantly inhibited glycogenolytic effect of phenylephrine and angiotensin II by lowering maximal response, and that of vasopressin by shifting the dose-response curve to the right, while alpha-antagonist phentolamine was inhibitory only to phenylephrine. Phosphorylase activation of phenylephrine was inhibited by trifluoperazine in parallel with glycogenolytic response. The increase in 45Ca2+ efflux induced by phenylephrine, angiotensin II, and vasopressin was also inhibited by the agent. These inhibitory effects of trifluoperazine were not related to the change in tissue cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP levels. On the other hand, neither the glycogenolytic effect of glucagon, cyclic AMP, and N6,O2-dibutyryl cyclic AMP nor phosphorylase activation by glucagon was affected by trifluoperazine. Thus, trifluoperazine specifically inhibits the activation of glycogenolysis by Ca2+-dependent hormones.

  12. Glycyl-histidyl-lysine interacts with the angiotensin II AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    García-Sáinz, J A; Olivares-Reyes, J A

    1995-01-01

    Gly-His-Lys, a tripeptide isolated from human plasma that increases the growth rate of many cells, stimulated in dose-dependent fashion the activity of phosphorylase a in isolated rat hepatocytes. Such effect was associated to increases in both IP3 production and [Ca++]i. Interestingly, these effects of Gly-His-Lys were antagonized by losartan, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AT1 selective), which suggested that these receptors were involved in its effect. Binding competition experiments using the radioligand [125I][Sar1-Ile8]angiotensin II clearly indicated that Gly-His-Lys interacts with AT1 receptors. It was also observed that other histidine-containing tripeptides were also capable of interacting with these receptors. PMID:8545239

  13. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events.

  14. Identification and characterization of a novel angiotensin binding site in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that is specific for the hexapeptide (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II, angiotensin IV.

    PubMed

    Hall, K L; Hanesworth, J M; Ball, A E; Felgenhauer, G P; Hosick, H L; Harding, J W

    1993-03-19

    This study demonstrates the existence of a previously unrecognized class of angiotensin binding sites on vascular smooth muscle that exhibit high affinity and specificity for the hexapeptide (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II (AngIV). Binding of [125I]AngIV is saturable, reversible and describes a pharmacologic profile that is distinct and separate from the classic AT1 or AT2 angiotensin receptors. Saturation binding studies utilizing cultured vascular smooth muscle cells obtained from bovine aorta (BVSM) revealed that [125I]AngIV bound to a single high affinity site with an associated Hill coefficient of 0.99 +/- 0.003, exhibiting a KD = 1.85 +/- 0.45 nM and a corresponding Bmax = 960 +/- 100 fmol mg-1 protein. Competition binding curves in BVSM demonstrated the following rank order effectiveness: AngIV > AngII(3-7) > AngIII > Sar1,Ile8 AngII > AngII > AngII(1-7) > AngII(4-8), DuP 753, PD123177. The presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTP gamma S, had no effect on [125I]AngIV binding affinity in BVSM. The presence of this novel angiotensin binding site on smooth muscle in high concentration suggests the possibility that this system may play an important, yet unrecognized role in vascular control.

  15. Angiotensin II and norepinephrine activate specific calcineurin-dependent NFAT transcription factor isoforms in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ida G; Kvaløy, Heidi; Austbø, Bjørg; Christensen, Geir; Carlson, Cathrine R

    2011-11-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) are primary effectors of the sympathetic adrenergic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, mediating hypertrophic, apoptotic, and fibrotic events in the myocardium. As NE and ANG II have been shown to affect intracellular calcium in cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that they activate the calcium-sensitive, prohypertrophic calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFATc) signaling pathway. More specifically, we have investigated isoform-specific activation of NFAT in NE- and ANG II-stimulated cardiomyocytes, as it is likely that each of the four calcineurin-dependent isoforms, c1-c4, play specific roles. We have stimulated neonatal ventriculocytes from C57/B6 and NFAT-luciferase reporter mice with ANG II or NE and quantified NFAT activity by luciferase activity and phospho-immunoblotting. ANG II and NE increased calcineurin-dependent NFAT activity 2.4- and 1.9-fold, measured as luciferase activity after 24 h of stimulation, and induced protein synthesis, measured by radioactive leucine incorporation after 24 and 72 h. To optimize measurements of NFAT isoforms, we examined the specificity of NFAT antibodies on peptide arrays and by immunoblotting with designed blocking peptides. Western analyses showed that both effectors activate NFATc1 and c4, while NFATc2 activity was regulated by NE only, as measured by phospho-NFAT levels. Neither ANG II nor NE activated NFATc3. As today's main therapies for heart failure aim at antagonizing the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, understanding their intracellular actions is of importance, and our data, through validating a method for measuring myocardial NFATs, indicate that ANG II and NE activate specific NFATc isoforms in cardiomyocytes.

  16. Angiotensin II and its 3-7 fragment improve recognition but not spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Braszko, J J; Kułakowska, A; Wiśniewski, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (AII), its 3-7 fragment [AII(3-7)] and the substituted 3-7 fragment [Leu-5,AII(3-7)] given intracerebroventricularly (ICV) at the dose of 1 nmole each, on spatial memory and recognition were tested. AII(3-7) increased while Leu-5,AII(3-7) slightly decreased session to session foot shock reinforced runtime to the goal in a complex 6 chamber maze. The animals treated with AII performed in the maze similarly to saline injected controls. Overall number of errors was unchanged in all peptide treated groups in comparison with the control group. Object recognition was significantly improved in all the peptide treated groups except for the Leu-5,AII(3-7) group. The results point to the facilitation of recognition and lack of influence on, or even attenuation of, spatial memory by AII and its 3-7 fragment. Leu-5,AII(3-7) caused similar though less pronounced effects.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel potent angiotensin II receptor antagonists with anti-hypertension effect.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yong-yan; Da, Ya-jing; Zheng, Hao; Yang, Xiao-xia; Jia, Lin; Wen, Cai-hong; Liang, Li-sha; Tian, Juan; Chen, Zhi-long

    2012-04-15

    A series of novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists were prepared. Radioligand binding assay suggested that compounds 1b and 1c could be recognized by the AT(1) receptor with an IC(50) value of 1.6 ± 0.09 nM and 2.64 ± 0.7 nM, respectively. In vivo anti-hypertension experiments showed that compounds (1a, 1b, 1c, 1e) elicited a significant decrease in SBP and DBP of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). The antihypertensive effects maintained for 10 h, which indicated that these compounds had a favorable blood pressure-lowering effect. Acute toxicity testing suggested that the LD(50) value of compound 1b was 2316.8 mg/kg which was lower than valsartan (LD(50)=307.50 mg/kg) but higher than losartan (LD(50)=2248 mg/kg). So they could be considered as novel anti-hypertension candidates and deserved for further investigation. PMID:22410249

  18. Exploring new scaffolds for angiotensin II receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Kritsi, Eftichia; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Potamitis, Constantinos; Karageorgos, Vlasios; Detsi, Anastasia; Magafa, Vasilliki; Liapakis, George; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-15

    Nowadays, AT1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists (ARBs) constitute the one of the most prevalent classes of antihypertensive drugs that modulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Their main uses include also treatment of diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. Towards this direction, our study has been focused on the discovery of novel agents bearing different scaffolds which may evolve as a new class of AT1 receptor antagonists. To fulfill this aim, a combination of computational approaches and biological assays were implemented. Particularly, a pharmacophore model was established and served as a 3D search query to screen the ChEMBL15 database. The reliability and accuracy of virtual screening results were improved by using molecular docking studies. In total, 4 compounds with completely diverse chemical scaffolds from potential ARBs, were picked and tested for their binding affinity to AT1 receptor. Results revealed high nanomolar to micromolar affinity (IC50) for all the compounds. Especially, compound 4 exhibited a binding affinity of 199nM. Molecular dynamics simulations were utilized in an effort to provide a molecular basis of their binding to AT1R in accordance to their biological activities. PMID:27480029

  19. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor signalling directly contributes to the increased arrhythmogenicity in cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuno, Shinji; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Yamada, Chinatsu; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Usami, Satoru; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Kenji; Harada, Masaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiotensin II has been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular ailments, including cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The fact that inhibiting its signalling reduced the incidences of both sudden cardiac death and heart failure in several large-scale clinical trials suggests that angiotensin II is involved in increased cardiac arrhythmogenicity during the development of heart failure. However, because angiotensin II also promotes structural remodelling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, it has been difficult to assess its direct contribution to cardiac arrhythmogenicity independently of the structural effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We induced cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type (WT) and angiotensin II type 1a receptor knockout (AT1aR-KO) mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia (VT) assessed in an in vivo electrophysiological study was compared in the two genotypes. The effect of acute pharmacological blockade of AT1R on the incidences of arrhythmias was also assessed. KEY RESULTS As described previously, WT and AT1aR-KO mice with TAC developed cardiac hypertrophy to the same degree, but the incidence of VT was much lower in the latter. Moreover, although TAC induced an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin 43, a critical component of gap junctional channels, and a reduction in ventricular levels of connexin 43 protein in both genotypes, the effect was significantly ameliorated in AT1aR-KO mice. Acute pharmacological blockade of AT1R also reduced the incidence of arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our findings demonstrate that AT1aR-mediated signalling makes a direct contribution to the increase in arrhythmogenicity in hypertrophied hearts independently of structural remodelling. PMID:23937445

  20. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1-blockers, ARBs, sartans): similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A survey is presented of the registered non-peptidergic angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1 blockers, ARBs, sartans) and their general properties and similarities. Accordingly, their receptor profile, pharmacokinetic and therapeutic applications are discussed. In addition, attention is paid to the individual characteristics of the AT1 blockers now available. A few components of this category offer additional potentially beneficial properties, owing to their pharmacological or metabolic characteristics. Such additional properties are critically discussed for eprosartan, losartan, telmisartan and valsartan. PMID:25696573

  1. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G M; Prieto, Minolfa C; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9-12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 +/- 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). AT(1)R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 +/- 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 +/- 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 +/- 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT(1)R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT(1)R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  2. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C.; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G. M.; Prieto, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9–12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 ± 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 ± 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 ± 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). AT1R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 ± 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 ± 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 ± 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 ± 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT1R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT1R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  3. Novel roles of intracrine angiotensin II and signalling mechanisms in kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L; Li, Xiao C

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful sodium-retaining, growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory properties in addition to its physiological role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis. Increased circulating and local tissue Ang II is one of the most important factors contributing to the development of sodium and fluid retention, hypertension and target organ damage. The importance of Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ injury is best demonstrated by the effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists in treating hypertension and progressive renal disease including diabetic nephropathy. The detrimental effects of Ang II are mediated primarily by the AT1-receptor, while the AT2-receptor may oppose the AT1-receptor. The classical view of the AT1-receptor-mediated effects of Ang II is that the agonist binds its receptors at the cell surface, and following receptor phosphorylation, activates downstream signal transduction pathways and intracellular responses. However, evidence is emerging that binding of Ang II to its cell surface AT1-receptors also activates endocytotic (or internalisation) processes that promote trafficking of both the effector and the receptor into intracellular compartments. Whether internalised Ang II has important intracrine and signalling actions is not well understood. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in Ang II research with focus on the mechanisms underlying high levels of intracellular Ang II in proximal tubule cells and the contribution of receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular Ang II. Further attention is devoted to the question whether intracellular and/or internalised Ang II plays a physiological role by activating cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors in proximal tubule cells. This information may aid future development of drugs to prevent and treat Ang II-induced target organ injury in cardiovascular and renal

  4. miR-155 functions downstream of angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 and calcineurin to regulate cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yong; Cao, Zheng; Tong, Xin Zhu; Xie, Hua Qiang; Luo, Tao; Hua, Xian Ping; Wang, Han Qin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by maladaptive tissue remodeling that may lead to heart failure or sudden death. MicroRNAs (miRs) are negative regulators of angiotensin II and the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AGTR1), which are two components involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, the interaction between angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AGTR1) signaling and miR-155 was investigated. Rat H9C2 (2–1) cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-155 analogues or inhibitors, then stimulated with angiotensin II to induce cardiac hypertrophy. miR-155 expression was revealed to be altered following transfection with chemically-modified miR-155 analogues and inhibitors in rat cardiomyocytes. In cell cardiac hypertrophy models, the cell surface area, AGTR1, atrial natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain-β mRNA expression levels were revealed to be lower in cells stimulated with miR-155 analogue-transfected cells treated with angiotensin II compared with cells stimulated with angiotensin alone (P<0.05), as determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. Furthermore, calcineurin mRNA and protein, intracellular free calcium and nuclear factor of activated T-cells-4 proteins were downregulated in miR-155 analogue-transfected cells treated with angiotensin II, as compared with cells stimulated with angiotensin II alone (P<0.05). In conclusion, the current study indicates that miR-155 may improve cardiac hypertrophy by downregulating AGTR1 and suppressing the calcium signaling pathways activated by AGTR1. PMID:27588076

  5. Molecular characterization of a dual endothelin-1/Angiotensin II receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Opazo, N.; Hirayama, K.; Akimoto, K.; Herrera, V. L.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The molecular recognition theory (MRT) provides a conceptual framework that could explain the evolution of intermolecular and intramolecular interaction of peptides and proteins. As such, it predicts that binding sites of peptide hormones, and its receptor binding sites were originally encoded by and evolved from complementary strands of genomic DNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the basis of principles underlying the MRT, we screened a rat brain complementary DNA library using an AngII followed by an endothelin-1 (ET-1) antisense oligonucleotide probe, expecting to isolate potential cognate receptors. RESULTS: An identical cDNA clone was isolated independently from both the AngII and ET-1 oligonucleotide screenings. Structural analysis revealed a receptor polypeptide containing a single predicted transmembrane region with distinct ET-1 and AngII putative binding domains. Functional analysis demonstrated ET-1- and AngII-specific binding as well as ET-1- and AngII-induced coupling to a Ca2+ mobilizing transduction system. Amino acid substitutions within the predicted ET-1 binding domain obliterate ET-1 binding while preserving AngII binding, thus defining the structural determinants of ET-1 binding within the dual ET-1/AngII receptor, as well as corroborating the dual nature of the receptor. CONCLUSIONS: Elucidation of the dual ET-1/AngII receptor provides further molecular genetic evidence in support of the molecular recognition theory and identifies for the first time a molecular link between the ET-1 and AngII hormonal systems that could underlie observed similar physiological responses elicited by ET-1 and AngII in different organ systems. The prominent expression of the ET-1/AngII receptor mRNA in brain and heart tissues suggests an important role in cardiovascular function in normal and pathophysiological states. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:9508787

  6. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  7. Effect of angiotensin II, ATP, and ionophore A23187 on potassium efflux in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, M.V.; Marusic, E.T.

    1986-02-01

    Angiotensin II stimulus on perifused bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells elicited an increase in 86Rb efflux from cells previously equilibrated with the radioisotope. When 45Ca fluxes were measured under similar conditions, it was observed that Ca and Rb effluxes occurred within the first 30 s of the addition of the hormone and were independent of the presence of external Ca. The 86Rb efflux due to angiotensin II was inhibited by quinine and apamin. The hypothesis that the angiotensin II response is a consequence of an increase in the K permeability of the glomerulosa cell membrane triggered by an increase in cytosolic Ca is supported by the finding that the divalent cation ionophore A23187 also initiated 86Rb or K loss (as measured by an external K electrode). This increased K conductance was also seen with 10(-4) M ATP. Quinine and apamin greatly reduced the effect of ATP or A23187 on 86Rb or K release in adrenal glomerulosa cells. The results suggest that Ca-dependent K channels or carriers are present in the membranes of bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells and are sensitive to hormonal stimulus.

  8. The effect of altered sodium balance upon renal vascular reactivity to angiotensin II and norepinephrine in the dog. Mechanism of variation in angiotensin responses.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, J A; Cannon, P J

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism whereby the vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin II (AII) is influenced by sodium balance or disease is unclear. To explore this question, the renal vascular responses (RVR) to intrarenal injections of subpressor doses of AII and norepinephrine were studied in dogs with an electromagnetic flowmeter. Acute and chronic sodium depletion increased plasma renin activity (PRA) and blunted the RVR to AII, while acute sodium repletion and chronic sodium excess plus desoxycorticosterone acetate decreased PRA and enhanced the RVR to AII. The magnitude of the RVR to AII was inversely related to PRA. The RVR to norepinephrine was unaffected by sodium balance and was not related to PRA. Inhibition of the conversion of angiotensin I to AII by SQ 20,881 during sodium depletion lowered mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), increased renal blood flow (RBF), and enhanced the RVR to AII but not to norepinephrine. Administration of bradykinin to chronically sodium-depleted dogs also lowered the MABP and increased RBF but had no effect on the RVR to AII. SQ 20,881 had no effect on MABP, RBF, or the RVR to AII in the dogs with chronic sodium excess and desoxycorticosterone acetate. Administration of indomethacin to chronically sodium-depleted dogs lowered RBF but did not influence the RVR to AII. The results indicate that the RVR to AII is selectively influenced by sodium balance and that the magnitude of the response is inversely related to the availability of endogenous AII. The data did not suggest that the variations in the RVR to AII were because of direct effects of sodium on vascular contraction, changes in the number of vascular AII receptors, or the renal prostaglandins. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the vasoconstrictor effect of AII in the renal vasculature is primarily dependent upon the degree to which the AII vascular receptors are occupied by endogenous hormone. PMID:641142

  9. Binding, degradation and pressor activity of angiotensins II and III after aminopeptidase inhibition with amastatin and bestatin

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, R.H.; Sullivan, M.J.; Wright, J.W.; Harding, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    In the metabolism of angiotensin peptides by tissue angiotensinases, aminopeptidases A, B, M and leucine aminopeptidase have been identified as being particularly effective. Because the inhibitory actions of amastatin (AM) and bestatin (BE) are relatively specific for these aminopeptidases, we have examined the effects of these inhibitors on the binding, degradation and pressor activity of angiotensin II (AII) and angiotensin III (AIII). Within 30 min at 37 degrees C, significant metabolism of /sup 125/I-AII and /sup 125/I-AIII by homogenates of a block of tissue containing hypothalamus, thalamus, septum and anteroventral third ventricle regions of the brain was observed. A majority of /sup 125/I-AIII metabolism was due to soluble peptidases, whereas that of /sup 125/I-AII primarily resulted from membrane-bound peptidases. AM, BE and reduced incubation temperatures significantly decreased the metabolism of /sup 125/I-AII and /sup 125/I-AIII. After appropriate adjustments to reflect the proportion of intact radioligand bound, temperature- or inhibitor-induced decreases in metabolism were matched by corresponding increases in specific binding. Heat-treated bovine serum albumin, as a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, had no effect on either the metabolism or binding of the ligands used. In accordance with their actions in vitro, i.c.v. administration of AM and BE prolonged the pressor activity of subsequently applied AII and AIII. Unexpectedly, the amplitude of the pressor response to AIII was increased by BE, whereas that to AII was decreased by AM. The results of this study indicate that the metabolism of AII and AIII by aminopeptidases is relatively specific and acts to modulate the actions of these peptides.

  10. Regulatory networks and complex interactions between the insulin and angiotensin II signalling systems: models and implications for hypertension and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cizmeci, Deniz; Arkun, Yaman

    2013-01-01

    The cross-talk between insulin and angiotensin II signalling pathways plays a significant role in the co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension. We developed a mathematical model of the system of interactions among the biomolecules that are involved in the cross-talk between the insulin and angiotensin II signalling pathways. We have identified several feedback structures that regulate the dynamic behavior of the individual signalling pathways and their interactions. Different scenarios are simulated and dominant steady-state, dynamic and stability characteristics are revealed. The proposed mechanistic model describes how angiotensin II inhibits the actions of insulin and impairs the insulin-mediated vasodilation. The model also predicts that poor glycaemic control induced by diabetes contributes to hypertension by activating the renin angiotensin aystem.

  11. Angiotensin II (de)sensitization: Fluid intake studies with implications for cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and hypertension is the most common risk factor for death. Although many anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapies are approved for use in the United States, rates of hypertension have increased over the past decade. This review article summarizes a presentation given at the 2015 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior. The presentation described work performed in our laboratory that uses angiotensin II-induced drinking as a model system to study behavioral and cardiovascular effects of the renin-angiotensin system, a key component of blood pressure regulation, and a common target of anti-hypertensives. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent dipsogen, but the drinking response shows a rapid desensitization after repeated injections of AngII. This desensitization appears to be dependent upon the timing of the injections, requires activation of the AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor, requires activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members, and involves the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region as a critical site of action. Moreover, the response does not appear to be the result of a more general suppression of behavior, a sensitized pressor response to AngII, or an aversive state generated by the treatment. More recent studies suggest that the treatment regimen used to produce desensitization in our laboratory also prevents the sensitization that occurs after daily bolus injections of AngII. Our hope is that these findings can be used to support future basic research on the topic that could lead to new developments in treatments for hypertension.

  12. Angiotensin II (de)sensitization: Fluid intake studies with implications for cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and hypertension is the most common risk factor for death. Although many anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapies are approved for use in the United States, rates of hypertension have increased over the past decade. This review article summarizes a presentation given at the 2015 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior. The presentation described work performed in our laboratory that uses angiotensin II-induced drinking as a model system to study behavioral and cardiovascular effects of the renin-angiotensin system, a key component of blood pressure regulation, and a common target of anti-hypertensives. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent dipsogen, but the drinking response shows a rapid desensitization after repeated injections of AngII. This desensitization appears to be dependent upon the timing of the injections, requires activation of the AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor, requires activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members, and involves the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region as a critical site of action. Moreover, the response does not appear to be the result of a more general suppression of behavior, a sensitized pressor response to AngII, or an aversive state generated by the treatment. More recent studies suggest that the treatment regimen used to produce desensitization in our laboratory also prevents the sensitization that occurs after daily bolus injections of AngII. Our hope is that these findings can be used to support future basic research on the topic that could lead to new developments in treatments for hypertension. PMID:26801390

  13. Angiotensin II increases CTGF expression via MAPKs/TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in atrial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Quan-xing; Tan, Hong-wei; Guo, Meng; Jiang, Wei-feng; Zhou, Li

    2012-10-01

    The activation of transforming growth factor-{beta}1(TGF-{beta}1)/Smad signaling pathway and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by angiotensin II (AngII) have been proposed as a mechanism for atrial fibrosis. However, whether TGF{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways involved in AngII-induced fibrogenetic factor expression remained unknown. Recently tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/TGF{beta}-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) has been shown to be crucial for the activation of TGF-{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the role of TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression in cultured adult atrial fibroblasts. AngII (1 {mu}M) provoked the activation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). AngII (1 {mu}M) also promoted TGF{beta}1, TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which were suppressed by angiotensin type I receptor antagonist (Losartan) as well as p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Meanwhile, both TGF{beta}1 antibody and TRAF6 siRNA decreased the stimulatory effect of AngII on TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which also attenuated AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. In summary, the MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway is an important signaling pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression, and inhibition of TRAF6 may therefore represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced CTGF expression in atrial fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 may represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis.

  14. Angiotensin II induces interleukin-1β-mediated islet inflammation and β-cell dysfunction independently of vasoconstrictive effects.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Nadine S; Thienel, Constanze; Plutino, Yuliya; Kampe, Kapil; Dror, Erez; Traub, Shuyang; Timper, Katharina; Bédat, Benoit; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Jehle, Andreas W; Böni-Schnetzler, Marianne; Donath, Marc Y

    2015-04-01

    Pathological activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with the metabolic syndrome, and the new onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed by RAS inhibition. In animal models of type 2 diabetes, inhibition of the RAS improves insulin secretion. However, the direct effects of angiotensin II on islet function and underlying mechanisms independent of changes in blood pressure remain unclear. Here we show that exposure of human and mouse islets to angiotensin II induces interleukin (IL)-1-dependent expression of IL-6 and MCP-1, enhances β-cell apoptosis, and impairs mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. In vivo, mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with angiotensin II and the vasodilator hydralazine to prevent hypertension showed defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and deteriorated glucose tolerance. Application of an anti-IL-1β antibody reduced the deleterious effects of angiotensin II on islet inflammation, restored insulin secretion, and improved glycemia. We conclude that angiotensin II leads to islet dysfunction via induction of inflammation and independent of vasoconstriction. Our findings reveal a novel role for the RAS and an additional rationale for the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with an IL-1β antagonist.

  15. [Renin-angiotensin system under extracorporeal circulation during heart valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Heck, I; Hack, G; Wickenhöfer, R

    1983-08-01

    Angiotensin I (A I), angiotensin II (A II) and the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were measured in 15 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for mitral or aortic valve replacement. During cardiopulmonary bypass A I, A II, A I/II ratio and arteriovenous A II--difference decreased markedly, whereas the activity of ACE fell only during a small 15 min period after start of extracorporeal circulation. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed.

  16. Selectively engaging β-arrestins at the angiotensin II type 1 receptor reduces blood pressure and increases cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; DeWire, Scott M; Yamashita, Dennis; Rominger, David H; Nguyen, Lisa; Schiller, Kevin; Whalen, Erin J; Gowen, Maxine; Lark, Michael W

    2010-12-01

    Biased G protein-coupled receptor ligands engage subsets of the receptor signals normally stimulated by unbiased agonists. However, it is unclear whether ligand bias can elicit differentiated pharmacology in vivo. Here, we describe the discovery of a potent, selective β-arrestin biased ligand of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. TRV120027 (Sar-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-D-Ala-OH) competitively antagonizes angiotensin II-stimulated G protein signaling, but stimulates β-arrestin recruitment and activates several kinase pathways, including p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Src, and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation via β-arrestin coupling. Consistent with β-arrestin efficacy, and unlike unbiased antagonists, TRV120027 increased cardiomyocyte contractility in vitro. In rats, TRV120027 reduced mean arterial pressure, as did the unbiased antagonists losartan and telmisartan. However, unlike the unbiased antagonists, which decreased cardiac performance, TRV120027 increased cardiac performance and preserved cardiac stroke volume. These striking differences in vivo between unbiased and β-arrestin biased ligands validate the use of biased ligands to selectively target specific receptor functions in drug discovery.

  17. Atorvastatin inhibits the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by angiotensin II via the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Ye, Ning; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Zhao; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate lysosomes-mitochondria cross-signaling in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether atorvastatin played a protective role via lysosomal-mitochondrial axis. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 and AO/EB assay. The temporal relationship of lysosomal and mitochondrial permeabilization was established. Activity of Cathepsin D (CTSD) was suppressed by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Proteins production were measured by western blotting. Our study showed that Ang II could induce the apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-depended and time-depended manner. Exposure to 1 μM Ang II for 24 h resulted in mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and increased ROS production. Lysosomal permeabilization and CTSD redistribution into the cytoplasm occurred several hours prior to mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects were all suppressed by atorvastatin. Either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CTSD preserved mitochondrial function and decreased apoptosis in HUVECs. Most importantly, we found that the protective effect of atorvastatin was significantly greater than pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CTSD. Finally, overexpression of CTSD without exposure to Ang II had no effect on mitochondrial function and apoptosis. Our data strongly suggested that Ang II induced apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HUVECs. Furthermore, atorvastatin played an important role in the regulation of lysosomes and mitochondria stability, resulting in an antagonistic role against Ang II on HUVECs. PMID:27394920

  18. Preventive effect of gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis on angiotensin II-induced hypertension via an increased nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byeong Hyeok; Lee, Seung Jin; Choi, Young Whan; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2015-03-01

    Gomisin J (GJ) is a small molecular weight lignan found in Schisandra chinensis and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of GJ on blood pressure (BP) in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive mice. In addition, we determined the relative potencies of gomisin A (GA) and GJ with respect to vasodilatory activity and antihypertensive effects. C57/BL6 mice infused s.c. with Ang II (2 μg kg(-1) min(-1) for 2 weeks) showed an increase in BP and a decrease in plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. In the thoracic aortas of Ang II-induced hypertensive mice, a decrease in vascular NO was accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, these alterations in BP, plasma concentrations of NO metabolites and in the vascular productions of NO and ROS in Ang II-treated mice were reversed by the co-administration of GJ (1 and 3 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). In in vitro studies, Ang II decreased the cellular concentration of NO, which was accompanied by a reduction in phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in ROS production. These eNOS phosphorylation and ROS production changes in Ang II-treated cells were also reversed by GJ pretreatment (0-3 μg ml(-1)). Interestingly, the vasodilatory and antihypertensive effects of GJ were more prominent than those of GA. Collectively, an increase in BP in mice treated with Ang II was markedly attenuated by GJ, which was attributed to the preservations of vascular NO bioavailability and eNOS function, and to the inhibition of ROS production in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice.

  19. Central Angiotensin II Stimulation Promotes β Amyloid Production in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Donglin; Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Yingdong; Wang, Bianrong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Zhicong; Tong, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress and various stress hormones, including catecholamines and glucocorticoids, have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which represents the greatest unresolved medical challenge in neurology. Angiotensin receptor blockers have shown benefits in AD and prone-to-AD animals. However, the mechanisms responsible for their efficacy remain unknown, and no studies have directly addressed the role of central angiotensin II (Ang II), a fundamental stress hormone, in the pathogenesis of AD. The present study focused on the role of central Ang II in amyloidogenesis, the critical process in AD neuropathology, and aimed to provide direct evidence for the role of this stress hormone in the pathogenesis of AD. Methodology/Principal Findings Increased central Ang II levels during stress response were modeled by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of graded doses of Ang II (6 ng/hr low dose, 60 ng/hr medium dose, and 600 ng/hr high dose, all delivered at a rate of 0.25 µl/hr) to male Sprague Dawley rats (280–310 g) via osmotic pumps. After 1 week of continuous Ang II infusion, the stimulation of Ang II type 1 receptors was accompanied by the modulation of amyloid precursor protein, α-, β-and γ-secretase, and increased β amyloid production. These effects could be completely abolished by concomitant ICV infusion of losartan, indicating that central Ang II played a causative role in these alterations. Conclusions/Significance Central Ang II is essential to the stress response, and the results of this study suggest that increased central Ang II levels play an important role in amyloidogenesis during stress, and that central Ang II-directed stress prevention and treatment might represent a novel anti-AD strategy. PMID:21297982

  20. Klotho inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through suppression of the AT1R/beta catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangzhu; Meng, Wei; Ding, Jieqiong; Cheng, Menglin

    2016-04-29

    Myocardial hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality. The antiaging protein klotho reportedly possesses a protective role in cardiac diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of klotho remain unknown. This study was aimed to determine the effects of klotho on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the possible mechanism of actions. We found that klotho significantly inhibited Ang II-induced hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by decreased [(3)H]-Leucine incorporation, cardiomyocyte surface area and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expression. Meanwhile, klotho inhibited Ang II-stimulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by decreased protein expression of active β-catenin, downregulated protein and mRNA expression of the β-catenin target genes c-myc and cyclin D1, and increased β-catenin phosphorylation. Inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by the specific inhibitor XAV939 markedly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The further study revealed that klotho treatment significantly downregulated protein expression of Ang II receptor type I (AT1R) but not type II (AT2R). The AT1R antagonist losartan inhibited Ang II-stimulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that klotho inhibits Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through suppression of the AT1R/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the protective effects of klotho in heart diseases, and raise the possibility that klotho may act as an endogenous antihypertrophic factor by inhibiting the Ang II signaling pathway. PMID:26970306

  1. Increased angiotensin II contraction of the uterine artery at early gestation in a transgenic model of hypertensive pregnancy is reduced by inhibition of endocannabinoid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Victor M; Yamaleyeva, Liliya M; Varagic, Jasmina; McGee, Carolynne M; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Howlett, Allyn C; Brosnihan, K Bridget

    2014-09-01

    Increased vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang II) is a marker of a hypertensive human pregnancy. Recent evidence of interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and the endocannabinoid system suggests that anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol may modulate Ang II contraction. We hypothesized that these interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular responses in hypertensive pregnancy. We studied Ang II contraction in isolated uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in a rat model that mimics many features of preeclampsia, the transgenic human angiotensinogen×human renin (TgA), and control Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined the role of the cannabinoid receptor 1 by blockade with SR171416A, and the contribution of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol degradation to Ang II contraction by inhibiting their hydrolyzing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (with URB597) or monoacylglycerol lipase (with JZL184), respectively. TgA UA showed increased maximal contraction and sensitivity to Ang II that was inhibited by indomethacin. Fatty acid amide hydrolase blockade decreased Ang IIMAX in Sprague-Dawley UA, and decreased both Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Monoacylglycerol lipase blockade had no effect on Sprague-Dawley UA and decreased Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 in TgA UA had no effect. Immunolocalization of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase showed a similar pattern between groups; fatty acid amide hydrolase predominantly localized in endothelium and monoacylglycerol lipase in smooth muscle cells. We demonstrated an increased Ang II contraction in TgA UA before initiation of the hypertensive phenotype. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol reduced Ang II contraction in a cannabinoid receptor 1-independent manner. These renin-angiotensin system-endocannabinoid system interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular reactivity in early stages of hypertensive pregnancy. PMID

  2. Changes in distribution of hepatic blood flow induced by intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II in human hepatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Y.; Imaoka, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Nakano, S.; Ishikawa, O.; Ohigashi, H.; Taniguchi, K.; Koyama, H.; Iwanaga, T.; Terasawa, T.

    1985-01-15

    Changes in the distribution of the hepatic blood flow induced by intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II (AT-II) were studied in human hepatic cancers using extremely short-lived radioisotope (RI) (krypton 81 m (/sup 81m/Kr); half-life, 13 seconds). After the start of continuous infusion of AT-II, the radioactivity of the tumor showed about a two-fold increase, whereas that of the nontumor region decreased to about one half as much as the level before the infusion. Consequently, the mean ratio of the arterial blood flow in the tumor region to that in the nontumor region (T/N ratio) increased to 3.30 (P less than 0.001). The T/N ratio showed a peak before the peripheral blood pressure reached the maximum, and thereafter tended to decrease. Intra-arterial infusion of AT-II raised the T/N ratio more obviously than did intravenous infusion of the drug, with less rise in the peripheral blood pressure. It is believed that intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy with local use of AT-II enables better accessibility of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumors.

  3. Modulation of angiotensin II signaling following exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Irving H; Schultz, Harold D; Patel, Kaushik P; Wang, Hanjun

    2015-04-15

    Sympathetic activation is a consistent finding in the chronic heart failure (CHF) state. Current therapy for CHF targets the renin-angiotensin II (ANG II) and adrenergic systems. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ANG II receptor blockers are standard treatments along with β-adrenergic blockade. However, the mortality and morbidity of this disease is still extremely high, even with good medical management. Exercise training (ExT) is currently being used in many centers as an adjunctive therapy for CHF. Clinical studies have shown that ExT is a safe, effective, and inexpensive way to improve quality of life, work capacity, and longevity in patients with CHF. This review discusses the potential neural interactions between ANG II and sympatho-excitation in CHF and the modulation of this interaction by ExT. We briefly review the current understanding of the modulation of the angiotensin type 1 receptor in sympatho-excitatory areas of the brain and in the periphery (i.e., in the carotid body and skeletal muscle). We discuss possible cellular mechanisms by which ExT may impact the sympatho-excitatory process by reducing oxidative stress, increasing nitric oxide. and reducing ANG II. We also discuss the potential role of ACE2 and Ang 1-7 in the sympathetic response to ExT. Fruitful areas of further investigation are the role and mechanisms by which pre-sympathetic neuronal metabolic activity in response to individual bouts of exercise regulate redox mechanisms and discharge at rest in CHF and other sympatho-excitatory states. PMID:25681422

  4. Iron chelation and a free radical scavenger suppress angiotensin II-induced upregulation of TGF-beta1 in the heart.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kan; Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Aizawa, Toru; Sata, Masataka; Iso-o, Naoyuki; Noiri, Eisei; Mori, Ichiro; Ohno, Minoru; Nagai, Ryozo

    2005-04-01

    Long-term administration of angiotensin II causes myocardial loss and cardiac fibrosis. We previously found iron deposition in the heart of the angiotensin II-infused rat, which may promote angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage. In the present study, we have investigated whether an iron chelator (deferoxamine) and a free radical scavenger (T-0970) affect the angiotensin II-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Angiotensin II infusion for 7 days caused a robust increase in TGF-beta1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, myofibroblast-like cells, and migrated monocytes/macrophages. T-0970 and deferoxamine suppressed the upregulation of TGF-beta1 mRNA and reduced the extent of cardiac fibrosis in the heart of rats treated with angiotensin II. These agents blocked the angiotensin II-induced upregulation of heme oxygenase-1, a potent oxidative and cellular stress-responsive gene, but they did not significantly affect systolic blood pressure or plasma levels of aldosterone. In addition, T-0970 and deferoxamine suppressed the angiotensin II-induced upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the heart. These results collectively suggest that iron and the iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species may contribute to angiotensin II-induced upregulation of profibrotic and proinflammatory genes, such as TGF-beta1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.

  5. Brain and peripheral angiotensin II play a major role in stress.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M; Benicky, Julius

    2007-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), the active principle of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), was discovered as a vasoconstrictive, fluid retentive circulating hormone. It was revealed later that there are local RAS in many organs, including the brain. The physiological receptor for Ang II, the AT(1) receptor type, was found to be highly expressed in many tissues and brain areas involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress and in the sympathoadrenal system. The production of circulating and local Ang II, and the expression of AT(1) receptors increase during stress. Blockade of peripheral and brain AT(1) receptors with receptor antagonists administered peripherally prevented the hormonal and sympathoadrenal response to isolation stress, the stress-related alterations in cortical CRF(1) and benzodiazepine receptors, part of the GABA(A) complex, and reduced anxiety in rodents. AT(1) receptor blockade prevented the ulcerations of the gastric mucosa produced by cold-restraint stress, by preservation of the gastric blood flow, prevention of the stress-induced inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa, and partial blockade of the sympathoadrenal response to the stress. Our observations demonstrate that Ang II is an important stress hormone, and that blockade of AT(1) receptors could be proposed as a potentially useful therapy for stress-induced disorders.

  6. Effects of probucol on angiotensin II-induced BMP-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jing-Hua; Chen, Shu-Juan; Zhen, Bin; Wang, Chang-Hua; He, Hua; Jiang, Chen-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) participates significantly in vascular development and pathophysiological processes. Angiotensin II (AngII) has been demonstrated to be critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effects of AngII on BMP-2 expression and of probucol on the AngII-induced BMP-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate these effects. HUVECs were cultured and stimulated with various agents. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and BMP-2 were measured by standard methods. Northern blotting was used to detect the expression of BMP-2 mRNA. The activation of NF-κB in the HUVECs was also determined. The AngII treatment significantly increased BMP-2 expression levels and activated NF-κB. These effects were suppressed by treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or probucol. Furthermore, the increased levels of MDA in the conditioned medium and the decrease in the total SOD activity caused by the AngII treatment were reversed by treatment with probucol or PDTC. Probucol downregulated the AngII‑induced BMP-2 expression. These effects of probucol may be mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB activation. PMID:23128665

  7. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  8. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes in rat renal preglomerular vessels.

    PubMed

    De León, H; Garcia, R

    1992-01-01

    A simple technique to isolate rat renal preglomerular vessels is described. Kidneys were pressed against a 0.3 mm stainless steel grid. The whole vascular tree, including the interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries, as well as the afferent arterioles, remained on the grid surface from where they were recovered. Extensive washing yielded a highly pure preparation of renal microvessels. Radioligand binding experiments were performed to characterize 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]-ANG II binding sites in preglomerular microvessel membranes. Equilibrium saturation binding experiments revealed the presence of one group of high affinity receptors (Kd = 1.22 +/- 0.171 nM; Bmax = 209 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein). Competitive inhibition experiments with two highly specific nonpeptide ANG II antagonists, losartan (DuP 753), which is specific for the AT1 receptor subtype, and PD123319, which is specific for the AT2 subtype, demonstrated that the large majority of, if not all, ANG II receptors in rat renal preglomerular vessels correspond to the AT1 subtype. PMID:1299411

  9. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan prevents and rescues cerebrovascular, neuropathological and cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Tong, Xin-Kang; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Lecrux, Clotilde; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blockers that bind selectively AngII type 1 (AT1) receptors may protect from Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the ability of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan to cure or prevent AD hallmarks in aged (~18months at endpoint, 3months treatment) or adult (~12months at endpoint, 10months treatment) human amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We tested learning and memory with the Morris water maze, and evaluated neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling using [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET and laser Doppler flowmetry responses to whisker stimulation. Cerebrovascular reactivity was assessed with on-line videomicroscopy. We measured protein levels of oxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutases SOD1, SOD2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox), and quantified soluble and deposited amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), AngII receptors AT1 and AT2, angiotensin IV receptor AT4, and cortical cholinergic innervation. In aged APP mice, losartan did not improve learning but it consolidated memory acquisition and recall, and rescued neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling and cerebrovascular dilatory capacity. Losartan normalized cerebrovascular p67phox and SOD2 protein levels and up-regulated those of SOD1. Losartan attenuated astrogliosis, normalized AT1 and AT4 receptor levels, but failed to rescue the cholinergic deficit and the Aβ pathology. Given preventively, losartan protected cognitive function, cerebrovascular reactivity, and AT4 receptor levels. Like in aged APP mice, these benefits occurred without a decrease in soluble Aβ species or plaque load. We conclude that losartan exerts potent preventive and restorative effects on AD hallmarks, possibly by mitigating AT1-initiated oxidative stress and normalizing memory-related AT4 receptors.

  10. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  11. Angiotensin II increases the permeability and PV-1 expression of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Csaba; Nagy, János Péter; Végh, Borbála; Németh, Adrienn; Jenei, Attila; MirzaHosseini, Shahrokh; Sebe, Attila; Rosivall, László

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II), the major effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is a powerful vasoactive mediator associated with hypertension and renal failure. In this study the permeability changes and its morphological attributes in endothelial cells of human umbilical vein (HUVECs) were studied considering the potential regulatory role of ANG II. The effects of ANG II were compared with those of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Permeability was determined by 40 kDa FITC-Dextran and electrical impedance measurements. Plasmalemmal vesicle-1 (PV-1) mRNA levels were measured by PCR. Endothelial cell surface was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and caveolae were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in HUVEC monolayers. ANG II (10(-7) M), similarly to VEGF (100 ng/ml), increased the endothelial permeability parallel with an increase in the number of cell surface openings and caveolae. AT1 and VEGF-R2 receptor blockers (candesartan and ZM-323881, respectively) blunted these effects. ANG II and VEGF increased the expression of PV-1, which could be blocked by candesartan or ZM-323881 pretreatments and by the p38 mitogem-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor SB-203580. Additionally, SB-203580 blocked the increase in endothelial permeability and the number of surface openings and caveolae. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that ANG II plays a role in regulation of permeability and formation of cell surface openings through AT1 receptor and PV-1 protein synthesis in a p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner in endothelial cells. The surface openings that increase in parallel with permeability may represent transcellular channels, caveolae, or both. These morphological and permeability changes may be involved in (patho-) physiological effects of ANG II. PMID:22012329

  12. Proliferative effects of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 on guinea pig gingival fibroblast cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Nozomi; Koike, Katsuo; Sano, Masakazu; Kusama, Tadashi; Kizawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Yumiko; Ohsawa, Masami; Iwamoto, Keishi; Murakami, Hajime

    2002-08-01

    We investigated whether phenytoin (PHT) and nifedipine (NIF) induce angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) generation by cultured gingival fibroblasts derived from guinea pigs and whether Ang II and ET-1 induce proliferation of these cells. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that PHT (250 nM) and NIF (250 nM) increased the immunostaining intensities of immunoreactive Ang II and ET-1 (IRET-1) in these cells. Captopril (3 microM), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced these enhanced intensities to control levels. Ang II (100 nM) enhanced the immunostaining intensity of IRET-1. PHT (250 nM) and NIF (250 nM)-induced cell proliferation. Both PHT- and NIF-induced proliferation was inhibited by captopril (3 microM). Ang II (100 nM) and ET-1 (100 nM) also induced cell proliferation. Ang II-induced proliferation was inhibited by CV11974 (1 microM), an AT(1) receptor antagonist and saralasin (1 microM), an AT(1)/AT(2) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123,319 (1 microM), an AT(2) receptor antagonist. ET-1-induced proliferation was inhibited by BQ123 (10 microM), an ET(A) receptor antagonist, but not by BQ788 (1 microM), an ET(B) receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that PHT- and NIF-induced gingival fibroblast proliferation is mediated indirectly through the induction of Ang II and ET-1 and probably mediated through AT(1) and ET(A) receptors present in or on gingival fibroblasts. PMID:12223201

  13. Renal transporter activation during angiotensin-II hypertension is blunted in interferon-γ-/- and interleukin-17A-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Nikhil V; Thabet, Salim R; Xiao, Liang; Saleh, Mohamed A; Kirabo, Annet; Madhur, Meena S; Delpire, Eric; Harrison, David G; McDonough, Alicia A

    2015-03-01

    Ample genetic and physiological evidence establishes that renal salt handling is a critical regulator of blood pressure. Studies also establish a role for the immune system, T-cell infiltration, and immune cytokines in hypertension. This study aimed to connect immune cytokines, specifically interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A), to sodium transporter regulation in the kidney during angiotensin-II (Ang-II) hypertension. C57BL/6J (wild-type) mice responded to Ang-II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute, 2 weeks) with a rise in blood pressure (170 mm Hg) and a significant decrease in the rate of excretion of a saline challenge. In comparison, mice that lacked the ability to produce either IFN-γ (IFN-γ(-/-)) or IL-17A (IL-17A(-/-)) exhibited a blunted rise in blood pressure (<150 mm Hg), and both the genotypes maintained baseline diuretic and natriuretic responses to a saline challenge. Along the distal nephron, Ang-II infusion increased abundance of the phosphorylated forms of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, Na-Cl cotransporter, and Ste20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase, in both the wild-type and the IL-17A(-/-) but not in IFN-γ(-/-) mice; epithelial Na channel abundance increased similarly in all the 3 genotypes. In the proximal nephron, Ang-II infusion significantly decreased abundance of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 and the motor myosin VI in IL-17A(-/-) and IFN-γ(-/-), but not in wild-type; the Na-phosphate cotransporter decreased in all the 3 genotypes. Our results suggest that during Ang-II hypertension both IFN-γ and IL-17A production interfere with the pressure natriuretic decrease in proximal tubule sodium transport and that IFN-γ production is necessary to activate distal sodium reabsorption. PMID:25601932

  14. Angiotensin II blockade upregulates the expression of Klotho, the anti-ageing gene, in an experimental model of chronic cyclosporine nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Ghee, Jung Yeon; Piao, ShangGuo; Song, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong He; Kim, Sol; Ohashi, Naro; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Kuro-o, Makoto; Yang, Chul Woo

    2011-01-01

    Background. The Klotho gene plays a role in suppressing ageing-related disorders. It is suggested that activation of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or oxidative stress suppresses Klotho in the kidney. This study evaluated the association between Klotho expression and RAS in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury. Methods. Chronic CsA nephropathy was induced by administering CsA (30 mg/kg) to mice on a low-salt diet (LSD) for 4 weeks. A normal-salt diet (NSD) was used as the control. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed for Klotho and intrarenal RAS activity was measured using immunohistochemistry for angiotensinogen and renin. Oxidative stress was measured with urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results. CsA treatment decreased Klotho mRNA and protein in mouse kidney in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, but a concurrent treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, reversed the decrease in Klotho expression with histological improvement. This finding was more marked in the LSD than the NSD. Klotho expression was correlated with angiotensinogen and renin expression, tubulointerstitial fibrosis score and urinary 8-OHdG excretion. Conclusions. Angiotensin II may play a pivotal role in regulating Klotho expression in CsA-induced renal injury. AT1 receptor blocker may inhibit the ageing process by decreasing oxidative stress caused by CsA. PMID:20813770

  15. Evidence to Consider Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers for the Treatment of Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent type of dementia and diagnosed late in the progression of the illness when irreversible brain tissue loss has already occurred. For this reason, treatments have been ineffective. It is imperative to find novel therapies ameliorating modifiable risk factors (hypertension, stroke, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and traumatic brain injury) and effective against early pathogenic mechanisms including alterations in cerebral blood flow leading to poor oxygenation and decreased access to nutrients, impaired glucose metabolism, chronic inflammation, and glutamate excitotoxicity. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) fulfill these requirements. ARBs are directly neuroprotective against early injury factors in neuronal, astrocyte, microglia, and cerebrovascular endothelial cell cultures. ARBs protect cerebral blood flow and reduce injury to the blood brain barrier and neurological and cognitive loss in animal models of brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. These compounds are clinically effective against major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and ameliorate age-dependent cognitive loss. Controlled studies on hypertensive patients, open trials, case reports, and database meta-analysis indicate significant therapeutic effects of ARBs in Alzheimer's disease. ARBs are safe compounds, widely used to treat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in humans, and although they reduce hypertension, they do not affect blood pressure in normotensive individuals. Overall, there is sufficient evidence to consider long-term controlled clinical studies with ARBs in patients suffering from established risk factors, in patients with early cognitive loss, or in normal individuals when reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease risk are identified. PMID:26993513

  16. Type 1 angiotensin II receptor subtypes in kidney of normal and salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bouby, N; Bankir, L; Llorens-Cortes, C

    1996-03-01

    We studied the localization and regulation of the two type 1 angiotensin II receptor subtypes AT(1A) and AT(1B) in different renal zones of the rat kidney by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification method. The yield of the reaction was quantified with an internal standard that was a 63-bp deleted mutant cRNA of the AT(1A) receptor. In kidneys of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=4), the levels of AT(1A) and AT(1B) receptor mRNAs were highest in the inner stripe of the outer medulla, lowest in the inner medulla, and intermediate in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Results (mean+/-SE) expressed in 10(5) molecules per microgram total RNA were for cortex outer stripe, inner stripe, and inner medulla, respectively, 171 +/- 15, 152 +/- 27, 322 +/- 10, and 73 +/- 3 for AT(1A), and 35 +/- 9, 26 +/- 1, 71 +/- 10, and 53 +/- 11 for AT(1B). In sabra rats sensitive (n=6) or resistant (n=6) to salt-induced hypertension and maintained on a normal salt diet, the percentage and level of each receptor subtype mRNA in cortex and outer stripe were similar in the two strains and comparable to those observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. However, AT(1A) of the inner stripe was significantly decreased in salt-resistant compared with salt-sensitive rats (166 +/- 28 and 318 +/- 58 10(5) molecules per microgram total RNA, respectively). These modifications were organ specific because no difference in the level of the receptor mRNAs was observed in the liver of the two Sabra rat strains, whereas a twofold increase in AT(1A) mRNA level but not in AT(1B) mRNA level was apparent in adrenal and in one renal zone, the inner stripe of the outer medulla, of hypertension-prone Sabra rats.

  17. Angiotensin II inhibits insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, D; Faulkner, J L; Choudhury, G G; Abboud, H E; Kasinath, B S

    2001-01-01

    Interaction between angiotensin II, which binds a G-protein-coupled receptor, and insulin, a ligand for receptor tyrosine kinase, was examined in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Augmented protein translation by insulin involves activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) which follows the release of the factor from a heterodimeric complex by phosphorylation of its binding protein, 4E-BP1. Angiotensin II (1 nM) or insulin (1 nM) individually stimulated 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. However, pre-incubation with angiotensin II abrogated insulin-induced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, resulting in persistent binding to eIF4E. Although angiotensin II and insulin individually activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2-type mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, pre-incubation with angiotensin II abolished insulin-induced stimulation of these kinases, suggesting more proximal events in insulin signalling may be intercepted. Pretreatment with angiotensin II markedly inhibited insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin-receptor beta-chain and insulin-receptor substrate 1. Losartan prevented angiotensin II inhibition of insulin-induced ERK-1/-2-type MAP kinase activation and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, suggesting mediation of the effect of angiotensin II by its type 1 receptor. Insulin-stimulated de novo protein synthesis was also abolished by pre-incubation with angiotensin II. These data show that angiotensin II inhibits 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and stimulation of protein synthesis induced by insulin by interfering with proximal events in insulin signalling. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for insulin insensitivity induced by angiotensin II. PMID:11695995

  18. Mechanisms underlying the cerebral microvascular responses to angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vital, Shantel A; Terao, Satoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Granger, D Neil

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII type-1 receptors (AT1r) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and ischemic stroke. The objectives of this study was to determine if/how chronic AngII administration affects blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and blood cell adhesion in the cerebral microvasculature. AngII-loaded osmotic pumps were implanted in wild type (WT) and mutant mice. Leukocyte and platelet adhesion were monitored in cerebral venules by intravital microscopy and BBB permeability detected by Evans blue leakage. AngII (two week) infusion increased blood pressure in WT mice. This was accompanied by an increased BBB permeability and a high density of adherent leukocytes and platelets. AT1r (on the vessel wall, but not on blood cells) was largely responsible for the microvascular responses to AngII. Immunodeficient (Rag-1(-/-) ) mice exhibited blunted blood cell recruitment responses without a change in BBB permeability. A similar protection pattern was noted in RANTES(-/-) and P-selectin(-/-) mice, with bone marrow chimeras (blood cell deficiency only) yielding responses comparable to the respective knockouts. These findings implicate AT1r in the microvascular dysfunction associated with AngII-induced hypertension and suggest that immune cells and blood cell-associated RANTES and P-selectin contribute to the blood cell recruitment, but not the BBB failure, elicited by AngII. PMID:21044218

  19. Spinal cord injury increases the reactivity of rat tail artery to angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Al Dera, Hussain; Brock, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suggest the vasculature is hyperreactive to angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, the effects of SCI on the reactivity of the rat tail and mesenteric arteries to Ang II have been investigated. In addition, the effects of SCI on the facilitatory action of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions of these vessels were determined. Isometric contractions of artery segments from T11 (tail artery) or T4 (mesenteric arteries) spinal cord-transected rats and sham-operated rats were compared 6–7 weeks postoperatively. In both tail and mesenteric arteries, SCI increased nerve-evoked contractions. In tail arteries, SCI also greatly increased Ang II-evoked contractions and the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. By contrast, SCI did not detectably change the responses of mesenteric arteries to Ang II. These findings provide the first direct evidence that SCI increases the reactivity of arterial vessels to Ang II. In addition, in tail artery, the findings indicate that Ang II may contribute to modifying their responses following SCI. PMID:25610365

  20. Regulation of ERK5 by insulin and angiotensin-II in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Girish; Goalstone, Marc Lee; E-mail: Marc.Goalstone@uchsc.edu

    2007-03-23

    ERK5 is involved in proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The proliferative actions of insulin and angiotensin-II (A-II) in VSMC are mediated in part by ERK1/2. We hypothesized that insulin and A-II also regulate ERK5 activity in VSMC. Acute treatment (<60 min) with insulin or A-II increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at 15 min and ERK5 at 5 min. Chronic treatment ({<=}8 h) with insulin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 4 h and ERK5 by 8 h. A-II-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by 8 h and ERK5 by 4 h. The EC{sub 50} for insulin treatment effecting ERK1/2 and ERK5 phosphorylation was 1.5 and 0.1 nM, whereas the EC{sub 50} for A-II was 2 nM, each. Insulin plus A-II induced an additive effect only on ERK5 phosphorylation. Inhibition of insulin- and A-II-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK5 and ERK1/2 by PD98059 and Wortmannin exhibited differential and time-dependent effects. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin and A-II regulate the activity of ERK5, but different from that seen for ERK1/2.

  1. Angiotensin II plasma levels are linked to disease severity and predict fatal outcomes in H7N9-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fengming; Guo, Jing; Zou, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Cao, Bin; Zhang, Shuyang; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei; Sheng, Miaomiao; Liu, Song; Pan, Jingcao; Bao, Changjun; Zeng, Mei; Xiao, Haixia; Qian, Guirong; Hu, Xinjun; Chen, Yuanting; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Huandi; Zhu, Jindong; Gao, Hainv; Yang, Shigui; Liu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Shufa; Yang, Jiezuan; Diao, Hongyan; Cao, Hongcui; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Min; Tan, Shuguang; Guo, Dan; Zhao, Xiliang; Ye, Yicong; Wu, Wei; Xu, Yingchun; Penninger, Josef M; Li, Dangsheng; Gao, George F; Jiang, Chengyu; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-05-06

    A novel influenza A (H7N9) virus of avian origin emerged in eastern China in the spring of 2013. This virus causes severe disease in humans, including acute and often lethal respiratory failure. As of January 2014, 275 cases of H7N9-infected patients had been reported, highlighting the urgency of identifying biomarkers for predicting disease severity and fatal outcomes. Here, we show that plasma levels of angiotensin II, a major regulatory peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, are markedly elevated in H7N9 patients and are associated with disease progression. Moreover, the sustained high levels of angiotensin II in these patients are strongly correlated with mortality. The predictive value of angiotensin II is higher than that of C-reactive protein and some clinical parameters such as the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen). Our findings indicate that angiotensin II is a biomarker for lethality in flu infections.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell damage via protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Ojima, Ayako; Nishino, Yuri; Nakashima, Sae; Maeda, Sayaka; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that renin-angiotensin system plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), one of the incretins, a gut hormone secreted from L cells in the intestine in response to food intake, inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in mesangial cells thorugh the interaction with the receptor of GLP-1. However, effects of GLP-1 on angiotensin II-exposed mesangial cells are unknown. This study investigated whether and how GLP-1 blocked the angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. GLP-1 completely blocked the angiotensin II-induced superoxide generation, NF-κB activation, up-regulation of mRNA levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in mesangial cells, all of which were prevented by the treatments with H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. The present results demonstrated for the first time that GLP-1 blocked the angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell injury by inhibiting superoxide-mediated NF-κB activation via protein kinase C pathway. Our present study suggests that strategies to enhance the biological actions of GLP-1 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Investigation into the specificity of angiotensin II-induced behavioral desensitization.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Myers, Kevin P; Daniels, Derek

    2012-02-28

    Angiotensin II (AngII) plays a key role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. The physiological and behavioral effects of central AngII include increased blood pressure and fluid intake. In vitro experiments demonstrate that repeated exposure to AngII reduces the efficacy of subsequent AngII, and behavioral studies indicate that prior icv AngII administration reduces the dipsogenic response to AngII administered later. Specifically, rats given a treatment regimen of three icv injections of a large dose of AngII, each separated by 20 min, drink less water in response to a test injection of AngII than do vehicle-treated controls given the same test injection. The present studies were designed to test three potential explanations for the reduced dipsogenic potency of AngII after repeated administration. To this end, we tested for motor impairment caused by repeated injections of AngII, for a possible role of visceral distress or illness, and for differences in the pressor response to the final test injection of AngII. We found that repeated injections of AngII neither affected drinking stimulated by carbachol nor did they produce a conditioned flavor avoidance. Furthermore, we found no evidence that differences in the pressor response to the final test injection of AngII accounted for the difference in intake. In light of these findings, we are able to reject these three explanations for the observed behavioral desensitization, and, we suggest instead that the mechanism for this phenomenon may be at the level of the receptor.

  4. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors.

  5. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors. PMID:27401876

  6. The role of mAKAPβ in the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huixin; Liu, Baoxin; Hou, Lei; The, Erlinda; Li, Gang; Wang, Dongzhi; Jie, Qiqiang; Che, Wenliang; Wei, Yidong

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the central product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and this octapeptide contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. mAKAPβ is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that has the function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of mAKAPβ in AngII‑induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the possible mechanisms involved. Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were treated with AngII. Subsequently, the morphology of the cardiomyocytes was observed and the expression of mAKAPβ and cardiomyocyte hypertrophic markers was measured. mAKAPβ‑shRNA was constructed for RNA interference; the expression of mAKAPβ and hypertrophic markers, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate in the AngII‑treated rat cardiomyocytes were detected following RNA interference. Simultaneously, changes in the expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)2 in the cardiomyocytes were assessed. The cell size of the AngII-treated cardiaomyocytes was significantly larger than that of the untreated cardiomyocytes. The expression of hypertrophic markers and p-ERK2, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate were all significantly increased in the AngII‑treated cells. However, the expression of mAKAPβ remained unaltered in this process. RNA interference simultaneously inhibited the protein expression of mAKAPβ and p‑ERK2, and the hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes induced by AngII was attenuated. These results demonstrate that AngII induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, and mAKAPβ is possibly involved in this process. The effects of mAKAPβ on AngII‑induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be associated with p-ERK2 expression.

  7. Reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase 1 and mitochondria mediate angiotensin II-induced smooth muscle cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ching; Pan, Zih-Cian; Cheng, Hui-Pin; Liu, Chen-Hsiu; Lin, Bor-Tyng; Jiang, Meei Jyh

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence has emerged as an important player in both physiology and pathology. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to mediate cellular senescence. NADPH oxidases are major sources for ROS production in the vascular wall; the roles of different NADPH oxidase isoforms in cellular senescence remain unclear, however. We investigated the roles of two NADPH oxidase isoforms in mitochondrial dysfunction during angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cellular senescence of human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Ang II (10(-7)M) stimulated ROS generation, exhibiting early increases between 30 and 60min and sustained increases between 24h and 72h, and induced VSMCs senescence after 48h or 72h treatment as assessed with senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of two cell cycle inhibitors, p21 and p16. ROS scavengers and membrane-permeable catalase (catalase-PEG) reduced Ang II-stimulated cellular senescence. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit Nox1, but not that of another isoform Nox4, inhibited Ang II-induced cellular senescence. Nox1 siRNA inhibited both early and sustained ROS increases induced by Ang II. In addition, a mitochondrial-specific antioxidant, mitoQ10, effectively inhibited Ang II-induced ROS increases and cellular senescence. Ang II decreased ATP synthesis and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which were attenuated by pre-treating cells with Nox1 siRNA, mitoQ10 or catalase-PEG. The effect of Ang II on the mitochondrial regulator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream genes was examined. Ang II stimulated S570 phosphorylation of PGC-1α with concomitant decreases in catalase and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) levels between 12h and 72h, which were inhibited by Nox1 siRNA. Knockdown of both catalase and UCP-2 mimicked Ang II-induced VSMC senescence. These results suggested that Ang II-stimulated Nox1

  8. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  9. Angiotensin II regulates collagen metabolism through modulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in diabetic skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Hao, Shaoyun; Yang, Chuan; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Lihong; Lin, Diaozhu; Li, Na; Yan, Li

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) balance in regulating collagen metabolism of diabetic skin. Skin tissues from diabetic model were collected, and the primary cultured fibroblasts were treated with Ang II receptor inhibitors before Ang II treatment. The collagen type I (Coll I) and collagen type III (Coll III) were measured by histochemistry. The expressions of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), MMP-1, TIMP-1 and propeptides of types I and III procollagens in skin tissues and fibroblasts were quantified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Collagen dysfunction was documented by changed collagen I/III ratio in streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice compared with controls. This was accompanied by increased expression of TGF-β, TIMP-1 and propeptides of types I and III procollagens in diabetic skin tissues. In primary cultured fibroblasts, Ang II prompted collagen synthesis accompanied by increases in the expressions of TGF-β, TIMP-1 and types I and III procollagens, and these increases were inhibited by losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, but not affected by PD123319, an Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist. These findings present evidence that Ang-II-mediated changes in the productions of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 occur via AT1 receptors and a TGF-β-dependent mechanism.

  10. TRIF promotes angiotensin II-induced cross-talk between fibroblasts and macrophages in atrial fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dao-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Guo, Meng; Zhan, Yang-Yang; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Quan-Xing; Liu, Xu

    2015-08-14

    Aims: Atrial fibroblasts and macrophages have long been thought to participate in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, which specific mediator may regulate the interaction between them remains unclear. Methods and results: We provided the evidence for the involvement of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), an important inflammation-related molecule, in the pathophysiology of AF. Patients with AF showed higher levels of angiotensin II (AngII) and TRIF expression and larger number of macrophages infiltration in left atria appendage than individuals with sinus rhythm (SR). In the cell study, AngII induced chemokines expressions in mouse atrial fibroblasts and AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts induced the chemotaxis of macrophages, which were reduced by losartan and TRIF siRNA. Meanwhile, AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts proliferation was enhanced by macrophages. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that TRIF may be a crucial factor promoting the interaction between atrial fibroblasts and macrophages, leading to atrial fibrosis. - Highlights: • Compared with SR, AF showed higher TRIF expression in left atrial appendage. • TRIF siRNA reversed macrophage chemotaxis induced by AngII-treated fibroblast. • TRIF siRNA reversed chemokines expressions induced by AngII in fibroblast. • AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblast proliferation was enhanced by macrophage.

  11. Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.P.; Maciejewski, A.R.; Printz, M.P.

    1985-03-01

    To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the (/sup 125/I)-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM (/sup 125/I)-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II.

  12. Angiotensin II stimulates water and NaCl intake through separate cell signalling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Nowak, Erica L; Fluharty, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation of water and NaCl intake is a classic model of the behavioural effects of hormones. In vitro studies indicate that the AngII type 1 (AT(1)) receptor stimulates intracellular pathways that include protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. Previous studies support the hypotheses that PKC is involved in AngII-induced water, but not NaCl intake and that MAP kinase plays a role in NaCl consumption, but not water intake, after injection of AngII. The present experiments test these hypotheses in rats using central injections of AngII in the presence or absence of a PKC inhibitor or a MAP kinase inhibitor. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine attenuated AngII-induced water intake, but NaCl intake was unaffected. In contrast, pretreatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, had no effect on AngII-induced water intake, but attenuated NaCl intake. These data support the working hypotheses and significantly extend our earlier findings and those of others. Perhaps more importantly, these experiments demonstrate the remarkable diversity of peptide receptor systems and add support for the surprising finding that intracellular signalling pathways can have divergent behavioural relevance.

  13. 6β-hydroxytestosterone, a cytochrome P450 1B1 metabolite of testosterone, contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and its pathogenesis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Kara, Mehmet; Khan, Nayaab S; Estes, Anne M; Lin, Zongtao; Li, Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2015-06-01

    Previously, we showed that Cyp1b1 gene disruption minimizes angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes in male mice. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that cytochrome P450 1B1-generated metabolites of testosterone, 6β-hydroxytestosterone and 16α-hydroxytestosterone, contribute to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and its pathogenesis. Angiotensin II infusion for 2 weeks increased cardiac cytochrome P450 1B1 activity and plasma levels of 6β-hydroxytestosterone, but not 16α-hydroxytestosterone, in Cyp1b1(+/+) mice without altering Cyp1b1 gene expression; these effects of angiotensin II were not observed in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II-induced increase in systolic blood pressure and associated cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis, measured by intracardiac accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and transforming growth factor-β, and increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and production of reactive oxygen species; these changes were minimized in Cyp1b1(-/-) or castrated Cyp1b1(+/+) mice, and restored by treatment with 6β-hydroxytestoterone. In Cyp1b1(+/+) mice, 6β-hydroxytestosterone did not alter the angiotensin II-induced increase in systolic blood pressure; the basal systolic blood pressure was also not affected by this agent in either genotype. Angiotensin II or castration did not alter cardiac, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, Mas receptor, or androgen receptor mRNA levels in Cyp1b1(+/+) or in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. These data suggest that the testosterone metabolite, 6β-hydroxytestosterone, contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiac pathogenesis in male mice, most probably by acting as a permissive factor. Moreover, cytochrome P450 1B1 could serve as a novel target for developing agents for treating renin-angiotensin and testosterone-dependent hypertension and associated pathogenesis in males.

  14. Effect of angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension on the voltage-dependent contractions of mouse arteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Leloup, Arthur J A; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-02-01

    Arterial hypertension (AHT) affects the voltage dependency of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the effect of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AHT on L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated isometric contractions in conduit arteries. AHT was induced in C57Bl6 mice with AngII-filled osmotic mini-pumps (4 weeks). Normotensive mice treated with saline-filled osmotic mini-pumps were used for comparison. Voltage-dependent contractions mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels were studied in vaso-reactive studies in vitro in isolated aortic and femoral arteries by using extracellular K(+) concentration-response (KDR) experiments. In aortic segments, AngII-induced AHT significantly sensitized isometric contractions induced by elevated extracellular K(+) and depolarization. This sensitization was partly prevented by normalizing blood pressure with hydralazine, suggesting that it was caused by AHT rather than by direct AngII effects on aortic smooth muscle cells. The EC50 for extracellular K(+) obtained in vitro correlated significantly with the rise in arterial blood pressure induced by AngII in vivo. The AHT-induced sensitization persisted when aortic segments were exposed to levcromakalim or to inhibitors of basal nitric oxide release. Consistent with these observations, AngII-treatment also sensitized the vaso-relaxing effects of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem during K(+)-induced contractions. Unlike aorta, AngII-treatment desensitized the isometric contractions to depolarization in femoral arteries pointing to vascular bed specific responses of arteries to hypertension. AHT affects the voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated contraction of conduit arteries. This effect may contribute to the decreased vascular compliance in AHT and explain the efficacy of Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce vascular stiffness and central blood pressure in AHT.

  15. Angiotensin II AT2 receptors are functionally coupled to protein tyrosine dephosphorylation in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nahmias, C; Cazaubon, S M; Briend-Sutren, M M; Lazard, D; Villageois, P; Strosberg, A D

    1995-01-01

    Murine N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells are shown to express a single class of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors that display all the pharmacological properties defining the Ang II receptor subtype 2 (AT2): high affinity for 125I-labelled AT2-selective agonist CGP 42112 (Kd 91 +/- 19 pM); expected rank order of potency (CGP 42112 = (Sar1,Ile8)Ang II > or = Ang II > PD 123319 >> DUP 753) for several Ang II analogues; increased binding in the presence of the reducing reagent dithiothreitol (DTT); and insensitivity to analogues of GTP. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding AT2 receptors from N1E-115 cells reveals nucleotide sequence identity with the AT2 subtype expressed in fetal tissue. Murine AT2 receptors transiently expressed in COS cells display the same pharmacological profile as endogenous Ang II receptors of N1E-115 cells. Taken together, these data reveal the exclusive presence of the AT2 receptor subtype in N1E-115 cells. Incubation of N1E-115 cells with Ang II leads to a marked decrease in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins with apparent molecular masses of 80, 97, 120, 150 and 180 kDa respectively. Tyrosine dephosphorylation of the same set of proteins is observed after treatment with the AT2-specific agonist CGP 42112. The response to both effectors is rapid and transient, showing a maximum between 5 and 10 min, and returning to basal levels after 20-30 min. In both cases, tyrosine dephosphorylation can be prevented by co-incubation with an excess of the antagonist Sarile. These data thus establish that AT2 receptor activation leads to protein tyrosine dephosphorylation in N1E-115 cells, and support a possible role for AT2 receptors in the negative regulation of cell proliferation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7532401

  16. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Mediated Electrical Remodeling in Mouse Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeremy; Gao, Junyuan; Cohen, Ira S; Mathias, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    We recently characterized an autocrine renin angiotensin system (RAS) in canine heart. Activation of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors (AT1Rs) induced electrical remodeling, including inhibition of the transient outward potassium current Ito, prolongation of the action potential (AP), increased calcium entry and increased contractility. Electrical properties of the mouse heart are very different from those of dog heart, but if a similar system existed in mouse, it could be uniquely studied through genetic manipulations. To investigate the presence of a RAS in mouse, we measured APs and Ito in isolated myocytes. Application of angiotensin II (A2) for 2 or more hours reduced Ito magnitude, without affecting voltage dependence, and prolonged APs in a dose-dependent manner. Based on dose-inhibition curves, the fast and slow components of Ito (Ito,fast and IK,slow) appeared to be coherently regulated by [A2], with 50% inhibition at an A2 concentration of about 400 nM. This very high K0.5 is inconsistent with systemic A2 effects, but is consistent with an autocrine RAS in mouse heart. Pre-application of the microtubule destabilizing agent colchicine eliminated A2 effects on Ito and AP duration, suggesting these effects depend on intracellular trafficking. Application of the biased agonist SII ([Sar1-Ile4-Ile8]A2), which stimulates receptor internalization without G protein activation, caused Ito reduction and AP prolongation similar to A2-induced changes. These data demonstrate AT1R mediated regulation of Ito in mouse heart. Moreover, all measured properties parallel those measured in dog heart, suggesting an autocrine RAS may be a fundamental feedback system that is present across species. PMID:26430746

  17. Expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Thick Ascending Loop of Henle Attenuates Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Heather A.; Gousette, Monette U.; Storm, Megan V.; Abraham, Nader G.; Csongradi, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Kidney-specific induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) attenuates the development of angiotensin II (Ang II) -dependent hypertension, but the relative contribution of vascular versus tubular induction of HO-1 is unknown. To determine the specific contribution of thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) -derived HO-1, we generated a transgenic mouse in which the uromodulin promoter controlled expression of human HO-1. Quantitative RT-PCR and confocal microscopy confirmed successful localization of the HO-1 transgene to TALH tubule segments. Medullary HO activity, but not cortical HO activity, was significantly higher in transgenic mice than control mice. Enhanced TALH HO-1 attenuated the hypertension induced by Ang II delivered by an osmotic minipump for 10 days (139±3 versus 153±2 mmHg in the transgenic and control mice, respectively; P<0.05). The lower blood pressure in transgenic mice associated with a 60% decrease in medullary NKCC2 transporter expression determined by Western blot. Transgenic mice also exhibited a 36% decrease in ouabain-sensitive sodium reabsorption and a significantly attenuated response to furosemide in isolated TALH segments,. In summary, these results show that increased levels of HO-1 in the TALH can lower blood pressure by a mechanism that may include alterations in NKCC2-dependent sodium reabsorption. PMID:22323644

  18. Attenuated cardiovascular hypertrophy and oxidant generation in response to angiotensin II infusion in glutaredoxin-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachschmid, Markus M.; Xu, Shanqin; Maitland-Toolan, Karlene A.; Ho, Ye-Shih; Cohen, Richard A.; Matsui, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a thioltransferase that regulates protein S-glutathiolation. To elucidate the role of endogenous Glrx in cardiovascular disease, Glrx knockout (KO) mice were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) for 6 days. After Ang II infusion, body weight and blood pressure were similar between WT and Glrx KO mice. However, compared to WT mice, Glrx KO mice demonstrated (1) less cardiac and aortic medial hypertrophy, (2) less oxidant generation in aorta assessed by dihydroethidium staining and nitrotyrosine, (3) decreased phosphorylation of Akt in the heart, and (4) less expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) in aorta and heart. In cultured embryonic fibroblasts from Glrx KO mice, S-glutathiolation of actin was enhanced and actin depolymerization was impaired after hydrogen peroxide stimulation compared with WT cells. Furthermore, oxidant generation in phorbol ester-stimulated fibroblasts and RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells was lower with Glrx siRNA knockdown. These data indicate that Ang II-induced oxidant production and hypertrophic responses were attenuated in Glrx KO mice, which may result from impaired NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:20638471

  19. Surgery-Induced Hippocampal Angiotensin II Elevation Causes Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via MMP/TIMP in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengqian; Mo, Na; Li, Lunxu; Cao, Yiyun; Wang, Wenming; Liang, Yaoxian; Deng, Hui; Xing, Rui; Yang, Lin; Ni, Cheng; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Reversible blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been uniformly reported in several animal models of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nevertheless, the precise mechanism underlying this occurrence remains unclear. Using an aged rat model of POCD, we investigated the dynamic changes in expression of molecules involved in BBB disintegration, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9), as well as three of their endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1, -2, -3), and tried to establish the correlation between MMP/TIMP balance and surgery-induced hippocampal BBB disruption. We validated the increased hippocampal expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1) after surgery. We also found MMP/TIMP imbalance as early as 6 h after surgery, together with increased BBB permeability and decreased expression of Occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), as well as increased basal lamina protein laminin at 24 h postsurgery. The AT1 antagonist candesartan restored MMP/TIMP equilibrium and modulated expression of Occludin and laminin, but not ZO-1, thereby improving BBB permeability. These events were accompanied by suppression of the surgery-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation cascade. Nevertheless, AT1 antagonism did not affect nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that surgery-induced Ang II release impairs BBB integrity by activating NF-κB signaling and disrupting downstream MMP/TIMP balance via AT1 receptor. PMID:27199659

  20. Atrial fibrillation after radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter: preventive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Anné, W; Willems, R; Van der Merwe, N; Van de Werf, F; Ector, H; Heidbüchel, H

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine risk factors for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) after atrial flutter (AFL) ablation; and to study the relation between AF development and periprocedural drug use. Methods: AFL ablation was performed in 196 patients. The relation between AF occurrence and clinical, echocardiographic, and procedural factors and periprocedural drug use was analysed retrospectively by a Cox proportional hazard method. Results: After a median follow up of 2.2 years, 114 patients (58%) developed at least one AF episode. Factors associated with AF development were the presence of preprocedural AF, a history of cardioversion, and the number of antiarrhythmic drugs used before the procedure. Use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and diuretics was significantly associated by univariate and multivariate analyses with less development of AF. Conclusions: A high proportion of patients develop AF after AFL ablation. The incidence of AF is related to pre-ablation AF and its persistence. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and diuretics seem to protect against AF. PMID:15310691

  1. Identification of metabolic pathways of brain angiotensin II and III using specific aminopeptidase inhibitors: predominant role of angiotensin III in the control of vasopressin release.

    PubMed Central

    Zini, S; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Chauvel, E; Roques, B P; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortes, C

    1996-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang III are two peptide effectors of the brain renin-angiotensin system that participate in the control of blood pressure and increase water consumption and vasopressin release. In an attempt to delineate the respective roles of these peptides in the regulation of vasopressin secretion, their metabolic pathways and their effects on vasopressin release were identified in vivo. For this purpose, we used recently developed selective inhibitors of aminopeptidase A (APA) and aminopeptidase N (APN), two enzymes that are believed to be responsible for the N-terminal cleavage of Ang II and Ang III, respectively. Mice received [3H]Ang II intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in the presence or absence of the APN inhibitor, EC33 (3-amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate) of the APN inhibitor, EC27 (2-amino-pentan-1,5-dithiol). [3H]Ang II and [3H]Ang III levels were evaluated from hypothalamus homogenates by HPLC. EC33 increased the half-life of [3H]Ang II 2.6-fold and completely blocked the formation of [3H]Ang III, whereas EC27 increased the half-life of [3H]Ang III 2.3-fold. In addition, the effects of EC33 and EC27 on Ang-induced vasopressin release were studied in mice. Ang II was injected i.c.v. in the presence or absence of EC33, and plasma vasopressin levels were estimated by RIA. While vasopressin levels were increased 2-fold by Ang II (5 ng), EC33 inhibited Ang II-induced vasopressin release in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, EC27 injected alone increased in a dose-dependent manner vasopressin levels. The EC27-induced vasopressin release was completely blocked by the coadministration of the Ang receptor antagonist (Sar1-Ala8) Ang II. These results demonstrate for the first time that (i) APA and APN are involved in vivo in the metabolism of brain Ang II and Ang III, respectively, and that (ii) the action of Ang II on vasopressin release depends upon the prior conversion of Ang II to Ang III. This shows that Ang III behaves as one of the main

  2. Sandwich immunoassay for the hapten angiotensin II. A novel assay principle based on antibodies against immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Towbin, H; Motz, J; Oroszlan, P; Zingel, O

    1995-04-26

    Immunoassays for haptens such as short peptides or drugs are usually based on the principle of competition for a limited number of binding sites on antibody molecules. Owing to the small size of these antigens it has been thought that two specific antibodies cannot simultaneously bind a hapten. However, antisera containing so called anti-metatypic antibodies have been reported (Voss et al. (1988) Mol. Immunol. 25, 751-759) that bind to hapten-mAb complexes in a reaction where conformational changes on the primary antibody are important. Here, we report on monoclonal antibody pairs able to form ternary complexes with the octapeptide angiotensin II. The first mAb (mAb1) is conventional and binds angiotensin II with high affinity (Kd 10(-11) M). The secondary (anti-metatypic) mAbs (mAbs2s) recognize the immune complex consisting of angiotensin II bound to mAb1, but only poorly recognize mAb1 alone. An immunization technique involving tolerization with uncomplexed mAb1 was used to generate mAb2s. None of the mAbs2s were able to bind angiotensin II by themselves but all efficiently bound the complex of angiotensin II and mAb1. All mAb2s stabilized the angiotensin II-mAb1 complex and one mAb2 distinctly improved the specificity of the assay for angiotensin II. By either labelling mAb1 and immobilizing mAb2 (or vice versa) two-site immunometric assays with detection limits of 1 pg/ml angiotensin II have been established. The kinetics of the complex formation was investigated by fiber optic biospecific interaction analysis (FOBIA), a system allowing real time observation of binding events on the surface of a glass fiber. The association rate towards the liganded conformation of mAb1 was higher than towards the free mAb1. By contrast, the mAb2s dissociated at similar rates from complexed and uncomplexed mAb1. PMID:7745246

  3. Arousal of a specific and persistent sodium appetite in the rat with continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R W; Epstein, A N; Fitzsimons, J T; Fluharty, S J

    1980-04-01

    1. Prolonged exposure of the brain of the normal Na-replete rat to angiotensin II produced a marked and persistent Na appetite. In a first series of experiments, short-term, repeated systemic injections of isoprenaline or renin (both of which raise circulating angiotensin levels), and repeated intracranial injections of angiotensin II evoked increased ingestion of 2 . 7% NaCl. In the second series of experiments, continuous infusions of angiotensin II directly into the brain evoked extremely large intakes of 3% NaCl. 2. In addition to large intakes of hypertonic NaCl some rats drank daily volumes of water that exceeded their body weight. 3. Not only did the animals drink large volumes of 3% NaCl some rats drank daily volumes of water that exceeded their body weight. 3. Not only did the animals drink large volumes of 3% NaCl during continuous angiotensin II infusion, but after termination of the infusion they continued to ingest NaCl at a rate comparable to that of the adrenalectomized rat. In most of the animals the persistent NaCl intake diminished over several days, but other animals continued to drink NaCl for as long as their intake was measured (up to 7 months). 4. The response to continuous infusion of angiotensin II was dose-dependent. Both water and 3% NaCl intake increased over a dose range of 6 ng h-1 to 6000 ng h-1. The persistence of the sodium appetitite was also dose-dependent across the same range of doses. 5. Angiotensin-induced salt appetite is specific for Na. Animals did not drink 0 . 5 M-NH4Cl and only occasionally drank minimal amounts of 0 . 5 M-KCl during continuous infusion. 6. The large water turnover was not responsible for the Na appetite. Rats given access to 3% NaCl only during infusion of angiotensin copiously. Animals that were not infused but were given saccharine-flavoured water in order to increase their water intakes did not drink 3% NaCl offered at the same time even though fluid intake was high. Rats that did not receive

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H-l; Zhu, W-b; Wu, D; Da, Y-j; Yan, Y-J; Bian, J; Chen, Z-l

    2014-12-01

    The design, synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of (2 R,6 S)-4-({1-[2-(1 H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]-1 H-indol-4-yl}methyl)-2,6-dimethylmorpholine, compound 1, as a novel angiotensin II receptor antagonist is outlined. Radioligand binding assays showed that 1 displayed a high affinity for the angiotensin II type 1receptor with IC50 value of 0.82 nM. It acted as a potent anti-hypertensive derivative (maximal reduction of mean arterial pressure of 47 mm Hg at 10 mg/kg po in spontaneously hypertensive rat producing a dose-dependent fall in blood pressure following oral administration lasting beyond 10 h. Acute toxicity tests measured the LD50 of 1 value as 2431.7 mg/kg, which is higher than Losartan (LD50=2248 mg/kg). In addition further testing showed that 1 also demonstrated efficient anti-proliferative activity in vitro and anti-prostate cancer activity in vivo were also found. Taken together this compound could be considered as an effective and durable anti-hypertension drug candidate with additional anti-prostate cancer activity. These encouraging results are deserved of further investigation towards its use for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24573978

  5. Severe Hyponatremia Associated with the Use of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker/thiazide Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Rae; Cho, Joo-Hee; Jang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jin-Sug; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae-Won

    2013-01-01

    There are several widely used combinations of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)/thiazide. The complimentary mechanism of action for such anti-hypertensive therapies is that, while ARB inhibits the vasoconstricting and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II, hydrochlorothiazide affects the renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption and increases excretion of sodium and chloride in the distal tubule, consequently promoting water excretion. In addition, hypokalemia, which may be triggered by a hydrochlorothiazide-induced increase in urinary potassium loss, is resisted by the use of ARB. Hence, the ARB/thiazide combination is safe in terms of potassium imbalance. For these reasons, fixed-dose ARB/thiazide combination anti-hypertensive drugs have been widely used for the treatment of hypertension. However, there have not been many studies done regarding cases where patients under such regimens showed severe hyponatremia, even when the amount of thiazide included was low. Here we report two cases in which severe hyponatremia occurred following treatment with the ARB/thiazide combinations. Upon discontinuation of the regimen, both patients showed recovery from hyponatremia. PMID:24627706

  6. Topographic probes of angiotensin and receptor: potent angiotensin II agonist containing diphenylalanine and long-acting antagonists containing biphenylalanine and 2-indan amino acid in position 8.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, K H; LaHann, T R; Speth, R C

    1989-04-01

    A series of phenylalanine-mimicking amino acids with increasing conformational restraint were prepared and incorporated into angiotensin II, in order to develop topographic probes of angiotensin useful for probing receptor boundaries by molecular graphics analysis and for conformational analysis of the ligand by NMR. In binding studies, all analogues displayed high affinity for rat uterus (Ki of 0.74-6.08 nM) and brain (0.46-1.82 nM) receptors. In smooth muscle (rat uterus) contraction assay, the diphenylalanine-containing [Sar1,Dip8]AII and [Sar1,D-Dip8]AII were potent agonists with respectively 284% and 48% activity of [Asn1]AII. In contrast, the biphenylalanine-containing [Sar1,Bip8]AII, [Sar1,D-Bip8]AII, and the 2-indan amino acid containing [Sar1,2-Ind8]AII were potent inhibitors, approximately 9, 2, and 1.4 times more effective than a standard antagonist, [Sar1,Leu8]AII. Their respective pA10 values in rat uterus assay were 8.87, 8.70, and 8.82. By comparison, the pA10 value for [Sar1,Leu8]AII was 8.35. In rats, a single dose of 10 micrograms of [Sar1,2-Ind8]AII or [Sar1,Bip8]AII produced prolonged blockade of the pressor response toward angiotensin II for over 90 min. The very different pharmacological profiles of these rigid aromatic analogues suggest that the angiotensin receptor activation site consists of a relatively wide and elongated pocket with a narrow opening.

  7. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (Pdose < 0.0001), and PD123319 intensified the reduction of RBF response in female (Pgroup < 0.005), but not in male rats. Conclusion. The impact of the AT2R on vascular responses to Ang II in renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats. PMID:27034657

  8. High-Dose Estradiol-Replacement Therapy Enhances the Renal Vascular Response to Angiotensin II via an AT2-Receptor Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Tahereh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Evans, Roger G.; Denton, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological levels of estrogen appear to enhance angiotensin type 2 receptor- (AT2R-) mediated vasodilatation. However, the effects of supraphysiological levels of estrogen, analogous to those achieved with high-dose estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, remain unknown. Therefore, we pretreated ovariectomized rats with a relatively high dose of estrogen (0.5 mg/kg/week) for two weeks. Subsequently, renal hemodynamic responses to intravenous angiotensin II (Ang II, 30–300 ng/kg/min) were tested under anesthesia, while renal perfusion pressure was held constant. The role of AT2R was examined by pretreating groups of rats with PD123319 or its vehicle. Renal blood flow (RBF) decreased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang II. Responses to Ang II were enhanced by pretreatment with estradiol. For example, at 300 ng kg−1 min−1, Ang II reduced RBF by 45.7 ± 1.9% in estradiol-treated rats but only by 27.3 ± 5.1% in vehicle-treated rats. Pretreatment with PD123319 blunted the response of RBF to Ang II in estradiol-treated rats, so that reductions in RBF were similar to those in rats not treated with estradiol. We conclude that supraphysiological levels of estrogen promote AT2R-mediated renal vasoconstriction. This mechanism could potentially contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with hormone replacement therapy using high-dose estrogen. PMID:26681937

  9. Podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy: implications of angiotensin II – dependent activation of TRPC channels

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Levchenko, Vladislav; Lowing, Andrea; Shuyskiy, Leonid S.; Palygin, Oleg; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Injury to podocytes is considered a major contributor to diabetic kidney disease: their loss causes proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte depletion may result from improper calcium handling due to abnormal activation of the calcium permeant TRPC (Transient Receptor Potential Canonical) channels. Angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are found to be elevated in diabetes; furthermore, it was reported that Ang II causes activation of TRPC6 in podocytes. We hypothesized here that Ang II-mediated calcium influx is aggravated in the podocytes under the conditions of type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rats by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ-SS). Eleven weeks post treatment was sufficient for the animals to develop hyperglycemia, excessive urination, weight loss, microalbuminuria, nephrinuria and display renal histological lesions typical for patients with DN. Patch-clamp electrophysiology performed on podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli showed enhanced basal TRPC channel activity in the STZ-SS rats, and increased response to Ang II; total calcium influx triggered by Ang II application was also augmented in podocytes of these rats. Our studies have a strong potential for advancing the understanding of TRPC-mediated effects on podocytopenia in DN initiation. PMID:26656101

  10. Thymosin β4 Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Growth by Regulating Wnt/WISP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Guleria, Rakeshwar S; Thakur, Suresh; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Pan, Jing; Baker, Kenneth M; Gupta, Sudhiranjan

    2016-08-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. However, the role of Tβ4 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardio-protective effect of Tβ4 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte growth. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVM) were pretreated with Tβ4 followed by Ang II stimulation. Cell size, hypertrophy marker gene expression and Wnt signaling components, β-catenin, and Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and fluorescent microscopy. Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of cell size, hypertrophy marker genes and Wnt-associated gene expression, and protein levels; induced by Ang II in cardiomyocyte. WISP-1 was overexpressed in NRVM and, the effect of Tβ4 in Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte growth was evaluated. WISP-1 overexpression promoted cardiomyocytes growth and was reversed by pretreatment with Tβ4. This is the first report which demonstrates that Tβ4 targets Wnt/WISP-1 to protect Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte growth. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1737-1744, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Metcalf, Cameron S; Heyborne, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3-5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day, the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for 2 h. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII.

  12. An Interaction of Renin-Angiotensin and Kallikrein-Kinin Systems Contributes to Vascular Hypertrophy in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ceravolo, Graziela S.; Montezano, Augusto C.; Jordão, Maria T.; Akamine, Eliana H.; Costa, Tiago J.; Takano, Ana P.; Fernandes, Denise C.; Barreto-Chaves, Maria L.; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Tostes, Rita C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.; Chopard, Renato P.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems interact at multiple levels. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the B1 kinin receptor (B1R) contributes to vascular hypertrophy in angiotensin II (ANG II)–induced hypertension, through a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation. Male Wistar rats were infused with vehicle (control rats), 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II (ANG II rats) or 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II plus B1 receptor antagonist, 350 ng/Kg/min des-Arg9-Leu8-bradykinin (ANGII+DAL rats), via osmotic mini-pumps (14 days) or received ANG II plus losartan (10 mg/Kg, 14 days, gavage - ANG II+LOS rats). After 14 days, ANG II rats exhibited increased systolic arterial pressure [(mmHg) 184±5.9 vs 115±2.3], aortic hypertrophy; increased ROS generation [2-hydroxyethidium/dihydroethidium (EOH/DHE): 21.8±2.7 vs 6.0±1.8] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (% of control: 218.3±29.4 vs 100±0.25]. B1R expression was increased in aortas from ANG II and ANG II+DAL rats than in aortas from the ANG II+LOS and control groups. B1R antagonism reduced aorta hypertrophy, prevented ROS generation (EOH/DHE: 9.17±3.1) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (137±20.7%) in ANG II rats. Cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) stimulated with low concentrations (0.1 nM) of ANG II plus B1R agonist exhibited increased ROS generation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, proliferating-cell nuclear antigen expression and [H3]leucine incorporation. At this concentration, neither ANG II nor the B1R agonist produced any effects when tested individually. The ANG II/B1R agonist synergism was inhibited by losartan (AT1 blocker, 10 µM), B1R antagonist (10 µM) and Tiron (superoxide anion scavenger, 10 mM). These data suggest that B1R activation contributes to ANG II-induced aortic hypertrophy. This is associated with activation of redox-regulated ERK1/2 pathway that controls aortic smooth muscle cells growth. Our findings

  13. Nitric oxide up-regulates endothelial expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Medini, Sawsan; Bisha, Marion; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Bas, Murat; Kojda, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Increasing vascular NO levels following up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered beneficial in cardiovascular disease. Whether such beneficial effects exerted by increased NO-levels include the vascular renin-angiotensin system remains elucidated. Exposure of endothelial cells originated from porcine aorta, mouse brain and human umbilical veins to different NO-donors showed that expression of the angiotensin-II-type-2-receptor (AT2) mRNA and protein is up-regulated by activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, protein kinase G and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase without changing AT2 mRNA stability. In mice, endothelial-specific overexpression of eNOS stimulated, while chronic treatment with the NOS-blocker l-nitroarginine inhibited AT2 expression. The NO-induced AT2 up-regulation was associated with a profound inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-activity. In endothelial cells this reduction of ACE-activity was reversed by either the AT2 antagonist PD 123119 or by inhibition of transcription with actinomycin D. Furthermore, in C57Bl/6 mice an acute i.v. bolus of l-nitroarginine did not change AT2-expression and ACE-activity suggesting that inhibition of ACE-activity by endogenous NO is crucially dependent on AT2 protein level. Likewise, three weeks of either voluntary or forced exercise training increased AT2 expression and reduced ACE-activity in C57Bl/6 but not in mice lacking eNOS suggesting significance of this signaling interaction for vascular physiology. Finally, aortic AT2 expression is about 5 times greater in female as compared to male C57Bl/6 and at the same time aortic ACE activity is reduced in females by more than 50%. Together these findings imply that endothelial NO regulates AT2 expression and that AT2 may regulate ACE-activity. PMID:27235748

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for the behavioural desensitization that occurs after repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2012-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts on central angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase water and saline intake. Prolonged exposure to Ang II in cell culture models results in a desensitization of the AT(1) receptor that is thought to involve receptor internalization, and a behavioural correlate of this desensitization has been shown in rats after repeated central injections of Ang II. Specifically, rats given repeated injections of Ang II drink less water than control animals after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. In the same conditions, however, repeated injections of Ang II have no effect on Ang II-induced saline intake. Given earlier studies indicating that separate intracellular signalling pathways mediate Ang II-induced water and saline intake, we hypothesized that the desensitization observed in rats may be incomplete, leaving the receptor able to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK1/2), which play a role in Ang II-induced saline intake without affecting water intake. In support of this hypothesis, we found no difference in MAP kinase phosphorylation after an Ang II test injection in rats given prior treatment with repeated injections of vehicle, Ang II or Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)-Ang II (SII), an Ang II analogue that activates MAP kinase without G protein coupling. In addition, we found that pretreatment with the MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 completely blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated Ang II injections on water intake. Furthermore, Ang II-induced water intake was reduced to a similar extent by repeated injections of Ang II or SII. The results suggest that G protein-independent signalling is sufficient to produce behavioural desensitization of the angiotensin system and that the desensitization requires MAP kinase activation.

  15. TNF Receptor 1 Signaling is Critically Involved in Mediating Angiotensin-II-induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Crawford, Jeffrey R.; Reineke, Erin; Taffet, George E.; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.; Haudek, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is associated with many conditions involving heart failure and pathologic hypertrophy. Ang-II induces the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that mediates the uptake of CD34+CD45+ monocytic cells into the heart. These precursor cells differentiate into collagen-producing fibroblasts and are responsible for the Ang-II-induced development of non-adaptive cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that in vitro, using a human monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation model, Ang-II required the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to induce fibroblast maturation from monocytes. In vivo, mice deficient in both TNF receptors did not develop cardiac fibrosis in response to 1 week Ang-II infusion. We then subjected mice deficient in either TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-KO) or TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2-KO) to continuous Ang-II infusion. Compared to wild-type, in TNFR1-KO, but not in TNFR2-KO hearts, collagen deposition was greatly attenuated, and markedly fewer CD34+CD45+ cells were present. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a striking reduction of key fibrosis-related, as well as inflammation-related mRNA expression in Ang-II-treated TNFR1-KO hearts. TNFR1-KO animals also developed less cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension compared to wild-type and TNFR2-KO in response to Ang-II. Our data suggest that TNF induced Ang-II-dependent cardiac fibrosis by signaling through TNFR1, which enhances the generation of monocytic fibroblast precursors in the heart. PMID:23337087

  16. Downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor by all-trans retinoic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Ichiki, T; Funakoshi, Y; Ito, K; Takeshita, A

    2000-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a biologically active metabolite of vitamin A that plays an important role in cell differentiation and proliferation. Although neointimal formation after balloon injury of rat carotid artery is inhibited by atRA, the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because the renin-angiotensin system is one of the crucial components of atherosclerosis, we examined the effects of atRA on the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R) in vascular smooth muscle cells. atRA (1 micromol/L) decreased the AT(1)-R mRNA level by 50% after 24 hours; AT(1)-R number was also reduced to the same extent after 48 hours. atRA markedly suppressed promoter activity of the AT(1)-R promoter-luciferase construct, but AT(1)-R mRNA stability was not affected. Cycloheximide blocked the atRA-induced decrease in AT(1)-R mRNA expression, suggesting that this process requires de novo protein synthesis. Simultaneous treatment with an agonist (Ro40-6055) specific for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and an agonist (Ro25-7836) specific for retinoid X receptor (RXR) suppressed the AT(1)-R mRNA expression comparable to that with treatment with atRA, suggesting that the RAR/RXR heterodimer mediates the effect of atRA in AT(1)-R downregulation. These results suggest that atRA suppressed AT(1)-R mRNA transcription through new protein synthesis induced by RAR/RXR-dependent transcription. This study provides novel insight into a role of atRA as an important molecule that regulates AT(1)-R gene expression and provides possible mechanisms for the suppression of neointimal formation by atRA.

  17. Angiotensin II-regulated microRNA 483-3p directly targets multiple components of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jacqueline R; Unal, Hamiyet; Desnoyer, Russell; Yue, Hong; Bhatnagar, Anushree; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2014-10-01

    Improper regulation of signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by angiotensin II (AngII) can lead to hypertension, vascular hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. The extent to which the homeostatic levels of the components of signaling networks are regulated through microRNAs (miRNA) modulated by AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) in VSMCs is not fully understood. Whether AT1R blockers used to treat vascular disorders modulate expression of miRNAs is also not known. To report differential miRNA expression following AT1R activation by AngII, we performed microarray analysis in 23 biological and technical replicates derived from humans, rats and mice. Profiling data revealed a robust regulation of miRNA expression by AngII through AT1R, but not the AngII type 2 receptor (AT2R). The AT1R-specific blockers, losartan and candesartan antagonized >90% of AT1R-regulated miRNAs and AngII-activated AT2R did not modulate their expression. We discovered VSMC-specific modulation of 22 miRNAs by AngII, and validated AT1R-mediated regulation of 17 of those miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We selected miR-483-3p as a novel representative candidate for further study because mRNAs of multiple components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) were predicted to contain the target sequence for this miRNA. MiR-483-3p inhibited the expression of luciferase reporters bearing 3'-UTRs of four different RAS genes and the inhibition was reversed by antagomir-483-3p. The AT1R-regulated expression levels of angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE-1) proteins in VSMCs are modulated specifically by miR-483-3p. Our study demonstrates that the AT1R-regulated miRNA expression fingerprint is conserved in VSMCs of humans and rodents. Furthermore, we identify the AT1R-regulated miR-483-3p as a potential negative regulator of steady-state levels of RAS components in VSMCs. Thus, miRNA-regulation by AngII to affect cellular signaling is a novel aspect of RAS biology

  18. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) regulates expansion, differentiation, and functional capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 (AT1R), an important effector axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), have been demonstrated to regulate T-cell responses. However, these studies characterized Ang II and AT1R effects using pharmacological tools, which do not target only Ang II/AT1R axis. The specific role of AT1R expressed by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is unknown. Then we immunized transgenic mice expressing a T-cell receptor specific for SIINFEKL epitope (OT-I mice) with sporozoites of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei expressing the cytotoxic epitope SIINFEKL. Early priming events after immunization were not affected but the expansion and contraction of AT1R-deficient (AT1R−/−) OT-I cells was decreased. Moreover, they seemed more activated, express higher levels of CTLA-4, PD-1, LAG-3, and have decreased functional capacity during the effector phase. Memory AT1R−/− OT-I cells exhibited higher IL-7Rα expression, activation, and exhaustion phenotypes but less cytotoxic capacity. Importantly, AT1R−/− OT-I cells show better control of blood parasitemia burden and ameliorate mice survival during lethal disease induced by blood-stage malaria. Our study reveals that AT1R in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells regulates expansion, differentiation, and function during effector and memory phases of the response against Plasmodium, which could apply to different infectious agents. PMID:27782175

  19. DL-propargylglycine reduces blood pressure and renal injury but increases kidney weight in angiotensin-II infused rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Nynke R; Frenay, Anne-Roos S; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Snijder, Pauline M; Slaats, Gisela G; Yazdani, Saleh; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Giles, Rachel H; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A; van Goor, Harry

    2015-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) share signaling and vasorelaxant properties and are involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Inhibiting NO production or availability induces hypertension and proteinuria, which is prevented by concomitant blockade of the H2S producing enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by d,l-propargylglycine (PAG). We hypothesized that blocking H2S production ameliorates Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension and renal injury in a rodent model. Effects of concomitant administration of PAG or saline were therefore studied in healthy (CON) and AngII hypertensive rats. In CON rats, PAG did not affect systolic blood pressure (SBP), but slightly increased proteinuria. In AngII rats PAG reduced SBP, proteinuria and plasma creatinine (180 ± 12 vs. 211 ± 19 mmHg; 66 ± 35 vs. 346 ± 92 mg/24 h; 24 ± 6 vs. 47 ± 15 μmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Unexpectedly, kidney to body weight ratio was increased in all groups by PAG (p < 0.05). Renal injury induced by AngII was reduced by PAG (p < 0.001). HO-1 gene expression was increased by PAG alone (p < 0.05). PAG increased inner cortical tubular cell proliferation after 1 week and decreased outer cortical tubular nucleus number/field after 4 weeks. In vitro proximal tubular cell size increased after exposure to PAG. In summary, blocking H2S production with PAG reduced SBP and renal injury in AngII infused rats. Independent of the cardiovascular and renal effects, PAG increased HO-1 gene expression and kidney weight. PAG alone increased tubular cell size and proliferation in-vivo and in-vitro. Our results are indicative of a complex interplay of gasotransmitter signaling/action of mutually compensatory nature in the kidney.

  20. Attenuation of myocardial fibrosis with curcumin is mediated by modulating expression of angiotensin II AT1/AT2 receptors and ACE2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xue-Fen; Zhang, Li-Hui; Bai, Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Garner, Ron E; McKallip, Robert J; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is known to improve cardiac function by balancing degradation and synthesis of collagens after myocardial infarction. This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by curcumin is associated with modulating expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and curcumin (150 mg/kg/day) was fed by gastric gavage during Ang II infusion. Compared to the animals with Ang II infusion, curcumin significantly decreased the mean arterial blood pressure during the course of the observation. The protein level of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor was reduced, and the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor was up-regulated, evidenced by an increased ratio of the AT2 receptor over the AT1 receptor in the curcumin group (1.2±0.02%) vs in the Ang II group (0.7±0.03%, P<0.05). These changes were coincident with less locally expressed AT1 receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the intracardiac vessels and intermyocardium. Along with these modulations, curcumin significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and alpha smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts, which were accompanied by reduced expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and phosphorylated-Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited, and tissue fibrosis was attenuated, as demonstrated by less extensive collagen-rich fibrosis. Furthermore, curcumin increased protein level of ACE2 and enhanced its expression in the intermyocardium relative to the Ang II group. These results suggest that curcumin could be considered as an add-on therapeutic agent in the treatment of fibrosis-derived heart failure patient who is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy.

  1. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  2. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  3. Sex differences in T-lymphocyte tissue infiltration and development of angiotensin II hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pollow, Dennis P; Uhrlaub, Jennifer; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Sandberg, Kathryn; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brooks, Heddwen L; Hay, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P<0.05) when compared with females (Δ13.7 mm : Hg). Flow cytometric analysis of total T cells and CD4(+), CD8(+), and regulatory Foxp3(+)-CD4(+) T-cell subsets identified that renal lymphocyte infiltration was significantly increased in males versus females in both control and Ang II-infused animals (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for CD3(+)-positive T cells in the subfornical organ region of the brain was increased in males when compared with that in females. These results suggest that female Rag-1(-/-) mice are protected from male T-cell-mediated increases in Ang II-induced hypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain.

  4. Intravital Imaging Reveals Angiotensin II-Induced Transcytosis of Albumin by Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and resulted in an average (±SEM) of 3.7±2.2, 72.3±18.6 (P<0.001), and 239.4±34.6 µm(3) (P<0.001) albumin-containing vesicles per glomerulus, respectively, compared with none at baseline or 10 ng/kg per minute Ang II. Immunostaining of Ang II-infused kidneys confirmed the presence of albumin-containing vesicles, which colocalized with megalin, in podocin-positive cells. Furthermore, podocyte endocytosis of albumin was markedly reduced in the presence of gentamicin, a competitive inhibitor of megalin-dependent endocytosis. Ang II infusion increased the concentration of albumin in the subpodocyte space, a potential source for endocytic protein uptake, and gentamicin further increased this concentration. Some endocytic vesicles were acidified and colocalized with LysoTracker. Most vesicles migrated from the capillary to the apical aspect of the podocyte and were eventually released into the urinary space. This transcytosis accounted for approximately 10% of total albumin filtration. In summary, the transcellular transport of proteins across the podocyte constitutes a new pathway of glomerular protein filtration. Ang II enhances the endocytosis and transcytosis of plasma albumin by podocytes, which may eventually impair podocyte function.

  5. Novel Roles for Peroxynitrite in Angiotensin II and CaMKII Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoming; Ramaswamy, Swarna S.; Johnson, Derrick E.; Vitturi, Dario A.; Schopfer, Franciso J.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Hudmon, Andy; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) oxidation controls excitability and viability. While hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) affects Ca2+-activated CaMKII in vitro, Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CaMKIIδ signaling in cardiomyocytes is Ca2+ independent and requires NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide, but not its dismutation product H2O2. To better define the biological regulation of CaMKII activation and signaling by Ang II, we evaluated the potential for peroxynitrite (ONOO−) to mediate CaMKII activation and downstream Kv4.3 channel mRNA destabilization by Ang II. In vitro experiments show that ONOO− oxidizes and modestly activates pure CaMKII in the absence of Ca2+/CaM. Remarkably, this apokinase stimulation persists after mutating known oxidation targets (M281, M282, C290), suggesting a novel mechanism for increasing baseline Ca2+-independent CaMKII activity. The role of ONOO− in cardiac and neuronal responses to Ang II was then tested by scavenging ONOO− and preventing its formation by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase. Both treatments blocked Ang II effects on Kv4.3, tyrosine nitration and CaMKIIδ oxidation and activation. Together, these data show that ONOO− participates in Ang II-CaMKII signaling. The requirement for ONOO− in transducing Ang II signaling identifies ONOO−, which has been viewed as a reactive damaging byproduct of superoxide and nitric oxide, as a mediator of GPCR-CaMKII signaling. PMID:27079272

  6. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  7. Adenosine restores angiotensin II-induced contractions by receptor-independent enhancement of calcium sensitivity in renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Lai, En Yin; Martinka, Peter; Fähling, Michael; Mrowka, Ralf; Steege, Andreas; Gericke, Adrian; Sendeski, Mauricio; Persson, P B; Persson, A Erik G; Patzak, Andreas

    2006-11-10

    Adenosine is coupled to energy metabolism and regulates tissue blood flow by modulating vascular resistance. In this study, we investigated isolated, perfused afferent arterioles of mice, which were subjected to desensitization during repeated applications of angiotensin II. Exogenously applied adenosine restores angiotensin II-induced contractions by increasing calcium sensitivity of the arterioles, along with augmented phosphorylation of the regulatory unit of the myosin light chain. Adenosine restores angiotensin II-induced contractions via intracellular action, because inhibition of adenosine receptors do not prevent restoration, but inhibition of NBTI sensitive adenosine transporters does. Restoration was prevented by inhibition of Rho-kinase, protein kinase C, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which modulate myosin light chain phosphorylation and thus calcium sensitivity in the smooth muscle. Furthermore, adenosine application increased the intracellular ATP concentration in LuciHEK cells. The results of the study suggest that restoration of the angiotensin II-induced contraction by adenosine is attributable to the increase of the calcium sensitivity by phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. This can be an important component of vascular control during ischemic and hypoxic conditions. Additionally, this mechanism may contribute to the mediation of the tubuloglomerular feedback by adenosine in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney. PMID:17038642

  8. The effects of angiotensin II on blood perfusion in the rat renal papilla

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L L; Rajaratne, A A J; Blair-West, J R; Harris, P J

    1999-01-01

    Systemic infusion of angiotensin II (AII) increased papillary blood perfusion (PBP) measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in rats, aged about 5 weeks. The mechanisms involved in this response were determined by infusion of AII in the presence of systemic doses of losartan (a type 1 AII receptor antagonist), HOE-140 (a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist), and an inhibitor of NO production - Nω -nitro-L-arginine (NOLA). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and PBP increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to intravenous infusions of AII. Infusion of losartan abolished these responses to AII but HOE-140 was without effect. Infusion of NOLA abolished the increase in PBP but did not affect the pressor response to AII. Systemic infusion of sodium nitroprusside restored the response to AII in experiments with NOLA infusion. The results indicate that the increase in PBP caused by AII is mediated via angiotensin AT1 receptors and does not involve bradykinin B2 receptors. The AII-induced increase in PBP is dependent upon the presence of NO, thus providing a mechanism for maintenance of papillary perfusion in the face of generalized renal vasoconstriction due to AII. PMID:10432357

  9. A functional siRNA screen identifies genes modulating angiotensin II-mediated EGFR transactivation.

    PubMed

    George, Amee J; Purdue, Brooke W; Gould, Cathryn M; Thomas, Daniel W; Handoko, Yanny; Qian, Hongwei; Quaife-Ryan, Gregory A; Morgan, Kylie A; Simpson, Kaylene J; Thomas, Walter G; Hannan, Ross D

    2013-12-01

    The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to mediate cellular growth, however, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. To address this, we performed a functional siRNA screen of the human kinome in human mammary epithelial cells that demonstrate a robust AT1R-EGFR transactivation. We identified a suite of genes encoding proteins that both positively and negatively regulate AT1R-EGFR transactivation. Many candidates are components of EGFR signalling networks, whereas others, including TRIO, BMX and CHKA, have not been previously linked to EGFR transactivation. Individual knockdown of TRIO, BMX or CHKA attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR by angiotensin II stimulation, but this did not occur following direct stimulation of the EGFR with EGF, indicating that these proteins function between the activated AT1R and the EGFR. Further investigation of TRIO and CHKA revealed that their activity is likely to be required for AT1R-EGFR transactivation. CHKA also mediated EGFR transactivation in response to another G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand, thrombin, indicating a pervasive role for CHKA in GPCR-EGFR crosstalk. Our study reveals the power of unbiased, functional genomic screens to identify new signalling mediators important for tissue remodelling in cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:24046455

  10. Affinity chromatography purification of angiotensin II reactor using photoactivable biotinylated probes

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, J.; Seyer, R.; Lombard, C.; Desarnaud, F.; Aumelas, A.; Jard, A.; Bonnafous, J.C. )

    1990-09-25

    The authors have developed biotinylated photoactivable probes that are suitable for covalent labeling of angiotensin II (AII) receptors and the subsequent purification of covalent complexes through immobilized avidin or streptavidin. One of these probes, biotin-NH(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}SS(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO-(Ala{sup 1}, Phe(4N{sub 3}){sup 8})AII, which contains a cleavage disulfide bridge in its spacer arm and which displays, in its radioiodinated form, very high affinity for AII receptors (K{sub d}{approximately}1 nM), proved to be suitable for indirect affinity chromatography of rate liver receptor with facilitated recovery from avidin gels by use of reducing agents. This constituted the central step of an efficient partial purification scheme involving hydroxylapatite chromatography, streptavidin chromatography, and thiopropyl-Sepharose chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis and autoradiography established the identity of the purified entity (molecular weight 65K) as the AII receptor. Possible ways of completing purification to homogeneity and extrapolation of the protocols to a preparative scale are discussed, as well as the potential contribution of our new probes to the study of the structural properties of angiotensin receptors.

  11. Angiotensin II and prostaglandin interactions on systemic and renal effects of L-NAME in humans.

    PubMed

    Perinotto, P; Biggi, A; Carra, N; Orrico, A; Valmadre, G; Dall'Aglio, P; Novarini, A; Montanari, A

    2001-08-01

    For investigation of whether interactions between prostaglandins and angiotensin II modulate renal response to acute nitric oxide synthesis inhibition in humans, seven young volunteers who were kept on a 240-mM Na diet underwent four experiments with 90 min of infusion of 3.0 microg/kg.min(-1) NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), each preceded by a 3-d treatment with placebo (PL), 50 mg of losartan (LOS), 75 to 125 mg of indomethacin (IND), or both drugs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), GFR, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and Na excretion rate (UNaV) were measured at baseline and from 0 to 45 min and 45 to 90 min of L-NAME infusion. After PL, L-NAME reduced GFR by 5% at 45 min (P < 0.05) and by 9% at 90 min (P < 0.001), ERPF by 11 to 17% (P < 0.001), and UNaV by 28 to 45% (P < 0.001). MAP, unchanged at 45 min, rose by 5% (P < 0.001) at 90 min. LOS prevented pressor but not renal effects of L-NAME. With L-NAME+IND, MAP rose even at 45 min (+5%; P < 0.001 versus baseline) with a 10% rise at 90 min (P < 0.001). Changes in GFR (-13 to -20%), ERPF (-19 to -26%), and UNaV (-51 to -70%) were greater than those with L-NAME+PL or L-NAME+LOS (P < 0.05 to 0.001). With L-NAME+IND+LOS, MAP did not increase, and GFR, ERPF, and UNaV fell much less than with L-NAME+IND alone (P < 0.02 to 0.001) with no differences versus PL or LOS alone. Angiotensin II blockade does not affect renal changes caused by L-NAME but prevents their potentiation by prostaglandin inhibition. Thus, endogenous prostaglandins counteract renal actions of endogenous angiotensin II in Na-repleted humans even when nitric oxide synthesis is inhibited.

  12. The anteroventral third ventricle region is critical for the behavioral desensitization caused by repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2014-01-01

    A single central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) potently increases water intake; however, a growing body of research suggests that repeated, acute intracerebroventricular injections of AngII cause a reduction in the dipsogenic response to subsequent AngII. This AngII-induced behavioral desensitization is specific to the effects of angiotensin and mediated by the angiotensin type-1 (AT1) receptor. The neuroanatomical substrate for this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region is an important site for the behavioral and physiological actions of AngII. Therefore, we hypothesized that this region also mediates the effects of repeated central AngII administration. In support of this hypothesis, we found that repeated injections of AngII into the AV3V reduced water intake stimulated by a test injection of AngII given into this region. Moreover, repeated AngII injections in the AV3V reduced water intake after AngII was injected into the lateral ventricle. These studies also demonstrate that activation of the AT1 receptor within the AV3V is required for AngII-induced behavioral desensitization because direct injection of the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, into the AV3V blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated AngII injections into the lateral ventricle. These findings provide additional support for a role of the AV3V in the dipsogenic actions of AngII, and suggest that this region is critical for the desensitization that occurs after acute repeated central injections of AngII.

  13. Angiotensin II stimulates internalization and degradation of arterial myocyte plasma membrane BK channels to induce vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M. Dennis; Bulley, Simon; Bannister, John P.; Kuruvilla, Korah P.; Narayanan, Damodaran

    2015-01-01

    Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that modulate arterial contractility. In arterial myocytes, β1 subunits are stored within highly mobile rab11A-positive recycling endosomes. In contrast, BKα subunits are primarily plasma membrane-localized. Trafficking pathways for BKα and whether physiological stimuli that regulate arterial contractility alter BKα localization in arterial myocytes are unclear. Here, using biotinylation, immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer (immunoFRET) microscopy, and RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in myocytes of resistance-size cerebral arteries. Angiotensin II (ANG II), a vasoconstrictor, reduced both surface and total BKα, an effect blocked by bisindolylmaleimide-II, concanavalin A, and dynasore, protein kinase C (PKC), internalization, and endocytosis inhibitors, respectively. In contrast, ANG II did not reduce BKα mRNA, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, did not alter surface BKα protein over the same time course. MG132 and bafilomycin A, proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, respectively, also inhibited the ANG II-induced reduction in surface and total BKα, resulting in intracellular BKα accumulation. ANG II-mediated BK channel degradation reduced BK currents in isolated myocytes and functional responses to iberiotoxin, a BK channel blocker, and NS1619, a BK activator, in pressurized (60 mmHg) cerebral arteries. These data indicate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in arterial myocytes. We also show that ANG II stimulates PKC-dependent BKα internalization and degradation. These data describe a unique mechanism by which ANG II inhibits arterial myocyte BK currents, by reducing surface channel number, to induce vasoconstriction. PMID:26179602

  14. Signals from the AT2 (angiotensin type 2) receptor of angiotensin II inhibit p21ras and activate MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) to induce morphological neuronal differentiation in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Gendron, L; Laflamme, L; Rivard, N; Asselin, C; Payet, M D; Gallo-Payet, N

    1999-09-01

    In a previous study, we had shown that activation of the AT2 (angiotensin type 2) receptor of angiotensin II (Ang II) induced morphological differentiation of the neuronal cell line NG108-15. In the present study, we investigated the nature of the possible intracellular mediators involved in the AT2 effect. We found that stimulation of AT2 receptors in NG108-15 cells resulted in time-dependent modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of cytoplasmic proteins. Stimulation of NG108-15 cells with Ang II induced a decrease in GTP-bound p21ras but a sustained increase in the activity of p42mapk and p44mapk as well as neurite outgrowth. Similarly, neurite elongation, increased polymerized tubulin levels, and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity were also observed in a stably transfected NG108-15 cell line expressing the dominant-negative mutant of p21ras, RasN17. These results support the observation that inhibition of p21ras did not impair the effect of Ang II on its ability to stimulate MAPK activity. While 10 microM of the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, only moderately affected elongation, 50 microM PD98059 completely blocked the Ang II- and the RasN17-mediated induction of neurite outgrowth. These results demonstrate that some of the events associated with the AT2 receptor-induced neuronal morphological differentiation of NG108-15 cells not only include inhibition of p21ras but an increase in MAPK activity as well, which is essential for neurite outgrowth.

  15. Changes in blood pressure and dipsogenic responsiveness to angiotensin II during chronic exposure of rats to cold

    SciTech Connect

    Fregly, M.J.; Shechtman, O.; van Bergen, P.; Reeber, C.; Papanek, P.E. )

    1991-03-11

    To assess the role of the renin-angiotensin (RA) system in the development of cold-induced hypertension in rats, systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma renin activity (PRA), and the dipsogenic responsiveness to s.c. administration of angiotensin II (AII) were measured weekly for 4 weeks. SBP increased significantly during the third week of exposure to cold (5C), compared to warm-adapted controls. A significant increase in SBP occurred during the third week of cold. In contrast, (PRA) increased within the first week of cold, and declined thereafter to reach the level of the control by the third week. By the fourth week, PRA decreased to a level significantly below that of control. The dipsogenic responsiveness to acute administration of AII increased significantly by the third week of cold and remained significantly elevated during the fourth week. There was a significant direct relationship between dipsogenic responsiveness to AII and SBP in the cold-treated but not the control group. There was also a significant indirect linear relationship between PRA and dipsogenic responsiveness to AII. Cold-treated rats had significant increases in urinary norepinephrine output and weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue. Thus, the results suggest, but do not prove, either that the elevation of blood pressure under these conditions may be induced by changes in the RA system. The results suggest further that the reduction in the drinking response to AII accompanying increases in PRA may be related to changes in the regulation of central receptors for AII.

  16. Effects of Angiotensin-II Receptor Blocker on Inhibition of Thrombogenicity in a Canine Atrial Fibrillation Model

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Seung; Kim, Min Kyung; Sim, Jaemin; Kim, Jin Seok; Lim, Hong Euy; Park, Sang Weon; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to reduce the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) through reverse-remodeling. However, the effect of ARBs on thrombogenicity in AF remains unknown. Materials and Methods Twelve dogs were assigned to control (n=4), ARB (candesartan cilexitil 10 mg/kg/day p.o., 12 weeks; n=4), or sham (n=4) groups. Sustained AF was induced by rapid atrial pacing. Both arterial and venous serum levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, von Willebrand factor, P-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured at baseline and during AF (0, 4, and 12 weeks) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biopsies from both atria including the appendages were performed to semi-quantitatively assess endocardial and myocardial fibrosis after 12 weeks. Results The serum levels of bio-markers were not significantly different at baseline or during AF between the control and the candesartan groups. The levels were not significantly different over time, but there was a trend toward a decrease in arterial VCAM-1 from 4 to 12 weeks in the candesartan group compared to the control group. The grades of endocardial fibrosis after 12 weeks but not those of myocardial fibrosis were slightly reduced in the candesartan group compared to the control group. Conclusion This study did not show that the ARB candesartan significantly reverses thrombogenicity or fibrosis during AF. Future studies using a larger number of subjects are warranted to determine the therapeutic effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade on prothrombogenic processes in AF. PMID:27275170

  17. Genipin ameliorates hypertension-induced renal damage via the angiotensin II-TLR/MyD88/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Shi, Mengsong; Bao, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Li, Yuhui; Liu, Wenbo

    2016-07-01

    Genipin is a major active component of Fructus Gardenia, which has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of genipin on hypertension and the related nephropathy and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We first examined the effects of genipin on blood pressure and renal functions in the Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) rats. In the subsequent experiments with human mesangial cells (HMCs), the effects of genipin on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced HMC proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cytokine prodution were examined using the MTT method, 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein (DCFH-DA) staining, and the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, respectively. The effects of genipin on Ang II-induced activation of the MAPK pathway and up-regulation of TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot and further validated in MyD88 siRNA-transfected HMCs. Genipin not only significantly lowered blood pressure in SHR rats after an 8-week treatment, but effectively improved renal functions, evidenced by decreased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), as well as urinary microalbumin (m-ALB) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) upon administration with genipin. Mechanistic studies conducted in Ang II-treated HMCs showed that genipin was able to counteract Ang II-induced cell proliferation, ROS generation, and pro-inflammatory responses. These effects may be mediated through the TLR/MyD88/MAPK signaling pathway. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of genipin in the treatment of renal damage in hypertension, which merits a further investigation. PMID:27343367

  18. Exogenous administration of thiosulfate, a donor of hydrogen sulfide, attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertensive heart disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Snijder, P M; Frenay, A R; de Boer, R A; Pasch, A; Hillebrands, J L; Leuvenink, H G D; van Goor, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypertension is an important mediator of cardiac damage and remodelling. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gasotransmitter with cardioprotective properties. However, it is not yet in clinical use. We, therefore, investigated the protective effects of sodium thiosulfate (STS), a clinically applicable H2S donor substance, in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive cardiac disease in rats. Experimental Approach Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with Ang II (435 ng kg min−1) or saline (control) for 3 weeks via s.c. placed osmotic minipumps. During these 3 weeks, rats received i.p. injections of either STS, NaHS or vehicle (0.9% NaCl). Key Results Compared with controls, Ang II infusion caused an increase in systolic and diastolic BP with associated cardiac damage as evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy, an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA, cardiac fibrosis and increased oxidative stress. Treatment with NaHS and STS prevented the development of hypertension and the increase in ANP mRNA levels. Furthermore, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy, the extent of histological fibrosis in combination with the expression of profibrotic genes and the levels of oxidative stress were all significantly decreased. Conclusions and Implications Ang II-induced hypertensive cardiac disease can be attenuated by treatment with STS and NaHS. Although BP regulation is the most plausible mechanism of cardiac protection, the antifibrotic and antioxidant properties of released sulfide may also contribute to their effects. Our data show that H2S might be a valuable addition to the already existing antihypertensive and cardioprotective therapies. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24962324

  19. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity alters blood pressure response to angiotensin II administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinic, which is accompanied with nephrotoxicity. CP may also disturb hemodynamics of the circulation system. We have tested the role of CP in mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to graded angiotensin (Ang) II infusion in rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were treated with CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 1-week and compared with the vehicle-treated animals. The blood pressure response to Ang II (100–1000 ng/kg/min) was determined under the anesthesia condition. Endothelial permeability of aorta was measured according to the Evans blue uptake. The kidney tissue was also subjected to histological investigation. Results: Significant increase in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and pathological findings in CP-treated rats verified CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Significant difference in percentage of change in MAP response to Ang II between male and female rats was detected in vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.05) while in CP-treated animals this response difference was not observed. The groups were not significantly different with regard to the endothelial permeability of aorta while the serum level of nitrite in male rats increased significantly following administration of CP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It seems the different response in percentage of change of MAP to graded Ang II infusion between male and female indicates the effect of CP on renin Ang system parameters. PMID:27110550

  20. TGF-β1 mediates the hypertrophic cardiomyocyte growth induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jo El J.; Witt, Sandra A.; Glascock, Betty J.; Nieman, Michelle L.; Reiser, Peter J.; Nix, Stacey L.; Kimball, Thomas R.; Doetschman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent hypertrophic stimulus, causes significant increases in TGFb1 gene expression. However, it is not known whether there is a causal relationship between increased levels of TGF-β1 and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic analysis revealed that TGF-β1–deficient mice subjected to chronic subpressor doses of Ang II had no significant change in left ventricular (LV) mass and percent fractional shortening during Ang IItreatment. In contrast, Ang II–treated wild-type mice showed a >20% increase in LV mass and impaired cardiac function. Cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was also markedly increased in Ang II–treated wild-type mice but unchanged in Ang II–treated TGF-β1–deficient mice. No significant levels of fibrosis, mitotic growth, or cytokine infiltration were detected in Ang II–treated mice. Atrial natriuretic factor expression was ∼6-fold elevated in Ang II–treated wild-type, but not TGF-β1–deficient mice. However, the α- to β-myosin heavy chain switch did not occur in Ang II–treated mice, indicating that isoform switching is not obligatorily coupled with hypertrophy or TGF-β1. The Ang IIeffect on hypertrophy was shown not to result from stimulation of the endogenous renin-angiotensis system. These results indicate that TGF-β1 is an important mediator of the hypertrophic growth response of the heart to Ang II. PMID:11901187

  1. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor constitutive activation: from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Petrel, Christophe; Clauser, Eric

    2009-04-29

    Mutations activating the angiotensin II AT(1) receptor are important to identify and characterize because they give access to the activation mechanisms of this G protein coupled receptor and help to characterize the signaling pathways and the potential pathophysiology of this receptor. The different constitutively activated mutations of the AT(1) receptor are mostly localized in transmembrane domains (TM) and their characterization demonstrated that release of intramolecular constraints and movements among these TM are a necessary step for receptor activation. These mutations constitutively activate Gq linked signaling pathways, receptor internalization and maybe the G protein-independent signaling pathways. Expression of such mutations in mice is linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, but such natural mutations have not been identified in human pathology. PMID:19061936

  2. Angiotensin II in the brain and pituitary: contrasting roles in the regulation of adenohypophyseal secretion.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1989-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) is present in gonadotropes in rats, and there are AII receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes. AII may be a paracrine mediator that stimulates the secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) at the level of the pituitary, but additional research is needed to define its exact role. Angiotensinogen may also reach the gonadotropes via a paracrine route. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence that brain AII stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by increasing the secretion of LH-releasing hormone, and that this effect is due to AII-mediated release of norepinephrine from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In addition, brain AII inhibits the secretion of prolactin, probably by increasing the release of dopamine into the portal hypophyseal vessels. Circulating AII stimulates the secretion of a third anterior pituitary hormone, ACTH, by acting on one or more of the circumventricular organs to increase the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone.

  3. Angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan cilexetil, but not hydralazine hydrochloride, protects against mouse cardiac enlargement resulting from undernutrition in utero.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Makoto; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yura, Shigeo; Mogami, Haruta; Fujii, Tsuyoshi; Kanayama, Naohiro; Konishi, Ikuo

    2009-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that malnutrition in utero is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Recently, we reported a mouse animal model of 30% maternal caloric reduction, in which adult offspring (undernourished [UN] offspring) showed a significant increase in cardiac remodeling-associated parameters, such as cardiac enlargement (CE) and coronary perivascular fibrosis (CPVF), as risk factors for CVD. To investigate the possible involvement of the angiotensin system, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil, or a nonspecific vasodilator, hydralazine hydrochloride, was administrated via a subcutaneously implanted miniosmotic pump to the UN offspring from 9 to 17 weeks after birth. Administration of candesartan cilexetil, but not hydralazine hydrochloride, significantly protected against CE. While administration of not only candesartan cilexetil but also hydralazine hydrochloride prevented an augmentation of CPVF. The angiotensin system seems to make a critical contribution to the developmental origins of cardiac enlargement.

  4. Sex-specific T-cell regulation of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiangjun; Liu, Jun; Wu, Xie; Zhang, Monan Angela; Umans, Jason G; Hay, Meredith; Speth, Robert C; Dunn, Shannon E; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Studies suggest T cells modulate arterial pressure. Because robust sex differences exist in the immune system and in hypertension, we investigated sex differences in T-cell modulation of angiotensin II-induced increases in mean arterial pressure in male (M) and female (F) wild-type and recombination-activating-gene-1-deficient (Rag1(-/-)) mice. Sex differences in peak mean arterial pressure in wild-type were lost in Rag1(-/-) mice (mm Hg: wild-type-F, 136±4.9 versus wild-type-M, 153±1.7; P<0.02; Rag1(-/-)-F, 135±2.1 versus Rag1(-/-)-M, 141±3.8). Peak mean arterial pressure was 13 mm Hg higher after adoptive transfer of male (CD3(M)→Rag1(-/-)-M) versus female (CD3(F)→Rag1(-/-)-M) T cells. CD3(M)→Rag1(-/-)-M mice exhibited higher splenic frequencies of proinflammatory interleukin-17A (2.4-fold) and tumor necrosis factor-α (2.2-fold)-producing T cells and lower plasma levels (13-fold) and renal mRNA expression (2.4-fold) of interleukin-10, whereas CD3(F)→Rag1(-/-)-M mice displayed a higher activation state in general and T-helper-1-biased renal inflammation. Greater T-cell infiltration into perivascular adipose tissue and kidney associated with increased pressor responses to angiotensin II if the T cell donor was male but not female and these sex differences in T-cell subset expansion and tissue infiltration were maintained for 7 to 8 weeks within the male host. Thus, the adaptive immune response and role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling in hypertension are distinct between the sexes and need to be understood to improve therapeutics for hypertension-associated disease in both men and women.

  5. Obligatory Role for B Cells in the Development of Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christopher T; Sobey, Christopher G; Lieu, Maggie; Ferens, Dorota; Kett, Michelle M; Diep, Henry; Kim, Hyun Ah; Krishnan, Shalini M; Lewis, Caitlin V; Salimova, Ekaterina; Tipping, Peter; Vinh, Antony; Samuel, Chrishan S; Peter, Karlheinz; Guzik, Tomasz J; Kyaw, Tin S; Toh, Ban-Hock; Bobik, Alexander; Drummond, Grant R

    2015-11-01

    Clinical hypertension is associated with raised serum IgG antibodies. However, whether antibodies are causative agents in hypertension remains unknown. We investigated whether hypertension in mice is associated with B-cell activation and IgG production and moreover whether B-cell/IgG deficiency affords protection against hypertension and vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.7 mg/kg per day; 28 days) was associated with (1) a 25% increase in the proportion of splenic B cells expressing the activation marker CD86, (2) an 80% increase in splenic plasma cell numbers, (3) a 500% increase in circulating IgG, and (4) marked IgG accumulation in the aortic adventitia. In B-cell-activating factor receptor-deficient (BAFF-R(-/-)) mice, which lack mature B cells, there was no evidence of Ang II-induced increases in serum IgG. Furthermore, the hypertensive response to Ang II was attenuated in BAFF-R(-/-) (Δ30±4 mm Hg) relative to wild-type (Δ41±5 mm Hg) mice, and this response was rescued by B-cell transfer. BAFF-R(-/-) mice displayed reduced IgG accumulation in the aorta, which was associated with 80% fewer aortic macrophages and a 70% reduction in transforming growth factor-β expression. BAFF-R(-/-) mice were also protected from Ang II-induced collagen deposition and aortic stiffening (assessed by pulse wave velocity analysis). Finally, like BAFF-R deficiency, pharmacological depletion of B cells with an anti-CD20 antibody attenuated Ang II-induced hypertension by ≈35%. Hence, these studies demonstrate that B cells/IgGs are crucial for the development of Ang II-induced hypertension and vessel remodeling in mice. Thus, B-cell-targeted therapies-currently used for autoimmune diseases-may hold promise as future treatments for hypertension.

  6. Short-term nonpressor angiotensin II infusion stimulates sodium transporters in proximal tubule and distal nephron.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mien T X; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; Veiras, Luciana C; McDonough, Alicia A

    2015-09-01

    In Sprague Dawley rats, 2-week angiotensin II (AngII) infusion increases Na(+) transporter abundance and activation from cortical thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) to medullary collecting duct (CD) and raises blood pressure associated with a pressure natriuresis, accompanied by depressed Na(+) transporter abundance and activation from proximal tubule (PT) through medullary TALH. This study tests the hypothesis that early during AngII infusion, before blood pressure raises, Na(+) transporters' abundance and activation increase all along the nephron. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused via osmotic minipumps with a subpressor dose of AngII (200 ng/kg/min) or vehicle for 3 days. Overnight urine was collected in metabolic cages and sodium transporters' abundance and phosphorylation were determined by immunoblotting homogenates of renal cortex and medulla. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, overnight urine volume, urinary Na(+) and K(+) excretion, or rate of excretion of a saline challenge between AngII and vehicle infused rats. The 3-day nonpressor AngII infusion significantly increased the abundance of PT Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), cortical TALH Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2), distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and cortical CD ENaC subunits. Additionally, phosphorylation of cortical NKCC2, NCC, and STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) were increased; medullary NKCC2 and SPAK were not altered. In conclusion, 3-day AngII infusion provokes PT NHE3 accumulation as well as NKCC2, NCC, and SPAK accumulation and activation in a prehypertensive phase before evidence for intrarenal angiotensinogen accumulation. PMID:26347505

  7. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on kidney ischemia/reperfusion; a gender-related difference

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Fatemeh; Taheri, Pegah; Azimipoor, Mahdis; Ramtin, Sina; Hashemianfar, Mostafa; Momeni- Ashjerdi, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may be related to activity of reninangiotensin system (RAS), which is gender-related. In this study, it was attempted to compare the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade; losartan in I/R injury in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were assigned as sham surgery, control I/R groups treated with vehicle, and case I/R groups treated with losartan (30 mg/kg). Vehicle and losartan were given 2 hours before bilateral kidney ischemia induced by clamping renal arteries for 45 minutes followed by 24 hours of renal reperfusion. Results: The I/R injury significantly increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), and kidney tissue damage score in both genders. However, losartan decreased these values in female rats significantly (P < 0.05). This was not observed in male rats. Conclusion: Losartan protects the kidney from I/R injury in female but not in male rats possibly because of gender-related difference of RAS. PMID:27689110

  8. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Expands Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Stiffening.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Beenish; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Eberson, Lance S; Secomb, Timothy W; Larmonier, Nicolas; Larson, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive immune function is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Inhibition of T-lymphocyte function has been shown to reduce hypertension, target-organ damage, and vascular stiffness. To study the role of immune inhibitory cells, CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), on vascular stiffness, we stimulated the proliferation of Treg lymphocytes in vivo using a novel cytokine immune complex of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody clone JES6-1 (mAbCD25). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with IL-2/mAbCD25 concomitantly with continuous infusion of angiotensin type 1 receptor agonist, [Val(5)]angiotensin II. Our results indicate that the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex effectively induced Treg phenotype expansion by 5-fold in the spleens with minimal effects on total CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte numbers. The IL-2/mAbCD25 complex inhibited angiotensin II-mediated aortic collagen remodeling and the resulting stiffening, analyzed with in vivo pulse wave velocity and effective Young's modulus. Furthermore, the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex suppressed angiotensin II-mediated Th17 responses in the lymphoid organs and reduced gene expression of IL-17 as well as T cell and macrophage infiltrates in the aortic tissue. This study provides data that support the protective roles of Tregs in vascular stiffening and highlights the use of the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex as a new potential therapy in angiotensin II-related vascular diseases. PMID:25258681

  9. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Node, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109TM3, Phe182ECL2, Gln257TM6, Tyr292TM7, and Asn295TM7) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108TM3, Ser109TM3, Ala163TM4, Phe182ECL2, Lys199TM5, Tyr292TM7, and Asn295TM7), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. PMID:26121982

  10. Neuroanatomical distribution of angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide within the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus; physiological changes triggered by water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Dimant, Beatriz; Portiansky, Enrique L; Imboden, Hans; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2010-07-01

    The angiotensins constitute a neuropeptidergic system that emerged early in evolution. Their classical osmoregulatory and dipsogenic functions and their mnemonic actions have been demonstrated both in vertebrates and in some invertebrates. Previously, we have shown that, in the euryhaline and semiterrestrial crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, water deprivation correlates with an increased level of brain angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide/s (ANGII-like) and improves memory processes through ANGII receptors. We have proposed that the release of brain angiotensins in response to water shortages is an ancient mechanism for coordinating various functions that, together, enable organisms to tolerate this environmental change. Here, we have evaluated the physiological changes in ANGII-like levels in diverse structures of the central nervous system of these animals during water deprivation. The neuroanatomical distribution of ANGII-like is described in the optic lobes and brain of Chasmagnathus granulatus and the physiological changes in ANGII-like distribution in various brain neuropils is evaluated after water deprivation. Our results indicate that ANGII-like is widely distributed, especially in the medial protocerebrum. After 2 h of water deprivation, ANGII-like immunoreactivity increases in the central body and decreases in the olfactory neuropil and, after 6 h of water deprivation, is markedly reduced in several brain areas. Although further experiments are needed to establish that the angiotensinergic system is involved in the balance of body fluids in this crab, our results suggest that ANGII regulates several functions during water shortages.

  11. Qiliqiangxin inhibits angiotensin II-induced transdifferentiation of rat cardiac fibroblasts through suppressing interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingmin; Jiang, Kun; Ding, Xuefeng; Fu, Mingqiang; Wang, Shijun; Zhu, Lingti; He, Tao; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Aijun; Hu, Kai; Chen, Li; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QL), a traditional Chinese medicine, had long been used to treat chronic heart failure. Recent studies revealed that differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) into myofibroblasts played an important role in cardiac remodelling and development of heart failure, however, little was known about the underlying mechanism and whether QL treatment being involved. This study aimed to investigate the effects of QL on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced CFs transdifferentiation. Study was performed on in vitro cultured CFs from Sprague–Dawley rats. CFs differentiation was induced by AngII, which was attenuated by QL through reducing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Our data showed that AngII-induced IL-6 mRNA as well as typeI and typeIII collagens were reduced by QL. IL-6 deficiency could suppress TGF-β1 and α-SMA, and both IL-6 siRNA and QL-mediated such effect was reversed by foresed expression of recombined IL-6. Increase in actin stress fibres reflected the process of CFs differentiation, we found stress fibres were enhanced after AngII stimulation, which was attenuated by pre-treating CFs with QL or IL-6 siRNA, and re-enhanced after rIL-6 treatment. Importantly, we showed that calcineurin-dependent NFAT3 nuclear translocation was essential to AngII-mediated IL-6 transcription, QL mimicked the effect of FK506, the calcineurin inhibitor, on suppression of IL-6 expression and stress fibres formation. Collectively, our data demonstrated the negative regulation of CFs differentiation by QL through an IL-6 transcriptional mechanism that depends on inhibition of calcineurin/NFAT3 signalling. PMID:25752645

  12. Characterization of Angiotensin II Molecular Determinants Involved in AT1 Receptor Functional Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Domazet, Ivana; Holleran, Brian J; Richard, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Camille; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2015-06-01

    The octapeptide angiotensin II (AngII) exerts a variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1), a G protein-coupled receptor. The AT1 receptor engages and activates several signaling pathways, including heterotrimeric G proteins Gq and G12, as well as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway. Additionally, following stimulation, βarrestin is recruited to the AT1 receptor, leading to receptor desensitization. It is increasingly recognized that specific ligands selectively bind and favor the activation of some signaling pathways over others, a concept termed ligand bias or functional selectivity. A better understanding of the molecular basis of functional selectivity may lead to the development of better therapeutics with fewer adverse effects. In the present study, we developed assays allowing the measurement of six different signaling modalities of the AT1 receptor. Using a series of AngII peptide analogs that were modified in positions 1, 4, and 8, we sought to better characterize the molecular determinants of AngII that underlie functional selectivity of the AT1 receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results reveal that position 1 of AngII does not confer functional selectivity, whereas position 4 confers a bias toward ERK signaling over Gq signaling, and position 8 confers a bias toward βarrestin recruitment over ERK activation and Gq signaling. Interestingly, the analogs modified in position 8 were also partial agonists of the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK pathway via atypical PKC isoforms PKCζ and PKCι.

  13. The apelin receptor inhibits the angiotensin II type 1 receptor via allosteric trans-inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Siddiquee, K; Hampton, J; McAnally, D; May, LT; Smith, LH

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The apelin receptor (APJ) is often co-expressed with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1) and acts as an endogenous counter-regulator. Apelin antagonizes Ang II signalling, but the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Understanding this interaction may lead to new therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Experimental Approach The physical interaction of APJ and AT1 receptors was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Functional and pharmacological interactions were measured by G-protein-dependent signalling and recruitment of β-arrestin. Allosterism and cooperativity between APJ and AT1 were measured by radioligand binding assays. Key Results Apelin, but not Ang II, induced APJ : AT1 heterodimerization forced AT1 into a low-affinity state, reducing Ang II binding. Likewise, apelin mediated a concentration-dependent depression in the maximal production of inositol phosphate (IP1) and β-arrestin recruitment to AT1 in response to Ang II. The signal depression approached a limit, the magnitude of which was governed by the cooperativity indicative of a negative allosteric interaction. Fitting the data to an operational model of allosterism revealed that apelin-mediated heterodimerization significantly reduces Ang II signalling efficacy. These effects were not observed in the absence of apelin. Conclusions and Implications Apelin-dependent heterodimerization between APJ and AT1 causes negative allosteric regulation of AT1 function. As AT1 is significant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, these findings suggest that impaired apelin and APJ function may be a common underlying aetiology. Linked Article This article is commented on by Goupil et al., pp. 1101–1103 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12040 PMID:22935142

  14. Upregulation of M3 muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M3-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Cardiac-specific M3-mAChR overexpression transgenic (TG) mice and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR were established. Models of cardiac hypertrophy were induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang II infusion in the mice in vivo, and by isoproterenol (ISO) or Ang II treatment of H9c2 cells in vitro. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) measurement, hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results M3-mAChR was upregulated in hypertrophic heart, while M2-mAChR expression did not change significantly. M3-mAChR overexpression significantly attenuated the increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain induced by Ang II both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, M3-mAChR overexpression downregulated AT1 receptor expression and inhibited the activation of MAPK signaling in the heart. Conclusion The upregulation of M3-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor. PMID:24028210

  15. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  16. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  17. Ontogeny of angiotensin II receptors, types 1 and 2, in ovine mesonephros and metanephros.

    PubMed

    Butkus, A; Albiston, A; Alcorn, D; Giles, M; McCausland, J; Moritz, K; Zhuo, J; Wintour, E M

    1997-09-01

    By RNAse protection assay, hybridization histochemistry, and in vitro autoradiography it was shown that both mRNA and protein for AT1 and AT2 receptors were present in ovine fetal meso- and metanephroi at 40 days of gestation (term approximately 150 days). AT1 mRNA was localized to presumptive mesangial cells of glomeruli at 40-, 75-, 131-gestational-day-old fetuses and two-day-old lambs, in addition to being widely present in interstitial cells of the cortex and medulla, once these zones formed (60 days). By two days after birth the medullary AT1 distribution was confined to the inner stripe of the outer medulla. AT2 mRNA was present in peripheral interstitial/tissue of the mesonephros, and interstitial tissue surrounding developing glomeruli, but not the outermost nephrogenic mesenchyme in the metanephros from 40 to approximately 131 days (the period of active nephrogenesis). In addition, AT2 mRNA was localized to epithelial cells of the macula densa in metanephroi (40 to 131 gestational days) during, but not after completion, of nephrogenesis. These studies suggest that angiotensin II (Ang II) could have differentiating effects, via AT1 receptors, from very early in development. The unique epithelial site of AT2 expression in the macula densa raises the possibility that Ang II may play a role in the invariant positioning of the macula densa at the pole of its glomerulus, via this receptor.

  18. Forebrain circumventricular organs mediate salt appetite induced by intravenous angiotensin II in rats.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Wilson, Wendy L; Starbuck, Elizabeth M; Fitts, Douglas A

    2002-09-13

    Two circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), may mediate salt appetite in response to acute intravenous infusions of angiotensin (ANG) II. Fluid intakes and mean arterial pressures were measured in rats with sham lesions or electrolytic lesions of the SFO or OVLT during an intravenous infusion of 30 ng/min ANG II. Beginning 21 h before the 90-min infusion, the rats were depleted of sodium with furosemide and given a total of 300 mg/kg captopril in 75 ml/kg water in three spaced gavages to block the usual salt appetite and to hydrate the rats. No other food or fluids were available for ingestion. Sham-lesioned rats drank 9.3+/-1.2 ml if 0.3 M NaCl alone was available and drank 8.9+/-1.6 ml of saline and 3.7+/-1.6 ml of water if both were available. Either SFO or OVLT lesions reduced the intakes of saline to <5 ml in both conditions and of water to <1 ml. Mean arterial pressure did not differ among the groups and was maintained above 100 mmHg after the depletion and captopril treatments because of the large doses of water. Thus, a full expression of salt appetite in response to an acute intravenous infusion of ANG II requires the integrity of both the SFO and OVLT. PMID:12213298

  19. SY 12-1 RENIN ANGIOTENSIN PATHWAY BEYOND ACE AND ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTORS: HOW IT RELATES TO THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Louise

    2016-09-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart failure and kidney disease. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II, which mediates its effects via the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). An "alternate" arm of the RAS is now known to exist in which the monocarboxypeptidase ACE2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of the vasoconstrictor peptide, Ang II, and generation of the vasodilatory peptide, Ang 1-7. ACE2 is highly expressed in tissues of cardiovascular relevance including the heart, blood vessels and kidney. The catalytically active ectodomain of ACE2 undergoes shedding resulting in ACE2 in the circulation. The finding that the ACE2 gene maps to a quantitative trait locus on the X chromosome in three strains of genetically hypertensive rats suggests that the ACE2 gene may be a candidate gene for hypertension. It is hypothesised that disruption of tissue ACE/ACE2 balance results in changes in blood pressure, with increased ACE2 expression protecting against increased blood pressure, and ACE2 deficiency contributing to hypertension. Studies in experimental models of hypertension have measured ACE2 gene, protein and/or activity, in either the heart or kidney and/or plasma, usually at one time point, and most commonly in animals with established hypertension. As experimental studies report that deletion or inhibition of ACE2 leads to hypertension, whilst enhancing ACE2 protects against the development of hypertension, increasing or activating ACE2 may be a therapeutic option for the management of high blood pressure in man. There have been relatively few studies of ACE2, either at the gene or the circulating level in patients with hypertension. The available data indicates that plasma ACE2 activity is low in healthy subjects, but elevated in patients with

  20. β-Carotene Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Aneurysm by Alleviating Macrophage Recruitment in Apoe−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Kaliappan; Nagarajan, Perumal; Jedy, Jose; Raj, Avinash T.; Gnanaselvi, S. Kalai; Jahan, Parveen; Sharma, Yogendra; Shankar, Esaki M.; Kumar, Jerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common chronic degenerative disease characterized by progressive aortic dilation and rupture. The mechanisms underlying the role of α-tocopherol and β-carotene on AAA have not been comprehensively assessed. We investigated if α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation could attenuate AAA, and studied the underlying mechanisms utilized by the antioxidants to alleviate AAA. Four-months-old Apoe−/− mice were used in the induction of aneurysm by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), and were orally administered with α-tocopherol and β-carotene enriched diet for 60 days. Significant increase of LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and circulating inflammatory cells was observed in the Ang II-treated animals, and gene expression studies showed that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 were upregulated in the aorta of aneurysm-induced mice. Extensive plaques, aneurysm and diffusion of inflammatory cells into the tunica intima were also noticed. The size of aorta was significantly (P = 0.0002) increased (2.24±0.20 mm) in the aneurysm-induced animals as compared to control mice (1.17±0.06 mm). Interestingly, β-carotene dramatically controlled the diffusion of macrophages into the aortic tunica intima, and circulation. It also dissolved the formation of atheromatous plaque. Further, β-carotene significantly decreased the aortic diameter (1.33±0.12 mm) in the aneurysm-induced mice (β-carotene, P = 0.0002). It also downregulated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ following treatment. Hence, dietary supplementation of β-carotene may have a protective function against Ang II-induced AAA by ameliorating macrophage recruitment in Apoe−/− mice. PMID:23826202

  1. Proximal tubule NHE3 activity is inhibited by beta-arrestin-biased angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Carneiro de Morais, Carla P; Polidoro, Juliano Z; Ralph, Donna L; Pessoa, Thaissa D; Oliveira-Souza, Maria; Barauna, Valério G; Rebouças, Nancy A; Malnic, Gerhard; McDonough, Alicia A; Girardi, Adriana C C

    2015-10-15

    Physiological concentrations of angiotensin II (ANG II) upregulate the activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in the renal proximal tubule through activation of the ANG II type I (AT1) receptor/G protein-coupled signaling. This effect is key for maintenance of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis and blood pressure. Recent findings have shown that selective activation of the beta-arrestin-biased AT1 receptor signaling pathway induces diuresis and natriuresis independent of G protein-mediated signaling. This study tested the hypothesis that activation of this AT1 receptor/beta-arrestin signaling inhibits NHE3 activity in proximal tubule. To this end, we determined the effects of the compound TRV120023, which binds to the AT1R, blocks G-protein coupling, and stimulates beta-arrestin signaling on NHE3 function in vivo and in vitro. NHE3 activity was measured in both native proximal tubules, by stationary microperfusion, and in opossum proximal tubule (OKP) cells, by Na(+)-dependent intracellular pH recovery. We found that 10(-7) M TRV120023 remarkably inhibited proximal tubule NHE3 activity both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, stimulation of NHE3 by ANG II was completely suppressed by TRV120023 both in vivo as well as in vitro. Inhibition of NHE3 activity by TRV120023 was associated with a decrease in NHE3 surface expression in OKP cells and with a redistribution from the body to the base of the microvilli in the rat proximal tubule. These findings indicate that biased signaling of the beta-arrestin pathway through the AT1 receptor inhibits NHE3 activity in the proximal tubule at least in part due to changes in NHE3 subcellular localization. PMID:26246427

  2. Beneficial effects of astragaloside IV against angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Li, Su; Wu, Hengfang; Bian, Zhiping; Xu, Jindan; Gu, Chunrong; Chen, Xiangjian; Yang, Di

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent characteristic of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (As-IV), the major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine), possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was carried out to examine whether As-IV can reverse Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat aortic VSMCs treated with Ang II (1 µM) for 24 h exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, including a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, as well as the disruption of mitochondrial structural integrity. Following treatment with Ang II, As-IV (50 µg/ml) was added to the culture medium followed by incubation for a further 24 h. The administration of As-IV significantly increased the mitochondrial OCRs, ATP production and the mtDNA levels, and reversed the mitochondrial morphological changes which occurred in the VSMCs. Treatment with As-IV also reversed the Ang II-induced increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the increase in NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity, as well as the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Furthermore, treatment with As-IV led to an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), and in the protein expression of PGC-1α, parkin and dynamin 1-like protein 1 (Drp1) in the VSMCs. These results indicate that As-IV exerts beneficial effects on Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat VSMCs and that these effects are mediated through the inhibition of ROS overproduction, as well as the promotion of mitochondrial autophagy and

  3. Production of angiotensin II receptors type one (AT1) and type two (AT2) during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mallow, H; Trindl, A; Löffler, G

    2000-01-01

    During their development from progenitor cells, adipocytes not only express enzymatic activities necessary for the storage of triglycerides, but also achieve the capability to produce a number of endocrine factors such as leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), complement factors, adiponectin/adipoQ, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), angiotensin II and others. Angiotensin II is produced from angiotensinogen by the proteolytic action of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme; and several data point to the existence of a complete local renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue, including angiotensin II receptors. In this study, we directly monitored the production of angiotensin II type one receptor (AT1) and angiotensin II type two receptor (AT2) proteins during the adipose conversion of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by immunodetection with specific antibodies. AT1 receptors could be detected throughout the whole differentiation period. The strong AT2 signal in preadipocytes however was completely lost during the course of differentiation, which suggests that expression of AT2 receptors is inversely correlated to the adipose conversion program.

  4. Impact of losartan and angiotensin II on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Song; Wu, Zong-Gui; Yang, Jun-Ke; Chen, Xin-Jing

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of losartan and angiotensin II (AngII) on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), secreted by rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in different concentrations of AngII and losartan for 24 h and western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the subsequent impact on the gene and protein expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. AngII was shown to promote the protein and gene expression of MMP-9 in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was observed on the expression of TIMP-1, therefore, an increase in the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was observed. Losartan was shown to be able to inhibit MMP-9 protein and gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner, whilst promoting an increase in TIMP-1 expression, thus decreasing the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1. The combined action of losartan and AngII resulted in the same directional changes in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression as observed for losartan alone. The comparison of AngII, losartan and the combinatory effect on the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in VSMCs indicated that losartan inhibited the effects of AngII, therefore reducing the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of losartan in preventing atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, the development of the extracellular matrix of plaque is closely correlated with the evolution of AS. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs is important in maintaining the dynamic equilibrium between the ECM, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is involved in the pathologenesis of AS, and in which AngII has a central role.

  5. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits the expression of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 induced by angiotensin II in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, M; Tsuji, H; Nishimura, H; Kasahara, T; Sugano, T; Masuda, H; Nakagawa, K; Nakahara, Y; Kitamura, H; Yamada, K; Yoneda, M; Sawada, S; Nakagawa, M

    1998-03-01

    The pharmacological characteristics of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), such as natriuresis, vasodilation, or suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation, are well investigated. However, this is the first study to report its role on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis mediated by vascular endothelial cells. In this study, the effects of ANP on the enhanced expression of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) by angiotensin II (Ang II) in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were examined. The expressions of TF and PAI-1 mRNA were detected by northern blotting methods. The activities of TF on the surface of RAECs and PAI-1 in the culture media were measured by chromogenic assay. ANP suppressed mRNA expressions of TF and PAI-1 induced by Ang II in a concentration-dependent manner. This suppression was accompanied by the decreased activities of TF and PAI-1.

  6. Memory strengthening by a real-life episode during reconsolidation: an outcome of water deprivation via brain angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2005-10-01

    A considerable body of evidence reveals that consolidated memories, recalled by a reminder, enter into a new vulnerability phase during which they are susceptible to disruption again. Consistently, reconsolidation was shown by the amnesic effects induced by administration of consolidation blockers after memory labilization. To shed light on the functional value of reconsolidation, we explored whether an endogenous process activated during a concurrent real-life experience improved this memory phase. Reconsolidation of long-term contextual memory has been well documented in the crab Chasmagnathus. Previously we showed that angiotensin II facilitates memory consolidation. Moreover, water deprivation increases brain angiotensin and improves memory consolidation and retrieval through angiotensin II receptors. Here, we tested whether concurrent water deprivation improves reconsolidation via endogenous angiotensin and therefore strengthens memory. We show that memory reconsolidation, induced by training context re-exposure, is facilitated by a concurrent episode of water deprivation, which induces a raise in endogenous brain angiotensin II. Positive modulation is expressed by full memory retention, despite a weak training, 24 or 72 but not 4 h after memory reactivation. This is the first evidence that memory can be positively modulated during reconsolidation through an identified endogenous process triggered during a real-life episode. We propose that the functional value for reconsolidation would be to make possible a change in memory strength by the influence of a concurrent experience. Reconsolidation improvement would lead to memory re-evaluation, not by altering memory content but by modifying the behaviour as an outcome of changing the hierarchy of the memories that control it.

  7. Nox4 NADPH Oxidase Mediates Peroxynitrite-dependent Uncoupling of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase and Fibronectin Expression in Response to Angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doug-Yoon; Wauquier, Fabien; Eid, Assaad A.; Roman, Linda J.; Ghosh-Choudhury, Goutam; Khazim, Khaled; Block, Karen; Gorin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Activation of glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to extracellular matrix accumulation. Here, we demonstrate that, in MCs, Ang II induces endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased production of NO. Ang II promotes a rapid increase in 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and uric acid attenuates Ang II-induced decrease in NO bioavailability, demonstrating that peroxynitrite mediates the effects of Ang II on eNOS dysfunction. Ang II rapidly up-regulates Nox4 protein. Inhibition of Nox4 abolishes the increase in ROS and peroxynitrite generation as well as eNOS uncoupling triggered by Ang II, indicating that Nox4 is upstream of eNOS. This pathway contributes to Ang II-mediated fibronectin accumulation in MCs. Ang II also elicits an increase in mitochondrial abundance of Nox4 protein, and the oxidase contributes to ROS production in mitochondria. Overexpression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase prevents the stimulatory effects of Ang II on mitochondrial ROS production, loss of NO availability, and MC fibronectin accumulation, whereas manganese superoxide dismutase depletion increases mitochondrial ROS, NO deficiency, and fibronectin synthesis basally and in cells exposed to Ang II. This work provides the first evidence that uncoupled eNOS is responsible for Ang II-induced MC fibronectin accumulation and identifies Nox4 and mitochondrial ROS as mediators of eNOS dysfunction. These data shed light on molecular processes underlying the oxidative signaling cascade engaged by Ang II and identify potential targets for intervention to prevent renal fibrosis. PMID:23940049

  8. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers as a first choice in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang Hoon; Bae, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Lee, Won Kee; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Chae, Shung Chull

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been adequately evaluated in patients without left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Between November 2005 and January 2008, 6,781 patients who were not receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or ARBs were selected from the Korean AMI Registry. The primary endpoints were 12-month major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including death and recurrent AMI. Results: Seventy percent of the patients were Killip class 1 and had a LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%. The prescription rate of ARBs was 12.2%. For each patient, a propensity score, indicating the likelihood of using ARBs during hospitalization or at discharge, was calculated using a non-parsimonious multivariable logistic regression model, and was used to match the patients 1:4, yielding 715 ARB users versus 2,860 ACEI users. The effect of ARBs on in-hospital mortality and 12-month MACE occurrence was assessed using matched logistic and Cox regression models. Compared with ACEIs, ARBs significantly reduced in-hospital mortality(1.3% vs. 3.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.379; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.190 to0.756; p = 0.006) and 12-month MACE occurrence (4.6% vs. 6.9%; HR, 0.661; 95% CI, 0.457 to 0.956; p = 0.028). However, the benefit of ARBs on 12-month mortality compared with ACEIs was marginal (4.3% vs. 6.2%; HR, 0.684; 95% CI, 0.467 to 1.002; p = 0.051). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ARBs are not inferior to, and may actually be better than ACEIs in Korean patients with AMI. PMID:26701233

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor: A Mechanistic Link between Angiotensin-II-Induced Cardiac Inflammation and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Trial, JoAnn; Wang, Yanlin; Entman, Mark L.; Haudek, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous angiotensin-II (Ang-II) infusion induced the uptake of monocytic fibroblast precursors that initiated the development of cardiac fibrosis; these cells and concurrent fibrosis were absent in mice lacking tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 (TNFR1). We now investigated their cellular origin and temporal uptake, and the involvement of TNFR1 in monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation. Methods and Results Within a day, Ang-II induced a pro-inflammatory environment characterized by production of inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and TH1-interleukins and uptake of bone marrow-derived M1-cells. After a week, the cardiac environment changed to profibrotic with growth-factor and TH2-interleukin synthesis, uptake of bone marrow-derived M2-cells, and presence of M2-related fibroblasts. TNFR1 signaling was not necessary for early M1 uptake, but its absence diminished the amount of M2-cells. TNFR1-KO hearts also showed reduced levels of cytokine expression, but not of TH-related lymphokines. Reconstitution of wild-type bone marrow into TNFR1-KO mice was sufficient to restore M2 uptake, upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes, and development of fibrosis in response to Ang-II. We also developed an in vitro mouse monocyte-to-fibroblast-maturation assay that confirmed the essential role of TNFR1 in the sequential progression of monocyte activation and fibroblast formation. Conclusions Development of cardiac fibrosis in response to Ang-II was mediated by myeloid precursors and consisted of two stages. A primary M1 inflammatory response was followed by a subsequent M2 fibrotic response. While the first phase appeared to be independent of TNFR1 signaling, the later phase (and development of fibrosis) was abrogated by deletion of TNFR1. PMID:25550440

  10. Differential Phenotypes of Tissue-Infiltrating T Cells during Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zihui; Spizzo, Iresha; Diep, Henry; Drummond, Grant R.; Widdop, Robert E.; Vinh, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Experimental hypertension is associated with increased T cell infiltration into blood pressure-controlling organs, such as the aorta and kidney; importantly in absence of T cells of the adaptive immune system, experimental hypertension is significantly blunted. However, the function and phenotype of these T cell infiltrates remains speculative and undefined in the setting of hypertension. The current study compared T cell-derived cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from normotensive and hypertensive mice. Splenic, blood, aortic, kidney and brain T cells were isolated from C57BL/6J mice following 14-day vehicle or angiotensin (Ang) II (0.7 mg/kg/day, s.c.) infusion. T cell infiltration was increased in aorta, kidney and brain from hypertensive mice. Cytokine analysis in stimulated T cells indicated an overall Th1 pro-inflammatory phenotype, but a similar proportion (flow cytometry) and quantity (cytometric bead array) of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-17 between vehicle- and Ang II- treated groups. Strikingly, elevated T cell-derived production of a chemokine, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), was observed in aorta (∼6-fold) and kidney in response to Ang II, but not in brain, spleen or blood. Moreover, T cell-derived ROS production in aorta was elevated ∼3 -fold in Ang II-treated mice (n = 7; P<0.05). Ang II-induced hypertension does not affect the overall T cell cytokine profile, but enhanced T cell-derived ROS production and/or leukocyte recruitment due to elevated CCL2, and this effect may be further amplified with increased infiltration of T cells. We have identified a potential hypertension-specific T cell phenotype that may represent a functional contribution of T cells to the development of hypertension, and likely several other associated vascular disorders. PMID:25501574

  11. Decreased Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis With Incidental Concurrent Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kharofa, Jordan; Cohen, Eric P.; Tomic, Rade; Xiang Qun; Gore, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to mitigate radiation-induced lung injury in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ACE inhibitors decrease the risk of radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage I through III small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer treated definitively with radiation from 2004-2009 at the Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Acute pulmonary toxicity was quantified within 6 months of completion of treatment according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. The use of ACE inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled glucocorticosteroids, statins, and angiotensin receptor blockers; dose-volume histogram parameters; and patient factors were assessed for association with Grade 2 or higher pneumonitis. Results: A total of 162 patients met the criteria for inclusion. The majority of patients had Stage III disease (64%) and received concurrent chemotherapy (61%). Sixty-two patients were identified as ACE inhibitor users (38%). All patients had acceptable radiation plans based on dose-volume histogram constraints (V20 [volume of lung receiving at least 20 Gy] {<=}37% and mean lung dose {<=}20 Gy) with the exception of 2 patients who did not meet both criteria. Grade 2 or higher pulmonary toxicity occurred in 12 patients (7.4%). The rate of Grade 2 or higher pneumonitis was lower in ACE inhibitor users vs. nonusers (2% vs. 11%, p = 0.032). Rates of Grade 2 or higher pneumonitis were significantly increased in patients aged greater than 70 years (16% vs. 2%, p = 0.005) or in whom V5 (volume of lung receiving at least 5 Gy) was 50% or greater (13% vs. 4%, p = 0.04). V10 (volume of lung receiving at least 10 Gy), V20, V30 (volume of lung receiving at least 30 Gy), and mean lung dose were not independently associated with Grade 2 or

  12. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V

    2014-07-01

    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  13. JS ISH-ECCR-4 THE PLASMA ALDOSTERONE / ANGIOTENSIN II RATIO FOR THE SCREENING OF SECONDARY HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Poglitsch, Marko

    2016-09-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is severe form of hypertension characterized by a strongly increased aldosterone secretion mediated by adenomas or other forms of adrenal hyper-activity. Once detected, PA can be usually cured by either surgical intervention or by appropriate pharmacologic treatments. The incidence of PA among hypertensive patients varies strongly between different studies, which is in part caused by the complex state-of-the-art testing procedure that is unfortunately far away from being a versatile PA screening tool. Despite strong limitations regarding selectivity and the interference with multiple anti-hypertensive drugs, the antibody-based determination of the aldosterone-renin-ratio (ARR) is widely used in the diagnostic process of PA. However, there is still a strong demand for accurate, reliable and patient friendly PA case detection. The implementation of novel LC-MS/MS based assays for quantification of aldosterone might help to improve the power of the ARR as a diagnostic tool for PA. However, there is a big need for a versatile PA screening test that doesn't interfere with anti-hypertensive treatments and therefore allows the clear identification of PA patients without complex and risky treatment adaptions being necessary in the course of the diagnostic process.The Aldosterone-to-Angiotensin-II-Ratio (AA2-Ratio) is a novel LC-MS/MS based high-throughput test for PA that combines the molar plasma levels of aldosterone and physiologically active angiotensin II into a single dimension-free diagnostic value. The availability of innovative diagnostic approaches for biochemical analysis of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System paved the way for Angiotensin peptides to be used in clinical routine testing by overcoming pre-analytic issues regarding analyte stability. In addition to overall RAS activity and aldosterone levels, the AA2-Ratio integrates the activity of all plasma enzymes involved in angiotensin II metabolism and accurately estimates of

  14. Retinoids inhibit the actions of angiotensin II on vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Haxsen, V; Adam-Stitah, S; Ritz, E; Wagner, J

    2001-03-30

    Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A and powerful inhibitors of cell proliferation and inflammation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to vascular lesions by promoting cell growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we examined whether retinoids interfere with the proproliferative actions of Ang II in VSMCs via AT(1) receptor-dependent or activator protein-1 (AP-1)-dependent mechanisms. VSMCs express retinoid receptor proteins, ie, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha and retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha. Long-term exposure to 1 micromol/L all-trans retinoic acid (RA) dose-dependently inhibited Ang II-induced cell proliferation (P<0.005) as well as DNA and protein synthesis (P<0.001). All-trans RA blocked Ang II stimulation of transforming growth factor-beta(1) mRNA (P<0.005). All-trans RA inhibition of vascular VSMC growth was mediated both via RAR- and RXR-dependent pathways, as shown by receptor-specific synthetic retinoids. Transfection experiments revealed that inhibition of AP-1-dependent gene transcription is one mechanism by which all-trans RA inhibits Ang II action. RARalpha cotransfection enhanced the anti-AP-1 effects of all-trans RA dose-dependently. AP-1 activity was similarly inhibited by cotransfection with either RARalpha or RXRalpha. Ang II-induced gene expression of c-fos was abrogated by all-trans RA treatment (P<0.005). In VSMCs, all-trans RA downregulated AT(1) receptor mRNA (P<0.01) and reduced B(max) (P<0.001). All-trans RA repressed Ang II-stimulated AT(1) receptor promoter activity. The all-trans RA inhibitory effect was abolished when the AP-1 consensus site on the AT(1) receptor promoter was deleted. Our findings demonstrate that retinoids are potent inhibitors of the actions of Ang II on VSMCs. The findings support the notion that retinoids may interfere with proliferative vascular disease.

  15. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on the interaction between enalaprilat and doxazosin in rat tail arteries.

    PubMed

    Marwood, J F

    1998-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that enalaprilat, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), potentiated the actions of alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists; it was hypothesized that angiotensin II (AngII) modulated the activity of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. This hypothesis was tested in Sprague-Dawley rat isolated perfused tail arteries using the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. 2. Losartan had no alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist effects at concentrations below 1 mumol/L. Similarly, losartan (0.1 mumol/L) had no effect on the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist action of doxazosin (1, 10 nmol/L) nor on the potentiation of doxazosin by enalaprilat (1 mumol/L). 3. PD123319 (0.1 mumol/L) had no alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist effect but altered the mode of action of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin: PD123319 changed doxazosin from a competitive to a non-competitive antagonist, as evidenced by the reduced slope of the dose-response curve for the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. 4. These results suggest that AngII can modulate alpha 1-adrenoceptor function in rat tail arteries via an indirect action at AT2 receptors. However, the present results do not rule out the involvement of bradykinin, endothelin or prostaglandin in the modulation of alpha 1-adrenoceptor function by angiotensin II.

  16. Genotoxicity of Advanced Glycation End Products: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupp, Nicole; Schinzel, Reinhard; Heidland, August; Stopper, Helga

    2005-06-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, cancer incidence is increased. This may be related to an elevated level of genomic damage, which has been demonstrated by micronuclei formation as well as by comet assay analysis. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are markedly elevated in renal failure. In the comet assay, the model AGEs methylglyoxal- and carboxy(methyl)lysine-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced significant DNA damage in colon, kidney, and liver cells. The addition of antioxidants prevented AGE-induced DNA damage, suggesting enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The coincubation with dimethylfumarate (DMF), an inhibitor of NF-κB translocation, reduced the genotoxic effect, thereby underscoring the key role of NF-κB in this process. One of the genes induced by NF-κB is angiotensinogen. The ensuing proteolytic activity yields angiotensin II, which evokes oxidative stress as well as proinflammatory responses. A modulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor 1 antagonist, candesartan, yielded a reduction of the AGE-induced DNA damage, connecting the two signal pathways, RAS and AGE signaling. We were able to identify important participants in AGE-induced DNA damage: ROS, NF-κB, and Ang II, as well as modulators to prevent this DNA damage: antioxidants, DMF, and AT1 antagonists.

  17. Angiotensin II activates the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway and induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rat endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Florencia; Sacerdoti, Flavia; De León, Romina; Gentile, Teresa; Canellada, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, plays a role in the process of uterine decidualization and blastocyst attachment. On the other hand, overexpression of COX-2 is involved in the proliferation of the endometrial tissue during endometriosis. Deregulation of the renin-angiotensin-system plays a role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and pre-eclampsia. Angiotensin II increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by targeting phospholypase C-gamma in endometrial stromal cells (ESC). A key element of the cellular response to Ca(2+) signals is the activity of the Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Our first aim was to study whether angiotensin II stimulated Cox-2 gene expression in rat ESC and to analyze whether calcineurin activity was involved. In cells isolated from non-pregnant uteri, COX-2 expression--both mRNA and protein--was induced by co-stimulation with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore (PIo), as well as by angiotensin II. Pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A inhibited this induction. We further analyzed the role of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in the induction of Cox-2 gene expression in non-pregnant rat ESC. Cyclosporin A abolished NFATc1 dephosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. Cyclosporin A also inhibited the transcriptional activity driven by the Cox-2 promoter. Exogenous expression of the peptide VIVIT -specific inhibitor of calcineurin/NFAT binding- blocked the activation of Cox-2 promoter and the up-regulation of COX-2 protein in these cells. Finally we analyzed Cox-2 gene expression in ESC of early-pregnant rats. COX-2 expression--both mRNA and protein--was induced by stimulation with PIo as well as by angiotensin II. This induction appears to be calcineurin independent, since it was not abrogated by cyclosporin A. In conclusion, angiotensin II induced Cox-2 gene expression by activating the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in endometrial stromal

  18. Angiotensin II Activates the Calcineurin/NFAT Signaling Pathway and Induces Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Rat Endometrial Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Florencia; Sacerdoti, Flavia; De León, Romina; Gentile, Teresa; Canellada, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, plays a role in the process of uterine decidualization and blastocyst attachment. On the other hand, overexpression of COX-2 is involved in the proliferation of the endometrial tissue during endometriosis. Deregulation of the renin-angiotensin-system plays a role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and pre-eclampsia. Angiotensin II increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration by targeting phospholypase C-gamma in endometrial stromal cells (ESC). A key element of the cellular response to Ca2+ signals is the activity of the Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Our first aim was to study whether angiotensin II stimulated Cox-2 gene expression in rat ESC and to analyze whether calcineurin activity was involved. In cells isolated from non-pregnant uteri, COX-2 expression -both mRNA and protein- was induced by co-stimulation with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore (PIo), as well as by angiotensin II. Pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A inhibited this induction. We further analyzed the role of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in the induction of Cox-2 gene expression in non-pregnant rat ESC. Cyclosporin A abolished NFATc1 dephosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. Cyclosporin A also inhibited the transcriptional activity driven by the Cox-2 promoter. Exogenous expression of the peptide VIVIT -specific inhibitor of calcineurin/NFAT binding- blocked the activation of Cox-2 promoter and the up-regulation of COX-2 protein in these cells. Finally we analyzed Cox-2 gene expression in ESC of early-pregnant rats. COX-2 expression -both mRNA and protein- was induced by stimulation with PIo as well as by angiotensin II. This induction appears to be calcineurin independent, since it was not abrogated by cyclosporin A. In conclusion, angiotensin II induced Cox-2 gene expression by activating the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in endometrial stromal cells of

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired cardiac hypertrophic response to angiotensin II in mice lacking FGF-2

    PubMed Central

    Pellieux, Corinne; Foletti, Alessandro; Peduto, Giovanni; Aubert, Jean-François; Nussberger, Jürg; Beermann, Friedrich; Brunner, Hans-R.; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    FGF-2 has been implicated in the cardiac response to hypertrophic stimuli. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to maintain elevated blood pressure in hypertensive individuals and exerts direct trophic effects on cardiac cells. However, the role of FGF-2 in Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been established. Therefore, mice deficient in FGF-2 expression were studied using a model of Ang II–dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements show the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in normotensive mice lacking FGF-2. Moreover, hypertensive mice without FGF-2 developed no compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. In wild-type mice, hypertrophy was associated with a stimulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, the extracellular signal regulated kinase, and the p38 kinase pathways. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was markedly attenuated in FGF-2–deficient mice. In vitro, FGF-2 of fibroblast origin was demonstrated to be essential in the paracrine stimulation of MAPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, fibroblasts lacking FGF-2 expression have a defective capacity for releasing growth factors to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results identify the cardiac fibroblast population as a primary integrator of hypertrophic stimuli in the heart, and suggest that FGF-2 is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy via autocrine/paracrine actions on cardiac cells. PMID:11748268

  20. Class I HDACs regulate angiotensin II-dependent cardiac fibrosis via fibroblasts and circulating fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah M; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Ferguson, Bradley S; Schuetze, Katherine B; Cavasin, Maria A; Demos-Davies, Kim; Yeager, Michael E; Stenmark, Kurt R; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2014-02-01

    Fibrosis, which is defined as excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue, contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases involving diverse organ systems. Cardiac fibrosis predisposes individuals to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death, and is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block cardiac fibrosis in pre-clinical models of heart failure. However, which HDAC isoforms govern cardiac fibrosis, and the mechanisms by which they do so, remains unclear. Here, we show that selective inhibition of class I HDACs potently suppresses angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis by targeting two key effector cell populations, cardiac fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Class I HDAC inhibition blocks cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression through derepression of the genes encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p15 and p57. In contrast, class I HDAC inhibitors block agonist-dependent differentiation of fibrocytes through a mechanism involving repression of ERK1/2 signaling. These findings define novel roles for class I HDACs in the control of pathological cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, since fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including heart, lung and kidney failure, our results suggest broad utility for isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors as anti-fibrotic agents that function, in part, by targeting these circulating mesenchymal cells.

  1. A case of lithium intoxication induced by an antihypertensive angiotensin 1 subtype-specific angiotensin II receptor blocker in an elderly patient with bipolar disorder and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Nishida, Shohei; Takekoshi, Akira; Murakami, Muneharu; Yamada, Megumi; Kimura, Akio; Suzuki, Akio; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium carbonate is considered to be a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder; however, this drug has a narrow therapeutic window, and lithium intoxication is commonly induced by various drugs interaction and situations. We herein report a case of lithium intoxication induced by the administration of an antihypertensive agent targeting the angiotensin 1 (AT1) subtype of the angiotensin II receptor in a 65-year-old woman with a 40-year history of bipolar disorder type 1, and 1-year history of essential hypertension. Her bipolar disorder had been well-controlled with 600 mg/day of lithium carbonate for more than 10 years. She was later diagnosed with hypertension and the AT1 receptor blocker, azilsartan was thereafter administrated on a daily basis. After 3 weeks of azilsartan administration, she presented with progressive action tremor and showed a gradual deterioration of her physical state. Four months after the start of azilsartan administration, she presented with alternating episodes of diarrhea and constipation. Two weeks before admission to our hospital, she presented with mild consciousness disturbances, myoclonus, truncal ataxia, and appetite loss. She was diagnosed to have lithium intoxication based on an elevated serum lithium concentration of 3.28 mEq/l.It is therefore important to evaluate the serum lithium concentration after the administration of antihypertensive agents, and consider lithium-antihypertensive agent interactions when selecting antihypertensive agents in elderly patients receiving long-term lithium carbonate treatment. PMID:27535187

  2. Somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) inhibits the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated sup 3 H-thymidine uptake by rat adrenal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlikowski, M.; Lewinski, A.; Sewerynek, E.; Szkudlinski, M.; Kunert-Radek, J.; Wajs, E. )

    1990-02-14

    The effects of a long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 injections on the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake by the rat adrenal glands incubated in vitro were examined. It was shown that SMS 201-995 significantly inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake and, additionally, suppressed the stimulatory effect of a single angiotensin II injection.

  3. Voluntary Exercise Stabilizes Established Angiotensin II-Dependent Atherosclerosis in Mice through Systemic Anti-Inflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrin, Maxime; Aubert, Jean-François; Bouzourène, Karima; Amstutz, Catherine; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exercise training prevents the development of Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaques in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. In this report, we investigated whether exercise attenuates progression and promotes stability in pre-established vulnerable lesions. To this end, ApoE-/- mice with already established Ang II-mediated advanced and vulnerable lesions (2-kidney, 1-clip [2K1C] renovascular hypertension model), were subjected to sedentary (SED) or voluntary wheel running training (EXE) regimens for 4 weeks. Mean blood pressure and plasma renin activity did not significantly differ between the two groups, while total plasma cholesterol significantly decreased in 2K1C EXE mice. Aortic plaque size was significantly reduced by 63% in 2K1C EXE compared to SED mice. Plaque stability score was significantly higher in 2K1C EXE mice than in SED ones. Aortic ICAM-1 mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated following EXE. Moreover, EXE significantly down-regulated splenic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18, and IL-1β mRNA expression while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4. Reduction in plasma IL-18 levels was also observed in response to EXE. There was no significant difference in aortic and splenic Th1/Th2 and M1/M2 polarization markers mRNA expression between the two groups. Our results indicate that voluntary EXE is effective in slowing progression and promoting stabilization of pre-existing Ang II-dependent vulnerable lesions by ameliorating systemic inflammatory state. Our findings support a therapeutic role for voluntary EXE in patients with established atherosclerosis. PMID:26600018

  4. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-15

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl transport by this segment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net thick ascending limb transport. NOS3 activity is regulated by changes in expression and phosphorylation at threonine 495 (T495) and serine 1177 (S1177), inhibitory and stimulatory sites, respectively. We hypothesized that NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired by chronic ANG II infusion, due to reduced NOS3 expression, increased phosphorylation of T495, and decreased phosphorylation of S1177. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 1 and 5 days. ANG II infusion for 5 days decreased NOS3 expression by 40 ± 12% (P < 0.007; n = 6) and increased T495 phosphorylation by 147 ± 26% (P < 0.008; n = 6). One-day ANG II infusion had no significant effect. NO production in response to endothelin-1 was blunted in thick ascending limbs from ANG II-infused animals [ANG II -0.01 ± 0.06 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU)/min vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.01]. This was not due to reduced endothelin-1 receptor expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3)-induced NO production was also reduced in ANG II-infused rats (ANG II -0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.04 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.03), and this correlated with an impaired ability of PIP3 to increase S1177 phosphorylation. We conclude that in ANG II-induced hypertension NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired due to decreased NOS3 expression and altered phosphorylation.

  5. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-15

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl transport by this segment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net thick ascending limb transport. NOS3 activity is regulated by changes in expression and phosphorylation at threonine 495 (T495) and serine 1177 (S1177), inhibitory and stimulatory sites, respectively. We hypothesized that NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired by chronic ANG II infusion, due to reduced NOS3 expression, increased phosphorylation of T495, and decreased phosphorylation of S1177. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 1 and 5 days. ANG II infusion for 5 days decreased NOS3 expression by 40 ± 12% (P < 0.007; n = 6) and increased T495 phosphorylation by 147 ± 26% (P < 0.008; n = 6). One-day ANG II infusion had no significant effect. NO production in response to endothelin-1 was blunted in thick ascending limbs from ANG II-infused animals [ANG II -0.01 ± 0.06 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU)/min vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.01]. This was not due to reduced endothelin-1 receptor expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3)-induced NO production was also reduced in ANG II-infused rats (ANG II -0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.04 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.03), and this correlated with an impaired ability of PIP3 to increase S1177 phosphorylation. We conclude that in ANG II-induced hypertension NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired due to decreased NOS3 expression and altered phosphorylation. PMID:25377910

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, on CCl4-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ok-Kyung; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Eun-Joo; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 is known to inhibit muscle regeneration after muscle injury. However, it is unknown if high systemic levels of TGF-β can affect the muscle regeneration process. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of a CCl4 intra-peritoneal injection and losartan (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist) on skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius muscle) injury and regeneration. Male C57BL/6 mice were grouped randomly as follows: control (n = 7), CCl4-treatment group (n = 7), and CCl4 + losartan treatment group (n = 7). After CCl4 treatment for a 16-week period, the animals were sacrificed and analyzed. The expression of dystrophin significantly decreased in the muscle tissues of the control group, as compared with that of the CCl4 + losartan group (p < 0.01). p(phospho)-Smad2/3 expression significantly increased in the muscles of the control group compared to that in the CCl4 + losartan group (p < 0.01). The expressions of Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin increased in skeletal muscles of the CCl4 + losartan group compared to the corresponding levels in the control group (p < 0.01). We hypothesize that systemically elevated TGF-β1 as a result of CCl4-induced liver injury causes skeletal muscle injury, while losartan promotes muscle repair from injury via blockade of TGF-β1 signaling. PMID:26867195

  7. Regression of superficial glomerular podocyte injury in type 2 diabetic rats with overt albuminuria: effect of angiotensin II blockade

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Genei; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Yukiko; Ohashi, Naro; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Nakano, Daisuke; Pelisch, Nicolas; Hara, Taiga; Mori, Takefumi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kohno, Masakazu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Objective Clinical studies indicate that the remission, regression or both of nephrotic-range albuminuria are exerted by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in diabetes. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that these effects of ARBs are associated with regression of glomerular podocyte injury. Methods We examined the effects of an ARB, olmesartan, on glomerular podocyte injury in type 2 diabetic Otsuka–Long–Evans–Tokushima-Fatty rats with overt albuminuria. Results At baseline (55-week-old), diabetic Otsuka–Long–Evans–Tokushima-Fatty rats showed severe albuminuria with desmin-positive areas (an index of podocyte injury) in both superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli, and podocyte injury was much greater in juxtamedullary than in superficial glomeruli. At 75-week-old, Otsuka–Long–Evans–Tokushima-Fatty rats had developed more severe albuminuria and superficial glomerular podocyte injury, whereas juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury did not advance further. Olmesartan (10 mg/kg per day) decreased albuminuria and superficial glomerular desmin staining to levels that were lower than those at baseline, whereas advanced juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury was not changed. Conclusion The current study demonstrates for the first time that juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury reaches a severe condition at an earlier time than superficial glomerular podocyte injury during the progression of overt albuminuria in type 2 diabetic rats. Our data also support the hypothesis that the antialbuminuric effects of ARBs are associated with regression of superficial glomerular podocyte injury in type 2 diabetes with nephrotic-range albuminuria. PMID:20706133

  8. Vascular α1D-adrenoceptors are overexpressed in aorta of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor null mouse: role of increased angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Cuevas, F. G.; López-Guerrero, J. J.; Figueroa-García, M. C.; Gallardo-Ortiz, I. A.; Ibarra, M.; Rodríguez-Sosa, M.; Gonzalez, F. J.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The hypothesis that α1D-adrenoceptors may mediate the pro-hypertensive actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) was tested in isolated aorta (α1D-adrenoceptor bearing tissue) of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor null mouse (AhR−/−), which shows increased levels of Ang II, cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension. The effect of captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) on both blood pressure and aortic α1D-adrenoceptor expression and function in mice were determined. Basal blood pressure was higher in AhR−/− mice, while captopril therapy decreased it to wild-type (WT) values. Aortas of adult WT and AhR−/− mice were stimulated by phenylephrine or noradrenaline to induce contraction; the maximal effect was higher in AhR−/− mice, without a significant change in pEC50. PA2 values for the selective α1D-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazynil]ethyl]-8-azaspiro [4.5]decane-7,9-dione) were 9.19 and 8.94 for WT and AhR−/−, respectively; while Schild slopes were not different from 1. PCR experiments showed c. 77% increase in AhR−/− α1D-adrenoceptors cDNA compared with WT mice; while western blot analysis demonstrated c. 88% increase in α1D-adrenoceptor protein in AhR−/− mice. Captopril therapy decreased α1D-adrenoceptor-induced contraction and protein in AhR−/− mice to WT levels. These data support the hypothesis that under conditions where Ang II is elevated, vascular α1D-adrenoceptors are increased, and further suggest that both Ang II and vascular α1D-adrenoceptors could be related in the onset of hypertension. PMID:18598287

  9. Angiotensin II-induced pro-fibrotic effects require p38MAPK activity and transforming growth factor beta 1 expression in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Vazquez, Yaneisi; Acuña, María José; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Simon, Felipe; Salas, José Diego; Alvarez Ruf, Joel; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Fibrotic disorders are typically characterised by excessive connective tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition that preclude the normal healing of different tissues. Several skeletal muscle dystrophies are characterised by extensive fibrosis. Among the factors involved in skeletal muscle fibrosis is angiotensin II (Ang-II), a key protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We previously demonstrated that myoblasts responded to Ang-II by increasing the ECM protein levels mediated by AT-1 receptors, implicating an Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent mechanism. In this paper, we show that in myoblasts, Ang-II induced the increase of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression through its AT-1 receptor. This effect is dependent of the NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-induced ROS, as indicated by a decrease of the expression of both pro-fibrotic factors when the ROS production was inhibited via the NOX inhibitor apocynin. The increase in pro-fibrotic factors levels was paralleled by enhanced p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to Ang-II. However, only the p38MAPK activity was critical for the Ang-II-induced fibrotic effects, as indicated by the decrease in the Ang-II-induced TGF-β1 and CTGF expression and fibronectin levels by SB-203580, an inhibitor of the p38MAPK, but not by U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we showed that the Ang-II-dependent p38MAPK activation, but not the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, was necessary for the NOX-derived ROS. In addition, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 expression was required for the Ang-II-induced pro-fibrotic effects evaluated by using SB-431542, an inhibitor of TGF-βRI kinase activity, and by knocking down TGF-β1 levels by shRNA technique. These results strongly suggest that the fibrotic response to Ang-II is mediated by the AT-1 receptor and requires the p38MAPK phosphorylation, NOX-induced ROS, and TGF

  10. Intratubular Renin-Angiotensin System in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Suzaki, Yuki; Prieto-Carrasquero, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the regulation of arterial pressure and sodium homeostasis. Recent years, many studies have shown that local tissue angiotensin II levels are differentially regulated and cannot be explained on the basis of circulating concentrations. All of the components needed for angiotensin II generation are present within the various compartments in the kidney including the renal interstitium and the tubular network. The cascade of the renin-angiotensin system demonstrates three major possible sites for the pharmacological interruption of the renin-angiotensin system: the interaction of renin with its substrate, angiotensinogen, the angiotensin converting enzyme, and angiotensin II type 1 receptors. This brief article will focus on the role of the intratubular renin-angiotensin system in the pathophysiology of hypertension and the responses to the renin-angiotensin system blockade by renin inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. PMID:19789728

  11. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (P<0.05). In addition, catalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  12. Regulatory T cells in human and angiotensin II-induced mouse abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Wu, Wenxue; Lindholt, Jes S.; Sukhova, Galina K.; Libby, Peter; Yu, Xueqing; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Aims Regulatory T cells (Tregs) protect mice from angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). This study tested whether AAA patients are Treg-insufficient and the Treg molecular mechanisms that control AAA pathogenesis. Methods and results ELISA determined the Foxp3 concentration in blood cell lysates from 485 AAA patients and 204 age- and sex-matched controls. AAA patients exhibited lower blood cell Foxp3 expression than controls (P < 0.0001). Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a significant but negative correlation between Foxp3 and AAA annual expansion rate before (r = –0.147, P = 0.007) and after (r = –0.153, P = 0.006) adjustment for AAA risk factors. AAA in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe–/–) mice that received different doses of Ang-II exhibited a negative correlation of lesion Foxp3+ Treg numbers with AAA size (r = –0.883, P < 0.0001). Adoptive transfer of Tregs from wild-type (WT) and IL10-deficient (Il10–/–) mice increased AAA lesion Treg content, but only WT mice Tregs reduced AAA size, AAA incidence, blood pressure, lesion macrophage and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell accumulation, and angiogenesis with concurrent increase of lesion collagen content. Both AAA lesion immunostaining and plasma ELISA demonstrated that adoptive transfer of WT Tregs, but not Il10–/– Tregs, reduced the expression of MCP-1. In vitro cell culture and aortic ring assay demonstrated that only Tregs from WT mice, but not those from Il10–/– mice, reduced macrophage MCP-1 secretion, macrophage and vascular cell protease expression and activity, and aortic ring microvessel formation. Conclusion This study supports a protective role of Tregs in human and experimental AAA by releasing IL10 to suppress inflammatory cell chemotaxis, arterial wall remodelling, and angiogenesis. PMID:25824145

  13. Angiotensin II accelerates mammary gland development independently of high blood pressure in pregnancy-associated hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Baasanjav, Altansarnai; Kwon, Chulwon; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a vasopressor hormone that has critical roles in maintenance of normal blood pressure and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. We previously generated pregnancy-associated hypertensive (PAH) mice by mating female human angiotensinogen transgenic mice with male human renin transgenic mice. PAH mice exhibit hypertension in late pregnancy by overproducing AngII. A recent study demonstrated that angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor is expressed in mammary epithelial cells and its signaling is critical for mammary gland involution after weaning. However, the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in the development of mammary gland during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, to investigate the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in mammary gland development during pregnancy, we analyzed the mammary gland of PAH mice. Histological and gene expression analyses revealed that lobuloalveolar development was accelerated with increased milk protein production and lipid accumulation in the mammary gland of PAH mice. Furthermore, AT1 receptor blocker treatment suppressed acceleration of mammary gland development in PAH mice, while the treatment of hydralazine, another antihypertensive drug, did not. These data suggest that AngII-AT1 receptor-induced signaling accelerates mammary gland development during pregnancy through hypertension-independent mechanism.

  14. Angiotensin-(1-7) enhances the effects of angiotensin II on the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in rostral ventrolateral medulla in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Feng; Han, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Excessive sympathetic activity propels the pathogenesis and progression of organ damage in hypertension. Enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is involved in sympathetic activation in hypertension. Given the important role of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system in regulating sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular activity, the present study aimed to investigate the roles of Ang-(1-7) in Ang II-induced CSAR and the sympathetic activation responses in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of hypertensive rats. The two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method was used to induce renovascular hypertension. Responses of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to epicardial application of capsaicin were used to evaluate the CSAR in sinoaortic-denervated and cervical-vagotomized rats with anesthesia. Both Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM caused greater increases in RSNA and MAP in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated (sham) rats and enhanced CSAR independently. RVLM pretreatment with Ang-(1-7) dose dependently augmented the effects of Ang II on RSNA, MAP, and CSAR in 2K1C rats. Mas receptor antagonist A-779 in the RVLM exhibited more powerful inhibitory effects on RSNA, MAP, and CSAR than the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan. The expression of both the AT1 receptor and Mas receptor proteins in the RVLM increased, but neither the Ang II nor Ang-(1-7) levels in the RVLM changed significantly in the 2K1C rats compared with the sham rats. These results indicate that Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM enhances the CSAR and sympathetic output not only by itself but also through enhancing the effects of Ang II in renovascular hypertensive rats. Both endogenous Ang-(1-7) and Ang II in the RVLM contribute to the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension.

  15. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme decreases skeletal muscle fibrosis in dystrophic mice by a diminution in the expression and activity of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2).

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Cabrera, Daniel; Céspedes, Carlos; Vio, Carlos P; Vazquez, Yaneisi; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), through angiotensin II and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is involved in the genesis and progression of fibrotic diseases characterized by the replacement of normal tissue by an accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) presents fibrosis and a decrease in muscle strength produced by chronic damage. The mdx mouse is a murine model of DMD and develops the same characteristics as dystrophic patients when subjected to chronic exercise. The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β), which are overexpressed in muscular dystrophies, play a major role in many progressive scarring conditions. We have tested the hypothesis that ACE inhibition decreases fibrosis in dystrophic skeletal muscle by treatment of mdx mice with the ACE inhibitor enalapril. Both sedentary and exercised mdx mice treated with enalapril showed improvement in gastrocnemius muscle strength explained by a reduction in both muscle damage and ECM accumulation. ACE inhibition decreased CTGF expression in sedentary or exercised mdx mice and diminished CTGF-induced pro-fibrotic activity in a model of CTGF overexpression by adenoviral infection. Enalapril did not have an effect on TGF-β1 expression or its signaling activity in sedentary or exercised dystrophic mice. Thus, ACE inhibition might improve muscle strength and decrease fibrosis by diminishing specifically CTGF expression and activity without affecting TGF-β1 signaling. Our data provide insights into the pathogenic events in dystrophic muscle. We propose ACE as a target for developing therapies for DMD and related diseases.

  16. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme decreases skeletal muscle fibrosis in dystrophic mice by a diminution in the expression and activity of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2).

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Cabrera, Daniel; Céspedes, Carlos; Vio, Carlos P; Vazquez, Yaneisi; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), through angiotensin II and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is involved in the genesis and progression of fibrotic diseases characterized by the replacement of normal tissue by an accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) presents fibrosis and a decrease in muscle strength produced by chronic damage. The mdx mouse is a murine model of DMD and develops the same characteristics as dystrophic patients when subjected to chronic exercise. The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β), which are overexpressed in muscular dystrophies, play a major role in many progressive scarring conditions. We have tested the hypothesis that ACE inhibition decreases fibrosis in dystrophic skeletal muscle by treatment of mdx mice with the ACE inhibitor enalapril. Both sedentary and exercised mdx mice treated with enalapril showed improvement in gastrocnemius muscle strength explained by a reduction in both muscle damage and ECM accumulation. ACE inhibition decreased CTGF expression in sedentary or exercised mdx mice and diminished CTGF-induced pro-fibrotic activity in a model of CTGF overexpression by adenoviral infection. Enalapril did not have an effect on TGF-β1 expression or its signaling activity in sedentary or exercised dystrophic mice. Thus, ACE inhibition might improve muscle strength and decrease fibrosis by diminishing specifically CTGF expression and activity without affecting TGF-β1 signaling. Our data provide insights into the pathogenic events in dystrophic muscle. We propose ACE as a target for developing therapies for DMD and related diseases. PMID:23673415

  17. Modulation of angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction by endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the isolated microperfused rabbit afferent arteriole.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S; Johnson, C S; Carretero, O A

    1991-01-01

    Although endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) has been studied extensively in large vessels, little is known about its role in the preglomerular afferent arteriole (Af-Art). We tested the hypothesis that EDRF, which is produced locally in the Af-Art, modulates arteriolar responses to angiotensin II (AII). A single rabbit Af-Art with its glomerulus intact was microperfused in vitro at 60 mmHg. When 0.1 microM AII was first applied, luminal diameter decreased by 49 +/- 7.0% (n = 9; P less than 0.0001); however, constriction waned, with the decrease becoming 15 +/- 3.5% at 1 min. After washing the Af-Art, repeated AII caused less constriction (13 +/- 4.0%; P less than 0.0002 vs. first application), showing tachyphylaxis. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine (N-Arg), which inhibits synthesis of nitric oxide (an EDRF), decreased basal diameter by 18 +/- 3.0% (n = 14; P less than 0.0001). N-Arg also augmented AII-induced constriction (86 +/- 6.8%; P less than 0.02 vs. nontreated Af-Art) and rendered it persistent (82 +/- 6.9% at 1 min). Even after pretreatment with N-Arg, repeated AII caused a weaker response, which was restored by washing with kidney homogenate rich in angiotensinase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that local production of EDRF is an important determinant of the tone of the Af-Art. Our results suggest that the transient nature of AII-induced constriction of the Af-Art may be due to production of EDRF, while tachyphylaxis may be the result of long lasting receptor occupancy. Images PMID:2022735

  18. Analysis of angiotensin II binding to human platelets: Differences in young and old subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, M.J.; Goodfriend, T.L.; Ball, D.; Elliott, M.E. )

    1990-03-01

    We examined the binding of radiolabeled angiotensin II (AII) to human platelets to characterize the apparent increase in AII receptors observed in older subjects. At 22{degrees}C, the amount of radioactivity associated with platelets from older subjects increased continuously for more than 2 hours. The same amount of radioactivity was displaced by addition of unlabeled AII at 30 min and 60 min. In the presence of phenylarsine oxide, in the cold, or when labeled antagonist was the ligand, binding came to equilibrium by 30 min. High pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated that {sup 125}I-AII was the major radioactive compound in the supernatant and platelets after incubation, but the platelets also contained radiolabeled AII fragments. Thus, some degradation accompanied interaction of AII and platelets. Phenylarsine oxide did not prevent degradation of bound AII, suggesting that degradation precedes internalization. On average, maximum binding was greater in older subjects whether platelets were incubated with {sup 125}I-AII alone, with {sup 125}I-AII and phenylarsine oxide to prevent internalization, or when the competitive inhibitor {sup 125}I-sar1,ile8-AII was the radioligand. Variability of binding among subjects also increased with age. Thus, platelets bind, degrade, and internalize AII, and the three processes occur to a greater extent in platelets from some, but not all older subjects.

  19. Selective small molecule angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists for neuropathic pain: preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maree T; Anand, Praveen; Rice, Andrew S C

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain affects up to 10% of the general population, but drug treatments recommended for the treatment of neuropathic pain are associated with modest efficacy and/or produce dose-limiting side effects. Hence, neuropathic pain is an unmet medical need. In the past 2 decades, research on the pathobiology of neuropathic pain has revealed many novel pain targets for use in analgesic drug discovery programs. However, these efforts have been largely unsuccessful as molecules that showed promising pain relief in rodent models of neuropathic pain generally failed to produce analgesia in early phase clinical trials in patients with neuropathic pain. One notable exception is the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor that has clinical validity on the basis of a successful double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of EMA401, a highly selective, orally active, peripherally restricted AT2 receptor antagonist in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. In this study, we review research to date on target validation, efficacy, and mode of action of small molecule AT2 receptor antagonists in rodent models of peripheral neuropathic pain and in cultured human sensory neurons, the preclinical pharmacokinetics of these compounds, and the outcome of the above clinical trial.

  20. Effects of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid via CYP2C8.

    PubMed

    Senda, Asuna; Mukai, Yuji; Toda, Takaki; Hayakawa, Toru; Yamashita, Miki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) via cytochrome enzymes such as CYP 2C9, 2C8 and 2J2. EETs play a role in cardioprotection and regulation of blood pressure. Recently, adverse reactions such as sudden heart attack and fatal myocardial infarction were reported among patients taking angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). As some ARBs have affinity for these CYP enzymes, metabolic inhibition of AA by ARBs is a possible cause for the increase in cardiovascular events. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibitory effects of ARBs on the formation of EETs and further metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), from AA via CYP2C8. In incubations with recombinant CYP2C8 in vitro, the inhibitory effects were compared by measuring EETs and DHETs by HPLC-MS/MS. Inhibition of AA metabolism by ARBs was detected in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of losartan (42.7 µM), telmisartan (49.5 µM), irbesartan (55.6 µM), olmesartan (66.2 µM), candesartan (108 µM), and valsartan (279 µM). Losartan, telmisartan and irbesartan, which reportedly accumulate in the liver and kidneys, have stronger inhibitory effects than other ARBs. The lower concentration of EETs leads to less protective action on the cardiovascular system and a higher incidence of adverse effects such as sudden heart attack and myocardial infarction in patients taking ARBs. PMID:26632190

  1. Complement regulator CD59 protects against angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gongxiong; Chen, Ting; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Hu, Weiguo; Bronson, Rod T.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Halperin, Jose A; Aktas, Huseyin; Qin, Xuebin

    2010-01-01

    Background Complement system, an innate immunity, has been well documented to play a critical role in many inflammatory diseases. However, the role of complement in pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which is considered as an immune and inflammatory disease, remains obscure. Methods and Results Here, we evaluated the pathogenic roles of complement membrane attack complex (MAC) and CD59, a key regulator that inhibits MAC, in the development of AAA. We demonstrated that in the angiotensin II-induced AAA model, deficiency of MAC regulator CD59 in ApoE-null mice (mCd59ab−/−/ApoE−/−) accelerated the disease development, while transgenic over-expression of human CD59 (hCD59ICAM-2+/−/ApoE−/−) in this model attenuated progression of AAA. The severity of aneurysm among these three groups positively correlates with C9 deposition, and/or the activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and/or the levels of phosphor (p)-c-Jun, p-c-Fos, p-IKK-α/β, and p-65. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MAC directly induced gene expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in vitro, which required activation of AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Conclusions Together, these results defined the protective role of CD59 and shed light on the important pathogenic role of MAC in AAA. PMID:20212283

  2. Phospholipase D2 Localizes to the Plasma Membrane and Regulates Angiotensin II Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Guangwei; Huang, Ping; Liang, Bruce T.; Frohman, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a key facilitator of multiple types of membrane vesicle trafficking events. Two PLD isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, exist in mammals. Initial studies based on overexpression studies suggested that in resting cells, human PLD1 localized primarily to the Golgi and perinuclear vesicles in multiple cell types. In contrast, overexpressed mouse PLD2 was observed to localize primarily to the plasma membrane, although internalization on membrane vesicles was observed subsequent to serum stimulation. A recent report has suggested that the assignment of PLD2 to the plasma membrane is in error, because the endogenous isoform in rat secretory cells was imaged and found to be present primarily in the Golgi apparatus. We have reexamined this issue by using a monoclonal antibody specific for mouse PLD2, and find, as reported initially using overexpression studies, that endogenous mouse PLD2 is detected most readily at the plasma membrane in multiple cell types. In addition, we report that mouse, rat, and human PLD2 when overexpressed all similarly localize to the plasma membrane in cell lines from all three species. Finally, studies conducted using overexpression of wild-type active or dominant-negative isoforms of PLD2 and RNA interference-mediated targeting of PLD2 suggest that PLD2 functions at the plasma membrane to facilitate endocytosis of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. PMID:14718562

  3. Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: chemical feature based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Krovat, Eva M; Langer, Thierry

    2003-02-27

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were elaborated for angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT(1)) antagonists using both a quantitative and a qualitative approach (Catalyst HypoGen and HipHop algorithms, respectively). The training sets for quantitative model generation consisted of 25 selective AT(1) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 nM to 150 microM. Additionally, a qualitative pharmacophore hypothesis was derived from multiconformational structure models of the two highly active AT(1) antagonists 4u (IC(50) = 0.2 nM) and 3k (IC(50) = 0.7 nM). In the case of the quantitative model, the best pharmacophore hypothesis consisted of a five-features model (Hypo1: seven points, one hydrophobic aromatic, one hydrophobic aliphatic, a hydrogen bond acceptor, a negative ionizable function, and an aromatic plane function). The best qualitative model consisted of seven features (Hypo2: 11 points, two aromatic rings, two hydrogen bond acceptors, a negative ionizable function, and two hydrophobic functions). The obtained pharmacophore models were validated on a wide set of test molecules. They were shown to be able to identify a range of highly potent AT(1) antagonists, among those a number of recently launched drugs and some candidates presently undergoing clinical tests and/or development phases. The results of our study provide confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore models to retrieve structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activity by virtual screening. PMID:12593652

  4. Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: chemical feature based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Krovat, Eva M; Langer, Thierry

    2003-02-27

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were elaborated for angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT(1)) antagonists using both a quantitative and a qualitative approach (Catalyst HypoGen and HipHop algorithms, respectively). The training sets for quantitative model generation consisted of 25 selective AT(1) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 nM to 150 microM. Additionally, a qualitative pharmacophore hypothesis was derived from multiconformational structure models of the two highly active AT(1) antagonists 4u (IC(50) = 0.2 nM) and 3k (IC(50) = 0.7 nM). In the case of the quantitative model, the best pharmacophore hypothesis consisted of a five-features model (Hypo1: seven points, one hydrophobic aromatic, one hydrophobic aliphatic, a hydrogen bond acceptor, a negative ionizable function, and an aromatic plane function). The best qualitative model consisted of seven features (Hypo2: 11 points, two aromatic rings, two hydrogen bond acceptors, a negative ionizable function, and two hydrophobic functions). The obtained pharmacophore models were validated on a wide set of test molecules. They were shown to be able to identify a range of highly potent AT(1) antagonists, among those a number of recently launched drugs and some candidates presently undergoing clinical tests and/or development phases. The results of our study provide confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore models to retrieve structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activity by virtual screening.

  5. Angiotensin-(1–7) attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling associated with upregulation of dual-specificity phosphatase 1

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, LaTronya T.; Gallagher, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hypertension induces cardiac remodeling, including left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, through a combination of both hemodynamic and humoral factors. In previous studies, we showed that the heptapeptide ANG-(1–7) prevented mitogen-stimulated growth of cardiac myocytes in vitro, through a reduction in the activity of the MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2. In this study, saline- or ANG II-infused rats were treated with ANG-(1–7) to determine whether the heptapeptide reduces myocyte hypertrophy in vivo and to identify the signaling pathways involved in the process. ANG II infusion into normotensive rats elevated systolic blood pressure >50 mmHg, in association with increased myocyte cross-sectional area, ventricular atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA, and ventricular brain natriuretric peptide mRNA. Although infusion with ANG-(1–7) had no effect on the ANG II-stimulated elevation in blood pressure, the heptapeptide hormone significantly reduced the ANG II-mediated increase in myocyte cross-sectional area, interstitial fibrosis, and natriuretic peptide mRNAs. ANG II increased phospho-ERK1 and phospho-ERK2, whereas cotreatment with ANG-(1–7) reduced the phosphorylation of both MAPKs. Neither ANG II nor ANG-(1–7) altered the ERK1/2 MAPK kinase MEK1/2. However, ANG-(1–7) infusion, with or without ANG II, increased the MAPK phosphatase dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP)-1; in contrast, treatment with ANG II had no effect on DUSP-1, suggesting that ANG-(1–7) upregulates DUSP-1 to reduce ANG II-stimulated ERK activation. These results indicate that ANG-(1–7) attenuates cardiac remodeling associated with a chronic elevation in blood pressure and upregulation of a MAPK phosphatase and may be cardioprotective in patients with hypertension. PMID:22140049

  6. 6-OHDA lesions to amygdala and hippocampus attenuate memory-enhancing effect of the 3-7 fragment of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Winnicka, M M; Braszko, J J; Wiśniewski, K

    1998-05-01

    We have previously shown that facilitatory effect of angiotensin II (AII) on the retrieval of memory is mediated by the dopaminergic system. In the present study, we searched for the influence of the 3-7 fragment of angiotensin II [AII(3-7)] on the retrieval processes in a passive avoidance situation after bilateral 6-OHDA lesions to the central amygdala (CA) and the CA4 field of the hippocampus (HI). AII(3-7) given 15 min before the retention testing, at the intracerebroventricular dose of 1 nmol, significantly prolonged avoidance latencies in sham-operated rats (i.e. improved retrieval of memory for the electric footshock experienced during the learning trial). Bilateral lesions to CA totally abolished, and to HI significantly diminished, this facilitatory effect. An increase of spontaneous locomotor activity in rats lesioned to CA and a decrease in rats lesioned to HI were unlikely to interfere with the cognitive effect of AII (3-7). These results suggest that the anatomical substrate of facilitating retrieval of information activity of AII(3-7) is closely related to the dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra to CA and HI.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Baker, Nicki; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments AngII

  8. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Improve Peripheral Endothelial Function: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Wu, Yan; Yu, Ge; Xia, Qing; Xu, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) Several studies have assessed the effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on peripheral endothelial dysfunction as measured by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), a widely-used indicator for endothelial function. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effect in comparison to placebo or no treatment and other antihypertensives. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane library and EMBASE were searched to September 2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of ARBs versus placebo or no treatment and other antihypertensives (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), β-blockers, diuretics) by forearm FMD. Furthermore, we also use meta-regression to analyze the relationship between the endothelial function and the duration of ARBs treatments. Results In 11 trials including 590 patients, ARBs (n = 315) significantly improved FMD (1.36%, 95% confidence internal [CI]:1.28 to 1.44) versus placebo or no treatment (n = 275). In 16 trials that included 1028 patients, ARBs (n = 486) had a significant effect (0.59%, 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.94) on FMD when compared with other antihypertensives (n = 542). In 8 trials, ARBs (n = 174) had no significant effect (−0.14%, 95% CI: −0.32 to 0.03) compare