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Sample records for decreased left ventricular

  1. Decreased Left Ventricular Torsion and Untwisting in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seon Mi; Bae, Eun Jung; Choi, Jung Yun; Yun, Yong Soo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze left ventricular (LV) torsion and untwisting, and to evaluate the correlation between torsion and other components of LV contraction in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Segmental and global rotation, rotational rate (Vrot) were measured at three levels of LV using the two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking imaging (STI) method in 10 DCM patients (range 0.6-15 yr, median 6.5 yr, 3 females) and 17 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Global torsion was decreased in DCM (peak global torsion; 10.9±4.6° vs. 0.3±2.1°, p<0.001). Loss of LV torsion occurred mainly by the diminution of counterclockwise apical rotation and was augmented by somewhat less reduction in clockwise basal rotation. In DCM, the normal counterclockwise apical rotation was not observed, and the apical rotation about the central axis was clockwise or slightly counterclockwise (peak apical rotation; 5.9±4.1° vs. -0.9±3.1°, p<0.001). Systolic counterclockwise Vrot and early diastolic clockwise Vrot at the apical level were decreased or abolished. In DCM, decreased systolic torsion and loss of early diastolic recoil contribute to LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The STI method may facilitate the serial evaluation of the LV torsional behavior in clinical settings and give new biomechanical concepts for better management of patients with DCM. PMID:17728501

  2. Decreased left ventricular stroke volume is associated with low-grade exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Sumito; Shibata, Yoko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nitobe, Joji; Iwayama, Tadateru; Yashiro, Yoshinori; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Kimura, Tomomi; Igarashi, Akira; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kubota, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Background Low-grade exercise tolerance is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 6 min walk test (6MWT) is commonly used to evaluate exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. However, little is known regarding the relationship between cardiac function and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors in cardiac function for low-grade exercise tolerance in patients with stable COPD. Methods We recruited 57 patients with stable COPD (men 54, women 3) to perform the 6MWT. Patients with underlying orthopaedic disease or heart failure were excluded. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and contrast-enhanced cardiac CT. We also measured pulmonary function and the 6MWT distance. Results Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and per cent predicted FEV, along with left ventricular end diastolic volume and left ventricular cardiac output as measured by cardiac CT, were significantly related to the 6MWT distance. On multivariate analysis, left ventricular stroke volume was the factor most closely associated with a decreased walked distance in the 6MWT. Conclusions Decreased left ventricular stroke volume was associated with low-grade exercise tolerance in patients with stable COPD without heart failure. PMID:28176968

  3. Decrease of left ventricular mass is a clinically valuable intermediate end-point of antihypertensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Agabiti-Rosei, E

    1997-01-01

    The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients, recognized clinically by electrocardiography or echocardiography, is an adverse prognostic sign and a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Several pathophysiological changes accompany the myocytic growth and fibrosis that characterize hypertensive LVH and have been invoked to explain the association of LVH with increased cardiovascular risk. These include: impairment of diastolic function, and probably also of systolic performance, at least during exercise; reduced coronary blood flow reserve; predisposition to ventricular arrhythmias; alteration in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity. All these data have led to the opinion that regression of LVH should be a major goal in the treatment of hypertensive patients and might predict an improvement in prognosis.

  4. Decreased regional left ventricular myocardial strain in type 1 diabetic children: a first sign of diabetic cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Hodzic, Amir; Ribault, Virginie; Maragnes, Pascale; Milliez, Paul; Saloux, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objectives Type 1 diabetes is a major cardiovascular risk factor associated with an excess of mortality in young adults due to premature cardiovascular events, which includes heart failure. The relation between type 1 diabetes and cardiac structure and function in children was poorly documented. Our study investigates (1) whether type 1 diabetic children have echocardiographic signs of subclinical cardiac dysfunction assessed by tissue Doppler strain and (2) whether state of metabolic control and diabetes duration have any influence on the cardiac event. Methods Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were prospectively performed in type 1 diabetic children. Left ventricular dimensions, standard indices of systolic and diastolic function, and septal longitudinal strain were investigated. Results Thirty consecutive asymptomatic diabetic children (age: 12.4 [5–17] years; males: 53%) were compared to 30 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Left ventricular mass index and diastolic septal thickness were significantly increased in diabetic children. There was no difference between two groups as regards the left ventricular ejection fraction and conventional mitral Doppler parameters (E, A, Ea). The global longitudinal systolic strain and strain rate were found to be decreased in children with diabetes. The global longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (Esr) was negatively correlated with metabolic control. Longitudinal strain was not correlated with diabetes duration. Conclusion Children with Type 1 diabetes had subclinical alterations in left ventricular size and longitudinal myocardial deformation. PMID:28191526

  5. Left ventricular bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Omo, Alfred; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun; Liu, Ligang; Hu, Min

    2006-04-01

    Bronchogenic cysts occurring in the left ventricle are a medical rarity. One successfully operated case is reported herein. The location of the cyst was just between the epicardium and myocardium of the inferior left ventricular wall, adjacent to the apex of the heart. Complete excision was achieved through a left anterolateral thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation.

  6. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than are white people with similar blood pressure measurements. Sex. Women with hypertension are at higher risk ... hypertrophy than are men with similar blood pressure measurements. Left ventricular hypertrophy changes the structure and working ...

  7. Itraconazole decreases left ventricular contractility in isolated rabbit heart: Mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yusheng; Fang, Mei; Gao, BaoXi; Amouzadeh, Hamid R.; Li, Nianyu; Narayanan, Padma; Acton, Paul; Lawrence, Jeff; Vargas, Hugo M.

    2013-04-15

    Itraconazole (ITZ) is an approved antifungal agent that carries a “black box warning” in its label regarding a risk of negative cardiac inotropy based on clinical findings. Since the mechanism of the negative inotropic effect is unknown, we performed a variety of preclinical and mechanistic studies to explore the pharmacological profile of ITZ and understand the negative inotropic mechanism. ITZ was evaluated in: (1) an isolated rabbit heart (IRH) preparation using Langendorff retrograde perfusion; (2) ion channel studies; (3) a rat heart mitochondrial function profiling screen; (4) a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay; (5) in vitro pharmacology profiling assays (148 receptors, ion channels, transporters, and enzymes); and (6) a kinase selectivity panel (451 kinases). In the IRH, ITZ decreased cardiac contractility (> 30%) at 0.3 μM, with increasing effect at higher concentrations, which indicated a direct negative inotropic effect upon the heart. It also decreased heart rate and coronary flow (≥ 1 μM) and prolonged PR/QRS intervals (3 μM). In mechanistic studies, ITZ inhibited the cardiac NaV channel (IC{sub 50}: 4.2 μM) and was devoid of any functional inhibitory effect at the remaining pharmacological targets. Lastly, ITZ did not affect MMP, nor interfere with mitochondrial enzymes or processes involved with fuel substrate utilization or energy formation. Overall, the cardiovascular and mechanistic data suggest that ITZ-induced negative inotropy is a direct effect on the heart, in addition, the potential involvement of mitochondria function and L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels are eliminated. The exact mechanism underlying the negative inotropy is uncertain, and requires further study. - Highlights: ► Effect of itraconazole (ITZ) was assessed in the isolated rabbit heart (IRH) assay. ► ITZ decreased ventricular contractility in IRH, indicating a direct effect. ► IC{sub 50} of ITZ on L-type I{sub Ca} was greater than 30 μM, on I{sub Na} was 4

  8. Left ventricular apical diseases.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Silvia; Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandez-Perez, Gabriel C; Castellon, Daniel; Calatayud, Julia; Lecumberri, Iñigo; Larrazabal, Eneritz; Ruiz, Berta Irene

    2011-08-01

    There are many disorders that may involve the left ventricular (LV) apex; however, they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. In this setting cardiac imaging methods can provide the clue to obtaining the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of diseases that most frequently affect the apex of the LV including Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, LV aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, apical diverticula, apical ventricular remodelling, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LV non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with LV involvement and LV false tendons, with an emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and imaging features. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0091-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  9. Left ventricular mural thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.V.

    1983-08-01

    The identification of mural thrombus in patients with left ventricular aneurysm and mural thrombus probably warrants consideration of long-term anticoagulation. In patients with acute, large, anterior or anteroapical, transmural myocardial infarctions, serial noninvasive examinations are warranted to define a group of patients at high risk for the development of left ventricular aneurysm and/or mural thrombus. Anticoagulants should be considered in patients in whom mural thrombi develop as a complication of their infarction. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. These recommendations are all tempered by the realization that the use of anticoagulant therapy is not without its own risks. The decision to anticoagulate must be balanced against each individual patient's suitability for such therapy and the individual likelihood of the development of side effects.

  10. Giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sumi; Garg, Nadish; Xie, Gong-Yuan; Dellsperger, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pseudoaneurysm (PS) is an uncommon, often fatal complication associated with myocardial infarction, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, and, rarely, infective endocarditis. A 28-year-old man with prior history of bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement presented with congestive heart failure and bacteremia with Abiotrophia granulitica. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed bioprosthesis dysfunction, large vegetations, mitral regurgitation, and probable PS. Cardiac and chest CT confirmed a PS communicating with the left ventricle Patient had pulseless electrical activity and died. Autopsy showed a giant PS with layered thrombus and pseudo-endothelialized cavity. Our case highlights the importance of multimodality imaging as an important tool in management of PS.

  11. Decreased Ca2+ extrusion via Na+/Ca2+ exchange in epicardial left ventricular myocytes during compensated hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Mark R; Naz, James R; Graham, Mark D; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Harrison, Simon M; Orchard, Clive H

    2005-05-01

    Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy alters the amplitude and time course of the systolic Ca2+ transient of subepicardial and subendocardial ventricular myocytes. The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these changes. Myocytes were isolated from the left ventricular subepicardium and subendocardium of 20-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; control). We monitored intracellular Ca2+ using fluo 3 or fura 2; caffeine (20 mmol/l) was used to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and Ni2+ (10 mM) was used to inhibit Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) function. SHR myocytes were significantly larger than those from WKY hearts, consistent with cellular hypertrophy. Subepicardial myocytes from SHR hearts showed larger Ca2+ transient amplitude and SR Ca2+ content and less Ca2+ extrusion via NCX compared with subepicardial WKY myocytes. These parameters did not change in subendocardial myocytes. The time course of decline of the Ca2+ transient was the same in all groups of cells, but its time to peak was shorter in subepicardial cells than in subendocardial cells in WKY and SHR and was slightly prolonged in subendocardial SHR cells compared with WKY subendocardial myocytes. It is concluded that the major change in Ca2+ cycling during compensated hypertrophy in SHR is a decrease in NCX activity in subepicardial cells; this increases SR Ca2+ content and hence Ca2+ transient amplitude, thus helping to maintain the strength of contraction in the face of an increased afterload.

  12. Effects of a left ventricular assist device with a centrifugal pump on left ventricular diastolic hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze how left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with a centrifugal pump alters left ventricular diastolic hemodynamics and energy by means of a left ventricular pressure volume relationship. Fifteen anesthetized normal pig hearts were studied after placement of an apical drainage LVAD with a centrifugal pump. Indices of the left ventricular isovolumic relaxation phase, left ventricular filling phase and general hemodynamic data were recorded with the LVAD in on and off situations. The pump assist rate was adjusted to 25%, 50% and 75%. Left ventricular stroke work, with a high correlation with oxygen consumption, decreased as the assist rate increased. Left ventricular relaxation delayed as the assist rate increased, but the atrioventricular pressure gradient increased in the left ventricular rapid filling phase. This finding clarifies left ventricular rapid filling. In this study, it was suggested that although left ventricular isovolumic relaxation was affected, 75% assistance is the most effective for the pump flow in terms of circulation support and restoration of cardiac function.

  13. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation improves cerebral perfusion in patients with decreased left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Pfluecke, C; Christoph, M; Kolschmann, S; Tarnowski, D; Forkmann, M; Jellinghaus, S; Poitz, D M; Wunderlich, C; Strasser, R H; Schoen, S; Ibrahim, K

    2014-11-01

    The current goal of treatment after acute ischemic stroke is the increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ischemic brain tissue. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation in the setting of cardiogenic shock is able to reduce left ventricular afterload and increase coronary blood flow. The effects of an IABP on CBF have not been sufficiently examined. We hypothesize that the use of an IABP especially enhances cerebral blood flow in patients with pre-existing heart failure. In this pilot study, 36 subjects were examined to investigate the effect of an IABP on middle cerebral artery (MCA) transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocity change and relative CBF augmentation by determining velocity time integral changes (ΔVTI) in a constant caliber of the MCA compared to a baseline measurement without an IABP. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): Group 1 LVEF >30% and Group 2 LVEF ≤30%. Both groups showed an increase in CBF using an IABP. Patients with a LVEF ≤30% showed a significantly higher increase of ΔVTI in the MCA under IABP augmentation compared to patients with a LVEF >30% (20.9% ± 3.9% Group 2 vs.10.5% ± 2.2% Group 1, p<0,05). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased only marginally in both groups under IABP augmentation. IABP improves cerebral blood flow, particularly in patients with pre-existing heart failure and highly impaired LVEF. Hence, an IABP might be a treatment option to improve cerebral perfusion in selected patients with cerebral misperfusion and simultaneously existing severe heart failure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction and new echocardiographic signs in aorta to left ventricular tunnel.

    PubMed

    Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Zeinaloo, Ali Akbar

    2013-04-01

    We report postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction in a neonate undergoing successful neonatal surgery for type II aorta to left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) associated with a large patent ductus arteriosus, floppy and extremely redundant anterior mitral leaflet, right coronary artery arising directly from the tunnel, and severe left ventricular noncompaction. We also described 2 novel echocardiographic findings in ALVT including "triple wavy line sign" on M-mode echocardiography which disappeared 1 month after operation and "abnormally increased left ventricular posterior wall motion" on M-mode of standard parasternal long-axis view on color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) that also normalized postoperatively. We showed that proper definition of endocardial border is extremely important in strain and strain rate imaging in the context of left ventricular noncompaction. Preoperative longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly decreased in comparison to radial strain and strain rate. Circumferential strain and strain rate were normal. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Moexipril and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, P K

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression.

  16. Moexipril and left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, PK

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression. PMID:17583172

  17. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  18. Epicardial fat thickness correlates with P-wave duration, left atrial size and decreased left ventricular systolic function in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Cardoso, A; Santos-Furtado, M; Grindler, J; Ferreira, L A; Andrade, J L; Santo, M A

    2017-08-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is increased in obesity and has important interactions with atrial and ventricular myocardium. Most of the evidence in this scenario can be confused by the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, which are very common in this population. The influence of EF on atrial remodeling and cardiac function demands further investigation on morbidly obese without these comorbidities. We prospectively recruited 20 metabolically healthy morbidly obese and 20 normo-weights controls. The maximum P-wave duration (PWD) was analyzed by 12-lead electrocardiogram. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and EF thickness (EFT) were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography. The mean of maximum PWD and LAD were significantly larger in the obese group as compared to the control group: 109.55 ± 11.52 ms × 89.38 ± 11.19 ms and 36.12 ± 3.46 mm × 31.45 ± 2.64 mm, (p < 0.0001). The mean LVEF was lower in the obese group: 63.15 ± 4.25% × 66.17 ± 3.37% (p < 0.017). The mean EFT was higher in the obese group: 7.72 ± 1.60 mm × 3.10 ± 0.85 mm (p < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between EFT and PWD (r = 0.70; p = 0.001) and LAD (r = 0.667; p = 0.001). An inverse correlation was found between EFT and LVEF (r = -0.523; p = 0.001). In a multiple multivariate regression analysis the EFT remains correlated with LAD and LVEF. In a select group of morbidly obese, the excess of EF had a significant impact on atrial remodeling and cardiac function. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm perceived as a left lung mass

    PubMed Central

    Yaliniz, Hafize; Gocen, Ugur; Atalay, Atakan; Salih, Orhan Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of a surgically treated left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical repair are described. PMID:27516793

  20. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  1. Mitral annular calcification is not associated with decreased procedural success, durability of repair, or left ventricular remodelling in percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Richard; Tat, Emily; Siegel, Robert J; Arsanjani, Reza; Hussaini, Asma; Makar, Moody; Mizutani, Yukiko; Trento, Alfredo; Kar, Saibal

    2016-10-20

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) negatively influences outcomes in surgical mitral valve (MV) repair for mitral regurgitation (MR). However, there are no data on whether MAC impacts on outcomes of MitraClip percutaneous MV edge-to-edge repair. This study sought to investigate whether the presence of MAC impacts on the procedural success and durability of percutaneous transcatheter repair of MR using the MitraClip. One hundred and seventy-three patients undergoing MitraClip repair for significant MR were studied. Patients with moderate-or-severe MAC (n=28) were compared to those with no-or-mild MAC. Post-procedural MR severity was not different (p=0.642) and MR reduction to moderate-or-less was equally high in patients with moderate-or-severe MAC (100%) and those without (96.7%), p=1.000. At one year, MR severity was not different (p=0.831), and there was no difference in the repair durability when comparing patients with moderate-or-severe MAC (93.8%) to those without (90.6%), p=1.000. All patients with moderate-or-severe MAC assessed at one year were in NYHA functional Class I-II and had haemodynamic improvements with a decrease in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (-6.5±13.1 mmHg), p=0.021, and end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter (-3.9±6.5 mm), p=0.034, not different to those achieved by patients without MAC (both p>0.100). Moderate-or-severe MAC scored by echocardiography and confirmed on fluoroscopy was not associated with decreased procedural success or durability of repair. Patients with moderate-or-severe MAC had improvements in clinical symptoms and haemodynamics, as well as decreased left ventricular dimensions.

  2. [Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Implications for anesthesia and critical care].

    PubMed

    Meierhenrich, R; Schütz, W; Gauss, A

    2008-11-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a growing recognition that cardiac function is not solely determined by systolic but also essentially by diastolic function. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is characterized by an impairment of ventricular filling caused either by abnormal relaxation, an active energy consuming process or decreased compliance, which is determined by passive tissue properties of the ventricle. Doppler echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging, has emerged as the preferred clinical tool for the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Recently the importance of left ventricular diastolic function is increasingly being recognized also during the perioperative period. Newer studies have shown that after cardiopulmonary bypass there is a significant decrease in left ventricular compliance. Experimental studies have demonstrated that sepsis is associated with a decrease in both active relaxation and ventricular compliance. Initial studies are also focusing on therapeutic options for patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction.

  3. Comparison of Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping and Left Ventricular Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio; Silva, Guilherme V.; Dohman, Hans F.R.; Rocha, Ricardo Mourilhe; Dohman, Hans J.F.; de Mattos, Nelson Durval S.G.; Carvalho, Luis Antonio; Gottschall, Carlos A.M.; Perin, Emerson C.

    2003-01-01

    We performed this prospective cohort study to correlate the findings of left ventricular angiography (LVA) and NOGA™ left ventricular electromechanical mapping (LVEM) in the evaluation of cardiac wall motion and also to establish standards for wall motion assessment by LVEM. Fifty-five patients (35 men; mean age, 60.4 ± 11.8 years) eligible for elective left cardiac catheterization underwent LVA and LVEM. Wall motion scores, LV ejection fractions (LVEF), and LV volumes derived from LVA versus LVEM data were compared and analyzed statistically. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of LVEM in distinguishing between normal, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion. Mean LVEM procedure time was 37 ± 11 minutes. The LVEM and LVA findings differed for mean LVEF (55% ± 13% vs 36% ± 9%), mean end-systolic volume (56 ± 13 mL vs 36 ± 10 mL), and mean end-diastolic volume (174 ± 104 mL vs 123 ± 65 mL). Mean wall motion scores (± SD) for normokinetic, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic segments were 13.9% ± 5.6%, 8.3% ± 5.2%, and 3.2% ± 3.1%, respectively. Cutpoints for differentiating between wall motion types were 12% and 6%. The ROC curves showed LVEM to have a 93% accuracy in differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic segments and a 73% accuracy between normokinetic and hypokinetic segments. These data suggest that LVEM can differentiate between normal and abnormal cardiac wall motion, although it is more accurate at differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic motion than between normokinetic and hypokinetic motion. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:19–26) PMID:12638666

  4. Longitudinal shortening remains the principal component of left ventricular pumping in patients with chronic myocardial infarction even when the absolute atrioventricular plane displacement is decreased.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, Daniel; Hedström, Erik; Jögi, Jonas; Pahlm, Ulrika; Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Engblom, Henrik; Arheden, Håkan; Carlsson, Marcus

    2017-07-28

    The majority (60%) of left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV) is generated by longitudinal shortening causing apical atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) in systole. The remaining SV is caused by radial inward motion of the epicardium both in the septal and the lateral wall. We aimed to determine if these longitudinal, septal and lateral contributions to LVSV are changed in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with a chronic (>3 months) ST-elevation MI in the left anterior descending (LAD, n = 20) or right coronary artery (RCA, n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 20) were examined with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). AVPD was quantified in long axis cine CMR images and LV volumes and dimensions in short axis cine images. AVPD was decreased both in patients with LAD-MI (11 ± 1 mm, p < 0.001) and RCA-MI (13 ± 1 mm, p < 0.05) compared to controls (15 ± 0 mm). However, the longitudinal contribution to SV was unchanged for both LAD-MI (58 ± 3%, p = 0.08) and RCA-MI (59 ± 3%, p = 0.09) compared to controls (64 ± 2%). The preserved longitudinal contribution despite decreased absolute AVPD was a results of increased epicardial dimensions (p < 0.01 for LAD-MI and p = 0.06 for RCA-MI). In LAD-MI the septal contribution to LVSV was decreased (5 ± 1%) compared to both controls (10 ± 1%, p < 0.01) and patients with RCA-MIs (10 ± 1%, p < 0.01). The lateral contribution was increased in LAD-MI patients (44 ± 3%) compared to both RCA-MI (35 ± 2%, p < 0.05) and controls (29 ± 2%, p < 0.001). Longitudinal shortening remains the principal component of left ventricular pumping in patients with chronic MI even when the absolute AVPD is decreased.

  5. The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients undergoing regadenoson stress gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Javier; Golzar, Yasmeen; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Olusanya, Adebayo; Doukky, Rami

    2017-02-08

    The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with regadenoson stress gated SPECT (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been studied. Consecutive patients who underwent rest/regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI followed by coronary angiography within 6 months were analyzed. Change in LVEF by GSPECT-MPI was calculated as stress LVEF minus rest LVEF; a significant decrease was tested at 5% and 10% thresholds. In a diagnostic cohort of 793 subjects, LVEF change was not predictive of severe/extensive coronary artery disease (area under the curve, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.57; P = 0.946). There was no significant difference in the rates of severe/extensive coronary artery disease in patients with or without a decrease in LVEF, irrespective of MPI findings. In an outcome cohort of the 929 subjects followed for 30 ± 16 months, post-regadenoson stress decrease in LVEF was not associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction or in the risk of coronary revascularization. In patients selected to undergo coronary angiography following regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI, a decrease in LVEF after regadenoson stress is not predictive of severe/extensive CAD or adverse clinical outcomes, irrespective of MPI findings.

  6. Automated left ventricular capture management.

    PubMed

    Crossley, George H; Mead, Hardwin; Kleckner, Karen; Sheldon, Todd; Davenport, Lynn; Harsch, Manya R; Parikh, Purvee; Ramza, Brian; Fishel, Robert; Bailey, J Russell

    2007-10-01

    The stimulation thresholds of left ventricular (LV) leads tend to be less reliable than conventional leads. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) requires continuous capture of both ventricles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a novel algorithm for the automatic measurement of the stimulation threshold of LV leads in cardiac resynchronization systems. We enrolled 134 patients from 18 centers who had existing CRT-D systems. Software capable of automatically executing LV threshold measurements was downloaded into the random access memory (RAM) of the device. The threshold was measured by pacing in the left ventricle and analyzing the interventricular conduction sensed in the right ventricle. Automatic LV threshold measurements were collected and compared with manual LV threshold tests at each follow-up visit and using a Holter monitor system that recorded both the surface electrocardiograph (ECG) and continuous telemetry from the device. The proportion of Left Ventricular Capture Management (LVCM) in-office threshold tests within one programming step of the manual threshold test was 99.7% (306/307) with a two-sided 95% confidence interval of (98.2%, 100.0%). The algorithm measured the threshold successfully in 96% and 97% of patients after 1 and 3 months respectively. Holter monitor analysis in a subset of patients revealed accurate performance of the algorithm. This study demonstrated that the LVCM algorithm is safe, accurate, and highly reliable. LVCM worked with different types of leads and different lead locations. LVCM was demonstrated to be clinically equivalent to the manual LV threshold test. LVCM offers automatic measurement, output adaptation, and trends of the LV threshold and should result in improved ability to maintain LV capture without sacrificing device longevity.

  7. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-07-26

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention.

  8. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205

  9. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P < .01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.96; P = .02), and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P < .01) were independently associated with 30-day mortality, after adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction and aortic crossclamping time. Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was

  10. Correlation between increased urinary sodium excretion and decreased left ventricular diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kagiyama, Shuntaro; Koga, Tokushi; Kaseda, Shigeru; Ishihara, Shiro; Kawazoe, Nobuyuki; Sadoshima, Seizo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Takata, Yutaka; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-10-01

    Increased salt intake may induce hypertension, lead to cardiac hypertrophy, and exacerbate heart failure. When elderly patients develop heart failure, diastolic dysfunction is often observed, although the ejection fraction has decreased. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an established risk factor for heart failure. However, little is known about the relationship between cardiac function and urinary sodium excretion (U-Na) in patients with DM. We measured 24-hour U-Na; cardiac function was evaluated directly during coronary catheterization in type 2 DM (n = 46) or non-DM (n = 55) patients with preserved cardiac systolic function (ejection fraction > or = 60%). Cardiac diastolic and systolic function was evaluated as - dp/dt and + dp/dt, respectively. The average of U-Na was 166.6 +/- 61.2 mEq/24 hour (mean +/- SD). In all patients, stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that - dp/dt had a negative correlation with serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; beta = - 0.23, P = .021) and U-Na (beta = - 0.24, P = .013). On the other hand, + dp/dt negatively correlated with BNP (beta = - 0.30, P < .001), but did not relate to U-Na. In the DM-patients, stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that - dp/dt still had a negative correlation with U-Na (beta = - 0.33, P = .025). The results indicated that increased urinary sodium excretion is associated with an impairment of cardiac diastolic function, especially in patients with DM, suggesting that a reduction of salt intake may improve cardiac diastolic function.

  11. [Left ventricular function in pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Khomaziuk, V A

    1998-12-01

    Echocardiographic evaluation was done of left ventricular functional state in 90 patients with primary and secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension with and without intercavitary shunting. Changes in left ventricular function were identified in 86% cases; they reflected disturbances in both ventricles compensatory interaction. The degree of changes depended on the degree of dilatation of the right ventricle and level of interchamber shunting.

  12. Congenital Left Ventricular Diverticulum Complicated by Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Manabu; Kawamatsu, Naoto; Yoshino, Kunihiko; Abe, Kohei; Misumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-09-01

    Congenital left ventricular diverticulum (CLVD) is a rare congenital anomaly and may be associated with fatal adverse events. A previously healthy 20-year-old man collapsed as a result of sudden ventricular fibrillation (VF). Despite intractable VF, he had return of spontaneous circulation with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and subsequent introduction of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). After ECMO was discontinued, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed CLVD at the posterolateral wall of the left ventricle. Given the risk of recurrent VF and left ventricular rupture, he underwent surgical repair for CLVD and implantation of a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Unusual Left Ventricular Apical Mass

    PubMed Central

    Cavallero, Erika; Curzi, Mirko; Cioccarelli, Sara Anna; Papalia, Giulio; Ornaghi, Diego; Bragato, Renato Maria

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular apical masses constitute a rare finding. Imaging properties together with the clinical history of the patient usually allow an etiologic definition. We report a challenging case of an ambiguous left ventricular apical mass of uncertain nature till histological examination. Points of interest were singular clinical history and echocardiographic findings, although not conclusive in hypothesis generating. Furthermore to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the rare attempt to excise a deep left ventricular mass with a mini-invasive surgical approach. PMID:28465915

  14. An Unconventional Route of Left Ventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Varm, Chandra Mohan; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Mishra, Vikas; Singh Syal, Karandeep

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a rare complication of transvenous right ventricular pacing by temporary pacing wire causing iatrogenic interventricular septal perforation and left ventricular pacing in a 69-year-old man who was referred for recurrent syncope with sinus arrest. PMID:28197251

  15. Hydrallazine alone in acute left ventricular failure

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. J. L.; McMichael, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    A patient presented with severe acute left ventricular failure and was treated with hydrallazine and oxygen alone. He made a rapid and full recovery as judged by clinical, radiological and blood gas evidence. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7329902

  16. Nifedipine and left ventricular function in beta-blocked patients.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P I; Dalal, J J; Ruttley, M S; Sheridan, D J; Henderson, A H

    1981-04-01

    We studied the acute effects of nifedipine on left ventricular function and haemodynamics at constant heart rate in patients on beta-blocker therapy. Nifedipine significantly depressed left ventricular peak dP/dt and peak dP/dt x P-1. Nifedipine also significantly reduced systemic vascular resistance: this was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular stroke output, with slight non-significant increases of ejection fraction and mean circumferential shortening velocity. There was no change in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. This clinical study shows that nifedipine increases cardiac output in association with arterial dilatation despite evidence for a negative inotropic effect. Such intrinsic negative inotropic effects would normally be masked by compensatory sympathetic activity.

  17. Surgical Treatment of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Mujanovic, Emir; Bergsland, Jacob; Avdic, Sevleta; Stanimirovic-Mujanovic, Sanja; Kovacevic-Preradovic, Tamara; Kabil, Emir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition because in most instances ventricular free-wall rupture leads to fatal pericardial tamponade. Rupture of the free wall of the left ventricle is a cata­strophic complication of myocardial infarction, occurring in approximately 4% of pa­tients with infarcts, resulting in immediate collapse of the patient and electromechanical dissociation. In rare cases the rupture is contained by pericardial and fibrous tissue, and the result is a pseudoaneurysm. The left ventricular pseudoaneurysm contains only pericardial and fibrous elements in its wall-no myocardial tissue. Because such aneurysms have a strong tendency to rupture, this disorder may lead to death if it is left surgically untreated. Case report: In this case report, we present a patient who underwent successful repair of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, which followed a myocardial infarction that was caused by occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Although repair of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is still a surgical challenge, it can be performed with acceptable results in most patients. PMID:25568538

  18. Novel Left Ventricular Assist System®

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, Domingo

    2003-01-01

    We propose a Novel Left Ventricular Assist System® (Novel LVAS®) as a bridge to cardiac transplantation and to functional heart recovery in advanced heart failure. This report regards the principles that led to its development. It is our hope that the design of a high-peak-output pump of smaller size will lead to improved functional capacity, when compared with currently available left ventricular assist bridges to heart recovery. Several basic considerations went into the design of this system: 1) we did not want to cannulate the heart chambers; 2) in particular, we rejected the use of a left ventricular apical cannula for myocardial recovery, because it destroys the helical anatomy of the chamber; 3) we chose an atriostomy for blood inflow to the implanted pump; and 4) we synchronized the pump to the patient's electrocardiogram, to ensure blood pump ejection in diastole. The key to success is the atriostomy, which creates an opening larger than the patient's mitral valve. The atriostomy may be performed with the heart beating. Bleeding from the left ventricular apical anastomosis is a fairly common occurrence in currently available left ventricular assist systems; subsequent transfusion can exacerbate right heart dysfunction and sensitize the immune system. These complications are avoided with our system. The new system works either in partial mode or total mode, depending on whether partial or full left ventricular unloading is required. The Novel Left Ventricular Assist System is in its initial clinical trial stage, under the supervision of the author. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:194–201) PMID:12959201

  19. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-02-28

    Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation (P=0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the long

  20. Zinc Levels in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Teng, Tianming; Bian, Bo; Yao, Wei; Yu, Xuefang; Wang, Zhuoqun; Xu, Zhelong; Sun, Yuemin

    2017-03-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function. Zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between zinc and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A total of 519 patients was enrolled and their serum zinc levels were measured in this study. We performed analyses on the relationship between zinc levels and LVH and the four LV geometry pattern patients: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH. We performed further linear and multiple regression analyses to confirm the relationship between zinc and left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and relative wall thickness (RWT). Our data showed that zinc levels were 710.2 ± 243.0 μg/L in the control group and were 641.9 ± 215.2 μg/L in LVH patients. We observed that zinc levels were 715 ± 243.5 μg/L, 694.2 ± 242.7 μg/L, 643.7 ± 225.0 μg/L, and 638.7 ± 197.0 μg/L in normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH patients, respectively. We further found that there was a significant inverse linear relationship between zinc and LVM (p = 0.001) and LVMI (p = 0.000) but did not show a significant relationship with RWT (p = 0.561). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the linear relationship between zinc and LVM and LVMI remained inversely significant. The present study revealed that serum zinc levels were significantly decreased in the LVH patients, especially in the eccentric LVH and concentric LVH patients. Furthermore, zinc levels were significantly inversely correlated with LVM and LVMI.

  1. APICAL LEFT VENTRICULAR-ABDOMINAL AORTIC COMPOSITE CONDUITS FOR LEFT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW OBSTRUCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Certain problems related to the left ventricular outflow tract are not amenable to conventional surgical methods, but may be solved with the creation of a double outlet left ventricle by using a composite rigid pyrolite left ventricular apex outlet prosthesis and a fabric valve-containing conduit. Low porosity woven Dacron tube grafts are used for the conduit. Twenty-three patients who have undergone apico-aortic bypass with this conduit are reported here, with gratifying results in eighteen. PMID:15216062

  2. Left ventricular myxoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Wang, Liming; Chen, Xin; Liu, Peisheng; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma, the most common primary heart tumor, is located mainly in the left atrium. We reported a rare case of left ventricular myxoma incidentally found on echocardiography in an asymptomatic 60-year-old male. The tumor was carefully resected without fragmentation. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on the 4th postoperative day. Surgical resection of this type of cardiac myxoma is recommended due to the rarity of tumor location. PMID:25469121

  3. Aerobic exercise training-induced left ventricular hypertrophy involves regulatory MicroRNAs, decreased angiotensin-converting enzyme-angiotensin ii, and synergistic regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin (1-7).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tiago; Hashimoto, Nara Y; Magalhães, Flávio C; Fernandes, Fernanda B; Casarini, Dulce E; Carmona, Adriana K; Krieger, José E; Phillips, M Ian; Oliveira, Edilamar M

    2011-08-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to a physiological, nonpathological left ventricular hypertrophy; however, the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms of physiological left ventricular hypertrophy are unknown. The role of microRNAs regulating the classic and the novel cardiac renin-angiotensin (Ang) system was studied in trained rats assigned to 3 groups: (1) sedentary; (2) swimming trained with protocol 1 (T1, moderate-volume training); and (3) protocol 2 (T2, high-volume training). Cardiac Ang I levels, Ang-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and protein expression, as well as Ang II levels, were lower in T1 and T2; however, Ang II type 1 receptor mRNA levels (69% in T1 and 99% in T2) and protein expression (240% in T1 and 300% in T2) increased after training. Ang II type 2 receptor mRNA levels (220%) and protein expression (332%) were shown to be increased in T2. In addition, T1 and T2 were shown to increase ACE2 activity and protein expression and Ang (1-7) levels in the heart. Exercise increased microRNA-27a and 27b, targeting ACE and decreasing microRNA-143 targeting ACE2 in the heart. Left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aerobic training involves microRNA regulation and an increase in cardiac Ang II type 1 receptor without the participation of Ang II. Parallel to this, an increase in ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang II type 2 receptor in the heart by exercise suggests that this nonclassic cardiac renin-angiotensin system counteracts the classic cardiac renin-angiotensin system. These findings are consistent with a model in which exercise may induce left ventricular hypertrophy, at least in part, altering the expression of specific microRNAs targeting renin-angiotensin system genes. Together these effects might provide the additional aerobic capacity required by the exercised heart.

  4. Left ventricular function in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and aortic valve disease

    SciTech Connect

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1983-02-01

    Forty patients having aortic valve replacement were evaluated preoperatively for ventricular arrhythmia and left ventricular ejection fraction. Arrhythmias were classified as complex or simple using the Lown criteria on the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram; ejection fractions were determined by radionuclide gated blood pool analysis and contrast angiography. The ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography were 59.1 +/- 13.1% for 26 patients with simple or no ventricular arrhythmias, and 43.9 +/- 20.3% for 14 patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.01). Ejection fractions determined by angiography, available for 31 patients, were also lower in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (61.1 +/- 16.3% versus 51.4 +/- 13.4%; p less than 0.05). Seven of 9 patients showing conduction abnormalities on the electrocardiogram had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Eight of 20 patients with aortic stenosis had complex ventricular arrhythmias, while 2 of 13 patients with aortic insufficiency had such arrhythmias. It is concluded that decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and aortic stenosis are associated with an increased frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias in patients with aortic valve disease.

  5. Topical Polymyxin-Trimethoprim Prophylaxis May Decrease the Incidence of Driveline Infections in Patients With Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Durand, Marlene L; Ennis, Stephanie C; Baker, Joshua N; Camuso, Janice M; McEachern, Kathleen M; Kotton, Camille N; Lewis, Gregory D; Garcia, Jose P; MacGillivray, Thomas E

    2017-02-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the effect of topical polymyxin-trimethoprim (poly) prophylaxis on the incidence of driveline infections (DLIs) in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. All 84 cases implanted 2005-2014 with device support ≥30 days were reviewed; support ranged 1 m-5.2 yrs. Beginning 2008, poly was applied to the exit site with dressing changes. Sixty-five patients received poly (poly group) for duration of follow-up, 19 did not (no-poly); group baseline characteristics were similar. No patient developed side effects from poly. Nineteen DLIs (10 in no-poly) occurred; not using poly was a risk factor. 89% of poly group DLIs were superficial, 4 were culture-negative. DLI-related bacteremia occurred in 11% of no-poly group and 0% of poly group. Compared with no-poly, poly group demonstrated improved freedom from DLI by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.0001) and a 75% lower overall and 95% lower deep DLI incidence (P ≤ 0.001). Deep DLIs occurred in 31.6% of no-poly vs. 1.5% of poly patients (P = 0.0004), although mean support duration (1 yr) and % support >1 yr (38%) were similar. These findings, which should be confirmed with larger comparative studies, suggest that topical polymyxin-trimethoprim prophylaxis may be effective in preventing DLIs.

  6. Effect of aging and physical activity on left ventricular compliance.

    PubMed

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Dijk, Erika; Prasad, Anand; Fu, Qi; Torres, Pilar; Zhang, Rong; Thomas, James D; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D

    2004-09-28

    Left ventricular compliance appears to decrease with aging, which may contribute to the high incidence of heart failure in the elderly. However, whether this change is an inevitable consequence of senescence or rather secondary to reduced physical activity is unknown. Twelve healthy sedentary seniors (69.8+/-3 years old; 6 women, 6 men) and 12 Masters athletes (67.8+/-3 years old; 6 women, 6 men) underwent pulmonary artery catheterization to define Starling and left ventricular pressure-volume curves. Data were compared with those obtained in 14 young but sedentary control subjects (28.9+/-5 years old; 7 women, 7 men). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressures and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes by use of echocardiography were measured at baseline, during decreased cardiac filling by use of lower-body negative pressure (-15 and -30 mm Hg), and after saline infusion (15 and 30 mL/kg). Stroke volume for any given filling pressure was greater in Masters athletes compared with the age-matched sedentary subjects, whereas contractility, as assessed by preload recruitable stroke work, was similar. There was substantially decreased left ventricular compliance in healthy but sedentary seniors compared with the young control subjects, which resulted in higher cardiac pressures for a given filling volume and higher myocardial wall stress for a given strain. The pressure-volume curve for the Masters athletes was indistinguishable from that of the young, sedentary control subjects. A sedentary lifestyle during healthy aging is associated with decreased left ventricular compliance, leading to diminished diastolic performance. Prolonged, sustained endurance training preserves ventricular compliance with aging and may help to prevent heart failure in the elderly.

  7. Left ventricular function during lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, M.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Willerson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The response of the human left ventricle to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and the relation between left ventricular function and hemodynamic response were investigated. Ventricular function curves relating stroke volume to end-diastolic volume were obtained in 12 normal men. Volume data were derived from echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters at rest and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at minus 40 mm Hg. End-diastolic volume decreased by 19% and stroke volume by 22%. There were no significant changes in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, or end-systolic volume. Thus, moderate levels of LBNP significantly reduce preload and stroke volume without affecting contractile state. The absence of significant changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure in the presence of a significant reduction in stroke volume is consistent with an increase in systemic peripheral resistance mediated by low-pressure baroreceptors.

  8. Left ventricular volumetric conductance catheter for rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Takaki, M; Yamaguchi, H; Tachibana, H; Suga, H

    1996-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) volume (V) is an essential parameter for assessment of the cardiac pump function. Measurement of LVV in situ by a conductance catheter method has been widely used in dogs and humans but not yet in small experimental animals such as rats. We instituted a miniaturized six-electrode conductance catheter (3-F) for rat LVV measurement and its signal processing apparatus. We compared stroke volumes (SVs) simultaneously measured with this conductance catheter introduced into the LV through the apex and an electromagnetic flow probe placed on the ascending aorta during gradual decreases in LVV by an inferior vena caval occlusion. A high and linear correlation (r = 0.982) was obtained between these differently measured by SVs pooled from six rats. In another group of three rats, LV pressure was simultaneously measured with a 3-F catheter-tip micromanometer introduced into the LV through the apex. We obtained the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume (P-V) relationship (Emax) by a gradual ascending aortic occlusion. After administration of propranolol, Emax obviously decreased with no change in volume intercept of the P-V relationship. The conductance volumetry proved to be useful in rats.

  9. Alterations in left ventricular volumes induced by Valsalva manoeuvre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. Z.; Alderman, E. L.; Harrison, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Five patients were studied with left ventriculography during different phases of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Small doses of contrast medium allowed adequate repetitive visualization of the left ventricle for volume calculation. During strain phase, the volume of the left ventricle decreased by nearly 50 per cent in each case, and stroke volume and cardiac output also dropped strikingly. Release of straining was attended by a sharp rebound of left ventricular volume to control levels, with a transient surge of increased cardiac output 42 per cent above that of the resting state.

  10. Alterations in left ventricular volumes induced by Valsalva manoeuvre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. Z.; Alderman, E. L.; Harrison, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Five patients were studied with left ventriculography during different phases of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Small doses of contrast medium allowed adequate repetitive visualization of the left ventricle for volume calculation. During strain phase, the volume of the left ventricle decreased by nearly 50 per cent in each case, and stroke volume and cardiac output also dropped strikingly. Release of straining was attended by a sharp rebound of left ventricular volume to control levels, with a transient surge of increased cardiac output 42 per cent above that of the resting state.

  11. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm - a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Mariana; Ranchordás, Sara; Abecasis, João; Freitas, António; Ferreira, Moradas; Gil, Victor; Morais, Carlos; Neves, José Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of acute myocardial infarction, associated with high mortality. However, it can present in a non-specific manner, complicating and delaying the diagnosis. The authors present the case of a 65-year-old patient, hypertensive, with no other known relevant medical history, who presented with chest pain, cough and left pleural effusion, initially attributed to a pulmonary process. However, these were in fact the result of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following silent acute myocardial infarction. The diagnosis was suspected on echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient underwent successful surgical pseudoaneurysm repair. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, in which the manifestations resulted from pericardial and pleural extension of the inflammatory process associated with contained myocardial rupture. The case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion, and the value of imaging techniques to confirm it, in order to proceed with appropriate surgical treatment, and thus modify the course of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical considerations for the explantation of the Parachute left ventricular partitioning device and the implantation of the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Yazhini; Bansal, Shelley; Rosas, Paola C; Mazzaferri, Ernest L; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B

    2016-04-01

    Chronic heart failure is the leading cause of death in the world. With newer therapies, the burden of this disease has decreased; however, a significant number of patients remain refractive to existing therapies. Myocardial infarction often leads to ventricular remodeling and eventually contributes to heart failure. The Parachute™ (Cardiokinetix, Menlo Park, CA) is the first device designed for percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy, which reduces left ventricular volume and minimizes the risk of open surgical procedures. For the first time, we report a case of explantation of the Parachute ventricular partitioning device and transition to a HeartMate II™ left ventricular assist device and the surgical considerations for a successful outcome.

  13. Surgical considerations for the explantation of the Parachute left ventricular partitioning device and the implantation of the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shelley; Rosas, Paola C.; Mazzaferri, Ernest L.; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is the leading cause of death in the world. With newer therapies, the burden of this disease has decreased; however, a significant number of patients remain refractive to existing therapies. Myocardial infarction often leads to ventricular remodeling and eventually contributes to heart failure. The Parachute™ (Cardiokinetix, Menlo Park, CA) is the first device designed for percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy, which reduces left ventricular volume and minimizes the risk of open surgical procedures. For the first time, we report a case of explantation of the Parachute ventricular partitioning device and transition to a HeartMate II™ left ventricular assist device and the surgical considerations for a successful outcome. PMID:27034560

  14. Obesity, pregnancy, and left ventricular functioning during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Hanson, R

    1994-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine left ventricular size and function in obese pregnant patients during the third trimester. Eight morbidly obese pregnant patients had M-mode echocardiography. None were hypertensive or diabetic at the time of study. A group of 36 normal patients were used as controls. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, fractional shortening, and cardiac index were not significantly different between the two groups. Left atrial size, left ventricular wall thickness, interventricular septal thickness, and left ventricular mass were greater in the obese group. The radius-to-wall thickness ratio was significantly smaller in the obese group. (1) Left ventricular dimension and function in obese patients was similar to that of nonobese patients. (2) The left ventricle was found to be significantly hypertrophied in obese patients. Left ventricular reconfiguration appears to be important in preserving left ventricular function. Whether these changes are specific to pregnancy or secondary to maternal obesity remains to be determined.

  15. Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Yeruva Madhu; Chinitz, Larry; Mansour, Moussa; Bunch, T. Jared; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Swarup, Vijay; Di Biase, Luigi; Bommana, Sudharani; Atkins, Donita; Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Burkhardt, J. David; Ruskin, Jeremy; Natale, Andrea; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on relative safety, efficacy, and role of different percutaneous left ventricular assist devices for hemodynamic support during the ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation procedure are limited. Methods and Results We performed a multicenter, observational study from a prospective registry including all consecutive patients (N=66) undergoing VT ablation with a percutaneous left ventricular assist devices in 6 centers in the United States. Patients with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP group; N=22) were compared with patients with either an Impella or a TandemHeart device (non-IABP group; N=44). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between both the groups. In non-IABP group (1) more patients could undergo entrainment/activation mapping (82% versus 59%; P=0.046), (2) more number of unstable VTs could be mapped and ablated per patient (1.05±0.78 versus 0.32±0.48; P<0.001), (3) more number of VTs could be terminated by ablation (1.59±1.0 versus 0.91±0.81; P=0.007), and (4) fewer VTs were terminated with rescue shocks (1.9±2.2 versus 3.0±1.5; P=0.049) when compared with IABP group. Complications of the procedure trended to be more in the non-IABP group when compared with those in the IABP group (32% versus 14%; P=0.143). Intermediate term outcomes (mortality and VT recurrence) during 12±5-month follow-up were not different between both groups. Left ventricular ejection fraction ≤15% was a strong and independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (53% versus 4%; P<0.001). Conclusions Impella and TandemHeart use in VT ablation facilitates extensive activation mapping of several unstable VTs and requires fewer rescue shocks during the procedure when compared with using IABP. PMID:24532564

  16. Robotic-Assisted Left Ventricular Lead Placement.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Advay G; Steinberg, Jonathan S

    2015-12-01

    Robot-assisted left ventricular lead implantation for cardiac resynchronization therapy is a feasible and safe technique with superior visualization, dexterity, and precision to target the optimal pacing site. The technique has been associated with clinical response and beneficial reverse remodeling comparable with the conventional approach via the coronary sinus. The lack of clinical superiority and a residual high nonresponder rate suggest that the appropriate clinical role for the technique remains as rescue therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of rate-dependent left bundle branch block on global and regional left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlet, D.A.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Albert, D.; Cobb, F.R.

    1983-05-01

    Seven subjects with rate-dependent left bundle branch block (RDLBBB) and 13 subjects with normal conduction (control group) underwent upright bicycle exercise radionuclide angiography to determine the effects of the development of RDLBBB on global and regional left ventricular function. Six of the seven subjects with RDLBBB had atypical chest pain syndromes; none had evidence of cardiac disease based on clinical examination and either normal cardiac catheterization or exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Radionuclide angiograms were recorded at rest and immediately before and after RDLBBB in the test group, and at rest and during intermediate and maximal exercise in the control group. The development of RDLBBB was associated with an abrupt decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in six of seven patients (mean decrease 6 +/- 5%) and no overall increase in LVEF between rest and maximal exercise (65 +/- 9% and 65 +/- 12%, respectively). In contrast, LVEF in the control group was 62 +/- 8% at rest and increased to 72 +/- 8% at intermediate and 78 +/- 7% at maximal exercise. The onset of RDLBBB was associated with the development of asynchronous left ventricular contraction in each patient and hypokinesis in four of seven patients. All patients in the control group had normal wall motion at rest and exercise. These data indicate that the development of RDLBBB is associated with changes in global and regional ventricular function that may be confused with development of left ventricular ischemia during exercise.

  18. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  19. Sprint interval training decreases left-ventricular glucose uptake compared to moderate-intensity continuous training in subjects with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Sjöros, Tanja J; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Koivumäki, Mikko; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Knuuti, Juhani; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2017-09-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced myocardial glucose uptake (GU) and increased free fatty acid uptake (FFAU). Sprint interval training (SIT) improves physical exercise capacity and metabolic biomarkers, but effects of SIT on cardiac function and energy substrate metabolism in diabetic subjects are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SIT is more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on adaptations in left and right ventricle (LV and RV) glucose and fatty acid metabolism in diabetic subjects. Twenty-six untrained men and women with T2DM or prediabetes were randomized into two-week-long SIT (n = 13) and MICT (n = 13) interventions. Insulin-stimulated myocardial GU and fasted state FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and changes in LV and RV structure and function by cardiac magnetic resonance. In contrast to our hypothesis, SIT significantly decreased GU compared to MICT in LV. FFAU of both ventricles remained unchanged by training. RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and RV mass increased only after MICT, whereas LV EDV, LV mass, and RV and LV end-systolic volumes increased similarly after both training modes. As SIT decreases myocardial insulin-stimulated GU compared to MICT which may already be reduced in T2DM, SIT may be metabolically less beneficial than MICT for a diabetic heart.

  20. Post-exercise left ventricular dysfunction measured after a long-duration cycling event

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this research, an extension to our previous work published in the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine in 2009, we studied subjects that differed in terms of age and training status and assessed the impact of prolonged exercise on systolic and left ventricular diastolic function and cardiac biomarkers levels, recognized as identifiers of cardiac damage and dysfunction. We also assessed the possible influence of event duration, exercise intensity and weight loss (dehydration) on left ventricular diastolic function. Findings Ninety-one male cyclists were assessed by echocardiography and serum biomarkers before and after the 2005 Quebrantahuesos cycling event (206 km long and with an accumulated slope of 3800 m). Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers were assessed in blood serum. Echocardiograms measured left ventricular internal dimension during diastole and systole, left ventricular posterior wall thickness during diastole, interventricular septum thickness during diastole, left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic filling. The heart rate of 50 cyclists was also monitored during the race to evaluate exercise intensity. Echocardiograph results indicated that left ventricular diastolic and systolic function decreased after the race, with systolic function reduced to a significant degree. Left ventricular ejection fraction was below 55% in 29 cyclists. The decrease in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function did not correlate with age, training status, race duration, weight loss or exercise intensity. Conclusions Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was reduced and cardiac biomarkers were increased after the cycling event, but the mechanisms behind such outcomes remain unclear. PMID:23706119

  1. Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

    2015-10-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture.

  2. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Left ventricular noncompaction diagnosed following Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Habib; Hawatmeh, Amer; Rampal, Upamanyu; Shamoon, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare genetic cardiomyopathy. Clinical manifestations are variable; patients may present with heart failure symptoms, arrhythmias, and systemic thromboembolism. However, it can also be asymptomatic. When asymptomatic, LVNC can manifest later in life after the onset of another unrelated condition. We report a case of LVNC which was diagnosed following a hyperthyroid state secondary to Graves' disease. The association of LVNC with other noncardiac abnormalities including neurological, hematological, and endocrine abnormalities including hypothyroidism has been described in isolated case reports before. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of LVNC diagnosed following exacerbation in contractile dysfunction triggered by Graves' disease. PMID:27843800

  4. Robotic-Assisted Left Ventricular Lead Placement.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Advay G; Steinberg, Jonathan S

    2017-01-01

    Robot-assisted left ventricular lead implantation for cardiac resynchronization therapy is a feasible and safe technique with superior visualization, dexterity, and precision to target the optimal pacing site. The technique has been associated with clinical response and beneficial reverse remodeling comparable with the conventional approach via the coronary sinus. The lack of clinical superiority and a residual high nonresponder rate suggest that the appropriate clinical role for the technique remains as rescue therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of left ventricular remodelling and failure in right ventricular pacing in the young

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Roman A.; Tomek, Viktor; Salameh, Aida; Marek, Jan; Chaloupecký, Václav; Gebauer, Roman; Matějka, Tomáš; Vojtovič, Pavel; Janoušek, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Aims To identify risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pacing in the young. Methods and results Left ventricular function was evaluated in 82 paediatric patients with either non-surgical (n = 41) or surgical (n= 41) complete atrioventricular block who have been 100% RV paced for a mean period of 7.4 years. Left ventricular shortening fraction (SF) decreased from a median (range) of 39 (24–62)% prior to implantation to 32 (8–49)% at last follow-up (P < 0.05). Prevalence of a combination of LV dilatation (LV end-diastolic diameter >+2z-values) and dysfunction (SF < 0.26) was found to increase from 1.3% prior to pacemaker implantation to 13.4% (11/82 patients) at last follow-up (P = 0.01). Ten of these 11 patients had progressive LV remodelling and 8 of 11 were symptomatic. The only significant risk factor for the development of LV dilatation and dysfunction was the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing (OR = 14.3, P < 0.001). Other pre-implantation demographic, diagnostic, and haemodynamic factors including block aetiology, pacing variables, and pacing duration did not show independent significance. Conclusion Right ventricular pacing leads to pathologic LV remodelling in a significant proportion of paediatric patients. The major independent risk factor is the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing, which should be avoided whenever possible. PMID:19286675

  6. Metastatic carcinoid tumor obstructing left ventricular outflow.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Guniganti, Uma M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis.

  7. Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor Obstructing Left Ventricular Outflow

    PubMed Central

    Chrysant, George S.; Horstmanshof, Douglas A.; Guniganti, Uma M.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis. PMID:21720473

  8. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm coexisting with left ventricular non-compaction in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Ootani, Katsuki; Shimada, Jun; Kitagawa, Yosuke; Konno, Yuki; Miura, Fumitake; Takahashi, Toru; Ito, Etsuro; Ichinose, Kouta; Yonesaka, Susumu

    2014-10-01

    Described herein is the case of a rare combination of congenital left ventricular (LV) aneurysm and left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) in a newborn. The patient developed refractory heart failure soon after birth and died at 5 months of age. The etiology of both congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC seems to be maldevelopment of the ventricular myocardium during early fetal life. Treatment should be individually tailored depending on clinical severity, and treatment options are limited. Given that this combination of congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC is significantly associated with poor prognosis, it appears that patients with congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC are candidates for early, aggressive intervention, including surgical aneurysmectomy and evaluation for transplantation. It is important to be aware of this combination of congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC, and to make earlier decisions on therapeutic strategy.

  9. Effect of drive mode of left ventricular assist device on the left ventricular mechanics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Hayashi, K; Seki, J; Nakatani, T; Noda, H; Takano, H; Akutsu, T

    1988-02-01

    Pneumatically driven left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) were acutely implanted between the left atria and the descending aortas of dogs, and were driven in five pumping modes: electrocardiogram synchronous modes with the duty factors of 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1, and asynchronous modes with the pulse rates of 60 and 80 beats/min (bpm). The ventricular diameter and myocardial segment length were measured by an ultrasonic displacement meter and implantable miniature sensors. Bulk mechanical work of the left ventricle and regional mechanical work of the myocardium were calculated from these dimensions and the left ventricular pressure. LVAD reduced the bulk mechanical work of the left ventricle by 30-50% and the regional work by 30-60%. The mean aortic pressure and the total flow (= aortic flow + pump bypass flow) were highest in the 1:1 synchronous pumping mode, which indicates that this mode is most effective to maintain the systemic circulation and coronary blood flow. Asynchronous pumping and synchronous pumping with 2:1 duty factor were most useful to reduce the mechanical work of the left ventricle.

  10. [Left ventricular dyssynchrony in prolonged septal stimulation].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Castagnetto, Federico; Ricca-Mallada, Roberto; Vidal, Alejandro; Martínez, Fabián; Ferrando, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker stimulation is associated with unpredictable severe cardiac events. We evaluated left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) during prolonged septal right ventricular pacing. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 6 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained phase bandwidth (PBW) and standard deviation (PSD) from rest phase histogram. Clinical variables, QRS duration, rate and mode of pacing in septal right ventricle wall, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Prolonged septal endocardial pacing is associated with marked LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF, higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or severe ischemia than in patients with preserved LVEF (PBW: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; PSD: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). In the patients with ischemic heart disease and pacemaker, gated-SPECT phase analysis is a valid and potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar and to decide the upgrading to biventricular pacing mode.

  11. Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy: updated review.

    PubMed

    Udeoji, Dioma U; Philip, Kiran J; Morrissey, Ryan P; Phan, Anita; Schwarz, Ernst R

    2013-10-01

    The first case of noncompaction was described in 1932 after an autopsy performed on a newborn infant with aortic atresia/coronary-ventricular fistula. Isolated noncompaction cardiomyopathy was first described in 1984. A review on selected/relevant medical literature was conducted using Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 and the pathogenesis, clinical features, and management are discussed. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a relatively rare congenital condition that results from arrest of the normal compaction process of the myocardium during fetal development. LVNC shows variability in its genetic pattern, pathophysiologic findings, and clinical presentations. The genetic heterogeneity, phenotypical overlap, and variety in clinical presentation raised the suspicion that LVNC might just be a morphological variant of other cardiomyopathies, but the American Heart Association classifies LVNC as a primary genetic cardiomyopathy. The familiar type is common and follows a X-linked, autosomal-dominant, or mitochondrial-inheritance pattern (in children). LVNC can occur in isolation or coexist with other cardiac and/or systemic anomalies. The clinical presentations are variable ranging from asymptomatic patients to patients who develop ventricular arrhythmias, thromboembolism, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Increased awareness over the last 25 years and improvements in technology have increased the identification of this illness and improved the clinical outcome and prognosis. LVNC is commonly diagnosed by echocardiography. Other useful diagnostic techniques for LVNC include cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography, and left ventriculography. Management is symptom based and patients with symptoms have a poorer prognosis. LVNC is a genetically heterogeneous disorder which can be associated with other anomalies. Making the correct diagnosis is important because of the possible associations and the need for long-term management and screening of

  12. Left ventricular function in trained and untrained healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bar-Shlomo, B Z; Druck, M N; Morch, J E; Jablonsky, G; Hilton, J D; Feiglin, D H; McLaughlin, P R

    1982-03-01

    Left ventricular function was compared in 18 normal sedentary controls (mean age 28 years, range 22 - 34 years) and nine endurance-trained athletes (mean age 19 years, range 15 - 25 years) at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Gated radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed at rest and at each level of graded maximal supine bicycle exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction and the relative changes in left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were assessed. Athletes attained a much greater work load than controls (mean 22.1 kpm/kg body weight vs 13 kpm/Kg body weight). Both groups achieved similar increased in heart rate, blood pressure and ejection fractions. In the controls, the mean end-diastolic volume increased to 124% of that at rest (p less than 0.02) during exercise and the mean end-systolic volume decreased to 81% of the rest level (p less than 0.02). In contrast, the mean end-diastolic volume did not significantly change during exercise in the athletes, and the mean end-systolic volume decreased to 64% of rest (p less than 0.05). Thus, although trained and untrained healthy subjects had similar increases in the left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise, different mechanisms were used to achieve these increases. Untrained subjects increased end-diastolic volumes, whereas trained subjects decreased the end-systolic volumes. The ability of athletes to exercise without increasing preload may be an effect of training amd might have important implications in reducing myocardial oxygen demand during exercise.

  13. Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Brent C; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J

    2015-09-01

    Most patients with advanced systolic dysfunction who are assessed for a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) also have some degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Hence, RV failure (RVF) remains a common complication of LVAD placement. Severe RVF after LVAD implantation is associated with increased peri-operative mortality and length of stay and can lead to coagulopathy, altered drug metabolism, worsening nutritional status, diuretic resistance, and poor quality of life. However, current medical and surgical treatment options for RVF are limited and often result in significant impairments in quality of life. There has been continuing interest in developing risk models for RVF before LVAD implantation. This report reviews the anatomy and physiology of the RV and how it changes in the setting of LVAD support. We will discuss proposed mechanisms and describe biochemical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic predictors of RVF in LVAD patients. We will describe management strategies for reducing and managing RVF. Finally, we will discuss the increasingly recognized and difficult to manage entity of chronic RVF after LVAD placement and describe opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Isolated left ventricular noncompaction causing refractory heart failure].

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Rodrigues da Costa Teixeira, Felipe; Rossi Neto, João Manoel; Finger, Marco Aurélio; Casadei, Carolina; Castillo, Maria Teresa; Sanchez de Almeida, Antonio Flávio

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by excessive left ventricular trabeculation, deep intertrabecular recesses and a thin compacted layer due to the arrest of compaction of myocardial fibers during embryonic development. We report the case of a young patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction, leading to refractory heart failure that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by emergency heart transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Dealing with a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm during assist device implant.

    PubMed

    Ha, Richard V; Chiu, Peter; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Sheikh, Ahmad Y

    2016-06-01

    Despite increasing use of left ventricular devices for the surgical treatment of heart failure, there is limited experience with implantation of devices in the setting of challenging left apical anatomy. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with a chronic post-infarction calcified apical pseudoaneurysm, who underwent pseudoaneurysmectomy, ventricular myoplasty, and left ventricular assist device implantation. A review of the literature and operative strategies are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Effect of chordal preservation on left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Muthialu, Nagarajan; Varma, Shashi K; Ramanathan, Sundar; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekar; Rao, K Madhusudana; Srinivasan, Muralidharan

    2005-09-01

    Chordopapillary apparatus preservation was compared with valve-excising mitral valve replacement in a retrospective analysis of 360 patients, of whom 98 had total or partial chordal preservation and 262 had the conventional operation. No significant differences were seen in age, sex, pathology, crossclamp or cardiopulmonary bypass times between the 3 groups. Left ventricular fractional shortening decreased significantly in patients whose valves had been excised completely, whereas it remained unchanged in patients with either partial or total chordal conservation. There was a survival benefit for patients undergoing leaflet preservation (92% vs. 80% for conventional excision at 5 years; p=0.001). Chordal preservation during valve replacement for mitral valve disease improves survival, enhances functional status, preserves left ventricular geometry and function, and improves overall cardiac performance. Preservation of the posterior leaflet alone offers excellent results that are comparable to those of patients with total chordal preservation.

  17. Verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia in a patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Ying, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Miao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (IVNC) is a rare congenital form of cardiomyopathy. Verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia is a rare arrhythmogenic condition characterized by a right bundle-branch block pattern and left-axis deviation with a relatively narrow QRS complex. We herein present the case of a patient with IVNC who presented with verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia.

  18. [Takotsubo syndrome. Transient left ventricular dyskinesia].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, F M; Sánchez Salado, J

    2014-03-01

    The Takotsubo syndrome, also called transient apical dyskinesia syndrome, was first described in Japan in the 1990s. It is a rare entity found in almost 1% of all patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. It usually affects postmenopausal women with a few cardiovascular risk factors. It is characterized by angina-type chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, elevation of the enzymes of myocardial injury, absence of coronary obstruction on angiography, and a characteristic left ventricular anteroapical dyskinesia, which returns to normal within a few days. Severe emotional stress is the most common trigger for this syndrome. The aetiopathogenesis of this syndrome remains to be defined. This syndrome has been considered a clinical condition since 2001, when a series of 88 cases was published. It is a disease with a partially known mechanism, characterised by the morphology adopted by the left ventricle secondary to hypokinesis or dyskinesia of the apical segments, and hypercontractility of basal segments. Unlike acute coronary syndrome, patients with left ventricle dysfunction do not have atherothrombotic disease in the coronary arteries. In addition, the alterations described are reversible. Some clinical diagnostic criteria have been proposed, although they are still controversial, as well as in the complementary examinations required for diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Left ventricular assist device implantation in patients after left ventricular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Palmen, Meindert; Braun, Jerry; Beeres, Saskia L M A; Klautz, Robert J M

    2016-12-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can be challenging in patients with a prior surgical ventricular restoration (SVR). In this case series of heart failure patients with a history of SVR, we describe the surgical technique and outcome of a customized approach for inflow cannula orientation. Seven patients with a history of SVR with end-stage chronic heart failure were accepted for long-term LVAD support. In all patients, the Dacron patch was removed through left ventriculotomy and a Hegar 22 dilator was inserted at the estimated optimal position of the LVAD inflow cannula. The left ventricle was reconstructed around the dilator from the left ventricular (LV) apex to the base. Finally, the LVAD sewing ring was sutured onto the remaining apical defect and a HeartWare® LVAD was implanted. LVAD implantation was successful in all 7 patients. Transoesophageal echocardiography ensured an adequate LVAD position and inflow and outflow cannula Doppler flow recordings. The mean intensive care unit stay was 5.8 ± 2.6 days, and the hospital stay after surgery was 32 ± 16 days. All patients follow regular visits (follow-up 20 ± 16 months) at the outpatient clinic without any remarkable event. Using the technique described, LVAD implantation in patients after SVR is feasible and safe.

  20. Percutaneous Decommissioning of Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Soon, Jia-Lin; Tan, Ju-Le; Lim, Choon-Pin; Tan, Teing-Ee; Tan, Swee-Yaw; Kerk, Ka-Lee; Sim, Kheng-Leng David; Sivathasan, Cumaraswamy

    2017-08-19

    The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) has revolutionised our treatment of advanced stage heart failure, giving debilitated patients a new lease on life. A small proportion of these LVAD patients can be bridged-to-recovery. The identification of these patients and decision to wean, however, can be challenging. The need to fully explant the device upon recovery has evolved to a minimalist approach aiming to avoid injury to the 'recovered' heart. A review of the evolution of explant strategies was performed to guide our decision to wean the LVAD in our early experience. Between 2009 and 2014, two patients in our series of 69 LVAD implants (2.9%) were successfully weaned off their LVADs. The second patient had a minimal access implantation of his HeartWare Ventricular Assist Device (HVAD, Medtronic Inc, Framingham, MA). His clinical variables and minimalist weaning strategy are described. A case of LVAD decommissioning by thrombosis of the outflow graft, using percutaneous Amplatzer Vascular Plug II without surgery is reported. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Left ventricular diastolic function following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Solomon, Scott D

    2006-12-01

    An acute myocardial infarction causes a loss of contractile fibers which reduces systolic function. Parallel to the effect on systolic function, a myocardial infarction also impacts diastolic function, but this relationship is not as well understood. The two physiologic phases of diastole, active relaxation and passive filling, are both influenced by myocardial ischemia and infarction. Active relaxation is delayed following a myocardial infarction, whereas left ventricular stiffness changes depending on the extent of infarction and remodeling. Interstitial edema and fibrosis cause an increase in wall stiffness which is counteracted by dilation. The effect on diastolic function is correlated to an increased incidence of adverse outcomes. Moreover, patients with comorbid conditions that are associated with worse diastolic function tend to have more adverse outcomes after infarction. There are currently no treatments aimed specifically at treating diastolic dysfunction following a myocardial infarction, but several new drugs, including aldosterone antagonists, may offer promise.

  2. Left ventricular remodeling with exercise in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C; MacDonnell, Scott M; Renna, Brian F; Reger, Patricia O; Seqqat, Rachid; Rafiq, Khadija; Kendrick, Zebulon V; Houser, Steven R; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Libonati, Joseph R

    2009-10-01

    We investigated how exercise training superimposed on chronic hypertension impacted left ventricular remodeling. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, and proliferation in hearts from female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were examined. Four-month-old SHR animals were placed into a sedentary group (SHR-SED; n = 18) or a treadmill running group (SHR-TRD, 20 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, 12 wk; n = 18). Age-matched, sedentary Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were controls (n = 18). Heart weight was greater in SHR-TRD vs. both WKY (P < 0.01) and SHR-SED (P < 0.05). Morphometric-derived left ventricular anterior, posterior, and septal wall thickness were increased in SHR-SED relative to WKY and augmented in SHR-TRD. Cardiomyocyte surface area, length, and width were increased in SHR-SED relative to WKY and further increased in SHR-TRD. Calcineurin abundance was increased in SHR-SED vs. WKY (P < 0.001) and attenuated in SHR-TRD relative to SHR-SED (P < 0.05). Protein abundance and mRNA of Akt was not different among groups. The rate of apoptosis was increased in SHR-SED relative to WKY and mitigated in SHR-TRD. The abundance of Ki-67(+) cells across groups was not statistically different across groups. The abundance of cardiac progenitor cells (c-Kit(+) cells) was increased in SHR-TRD relative to WKY. These data suggest that exercise training superimposed on hypertension augmented cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, despite attenuating calcineurin abundance. Exercise training also mitigated apoptosis in hypertension and showed a tendency to enhance the abundance of cardiac progenitor cells, resulting in a more favorable cardiomyocyte number in the exercise-trained hypertensive heart.

  3. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  4. Frank-starling control of a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael Charles; Gaddum, Nicholas Richard; Pearcy, Mark; Salamonsen, Robert F; Timms, Daniel Lee; Mason, David Glen; Fraser, John F

    2011-01-01

    A physiological control system was developed for a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in which the target pump flow rate (LVADQ) was set as a function of left atrial pressure (LAP), mimicking the Frank-Starling mechanism. The control strategy was implemented using linear PID control and was evaluated in a pulsatile mock circulation loop using a prototyped centrifugal pump by varying pulmonary vascular resistance to alter venous return. The control strategy automatically varied pump speed (2460 to 1740 to 2700 RPM) in response to a decrease and subsequent increase in venous return. In contrast, a fixed-speed pump caused a simulated ventricular suction event during low venous return and higher ventricular volumes during high venous return. The preload sensitivity was increased from 0.011 L/min/mmHg in fixed speed mode to 0.47L/min/mmHg, a value similar to that of the native healthy heart. The sensitivity varied automatically to maintain the LAP and LVADQ within a predefined zone. This control strategy requires the implantation of a pressure sensor in the left atrium and a flow sensor around the outflow cannula of the LVAD. However, appropriate pressure sensor technology is not yet commercially available and so an alternative measure of preload such as pulsatility of pump signals should be investigated.

  5. Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias Arising from the Left Ventricular Summit.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Pasquale; Lin, David; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2016-03-01

    The left ventricular summit is a common site of origin of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. These arrhythmias are most commonly ablated within the coronary venous system or from other adjacent structures, such as the right ventricular and left ventricular outflow tract or coronary cusp region. When ablation from adjacent structures fails, a percutaneous epicardial approach can be considered, but is rarely successful in eliminating the arrhythmias due to proximity to major coronary vessels and/or epicardial fat.

  6. [Coronary disease. II. Analysis of diastolic pressure-volume correlations and left ventricular elasticity in 110 patients].

    PubMed

    Strauer, B E; Bolte, H D; Heimburg, P; Riecker, G

    1975-04-01

    Left ventricular pressure-volume relationships as well as diastolic compliance were determined in 110 patients with coronary heart disease during routine right and left heart catheterization, coronary angiography and ventriculography. 1. Enddiastolic and endystolic volume of the left ventricle were increased in severe coronary heart disease dependent on the degree of coronary stenosis; left ventricular ejection fraction was consecutively reduced. 2. Left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, diastolic pressure difference and diastolic rate of pressure rise were increased in corrleation with coronary artery stenosis. In contrast, last diastolic volume inflow into the left ventricle was nearly the same in all groups. Left ventricular stiffness, expressed as dP/dV, was significantly increased dependent on the severity degree of coronary artery disease. 3. Diastolic pressure-volume relationships revealed greater steepness in coronary artery disease, significantly dependent, on the corresponding severity degree. 4. Hemodynamic measures (stroke volume, cardiac index, ejection fraction) were decreased parallel to the increased left ventricular wall stiffness. The results demonstrated decreased left ventricular compliance in coronary heart disease. There was a striking correlation between the severity degree of coronary heart disease and the decrease of left ventricular compliance. Validity and limitations of the techniques of estimating left ventricular compliance from diastolic pressures and volumes as well as the effects of a decrease of left ventricular compliance on cardiac mechanics are discussed.

  7. Left ventricular guidewire pacing for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Guérios, Enio E; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports prove the safety and efficacy of cardiac pacing employing a guidewire in the left ventricle as unipolar pacing electrode. We describe the use of left ventricular guidewire pacing as an alternative to conventional transvenous temporary right ventricular pacing in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

  8. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 μg/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1μg/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  9. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure induced by left bundle branch block after transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong-Zeng; Qian, Jun; Wu, Jun; Liang, Yi; Chen, Guang-Hua; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Jin-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    A 54-year-old female patient with congenital heart disease had a persistent complete left bundle branch block three months after closure by an Amplatzer ventricular septal defect occluder. Nine months later, the patient suffered from chest distress, palpitation, and sweating at daily activities, and her 6-min walk distance decreased significantly (155 m). Her echocardiography showed increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter with left ventricular ejection fraction of 37%. Her symptoms reduced significantly one week after received cardiac resynchronization therapy. She had no symptoms at daily activities, and her echo showed left ventricular ejection fraction of 46% and 53%. Moreover, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter decreased 6 and 10 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy, and 6-min walk distance remarkably increased. This case demonstrated that persistent complete left bundle branch block for nine months after transcatheter closure with ventricular septal defect Amplatzer occluder could lead to left ventricular enlargement and a significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and increased left ventricular ejection fraction, thereby improving the patient's heart functions.

  10. Evaluation of cardiac function during left ventricular assist by a centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Kikugawa, D

    2000-08-01

    In this study, the effects on varying cardiac function during a left ventricular (LV) bypass from the apex to the descending aorta using a centrifugal blood pump were evaluated by analyzing the left ventricular pressure and the motor current of the centrifugal pump in a mock circulatory loop. Failing heart models (preload 15 mm Hg, afterload 40 mm Hg) and normal heart models (preload 5 mm Hg, afterload 100 mm Hg) were simulated by adjusting the contractility of the latex rubber left ventricle. In Study 1, the bypass flow rate, left ventricular pressure, aortic pressure, and motor current levels were measured in each model as the centrifugal pump rpm were increased from 1,000 to 1,500 to 2,000. In Study 2, the pump rpm were fixed at 1,300, 1,500, and 1,700, and at each rpm, the left ventricular peak pressure was increased from 40 to 140 mm Hg by steps of 20 mm Hg. The same measurements as in Study 1 were performed. In Study 1, the bypass flow rate and mean aortic pressure both increased with the increase in pump rpm while the mean left ventricular pressure decreased. In Study 2, a fairly good correlation between the left ventricular pressure and the motor current of the centrifugal pump was obtained. These results suggest that cardiac function as indicated by left ventricular pressure may be estimated from a motor current analysis of the centrifugal blood pump during left heart bypass.

  11. ECG parameters predict left ventricular conduction delay in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Gianni; Maines, Massimiliano; Marcantoni, Lina; Zanon, Francesco; Noventa, Franco; Corbucci, Giorgio; Baracca, Enrico; Aggio, Silvio; Picariello, Claudio; Lanza, Daniela; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Carraro, Mauro; Roncon, Loris; Barold, S Serge

    2016-12-01

    Estimating left ventricular electrical delay (Q-LV) from a 12-lead ECG may be important in evaluating cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of Q-LV interval on ECG configuration. One hundred ninety-two consecutive patients undergoing CRT implantation were divided electrocardiographically into 3 groups: left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), and nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD). The IVCD group was further subdivided into 81 patients with left (L)-IVCD and 15 patients with right (R)-IVCD (resembling RBBB, but without S wave in leads I and aVL). The Q-LV interval in the different groups and the relationship between ECG parameters and the maximum Q-LV interval were analyzed. Patients with LBBB presented a long Q-LV interval (147.7 ± 14.6 ms, all exceeding cutoff value of 110 ms), whereas RBBB patients presented a very short Q-LV interval (75.2 ± 16.3 ms, all <110 ms). Patients with an IVCD displayed a wide range of Q-LV intervals. In L-IVCD, mid-QRS notching/slurring showed the strongest correlation with a longer Q-LV interval, followed, in decreasing order, by QRS duration >150 ms and intrinsicoid deflection >60 ms. Isolated mid-QRS notching/slurring predicted Q-LV interval >110 ms in 68% of patients. The R-IVCD group presented an unexpectedly longer Q-LV interval (127.0 ± 12.5 ms; 13/15 patients had Q-LV >110 ms). Patients with LBBB have a very prolonged Q-LV interval. Mid-QRS notching in lateral leads strongly predicts a longer Q-LV interval in L-IVCD patients. Patients with R-IVCD constitute a subgroup of patients with a long Q-LV interval. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    PubMed

    Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P < 0.05), and left ventricular mass was 51% and 32% greater (P < 0.05) in canoeists than in the sedentary and moderately trained participants, respectively. There were no differences in left ventricular chamber dimension, suggesting that the kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals.

  13. Silent left ventricular dysfunction during routine activity after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Wackers, F.J.; Zaret, B.L. )

    1990-06-01

    To investigate prospectively the occurrence and significance of postinfarction transient left ventricular dysfunction, 33 ambulatory patients who underwent thrombolytic therapy after myocardial infarction were monitored continuously for 187 +/- 56 min during normal activity with a radionuclide left ventricular function detector at the time of hospital discharge. Twelve patients demonstrated 19 episodes of transient left ventricular dysfunction (greater than 0.05 decrease in ejection fraction, lasting greater than or equal to 1 min), with no change in heart rate. Only two episodes in one patient were associated with chest pain and electrocardiographic changes. The baseline ejection fraction was 0.52 +/- 0.12 in patients with transient left ventricular dysfunction and 0.51 +/- 0.13 in patients without dysfunction (p = NS). At follow-up study (19.2 +/- 5.4 months), cardiac events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death) occurred in 8 of 12 patients with but in only 3 of 21 patients without transient left ventricular dysfunction (p less than 0.01). During submaximal supine bicycle exercise, only two patients demonstrated a decrease in ejection fraction greater than or equal to 0.05 at peak exercise; neither had a subsequent cardiac event. These data suggest that transient episodes of silent left ventricular dysfunction at hospital discharge in patients treated with thrombolysis after myocardial infarction are common and associated with a poor outcome. Continuous left ventricular function monitoring during normal activity may provide prognostic information not available from submaximal exercise test results.

  14. Brief left ventricular pressure overload reduces myocardial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Hao; Lai, Chang-Chi; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Jin-Ching; Huang, Cheng-Hsiung

    2015-03-01

    Both apoptosis and necrosis contribute to cell death after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. We previously reported that brief left ventricular pressure overload (LVPO) decreased myocardial infarct (MI) size. In this study, we investigated whether brief pressure overload reduces apoptosis and the mechanisms involved. MI was induced by a 40-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 3-h reperfusion in male anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Brief LVPO was achieved by two 10-min partial snarings of the ascending aorta, raising the systolic left ventricular pressure 50% above the baseline value. Ischemic preconditioning was elicited by two 10-min coronary artery occlusions and 10-min reperfusions. Brief LVPO and ischemic preconditioning significantly decreased MI size (P < 0.001). Brief pressure overload significantly reduced myocardial apoptosis, as evidenced by the decrease in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive nuclei (P < 0.001), little or no DNA laddering, and reduced caspase-3 activation (P < 0.01). Moreover, brief pressure overload significantly increased Bcl-2 (P < 0.001) and decreased Bax (P < 0.001) and p53 (P < 0.01). Akt phosphorylation was significantly increased by brief pressure overload (P < 0.001), whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Hemodynamics, area at risk, and mortality did not differ significantly among groups. Brief left LVPO significantly reduces myocardial apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms might be related to modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, inhibition of p53, increased Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemodynamics on abrupt stoppage of centrifugal pumps during left ventricular assist.

    PubMed

    Kono, S; Nishimura, K; Nishina, T; Akamatsu, T; Komeda, M

    2000-01-01

    A magnetically suspended centrifugal pump (MSCP), developed for long-term ventricular assist, is reliable and durable because it has no shaft or seal. However, with nonvalve pumps such as a MSCP, regurgitation occurs when they accidentally stop without cannula clamping. We investigated the hemodynamics during temporary stoppage of a MSCP being used as a left ventricular assist system (LVAS), comparing two inflow cannulation sites. In four sheep (weight, 35-45 kg), microspheres were injected into the left main coronary artery to induce heart failure. An outflow cannula was sutured onto the descending aorta, and two inflow cannulae were inserted into the left atrium and the left ventricle. The MSCP was stopped with both the left ventricular cannula and left atrial cannula clamped, and the hemodynamics and P-V loops were recorded. Each cannula was then unclamped in order, and similar parameters were recorded. LVEDP increased at unclamping of the left ventricular cannula (ULVC), and rose further at unclamping of the left atrial cannula (ULAC). Aortic pressure did not change at ULVC, but decreased at ULAC. The effective systemic flow that subtracted the regurgitant flow through the MSCP from left ventricular output was half at ULVC and almost 0 at ULAC. When stopping centrifugal pumps without circuit clamping, hemodynamic deterioration is less at ULVC than at ULAC. This finding suggests that left ventricular inflow cannulation is recommended to allow more time in emergency situations.

  16. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.

  17. Aortico-left ventricular tunnel experience on three different ages

    PubMed Central

    Saritas, Turkay; Erol, Nurdan; Erdem, Abdullah; Karaci, Aliriza; Celebi, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel is extremely rare congenital paravalvar communication between the aorta and the left ventricle. Usually it is treated surgically. In addition to the surgery the tunnel can be closed by percutaneous transcatheter intervention in appropriate patients. We present in this paper 7 months, 10 years, and 1,5 months old three male cases with aortico-left ventricular tunnel that were surgically treated and followed up within 7 years in our clinic. PMID:21264186

  18. Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation After Intracardiac Parachute Device Removal.

    PubMed

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Bruckner, Brian A; Suarez, Erik E; Estep, Jerry D; Loebe, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Left ventricular assist device implantation is a proven and efficient modality for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist device versatility as a bridge to heart transplantation or destination therapy has led to improved patient outcomes with a concomitant rise in its overall use. Other less invasive treatment modalities are being developed to improve heart function and morbidity and mortality for the heart failure population. Percutaneous ventricular restoration is a new investigational therapy that deploys an intracardiac parachute to wall off damaged myocardium in patients with dilated left ventricles and ischemic heart failure. Clinical trials are under way to test the efficacy of percutaneous ventricular restoration using the parachute device. This review describes our encounter with the parachute device, its explantation due to refractory heart failure, and surgical replacement with a left ventricular assist device. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Left and right ventricular diastolic function in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rudhani, Ibrahim Destan; Bajraktari, Gani; Kryziu, Emrush; Zylfiu, Bejtush; Sadiku, Shemsedin; Elezi, Ymer; Rexhepaj, Nehat; Vitia, Arber; Emini, Merita; Abazi, Murat; Berbatovci-Ukimeraj, M; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Hsanagjekaj, Venera; Korca, Hajrije; Ukimeri, Aferdita

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was the assessment of left ventricular and right ventricular diastolic function in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and the correlation of this function with the duration of HD. The study included 42 patients (22 females and 20 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF), treated with HD, and 40 healthy subjects (24 females and 16 males) with no history of cardiovascular disease and with normal renal function, who constituted the control group. The groups were matched for age and sex. All study patients and control subjects underwent detailed history taking and physical examination. They also underwent electrocardiogram, echocardiography and biochemical and hematological blood analyses. Significant differences were noted between the two groups in the two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography findings concerning aortic root dimension, transverse diameter of the left atrium, thickness of the interventricular septum, thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall, left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular systolic diameter, shortening fraction, ejection fraction as well as findings from the pulse Doppler study, including E wave, A wave, E/A ratio, deceleration time of E wave (DT-E), acceleration time of E wave (AT-E), tricuspid E and A waves (E tr and A tr ) and E tr /A tr , ratio. There were significant changes in HD patients without arterial hypertension as well in the control group subjects. Our study suggests that the left ventricular and left atrial dimensions as well as the left ventricular wall thickness are augmented in patients with CRF treated with HD compared with the control group. Additionally, the left and right ventricular diastolic function is also reduced in these patients. These differences were also noted in patients with CRF without arterial hypertension. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction had no correlation with the duration of HD.

  20. Molecular genetics of left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Towbin, J A; Bowles, N E

    2001-03-01

    The left ventricle (LV) plays a central role in the maintenance of health of children and adults due to its role as the major pump of the heart. In cases of LV dysfunction, a significant percentage of affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF), leading to the need for therapeutic intervention. Therapy for these patients include anticongestive medications and, in some, placement of devices such as aortic balloon pump or left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or cardiac transplantation. In the majority of patients the etiology is unknown, leading to the term idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). During the past decade, the basis of LV dysfunction has begun to unravel. In approximately 30-40% of cases, the disorder is inherited; autosomal dominant inheritance is most common (although X-linked, autosomal recessive and mitochondrial inheritance occurs). In the remaining patients, the disorder is presumed to be acquired, with inflammatory heart disease playing an important role. In the case of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM), the genetic basis is beginning to unfold. To date, two genes for X-linked FDCM (dystrophin, G4.5) have been identified and four genes for the autosomal dominant form (actin, desmin, lamin A/C, delta-sarcoglycan) have been described. In one form of inflammatory heart disease, coxsackievirus myocarditis, inflammatory mediators and dystrophin cleavage play a role in the development of LV dysfunction. In this review, we will describe the molecular genetics of LV dysfunction and provide evidence for a "final common pathway" responsible for the phenotype.

  1. Antihypertensive Therapies and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J

    2017-09-19

    It is widely accepted that successful lowering of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension leads to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, whether differences exist among pharmacological BP-lowering therapies is debated. In this report, we discuss these differences in light of recent literature and the position of extant practice guidelines. Studies comparing the effects of antihypertensive classes on LVH regression reached different conclusions, but the overall direction which is reflected in current society guidelines is that successful lowering of BP is more important than selection of an individual antihypertensive class. Nevertheless, some practice guidelines added statements about considering a specific antihypertensive class for its potential benefit such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or excluding a class such as direct vasodilators. On the other hand, reports have been consistent about the more favorable effect of intensive BP-lowering strategy (target systolic BP < 120 mmHg) compared to standard BP lowering (target systolic BP > 140 mmHg), which is not yet discussed in the current practice guidelines. Successful lowering of BP leads to LVH regression. While reports have been inconsistent about differences among antihypertensive classes, lowering BP beyond currently recommended levels has consistently showed a greater effect on LVH regression.

  2. FGF23 induces left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Christian; Amaral, Ansel P.; Oskouei, Behzad; Hu, Ming-Chang; Sloan, Alexis; Isakova, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Aguillon-Prada, Robier; Lincoln, Joy; Hare, Joshua M.; Mundel, Peter; Morales, Azorides; Scialla, Julia; Fischer, Michael; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Jing; Go, Alan S.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nessel, Lisa; Townsend, Raymond R.; Feldman, Harold I.; St. John Sutton, Martin; Ojo, Akinlolu; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Di Marco, Giovana Seno; Reuter, Stefan; Kentrup, Dominik; Tiemann, Klaus; Brand, Marcus; Hill, Joseph A.; Moe, Orson W.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Kusek, John W.; Keane, Martin G.; Wolf, Myles

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that increases risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important mechanism of cardiovascular disease in individuals with CKD. Elevated levels of FGF23 have been linked to greater risks of LVH and mortality in patients with CKD, but whether these risks represent causal effects of FGF23 is unknown. Here, we report that elevated FGF23 levels are independently associated with LVH in a large, racially diverse CKD cohort. FGF23 caused pathological hypertrophy of isolated rat cardiomyocytes via FGF receptor–dependent activation of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, but this effect was independent of klotho, the coreceptor for FGF23 in the kidney and parathyroid glands. Intramyocardial or intravenous injection of FGF23 in wild-type mice resulted in LVH, and klotho-deficient mice demonstrated elevated FGF23 levels and LVH. In an established animal model of CKD, treatment with an FGF–receptor blocker attenuated LVH, although no change in blood pressure was observed. These results unveil a klotho-independent, causal role for FGF23 in the pathogenesis of LVH and suggest that chronically elevated FGF23 levels contribute directly to high rates of LVH and mortality in individuals with CKD. PMID:21985788

  3. Endocarditis in left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Kumar, Monisha Priyadarshini; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few retrospective studies and case reports reporting the same. In our review, we found the most common cause of endocarditis in LVAD was due to bacteria. Both bacterial and fungal endocarditis were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this review we will be discussing the risk factors, organisms involved, diagnostic tests, management strategies, complications, and outcomes in patients who developed endocarditis secondary to LVAD placement. PMID:27672540

  4. Nontraumatic determination of left ventricular ejection fraction by radionuclide angiocardiography.

    PubMed

    Schelbert, H R; Verba, J W; Johnson, A D; Brock, G W; Alazraki, N P; Rose, F J; Ashburn, W L

    1975-05-01

    Previous reports have suggested that left ventricular ejection fraction can be assessed by recording the passage of peripherally administered radioactive bolus through the heart. The accuracy and validity of this technique were examined in 20 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. 99m-Tc-human serum albumin was injected via a central venous catheter into the superior vena cava and precordial activity recorded with a gamma scintillation camera interfaced to a small digital computer. A computer program was designed to generate time-activity curves from the left ventricular blood pool and to calculate left ventricular ejection fractions from the cyclic fluctuations of the left ventricular time-activity curve which correspond to left ventricular volume changes during each cardiac cycle. The results correlated well with those obtained by biplane cineangiocardiography (r equals 0.94) and indicated that the technique should allow accurate and reproducible determination of left ventricular ejection fraction. The findings, however, demonstrated that the time-activity curve must be generated from a region-of-interest which fits the left ventricular blood pool precisely and must be corrected for contributions arising from noncardiac background structures. This nontraumatic and potentially noninvasive technique appears particularly useful for serial evaluation of the acutely ill patient and for follow-up studies in nonhospitalized patients.

  5. The impact of 6 weeks of atrial fibrillation on left atrial and ventricular structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Kazui, Toshinobu; Henn, Mathew C.; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kovács, Sándor J.; Lawrance, Christopher P.; Greenberg, Jason W.; Moon, Marc; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The impact of prolonged episodes of atrial fibrillation on atrial and ventricular function has been incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of atrial fibrillation on left atrial and ventricular function in a rapid paced porcine model of atrial fibrillation. Methods A control group of pigs (group 1, n = 8) underwent left atrial and left ventricular conductance catheter studies and fibrosis analysis. A second group (group 2, n = 8) received a baseline cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to characterize left atrial and left ventricular function. The atria were rapidly paced into atrial fibrillation for 6 weeks followed by cardioversion and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results After 6 weeks of atrial fibrillation, left atrial contractility defined by atrial end-systolic pressure-volume relationship slope was significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (1.1 ± 0.5 vs 1.7 ± 1.0; P = .041), whereas compliance from the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship was unchanged (1.5 ± 0.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.3; P = .733). Compared with baseline, atrial fibrillation resulted in a significantly higher contribution of left atrial reservoir volume to stroke volume (32% vs 17%; P = .005) and lower left atrial booster pump volume contribution to stroke volume (19% vs 28%; P = .029). Atrial fibrillation also significantly increased maximum left atrial volume (206 ± 41 mL vs 90 ± 21 mL; P < .001). Left atrial fibrosis in group 2 was significantly higher than in group 1. Atrial fibrillation decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (29% ± 9% vs 58 ± 8%; P < .001), but left ventricular stroke volume was unchanged. Conclusions In a chronic model of atrial fibrillation, the left atrium demonstrated significant structural remodeling and decreased contractility. These data suggest that early intervention in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation might mitigate against adverse atrial and ventricular structural

  6. Evolution of left ventricular function in the preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Akiko; Khoo, Nee S; Aziz, Khalid; Al-Rajaa, Najlaa; van den Boom, Jutta; Savard, Winnie; Brooks, Paul; Hornberger, Lisa K

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate left ventricular function in preterm infants from 28 days to near term using echocardiography. Thirty clinically stable preterm infants delivered at <30 weeks' gestational age were prospectively enrolled. At 28 days, conventional, tissue Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography evaluations of left ventricular function were performed, with comparison made to findings in 30 healthy term infants of similar postnatal age. Sixteen preterm infants underwent repeat examinations near term. Compared with controls, preterm infants at 28 days had decreased peak mitral valve (MV) E-wave velocities (P < .01), E/A ratios (P < .0001), annular e' velocities (P < .0001), and e'/a' ratios (P < .0001); increased MV E/e' ratios (P < .01); and lower basal circumferential early diastolic and higher late diastolic strain rates. No significant differences were found in fractional shortening, ejection fraction, and longitudinal or circumferential strain and strain rate between preterm infants and controls. Although preterm infants at 28 days had higher heart rates compared with controls (161 ± 15 vs 142 ± 16 beats/min), no significant correlations existed between heart rate and MV E, E/A ratio, e', e'/a' ratio, and E/e' ratio. Near term, the differences in diastolic function persisted, including decreased MV e'/a' ratio (P < .05), increased E/e' ratio (P < .01), and increased late diastolic strain rate. Clinically stable preterm infants have normal left ventricular systolic function but altered diastolic function, with greater dependence on atrial contraction, the latter of which persists despite nearing term. These findings may be relevant to the management of preterm infants and may relate to the longer term myocardial dysfunction observed in affected adults. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy regression in hypertensive patients treated with metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Corea, L; Bentivoglio, M; Verdecchia, P; Provvidenza, M; Motolese, M

    1984-07-01

    The long-term effects of metoprolol monotherapy, 100 mg b.i.d., for 16-18 months, were investigated in 8 previously untreated essentially hypertensive patients (resting blood pressure greater than 155/95 mmHg) and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (left ventricular mass by Penn Cube formula greater than 215 g). Echocardiographic studies, according to the American Society of Echocardiography recording techniques and measurements criteria, were performed before starting treatment and at the end of follow-up. Metoprolol induced a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, accompanied by a reduction of interventricular septum and posterior wall thickness (from 1.21 cm to 1.10 cm, and from 1.15 cm to 1.06 cm, respectively), left ventricular mass index and mean wall stress. All these changes were significant (p less than 0.01). Cardiac index decreased from 3017 ml/m2 to 2632 ml/m2 (p less than 0.01), mostly because of the reduction in the heart rate. In fact, stroke index, ejection fraction and fractional shortening all slightly increased during treatment in respect to pre-treatment values. Plasma renin activity fell from 1.45 ng/ml/h to 0.81 ng/ml/h (p less than 0.01), whereas both plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentration at rest did not change. Results indicate that in essentially hypertensive patients who have already developed LVH as a consequence of the hypertension, a long-term metoprolol therapy can successfully induce a reversal of LVH together with an effective blood pressure control, without noticeable adverse effects of changes in cardiac performance.

  8. Apical left ventricular hypertrophy and mid-ventricular obstruction in fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Saccheri, María C; Fernández, Segundo P; Fernández, Cinthia C; Rozenfeld, Paula A; Kisinovsky, Isaac

    2015-05-01

    We report the case of a rare cardiac presentation of Fabry disease. Although concentric left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cardiac finding in Fabry disease, there is no case report of dynamic obstruction at mid-left ventricular level. We describe a 59-year-old-woman suffering from a severe form of Fabry disease, mimicking an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction. Differentiation of Fabry disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is crucial given the therapeutic and prognostic differences. Fabry disease should always be suspected in an adult, independently of the pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  9. Modeling left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: classification and key indicators.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Ramachandran, Deepa; Ware, David L; Ma, Tony S; Clark, John W

    2011-05-09

    Mathematical modeling can be employed to overcome the practical difficulty of isolating the mechanisms responsible for clinical heart failure in the setting of normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF). In a human cardiovascular respiratory system (H-CRS) model we introduce three cases of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD): (1) impaired left ventricular active relaxation (IR-type); (2) increased passive stiffness (restrictive or R-type); and (3) the combination of both (pseudo-normal or PN-type), to produce HFNEF. The effects of increasing systolic contractility are also considered. Model results showing ensuing heart failure and mechanisms involved are reported. We employ our previously described H-CRS model with modified pulmonary compliances to better mimic normal pulmonary blood distribution. IR-type is modeled by changing the activation function of the left ventricle (LV), and R-type by increasing diastolic stiffness of the LV wall and septum. A 5th-order Cash-Karp Runge-Kutta numerical integration method solves the model differential equations. IR-type and R-type decrease LV stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction (EF), and mean systemic arterial pressure. Heart rate, pulmonary pressures, pulmonary volumes, and pulmonary and systemic arterial-venous O2 and CO2 differences increase. IR-type decreases, but R-type increases the mitral E/A ratio. PN-type produces the well-described, pseudo-normal mitral inflow pattern. All three types of LVDD reduce right ventricular (RV) and LV EF, but the latter remains normal or near normal. Simulations show reduced EF is partly restored by an accompanying increase in systolic stiffness, a compensatory mechanism that may lead clinicians to miss the presence of HF if they only consider LVEF and other indices of LV function. Simulations using the H-CRS model indicate that changes in RV function might well be diagnostic. This study also highlights the importance of septal mechanics in LVDD. The model

  10. Modeling left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: classification and key indicators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mathematical modeling can be employed to overcome the practical difficulty of isolating the mechanisms responsible for clinical heart failure in the setting of normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF). In a human cardiovascular respiratory system (H-CRS) model we introduce three cases of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD): (1) impaired left ventricular active relaxation (IR-type); (2) increased passive stiffness (restrictive or R-type); and (3) the combination of both (pseudo-normal or PN-type), to produce HFNEF. The effects of increasing systolic contractility are also considered. Model results showing ensuing heart failure and mechanisms involved are reported. Methods We employ our previously described H-CRS model with modified pulmonary compliances to better mimic normal pulmonary blood distribution. IR-type is modeled by changing the activation function of the left ventricle (LV), and R-type by increasing diastolic stiffness of the LV wall and septum. A 5th-order Cash-Karp Runge-Kutta numerical integration method solves the model differential equations. Results IR-type and R-type decrease LV stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction (EF), and mean systemic arterial pressure. Heart rate, pulmonary pressures, pulmonary volumes, and pulmonary and systemic arterial-venous O2 and CO2 differences increase. IR-type decreases, but R-type increases the mitral E/A ratio. PN-type produces the well-described, pseudo-normal mitral inflow pattern. All three types of LVDD reduce right ventricular (RV) and LV EF, but the latter remains normal or near normal. Simulations show reduced EF is partly restored by an accompanying increase in systolic stiffness, a compensatory mechanism that may lead clinicians to miss the presence of HF if they only consider LVEF and other indices of LV function. Simulations using the H-CRS model indicate that changes in RV function might well be diagnostic. This study also highlights the importance of septal

  11. Does left ventricular size impact on intrinsic right ventricular function in hypoplastic left heart syndrome?

    PubMed

    Schlangen, Jana; Fischer, Gunther; Steendijk, Paul; Petko, Colin; Scheewe, Jens; Hart, Christopher; Hansen, Jan H; Ahrend, Frederick; Rickers, Carsten; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Uebing, Anselm

    2013-08-20

    The size of the remnant left ventricle (LV) may influence right ventricular function and thus long-term outcome in palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We therefore sought to assess the impact of the size of the hypoplastic LV on intrinsic RV function in HLHS patients after Fontan surgery. Fifty-seven HLHS patients were studied 2.5 (range: 0.8-12.6) years after Fontan-type palliation with the pressure-volume conductance system. The patient cohort was divided into two groups according to the median LV area index (group 1: LV area index ≤ 1.33 cm(2)/m(2), n=29; group 2: LV area index>1.33 cm(2)/m(2), n=28). The slopes of the end systolic elastance (Ees) and the preload recruitable stroke work relation (Mw) were not different between group 1 and 2 (Ees: 2.70 ± 1.92 vs. 3.68 ± 2.68 mmHg/ml; Mw: 52.75 ± 14.98 vs. 51.09 ± 16.63 mmHg x ml; P=NS for all). Furthermore, the systolic responses to dobutamine were not statistically different between groups. However, the slope of the end diastolic stiffness (Eed) was higher in group 2 and catecholaminergic stimulation resulted in a decrease in Eed in group 2 (group 1: 0.40 ± 0.26 vs. 0.52 ± 0.45; group 2: 0.68 ± 0.44 vs. 0.47 ± 0.38 mmHg/ml, P<0.01). Furthermore Eed was lowest in patients with mitral atresia/aortic atresia, the anatomic subgroup with the smallest LV remnant. Intrinsic systolic RV function is not affected by the size of the hypoplastic LV in survivors of surgical palliation of HLHS. Diastolic stiffness, however, was higher in patients with a larger LV remnant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A two phase harmonic model for left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Shay; Dubi, Chen; Dubi, Yonatan

    2007-11-01

    A minimal model for mechanical motion of the left ventricle is proposed. The model assumes the left ventricle to be a harmonic oscillator with two distinct phases, simulating the systolic and diastolic phases, at which both the amplitude and the elastic constant of the oscillator are different. Taking into account the pressure within the left ventricle, the model shows qualitative agreement with functional parameters of the left ventricle. The model allows for a natural explanation of heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function, also termed diastolic heart failure. Specifically, the rise in left ventricular filling pressures following increased left-ventricular wall stiffness is attributed to a mechanism aimed at preserving heart rate and cardiac output.

  13. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in pregnant patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Hanson, R

    1994-01-01

    Our purpose was to document noninvasively the effect of sickle cell disease on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function during the third trimester of pregnancy. Fifteen patients with sickle cell disease underwent a two-dimensional M-mode echocardiography obtained using the long axis with the cursor placed at the level of the tip of the mitral valve. All studies were performed with the patient in the left lateral decubitus. A group of 40 normal pregnant patients served as controls. None of the patients had evidence of cardiovascular disease. Left atrial and ventricular dimensions and mass were calculated and averaged. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were assessed. Pregnant patients with sickle cell disease had a significant enlargement of the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, posterior wall, interventricular septum, and ventricular mass than the control group. Although heart rate and fractional shortening were not different between the two groups, stroke volume and cardiac output were higher in patients with sickle cell disease. This was mostly because of enlargement of left end-diastolic dimension. Ventricular diastolic function was different in patients with sickle cell disease, resulting in an increase in the duration of the rapid filling. Left ventricular systolic function in patients with sickle cell disease was not affected in spite of a marked ventricular hypertrophy and ventricular enlargement. Diastolic function, however, was lower in the sickle cell group, which indicates a decrease in ventricular compliance. These patients had a higher cardiac output than did a normal pregnant group in the third trimester. This was accomplished by increasing ventricular size without increasing heart rate or fractional shortening.

  14. Isolated left ventricular noncompaction diagnosed by transthoracic threedimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, X X; Song, Z Z

    2009-05-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of chest distress, associated with activity. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) demonstrated a suspected trabeculation versus false tendon of the left ventricular apex cordis but not meeting the diagnostic criteria of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium (NVM). Threedimensional echocardiography (3DE) revealed more prominent trabeculations and deeper intertrabecular recesses of the left ventricular apex, which were consistent with the diagnostic criteria of NVM. In contrast to 2DE, 3DE provides wide, pyramid-shaped datasets that encompass the entire left ventricle. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:208-10.).

  15. Effects of Surgical Ventricular Restoration on Left Ventricular Shape, Size, and Function for Left Ventricular Anterior Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Gao, Chang-Qing; Wang, Gang; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-06-20

    Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) has been performed to treat left ventricular (LV) aneurysm. However, there is limited analysis of changes in LV shape. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in LV shape induced by SVR and the effects of SVR on LV size and function for LV aneurysm. Between April 2006 and March 2015, 18 patients with dyskinetic (dyskinetic group) and 12 patients with akinetic (akinetic group) postinfarction LV anterior aneurysm receiving SVR with the Dor procedure at Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were enrolled in this study. A retrospective analysis was carried out using data from the echocardiography database. LV shape was analyzed by calculating the apical conicity index (ACI). LV end-diastolic volume index, end-systolic volume index, and ejection fraction (EF) were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare means at different time points within each group. Within one week after SVR, LV shape became more conical in the two groups (ACI decreased from 0.84 ± 0.13 to 0.69 ± 0.11 [t = 5.155, P = 0.000] in dyskinetic group and from 0.73 ± 0.07 to 0.60 ± 0.11 [t = 2.701, P = 0.026] in akinetic group; LV volumes were decreased significantly and became closer to normal values and EF was improved significantly in the two groups). On follow-up at least one year, LV shape remained unchanged in dyskinetic group (ACI increased from 0.69 ± 0.11 to 0.74 ± 0.12, t = -1.109, P = 0.294), but became more spherical in akinetic group (ACI significantly increased from 0.60 ± 0.11 to 0.75 ± 0.11, t = -1.880, P = 0.047); LV volumes remained unchanged in dyskinetic group, but increased significantly in akinetic group and EF remained unchanged in the two groups. SVR could reshape LV to a more conical shape and a more normal size and improve LV function significantly early after the procedure in patients with dyskinetic or akinetic postinfarction LV anterior aneurysm. However, LV tends to be more spherical and enlarged in

  16. Left atrial minimum volume and reservoir function as correlates of left ventricular diastolic function: impact of left ventricular systolic function

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-01-01

    Objective Left atrial (LA) maximum volume (LAVmax) is an indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. However, LAVmax is also influenced by systolic events, whereas the LA minimum volume (LAVmin) is directly exposed to LV pressure. The authors hypothesised that LAVmin may be a better correlate of LV diastolic function than LAVmax. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University hospital. Patients 357 participants from a community-based cohort study. Methods LA volumes and reservoir function, measured as total LA emptying volume (LAEV) and LA emptying fraction (LAEF), were assessed by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. LV diastolic function was assessed by trans-mitral early (E) and late (A) Doppler velocities and mitral early diastolic velocity by tissue-Doppler (e′). LV systolic function was assessed by LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) by speckle-tracking. Results LAVmin significantly increased with worsening diastolic dysfunction (p<0.001), whereas the increase in LAVmax was less pronounced (p=0.07). LAEV and LAEF decreased with worsening diastolic dysfunction (both p<0.001). In linear regressions, LAVmin and LAVmax were significant predictors of E/e′, with higher parameter estimates for LAVmin. In multivariate models, LAVmin resulted strongly associated with E/e′ (β=0.45, p<0.001), whereas LAVmax was not (β=− 0.16, p=0.08). LA reservoir function was better associated with GLS than LVEF. In multivariate analyses, GLS was significantly associated with LAVmax (β=− 0.15, p=0.002), LAEV (β=−0.37, p<0.001) and LAEF (β=−0.28, p<0.001) but not with LAVmin. Conclusions LAVmin is a better correlate of LV diastolic function than LAVmax. The impact of LV longitudinal systolic function on LA reservoir function might explain the weaker relation between LAVmax and LV diastolic function. PMID:22543839

  17. Giant lateral left ventricular wall aneurysm sparing the submitral apparatus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent and serious complication following acute transmural myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. The majority of these patients presents with severe mitral insufficiency, congestive heart failure, systemic embolism and sudden cardiac death. Giant aneurysms occurring in a submitral position between anterior and posterior papillary muscles on the lateral ventricular wall constitute a minor entity and those leaving the mitral apparatus intact are extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 57 y/o Caucasian male patient with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction with a giant left ventricular aneurysm measuring 15x10x8 cm in diameter. Despite the size of the aneurysm and its close topographical relation to the posterior mitral annulus the mitral apparatus was intact with a competent valve and normal left atrial size. He underwent successful surgical ventricular restoration. PMID:24172071

  18. COPD advances in left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiaki; Asai, Kuniya; Murai, Koji; Tsukada, Yayoi Tetsuou; Hayashi, Hiroki; Saito, Yoshinobu; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    COPD is concomitantly present in ~30% of patients with heart failure. Here, we investigated the pulmonary function test parameters for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and the relationship between pulmonary function and LV diastolic function in patients with COPD. Overall, 822 patients who underwent a pulmonary function test and echocardiography simultaneously between January 2011 and December 2012 were evaluated. Finally, 115 patients with COPD and 115 age- and sex-matched control patients with an LV ejection fraction of ≥50% were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 74.4±10.4 years, and 72.3% were men. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and anemia. The index of LV diastolic function (E/e') and the proportion of patients with high E/e' (defined as E/e' ≥15) were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in control patients (10.5% vs 9.1%, P=0.009; 11.3% vs 4.3%, P=0.046). E/e' was significantly correlated with the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed severe COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III or IV) to be a significant predictive factor for high E/e' (odds ratio [OR] 5.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.13-15.89, P=0.001 and OR 6.00, 95% CI 2.08-17.35, P=0.001, respectively). Our data suggest that LV diastolic dysfunction as a complication of COPD may be associated with mechanical exclusion of the heart by pulmonary overinflation.

  19. Decrease in plasma cyclophilin A concentration at 1 month after myocardial infarction predicts better left ventricular performance and synchronicity at 6 months: a pilot study in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Lin, Chih-Sheng; Liu, Chin-San

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilin A (CyPA) concentration increases in acute coronary syndrome. In an animal model of acute myocardial infarction, administration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) CyPA concentration and improved LV performance. This study investigated the relationships between changes in plasma CyPA concentrations and LV remodeling in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We enrolled 55 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI. Plasma CyPA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were measured at baseline and at one-month follow-up. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at one-, three-, and six-month follow-up. Patients with a decrease in baseline CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up (n = 28) had a significant increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (from 60.2 ± 11.5% to 64.6 ± 9.9%, p < 0. 001) and preserved LV synchrony at six months. Patients without a decrease in CyPA concentration at one month (n = 27) did not show improvement in LVEF and had a significantly increased systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) (from 1.170 ± 0.510% to 1.637 ± 1.299%, p = 0.042) at six months. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between one-month CyPA concentration and six-month LVEF. The one-month MMP-2 concentration was positively correlated with one-month CyPA concentration and LV SDI. Conclusions : Decreased CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up after STEMI was associated with better LVEF and SDI at six months. Changes in CyPA, therefore, may be a prognosticator of patient outcome.

  20. Decrease in Plasma Cyclophilin A Concentration at 1 Month after Myocardial Infarction Predicts Better Left Ventricular Performance and Synchronicity at 6 Months: A Pilot Study in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Lin, Chih-Sheng; Liu, Chin-San

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) concentration increases in acute coronary syndrome. In an animal model of acute myocardial infarction, administration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) CyPA concentration and improved LV performance. This study investigated the relationships between changes in plasma CyPA concentrations and LV remodeling in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and Results: We enrolled 55 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI. Plasma CyPA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were measured at baseline and at one-month follow-up. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at one-, three-, and six-month follow-up. Patients with a decrease in baseline CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up (n = 28) had a significant increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (from 60.2 ± 11.5% to 64.6 ± 9.9%, p < 0. 001) and preserved LV synchrony at six months. Patients without a decrease in CyPA concentration at one month (n = 27) did not show improvement in LVEF and had a significantly increased systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) (from 1.170 ± 0.510% to 1.637 ± 1.299%, p = 0.042) at six months. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between one-month CyPA concentration and six-month LVEF. The one-month MMP-2 concentration was positively correlated with one-month CyPA concentration and LV SDI. Conclusions: Decreased CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up after STEMI was associated with better LVEF and SDI at six months. Changes in CyPA, therefore, may be a prognosticator of patient outcome. PMID:25552928

  1. Physiology of the native heart and Thermo Cardiosystems left ventricular assist device complex at rest and during exercise: implications for chronic support.

    PubMed

    Branch, K R; Dembitsky, W P; Peterson, K L; Adamson, R; Gordon, J B; Smith, S C; Jaski, B E

    1994-01-01

    Studies of patients supported with a left ventricular assist device have considered determinants of acute survival emphasizing the role of right heart function. In patients with refractory heart failure awaiting heart transplantation, chronic left ventricular assist device implantation may provide an opportunity for rehabilitation before surgery if hemodynamics are adequate at rest and during activities of daily life. For the assessment of the efficacy of the left ventricular assist device in this setting, four patients in whom the HeartMate pneumatic left ventricular assist device had been implanted were tested during graded supine bicycle exercise with Doppler echocardiography interrogation and central hemodynamic measurements. Patients with left ventricular assist device increased total left ventricular-left ventricular assist device complex output with exercise as Fick cardiac output increased from 5.7 +/- 1.5 to 8.6 +/- 3.1 L/min (mean +/- standard deviation). In two patients, peak left ventricular assist device rate and output were either present at the start of exercise or reached at mid-exercise and were associated with abrupt increases in left ventricular filling pressures (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure = 9 to 27 mm Hg and 12 to 24 mm Hg, respectively). During exercise, left ventricular end-diastolic size and pressure increased as right ventricular dimensions decreased or remained the same (patients 1, 3, and 4: 1.7 to 1.8 cm, 4.7 to 3.9 cm, and 2.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively) despite increased right atrial filling pressures, implying a decrease in functional right ventricular diastolic compliance. Although the left ventricular assist device functioned as a series pump at rest, Fick cardiac output exceeded left ventricular assist device output during exercise consistent with parallel ejection of the left ventricle through the native aortic valve. During exercise, residual left ventricular function may contribute to the hemodynamic response by (1) active

  2. Serial measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction by radionuclide angiography early and late after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schelbert, H R; Henning, H; Ashburn, W L; Verba, J W; Karliner, J S; O'Rourke, R A

    1976-10-01

    The left ventricular ejection fraction was determined serially with radioisotope angiography in 63 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After the peripheral injection of a bolus of technetium-99m, precordial radioactivity was recorded with a gamma scintillation camera and the ejection fraction calculated from the high frequency left ventricular time-activity curve. Since this technique requires no assumptions with respect to left ventricular geometry, it is particularly useful in patients with segmental left ventricular dysfunction. Serial measurements during the first 5 days after hospital admission were made in 50 patients, 30 of whom were studied during the subsequent 2 to 39 months (mean 19.9 months). Late follow-up serial studies were also performed in an additional 13 patients who had only one measurement of the left ventricular ejection fraction during the early postinfarction period. Early after infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction was normal (more than 0.52) in only 15 of the 63 patients, and averaged 0.52 +/- 0.05 (standard deviation) in the 27 patients with an uncomplicated infarct. The ejection fraction was reduced in 24 patients with mild to moderate left ventricular failure (0.40 +/- 0.05, P less than 0.0001) and in the 12 patients with overt pulmonary edema (0.33 +/- 0.07, P less than 0.0001). In 35 patients the ejection fraction correlated with the mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (r = 0.72). In 15 patients with normal left ventricular wall motion by heart motion videotracking, the ejection fraction was significantly higher (0.53 +/- 0.08) than in the 26 patients with regional left ventricular dysfunction (0.41 +/- 0.10, P less than 0.0001). During the early postinfarction period, the left ventricular ejection fraction improved in 55 percent of patients and remained unchanged or decreased in 45 percent. A further increase in the ejection fraction was noted in 61 percent of patients during the late follow-up period. Patients

  3. Magnetocardiograms of patients with left ventricular overloading recorded with a second-derivative SQUID gradiometer.

    PubMed

    Fujino, K; Sumi, M; Saito, K; Murakami, M; Higuchi, T; Nakaya, Y; Mori, H

    1984-07-01

    Magnetocardiograms (MCGs) were recorded by means of a second-derivative SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer in 60 normal subjects and 95 patients with left ventricular overloading to determine the clinical value of the MCG. In patients with left ventricular overloading, the Q or S wave was increased in the upper anterior part of the thorax, and the R wave was increased in the left lower part of the thorax, indicating increased leftward force due to left ventricular overloading. For detection of left ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation from echocardiographic measurements, the sensitivity and specificity of the MCG were similar to those of the standard ECG, or slightly better. In patients with left ventricular systolic overloading, the Q wave was decreased in the lower anterior part of the thorax, indicating a decreased septal vector. Inversion of the T wave was seen more frequently in the MCGs than in the ECGs of patients with left ventricular overloading, suggesting that the MCG is useful for detecting early abnormalities of repolarization. These results suggest that the MCG may provide information that is difficult to obtain from the standard 12-lead ECG.

  4. BP control and left ventricular hypertrophy regression in children with CKD.

    PubMed

    Kupferman, Juan C; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Cox, Christopher; Flynn, Joseph; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley; Mitsnefes, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with CKD, hypertension is linked to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, but whether this association exists in children with CKD has not been determined conclusively. To assess the relationship between BP and left ventricular hypertrophy, we prospectively analyzed data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort. In total, 478 subjects were enrolled, and 435, 321, and 142 subjects remained enrolled at years 1, 3, and 5, respectively. Echocardiograms were obtained 1 year after study entry and then every 2 years; BP was measured annually. A linear mixed model was used to assess the effect of BP on left ventricular mass index, which was measured at three different visits, and a mixed logistic model was used to assess left ventricular hypertrophy. These models were part of a joint longitudinal and survival model to adjust for informative dropout. Predictors of left ventricular mass index included systolic BP, anemia, and use of antihypertensive medications other than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy included systolic BP, female sex, anemia, and use of other antihypertensive medications. Over 4 years, the adjusted prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy decreased from 15.3% to 12.6% in a systolic BP model and from 15.1% to 12.6% in a diastolic BP model. These results indicate that a decline in BP may predict a decline in left ventricular hypertrophy in children with CKD and suggest additional factors that warrant additional investigation as predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy in these patients.

  5. The Effect of Aortic Compliance on Left Ventricular Power Requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Aortic compliance depends on both geometry and mechanical properties of the aorta. Reduction in arterial compliance has been associated with aging, smoking, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. Increased stiffness of the aorta affects the wave dynamics in the aorta by increasing both pulse pressure amplitude and wave speed. We hypothesized that decreased aortic compliance leads to an increased left ventricular power requirement for a fixed cardiac output due to altered pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. We used a computational approach using the finite element method for solid and fluid domains coupled to each other by using the direct coupling method. A nonlinear material model was used for the solid wall. The fluid flow model was considered to be Newtonian, incompressible, and laminar. The simulation was performed for a heart rate of 75 beats per minute for six different compliances while keeping the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance constant. The results show a trend towards increased left ventricular energy expenditure per cycle with decreased compliance. The relevance of these findings to clinical observations will be discussed.

  6. Disseminated malignancy after extracorporeal life support and left ventricular assist device, diagnosed by left ventricular apical core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Tine E; Vermeulen, Tom; Conraads, Viviane M; Rodrigus, Inez E

    2013-11-01

    The left ventricular apical core biopsy performed during implantation of a left ventricular assist device (VAD) is a well-known diagnostic procedure in confirming cardiomyopathies leading to end-stage heart failure. We describe a patient in whom disseminated malignancy was revealed by means of the apical core biopsy after extracorporeal life support and left ventricular assist device implantation as a bridge to transplantation. This case emphasizes the importance of thorough oncological screening before VAD implantation and the possible consequences of circulating tumour cells in this device-assisted circulation.

  7. [Hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms of impaired left ventricular contraction in coronary artery disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bleifeld, W; Pop, T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chronic coronary insufficiency on the hemodynamics, the geometry and muscle mass of the left ventricle were studied in 30 patients and compared to 13 controls. In these patients the cardiac output was normal in spite of impaired contractility and left ventricular wall movement. The impaired cardiac performance was compensated by 1. hypertrophy and 2. dialatation of the left ventricle. In one-vessel disease of the the coronary arteries left ventricular muscle mass was modestly, but not significant increased. Hypertrophy decreased from +20% in one vessel disease to +10% in three vessel disease. In contrast, left ventricular dilatation increased from +23% in one vessel disease to 43% in two vessel disease and to 70% in patients with sclerotic lesions in three vessels. Left ventricular dilatation seems to be the main hemodynamic compensatory mechnism resulting in a relative increase of the pump function of the heart compared to non dilated hearts. However, dilatation leads in the end-phase to left ventricular failure. By increased wall tension in the presence of impaired coronary blood flow dilatation bears the risk of deterioration of left ventricular function.

  8. [Electrovectocardiographic manifestations of left ventricular and biventricular growth].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1988-01-01

    The basic criteria for the electrical diagnosis of left ventricular and biventricular enlargements are discussed on the basis of the myocardial depolarization and repolarization sequence. Left ventricular dilatation secondary to isolated diastolic overloading increases the manifestation of the main vectors resulting from the activation of this ventricle. These changes reflect the proximity of the left ventricular walls to the exploring electrodes. The above mentioned vectors appear as tall R waves and wide ventricular curves with counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. If the diastolic overload is a isolated phenomenon, T waves are positive and asymmetric on the left leads while the T loop, of secondary type, is concordant in its orientation with the R loop. This fact is due to a prolonged duration of the repolarization phase of the left ventricle. Global left ventricular hypertrophy produced by a sustained systolic overloading increases the magnitude and manifestation of all the vectors resulting from the depolarization of this ventricle (I, II l, III l) owing to the prolonged duration of the corresponding activation fronts. When LBBB is also present, the first septal vector is not evident. In extreme degrees of the systolic overload, the T wave is inverted and shows morphologic secondary characteristics in left leads, and the T loop opposes the R loop on frontal and horizontal planes. The directional changes of the repolarization fronts of free left ventricular walls can satisfactorily explain these features. Left ventricular hypertrophy of a segmentary type, such as that observed in idiopathic myocardiopathy, generally increases the magnitude and manifestation of septal vector I and II left. When both ventricles are hypertrophied, the electromotive forces originating in the more severely affected heart chamber predominate in electrical records.

  9. Association of carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Roman, M J; Pickering, T G; Schwartz, J E; Pini, R; Devereux, R B

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in a large group of asymptomatic hypertensive and normotensive adults and to examine its relation to the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Both electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, including cerebrovascular disease, but the mechanism of association is unknown. Four hundred eighty-six (277 normotensive and 209 untreated hypertensive) adults, free of clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, were studied prospectively with echocardiography to determine left ventricular mass and carotid ultrasound to detect atherosclerosis and to measure common carotid artery dimensions. Carotid atherosclerosis was present in 16% of normotensive and 23% of hypertensive participants (p < 0.05) and was associated with older age, higher systolic and pulse pressures and larger left ventricular mass index ([mean +/- SD] 91 +/- 19 vs. 82 +/- 18 g/m2, p < 0.0001). The difference in mass persisted after adjustment for baseline differences in age and blood pressure. Subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy were twice as likely to have carotid atheromas (35% vs. 18%, p < 0.01). Logistic regression analyses, including standard risk factors, indicated that only age and left ventricular mass index independently predicted the presence of carotid plaque, both in the entire study group and when normotensive and hypertensive subjects were considered separately. We believe that the present study provides the first evidence that higher left ventricular mass as detected by echocardiography is associated with the presence of carotid plaque. The association between cardiac hypertrophy and systemic atherosclerosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of the high incidence of vascular events that is well documented in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  10. Left ventricular mass: correlation with fatness, hemodynamics and renal morphology.

    PubMed

    Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  11. Left Ventricular Mass: Correlation with Fatness, Hemodynamics and Renal Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. Material/Methods 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Conclusions Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon. PMID:25436020

  12. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-02-02

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using (23)sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP (r=0.33, P=0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass (r=0.56, P<0.001 versus r=0.35, P<0.001; P<0.01 between the two correlations). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients.

  13. Cardiac function as related to adrenergic activity in hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Agabiti-Rosei, E; Muiesan, M L; Romanelli, G; Castellano, M; Beschi, M; Alicandri, C; Muiesan, G

    1987-06-01

    Studies in experimental animals and in hypertensive patients have shown that changes in cardiac anatomy and function are not just a simple consequence of the increased pressure load. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system is one of the factors that may influence cardiac performance and also, possibly, the cardiac anatomy of hypertensive patients. Animal studies have strongly suggested a possible role of adrenergic factors in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. In man, plasma catecholamines are usually higher in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, and a correlation between left ventricular mass and plasma noradrenaline has also been observed. The decrease of cardiac performance after acute beta blockade has been found to be directly related to basal plasma noradrenaline concentration. An impaired response to beta-adrenergic stimulation has been reported in hypertensive animals and has been confirmed in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  14. Usefulness of verapamil for congestive heart failure associated with abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling and normal left ventricular systolic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Setaro, J.F.; Zaret, B.L.; Schulman, D.S.; Black, H.R.; Soufer, R. )

    1990-10-15

    Normal left ventricular systolic performance with impaired left ventricular diastolic filling may be present in a substantial number of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). To evaluate the effect of oral verapamil in this subset, 20 men (mean age 68 +/- 5 years) with CHF, intact left ventricular function (ejection fraction greater than 45%) and abnormal diastolic filling (peak filling rate less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes per second (edv/s)) were studied in a placebo-controlled, double-blind 5-week crossover trial. All patients underwent echocardiography to rule out significant valvular disease, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy to exclude major active ischemia. Compared to baseline values, verapamil significantly improved exercise capacity by 33% (13.9 +/- 4.3 vs 10.7 +/- 3.4 minutes at baseline) and peak filling rate by 30% (2.29 +/- 0.54 vs 1.85 +/- 0.45 edv/s at baseline) (all p less than 0.05). Placebo values were 12.3 +/- 4.0 minutes and 2.16 +/- 0.48 edv/s, respectively (difference not significant for both). Improvement from baseline in an objective clinico-radiographic heart failure score (scale 0 to 13) was significantly greater with verapamil compared to placebo (median improvement in score: 3 vs 1, p less than 0.01). Mean ejection fraction and systolic blood pressure were unchanged from baseline; diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased to a small degree. Verapamil may have therapeutic efficacy in patients with CHF, preserved systolic function and impaired diastolic filling.

  15. Changes in Left Ventricular Global and Regional Longitudinal Strain During Right Ventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Algazzar, Alaa Solaiman; Katta, Azza Ali; Ahmed, Khaled Sayed; Elkenany, Nasima Mohamed; Ibrahim, Maher Abdelaleem

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the short-term impacts of right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) and right ventricular septal pacing (RVSP) on left ventricular (LV) regional longitudinal strain (RLS) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). LV strain and functions may be altered by RVAP. RVSP might be a better alternative. The detrimental effect of right ventricular (RV) pacing may be mediated by regional LV impairment. Methods Sixty-two patients indicated for permanent pacemaker implantation and preserved LV systolic function were included. Dual chamber pacemakers were implanted in all patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to RV lead position: group A (RVAP, n = 32) and group B (RVSP, n = 30). Patients were examined at baseline and after 6 months of implantation for LV systolic functions, global and regional strain by echocardiography and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. Results Paced QRS duration was significantly shorter in group B compared to group A patients (P = 0.02). Regarding ventricular strain, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups at baseline measurements in comparisons of GLS, relative apical longitudinal strain (rALS) and RLS (P > 0.05). In contrast, there was statistically significant difference between both groups in results of GLS (P = 0.01) at 6 months. In addition, RLSs in septal, apical and rALS were affected after 6 months with P values of 0.02, 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. Conclusion RVAP appears to worsen GLS more than RVSP, and the resultant decrease in apical strain is most correlated region to decrease in GLS. PMID:28197264

  16. Marked Regional Left Ventricular Heterogeneity in Hypertensive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Robert W.W.; Doyle, Mark; Young, Alistair A.; Devereux, Richard B.; Kortright, Eduardo; Perry, Gilbert; Bella, Jonathan N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David; Pohost, Gerald M.; Dell'Italia, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Concentric hypertensive left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is presumed to be a symmetrical process. Using MRI-derived intramyocardial strain, we sought to determine whether segmental deformation was also symmetrical, as suggested by echocardiography. High echocardiographic LV relative wall thickness in hypertensive LV hypertrophy allows preserved endocardial excursion despite depressed LV midwall shortening (MWS). Depressed MWS is an adverse prognostic indicator, but whether this is related to global or regional myocardial depression is unknown. We prospectively compared MWS derived from linear echocardiographic dimensions with MR strain(∈) in septal and posterior locations in 27 subjects with ECG LV hypertrophy in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study. Although MRI-derived mass was higher in patients than in normal control subjects (124.0±38.6 versus 60.5±13.2g/m2; P<0.001), fractional shortening (30±5% versus 33±3%) and end-systolic stress (175±22 versus 146±28 g/cm2) did not differ between groups. However, mean MR(∈) was decreased in patients versus normal control subjects (13.9±6.8% versus 22.4±3.5%), as was echo MWS (13.4±2.8% versus 18.2±1.4%; both P<0.001). For patients versus normal control subjects, posterior wall(∈) was not different (17.8±7.1% versus 21.6±4.0%), whereas septal(∈) was markedly depressed (10.1±6.6% versus 23.2±3.4%; P<0.001). Although global MWS by echocardiography or MRI is depressed in hypertensive LV hypertrophy, MRI tissue tagging demonstrates substantial regional intramyocardial strain(∈) heterogeneity, with most severely depressed strain patterns in the septum. Although posterior wall 2D principal strain was inversely related to radius of curvature, septal strain was not, suggesting that factors other than afterload are responsible for pronounced myocardial strain heterogeneity in concentric hypertrophy. PMID:18606908

  17. Left ventricular biomechanics in professional football players.

    PubMed

    von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K

    2017-04-04

    Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, P<.01). Diastolic untwisting rate (UTWR) was higher in players (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both P<.05). Untwisting/twisting ratio (-1.48±0.05 vs -1.11±0.08; P<.001) and untwisting performance (=UTR/TW; -9.25±0.34 vs -7.38±0.40 s(-1) , P<.01) were increased in players. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in post-infarction left ventricular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk-Mahjoub, S; Zaghdoudi, M; Amira, Z; Chebi, H; Khabouchi, N; Finsterer, J; Mechmeche, R; Ghazouani, E

    2016-10-15

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to molecular, structural, geometric and functional changes in the heart during a process known as ventricular remodeling. Myocardial infarction is followed by an inflammatory response in which pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role, particularly in left ventricular remodeling. This study aimed at evaluating serum concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL8), tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-10 (IL10), pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and at correlating them with left ventricular remodeling as assessed by echocardiographic parameters. In a case-control study 30 MI patients were compared with 30 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of IL8, TNFα and IL10 were measured on day 2 and day 30 post-MI by chemiluminescence immunoassay and correlated with echocardiographic parameters. There was an increase of IL8, and TNFα together with a decrease of IL10 at both time points. IL8 was negatively correlated with the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and positively with left ventricular systolic volume. IL10 was negatively correlated with LVEDD and left atrial volume 30days post-MI. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL8 was accompanied by decreased anti-inflammatory IL10. This imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might contribute to the progression of left ventricular remodeling and may lead to heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.; Isaacs, S.; Fraser, R.C.; Commerford, P.J.; Uys, C.J.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Barnard, C.N.

    1985-02-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts.

  20. Non-contact left ventricular endocardial mapping in cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lambiase, P D; Rinaldi, A; Hauck, J; Mobb, M; Elliott, D; Mohammad, S; Gill, J S; Bucknall, C A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Up to 30% of patients with heart failure do not respond to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). This may reflect placement of the coronary sinus lead in regions of slow conduction despite optimal positioning on current criteria. Objectives: To characterise the effect of CRT on left ventricular activation using non-contact mapping and to examine the electrophysiological factors influencing optimal left ventricular lead placement. Methods and results: 10 patients implanted with biventricular pacemakers were studied. In six, the coronary sinus lead was found to be positioned in a region of slow conduction with an average conduction velocity of 0.4 m/s, v 1.8 m/s in normal regions (p < 0.02). Biventricular pacing with the left ventricle paced 32 ms before the right induced the optimal mean velocity time integral and timing for fusion of depolarisation wavefronts from the right and left ventricular pacing sites. Pacing outside regions of slow conduction decreased left ventricular activation time and increased cardiac output and dP/dtmax significantly. Conclusions: In patients undergoing CRT for heart failure, non-contact mapping can identify regions of slow conduction. Significant haemodynamic improvements can occur when the site of left ventricular pacing is outside these slow conduction areas. Failure of CRT to produce clinical benefits may reflect left ventricular lead placement in regions of slow conduction which can be overcome by pacing in more normally activating regions. PMID:14676240

  1. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M J; Okada, R D; Ewy, G A; Hellman, D J

    1982-12-01

    In order to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle, M-mode echocardiograms and systolic time intervals were obtained in 13 patients while they were clinically hyperthyroid and again when they were euthyroid following radioactive iodine therapy. Echocardiographic tracings of the septum and left ventricular posterior wall were digitized and analyzed to provide the maximum velocity of shortening and maximum velocity of lengthening. These velocities were normalized for left ventricular diastolic dimension. The left ventricular minor axis fractional shortening and the normalized maximum velocity of shortening were both increased during the hyperthyroid state. The normalized maximum velocity of lengthening, a measure of diastolic left ventricular function, was also increased during the hyperthyroid state when compared to the euthyroid state. The preejection period index and the preejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio were lower when the patients were hyperthyroid than when they were euthyroid. These data confirm the increased inotropic state and demonstrated increased diastolic relaxation velocities of the hyperthyroid left ventricle.

  2. Impact of arterial stiffening on left ventricular structure.

    PubMed

    Roman, M J; Ganau, A; Saba, P S; Pini, R; Pickering, T G; Devereux, R B

    2000-10-01

    Aging of the vasculature results in arterial stiffening and an increase in systolic and pulse pressures. Although pressure load is a stimulus for left ventricular hypertrophy, the extent to which vascular stiffening per se, independent of blood pressure, influences left ventricular structure is uncertain. Two hundred seventy-six subjects (79 normotensive and 197 otherwise healthy hypertensive individuals) underwent echocardiography to assess left ventricular structure. Arterial stiffness was estimated by the pressure-independent stiffness index, beta, and the pressure-dependent elastic modulus derived from simultaneous carotid ultrasound and applanation tonometry. Systemic arterial compliance (the inverse of stiffness) was estimated by the arterial compliance index. In multivariate analysis, beta was related to age (P<0.001) and smoking history (P<0.01) but not mean pressure, whereas elastic modulus was related to age and mean pressure (both P<0.001). The arterial compliance index was only related to age. Whereas systolic and diastolic pressures and the elastic modulus were positively associated with left ventricular mass (all P<0.001), primarily because of increases in wall thicknesses, beta and the arterial compliance index bore no relation to left ventricular mass. beta was inversely related to chamber diameter and directly related to left ventricular relative wall thickness, the ratio of wall thickness to chamber radius. Younger and older hypertensive subjects had comparable left ventricular mass, despite higher systolic and pulse pressures in the older group, whereas older hypertensives had higher mean relative wall thickness, associated with a significant increase in arterial stiffness (beta, 7.06 versus 5.17; elastic modulus, 595 versus 437 dyne/cm(2) x10(-6)) and reduction in the arterial compliance index (0.87 versus 1.05 mL/mm Hg per square meter) (all P<0.001). Thus, the extent to which arterial stiffness relates to left ventricular hypertrophy is

  3. Left atrial minimum volume and reservoir function as correlates of left ventricular diastolic function: impact of left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-05-01

    Left atrial (LA) maximum volume (LAV(max)) is an indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. However, LAV(max) is also influenced by systolic events, whereas the LA minimum volume (LAV(min)) is directly exposed to LV pressure. The authors hypothesised that LAV(min) may be a better correlate of LV diastolic function than LAV(max). Cross-sectional. University hospital. 357 participants from a community-based cohort study. LA volumes and reservoir function, measured as total LA emptying volume (LAEV) and LA emptying fraction (LAEF), were assessed by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. LV diastolic function was assessed by trans-mitral early (E) and late (A) Doppler velocities and mitral early diastolic velocity by tissue-Doppler (e'). LV systolic function was assessed by LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) by speckle-tracking. LAV(min) significantly increased with worsening diastolic dysfunction (p<0.001), whereas the increase in LAV(max) was less pronounced (p=0.07). LAEV and LAEF decreased with worsening diastolic dysfunction (both p<0.001). In linear regressions, LAV(min) and LAV(max) were significant predictors of E/e', with higher parameter estimates for LAV(min). In multivariate models, LAV(min) resulted strongly associated with E/e' (β=0.45, p<0.001), whereas LAV(max) was not (β=-0.16, p=0.08). LA reservoir function was better associated with GLS than LVEF. In multivariate analyses, GLS was significantly associated with LAV(max) (β=-0.15, p=0.002), LAEV (β=-0.37, p<0.001) and LAEF (β=-0.28, p<0.001) but not with LAV(min). LAV(min) is a better correlate of LV diastolic function than LAV(max). The impact of LV longitudinal systolic function on LA reservoir function might explain the weaker relation between LAV(max) and LV diastolic function.

  4. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Lovic, Dragan; Narayan, Puneet; Pittaras, Andreas; Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Kokkinos, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Systemic hypertension and physical exercise are both associated with cardiac adaptations. The impact is most prominent on the left side of the heart, which hypertrophies leading to left ventricular hypertrophy. This article reviews structural and functional cardiac changes seen in hypertensive and athlete's hearts.

  5. Echocardiographic assessment of abnormal left ventricular relaxation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Upton, M T; Gibson, D G; Brown, D J

    1976-01-01

    In 64 patients requiring cardiac catheterization for chest pain, echocardiograms showing anterior mitral leaflet and left ventricular cavity simultaneously were recorded. These were digitized and their first derivatives computed in order to study time relations between mitral valve and left ventricular wall movement in early distole. In 10 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms and coronary arteriograms, mitral valve opening began 1-1 +/- 9-3 ms (mean +/- SD) before the onset of outward wall movement, and reached peak opening velocity 2-0 +/- 13 ms after maximum rate of change of dimension. Virtually identical time relations were seen in 15 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms but with obstructive coronary artery disease (3-6 +/- 9-3 ms and 0-7 +/- 7-3 ms, respectively). These close relations were lost in patients with segmental abnormalities of contraction on left ventricular angiogram. In 19 such patients with normal septal motion, outward wall movement began 53 +/- 31 ms before the onset of anterior movement of the mitral valve leaflet, and this isovolumic wall movement accounted for 31 per cent of the total diastolic excursion. In 9 patients with reversed septal movement, these abnormalities were greater, 92 +/- 39 ms and 33 per cent, respectively, while in 11 patients with diffuse left ventricular involvement they were small, 5-5 +/- 13 ms and 3 per cent. Frame-by-frame digitization of cineangiograms was used to confirm these findings which appear to reflect an abnormal change in left ventricular cavity shape during isovolumic relaxation. Images PMID:973873

  6. Left ventricular mechanics of counterpulsation and left heart bypass, individually and in combination.

    PubMed

    Rose, E A; Marrin, C A; Bregman, D; Spotnitz, H M

    1979-01-01

    Counterpulsation and left heart bypass devices have been successfully used to salvage patients with severe left ventricular power failure following cardiopulmonary bypass. Each of these techniques is believed to reduce or minimize myocardial work, yet the effects of these devices on the force of myocardial contraction have not been defined. In the present investigation the effects of counterpulsation produced by intravascular (intra-aortic balloon pumping) and extravascular (pulsatile assist device) balloon devices, partial left atrial-aortic bypass, and total bypass on left ventricular mechanics were examined. The devices were studied individually and in combination in 10 anesthetized open-chest dogs. Left ventricular wall stress, external work, and contractility indices were calculated by computer using a changing volume spherical model of the left ventricle. Results indicate that although all currently available circulatory assist devices reduced peak left ventricular wall stress, a spectrum of relative effectiveness progressed from intra-aortic balloon pumping or pulsatile assist device alone through the combination intra-aortic balloon pumping plus the pulsatile assist device. Partial left heart bypass was more effective than intra-aortic balloon pumping plus the pulsatile assist device in reducing peak wall stress, but the difference was small. Total left heart bypass was vastly superior to any of the other modalities tested in its effects on peak wall stress as well as external work. The addition of counterpulsation to partial or total left heart bypass produced minimal changes in left ventricular systolic mechanics.

  7. Cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular aneurysms in children.

    PubMed Central

    Alday, L E; Moreyra, E; Quiroga, C; Buonano, C; Dander, B

    1976-01-01

    Ventricular aneurysms in children are unusual. Three patients with cardiomyopathy associated with angiographically proved left ventricular aneurysms in this age group are reported. Two of them were girls. The ages were 20 months, 7 years, and 14 years. Heart failure was present in all patients. There was radiological evidence of cardiomegaly in all three, and the electrocardiogram showed signs of necrosis in two of them. Selective left ventricular angiography disclosed generalized hypokinesis in all patients. One child had an aneurysm of the diaphragmatic wall. In another the aneurysm was localized in the muscular ventricular septum, causing severe subpulmonary stenosis by encroaching in the right ventricular outflow tract during systole. The third patient had an aneurysm of the left ventricular free wall partly encircling the left ventricle. The coronary arteries appeared normal in all cases. The clinical features of the underlying disease were not altered by the presence of the aneurysm except in the patient with the septal aneurysm and subpulmonary stenosis. In this patient the aneurysm was successfully resected. Images PMID:944043

  8. Improvement in left ventricular intrinsic dyssynchrony with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Bozyel, Serdar; Ağaçdiken Ağır, Ayşen; Şahin, Tayfun; Çelikyurt, Umut; Aktaş, Müjdat; Argan, Onur; Yılmaz, İrem; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Derviş, Emir; Vural, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to induce a structural and electrical remodeling; the data on whether left ventricle (LV) reverse remodeling is associated with restitution of intrinsic contraction pattern are unknown. In this study, we investigated the presence of improvement in left ventricular intrinsic dyssynchrony in patients with CRT. A total of 45 CRT recipients were prospectively studied. Dyssynchrony indexes including interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) and tissue Doppler velocity opposing-wall delay (OWD) as well as QRS duration on 12-lead surface electrocardiogram were recorded before CRT device implantation. After 1 year, patients with chronic biventricular pacing were reprogramed to VVI 40 to allow the resumption of native conduction and contraction pattern. After 4-6 h of intrinsic rhythm, QRS duration and all echocardiographic measurements were recorded. Dyssynchrony was defined as IVMD >40 ms and OWD >65 ms. CRT response was defined by a ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) at a 12-month follow-up. Thirty-two patients (71%) showed response to CRT. The native QRS duration reduced significantly from 150±12 ms to 138±14 ms (p<0.001), and dyssynchrony indexes showed a significant improvement only in responders. The mean OWD reduced from 86±37 ms to 50±29 ms (p<0.001), and the mean IVMD decreased from 55±22 ms to 28±22 ms (p<0.001) in responders. The reduction in LVESV was significantly correlated with ΔOWD (r=0.47, p=0.001), ΔIVMD (r=0.45, p=0.001), and ΔQRS (r=0.34, p=0.022). Chronic CRT significantly improves LV native contraction pattern and causes reverse remodeling in dyssynchrony.

  9. Left Ventricular Performance and Coronary Flow after Coronary Embolization with Plastic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, R. G.; LaFarge, C. G.; Gamble, W. J.; Kumar, A. E.; Manasek, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coronary flow, left ventricular circumference, and left ventricular pressure were observed in the isovolumically contracting, isolated canine heart supported with arterial blood from a donor. Systolic pressure, heart rate, and coronary perfusion pressure were held constant while the coronary bed was progressively embolized with either large (average 865 μ) or small (average 10 μ) polystyrene microspheres. During embolization with large microspheres, coronary flow diminished progressively. After sufficient embolization, decreased ventricular performance was indicated by a rise in end-diastolic pressure. During embolization with small microspheres, coronary flow initially increased, which suggests the effective release of a vasodilator substance. Return of coronary flow to control levels occurred only after the end-diastolic pressure rose, on the average, to above 30 mm Hg. After embolization with both sizes of microspheres, ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relationships showed decreased ventricular compliance. This was attributed, in part, to edema of the ventricular wall and, in part, to focal shortening of the sarcomeres where the circulation was compromised. Embolization with both sizes of microspheres ultimately caused a decrease in ventricular performance, although when the systolic pressure was increased the usual relationship between peak developed wall stress, and end-diastolic pressure showed less of a descending limb than that found in the nonembolized, isolated heart. It is felt that the data summarized above have bearing on ventricular performance and coronary flow in clinical situations where hearts are perfused through pump oxygenator systems and are thereby subject to embolization from aggregated clumps of platelets and fibrin. Images PMID:4999636

  10. The influence of left ventricular geometry on left atrial phasic function in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Pencic, Biljana; Kocijancic, Vesna; Celic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate left atrial (LA) phasic function in hypertensive patients with different geometric patterns using two-dimensional (2DE) and three-dimensional (3DE) echocardiography. This cross-sectional study included 213 hypertensive subjects who underwent a complete 2DE and 3DE examination. The new updated criteria for left ventricular (LV) geometry, which consider LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter and relative wall thickness, were applied. According to this classification, the subjects were divided into six groups: normal geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric non-dilated left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), concentric LVH, dilated LVH and concentric-dilated LVH. 2DE and 3DE LA volumes gradually increased from normal LV geometry to concentric and concentric-dilated LVH. LA reservoir and conduit functions, estimated by 2DE and 3DE LA total and passive emptying fractions, were decreased in subjects with concentric and concentric-dilated LVH. LA booster pump function was increased in patients with concentric, dilated and concentric-dilated LVH compared to subjects with normal LV geometry. The same results regarding LA phasic function were provided by 2DE strain analysis. Concentric, dilated and non-concentric dilated LVH were associated with LA enlargement independently of main demographic and clinical features. LV geometric patterns significantly influence LA phasic function. Concentric and dilated LVH patterns have the most prominent negative effect on LA enlargement assessed by both 2DE and 3DE.

  11. Correlation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Left Ventricular Geometry in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Zhang, H; Wu, C; Han, J; Guo, Z; Jia, C; Yang, L; Hao, Y; Xu, K; Liu, X; Si, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of the left ventricular diastolic function and the left ventricular geometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) by echocardiography. Methods: The 181 patients diagnosed with OSAS were divided into the normal geometry group (NG), the concentric remodelling group (CR), the eccentric hypertrophy group (EH) and the concentric hypertrophy group (CH). Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed toward the correlation of the left ventricular diastolic function and the left ventricular geometry. Results: The E peak in the EH and CH group was significantly reduced, with significant difference; the E/A, Em, Am and Em/Am was reduced in the order of the CR, EH and CH groups, while E/Em was increased, and the difference was significant. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the Em/Am showed significant negative correlations with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) [r = −0.419] and relative wall thickness (RWT) [r = −0.289], while the E/Em was significantly positively correlated with the LVMI (r = 0.638) and RWT [r = 0.328] (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LVMI and RWT had influence on the Em/Am and E/Em (r2 = 0.402, r2 = 0.107, p < 0.001). The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was the worst in the CH group. Conclusions: There was correlation between the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the changes in cardiac geometry. PMID:26360680

  12. Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptide determination as a screening test for the detection of patients with mild left ventricular impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Omland, T.; Aakvaag, A.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of measuring the cardiac natriuretic peptides, atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and brain natriuretic peptide, as screening tests for identifying patients with mild left ventricular impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the cardiac natriuretic peptides. SETTING: Cardiac catheterisation unit, Norwegian central hospital. PATIENTS: A consecutive series of 254 patients undergoing diagnostic left-sided cardiac catheterisation. One hundred and twenty eight of these patients had a history of previous myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of normal and impaired left ventricular function, as evaluated by logistic regression analysis and estimation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (an index of overall diagnostic accuracy). Ventricular function was assessed by the measurement of left ventricular end diastolic pressure and angiographically determined left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma brain natriuretic peptide was the best predictor of increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (> or = 15 mm Hg) (P < 0.001), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (< or = 45%) (P < 0.001), and the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 45% and left ventricular end diastolic pressure > or = 15 mm Hg (P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC function for the detection of left ventricular dysfunction were 0.789 for brain natriuretic peptide, 0.665 for atrial natriuretic factor, and 0.610 for N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide seemed to be a better indicator of left ventricular function than plasma atrial natriuretic factor or N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of circulating atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and

  13. Reversible segmental left ventricular dysfunction after coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, E K; Popma, J J; Dehmer, G J; Snow, F R; Lewis, S A; Vetrovec, G W; Nixon, J V

    1990-04-01

    Patients with chronic segmental myocardial dysfunction may demonstrate improvement after coronary revascularization. To evaluate the early effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) on resting left ventricular segmental function, we obtained serial two-dimensional echocardiograms 1.1 +/- 0.9 days before and 3.1 +/- 2 days after elective PTCA in 40 patients. Echocardiograms were reviewed in a blind fashion; left ventricular segmental wall motion was analyzed in four short-axis views, and a score was assigned to each region (0, normal; 1, hypokinetic; and 2, akinetic). Abnormal regional wall motion was present in 20 of the patients before PTCA. Summed segment scores in these 20 patients showed an improvement in regional wall motion from 4.5 +/- 2.5 to 1.6 +/- 2.1 (p less than 0.01) after successful PTCA. Similar results were obtained when the patients were divided into those with or without a previous myocardial infarction. Improvement occurred in the seven patients without a previous myocardial infarction; the summed segment score decreased from 4.2 +/- 3.4 to 0.86 +/- 1.6 (p less than 0.05) after PTCA. Ten of the 13 patients with a prior myocardial infarction demonstrated improvement in wall motion after PTCA; the summed segment scores decreased 54% (p less than 0.001). Of the 260 segments analyzed in the study, 180 were normal before and after PTCA. Forty-nine of the 69 hypokinetic segments were normal, and 10 of 12 akinetic segments were hypokinetic after successful coronary revascularization. There was no deterioration in wall motion after PTCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Left ventricular assist devices—current state and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ulf; Berkefeld, Anna; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger; Voss, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have become an important treatment tool for severe acute and chronic heart failure, since heart transplantation cannot meet the demands because of a lack of available donor organs. Since implantation of the first ventricular assist device a constant development of the suitability of these devices has been made. This review will introduce different generations of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and elaborate on clinical indications, risk stratification and current literature. PMID:27621895

  15. Orthotopic heart transplant versus left ventricular assist device: A national comparison of cost and survival

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Stone, Matthew L.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Kern, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Orthotopic heart transplantation is the standard of care for end-stage heart disease. Left ventricular assist device implantation offers an alternative treatment approach. Left ventricular assist device practice has changed dramatically since the 2008 Food and Drug Administration approval of the HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, Calif), but at what societal cost? The present study examined the cost and efficacy of both treatments over time. Methods All patients who underwent either orthotopic heart transplantation (n = 9369) or placement of an implantable left ventricular assist device (n = 6414) from 2005 to 2009 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were selected. The trends in treatment use, mortality, and cost were analyzed. Results The incidence of orthotopic heart transplantation increased marginally within a 5-year period. In contrast, the annual left ventricular assist device implantation rates nearly tripled. In-hospital mortality from left ventricular assist device implantation decreased precipitously, from 42% to 17%. In-hospital mortality for orthotopic heart transplantation remained relatively stable (range, 3.8%–6.5%). The mean cost per patient increased for both orthotopic heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device placement (40% and 17%, respectively). With the observed increase in both device usage and cost per patient, the cumulative Left ventricular assist device cost increased 232% within 5 years (from $143 million to $479 million). By 2009, Medicare and Medicaid were the primary payers for nearly one half of all patients (orthotopic heart transplantation, 45%; left ventricular assist device, 51%). Conclusions Since Food and Drug Administration approval of the HeartMate II, mortality after left ventricular assist device implantation has decreased rapidly, yet has remained greater than that after orthotopic heart transplantation. The left ventricular assist device costs have continued to increase and have been

  16. Left ventricular noncompaction: A rare indication for pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Mariana; Costa, Patrícia; Vaz, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro Torres, José; Areias, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy, characterized morphologically by a dilated left ventricle, prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses in the ventricular myocardium, with no other structural heart disease. It is thought to be secondary to an arrest of normal myocardial compaction during fetal life. Clinically, the disease presents with heart failure, embolic events, arrhythmias or sudden death. Current diagnostic criteria are based on clinical and imaging data and two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography is the first-line exam. There is no specific therapy and treatment is aimed at associated comorbidities. Cases refractory to medical therapy may require heart transplantation. The authors describe a case of severe and refractory heart failure, which was the initial presentation of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in a previously healthy male child, who underwent successful heart transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Off-pump revascularization for significant left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Grand, Todd J; Liao, George P; Panlilio, Corinna M

    2006-08-01

    Left ventricular dysfunction is a predictor of perioperative morbidity and mortality in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Obligatory global myocardial ischemia and injury induced during crossclamping as well as adverse systemic effects of cardiopulmonary bypass may induce a disproportionately greater overall physiologic insult in patients with poor ventricular function. All patients undergoing nonemergency off-pump coronary artery bypass by a single surgeon during an 18-month period were retrospectively analyzed. Two groups with preoperative ejection fraction classified as poor (10%-35%; n = 31) or normal (55%-80%; n = 60) were compared. The mean ejection fractions were 26% +/- 1% and 63% +/- 1% respectively, p < 0.000001. In those with significant left ventricular dysfunction, there were 2.8 +/- 0.1 grafts per patient, time to extubation was 8.4 +/- 1.2 hours, and discharge was after 4.9 +/- 0.6 days. These results were statistically equivalent to those in the group with normal left ventricular function. There was no intraaortic balloon pump insertion or mortality in either group. This technique provides an effective means of safely revascularizing patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction, and it may provide a valuable alternative approach in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  18. Ventricular fibrillation via torsade des pointes of cardiac sarcoidosis with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Sekihara, Takayuki; Nakane, Eisaku; Nakasone, Kazutaka; Inoko, Moriaki

    2016-10-25

    Generally, low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a risk for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. We present a case of cardiac sarcoidosis with preserved LVEF that evoked ventricular fibrillation (VF). A 73-year-old woman with VF presented to our emergency department. She had a history of ocular sarcoidosis, with gradual thinning of the basal intraventricular septum. LVEF was 62% on the most recent echocardiography. The electrocardiogram after defibrillation showed complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) with QT segment prolongation and frequent ventricular premature beats. VF via torsade des pointes (TdP) was suspected, and temporary intravenous ventricular pacing and magnesium sulfate infusion suppressed her VF. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed, and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Patients with cardiac sarcoidosis with CAVB are at risk of evoking VF via TdP regardless of LVEF. If cardiac sarcoidosis is suspected, early diagnosis and risk stratification of ventricular arrhythmia are important. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. [Effect of berberine on left ventricular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ping; Hong, Ying; Xie, Jun-Da; Xie, Xin-Ran; Wang, Jing; Fan, Jiang-Bo

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects and the underline mechanisms of berberine on the cardiac function and left ventricular remodeling in rats with renovascular hypertension. The renovascular hypertensive model was established by the two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C) method in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Two weeks after surgery, all the operated SD rats were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) renovascular hypertensive model group; (2) berberine 5 mg x kg(-1) group; (3) berberine 10 mg x kg(-1) group; (4) captopril 45 mg x kg(-1) group; and the sham operated rats were used as control. Four weeks after the drugs were administered, the cardiac function was assessed. The ratios of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), left ventricular weight to body weight (LVW/BW) and right ventricular weight to body weight (RVW/BW) were compared between groups. Coronal sections of the left ventricular tissue (LV) were prepared for paraffin sections, picrosirius red and HE staining was performed. The left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), the parameters of myocardial fibrosis indicated by interstitial collagen volume fraction (ICVF) and perivascular collagen area (PVCA) were assessed. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine cyclophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine cyclophosphate (cGMP) concentrations of left ventricular tissue were measured. Berberine 5 mg x kg(-1) and 10 mg x kg(-1) increased the left ventricular +/- dp/dt(max) and HR. Berberine 10 mg x kg(-1) decreased HW/BW and LVW/BW. The image analysis showed that both 5 and 10 mg x kg(-1) of berberine decreased LVWT, ICVF and PVCA, while increased the NO and cAMP contents in left ventricular tissue. Berberine could improve cardiac contractility of 2K2C model rats, and inhibit left ventricular remodeling especially myocardial fibrosis in renovascular hypertension rats. And such effects may partially associate with the increased NO and cAMP content in left ventricular tissue.

  20. Left ventricular non-compaction in a patient with ankylosing

    PubMed Central

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D.

    2016-01-01

    A 58 years old male with a long-standing history of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis presented with increasing fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. He had left ventricular dysfunction and enlargement, flail right coronary leaflet of aortic valve with severe eccentric aortic insufficiency along with left ventricular non-compaction in echocardiography. The most common cardiac manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis are aortic insufficiency and conduction disturbances. Involvement of myocardium, in the form of dilated cardiomyopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy, has also been reported. This case presents a very rare association of ankylosing spondylitis with non-compaction cardiomyopathy. PMID:28210476

  1. Ebstein's Anomaly, Left Ventricular Noncompaction, and Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Michael; Warner, Luke; Collins, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital disorder characterized by apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Ebstein's anomaly may be seen in association with other cardiac conditions, including patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). LVNC is characterized by increased trabeculation within the left ventricular apex. Echocardiography is often used to diagnose LVNC; however, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior characterization of the myocardium. We report a case of sudden cardiac death in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly with unrecognized LVNC noted on post mortem examination with screening documenting the presence of LVNC in one of the patient's twin sons. PMID:26240764

  2. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zarate-Morales, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Rodriguez, F.; Arevila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-28

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162{+-}37 g and 169{+-}34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  3. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-Morales, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, F.; Arévila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-01

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162±37 g and 169±34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  4. Relationship between right and left ventricular function in candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillator with low left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Karur, Gauri R; Connelly, Kim A; Deva, Djeven; Yan, Raymond T; Wald, Rachel M; Singh, Sheldon; Leung, General; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Dorian, Paul; Angaran, Paul; Yan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Indications for the primary prevention of sudden death using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are based predominantly on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is also a known prognostic factor in a variety of structural heart diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death. We sought to investigate the relationship between right and left ventricular parameters (function and volume) measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) among a broad spectrum of patients considered for an ICD. In this retrospective, single tertiary-care center study, consecutive patients considered for ICD implantation who were referred for LVEF assessment by CMR were included. Right and left ventricular function and volumes were measured. In total, 102 patients (age 62±14 years; 23% women) had a mean LVEF of 28±11% and RVEF of 44±12%. The left ventricular and right ventricular end diastolic volume index was 140±42 mL/m(2) and 81±27 mL/m(2), respectively. Eighty-six (84%) patients had a LVEF <35%, and 63 (62%) patients had right ventricular systolic dysfunction. Although there was a significant and moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF (r=0.40, p<0.001), 32 of 86 patients (37%) with LVEF <35% had preserved RVEF, while 9 of 16 patients (56%) with LVEF ≥35% had right ventricular systolic dysfunction (Kappa=0.041). Among patients being considered for an ICD, there is a positive but moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF. A considerable proportion of patients who qualify for an ICD based on low LVEF have preserved RVEF, and vice versa.

  5. Left ventricular chamber dilatation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: related variables and prognosis in patients with medical and surgical therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, C.; Jenni, R.; Vassalli, G.; Turina, M.; Hess, O. M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--To determine the incidence and prognosis of left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction in 139 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during long term follow up. METHODS--Left ventricular chamber dilatation and systolic dysfunction (both together referred to as left ventricular chamber dilatation) were determined echocardiographically. Chamber dilatation was defined as an increase in the left ventricular end diastolic diameter of > 2% per year combined with a decrease in midventricular systolic fractional shortening of > 2% per year of follow up [10.3 (SD 6) years]. The predictive value for left ventricular chamber dilatation of clinical, invasive, and echocardiographic variables and its prognosis were assessed. RESULTS--In 119 of 139 individuals (86%), left ventricular chamber size and systolic function remained stable (group 1), and in 20/139 patients (14%) left ventricular chamber dilatation occurred during follow up (group 2). At baseline examination, symptoms such as dyspnoea and syncope occurred less often in group 1 than in group 2; New York Heart Association classification was lower in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.001). Left ventricular mass index relative to sex specific normal values was increased by 18% in group 1 and by 41% in group 2 (P = 0.04). Cumulative survival rates were slightly although not significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Event-free survival was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--(1) The development of left ventricular chamber dilatation and systolic dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs in approximately 1.5% of the patients per year. (2) Factors associated with left ventricular dilatation are dyspnoea, syncope, a higher functional classification, and a higher degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. (3) Patients with chamber dilatation have a worse prognosis than those without, particularly regarding quality of life. PMID:8562235

  6. Effects of increasing left ventricular filling pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Richard O.; Rackley, Charles E.; Pombo, Jaoquin; Hunt, David; Potanin, Constantine; Dodge, Harold T.

    1970-01-01

    Left ventricular performance in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction has been evaluated by measuring left ventricular response in terms of cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power to progressive elevation of filling pressure accomplished by progressive expansion of blood volume with rapid infusion of low molecular weight dextran. Such infusion can elevate the cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power and thus delineate the function of the left ventricle by Frank-Starling function curves. Left ventricular filling pressure in the range of 20-24 mm Hg was associated with the peak of the curves and when the filling pressure exceeded this range, the curves became flattened or decreased. An increase in cardiac output could be maintained for 4 or more hr. Patients with a flattened function curve had a high mortality in the ensuing 8 wk. The function curve showed improvement in myocardial function during the early convalescence. When left ventricular filling pressure is monitored directly or as pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure, low molecular weight dextran provides a method for assessment of left ventricular function. Images PMID:5431663

  7. Evaluation of left ventricular performance during supine exercise by transoesophageal M-mode echocardiography in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, M; Hanrath, P; Kremer, P; Tams, C; Langenstein, B A; Schlüter, M; Weiter, R; Bleifeld, W

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate left ventricular function during dynamic exercise transoesophageal M-mode recordings of the left ventricle were carried out with a newly developed transducer gastroscope system. Twelve healthy subjects performed a graded supine bicycle exercise test. Stable and good quality images of the left ventricle at rest and during exercise at different steps up to a maximum workload of 100 watts were obtained in all patients. Isotonic maximum exercise resulted in a significant increase in fractional shortening of the left ventricle, peak shortening rate, and peak lengthening rate of the left ventricular minor axis. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension decreased significantly. With increasing workload the pressure rate product increased significantly. It is concluded that transoesophageal M-mode echocardiography is a useful method of evaluating left ventricular performance during dynamic exercise. Images PMID:7082515

  8. Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device insertion: preoperative risk factors.

    PubMed

    Santambrogio, Luisa; Bianchi, Tiziana; Fuardo, Marinella; Gazzoli, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Roberto; Braschi, Antonio; Maurelli, Marco

    2006-08-01

    Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device placement is the major concern on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and it is one of the most serious complications in the postoperative period. This complication has a poor prognosis and is generally unpredictable. The identification of pre-operative risk factor for this serious complication is incomplete yet. In order to determine pre-operative risk for severe right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device support we analyzed preoperative hemodynamics, laboratory data and characteristics of 48 patients who received Novacor (World Heart Corp., Ottawa, ON, Canada). We compared the data from the patients who developed right ventricular failure and the patients who did not. Right ventricular failure occurred in 16% of the patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in demographic characteristics. We identified as preoperative risk factors the pre-operative low mean pulmonary artery and the impairment of hepatic and renal function on laboratory data. Our results confirm in part the findings of the few previous studies. This information may be useful for the patient selection for isolated left ventricular assist device implantation, but other studies are necessary before establishing criteria for patient selection for univentricular support universally accepted.

  9. Partial left ventriculectomy improves left ventricular end systolic elastance in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gradinac, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of partial left ventriculectomy (PLV) on estimate of left ventricular end systolic elastance (Ees), arterial elastance, and ventriculoarterial coupling.
PATIENTS—11 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy before and two weeks after PLV, and 11 controls.
INTERVENTIONS—Single plane left ventricular angiography with simultaneous measurements of femoral artery pressure was performed during right heart pacing before and after load reduction.
RESULTS—PLV increased mean (SD) Ees from 0.52 (0.27) to 1.47 (0.62) mm Hg/ml (p = 0.0004). The increase in Ees remained significant after correction for the change in left ventricular mass (p = 0.004) and end diastolic volume (p = 0.048). As PLV had no effect on arterial elastance, ventriculoarterial coupling improved from 3.25 (2.17) to 1.01 (0.93) (p = 0.017), thereby maximising left ventricular stroke work.
CONCLUSION—It appears that PLV improves both Ees and ventriculoarterial coupling, thus increasing left ventricular work efficiency.


Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy; elastance; partial left ventriculectomy PMID:10677413

  10. Effects of propranolol on resting and postextrasystolic potentiated left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M J; Temkin, L P; Goldman, S; Ovitt, T W

    1983-01-01

    The effect of propranolol on global and segmental left ventricular function at rest and after postextrasystolic potentiation was studied in 12 patients with chest pain. Heart rate was controlled with atrial pacing, and left ventricular cineangiograms were performed before and after 0.15 mg/kg of propranolol. During each ventriculogram a premature ventricular stimulus was introduced by means of a programmed stimulator. Propranolol decreased global left ventricular ejection fraction from 64 +/- 4.5 to 58 +/- 4.6 (p less than 0.03). Postextrasystolic potentiated global ejection fraction was not affected by propranolol (78 +/- 3.5 vs 73.6 +/- 3.4; p = NS). The area ejection fraction of the anteroapical region was decreased after propranolol (64 +/- 4.8 vs 52 +/- 6.5; p less than 0.01); however, the postextrasystolic potentiated area ejection fraction was not affected by propranolol (78 +/- 2.6 vs 71 +/- 4.6; p = NS). Frame by frame analysis of the ventriculograms demonstrated that propranolol depressed global and segmental left ventricular function by affecting the second one-third ejection fraction without influencing the first or third one-third ejection fraction. Propranolol has a small depressant effect on global and segmental left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Postextrasystolic potentiated global and segmental left ventricular function and early systolic ejection phase indices are not altered by propranolol and therefore may be useful in assessing left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease who are taking propranolol.

  11. [Echocardiographic and Doppler echocardiographic characterization of left ventricular diastolic function].

    PubMed

    Muscholl, M; Dennig, K; Kraus, F; Rudolph, W

    1990-12-01

    For noninvasive assessment of diastolic ventricular function, in addition to echocardiography, more recently, in particular, Doppler echocardiography has been employed. M-mode echocardiogram velocity curves for diameter changes as well as Doppler-echocardiographically registered velocity curves of mitral flow characterize the temporal changes of diastolic flow into the left ventricle. They represent the overall result of factors which influence diastolic filling and are functions of the temporal course of the pressure difference between left atrium and left ventricle. Registration of M-mode and Doppler echocardiograms: For determination of M-mode parameters which should describe left ventricular diastolic function, in addition to the motion of the mitral valve, the left ventricular contours of septum and posterior wall between mitral leaflets and papillary muscles are recorded together with the ECG. For evaluation of the index of atrial emptying, an M-mode registration is obtained from the region of the aortic root. Determination of the Doppler echocardiographic parameters is based on analysis of the blood flow velocity in the region of the mitral valve in the apical four-chamber view with the pulsed Doppler method. Additionally, simultaneous to the Doppler curve, a phonocardiogram is registered or, alternatively, a continuous-wave Doppler registration is obtained which delineates the left ventricular outflow signal and the artefact of mitral valve opening. Parameters for characterization of left ventricular diastolic filling: The first peak of the velocity curve of the diameter change in the M-mode echocardiogram corresponds with the maximal diameter change resulting from early-diastolic filling and the second peak with the maximal diameter change of the left ventricle associated with atrial filling. From this curve as well as the diameter curve relative to time and the mitral valve motion, the times for isovolumetric relaxation as well as the rapid, slow and

  12. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Effects of acute and chronic verapamil treatment on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D M; Raff, G L; Ports, T A; Brundage, B H; Parmley, W W; Chatterjee, K

    1984-01-01

    Changes in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and outflow gradient were evaluated in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after intravenous acute treatment with verapamil (15 patients) and after six months of oral chronic treatment (11 patients). All patients had severe symptoms despite beta blockade, and the condition of all but two improved appreciably after chronic treatment with verapamil. Resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient decreased in six of 15 patients after intravenous verapamil, and in five of 11 patients after long term treatment, but there was no change in provocable gradients nor any correlation between changes in gradient and improvement in symptoms. Left ventricular ejection rate did not change after intravenous or oral treatment. End systolic pressure/end systolic volume index remained unchanged after oral verapamil treatment. Whereas left ventricular total stroke volume index and end diastolic volume index increased without any significant change in left ventricular end diastolic pressure, indicating improved left ventricular diastolic function. In some patients the left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume curve shifted downwards or to the right or both. These findings suggest that improvement in symptoms with verapamil in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is unlikely to be related to changes in left ventricular outflow gradient or in systolic function and may be related to improved diastolic function. PMID:6539120

  13. Postinfarct Left Ventricular Remodelling: A Prevailing Cause of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Alessio; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality, which represents a growing challenge in medicine. A major risk factor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a history of myocardial infarction. The expansion of a large infarct scar and subsequent regional ventricular dilatation can cause postinfarct remodelling, leading to significant enlargement of the left ventricular chamber. It has a negative prognostic value, because it precedes the clinical manifestations of heart failure. The characteristics of the infarcted myocardium predicting postinfarct remodelling can be studied with cardiac magnetic resonance and experimental imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging can identify the changes in the architecture of myocardial fibers. This review discusses all the aspects related to postinfarct left ventricular remodelling: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, consequences, and available therapies, together with experimental interventions that show promising results against postinfarct remodelling and heart failure. PMID:26989555

  14. Revascularization in severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Eric J; Bonow, Robert O

    2015-02-17

    The highest-risk patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are those with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction≤35%). The cornerstone of treatment is guideline-driven medical therapy for all patients and implantable device therapy for appropriately selected patients. Surgical revascularization offers the potential for improved survival and quality of life, particularly in patients with more extensive multivessel disease and the greatest degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and remodeling. These are also the patients at greatest short-term risk of mortality with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The short-term risks of surgery need to be balanced against the potential for long-term benefit. This review discusses the evolving data on the role of surgical revascularization, surgical ventricular reconstruction, and mitral valve surgery in this high-risk patient population.

  15. Patent ductus arteriosus ligation is associated with impaired left ventricular systolic performance in premature infants weighing less than 1000 g.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick J; Stewart, Lilian; Shivananda, Sandesh P; Stephens, Derek; Sehgal, Arvind

    2010-07-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus ligation is often complicated by systemic hypotension and oxygenation failure. The ability of the immature myocardium to compensate for altered afterload is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of patent ductus arteriosus ligation on myocardial performance in preterm infants. Serial echocardiographic analysis was performed before and after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Characteristics of the patent ductus arteriosus, myocardial performance (fractional shortening, mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening, and left ventricular output) and left ventricular afterload (end-systolic wall stress) were assessed. The stress-velocity relationship was measured as a preload-independent, afterload-adjusted measure of myocardial contractility. Forty-six preterm infants were assessed at 28.5 +/- 11.3 days and a weight of 1058 +/- 272 g. Patent ductus arteriosus ligation was followed by increased left ventricular exposed vascular resistance temporally coinciding with reduced left ventricular preload, decreased left ventricular contractility, and low left ventricular output. Neonates weighing 1000 g or less had a higher rate of low fractional shortening (<25%) or low left ventricular output (<170 mL x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and increased need for cardiotropes and demonstrated a trend toward an impaired stress-velocity relationship. Neonates with impaired left ventricular systolic performance were more likely to require cardiotropes and have low systolic arterial pressure, increased heart rate, and abnormal base deficit. Patent ductus arteriosus ligation is sometimes associated with impaired left ventricular systolic performance, which is most likely attributable to altered loading conditions. Neonates weighing 1000 g or less are at increased risk of impaired left ventricular systolic performance, which might relate to maturational differences and decreased tolerance to altered loading conditions. Crown Copyright

  16. Absence of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite college basketball players.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, L A; Martin, R P; Seip, R L

    1985-09-01

    Left ventricular dimensions of 11 successful male college basketball players engaged in pre-season conditioning (mean age, 20.3 years) and 13 tall healthy male controls (mean age, 21.6 years) were studied by echocardiography. Left ventricular internal dimension (LVIDd, mm), posterior wall thickness (PWT, mm), septal thickness (ST, mm), and calculated left ventricular mass (LV mass, g) in the athletes were within or only slightly in excess of echocardiographic normal limits and mean values were not significantly different from the control group. LVIDd (mm/m2 body surface area) was significantly lower in the athletes. However, five guard-type players displayed significantly greater mean values for PWT and LV mass compared to six taller forwards/centers with linear body builds. It was concluded that left ventricular hypertrophy is not a common characteristic of college basketball players. It was hypothesized that cardiac dimensions of young men may vary independently of gross body size in relation to somatotype or other anthropometric variables.

  17. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  18. Electronic circuit detects left ventricular ejection events in cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic circuit processes arterial blood pressure waveform to produce discrete signals that coincide with beginning and end of left ventricular ejection. Output signals provide timing signals for computers that monitor cardiovascular systems. Circuit operates reliably for heart rates between 50 and 200 beats per minute.

  19. Cardiovascular reactivity to stress and left ventricular mass in youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, M T; Matthews, K A; Sherman, F S

    1997-10-01

    We studied the relationships of cardiovascular reactivity during mental stress with left ventricular mass index in a group of prepubertal children 8 to 10 years old and in a group of peripubertal or postpubertal adolescents 15 to 17 years old. One hundred fifteen participants, varying in age group, sex, and race (black and white), took part in a laboratory stress protocol consisting of a reaction-time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Cardiovascular measures included blood pressure and heart rate, as well as cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and preejection period obtained noninvasively with impedance cardiography. Measures of left ventricular mass were made by echocardiography. Results indicated that across all participants, left ventricular mass index was associated with cardiovascular responses during the mirror tracing and cold forehead tasks, especially with those responses reflecting increased vasoconstriction. Subgroup analyses showed that these associations were significant for males and sometimes adolescents but not for females and children. As mirror tracing and cold forehead tasks most consistently produce alpha-adrenergic activation, the results suggest a model in which vasoconstriction due to mental stress is related to increased left ventricular mass in susceptible individuals, even at a young age.

  20. Noninvasive assessment of left ventricular function in myotonic muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Venco, A; Saviotti, M; Besana, D; Finardi, G; Lanzi, G

    1978-01-01

    In order to assess left ventricular function, measurements of left ventricular internal dimension and its rate of change have been made by echocardiography in 7 patients with myotonic dystrophy and the three children of one of them, who were clinically normal but had abnormal muscle biopsies. Electrocardiograms and systolic time intervals were also recorded in all. Only one patient had signs of overt heart disease and an abnormal electrocardiogram (type B WPW). Systolic time intervals were normal in all 7 patients. Five subjects had echocardiographic abnormalities, which were of minor degree except in the patient with overt heart disease who had considerable impairment of both systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Another patient had abnormalities of both systolic and diastolic function; systolic abnormalities occurred alone in one patient and diastolic abnormalities alone in one relative. It is concluded that patients with myotonic dystrophy and no clinical signs of heart disease may have minor abnormalities of left ventricular function as shown by echocardiography. Echocardiography is more sensitive than systolic time intervals in detecting these abnormalities; both systolic and diastolic function abnormalities, alone or together, can occur. There seems to be no relation between involvement of skeletal and cardiac muscle. PMID:718766

  1. [Physiopathology of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Bassand, J P; Anguenot, T

    1991-12-01

    The geometry of both the infarcted and non-infarcted zone of the left ventricle changes after myocardial infarction. Two mechanisms are involved: expansion of the infarcted zone and secondary dilatation of the non-infarcted zone. The necrosed area undergoes an inflammatory reaction followed by fibrosis which end up as a sca within a period of a few days to a few weeks. During this period if fibrous scarring the infarcted, thinned myocardium undergoes progressive expansion which starts in the first hours of the myocardial infarction. The loss of left ventricular systolic function related to the infarct and volumic overload created by expansion of the infarct influence the secondary development of dilatation of the non-infarcted zones. This dilatation results in restoration of left ventricular stroke volume but at the price of increased wall stress, which itself induces compensatory wall hypertrophy. These phenomena are more pronounced when the initial infarction is extensive and if they are sustained, they result in definitive myocardial failure. Several factors influence remodeling: the size of the infarct, arterial patency, wall stress and the quality of the scarring process itself. Therapeutic interventions of each of these factors can influence the remodeling. Limitation of infarct size by thrombolytic therapy, arterial revascularisation, even when performed late, seem capable of limiting expansion of the necrosed zone. Pharmacodynamic intervention of left ventricular afterload also affects ventricular remodeling. Nitrate derivatives, vasodilator therapy in general and converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to be effective.

  2. Left and right ventricular trabecular patterns. Consequence of ventricular septation and valve development.

    PubMed Central

    Wenink, A C; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C

    1982-01-01

    Study of serial sections of human embryos ranging from 3.6 to 25 mm crown rump length shows that the ventricular septum develops from three sources. The primary septum develops between the inlet and outlet which are the two first discernible segments of the ventricular portion of the primary heart tube. Two other septa develop within the inlet and within the outlet, respectively. Before and during septation all ventricular trabeculations are identical. In later stages, the atrioventricular valves and their tension apparatus develop from the inner myocardial layer of the left and right ventricular inlet parts. The outlet trabeculations do not take part in this process. These observations are suggested to explain the typical trabecular patterns of the apices of the mature left and right ventricles, which develop from the inlet and from the outlet, respectively. Images PMID:7138710

  3. Mid-term echocardiographic follow up of left ventricular function with permanent right ventricular pacing in pediatric patients with and without structural heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Shalganov, Tchavdar Nikolov; Paprika, Dora; Vatasescu, Radu; Kardos, Attila; Mihalcz, Attila; Kornyei, Laszlo; Szatmari, Andras; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic right ventricular apical pacing may have detrimental effect on left ventricular function and may promote to heart failure in adult patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Methods A group of 99 pediatric patients with previously implanted pacemaker was studied retrospectively. Forty-three patients (21 males) had isolated congenital complete or advanced atrioventricular block. The remaining 56 patients (34 males) had pacing indication in the presence of structural heart disease. Thirty-two of them (21 males) had isolated structural heart disease and the remaining 24 (13 males) had complex congenital heart disease. Patients were followed up for an average of 53 ± 41.4 months with 12-lead electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography. Left ventricular shortening fraction was used as a marker of ventricular function. QRS duration was assessed using leads V5 or II on standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Results Left ventricular shortening fraction did not change significantly after pacemaker implantation compared to preimplant values overall and in subgroups. In patients with complex congenital heart malformations shortening fraction decreased significantly during the follow up period. (0.45 ± 0.07 vs 0.35 ± 0.06, p = 0.015). The correlation between the change in left ventricular shortening fraction and the mean increase of paced QRS duration was not significant. Six patients developed dilated cardiomyopathy, which was diagnosed 2 months to 9 years after pacemaker implantation. Conclusion Chronic right ventricular pacing in pediatric patients with or without structural heart disease does not necessarily result in decline of left ventricular function. In patients with complex congenital heart malformations left ventricular shortening fraction shows significant decrease. PMID:17352821

  4. Negative participation of the left posterior fascicle in the reentry circuit of verapamil-sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Itsuro; Nogami, Akihiko; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Sone, Takahito

    2012-05-01

    Left posterior fascicle and idiopathic Left VT. The left posterior fascicle may be a bystander of the circuit of verapamil-sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia. During ventricular tachycardia (VT), 3 sequences of potentials were seen at the left posterior septum: diastolic Purkinje potentials propagating from base to apex and presystolic left posterior fascicular potentials and systolic left ventricular (LV) myocardial potentials propagating in the reverse direction. Selective capture of the left posterior fascicle by the sinus beat did not affect the VT cycle length. Entrainment pacing revealed that the retrograde limb of the circuit was not the left posterior fascicle, but the LV myocardium.

  5. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  6. Left Ventricular False Tendons are Associated With Left Ventricular Dilation and Impaired Systolic and Diastolic Function.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael E; Halinski, Joseph A; Skelton, Thomas N; Campbell, William F; McMullan, Michael R; Long, Robert C; Alexander, Myrna N; Pollard, James D; Hall, John E; Fox, Ervin R; Winniford, Michael D; Kamimura, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    Left ventricular false tendons (LVFTs) are chord-like structures that traverse the LV cavity and are generally considered to be benign. However, they have been associated with arrhythmias, LV hypertrophy and LV dilation in some small studies. We hypothesize that LVFTs are associated with LV structural and functional changes assessed by echocardiography. We retrospectively evaluated echocardiographic and clinical parameters of 126 patients identified as having LVFTs within the past 2 years and compared them to 85 age-matched controls without LVFTs. There were no significant differences in age (52 ± 18 versus 54 ± 18 years, P = 0.37), sex (55% versus 59% men, P = 0.49), race (36% versus 23% white, P = 0.07), systolic blood pressure (131 ± 22 versus 132 ± 23mmHg, P = 0.76) or body mass index (BMI, 31 ± 8 versus 29 ± 10kg/m(2), P = 0.07) between controls and patients with LVFTs, respectively. Patients with LVFTs had more prevalent heart failure (43% versus 21%, P = 0.001). Patients with LVFTs had more LV dilation, were 2.5 times more likely to have moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation, had more severe diastolic dysfunction and reduced LV systolic function (18% lower) compared with controls (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for covariates, basal and middle LVFT locations were associated with reduced LV systolic function (P < 0.01), and middle LVFTs were associated with LV dilation (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that LVFTs may not be benign variants, and basal and middle LVFTs may have more deleterious effects. Further prospective studies should be performed to determine their pathophysiological significance and whether they play a causal role in LV dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left ventricular cardiac fibroma in a child presenting with ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Stratemann, Stacy; Dzurik, Yvette; Fish, Frank; Parra, David

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac tumors in children are rare. Although most are histologically benign, they can be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. We report a 7-year-old boy, with a first episode of symptomatic tachycardia, who was found to have a left ventricular (LV) fibroma. He had a normal echocardiogram prior to an electrophysiology study, which revealed a sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and a radio-opacity near the LV apex. These findings prompted a cardiac MRI, which demonstrated a discrete mass on his LV apex and free wall. Our case emphasizes that structural heart disease should be aggressively pursued in children presenting with ventricular tachycardia.

  8. Characteristics of ventricular tachycardia ablation in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Frederic; Reichlin, Tobias; Zado, Erica S; Field, Michael E; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan F; Peichl, Petr; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Maury, Philippe; Dukkipati, Srinivas R; Picard, Francois; Kautzner, Josef; Barandon, Laurent; Koneru, Jayanthi N; Ritter, Philippe; Mahida, Saagar; Calderon, Joachim; Derval, Nicolas; Denis, Arnaud; Cochet, Hubert; Shepard, Richard K; Corre, Jerome; Coffey, James O; Garcia, Fermin; Hocini, Meleze; Tedrow, Usha; Haissaguerre, Michel; d'Avila, Andre; Stevenson, William G; Marchlinski, Francis E; Jais, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation or as destination therapy. Patients with LVADs are at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias. This study describes ventricular arrhythmia characteristics and ablation in patients implanted with a Heart Mate II device. All patients with a Heart Mate II device who underwent ventricular arrhythmia catheter ablation at 9 tertiary centers were included. Thirty-four patients (30 male, age 58±10 years) underwent 39 ablation procedures. The underlying cardiomyopathy pathogenesis was ischemic in 21 and nonischemic in 13 patients with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 17%±5% before LVAD implantation. One hundred and ten ventricular tachycardias (VTs; cycle lengths, 230-740 ms, arrhythmic storm n=28) and 2 ventricular fibrillation triggers were targeted (25 transseptal, 14 retrograde aortic approaches). Nine patients required VT ablation <1 month after LVAD implantation because of intractable VT. Only 10/110 (9%) of the targeted VTs were related to the Heart Mate II cannula. During follow-up, 7 patients were transplanted and 10 died. Of the remaining 17 patients, 13 were arrhythmia-free at 25±15 months. In 1 patient with VT recurrence, change of turbine speed from 9400 to 9000 rpm extinguished VT. Catheter ablation of VT among LVAD recipients is feasible and reasonably safe even soon after LVAD implantation. Intrinsic myocardial scar, rather than the apical cannula, seems to be the dominant substrate. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Origins of the vagal drive controlling left ventricular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Machhada, Asif; Marina, Nephtali; Korsak, Alla; Stuckey, Daniel J.; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The strength, functional significance and origins of parasympathetic innervation of the left ventricle remain controversial.This study tested the hypothesis that parasympathetic control of left ventricular contractility is provided by vagal preganglionic neurones of the dorsal motor nucleus (DVMN).Under β‐adrenoceptor blockade combined with spinal cord (C1) transection (to remove sympathetic influences), systemic administration of atropine increased left ventricular contractility in rats anaesthetized with urethane, confirming the existence of a tonic inhibitory muscarinic influence on cardiac inotropy.Increased left ventricular contractility in anaesthetized rats was observed when DVMN neurones were silenced.Functional neuroanatomical mapping revealed that vagal preganglionic neurones that have an impact on left ventricular contractility are located in the caudal region of the left DVMN.These neurones provide functionally significant parasympathetic control of left ventricular inotropy. Abstract The strength, functional significance and origins of direct parasympathetic innervation of the left ventricle (LV) remain controversial. In the present study we used an anaesthetized rat model to first confirm the presence of tonic inhibitory vagal influence on LV inotropy. Using genetic neuronal targeting and functional neuroanatomical mapping we tested the hypothesis that parasympathetic control of LV contractility is provided by vagal preganglionic neurones located in the dorsal motor nucleus (DVMN). It was found that under systemic β‐adrenoceptor blockade (atenolol) combined with spinal cord (C1) transection (to remove sympathetic influences), intravenous administration of atropine increases LV contractility in rats anaesthetized with urethane, but not in animals anaesthetized with pentobarbital. Increased LV contractility in rats anaesthetized with urethane was also observed when DVMN neurones targeted bilaterally to express an inhibitory Drosophila

  10. Predicting Right Ventricular Failure in the Modern, Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Era

    PubMed Central

    Atluri, Pavan; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Fairman, Alex S.; MacArthur, John W.; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Acker, Alexandra L.; Hiesinger, William; Howard, Jessica L.; Acker, Michael A.; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background In the era of destination continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD), the decision of whether a patient will tolerate isolated LVAD support or will need biventricular support (BIVAD) can be challenging. Incorrect decision making with delayed right ventricular (RV) assist device implantation results in increased morbidity and mortality. Continuous flow LVADs have been shown to decrease pulmonary hyper-tension and improve RV function. We undertook this study to determine predictors in the continuous flow LVAD era that identify patients who are candidates for isolated LVAD therapy as opposed to biventricular support. Methods We reviewed demographic, hemodynamic, laboratory, and echocardiographic variables for 218 patients who underwent VAD implant from 2003 through 2011 (LVAD = 167, BIVAD = 51), during the era of continuous flow LVADs. Results Fifty preoperative risk factors were compared between patients who were successfully managed with an LVAD and those who required a BIVAD. Seventeen variables demonstrated statistical significance by univariate analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified central venous pressure >15 mmHg (OR 2.0, “C”), severe RV dysfunction (OR 3.7, “R”), preoperative intubation (OR 4.3, “I”), severe tricuspid regurgitation (OR 4.1, “T”), heart rate >100 (OR 2.0, Tachycardia - “T”) -CRITT as the major criteria predictive of the need for biventricular support. Utilizing these data, a highly sensitive and easy to use risk score for determining RV failure was generated that outperformed other established risk stratification tools. Conclusions We present a preoperative risk calculator to determine suitability of a patient for isolated LVAD support in the current continuous flow ventricular assist device era. PMID:23791165

  11. Implantation of left ventricular assist device complicated by undiagnosed thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Szarszoi, Ondrej; Maly, Jiri; Turek, Daniel; Urban, Marian; Skalsky, Ivo; Riha, Hynek; Maluskova, Jana; Pirk, Jan; Netuka, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and no history of thromboembolic events received a surgically implanted axial-flow left ventricular assist device. After implantation, transesophageal echocardiography revealed a giant thrombus on the lateral and anterior aspects of the left ventricle. The inflow cannula inserted through the apex of the left ventricle was not obstructed, and the device generated satisfactory blood flow. Laboratory screening for thrombophilia showed protein S deficiency, heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation, and heterozygous MTHFR C667T mutation. During the entire duration of circulatory support, no significant suction events were detected, and the patient was listed for heart transplantation. Ventricular assist device implantation can unmask previously undiagnosed thrombophilia; therefore, it should be necessary to identify thrombophilic patients before cardiac support implantation.

  12. Effects of pericardial constraint and ventricular interaction on left ventricular hemodynamics in the unloaded heart

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Naoki; Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeffery L.; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Bhella, Paul S.; Palmer, Dean; Fu, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial constraint and ventricular interaction influence left ventricular (LV) performance when preload is high. However, it is unclear if these constraining forces modulate LV filling when the heart is unloaded, such as during upright posture, in humans. Fifty healthy individuals underwent right heart catheterization to measure pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) and right atrial pressure (RAP). To evaluate the effects of pericardial constraint on hemodynamics, transmural filling pressure (LVTMP) was defined as PCWP-RAP. Beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) waveforms were recorded, and stroke volume (SV) was derived from the Modelflow method. After measurements at −30 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP), which approximates the upright position, LBNP was released, and beat-to-beat measurements were performed for 15 heartbeats. At −30 mmHg LBNP, RAP and PCWP were significantly decreased. During the first six beats of LBNP release, heart rate (HR) was unchanged, while BP increased from the fourth beat. RAP increased faster than PCWP resulting in an acute decrease in LVTMP from the fourth beat. A corresponding drop in SV by 3% was observed with no change in pulse pressure. From the 7th to 15th beats, LVTMP and SV increased steadily, followed by a decreased HR due to the baroreflex. A decreased TMP, but not PCWP, caused a transient drop in SV with no changes in HR or pulse pressure during LBNP release. These results suggest that the pericardium constrains LV filling during LBNP release, enough to cause a small but significant drop of SV, even at low cardiac filling pressure in healthy humans. PMID:21398598

  13. Radionuclide analysis of right and left ventricular response to exercise in patients with atrial and ventricular septal defects

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.

    1983-03-01

    In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt.

  14. Left ventricular longitudinal strain in soccer referees.

    PubMed

    Gianturco, Luigi; Bodini, Bruno; Gianturco, Vincenzo; Lippo, Giuseppina; Solbiati, Agnese; Turiel, Maurizio

    2017-02-09

    Along the years, the analysis of soccer referees perfomance has interested the experts and we can find several types of studies in literature using in particular cardiac imaging. The aim of this retrospective study was to observe relationship between VO2max uptake and some conventional and not-conventional echocardiographic parameters. In order to perform this evaluation, we have enrolled 20 referees, belonging to Italian Soccer Referees' Association and we have investigated cardiovascular profile of them. We found a strong direct relationship between VO2max and global longitudinal strain of left ventricle assessed by means of speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis (R2=0.8464). The most common classic echocardiographic indexes have showed mild relations (respectively, VO2max vs EF: R2=0.4444; VO2max vs LV indexed mass: R2=0.2268). Therefore, our study suggests that longitudinal strain could be proposed as a specific echocardiographic parameter to evaluate the soccer referees performance.

  15. Left ventricular longitudinal strain in soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Gianturco, Luigi; Bodini, Bruno; Gianturco, Vincenzo; Lippo, Giuseppina; Solbiati, Agnese; Turiel, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Along the years, the analysis of soccer referees perfomance has interested the experts and we can find several types of studies in literature using in particular cardiac imaging. The aim of this retrospective study was to observe relationship between VO2max uptake and some conventional and not-conventional echocardiographic parameters. In order to perform this evaluation, we have enrolled 20 referees, belonging to Italian Soccer Referees' Association and we have investigated cardiovascular profile of them. We found a strong direct relationship between VO2max and global longitudinal strain of left ventricle assessed by means of speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis (R2=0.8464). The most common classic echocardiographic indexes have showed mild relations (respectively, VO2max vs EF: R2=0.4444; VO2max vs LV indexed mass: R2=0.2268). Therefore, our study suggests that longitudinal strain could be proposed as a specific echocardiographic parameter to evaluate the soccer referees performance. PMID:28199991

  16. Relation between training-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Di Giacinto, Barbara; Porcacchia, Paolo; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Spataro, Antonio; Culasso, Francesco; Casasco, Maurizio; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the magnitude of training-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and the frequency and complexity of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a large population of elite athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are a common finding in athletes, but it is unresolved as to whether the presence or magnitude of LV hypertrophy is a determinant of these arrhythmias in athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. From 738 athletes examined at a national center for the evaluation of elite Italian athletes, 175 consecutive elite athletes with 24-hour ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiographic recordings (but without cardiovascular abnormalities and symptoms) were selected for the study group. Echocardiographic studies were performed during periods of peak training. Athletes were arbitrarily divided into 4 groups according to the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias during Holter electrocardiographic monitoring. No statistically significant relation was evident between LV mass (or mass index) and the grade or frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In addition, a trend was noted in those athletes with the most frequent and complex ventricular ectopy toward lower calculated LV mass. In conclusion, ventricular ectopy in elite athletes is not directly related to the magnitude of physiologic LV hypertrophy. These data offer a measure of clinical reassurance regarding the benign nature of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes and the expression of athlete's heart.

  17. Use of advanced mapping and remote magnetic navigation to ablate left ventricular fascicular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrew S; Res, Jan; Mekel, Joris M; Jordaens, Luc J

    2006-06-01

    Ablation of idiopathic left ventricular, or fascicular tachycardia can be aided by electroanatomical mapping. The addition of a floppy, magnetically enabled ablation catheter may improve maneuvering as well as decrease mechanically induced arrhythmias and mechanical block. We describe a case of fascicular tachycardia in which both these modalities were used in a sequential fashion. Integration of these modalities should prove even more helpful.

  18. Effect of atropine-dobutamine stress test on left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in untrained warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Sandersen, Charlotte F; Detilleux, Johanne; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Loon, Gunther; Amory, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined atropine low-dose dobutamine stress test on left ventricular parameters in adult warmblood horses, to establish a potential protocol for pharmacological stress echocardiography. Seven healthy untrained warmblood horses aged 9 to 22 years were used. Heart rate (HR) and left ventricular B- and M-mode dimensions were recorded at baseline and during stress testing with 35 microg/kg atropine IV followed by incremental dobutamine infusion of 2 to 6 microg/kg/min. HR increased significantly (P < .05) during the pharmacological challenge, and a maximal HR of 156.6 +/- 12.5 bpm was reached at maximal dobutamine infusion rate. Systolic and diastolic interventricular septum thickness, systolic and diastolic left ventricular free wall thickness, and fractional shortening increased significantly and reached a maximum at the highest infusion rate (mean +/- SD: 4.51 +/- 0.27 versus 5.65 +/- 0.31 cm, 2.89 +/- 0.19 versus 3.78 +/- 0.10 cm, 3.72 +/- 0.34 versus 4.77 +/- 0.18 cm, 2.44 +/- 0.28 versus 3.11 +/- 0.34 cm, 34.98 +/- 3.82 versus 50.56 +/- 3.42%, respectively). Systolic and diastolic left ventricular internal diameter decreased significantly during dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular external and internal area were significantly lower at a dobutamine infusion rate of 2 microg/kg/min but no further decrease was observed during the subsequent steps. Systolic and diastolic myocardial area was significantly lower after the administration of dobutamine but not significantly different during dobutamine infusion, when compared to baseline values. This pharmacological stress test induced significant changes in left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in adult warmblood horses. Additional research should evaluate the value of this stress test in horses suffering from cardiac disease.

  19. [Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Eduardo M; Pinilla, Oscar A; Carranza, Verónica B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV) geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic parameters. Normal LV was defined considering the mean plus 2 SD of LVMI and RWT in W. Patterns of abnormal LV geometry were: LV concentric remodeling, LVMI < 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71; eccentric, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT < 0.71; and concentric LVH, LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac output (CO) were used to obtain total peripheral resistance (TPR). twelve % of SHR had normal LV geometry; 18% LV concentric remodeling; 33% concentric LVH and 37% eccentric LVH. LV concentric remodeling showed the smallest CO and highest TPR of any group. Eccentric LVH presented similar SBP as the other SHR groups and high CO with lower TPR. Our findings in SHR exhibit different patterns of LV geometry like in humans. These results strengthen the similarities between SHR and human essential hypertension.

  20. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cornel, J H; Balk, A H; Boersma, E; Maat, A P; Elhendy, A; Arnese, M; Salustri, A; Roelandt, J R; Fioretti, P M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether left ventricular dysfunction affects the safety and feasibility of high-dose dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography. We examined the results of the test in 318 consecutive patients who were referred for high-dose dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography and also underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Forty-four patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 25% or less (mean, 21%; range, 15% to 25%). In the entire group of 318 patients, no serious complications (death, myocardial infarction, or ventricular fibrillation) occurred. The overall feasibility of completing the test was excellent (97%). A trial fibrillation occurred in four patients, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 12, and sustained ventricular tachycardia in one. A decrease in systolic blood pressure of greater than 40 mm Hg or a peak systolic pressure of less than 80 mm Hg was present in eight cases. In the group with an ejection fraction of 25% or less, there was a higher rate of significant tachyarrhythmias (14% versus 5%; p = 0.03), whereas the feasibility of the test was slightly lower (89%; p < 0.01), but no difference for hypotension was found. By multivariate analysis, a history of tachyarrhythmias was the only predictor of stress-induced arrhythmias. Advanced left ventricular dysfunction does not represent a contraindication for dobutamine-atropine stress testing.

  1. Improvement of Right Ventricular Hemodynamics with Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing during Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    HYDE, EOIN R.; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CROZIER, ANDREW; CLARIDGE, SIMON; JACKSON, TOM; SOHAL, MANAV; GILL, JASWINDER S.; O'NEILL, MARK D.; RAZAVI, REZA; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular epicardial (BV‐CS) or endocardial left ventricular (LV) stimulation (BV‐EN) improves LV hemodynamics. The effect of CRT on right ventricular function is less clear, particularly for BV‐EN. Our objective was to compare the simultaneous acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the right and left ventricles (RV and LV) with BV‐CS and BV‐EN in order to determine the optimal mode of CRT delivery. Methods Nine patients with previously implanted CRT devices successfully underwent a temporary pacing study. Pressure wires measured the simultaneous AHR in both ventricles during different pacing protocols. Conventional epicardial CRT was delivered in LV‐only (LV‐CS) and BV‐CS configurations and compared with BV‐EN pacing in multiple locations using a roving decapolar catheter. Results Best BV‐EN (optimal AHR of all LV endocardial pacing sites) produced a significantly greater RV AHR compared with LV‐CS and BV‐CS pacing (P < 0.05). RV AHR had a significantly increased standard deviation compared to LV AHR (P < 0.05) with a weak correlation between RV and LV AHR (Spearman rs = −0.06). Compromised biventricular optimization, whereby RV AHR was increased at the expense of a smaller decrease in LV AHR, was achieved in 56% of cases, all with BV‐EN pacing. Conclusions BV‐EN pacing produces significant increases in both LV and RV AHR, above that achievable with conventional epicardial pacing. RV AHR cannot be used as a surrogate for optimizing LV AHR; however, compromised biventricular optimization is possible. The beneficial effect of endocardial LV pacing on RV function may have important clinical benefits beyond conventional CRT. PMID:27001004

  2. Regulation of Circulating Progenitor Cells in Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Boilson, Barry A.; Larsen, Katarina; Harbuzariu, Adriana; Delacroix, Sinny; Korinek, Josef; Froehlich, Harald; Bailey, Kent R.; Scott, Christopher G.; Shapiro, Brian P.; Boerrigter, Guido; Chen, Horng H.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.; Simari, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reductions in numbers of circulating progenitor cells (CD34+ cell subsets) have been demonstrated in patients at risk for, or in the presence of, cardiovascular disease. The mediators of these reductions remain undefined. To determine whether neurohumoral factors might regulate circulating CD34+ cell subsets in vivo, we studied complementary canine models of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Methods and Results A pacing model of severe LV dysfunction and a hypertensive renal wrap (RW) model in which dogs were randomized to receive deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) were studied. Circulating CD34+ cell subsets including hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs:CD34+/CD45dim/VEGFR2-) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs:CD34+/CD45-/VEGFR2+) were quantified. Additionally, the effect of mineralocorticoid excess on circulating progenitor cells in normal dogs was studied. The majority of circulating CD34+ cells expressed CD45 dimly and did not express VEGFR2, consistent with an HPC phenotype. HPCs were decreased in response to pacing, and this decrease correlated with plasma aldosterone levels (Spearman Rank correlation = -0.67, p=0.03). In the RW model, administration of DOCA resulted in decreased HPCs. No changes were seen in EPCs in either model. Normal dogs treated with DOCA exhibited a decrease in HPCs in peripheral blood but not bone marrow associated with decreased telomerase activity. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that mineralocorticoid excess, either endogenous or exogenous, results in reduction in HPCs. These data suggest that mineralocorticoids may induce accelerated senescence of progenitor cells leading to their reduced survival and decline in numbers. PMID:20573992

  3. [Left ventricular electromechanical latency period is an additional indicator to upgrade from right to biventricular DDD pacing].

    PubMed

    Ismer, B; Körber, T; von Knorre, G H; Voss, W; Burska, D; Nienaber, C A

    2006-01-01

    In DDD pacing, the left-ventricular electromechanical latency period defines the duration between premature ventricular stimulation and the prematurely ending left-atrial contribution to left-ventricular filling. It has to be considered in diastolic AV delay optimization. Individual duration of this parameter seemed to reflect the ventricular function. Therefore, we compared the left-ventricular electromechanical latency period due to right ventricular stimulus with the documented ejection fraction of two groups, 33 congestive heart failure patients carrying biventricular systems and 13 right ventricular paced bradycardia patients. A mean latency period of 168+/-26 ms was found in the heart failure patients (ejection fraction: 25+/-5%) which was significantly longer (p=0.0039) compared to the bradycardia patients (ejection fraction: 51+/-12%) with a mean latency of 119+/-13 ms. Thus, an increasing latency period during right ventricular DDD pacing therapy indicates decreasing ejection fraction. A cut-off interval of 135 ms allowed the discrimination of 93% of our patients as having an individual ejection fraction of either up to 35% or above. Thus, the left ventricular electromechanical latency period can be used as an additional parameter indicating the necessity to upgrade from right to biventricular DDD pacing.

  4. Low-grade Albuminuria Associated with Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Left Ventricular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yan, S; Yao, F; Huang, L; Ruan, Q; Shen, X; Zhang, S; Huang, C

    2015-10-01

    Low-grade albuminuria (LGA) has been shown to be associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Our study investigated the relationship between normal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and subclinical left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and remodeling in diabetics and non-diabetics. A total of 888 diabetic and 208 non-diabetic patients with normal UACRs (< 30 mg/g) from Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China were examined. The subjects were stratified into quartiles based on their respective UACR levels. LV diastolic function was defined by early diastolic transmitral velocities (E)/average early diastolic annular velocities (average e), accompanied by average e. LV remodeling was defined by LV mass indexed to body surface area and relative wall thickness based on 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. UACR was independently associated with cardiac diastolic function as defined by E/e and average e (OR=1.042, P=0.001) and LV remodeling (OR=1.037, P=0.001) in all participants. Diabetic patients in the highest quartile of UACR demonstrated a greater risk of developing LV diastolic dysfunction by a magnitude of 1.625 (OR=1.625, P=0.037) than patients in the lowest quartile; those in the third and highest quartiles demonstrated a greater risk of LV remodeling by a magnitude of 1.729-1.994 compared to the lowest quartile (OR=1.729, P=0.027 and OR=1.994, P=0.005, respectively). The association between UACR and subclinical diastolic dysfunction was most prevalent in younger, non-obese, non-hypertensive females or patients who had experienced diabetes for fewer than 10 years. The association between UACR and LV remodeling was most prevalent in non-obese, older males, in patients with normal low-density lipoprotein levels, in patients who had experienced diabetes for fewer than 10 years, and in patients without hypertension. UACR was associated with subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction and remodeling in both patients with and without Type 2

  5. Recovery of dilated cardiomyopathies in infants and children using left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Hannah; Covington, Diane; Smith, Richard; Ihnat, Chelsea; Inaht, Chelsae; Barber, Brent; Copeland, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Most infants and children implanted with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are bridged to cardiac transplantation. Prioritizing recovery may decrease this trend. Patients were treated with LVAD ventricular decompression, medical heart failure therapy, and bolus therapy with a beta-agonist before weaning trials. Devices were removed if adequate function was observed. Eleven patients with a mean age of 1.7 years presented for LVAD implantation. The mean Z score for left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) was +5.5 (+1.6 to +7.3), and the mean fractional shortening was 9% (5%-14%). They were on maximal medical therapy and inotropic support. Duration of device support ranged from 6 to 22 days (mean: 13 days). There were three deaths, one from preimplant anoxic brain damage and two from thromboembolism. Eight patients (73%) recovered, were explanted, and are alive 0.6-6 years with hearts that have a mean Z score for LVEDD of 1.0 (0.09-3.7) and fractional shortening of 23%-36%. Left ventricular assist device decompression of dilated left ventricles in infants and children led to long-term survival in 73%. Ventricular size was significantly reduced and contractility significantly increased. None of these patients required transplantation.

  6. Symptomatic exercise-induced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Eyad K; Kim, Bette; Cantales, Deborah; Uretsky, Seth; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Sherrid, Mark V

    2013-05-01

    Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is most commonly seen in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Postexercise dynamic LVOTO (DLVOTO) has been infrequently identified in symptomatic patients without LV hypertrophy, and its pathophysiology is not well established. The aim of this study was to identify echocardiographic abnormalities that might explain the dynamic development of systolic anterior motion, mitral-septal contact, and LVOTO in these patients. Patients with DLVOTO and normal wall thickness were compared with 20 age-matched and gender-matched controls with normal stress echocardiographic findings. Two other groups were also compared: patients with DLVOTO and mild segmental hypertrophy (segmental wall thickness ≤15 mm) and patients with normal left ventricles but DLVOTO after dobutamine stress. Six symptomatic patients were identified (mean age, 48 ± 9 years; range, 37-60 years; five men) with normal wall thickness who developed DLVOTO after exercise during a 6-year period. Five had been hospitalized for cardiac symptoms. The mean postexercise LV outflow tract gradient caused by systolic anterior motion mitral-septal contact was 107 ± 55 mm Hg (range, 64-200 mm Hg). All patients had echocardiographic LV wall thicknesses in the normal range (≤12 mm). Structural abnormalities of the mitral valve were identified in all six patients. These were elongated posterior leaflets (2.0 vs 1.5 cm, P < .0005), elongated anterior leaflets (3.2 vs 2.6 cm, P = .015), increased protrusion height of the mitral valve beyond the mitral annular plane (2.6 vs 0.6 cm, P < .00001), and residual protruding portions of the mitral valve leaflets (0.85 vs 0.24 cm, P < .005). There was anterior positioning of the papillary muscles in the LV cavity, with a greater distance from the plane of the papillary muscles to the posterior wall (1.8 vs 1.3 cm, P = .03). In two patients, potentially provoking medications were stopped; two patients received

  7. Heart failure and diabetes: left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, P; Macello, M; De Pascalis, S

    2006-04-01

    Heart failure is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in general population, annual mortality rate is 20%, in spite of pharmacological treatments or other therapies. Cardio-vascular events and diabetes tight correlation is well known, while it is less evaluated diabetes and heart failure correlation is less studied, heart failure as left ventricular systolic function impairment. Cardiovascular disease rate is decreasing, systolic heart failure rate is raising. Our study goal is to evaluate which role diabetes plays in determining systolic heart failure, diagnosed by echocardiographical examination. Four hundred and fifty consecutive patients, systolic heart failure prone, diagnosed by left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, were included. Exclusion criteria were rheumatic or congenital valve diseases. Mean age was 78.3 years (53-93 years), 286 were women and 164 men. Statistical analysis were performed by parametric t-Student test and not parametric chi2 test. High significant difference was assessed for P<0.05. Seventy six (16.9%) patients were diabetes prone (D), 374 (83.1%) were diabetes free, so not diabetic (ND). Forty three men were D (56.5%), 131 ND (35%). Diabetic mean age was 74.7 years (52-88), not diabetic was 79.3 (53-93). Six D (7.8%) and 21 ND patients (5.6%) were hypercholesterolemia prone. Eight D (10.5%) and 18 ND (10.1%) patients were smokers. Twenty eight D (36.8%) and 107 ND patients (28.6%) were hypertensive. Thirty three D (43.4%) and 88 ND (26.4%) patients were coronary artery disease prone, 3 of 33 (3.9%) D and 28 of 88 (7.4%) ND ischemic patients were myocardial infarction prone. Twenty one D (27.6%) and 106 ND (28.3%) patients were atrial fibrillation prone. There were not statistical significant difference among D and ND patients for following variables: sex, smoke, total cholesterolemia, hypertension and atrial fibrillation. We found an high significant difference for mean age (P<0.005) and coronary artery disease prone

  8. Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Silent Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensities are subclinical cerebrovascular lesions associated with incident stroke and cognitive decline. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a predictor of stroke in patients with heart failure, but its association with subclinical brain disease in the general population is unknown. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) can detect subclinical cardiac dysfunction even when LVEF is normal. We investigated the relationship of LVEF and GLS with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort. Methods and Results LVEF and GLS were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography in 439 participants free of stroke and cardiac disease from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. SBIs and white matter hyperintensities were assessed by brain MRI. Mean age of the study population was 69±10 years, 61% were women, LVEF was 63.8±6.4%, GLS was −17.1±3.0%. SBIs were detected in 53 participants (12%), white matter hyperintensity volume was 0.63±0.86%. GLS was significantly lower in participants with SBI versus those without (−15.7±3.5% versus −17.3±2.9%, P<0.01), whereas no difference in LVEF was observed (63.3±8.6% versus 63.8±6.0%, P=0.60). In multivariate analysis, lower GLS was associated with SBI (odds ratio/unit decrease=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.33; P<0.01), whereas LVEF was not (odds ratio/unit increase=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.96–1.05; P=0.98). Lower GLS was associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted β=0.11, P<0.05), unlike LVEF (adjusted β=−0.04, P=0.42). Conclusions Lower GLS was independently associated with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort without overt cardiac disease. GLS can provide additional information on cerebrovascular risk burden beyond LVEF assessment. PMID:23902759

  9. Inappropriate left ventricular mass and poor outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Tao; Peng, Yong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Fang-Yang; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Li, Qiao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Ren, Xin; Huang, Kai-Sen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Chi; Huang, De-Jia; Chen, Mao

    2015-03-01

    Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction. Consecutive patients diagnosed with angina pectoris whose ejection fraction was normal were recruited from 2008 to 2012. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was determined when the ratio of actual left ventricular mass to the predicted one exceeded 150%. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Clinical outcomes between the inappropriate and appropriate left ventricular mass group were compared before and after propensity matching. Of the total of 1515 participants, 18.3% had inappropriate left ventricular mass. Patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass had a higher composite event rate compared with those with appropriate left ventricular mass (11.2 vs. 6.6%, P=0.010). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that inappropriate left ventricular mass was an independent risk factor for adverse events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.45; P=0.035). The worse outcome in patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass was further validated in a propensity matching cohort and patients with the traditional definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

  10. Left ventricular volumes and mass in marathon runners and their association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nassenstein, Kai; Breuckmann, Frank; Lehmann, Nils; Schmermund, Axel; Hunold, Peter; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Sandner, Torleif A; Halle, Martin; Mann, Klaus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Heusch, Gerd; Budde, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund; Barkhausen, Jörg; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    To assess left ventricular volumes and mass by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in relation to conventional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden in master marathon runners aged > or =50 years. Cardiac MRI was performed in 105 clinically healthy male marathon runners (mean age 57.3 +/- 5.7 years, range 50-71 years) on a 1.5 T MR system (Avanto, Siemens, Germany). Cine steady state free precession images in standard long and short axes views were acquired to assess left ventricular volumes and mass. Cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, HDL/LDL cholesterol, smoking, body mass index) were assessed and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Left ventricular muscle mass (mean LVMM = 140 +/- 27 g; 73 +/- 13 g/m(2)) increased with increasing left ventricular end-diastolic volume (mean LVEDV = 137 +/- 32 ml; 72 +/- 15 ml/m(2)) (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) and with systolic (r = 0.33, P = 0.005) and diastolic (r = 0.28, P = 0.005) blood pressures. Left ventricular EDV increased up to the age of 55 years, but decreased thereafter. Runners with LVMM > or =150 g had significantly higher CAC scores than runners with LVMM <150 g (median CAC score 110 vs. 25, P = 0.04). Increases in LVMM and LVEDV may not only represent a response to exercise but are dependent on age and blood pressure, also. In addition, a left ventricular hypertrophy without an increase in volume may be an indicator for early subclinical cardiac alterations in response to risk factor exposure.

  11. Effect of operation for Ebstein anomaly on left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Morgan L; Dearani, Joseph A; Danielson, Gordon K; Cetta, Frank; Connolly, Heidi M; Warnes, Carole A; Li, Zhuo; Hodge, David O; Driscoll, David J

    2008-12-15

    Our objective was to examine the outcomes of patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction who underwent operation for Ebstein anomaly. From April 1, 1972 to January 1, 2006, 539 patients with Ebstein anomaly underwent operation at Mayo Clinic. LV function was determined by echocardiography. Of the 495 patients with preoperative echocardiographic assessment of LV function, 50 had moderate or severe LV systolic dysfunction. In patients with LV dysfunction, the tricuspid valve (TV) was repaired in 12 patients and replaced in 36 patients; 1 patient had a 1.5 ventricle repair, and 1 patient had cardiac transplantation. There were 5 early deaths (10%). LV function improved in all but 4 patients after operation. In no patient did LV function worsen after operation. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival was 86%, 77%, and 67%, respectively. On univariate analysis, absence of sinus rhythm at dismissal (p = 0.003) was associated with greater overall mortality. For the entire cohort of 539 patients, LV dysfunction was independently predictive of late mortality (hazard ratio 3.76, p <0.001). At late follow-up (mean 6.9 years), 86% of patients were in New York Heart Association class I or II. In conclusion, LV systolic dysfunction occurs infrequently in patients with Ebstein anomaly and is a risk factor for increased late mortality. Although early mortality is greater in patients with LV dysfunction, the late results are favorable. Decreasing LV function should be an indication to promptly restore TV competence rather than a contraindication to TV operation.

  12. Left ventricular and aortic dysfunction in cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Zachary M.; Kovacs, Attila; Weinheimer, Carla J.; Best, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) abnormalities have been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, it remains unclear if loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function causes heart defects independent of lung disease. Methods Using gut-corrected F508del CFTR mutant mice (ΔF508), which do not develop human lung disease, we examined in vivo heart and aortic function via 2D transthoracic echocardiography and LV catheterization. Results ΔF508 mouse hearts showed LV concentric remodeling along with enhanced inotropy (increased +dP/dt, fractional shortening, decreased isovolumetric contraction time) and greater lusitropy (−dP/dt, Tau). Aortas displayed increased stiffness and altered diastolic flow. β-adrenergic stimulation revealed diminished cardiac reserve (attenuated +dP/dt,−dP/dt, LV pressure). Conclusions In a mouse model of CF, CFTR mutation leads to LV remodeling with alteration of cardiac and aortic functions in the absence of lung disease. As CF patients live longer, more active lives, their risk for cardiovascular disease should be considered. PMID:23269368

  13. Left ventricular and aortic dysfunction in cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Zachary M; Kovacs, Attila; Weinheimer, Carla J; Best, Philip M

    2013-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) abnormalities have been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, it remains unclear if loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function causes heart defects independent of lung disease. Using gut-corrected F508del CFTR mutant mice (ΔF508), which do not develop human lung disease, we examined in vivo heart and aortic function via 2D transthoracic echocardiography and LV catheterization. ΔF508 mouse hearts showed LV concentric remodeling along with enhanced inotropy (increased +dP/dt, fractional shortening, decreased isovolumetric contraction time) and greater lusitropy (-dP/dt, Tau). Aortas displayed increased stiffness and altered diastolic flow. β-adrenergic stimulation revealed diminished cardiac reserve (attenuated +dP/dt,-dP/dt, LV pressure). In a mouse model of CF, CFTR mutation leads to LV remodeling with alteration of cardiac and aortic functions in the absence of lung disease. As CF patients live longer, more active lives, their risk for cardiovascular disease should be considered. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy: an initial response to myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Francis, G S; McDonald, K M

    1992-06-04

    The prevailing wisdom generally has been that the failing heart hypertrophies in response to increased wall stress. The increase in myocardial mass observed in heart failure is therefore a relatively late compensatory event geared to normalize wall stress. Although this is undoubtedly true, especially for heart failure resulting from a large anterior myocardial infarction accompanied by rapid left ventricular expansion, it is possible that an important form of hypertrophy occurs much earlier as an initial response to myocardial injury. One can hypothesize that the initial response to injury is a nonspecific phenotypic alteration of the cardiac myocyte to one of growth and development. Such changes may be driven by both trophic and mechanical forces and may be important in altering the architecture of the myocardial cell and surrounding cardiac interstitium. Preliminary data from a variety of models support the concept that neuroendocrine activity is an important component in the ventricular remodeling process, and that pharmacologic interventions designed to block systemic and tissue neuroendocrine activity may prevent excessive cardiac enlargement and its ultimate consequences. Because this concept has important implications for preventive cardiology, the results of several prevention trials, including the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD), and Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) are awaited eagerly.

  15. Estimation of left ventricular mass in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Bernell; Cothran, Laval N.; Ison-Franklin, E. L.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the assessment of the development or the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in a conscious instrumented animal is described. First, the single-slice short-axis area-length method for estimating the left-ventricular mass (LVM) and volume (LVV) was validated in 24 formaldehyde-fixed canine hearts, and a regression equation was developed that could be used in the intact animal to correct the sonomicrometrically estimated LVM. The LVM-assessment method, which uses the combined techniques of echocardiography and sonomicrometry (in conjunction with the regression equation), was shown to provide reliable and reproducible day-to-day estimates of LVM and LVV, and to be sensitive enough to detect serial changes during the development of LVH.

  16. [The design of bionic left ventricular auxiliary pump].

    PubMed

    Jin, Henglin; Hu, Xiaobing; Du, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a novel design of bionic left ventricular auxiliary pump, and the characteristic is that elastic diaphragm of pump driven by hydraulic, having smooth, reliable blood supply, can prevent blood clots, can use the flow sensor, pressure sensor detection showing the blood pressure and blood volume at the inlet and outlet of the pump. The pump can go with heart rate synchronization or asynchronous auxiliary by the R wave of human body's ECG. The design goal is realization of bionic throb. Through the animal experiment, the blood pressure waveforms are close to expectations, stable flow can stroke according to the set value, which prove that the pump can meet the requirement for heart disease patients for bionic left ventricular assistant.

  17. Classification of Contextual Use of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Assessments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Garvin, Jennifer; Goldstein, Mary K; Meystre, Stéphane M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the left ventricular ejection fraction is critical for the optimal care of patients with heart failure. When a document contains multiple ejection fraction assessments, accurate classification of their contextual use is necessary to filter out historical findings or recommendations and prioritize the assessments for selection of document level ejection fraction information. We present a natural language processing system that classifies the contextual use of both quantitative and qualitative left ventricular ejection fraction assessments in clinical narrative documents. We created support vector machine classifiers with a variety of features extracted from the target assessment, associated concepts, and document section information. The experimental results showed that our classifiers achieved good performance, reaching 95.6% F1-measure for quantitative assessments and 94.2% F1-measure for qualitative assessments in a five-fold cross-validation evaluation.

  18. Estimation of left ventricular mass in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Bernell; Cothran, Laval N.; Ison-Franklin, E. L.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the assessment of the development or the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in a conscious instrumented animal is described. First, the single-slice short-axis area-length method for estimating the left-ventricular mass (LVM) and volume (LVV) was validated in 24 formaldehyde-fixed canine hearts, and a regression equation was developed that could be used in the intact animal to correct the sonomicrometrically estimated LVM. The LVM-assessment method, which uses the combined techniques of echocardiography and sonomicrometry (in conjunction with the regression equation), was shown to provide reliable and reproducible day-to-day estimates of LVM and LVV, and to be sensitive enough to detect serial changes during the development of LVH.

  19. Chronic left ventricular support with a vented electric assist device.

    PubMed

    Frazier, O H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the success of the pneumatically powered HeartMate (Thermo Cardiosystems Inc, Woburn, MA) left ventricular assist device, researchers at the Texas Heart Institute have begun conducting clinical studies of the vented electric model in bridge-to-transplantation procedures. Like the pneumatic device, the electric device is implanted intraperitoneally, but the blood pump is powered through a percutaneous lead that is connected to two rechargeable batteries. The batteries are worn in a shoulder holster; thus, patients are not tethered to a control console and are fully mobile. Two patients are currently undergoing left ventricular support with the vented electric HeartMate (duration of support, 315 days and 112 days) as they await cardiac transplantation, and they seem to be medically fit for outpatient care and follow-up. This technology may eventually allow selected patients to receive long-term support as a substitute for cardiac transplantation.

  20. Electrical approach to improve left ventricular activation during right ventricle stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bonomini, María Paula; Ortega, Daniel F; Barja, Luis D; Mangani, Nicolasa; Paolucci, Analía; Logarzo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Coronary sinus mapping is commonly used to evaluate left atrial activation. Herein, we propose to use it to assess which right ventricular pacing modality produces the shortest left ventricular activation times (R-LVtime) and the narrowest QRS widths. Three study groups were defined: 54 controls without intraventricular conduction disturbances; 15 patients with left bundle branch block, and other 15 with right bundle branch block. Left ventricular activation times and QRS widths were evaluated among groups under sinus rhythm, right ventricular apex, right ventricular outflow tract and high output septal zone (SEPHO). Left ventricular activation time was measured as the time elapsed from the surface QRS onset to the most distal left ventricular deflection recorded at coronary sinus. During the above stimulation modalities, coronary sinus mapping reproduced electrical differences that followed mechanical differences measured by tissue doppler imaging. Surprisingly, 33% of the patients with left bundle branch block displayed an early left ventricular activation time, suggesting that these patients would not benefit from resynchronization therapy. SEPHO improved QRS widths and left ventricular activation times in all groups, especially in patients with left bundle branch block, in whom these variables became similar to controls. Left ventricular activation time could be useful to search the optimum pacing site and would also enable detection of non-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Finally, SEPHO resulted the best pacing modality, because it narrowed QRS-complexes and shortened left ventricular activations of patients with left bundle branch block and preserved the physiological depolarization of controls.

  1. Right ventricular assist device with membrane oxygenator support for right ventricular failure following implantable left ventricular assist device placement.

    PubMed

    Leidenfrost, Jeremy; Prasad, Sunil; Itoh, Akinobu; Lawrance, Christopher P; Bell, Jennifer M; Silvestry, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock from refractory right ventricular (RV) failure during left ventricular assist device placement is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The addition of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to RV mechanical assistance may help RV recovery and lead to improved outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all implanted continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices from April 2009 to June 2013. RV mechanical support was utilized for RV failure defined as haemodynamic instability despite vasopressors, pulmonary vascular dilators and inotropic therapy. RV assist devices were utilized with and without in-line membrane oxygenation. During the study period, 267 continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices were implanted. RV mechanical support was utilized in 27 (10%) patients; 12 (46%) had the addition of in-line extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The mean age of patients with a right ventricular assist device with membrane oxygenation was lower than that in patients with a right ventricular assist device alone (45.6 ± 15.9 vs 64.6 ± 6.5, P = 0.001). Support was weaned in 66% (10 of 15) of patients with right ventricular assist device (RVAD) alone vs 83% (10 of 12) of those with RVAD with membrane oxygenation (P = 0.42). The RVAD was removed after 10.4 ± 9.4 vs 5 ± 2.99 days for patients with a RVAD with membrane oxygenation (P = 0.1). Patients with RVAD with membrane oxygenation had a 30-day mortality rate of 8 vs 47% for those with RVAD alone (P = 0.04). The survival rate after discharge was 86, 63 and 54% at 3, 6 and 12 months for both groups combined. Patients with a RVAD with membrane oxygenation support for acute RV failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation had a lower 30-day mortality than those with a RVAD alone. Patients who survive to discharge have a reasonable 1-year survival. Combining membrane oxygenation with RVAD support appears to offer a short-term survival benefit in patients with RV failure

  2. Intensive Hemodialysis, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A; Chan, Christopher T; Weinhandl, Eric D; Burkart, John M; Bakris, George L

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease, including cardiac arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease, is higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in the US resident population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in HD patients and the principal discharge diagnosis accompanying 1 in 4 hospital admissions. Furthermore, the rate of hospital admissions for either heart failure or fluid overload is persistently high despite widespread use of β-blockers and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and attempts to manage fluid overload with ultrafiltration. An important predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients is left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVH is an adaptive response to increased cardiac work, typically caused by combined pressure and volume overload, resulting in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased intercellular matrix. In new dialysis patients, the prevalence of LVH is 75%. Regression of LVH may reduce cardiovascular risk, including the incidence of heart failure, complications after myocardial infarction, and sudden arrhythmic death. Multiple randomized clinical trials show that intensive HD reduces left ventricular mass, a measure of LVH. Short daily and nocturnal schedules in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trial reduced left ventricular mass by 14 (10%) and 11 (8%) g, respectively, relative to 3 sessions per week. Comparable efficacy was observed in an earlier trial of nocturnal HD. Intensive HD also improves cardiac rhythm. Clinical benefits have been reported only in observational studies. Daily home HD is associated with 17% and 16% lower risks for cardiovascular death and hospitalization, respectively; admissions for cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and hypertensive disease, which collectively constitute around half of cardiovascular hospitalizations, were less likely with daily home HD. Relative to peritoneal dialysis, daily home HD is likewise associated

  3. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  4. Intraoperative bronchoscopic visualization of left ventricular assist device thrombus.

    PubMed

    Yost, Gardner; Bhat, Geetha; Modi, Sejal; Pappas, Pat; Tatooles, Antone

    2016-07-01

    Despite advancements in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) design and clinical management, device thrombosis remains a pertinent complication. Limited imaging makes precise visualization of clot location and shape very challenging. We report the usage of videobronchoscopic exploration of explanted LVADs for direct visualization of clot in two patients. This technique is a rapid and inexpensive means of improving our understanding of LVAD clot formation and may be useful in surgical exploration of inflow and outflow tracts during LVAD exchange.

  5. Successful percutaneous management of acute left ventricular assist device stoppage.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Snyder, Trevor; Chaffin, John S; Elkins, C Craig; Kanaly, Paul J; Long, James W

    2010-01-01

    The HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a small axial-flow next-generation pump. Acute stoppage of this device is a potentially lethal complication. As these devices proliferate, many patients will be in areas remote to their implant center. Therefore, percutaneous stabilization of these patients before definitive surgical replacement could be potentially life saving. We present two cases of acute LVAD stoppage managed successfully using percutaneous means.

  6. Left ventricular dynamics during exercise in elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Fagard, R; Van den Broeke, C; Amery, A

    1989-07-01

    To assess left ventricular structure and function at rest and during exercise in endurance athletes, 10 elite marathon runners, aged 28 to 37 years, and 10 matched nonathletes were studied by echocardiography and supine bicycle ergometry. Each athlete's best marathon time was less than 2 h 16 min. Echocardiography was performed at rest, at a 60 W work load and at an individually adjusted work load, at which heart rate was 110 beats/min (physical working capacity 110 [PWC110]). Oxygen uptake at PWC110 averaged (+/- SD) 1.14 +/- 0.2 liters/min in the nonathletes and 2.0 +/- 0.2 liters/min in the runners (p less than 0.001). The left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole was similar at the three activity levels in the control subjects but increased significantly from rest to exercise in the runners (p less than 0.001). Left ventricular systolic meridional wall stress remained unchanged during exercise in the nonathletes but was significantly higher at PWC110 in the athletes (p less than 0.05). Both the systolic peak velocity of posterior wall endocardial displacement and fractional shortening of the left ventricular internal diameter increased with exercise; at PWC110 the endocardial peak velocity was higher in the runners than in the control subjects (p less than 0.01). The endocardial peak velocity during relaxation was comparable in athletes and control subjects at rest, increased similarly at a 60 W work load, but was higher in the runners at PWC110 (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm diagnosed by spiral CT angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Beregi, J.P.; Coulette, J.M.; Ducloux, G.

    1996-05-01

    We report a rare case of congenital left ventricular aneurysm, diagnosed by spiral CT angiography. Despite 1 s time acquisition, spiral CT, with adequate acquisition parameters and bolus injection of contrast medium, produced sufficiently good images to permit visualization of the aneurysm. Subsequently, reconstructions (shaded surface display and multiplanar reformation) were performed to demonstrate the relationship of the aneurysm with the remainder of the left ventricle, the wide neck of the aneurysm, and the absence of contractility, therein permitting differentiation from a congenital diverticulum. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Left ventricular diastolic filling response to stationary bicycle exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Kitzman, D W; Millsaps, P D; Kilgo, P D

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy and of maximal exercise on left ventricular diastolic filling response. Transmitral pulsed Doppler echocardiography was obtained in 10 healthy women during each trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks after delivery. Doppler studies were performed at rest and at each exercise workload. The P-R interval, the early and atrial peak flow velocities, the mitral early deceleration time, and the isovolumetric relaxation time were analyzed. Data are expressed as the mean and standard deviation of the mean. Values obtained during the last trimester of pregnancy were used as the pregnant value; values at the 12 weeks after delivery were used as the nonpregnant value. Paired t -test, analysis of variance, and mixed models were used to determine significance with a probability value of <.05. Pregnancy significantly increased the early and atrial peak flow velocities. Pregnancy decreased the P-R interval, the early deceleration time, and the isovolumetric relaxation time. Exercise significantly decreased these diastolic functions; but pregnancy, in any of the 3 trimesters, did not significantly affect this response. Pregnancy increased left ventricular diastolic camber stiffness at rest and shifted left ventricular diastolic filling during exercise from predominantly early to atrial filling. This finding suggests that there is an increase in left ventricular chamber stiffness during maximal upright bicycle exercise in pregnancy.

  9. Short term reduction of left ventricular mass in primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by octreotide injections.

    PubMed Central

    Günal, A. I.; Işik, A.; Celiker, H.; Eren, O.; Celebi, H.; Günal, S. Y.; Lüleci, C.

    1996-01-01

    Growth factors have been shown to be associated with primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Octreotide, a long acting somatostatin analogue, can prevent the stimulating effect of growth factors and decrease the left ventricular mass in patients with acromegaly. In the light of these results, three patients with primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were treated with subcutaneous octreotide (50 micrograms three times a day during the first week and 100 micrograms twice a day for the following three weeks). Initially, two patients were in New York Heart Association class II in and one was in class III. At the end of a four week treatment session all were in class I. There were significant decreases in left ventricular posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, and left ventricular mass in all three patients. Both left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic diameters had increased in all of the patients at the end of the fourth week. Two of three patients showed improved diastolic filling: their hyperdynamic systolic performance returned to normal. No side effects were observed during octreotide treatment. The considerable improvement obtained with the short term octreotide treatment in patients with primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy seems promising. PMID:8944587

  10. Diagnosis and management of aorto-left ventricular tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kathare, Pallavi; Subramanyam, Rama G; Dash, Tapan Kumar; Muthuswamy, Kalyana Sundaram; Raghu, K; Koneti, Nageswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Aorto-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital extracardiac channel with progressive left ventricular dilatation needs early correction. This is a report of diagnosis and management of aorto-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) over a period of 11 years from a single institution. Seven patients (age range: 7 days-45 years) presented with heart failure. The diagnosis of ALVT was made by transthoracic echocardiogram in all cases. Treatment was refused by two patients who died during follow-up. Surgical closure of the tunnel was done in four cases, of which one needed Bentall procedure. Two patients had residual leak after the surgery. Transcatheter closure using Amplatzer muscular device was performed in two cases (for postoperative residual leak in one and primary procedure in the other). Significant hemolysis developed in one of them, necessitating the removal of the device and closed surgically. This child underwent aortic valve replacement two years later. All the remaining patients were doing well during the median follow-up of 30 months (range: 1.5-9 years). ALVT is a rare and potentially fatal anomaly that is ideally managed surgically. Catheter closure has a limited role.

  11. Diagnosis and management of aorto-left ventricular tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Kathare, Pallavi; Subramanyam, Rama G; Dash, Tapan Kumar; Muthuswamy, Kalyana Sundaram; Raghu, K; Koneti, Nageswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aorto-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital extracardiac channel with progressive left ventricular dilatation needs early correction. Materials and Methods: This is a report of diagnosis and management of aorto-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) over a period of 11 years from a single institution. Seven patients (age range: 7 days-45 years) presented with heart failure. The diagnosis of ALVT was made by transthoracic echocardiogram in all cases. Results: Treatment was refused by two patients who died during follow-up. Surgical closure of the tunnel was done in four cases, of which one needed Bentall procedure. Two patients had residual leak after the surgery. Transcatheter closure using Amplatzer muscular device was performed in two cases (for postoperative residual leak in one and primary procedure in the other). Significant hemolysis developed in one of them, necessitating the removal of the device and closed surgically. This child underwent aortic valve replacement two years later. All the remaining patients were doing well during the median follow-up of 30 months (range: 1.5-9 years). Conclusion: ALVT is a rare and potentially fatal anomaly that is ideally managed surgically. Catheter closure has a limited role. PMID:26085759

  12. Surgical Treatment of Post-Infarction Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Ercan; Bozbuga, Nilgun; Toker, Mehmet Erdem; Keles, Cuneyt; Rabus, Murat Bulent; Yildirim, Ozgur; Guler, Mustafa; Balkanay, Mehmet; Isik, Omer; Yakut, Cevat

    2007-01-01

    Herein, we present a retrospective analysis of our experience with acquired pseudoaneurysms of the left ventricle over a 20-year period. From February 1985 through September 2004, 14 patients underwent operation for left ventricular pseudoaneurysm in our clinic. All pseudoaneurysms (12 chronic, 2 acute) were caused by myocardial infarction. The mean interval between myocardial infarction and diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was 7 months (range, 1–11 mo). The pseudoaneurysm was located in the inferior or posterolateral wall in 11 of 14 patients (78.6%). In all patients, the pseudoaneurysm was resected and the ventricular wall defect was closed with direct suture (6 patients) or a patch (8 patients). Most patients had 3-vessel coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in all patients. Five patients died (postoperative mortality rate, 35.7%) after repair of a pseudoaneurysm (post-infarction, 2 patients; chronic, 3 patients). Two patients died during follow-up (median, 42 mo), due to cancer in 1 patient and sudden death in the other. Although repair of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is still a surgical challenge, it can be performed with acceptable results in most patients. Surgical repair is warranted particularly in cases of large or expanding pseudoaneurysms because of the propensity for fatal rupture. PMID:17420793

  13. [Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction].

    PubMed

    Maeder, Micha T; Rickli, Hans

    2013-10-16

    Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; HFpEF) is a common type of heart failure in the elderly, and it typically represents advanced hypertensive heart disease. The left ventricle in patients with HFpEF is characterized by concentric remodeling, normal LVEF, but reduced left longitudinal shortening, and importantly diastolic dysfunction. Dyspnoe and fatigue in patients with HFpEF are due to impaired left ventricular filling with a rapid increase in filling pressures and the lack of an increase in stroke volume during exercise. The diagnosis of HFpEF requires the careful exclusion of non-cardiac causes of dyspnoe as well as cardiac causes of dyspnoe associated with preserved LVEF other than HFpEF, primarily coronary artery disease and valve disease. Then, the following findings are required to make a diagnosis of HFpEF: a non-dilated left ventricle with an LVEF >50% and the presence of a significant diastolic impairment, which can be assessed using invasive haemodynamics, echocardiography, natriuretic peptides, or a combination of these tools. In contrast to patients with heart failure and reduced LVEF there is still no established treatment for patients with HFpEF, which prolongs survival or reduces the rate of hospitalizations for heart failure. There is currently however intense research going on in this field, and results from large trials evaluating the effects of various interventions on clinical endpoints are expected within the next years.

  14. Coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LDB3 mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shengshuai; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Lin; Wang, Min; Liu, Chengyun

    2017-08-19

    The coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and abnormal cardiac trabeculation with gene mutation has not been reported previously. Here, we report a case of coexisting congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LIM domain binding 3 gene mutation. A 30-year-old Asian man showed paroxysmal sinus tachycardia and Q waves in an electrocardiogram health check. There were no specific findings in physical examinations and serological tests. A coronary-computed tomography angiography check showed normal coronary artery and no coronary stenosis. Both left ventricle contrast echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance showed rare patterns of a combination of an apical aneurysm-like out-pouching structure with a wide connection to the left ventricle and prominent left ventricular trabecular meshwork. High-throughput sequencing examinations showed a novel mutation in the LDB3 gene (c.C793>T; p.Arg265Cys). Our finding indicates that the phenotypic expression of two heart conditions, congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation, although rare, can occur simultaneously with LDB3 gene mutation. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation may share the same genetic background.

  15. Prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Barge-Caballero, Eduardo; Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; López-Pérez, Manuel; Vázquez-González, Nicolás; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    We sought to assess the prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with normal resting echocardiography and absence of coronary artery disease. From our database of patients referred for treadmill exercise echocardiography, we identified 93 hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction (≥ 50%), no evidence of structural heart disease, and absence of coronary artery disease on angiography. Overall, 39 patients developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (defined as a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% at peak exercise) and 54 exhibited a normal left ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise. The mean follow-up was 6.1 (3.7) years. End points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, heart failure, and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure. Patients who developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction were at higher risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-10.3), cardiac death (hazard ratio=5.6; 95%CI, 1.1-29.4), heart failure (hazard ratio=8.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-44.2), and the composite end point (hazard ratio=5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.0). In the multivariate analysis, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction remained an independent predictor of both heart failure (hazard ratio=6.9; 95% CI, 1.3-37.4) and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure (hazard ratio=4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-16.0). In hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction and absence of coronary artery disease, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction is a strong predictor of cardiac events and may represent early hypertensive heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of acute mechanical left ventricular unloading on ovine tricuspid annular size and geometry.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Brown, Michael; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may alter right ventricular shape and function and lead to tricuspid regurgitation. This in turn has been reported to be a determinant of right ventricular (RV) failure after LVAD implantation, but the effect of mechanical left ventricular (LV) unloading on the tricuspid annulus is unknown. The aim of the study was to provide insight into the effect of LVAD support on tricuspid annular geometry and dynamics that may help to optimize LV unloading with the least deleterious effect on the right-sided geometry. In seven open-chest anaesthetized sheep, nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus, with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Left ventricular unloading was achieved by connecting a cannula in the left atrium and the aorta to a continuous-flow pump. The pump was used for 15 min at a full flow of 3.8 ± 0.3 l/min. Epicardial echocardiography was used to assess the degree of tricuspid insufficiency. Haemodynamic, echocardiographic and sonomicrometry data were collected before and during full unloading. Tricuspid annular area, and the regional and total perimeter were calculated from crystal coordinates, while 3D annular geometry was expressed as the orthogonal distance of each annular crystal to the least squares plane of all annular crystals. There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed either before or during LV unloading. Right ventricular free wall to septum diameter increased significantly at end-diastole during unloading from 23.6 ± 5.8 to 26.3 ± 6.5 mm (P = 0.009), but the right ventricular volume, tricuspid annular area and total perimeter did not change from baseline. However, the septal part of the annulus significantly decreased its maximal length (38.6 ± 8.1 to 37.9 ± 8.2 mm, P = 0.03). Annular contraction was not altered. The

  17. Evaluation of right ventricular function using liver stiffness in patients with left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Toda, Koichi; Nakamura, Teruya; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    Although right ventricular failure (RVF) is a major concern after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, methodologies to evaluate RV function remain limited. Liver stiffness (LS), which is closely related to right-sided filling pressure and may indicate RVF severity, could be non-invasively and repeatedly assessed using transient elastography. Here we investigated the suitability of LS as a parameter of RV function in pre- and post-LVAD periods. The study included 55 patients with LVAD implantation as a bridge to transplantation between 2011 and 2015 whose LS was assessed using transient elastography. Seventeen patients presented with RVF, defined as requiring inotropic support for ≥30 days, nitric oxygen inhalation for ≥5 days, and/or mechanical RV support following LVAD implantation. Survival of patients with RVF was significantly worse compared with that of patients without RVF. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified preoperative LS, LV diastolic dimension, RV stroke work index, and dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy aetiology as significant risk factors; the combination of these parameters could improve predictive power of post-LVAD RVF with areas under the curve of 0.89. Furthermore, LS was significantly decreased by LV unloading and significantly correlated with right-sided filling pressure. In addition to dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy aetiology, reduced RV stroke work index and small LV dimension, we demonstrated that non-invasively measured LS was a predictor of post-LVAD RVF and can be used as a parameter for the evaluation and optimization of RV function in the perioperative period.

  18. [Acute cerebral ischemia: an unusual clinical presentation of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Fiorencis, Andrea; Quadretti, Laura; Bacich, Daniela; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Mele, Donato; Fiorencis, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction in adults is uncommon. The most frequent clinical manifestations are heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, which may be sustained and associated with sudden death. Thromboembolic complications are also possible. We report the case of an adult patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction who came to our observation because of acute cerebral ischemia, an initial presentation of the disease only rarely described.

  19. Left ventricular rhabdomyoma with severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: development of delayed hemiplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Sarigul, Ali; Ozkara, Ahmet; Narin, Cüneyt; Cimen, Derya; Sarkular, Gamze; Sahsivar, Orkun; Toy, Hatice

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac tumors increased with the improvement of imaging techniques in infants. Rhabdomyomas are the most common tumors in this group of patients. We herein report a 40-day-old male patient with left ventricular rhabdomyoma. The tumor caused syncope attack and supraventricular tachycardia. An emergency operation was planned and the life-threatening lesion was excised via left ventriculotomy. The patient was extubated on postoperative sixth hour and discharged from hospital on the sixth day of the postoperative period without any problem. This successful operation encourages us not to hesitate to perform an operation in newborns with cardiac neoplasms causing hemodynamic instability.

  20. Effect of doxazosin on the left ventricular structure and function in morning hypertensive patients: the Japan Morning Surge 1 study.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshio; Eguchi, Kazuo; Shibasaki, Seiichi; Ishikawa, Joji; Hoshide, Satoshi; Pickering, Thomas G; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2008-07-01

    Doxazosin is reported to increase the incidence of congestive heart failure. The benefits of doxazosin, for controlling morning blood pressure as well as its effect on the left ventricular structure and function, are herein examined. In this study, 223 morning hypertensive patients were randomized into either the doxazosin group, with a once-daily bedtime dose of doxazosin, or the control group, who continued their current medication. Atenolol was added to the doxazosin group when needed. The effect of doxazosin was evaluated by measurement of echocardiographic parameters and B-type natriuretic peptide. The left ventricular wall thickness decreased, but the left ventricular diastolic diameter in the doxazosin group increased from the baseline. The changes in the left ventricular mass index were similar between the groups, whereas the relative wall thickness in the doxazosin group decreased more than that in the control group. The left ventricular diastolic function could deteriorate in the doxazosin group. In the doxazosin group, an increase in the left ventricular diameter was only seen in the patient who did not take diuretics throughout the study. The office and home blood pressure in the doxazosin group decreased more than that in the control group, whereas the B-type natriuretic peptide increased in the doxazosin group. Three cases of congestive heart failure were observed in the doxazosin group, but none in the control group. Although a bedtime dose of doxazosin can significantly lower the blood pressure, it can also increase left ventricular diameter, thus increasing the risk of congestive heart failure. However, the prior use of diuretics can prevent the unfavorable effects of doxazosin on the left ventricular structure.

  1. [Stress-induced transient left ventricular apical ballooning].

    PubMed

    Sganzerla, Paolo; Perlasca, Elena; Passaretti, Bruno; Tavasci, Emanuela; Savasta, Carlo

    2004-12-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is a quite rare clinical event mostly described in the Japanese population. It is also known as tako-tsubo-like syndrome due to the peculiar shape on endsystolic left ventriculogram which is like a tako-tsubo, an ancient device used for trapping octopuses in the Japanese sea. The clinical features of this cardiomyopathy, which mimicked an acute coronary syndrome in an Italian 78-year-old man, are described. Acute left ventricular dysfunction with the typical left ventriculogram and normal epicardial coronary arteries followed an acute emotional and physical stress: the patient felt off his boat, while lifted well up above the water of a great Italian lake during routinary servicing, with consequent chest and head traumas. The combination of emotional and physical stress with the dive in the lake cold water could have caused a brisk and marked increase in catecholamines with possible direct myocardial injury. The occurrence of a rare case of a Japanese cardiomyopathy, also mentioned by a device used in sea-fishing, in an Italian patient following an accidental dive in a lake, appears at least peculiar.

  2. Acute right ventricular pressure overload compromises left ventricular function by altering septal strain and rotation.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jason; Zhou, Wei; Ho, Jonathan K; Patel, Nikhil A; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Mahajan, Aman

    2013-07-15

    While right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has long been known to affect the performance of left ventricle (LV), the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Recently, speckle-tracking echocardiography has demonstrated that preservation of strain and rotational dynamics is crucial to both LV systolic and diastolic function. We hypothesized that alteration in septal strain and rotational dynamics of the LV occurs during acute RV pressure overload (RVPO) and leads to decreased cardiac performance. Seven anesthetized pigs underwent median sternotomy and placement of intraventricular pressure-volume conductance catheters. Two-dimensional echocardiographic images and LV pressure-volume loops were acquired for offline analysis at baseline and after banding of the pulmonary artery to achieve RVPO (>50 mmHg) induced RV dysfunction. RVPO resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in LV end-systolic elastance (50%), systolic change in pressure over change in time (19%), end-diastolic volume (22%), and cardiac output (37%) that correlated with decrease in LV global circumferential strain (58%), LV apical rotation (28%), peak untwisting (reverse rotation) rate (27%), and prolonged time to peak rotation (17%), while basal rotation was not significantly altered. RVPO reduced septal radial and circumferential strain, while no other segment of the LV midpapillary wall was affected. RVPO decreased septal radial strain on LV side by 27% and induced a negative radial strain from 28 ± 5 to -16 ± 2% on the RV side of the septum. The septal circumferential strain on both LV and RV side decreased by 46 and 50%, respectively, following RVPO (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that acute RVPO impairs LV performance by primarily altering septal strain and apical rotation.

  3. Electrocardiographic criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy in left bundle-branch block.

    PubMed Central

    Cokkinos, D V; Demopoulos, J N; Heimonas, E T; Mallios, C; Papazoglou, N; Vorides, E M

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine whether the electrocardiographic criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy apply in the presence of left bundle-branch block we studied 79 cases of intermittent left bundle-branch block and compared the QRS voltage and axis before and after its onset. Cases of incomplete left bundle-branch block were excluded. There was a statistically significant correlation between pre- and post-left bundle-branch block values of R or S wave voltage in leads I, V1, V2, V5, and V6, the Sokolow index (R V5 or V6 + S V1), and the QRS axis. There was a statistically significant reduction in R wave voltage in leads I, V5, and V6, an increase in S wave voltage in V1 and V2, and leftward shift of QRS axis, but the Sokolow index remained unchanged, after the onset of left bundle-branch block. The Sokolow criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy apply satisfactorily even in the presence of left bundle-branch block, though specificity is low, but QRS axis is unhelpful. Images PMID:147697

  4. Robust left ventricular myocardium segmentation for multi-protocol MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, A.; Weese, J.; Lehmann, H.

    2012-02-01

    For a number of cardiac procedures like the treatments of ventricular tachycardia (VT), coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) both anatomical as well as vitality information about the left ventricular myocardium are required. To this end, two images for the anatomical and functional information, respectively, must be acquired and analyzed, e.g. using two different 3D MR protocols. To enable automatic analysis, a workflow has been proposed1 which allows to integrate the vitality information extracted from the functional image data into a patient-specific anatomical model generated from the anatomical image. However, in the proposed workflow the extraction of accurate vitality information from the functional image depends to a large extend on the accuracy of both the anatomical model and the mapping of the model to the functional image. In this paper we propose and evaluate methods for improving these two aspects. More specifically, on one hand we aim to improve the segmentation of the often low-contrast left ventricular epicardium in the anatomical 3D MR images by introducing a patient-specific shape-bias. On the other hand, we introduce a registration approach that facilitates the mapping of the anatomical model to images acquired by different protocols and modalities, such as functional 3D MR. The new methods are evaluated on clinical MR data, for which considerable improvements can be achieved.

  5. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  6. Left Ventricular Assist Devices: The Adolescence of a Disruptive Technology.

    PubMed

    Pinney, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    Clinical outcomes for patients with advanced heart failure receiving left ventricular assist devices are driven by appropriate patient selection, refined surgical technique, and coordinated medical care. Perhaps even more important is innovative pump design. The introduction and widespread adoption of continuous-flow ventricular assist devices has led to a paradigm shift within the field of mechanical circulatory support, making the promise of lifetime device therapy closer to reality. The disruption caused by this new technology, on the one hand, produced meaningful improvements in patient survival and quality of life, but also introduced new clinical challenges, such as bleeding, pump thrombosis, and acquired valvular heart disease. Further evolution within this field will require financial investment to sustain innovation leading to a fully implantable, durable, and cost-effective pump for a larger segment of patients with advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Double outlet from chambers of left ventricular morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Jimenez, M Q; Castaneda, A R; Rufilanchas, J J; Deverall, P B

    1979-01-01

    This series of 5 cases with double outlet of morphologically left ventricular chamber includes 4 found during a review of 1700 heart specimens (incidence 0.23%) and 1 found at operation and successfully corrected. Abnormal atrioventricular connection precluding total correction was present in the 4 anatomical cases. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult and it is suggested that axial cineangiography may make anatomical diagnosis easier. Absence of the infundibular septum and aortic laevoposition are frequent. As some cases can be surgically corrected, accurate information is required on the size of the right ventricle, the morphology and function of the atrioventricular valves, the presence, size, and position of the ventricular septal defect, and the degree and type of outflow tract obstruction. Images PMID:475930

  8. Right heart failure post left ventricular assist device implantation

    PubMed Central

    Argiriou, Mihalis; Kolokotron, Styliani-Maria; Sakellaridis, Timothy; Argiriou, Orestis; Charitos, Christos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Right heart failure (RHF) is a frequent complication following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. The incidence of RHF complicates 20-50% (range, 9-44%) of cases and is a major factor of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite the fact that many risk factors contributing to the development of RHF after LVAD implantation have been identified, it seems to be extremely difficult to avoid them. Prevention of RHF consists of the management of the preload and the afterload of the right ventricle with optimum inotropic support. The administration of vasodilators designed to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance is standard practice in most centers. The surgical attempt of implantation of a right ventricular assist device does not always resolve the problem and is not available in all cardiac surgery centers. PMID:24672699

  9. Right heart failure post left ventricular assist device implantation.

    PubMed

    Argiriou, Mihalis; Kolokotron, Styliani-Maria; Sakellaridis, Timothy; Argiriou, Orestis; Charitos, Christos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    Right heart failure (RHF) is a frequent complication following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. The incidence of RHF complicates 20-50% (range, 9-44%) of cases and is a major factor of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite the fact that many risk factors contributing to the development of RHF after LVAD implantation have been identified, it seems to be extremely difficult to avoid them. Prevention of RHF consists of the management of the preload and the afterload of the right ventricle with optimum inotropic support. The administration of vasodilators designed to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance is standard practice in most centers. The surgical attempt of implantation of a right ventricular assist device does not always resolve the problem and is not available in all cardiac surgery centers.

  10. Left ventricular mass changes after renal transplantation: influence of dietary sodium and change in serum uric acid.

    PubMed

    du Cailar, Guilhem; Oudot, Carole; Fesler, Pierre; Mimran, Albert; Bonnet, Benjamin; Pernin, Vincent; Ribstein, Jean; Mourad, Georges

    2014-07-27

    We hypothesized that dietary sodium may modulate the effect of systolic blood pressure and other nonhemodynamic factors, such as high uric acid and renal dysfunction, on changes in the left ventricular mass after renal transplantation. The objective of the present 3-year follow-up longitudinal study was to assess the concomitant influence of these factors on changes in the left ventricular mass after renal transplantation. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion, glomerular filtration rate (isotopic clearance), and left ventricular mass (echocardiography) assessment were done in 165 renal transplant patients during the first year and after a follow-up of 3 years after renal transplantation. At follow-up, therapy of hypertension was associated with normalization of blood pressure in 64% and a decrease in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy from 66% to 56%. At baseline and follow-up, systolic blood pressure, sodium intake, and serum uric acid emerged as independent and significant determinants of the final left ventricular mass index. When the population was divided according to sex-specific tertiles of the final 24-hr urinary sodium excretion, the relationship between change in serum uric acid during follow-up, final left ventricular mass index, and final glomerular filtration rate was significant only on the highest tertile of 24-hr urinary sodium excretion. The decrease in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy after renal transplantation is blunted by high sodium intake. Persistence of the left ventricular hypertrophy may result from the combined adverse influences of excessive dietary sodium intake and increased serum uric acid during follow-up despite pharmacological control of blood pressure.

  11. Left ventricular volumes and function during atrial pacing in coronary artery disease: a radionuclide angiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenman, Y.; Weiss, A.T.; Atlan, H.; Gotsman, M.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study set out to determine the pathophysiologic changes in the left ventricle during atrial pacing in 22 patients with coronary artery disease. Graduated right atrial pacing to a rate of 160 beats/min, or the induction of angina pectoris or significant ST depression was undertaken. Ventricular volumes were measured at rest and at rates of 100, 120, 140 and 160 beats/min using radionuclide angiography. The volumes at a pacing rate of 100 beats/min were used as a reference standard (100%). In the 22 patients with coronary artery disease, left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased from 118 +/- 3% at rest to 80 +/- 5% at a rate of 160 beats/min; stroke volume from 121 +/- 3% to 54 +/- 5%; and ejection fraction (EF) from 49 +/- 3% to 37 +/- 5%. End-systolic volume decreased from 118 +/- 4% at rest, reached its minimal value of 94 +/- 5% at a rate of 120 beats/min and then increased slightly to 106 +/- 9% at 160 beats/min. Cardiac output and blood pressure did not change significantly. Compared to the control group of 10 normal subjects, the patients had a significantly smaller decrease in end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume than in normal control subjects. EF in the normal subjects did not change. Blood pressure, cardiac output and stroke volume were similar in both groups. Atrial pacing tachycardia induced reversible ventricular dysfunction with a decrease in EF. Stroke volume was maintained because of relative ventricular dilatation.

  12. Ventricular Reconstruction Results in Improved Left Ventricular Function and Amelioration of Mitral Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, Aditya K.; Patel, Mayank R.; Fiser, Steven M.; Long, Stewart M.; Kern, John A.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Kron, Irving L.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Surgical restoration of the left ventricular wall (Dor procedure) has been advocated as a therapy for left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. This procedure involves placement of an endoventricular patch through a ventriculotomy. Methods We reviewed our series of patients that underwent the Dor procedure within the past 4 years and examined their pre and postoperative ventricular function and mitral valve function. Pre and postoperative ejection fraction and degree of mitral regurgitation were analyzed using the paired Student t-test. We hypothesized that this procedure would result in improved ventricular function and that it would also help improve mitral valve function. Results Thirty-four patients underwent this procedure, with one death. Of these, 30 patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and 8 patients had mitral intervention (seven had an Alfieri repair of the mitral valve, and one had mitral valve annuloplasty). The average preoperative ejection fraction among these patients was 26.8% (range 10–45%). The postoperative ejection fraction was significantly higher at 35.4% (range 25–52%) (P < .001). We noted an improvement in ejection fraction in 27 patients (82%). We also noted that 21 of 33 patients (64%) had improvement in the degree of mitral regurgitation based on echocardiography data (P < .001). Conclusions We conclude that the Dor procedure results in improvement in the left ventricular function. Furthermore, we also note that this procedure ameliorates mitral regurgitation in a majority of these patients even in the absence of associated mitral valve procedures, probably due to reduction in the size of the ventricle and improved orientation of the papillary muscles. PMID:12035039

  13. Left Ventricular Strain as Predictor of Chronic Aortic Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Hee; Yang, Young Ae; Kim, Kyu Yeon; Park, Sang Mi; Kim, Hong Nyun; Kim, Jae Hee; Jang, Se Yong; Bae, Myung Hwan; Lee, Jang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background It is not well known about the implication of left ventricular (LV) strain as a predictor for mortality in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether global longitudinal strain measured by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography could predict long-term outcome in patients with chronic AR. Methods This is a single center non-randomized retrospective observational study. The patients with chronic AR from January 2002 to December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Following patients were excluded; combined other significant valvular disease, previous heart surgery, aortic disease, congenital heart disease, acute AR and young age under 18 years old. Finally, 60 patients were analyzed and the LV global strain rate was measured on apical four chamber image (GS-4CH). Results During 64 months follow-up duration, 16 patients (26.7%) were deceased and 38 patients (63.3%) underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR). Deceased group was older (69 years old vs. 51 years old, p < 0.001) and had lower longitudinal strain (-12.05 ± 3.72% vs. -15.66 ± 4.35%, p = 0.005). Kaplan-Meier survival curve stratified by GS-4CH showed a trend of different event rate (log rank p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis by cox proportional hazard model adjusting for age, sex, body surface area, history of atrial fibrillation, blood urea nitrogen, LV dilatation, LV ejection fraction and AVR, decreased GS-4CH proved to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with chronic AR (hazard ratio 1.313, 95% confidence interval 1.010-1.706, p = 0.042). Conclusion GS-4CH may be a useful predictor of mortality in patient with chronic AR. PMID:26140149

  14. Anatomic considerations for abdominally placed permanent left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Parnis, S M; McGee, M G; Igo, S R; Dasse, K; Frazier, O H

    1989-01-01

    To determine anatomic parameters for a permanent, electrically actuated left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the effects of abdominal placement of pneumatic LVADs used as temporary support for patients awaiting heart transplantation was studied. Understanding the anatomic constraints imposed by the abdominal viscera in LVAD placement is crucial, because improper placement can result in compression or obstruction of adjacent structures. Anatomic compatibility was assessed in four men (age 22-48 years) who were supported by the LVAD for over 1 month (range 35-132 days). The pump was intraperitoneally placed in the left upper quadrant. Radiographic techniques were employed, including CT scanning (with patients supine) and contrast imaging (patients in anatomical position), and the pump and conduits appeared to be properly positioned, with minimal compression of the body of the stomach, and no obstruction of adjacent organs. Three patients returned to a solid food diet and exercised daily by stationary cycling and walking. No signs of migration or erosion of the pump were present at the time of LVAD removal and cardiac transplantation. Successful clinical experience with short-term use of the LVAD suggests that the electrically actuated device can be well tolerated in patients requiring permanent left ventricular assistance.

  15. Left ventricular, systemic arterial, and baroreflex responses to ketamine and TEE in chronically instrumented monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, S. C.; Ludwig, D. A.; Reister, C.; Fanton, J. W.; Ewert, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of prescribed doses of ketamine five minutes after application and influences of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on left ventricular, systemic arterial, and baroreflex responses were investigated to test the hypothesis that ketamine and/or TEE probe insertion alter cardiovascular function. Seven rhesus monkeys were tested under each of four randomly selected experimental conditions: (1) intravenous bolus dose of ketamine (0.5 ml), (2) continuous infusion of ketamine (500 mg/kg/min), (3) continuous infusion of ketamine (500 mg/kg/min) with TEE, and (4) control (no ketamine or TEE). Monkeys were chronically instrumented with a high fidelity, dual-sensor micromanometer to measure left ventricular and aortic pressure and a transit-time ultrasound probe to measure aortic flow. These measures were used to calculate left ventricular function. A 4-element Windkessel lumped-parameter model was used to estimate total peripheral resistance and systemic arterial compliance. Baroreflex response was calculated as the change in R-R interval divided by the change in mean aortic pressure measured during administration of graded concentrations of nitroprusside. The results indicated that five minutes after ketamine application heart rate and left ventricular diastolic compliance decreased while TEE increased aortic systolic and diastolic pressure. We conclude that ketamine may be administered as either a bolus or continuous infusion without affecting cardiovascular function 5 minutes after application while the insertion of a TEE probe will increase aortic pressure. The results for both ketamine and TEE illustrate the classic "Hawthorne Effect," where the observed values are partly a function of the measurement process. Measures of aortic pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular diastolic pressure should be viewed as relative, as opposed to absolute, when organisms are sedated with ketamine or instrumented with a TEE probe.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment does not affect left ventricular chamber stiffness after myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Alja; Nesković, Aleksandar N; Dekleva, Milica; Putniković, Biljana; Popović, Zoran B; Otasević, Petar; Ostojić, Miodrag

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that transient increase in left ventricular stiffness, assessed by Doppler-derived early filling deceleration time, occurs during the first 24 to 48 hours after myocardial infarction but returns to normal within several days. It has been reported that hyperbaric oxygen treatment has a favorable effect on left ventricular systolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. However, there are no data on the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on diastolic function after myocardial infarction. To assess acute and short-term effects of hyperbaric oxygen on left ventricular chamber stiffness, we studied 74 consecutive patients with first acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to treatment with hyperbaric oxygen combined with streptokinase or streptokinase alone. After thrombolysis, patients in the hyperbaric oxygen group received 100% oxygen at 2 atm for 60 minutes in a hyperbaric chamber. All patients underwent 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography 1 (after thrombolysis), 2, 3, 7, 21, and 42 days after myocardial infarction. Patient characteristics, including age, sex, risk factors, adjunctive postinfarction therapy, infarct location, and baseline left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction, were similar between groups (P >.05 for all). For both groups, deceleration time decreased nonsignificantly from day 1 to day 3 and increased on day 7 (P <.001, for both groups), increasing nonsignificantly subsequently. The E/A ratio increased in the entire study group throughout the time of study (P <.001, for both groups). The pattern of changes of deceleration time was similar in both groups (P >.05 by analysis of variance), as was in subgroups determined by early reperfusion success. These data in a small clinical trial do not support a benefit of hyperbaric oxygen on left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis.

  17. Myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodeling: results of the CEDIM trial. Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico.

    PubMed

    Colonna, P; Iliceto, S

    2000-02-01

    Left ventricular dilatation after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a powerful predictor of progressive functional deterioration, culminating in heart failure and death. The most important determinants of post-MI left ventricular remodeling are the size of the infarct, the degree of residual stenosis in the infarct-related artery, and the viability of the infarct zone. In addition to reperfusion therapy and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, metabolic intervention with L-carnitine may represent a therapeutic approach for preventing left ventricular dilatation and preserving cardiac function. Ongoing studies with early metabolic intervention with carnitine in the acute phase of infarction may prove successful in protecting the microcirculation against ischemic damage and enhancing its ability to respond to blood flow resumption. The results of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) trial suggest that the early and long-term administration of L-carnitine attenuates progressive left ventricular dilatation after acute anterior MI. Results show significant, consistent reductions in end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume in patients who received L-carnitine compared with placebo. The ongoing CEDIM-2 trial (projected 4000 patients with acute MI) will assess the efficacy of L-carnitine in reducing the combined incidence of death and heart failure at 6 months. In addition to standard reperfusion therapy and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, metabolic intervention with L-carnitine may be a therapeutic approach for preventing left ventricular dilatation and preserving cardiac function by limiting infarct size, decreasing residual stenosis in the infarct-related artery, and increasing viability of the infarct zone.

  18. Left ventricular, systemic arterial, and baroreflex responses to ketamine and TEE in chronically instrumented monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, S. C.; Ludwig, D. A.; Reister, C.; Fanton, J. W.; Ewert, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of prescribed doses of ketamine five minutes after application and influences of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on left ventricular, systemic arterial, and baroreflex responses were investigated to test the hypothesis that ketamine and/or TEE probe insertion alter cardiovascular function. Seven rhesus monkeys were tested under each of four randomly selected experimental conditions: (1) intravenous bolus dose of ketamine (0.5 ml), (2) continuous infusion of ketamine (500 mg/kg/min), (3) continuous infusion of ketamine (500 mg/kg/min) with TEE, and (4) control (no ketamine or TEE). Monkeys were chronically instrumented with a high fidelity, dual-sensor micromanometer to measure left ventricular and aortic pressure and a transit-time ultrasound probe to measure aortic flow. These measures were used to calculate left ventricular function. A 4-element Windkessel lumped-parameter model was used to estimate total peripheral resistance and systemic arterial compliance. Baroreflex response was calculated as the change in R-R interval divided by the change in mean aortic pressure measured during administration of graded concentrations of nitroprusside. The results indicated that five minutes after ketamine application heart rate and left ventricular diastolic compliance decreased while TEE increased aortic systolic and diastolic pressure. We conclude that ketamine may be administered as either a bolus or continuous infusion without affecting cardiovascular function 5 minutes after application while the insertion of a TEE probe will increase aortic pressure. The results for both ketamine and TEE illustrate the classic "Hawthorne Effect," where the observed values are partly a function of the measurement process. Measures of aortic pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular diastolic pressure should be viewed as relative, as opposed to absolute, when organisms are sedated with ketamine or instrumented with a TEE probe.

  19. Left ventricular performance of the athletic heart during upright exercise: a heart rate-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rubal, B J; Moody, J M; Damore, S; Bunker, S R; Diaz, N M

    1986-02-01

    This study compares the left ventricular performance of chronically conditioned pentathletes (N = 10) with less-conditioned subjects (N = 10) during dynamic upright exercise. The pentathletes were found to have a superior treadmill performance [24 +/- 4 vs 17 +/- 2 min (SD), P less than 0.01], reduced resting heart rate (41 +/- 13 vs 62 +/- 6 bpm, P less than 0.01), and increased left ventricular mass (254 +/- 85 vs 179 +/- 35 g, P less than 0.05) compared to the control group. Radionuclide ventriculography and heart rate controlled-bicycle ergometry were employed to examine changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and stroke volume. Heart rate was controlled by adjusting the resistance of the ergometer until stable heart rates of 90, 110, 130, and 150 bpm were achieved. Following heart rate stabilization, 99mTc images were acquired during 3-min stages at each target heart rate level. In the pentathletes, left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume increased (P less than 0.01) during exercise, and end-systolic volume tended to decrease. No difference was noted in left ventricular ejection fraction between groups when heart rates were matched. However, the exercise-induced changes in end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were greater (P less than 0.01) in the pentathletes. In conclusion, the athletes studied relied on the same mechanism as the less-conditioned subjects for improving pump performance during exercise stress, but the athletes' ability to mobilize a greater end-diastolic volume accounts for their larger stroke output during each stage of heart rate-matched exercise.

  20. Myocardial Viability and Survival in Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bonow, Robert O.; Maurer, Gerald; Lee, Kerry L.; Holly, Thomas A.; Binkley, Philip F.; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Farsky, Pedro S.; Feldman, Arthur M.; Doenst, Torsten; Michler, Robert E.; Berman, Daniel S.; Nicolau, Jose C.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Alotti, Nasri; Asch, Federico M.; Favaloro, Liliana E.; She, Lilin; Velazquez, Eric J.; Jones, Robert H.; Panza, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The assessment of myocardial viability has been used to identify patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction in whom coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) will provide a survival benefit. However, the efficacy of this approach is uncertain. METHODS In a substudy of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction who were enrolled in a randomized trial of medical therapy with or without CABG, we used single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT), dobutamine echocardiography, or both to assess myocardial viability on the basis of pre-specified thresholds. RESULTS Among the 1212 patients enrolled in the randomized trial, 601 underwent assessment of myocardial viability. Of these patients, we randomly assigned 298 to receive medical therapy plus CABG and 303 to receive medical therapy alone. A total of 178 of 487 patients with viable myocardium (37%) and 58 of 114 patients without viable myocardium (51%) died (hazard ratio for death among patients with viable myocardium, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.86; P = 0.003). However, after adjustment for other baseline variables, this association with mortality was not significant (P = 0.21). There was no significant interaction between viability status and treatment assignment with respect to mortality (P = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS The presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, but this relationship was not significant after adjustment for other baseline variables. The assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with a differential survival benefit from CABG, as compared with medical therapy alone. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.) PMID:21463153

  1. Weight lifting training and left ventricular function in adolescent subjects.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, M; Sagiv, M; Ben-Sira, D

    2007-09-01

    Training during adolescence may influence the myocardium's adaptation. Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function differ depending whether they result from pressure or volume overload. Accordingly, the present study was designed to examine, by echocardiography studies, the effects of endurance versus weight lifting training modes on left ventricular contractility in healthy adolescent boys. Sixty healthy adolescent boys were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: weightlifting training, run-training, and control. Exercising groups underwent 28-week training programs, 3-4 times a week, 35 min each session. The weight lifting program for consisted of training on 6 dynamic resistive machines at resistance corresponding to 6-repetition maximum. The running program was composed of aerobic exercise training at 65% of their VO(2max). At rest, only in the runners end diastolic volume and end systolic pressure-volume ratio differed significantly (P<0.05) from pre- to post-testing. During post-testing session at peak exercise, runners compared to weightlifters demonstrated improvement respectively in: wall stress (245+/-42 and 290+/-35 103 dyn.cm(2)), end systolic pressure-volume ratio (7.2+/-.7 and 6.4+/-.5 ratio) and ejection fraction (82+/-5% and 76+/-5%). Maximal oxygen uptake (48.2+/-3.2 and 43.8+/-3.5 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), also improved significantly (P<0.05). Maximal load was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the runners and weight lifters than in the control group with significantly (P<0.05) higher values for the weight lifters than runners. This study has showed that in adolescent boys the mode of exercise training leads to significant differences in left ventricular function and contractility, related to differences in volume-after-load relationship and not to fundamental differences in the properties of the myocardium.

  2. Comparative electromechanical and hemodynamic effects of left ventricular and biventricular pacing in dyssynchronous heart failure: electrical resynchronization versus left-right ventricular interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lumens, Joost; Ploux, Sylvain; Strik, Marc; Gorcsan, John; Cochet, Hubert; Derval, Nicolas; Strom, Maria; Ramanathan, Charu; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Arts, Theo; Delhaas, Tammo; Prinzen, Frits W.; Bordachar, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To enhance understanding of the working mechanism of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) by comparing animal experimental, clinical, and computational data on the hemodynamic and electromechanical consequences of left ventricular and biventricular pacing (LVP and BiVP, respectively). Background It is unclear why LVP and BiVP have comparative positive effects on hemodynamic function of patients with dyssynchronous heart failure (HF). Methods Hemodynamic response to LVP and BiVP (%-change LVdP/dtmax) was measured in 6 dogs and 24 patients with HF and left-bundle branch block (LBBB), followed by computer simulations of local myofiber mechanics during LVP and BiVP in the failing heart with LBBB. Pacing-induced changes of electrical activation were measured in dogs using contact mapping and in patients using a noninvasive multielectrode electrocardiographic mapping technique. Results LVP and BiVP similarly increased LVdP/dtmax in dogs and in patients, but only BiVP significantly decreased electrical dyssynchrony. In the simulations, LVP and BiVP increased total ventricular myofiber work to the same extent. While the LVP-induced increase was entirely due to enhanced right ventricular (RV) myofiber work, the BiVP-induced increase was due to enhanced myofiber work of both the LV and RV. Overall, LVdP/dtmax correlated better with total ventricular myofiber work than with LV or RV myofiber work alone. Conclusions Experimental, human, and computational data support the similarity of hemodynamic response to LVP and BiVP, despite differences in electrical dyssynchrony. The simulations provide the novel insight that, through ventricular interaction, the RV myocardium importantly contributes to the improvement in LV pump function induced by CRT. PMID:24013057

  3. Biomass fuel smoke exposure was associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in Peru.

    PubMed

    Burroughs Peña, M S; Velazquez, E J; Rivera, J D; Alenezi, F; Wong, C; Grigsby, M; Davila-Roman, V G; Gilman, R H; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2016-12-19

    While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship of biomass fuel use with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, and tobacco use. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (80 biomass fuel users and 107 non-users) were included in this analysis (mean age 59 years, 58% women). After adjustment, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was associated with increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (P=.004), left atrial diameter (P=.03), left atrial area (four-chamber) (P=.004) and (two-chamber) (P=.03), septal E' (P=.006), and lateral E' (P=.04). Exposure to biomass fuel smoke was also associated with worse global longitudinal strain in the two-chamber view (P=.01). Daily biomass fuel use was associated with increased left ventricular size and decreased left ventricular systolic function by global longitudinal strain.

  4. Delayed Tamponade after Traumatic Wound with Left Ventricular Compression

    PubMed Central

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Chandy, Mark; Edwards, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Delayed cardiac tamponade after a penetrating chest injury is a rare complication. The clinical diagnosis of tamponade is facilitated with imaging. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male who was brought to emergency after multiple stab wounds to the chest. After resuscitation and repair of laceration of right internal mammary artery and right ventricle, he was discharged but later returned with shortness of breath. Echocardiography revealed a rare case of delayed pericardial tamponade causing left ventricular collapse. The pericardial effusion was treated with emergent pericardiocentesis and later required a thoracoscopy guided pericardial window for definitive management. PMID:27651957

  5. Delayed Tamponade after Traumatic Wound with Left Ventricular Compression.

    PubMed

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Chandy, Mark; Connelly, Kim A; Edwards, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Delayed cardiac tamponade after a penetrating chest injury is a rare complication. The clinical diagnosis of tamponade is facilitated with imaging. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male who was brought to emergency after multiple stab wounds to the chest. After resuscitation and repair of laceration of right internal mammary artery and right ventricle, he was discharged but later returned with shortness of breath. Echocardiography revealed a rare case of delayed pericardial tamponade causing left ventricular collapse. The pericardial effusion was treated with emergent pericardiocentesis and later required a thoracoscopy guided pericardial window for definitive management.

  6. Doppler echocardiographic parameters of evaluation of left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Drăgulescu, S I; Roşu, D; Abazid, J; Ionac, A

    1993-01-01

    The authors suggest a new method using Doppler echocardiography for the evaluation of cardiac performance. Doppler echocardiography permits the calculation of left ventricular (LV) ejection force (according to Newton's second law of motion). The ejection force was calculated in 36 patients with heart failure subgrouped into 3 groups based on ejection fraction (EF) (> 60%; 41-60%; < 40%) compared to 11 normal subjects. The LV ejection force showed a good linear correlation with LV ejection fraction (r = 0.86). Data of the study suggest that the LV ejection force is a valuable and accurate index for the assessment of cardiac performance, especially in early stages of disease.

  7. Coronary flow and left ventricular function during environmental stress.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Adams, J. D.; Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    A canine model was used to study the effects of different environmental stresses on the heart and coronary circulation. The heart was surgically instrumented to measure coronary blood flow, left ventricular pressure, and other cardiovascular variables. Coronary flow was recorded by telemetry. Physiologic data were processed and analyzed by analog and digital computers. By these methods the physiologic response to altitude hypoxia, carbon monoxide, hypercapnia, acceleration, exercise, and the interaction of altitude hypoxia and carbon monoxide were described. The effects of some of these stresses on the heart and coronary circulation are discussed.

  8. Septic shock secondary to infection of a left ventricular thrombus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Ramos-Cuadra, Jose Angel; Aragón-Extremera, Victor Manuel; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who developed severe shock with multiorgan failure requiring admission to intensive care. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed and she was diagnosed with sepsis secondary to left ventricular thrombus abscess. Surgery was contraindicated and the patient received exclusively medical treatment; the clinical course was satisfactory and the patient is alive one year later. An apical thrombus may rarely be complicated by infection. Although management normally requires surgical excision, medical management may be effective in situations in which surgery is contraindicated.

  9. Dealing with surgical left ventricular assist device complications

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Arman; Acker, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) will undoubtedly have an increasing role due to the aging population, anticipated concomitant increase in the prevalence of end-stage heart failure, and improvements in LVAD technology and outcomes. As with any surgical procedure, LVAD implantation is associated with an adverse event profile. Such complications of LVAD therapy include bleeding, infection, pump thrombosis, right heart failure, device malfunction, and stroke. Although each has a unique management, early recognition and diagnosis of these complications is uniformly paramount. In this review, we provide an overview of managing surgical complications of LVADs. PMID:26793336

  10. Analyzing left ventricular function in mice with Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, Abdallah; Tournoux, François

    2013-07-01

    Mice are widely used in heart failure research. Accurate evaluation of cardiac structure and function is key to modern cardiovascular research. Doppler echocardiography is a simple, reproducible, and non-invasive method, which allows a longitudinal study of these small animals. Besides common parameters such as left ventricular chamber size, mass, and function, new emerging echo tools are of great interest for small animal imaging. In this review, we describe the technical issues linked to murine cardiovascular anatomy and physiology and the most current echo parameters that can be used.

  11. Thoratec left ventricular assist device removal after toxic myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Leontiadis, Evangelos; Morshuis, Michiel; Arusoglu, Latif; Cobaugh, Dagmar; Koerfer, Reiner; El-Banayosy, Aly

    2008-12-01

    The clinical manifestation and natural history of myocarditis range is variable from asymptomatic stages to intractable circulatory compromise and death. Supportive therapy is paramount in the treatment of this condition. The use of mechanical circulatory support as bridge-to-recovery or bridge-to-transplantation in cases of cardiovascular collapse is often the only therapeutic option for these patients. We report the case of an adolescent boy with toxic myocarditis, due to cannabis abuse, who was supported with a Thoratec left ventricular assist device (Thoratec Laboratories Corp, Pleasanton, CA) for 96 days before device removal.

  12. Left ventricular assist devices: current controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Erin M; Black, Matthew C; Monreal, Gretel; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-12-07

    Advanced heart failure is a growing epidemic that leads to significant suffering and economic losses. The development of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to improved quality of life and long-term survival for patients diagnosed with this devastating condition. This review briefly summarizes the short history and clinical outcomes of LVADs and focuses on the current controversies and issues facing LVAD therapy. Finally, the future directions for the role of LVADs in the treatment of end-stage heart failure are discussed.

  13. Coronary flow and left ventricular function during environmental stress.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Adams, J. D.; Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    A canine model was used to study the effects of different environmental stresses on the heart and coronary circulation. The heart was surgically instrumented to measure coronary blood flow, left ventricular pressure, and other cardiovascular variables. Coronary flow was recorded by telemetry. Physiologic data were processed and analyzed by analog and digital computers. By these methods the physiologic response to altitude hypoxia, carbon monoxide, hypercapnia, acceleration, exercise, and the interaction of altitude hypoxia and carbon monoxide were described. The effects of some of these stresses on the heart and coronary circulation are discussed.

  14. Multiple left ventricular aneurysms in a young female.

    PubMed

    Raval, Abhishek P; Shukla, Anand; Garg, Rajiv; Rana, Yashpal; Shah, Komal

    2016-02-01

    Multiple left ventricular aneurysms (LVAs) are rare, especially in a young female. A 29-year-old woman presented vague symptoms. Multiple LVAs were revealed and confirmed on different imaging modalities, including chest radiography, echocardiography, contrast ventriculography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Detailed work-up for probable etiologies including ischemic, infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune causes was negative. In the absence of angina, decompensated congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and embolism, the patient was managed conservatively, with excellent mid-term outcome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of left ventricular systolic function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Malev, Eduard; Zemtsovsky, Eduard; Pshepiy, Asiyet; Timofeev, Eugeny; Reeva, Svetlana; Prokudina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left ventricular function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) without significant mitral regurgitation using two-dimensional strain imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 58 asymptomatic young subjects (mean [± SD] age 19.7±1.6 years; 72% male) with MVP were compared with 60 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. MVP was diagnosed by billowing one or both mitral leaflets >2 mm above the mitral annulus in the long-axis parasternal view. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain and strain rate were determined using speckle tracking with a grey-scale frame rate of 50 fps to 85 fps. There were no significant differences in the global systolic left ventricular function of the subjects with MVP compared with the control group. In the MVP group, most of the global myocardial systolic deformation indexes were not reduced. Only the global circumferential strain showed a decrease in the prolapse subjects. Regional, longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were decreased only in septal segments. A decrease in the rotation of the same septal segments at the basal level was also observed. CONCLUSION: Regional septal myocardial deformation indexes decrease in subjects with MVP. These changes may be the first sign indicating the deterioration of left ventricular systolic function as well as the existence of primary cardiomyopathy in asymptomatic young subjects with MVP. PMID:23592928

  16. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Bai, Yinglong; Sun, Guozhe; Guan, Yufan; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The results of previous studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a general population. A total of 10,824 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35-years old. The participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Echocardiograms were obtained, and LVEF was calculated using modified Simpson's rule. Of the 10,824 participants included in the present study, 46.1% were males, and the mean participant age was 54 years; age ranged from 35 to 93 years. The overall prevalence of LVEF< 0.50 and LVEF < 0.40 in the studied population was 11.6% and 2.9%, respectively. The prevalence of LVEF < 0.5 and LVEF < 0.04 was higher in both the moderate and heavy drinker groups than in the nondrinker group (P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected according to the different levels of alcohol consumption showed that moderate and heavy drinkers had an –1.3-fold and 1.2-fold higher risk of LVEF <0.5, respectively, than nondrinkers (OR: 1.381, 95% CI: 1.115–1.711, P = 0.003 for moderate drinkers; OR: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.064–1.460, P = 0.006 for heavy drinkers). Heavy drinkers had an ∼1.5-fold higher risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 than nondrinkers (OR: 1.482, 95% CI: 1.117–1.965, P = 0.006). Moderate drinkers did not show a risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 that was significantly higher than that of nondrinkers (OR: 1.183, 95% CI: 0.774–1.808, P = 0.437). According to these results, we concluded that increased alcohol consumption was associated with decreased LVEF compared with no alcohol consumption in this general population. PMID:27227945

  17. Left ventricular assist device outflow graft: alternative sites.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Singh, Steve K; Mallidi, Hari R; Frazier, Oscar H

    2014-09-01

    We describe three alternative approaches for the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow graft during implantation of the LVAD. The supraceliac abdominal aorta, innominate artery and left axillary artery were employed as alternative sites for the LVAD outflow graft in the setting of a heavily calcified ascending aorta or a hostile chest wall and mediastinum. The first approach involved the use of the supraceliac abdominal aorta. Given that the patient had a history of multiple previous breast surgeries and chest wall radiation for breast cancer treatment, a left subcostal incision was employed as a sternotomy-sparing approach. The second approach was the use of the innominate artery in a patient with a porcelain ascending aorta. The patient underwent pulmonary valve replacement, right ventricle outflow tract reconstruction and tricuspid valve annuloplasty in addition to the LVAD implantation. The third approach was the use of the left axillary artery. This patient had a history of LVAD implantation and subsequently developed infection with pseudoaneurysm formation at the aortic anastomosis of the outflow graft. We conclude that the supraceliac abdominal aorta, the innominate artery and the left axillary artery are potential alternative routes for the LVAD outflow graft in the settings of heavily calcified ascending aorta or a hostile chest wall and mediastinum. Although the described alternative approaches are safe and viable options, we highly recommend utilizing these approaches only in selected patients with significantly higher risks and hazards to the standard surgical approach.

  18. Peripheral venous scintillation angiocardiography in determination of left ventricular volume in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. W.; Bergeron, D. A.; Vetter, W. R.; Hyatt, K. H.; Haughton, V.; Vogel, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic volume was determined by cardiac visualization after peripheral venous injection of a gamma-emitting isotope in 10 patients with organic heart disease. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume measured by the isotope method consistently averaged 9% less than that determined by the X-ray method. The mean difference in left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 21 ml. Excellent correlation between the two methods was observed. It is pointed out that peripheral venous scintillation angiocardiography compares well with left ventriculography in the determination of left ventricular end-diastolic volume in man.

  19. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shenouda, Sylvia K; Varner, Kurt J; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A

    2009-03-01

    Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown, oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included alpha-methyl dopamine, N-methyl alpha-methyl dopamine and 2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA. Dihydroethidium was used to detect drug-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in ventricular myocytes. Contractile function and changes in intracellular calcium transients were measured in paced (1 Hz), Fura-2 AM loaded, myocytes using the IonOptix system. Production of ROS in ventricular myocytes treated with MDMA was not different from control. In contrast, all three metabolites of MDMA exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increases in ROS that were prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). The metabolites of MDMA, but not MDMA alone, significantly decreased contractility and impaired relaxation in myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz. These effects were prevented by NAC. Together, these data suggest that MDMA-induced oxidative stress in the left ventricle can be due, at least in part, to the metabolism of MDMA to redox active metabolites.

  20. POST-TRAUMATIC APICAL LEFT VENTRICULAR ANEURYSM IN A PATIENT WITH LEFT VENTRICULAR APICAL-ABDOMINAL AORTIC CONDUIT: CASE PRESENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Ugorji, Clement C.; Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.

    1979-01-01

    A patient with a small aortic annulus had an apico-aortic conduit implanted for aortic stenosis approximately three years before being admitted to our institution. Four months after sustaining a steering wheel injury to the chest, he developed chest pain and palpitations. X-ray films and left ventriculograms revealed a large apical aneurysm of unknown duration. At surgery, it was noted that the proximal portion of the conduit had been sewn directly to the myocardium without the use of a rigid or soft apical outlet prosthesis incorporating a sewing ring. The aneurysm was resected along with a small proximal segment of the conduit graft. A polished Pyrolite® rigid inlet tube with a sewing ring and graft extension was inserted into the residual left ventricular apex, and continuity was reestablished with the abdominal segment of the conduit. It is postulated that the aneurysm was caused by either the direct anastomosis of the fabric graft to the apical myocardium at the original operation (with subsequent disruption and aneurysm formation prior to the steering wheel injury), or was the result of fixation of the heart at the diaphragm by the conduit, with increased vulnerability to deceleration injury at the direct left ventricular apex myocardium-fabric graft site. Images PMID:15216296

  1. A Multiparous Woman with Lately Diagnosed Multilevel Left Ventricular Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Nasir; Gul, Ibrahim; Nabi, Amjad

    2017-05-01

    A 56-year hypertensive, multiparous woman presented to the cardiology unit with Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class-III angina and worsening dyspnea for the past few weeks. Her clinical examination showed high blood pressure and mid-systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur radiating to carotids. However, there was no radio-femoral delay or significant blood pressure difference between her arms. Her transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and mid cavity left ventricular outflow (LVO) obstruction. Left heart catheterization (LHC) showed coarctation of aorta with extensive collaterals, mid cavity LVO obstruction, and moderate AS. Thus, she was diagnosed as a case of multi-level LVO obstruction including mid cavity LVO obstruction AS and coarctation of aorta. She underwent stenting of aortic coarctation as the initial step of graded approach to her disease, and is doing well.

  2. [Left Ventricular Rupture during Both Mitral and Aortic Valve Replacements].

    PubMed

    Kurumisawa, Soki; Aizawa, Kei; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Ohki, Shinnichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman on hemodialysis was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment of heart valve disease. She required both mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves, associated with tricuspid annuloplasty. After aortic de-clamping, a massive hemorrhage from the posterior atrioventricular groove was observed. Under repeated cardiac arrest, the left atrium was reopened, the implanted mitral prosthetic valve was removed and a type I left ventricular rupture (Treasure classification) was diagnosed. The lesion was directly repaired with mattress stitches and running sutures, using reinforcement materials such as a glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium. To avoid mechanical stress by the prosthetic valve on the repaired site, a mechanical valve was implanted using a translocation method. The patient suffered from aspiration pneumonia and disuse atrophy for 3 months. However, she was doing well at 1 year post-operation.

  3. Induction of left ventricular fascicular tachycardia with transesophageal pacing in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Williams, Conrad S P; Khatib, Sammy; Dorotan-Guevara, Maria Malaya; Snyder, Christopher S

    2010-01-01

    J.V. is a 3(1/2)-year-old patient with left ventricular fascicular ventricular tachycardia that had been well controlled on verapamil for 3 years. He was taken for a transesophageal electrophysiology study prior to discontinuing medication in an attempt to induce his tachycardia. We report the use of transesophageal electrophysiology study as a noninvasive method to induce left ventricular fascicular ventricular tachycardia in a toddler.

  4. Outcomes of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Using Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Kusa, Shigeki; Miller, Marc A; Whang, William; Enomoto, Yoshinari; Panizo, Jorge G; Iwasawa, Jin; Choudry, Subbarao; Pinney, Sean; Gomes, Anthony; Langan, Noelle; Koruth, Jacob S; d'Avila, Andre; Reddy, Vivek Y; Dukkipati, Srinivas R

    2017-06-01

    Although percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (pLVADs) facilitate mapping and ablation of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT), there is limited data whether clinical outcomes are improved. We sought to retrospectively compare the outcomes of patients undergoing scar-related VT ablation with and without pLVAD support. The study population comprised 194 patients (109 pLVAD and 85 non-pLVAD). The pLVAD group more often had dilated cardiomyopathy (33% versus 13%; P=0.001), New York Heart Association heart failure class ≥III (51% versus 25%; P<0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fractions (26±10% versus 39±16%; P<0.001), and electrical storm (49% versus 34%; P=0.04). Procedure times (422±112 versus 330±92 minutes; P<0.001), postablation VT inducibility (20% versus 7%; P=0.02), and length of subsequent hospitalization (median 6 versus 4 days; P=0.001) were all higher in the pLVAD group. During median follow-up of 215 days, the primary end point (recurrent VT, heart transplantation, or death) occurred in 36% of the pLVAD versus 26% of the non-pLVAD groups (P=0.14). After propensity matching for differences between groups, no differences were seen between groups for both acute procedural outcomes and the primary end point. In this large single-center scar-related VT ablation experience, despite the worse clinical status of the patients selected for pLVAD support, clinical outcomes were better than expected and were similar to healthier patients not receiving hemodynamic support. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy presenting with electrical storm, advanced heart failure, and severe left ventricular dysfunction most frequently received hemodynamic support during VT ablation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Left ventricular hypertrophy in obese hypertensives: is it really eccentric? (An echocardiographic study).

    PubMed

    Smalcelj, A; Puljević, D; Buljević, B; Brida, V

    2000-06-01

    In order to study left ventricular hypertrophy patterns in obese hypertensives, we examined 132 patients with essential hypertension by 2D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. The patients were classified in four comparable groups, corresponding to the values of Quetelet's body mass index (BMI) and grades of obesity. More obese hypertensives had on average larger left ventricles with thicker walls and larger left atria than less obese, or lean ones. Left ventricular mass increased significantly and progressively with advancing grades of obesity, but relative wall thickness (wall thickness/cavity size ratio) did not diminish. Doppler echocardiography revealed significantly higher prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction among obese than among lean hypertensives. In the second part of our study, we analyzed the subgroups defined by the severity of hypertension and the age of the patients. The correlation of the indices of left ventricular and left atrial hypertrophy with the BMI values was considerably better in the group of moderate than in the group of mild hypertension. The r values were 0.62 vs. 0.22 for left ventricular mass and 0.64 vs. 0.26 for left atrial dimension. The group of patients with severe hypertension was characterized by left ventricular cavity enlargement in correlation with increasing BMI values, but without corresponding left ventricular wall thickening. So called left ventricular "eccentricity index", as the reverse value of relative wall thickness, correlated well (r = 0.76) with the BMI values. The indices of left ventricular hypertrophy correlated with the BMI values slightly better in middle age groups than in the groups of the youngest (< or = 30 years) or the eldest (> or = 61 years) hypertensives. In conclusion, eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy does not seem to be a distinctive feature of hypertensive heart disease in obesity. There is only some tendency toward the "eccentricity" of left ventricular geometry which

  6. Myocardial remodelling in left ventricular atrophy induced by caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Carina; Nink, Nadine; Nikam, Sandeep; Magdowski, Gerd; Kripp, Gerhard; Voswinckel, Robert; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Changes in body weight due to changes in food intake are reflected by corresponding changes in the cardiac phenotype. Despite a growing body of literature on cardiac hypertrophy associated with obesity, little is known on the atrophic remodelling of the heart associated with calorie restriction. We hypothesized that, besides the cardiomyocyte compartment, capillaries and nerve fibres are involved in the atrophic process. C57Bl6 mice were kept on normal diet (control group) or at a calorie-restricted diet for 3 or 7 days (n = 5 each). At the end of the protocol, mice were killed and the hearts were processed for light and electron microscopic stereological analysis of cardiomyocytes, capillaries and nerve fibres. Body, heart and left ventricular weight were significantly reduced in the calorie-restricted animals at 7 days. Most morphological parameters were not significantly different at 3 days compared with the control group, but at 7 days most of them were significantly reduced. Specifically, the total length of capillaries, the volume of cardiomyocytes as well as their subcellular compartments and the interstitium were proportionally reduced during caloric restriction. No differences were observed in the total length or the mean diameter of axons between the cardiomyocytes. Our data indicate that diet-induced left ventricular atrophy leads to a proportional atrophic process of cardiomyocytes and capillaries. The innervation is not involved in the atrophic process. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society.

  7. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  8. Defining Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children on Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A.; Zaritsky, Joshua; Suarez, Angela; Wong, William; Ranchin, Bruno; Qi, Cao; Szabo, Attila J.; Coccia, Paula A.; Harambat, Jérôme; Mitu, Florin; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different pediatric reference systems on the estimated prevalence of LVH in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Echocardiographic studies in 507 pediatric CPD patients from neonatal age to 19 years were collected in 55 pediatric dialysis units around the globe. We compared the prevalence of LVH on the basis of the traditional cutoff of left ventricular mass (LVM) index (>38.5 g/m2.7) with three novel definitions of LVH that were recently established in healthy pediatric cohorts. Results Application of the new reference systems eliminated the apparently increased prevalence of LVH in young children obtained by the traditional fixed LVM index cutoff currently still recommended by consensus guidelines. However, substantial differences of LVM distribution between the new reference charts resulted in a marked discrepancy in estimated LVH prevalence ranging between 27.4% and 51.7%. Conclusions Although our understanding of the anthropometric determinants of heart size during childhood is improving, more consistent normative echocardiographic data from large populations of healthy children are required for cardiovascular diagnostics and research. PMID:21737857

  9. Hydraulic forces contribute to left ventricular diastolic filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksuti, Elira; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Kovács, Sándor J.; Broomé, Michael; Ugander, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Myocardial active relaxation and restoring forces are known determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We hypothesize the existence of an additional mechanism involved in LV filling, namely, a hydraulic force contributing to the longitudinal motion of the atrioventricular (AV) plane. A prerequisite for the presence of a net hydraulic force during diastole is that the atrial short-axis area (ASA) is smaller than the ventricular short-axis area (VSA). We aimed (a) to illustrate this mechanism in an analogous physical model, (b) to measure the ASA and VSA throughout the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and (c) to calculate the magnitude of the hydraulic force. The physical model illustrated that the anatomical difference between ASA and VSA provides the basis for generating a hydraulic force during diastole. In volunteers, VSA was greater than ASA during 75–100% of diastole. The hydraulic force was estimated to be 10–60% of the peak driving force of LV filling (1–3 N vs 5–10 N). Hydraulic forces are a consequence of left heart anatomy and aid LV diastolic filling. These findings suggest that the relationship between ASA and VSA, and the associated hydraulic force, should be considered when characterizing diastolic function and dysfunction.

  10. Hydraulic forces contribute to left ventricular diastolic filling.

    PubMed

    Maksuti, Elira; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Kovács, Sándor J; Broomé, Michael; Ugander, Martin

    2017-03-03

    Myocardial active relaxation and restoring forces are known determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We hypothesize the existence of an additional mechanism involved in LV filling, namely, a hydraulic force contributing to the longitudinal motion of the atrioventricular (AV) plane. A prerequisite for the presence of a net hydraulic force during diastole is that the atrial short-axis area (ASA) is smaller than the ventricular short-axis area (VSA). We aimed (a) to illustrate this mechanism in an analogous physical model, (b) to measure the ASA and VSA throughout the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and (c) to calculate the magnitude of the hydraulic force. The physical model illustrated that the anatomical difference between ASA and VSA provides the basis for generating a hydraulic force during diastole. In volunteers, VSA was greater than ASA during 75-100% of diastole. The hydraulic force was estimated to be 10-60% of the peak driving force of LV filling (1-3 N vs 5-10 N). Hydraulic forces are a consequence of left heart anatomy and aid LV diastolic filling. These findings suggest that the relationship between ASA and VSA, and the associated hydraulic force, should be considered when characterizing diastolic function and dysfunction.

  11. Hydraulic forces contribute to left ventricular diastolic filling

    PubMed Central

    Maksuti, Elira; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Kovács, Sándor J.; Broomé, Michael; Ugander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial active relaxation and restoring forces are known determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We hypothesize the existence of an additional mechanism involved in LV filling, namely, a hydraulic force contributing to the longitudinal motion of the atrioventricular (AV) plane. A prerequisite for the presence of a net hydraulic force during diastole is that the atrial short-axis area (ASA) is smaller than the ventricular short-axis area (VSA). We aimed (a) to illustrate this mechanism in an analogous physical model, (b) to measure the ASA and VSA throughout the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and (c) to calculate the magnitude of the hydraulic force. The physical model illustrated that the anatomical difference between ASA and VSA provides the basis for generating a hydraulic force during diastole. In volunteers, VSA was greater than ASA during 75–100% of diastole. The hydraulic force was estimated to be 10–60% of the peak driving force of LV filling (1–3 N vs 5–10 N). Hydraulic forces are a consequence of left heart anatomy and aid LV diastolic filling. These findings suggest that the relationship between ASA and VSA, and the associated hydraulic force, should be considered when characterizing diastolic function and dysfunction. PMID:28256604

  12. Oxidative stress decreases microtubule growth and stability in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Drum, Benjamin M L; Yuan, Can; Li, Lei; Liu, Qinghang; Wordeman, Linda; Santana, L Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Microtubules (MTs) have many roles in ventricular myocytes, including structural stability, morphological integrity, and protein trafficking. However, despite their functional importance, dynamic MTs had never been visualized in living adult myocytes. Using adeno-associated viral vectors expressing the MT-associated protein plus end binding protein 3 (EB3) tagged with EGFP, we were able to perform live imaging and thus capture and quantify MT dynamics in ventricular myocytes in real time under physiological conditions. Super-resolution nanoscopy revealed that EB1 associated in puncta along the length of MTs in ventricular myocytes. The vast (~80%) majority of MTs grew perpendicular to T-tubules at a rate of 0.06μm∗s(-1) and growth was preferentially (82%) confined to a single sarcomere. Microtubule catastrophe rate was lower near the Z-line than M-line. Hydrogen peroxide increased the rate of catastrophe of MTs ~7-fold, suggesting that oxidative stress destabilizes these structures in ventricular myocytes. We also quantified MT dynamics after myocardial infarction (MI), a pathological condition associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our data indicate that the catastrophe rate of MTs increases following MI. This contributed to decreased transient outward K(+) currents by decreasing the surface expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels after MI. On the basis of these data, we conclude that, under physiological conditions, MT growth is directionally biased and that increased ROS production during MI disrupts MT dynamics, decreasing K(+) channel trafficking.

  13. Selective left ventricular sensing lead implantation to overcome undersensing of ventricular fibrillation during implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Philippon, François; O'Hara, Gilles; Molin, Franck

    2013-06-01

    Accurate sensing of malignant arrhythmia is critical for the appropriate delivery of therapy from implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and undersensing of ventricular tachyarrhythmias can have catastrophic consequences. Here, we present an unusual case of ventricular fibrillation undersensing from the right ventricular lead at multiple different implantation sites because of very low amplitude voltage signals during induced ventricular fibrillation. A left ventricular sensing electrode was implanted to allow correct sensing and therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic radionuclide determination of regional left ventricular wall motion using a new digital imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, P.; Kirch, D.

    1975-01-01

    In 47 men with arteriographically defined coronary artery disease comparative studies of left ventricular ejection fraction and segmental wall motion were made with radionuclide data obtained from the image intensifier camera computer system and with contrast cineventriculography. The radionuclide data was digitized and the images corresponding to left ventricular end-diastole and end-systole were identified from the left ventricular time-activity curve. The left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic images were subtracted to form a silhouette difference image which described wall motion of the anterior and inferior left ventricular segments. The image intensifier camera allows manipulation of dynamically acquired radionuclide data because of the high count rate and consequently improved resolution of the left ventricular image.

  15. Left Ventricular Thrombus Formation After Repair of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Freud, Lindsay R.; Koenig, Peter R.; Russell, Hyde M.; Patel, Angira

    2014-01-01

    Although thrombus formation following myocardial infarction in adults is well known, intracardiac thrombosis in children is uncommon. We report the case of a large left ventricular thrombus in an infant with ischemic cardiomyopathy secondary to anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Given its mobility and protrusion across the aortic valve, the patient underwent urgent thrombus removal through a transaortic approach. There were no embolic or neurologic complications. This case highlights that thrombectomy may be performed safely and successfully in critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:24668990

  16. Left coronary artery stenosis causing left ventricular dysfunction in two children with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Okan; Altin, Firat H; Kaya, Mehmet; Ozyılmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Erek, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) is an arteriopathy associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and other isolated elastin gene deletions. Cardiovascular manifestations associated with WBS are characterized by obstructive arterial lesions such as SVAS and pulmonary artery stenosis in addition to bicuspid aortic valve and mitral valve prolapse. However, coronary artery ostial stenosis may be associated with SVAS, and it increases the risk of sudden death and may complicate surgical management. In this report, we present our experience with two patients having SVAS and left coronary artery ostial stenosis with associated left ventricular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels Predict Ventricular Arrhythmia Post Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Yaron; Malik, Adnan S; Lin, Hongbo; Shen, Changyu; Wang, I-Wen; Wozniak, Thomas C; Hashmi, Zubair A; Pickrell, Jeanette; Jani, Milena; Caccamo, Marco A; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina; Hadi, Azam

    2015-12-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels have been shown to predict ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden death in patients with heart failure. We sought to determine whether BNP levels before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can predict VA post LVAD implantation in advanced heart failure patients. We conducted a retrospective study consisting of patients who underwent LVAD implantation in our institution during the period of May 2009-March 2013. The study was limited to patients receiving a HeartMate II or HeartWare LVAD. Acute myocardial infarction patients were excluded. We compared between the patients who developed VA within 15 days post LVAD implantation to the patients without VA. A total of 85 patients underwent LVAD implantation during the study period. Eleven patients were excluded (five acute MI, four without BNP measurements, and two discharged earlier than 13 days post LVAD implantation). The incidence of VA was 31%, with 91% ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 9% ventricular fibrillation. BNP remained the single most powerful predictor of VA even after adjustment for other borderline significant factors in a multivariate logistic regression model (P < 0.05). BNP levels are a strong predictor of VA post LVAD implantation, surpassing previously described risk factors such as age and VT in the past.

  18. Detecting abnormalities in left ventricular function during exercise by respiratory measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, A.; Itoh, H.; Taniguchi, K.; Hiroe, M. )

    1989-12-01

    The degree of exercise-induced cardiac dysfunction and its relation to the anaerobic threshold were evaluated in 23 patients with chronic heart disease. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed with a cycle ergometer with work rate increased by 1 W every 6 seconds. Left ventricular function, as reflected by ejection fraction, was continuously monitored with a computerized cadmium telluride detector after the intravenous injection of technetium-labeled red blood cells. The anaerobic threshold (mean, 727 {plus minus} 166 ml/min) was determined by the noninvasive measurement of respiratory gas exchange. As work rate rose, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased but reached a peak value at the anaerobic threshold and then fell below resting levels. Ejection fraction at rest, anaerobic threshold, and peak exercise were 41.4 {plus minus} 11.3%, 46.5 {plus minus} 12.0%, and 37.2 {plus minus} 11.0%, respectively. Stroke volume also increased from rest (54.6 {plus minus} 17.0 ml/beat) to the point of the anaerobic threshold (65.0 {plus minus} 21.2 ml/beat) and then decreased at peak exercise (52.4 {plus minus} 18.7 ml/beat). The slope of the plot of cardiac output versus work rate decreased above the anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold occurred at the work rate above which left ventricular function decreased during exercise. Accurate determination of the anaerobic threshold provides an objective, noninvasive measure of the oxygen uptake above which exercise-induced deterioration in left ventricular function occurs in patients with chronic heart disease.

  19. Dual-site right ventricular and left ventricular pacing in a patient with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation using a standard CRT-D device.

    PubMed

    Chase, David; Kumar, Vipin; Hooda, Amit

    2013-07-01

    In patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) accompanied by permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), generally, the unused atrial port is plugged at device implantation. We describe an alternative use for the atrial-port in this case report. A 43 year old gentleman with LVSD due to left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) and AF of unknown duration underwent a CRT-D implantation after optimization of cardiac failure treatment. The atrial-port which would otherwise have been plugged was connected to a high right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing-lead and the shock-lead was positioned at the right ventricular apex (RVA). This approach permitted modified cardiac resynchronization in a high RVS to left ventricular (LV) and RVA pacing sequence using the high RVS and LV pacing combined with a shock vector including the RV apex. A standard CRT-D device with a minimum programmable A-V delay of 30 ms (technically RVS to LV delay in the 'DDD' pacing mode) was used. The device was programmed to a 'DDD' pacing mode (sequential multi-site ventricular pacing with some programmability). The mode switch operation was programmed 'OFF' since atrial sensing is unavailable. Device-delivered shocks did not cardiovert the patient back to sinus rhythm suggesting that the AF was permanent (no prior cardioversion attempts were made on the presumption that the chances of maintaining sinus rhythm, given the underlying cardiac condition, were low). Subsequently, the patient required radio-frequency ablation of the atrio-ventricular node for conducted AF. Symptomatic, echocardiographic and radiological improvement preceded atrio-ventricular node ablation. Amongst AF patients with permanent AF undergoing CRT-D implantation, those patients who are likely to have the CRT-D device atrial-ports plugged could benefit from having both the options of (i) a RVA shock vector as well as (ii) a high RVS

  20. Correlation of right and left ventricular ejection fraction and volume measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetto, A.R.; Nusynowitz, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    First-pass radiocardiography and biplane angiocardiography were performed on 13 patients with left-sided regurgitant valvular disease (R+) and 7 patients without regurgitation but with coronary artery disease and/or cardiomyopathy (R-). Right and left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions were calculated and compared. In the R- group, corresponding right and left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions correlated highly with each other (r = 0.86-0.89, p approximately equal to 0.01). Ejection fractions in the R+ group correlated (r = 0.64, p less than 0.05) only because stroke volume correlation was very high (r = 0.93), with end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes showing no significant correlation. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) decreased significantly with increasing mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in both R- and R+ groups. The correlation of RVEF and LVEF in the R- group appears to be multifactorial in origin, consisting of effects of increased PAP, the mechanical interference of an enlarged left ventricle on the right ventricle, and direct biventricular ischemic effects. In the R+ group, the correlation appears to be due to only increased PAP and its sequelae.

  1. Efficacy of a skeletal muscle-powered dynamic patch: Part 1. Left ventricular assistance.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Misaki, T; Watanabe, G; Ohtake, H; Tsunezuka, Y; Wada, M; Sakakibara, N; Matsunaga, Y; Kawasuji, M; Watanabe, Y

    1995-02-01

    In this study, we examined the capability of a skeletal muscle-powered, dynamic patch to provide left ventricular assistance. An actuator was developed that used linear traction power furnished by the latissimus dorsi muscle and liquid as the medium for power transfer. The proximal portion of the muscle was dissected and was reattached to the actuator. The left ventricular apex was excised, and the dynamic patch lined with autologous pericardium was implanted during cardiopulmonary bypass. Hemodynamic studies were performed in 8 dogs after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Muscle stimulation was found to significantly increase the systolic aortic pressure (91.6 versus 112.1 mm Hg; p < 0.01), the mean aortic pressure (65.2 versus 73.0 mm Hg; p < 0.01), and aortic blood flow (0.77 versus 0.92 L/min; p < 0.01). The left atrial pressure decreased from 17.9 to 16.6 mm Hg (p < 0.01). This "hybrid" left ventricular assist device possesses notable clinical advantages because of its remarkable efficacy in assisting circulation. Further experimental studies using preconditioned skeletal muscle are necessary to assess the long-term effects of this technique.

  2. Determinants of left ventricular mass in obesity; a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Oliver J; Francis, Jane M; Ali, Mohammed K; Byrne, James; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Petersen, Steffen E

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is linked to increased left ventricular mass, an independent predictor of mortality. As a result of this, understanding the determinants of left ventricular mass in the setting of obesity has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance our goal was to elucidate the main predictors of left ventricular mass in severely obese subjects free of additional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods 38 obese (BMI 37.8 ± 6.9 kg/m2) and 16 normal weight controls subjects, (BMI 21.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2), all without cardiovascular risk factors, underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess left ventricular mass, left ventricular volumes and visceral fat mass. Left ventricular mass was then compared to serum and anthropometric markers of obesity linked to left ventricular mass, i.e. height, age, blood pressure, total fat mass, visceral fat mass, lean mass, serum leptin and fasting insulin level. Results As expected, obesity was associated with significantly increased left ventricular mass (126 ± 27 vs 90 ± 20 g; p < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that over 75% of the cross sectional variation in left ventricular mass can be explained by lean body mass (β = 0.51, p < 0.001), LV stroke volume (β = 0.31 p = 0.001) and abdominal visceral fat mass (β = 0.20, p = 0.02), all of which showed highly significant independent associations with left ventricular mass (overall R2 = 0.77). Conclusion The left ventricular hypertrophic response to obesity in the absence of additional cardiovascular risk factors is mainly attributable to increases in lean body mass, LV stroke volume and visceral fat mass. In view of the well documented link between obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality, these findings have potentially important prognostic and therapeutic implications for primary and secondary prevention. PMID:19393079

  3. Septoplasty for left ventricular outflow obstruction without aortic valve replacement: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Cooley, D A; Garrett, J R

    1986-10-01

    A new technique is described for relief of diffuse obstruction in the left ventricular outflow tract without aortic valve replacement. Left ventricular septoplasty was performed, preserving the aortic valve. The supra-valve stenosis was repaired using a Y-shaped extension of the aortotomy proximally and a pantaloon-shaped patch of woven Dacron fabric. A 10-year-old girl with "tunnel" or diffuse stenosis obtained striking relief of left ventricular hypertension by this technique.

  4. Anesthetic experience of patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doyeon; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare primary genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent trabeculation of the left ventricular wall and intertrabecular recesses. Perioperative management of the patient with LVNC might be challenging due to the clinical symptoms of heart failure, systemic thromboembolic events, and fatal left ventricular arrhythmias. We conducted real time intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with LVNC undergoing general anesthesia for ovarian cystectomy. PMID:27274374

  5. Longterm remission of left posterior fascicular ventricular tachycardia due to mechanical trauma.

    PubMed

    Parizek, Petr; Popelka, Jiri; Haman, Ludek

    2010-08-01

    We present a case of a 28 year old woman with paroxysmal left posterior fascicular ventricular tachycardia (LPFVT). Ventricular tachycardia was not inducible after completing of left ventricle 3D reconstruction. Even though catheter ablation was not performed, no LPFVT recurrence has been documented during 60 months follow-up. We surmise that we caused mechanical trauma during the mapping of the posterior fascicle that damaged arrhythmogenic structures and subsequently led to long term remission of the left posterior fascicular ventricular tachycardia.

  6. Right and left ventricular exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: radionuclide assessment.

    PubMed

    Matthay, R A; Berger, H J; Davies, R A; Loke, J; Mahler, D A; Gottschalk, A; Zaret, B L

    1980-08-01

    Right and left ventricular pump performance was assessed at rest and during upright bicycle exercise in 30 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in 25 normal control subjects. Right ventricular and left ventricular ejection fractions were ascertained noninvasively using first-pass quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography. The normal ventricular response to exercise was at least a 5% absolute increase in the ejection fraction of either ventricle. In patients the predominant cardiac abnormality involved performance of the right ventricle. Right ventricular ejection fraction was abnormal at rest in eight patients. Twenty-three patients demonstrated an abnormal right ventricular response to submaximal exercise. Airway obstruction and arterial hypoxemia were significantly more severe in patients with abnormal right ventricular exercise reserve than in those with normal reserve. Abnormal left ventricular performance was infrequent either at rest (four patients) or during exercise (six patients). Thus, this radionuclide technique allows noninvasive assessment of biventricular exercise reserve in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Effect of training on left ventricular contraction dynamics at rest and during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, K; Cholewa, M; Górski, L; Gawor, Z

    1980-01-01

    Left ventricular contraction parameters were determined in sitting position in 21 road cyclists before and after a six-month training course at rest and after maximal exercise. For assessing the contractility of the heart synchronous records were obtained of the second ECG lead, phonocardiogram at Erb's point and right carotid sphygmogram. The polycardiograms were analysed by the method of Weissler. After completion of training the correlation between the total electromechanical systole (QS2) and the left-ventricular ejection time (LVET), on the one hand, and the heart rate, on the other hand, was less pronounced. Moreover, the total electromechanical systole index (QS2I) and the left-ventricular ejection time index (LVETI) were significantly (p less than 0.001) smaller, and the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the PEP/LVET ratio were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than before the training course. During maximal exercise in both investigations the values of QS2I, LVETI, PEP, PEP/LVET ratio and isometric contraction time (ICT) were reduced (p less than 0.001). After the training PEP and PEP/LVET decreased more (p less than 0.05) than before training. The obtained results point to a greater functional reserve of the heart at rest, greater myocardial contractility during exercise, and lower decrease of stroke volume during exercise to exhaustion after 6 months of training than before training in relation to the values of these parameters before training in the same subjects.

  8. Effects of left ventricular assist device on cardiac function: experimental study of relationship between pump flow and left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Saito, A; Shiono, M; Orime, Y; Yagi, S; Nakata, K I; Eda, K; Hattori, T; Funahashi, M; Taniguchi, Y; Negishi, N; Sezai, Y

    2001-09-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with centrifugal pump has two characteristics. One is a pump flow wave of the centrifugal pump, consisting of the pulsatile flow of the native heart and the nonpulsatile flow of the centrifugal pump. The other is that the centrifugal pump fills from the native heart not only in the systolic phase, but also in the diastolic phase. In the case of the apex outlet LVAD with centrifugal pump, blood flows from the left atrium through the left ventricle to the pump. Pump flow is regulated by preload, and preload is regulated by diastolic hemodynamics. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between pump flow and the diastolic hemodynamics of the native heart. Ten anesthetized intact pigs were studied after placement of an LVAD. Data were recorded with the LVAD off (control) and the LVAD on. The assist rate was changed to 25%, 50%, and 75%. The indexes of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function included LV myocardial relaxation (time constant of isovolumic pressure decay [Tau] and maximum negative dP/dt [LV dP/dt min]) and LV filling (peak filling rate [PFR], time to peak filling rate [tPFR], and diastolic filling time [DFT]). Stroke volume decreased significantly in 75% assist. LV end-systolic pressure decreased significantly in 50% and 75% assist. LV end-diastolic volume decreased as assist rate increased, but there were no significant changes. Stroke work decreased significantly in 50% and 75% assist. LV dP/dt min decreased significantly in 50% and 75% assist. Tau prolonged as assist rate increased, but there were no significant changes. DFT shortened significantly in 75% assist. PFR increased significantly in 75% assist. tPFR shortened significantly in 50% and 75% assist. In this study, LV relaxation delayed as an increasing of pump assist rate, but it suggested a result of reduction of cardiac work. Also, it was suggested that LVAD increases the pressure difference between the left atrium and the left ventricle

  9. Dynamic sympathetic regulation of left ventricular contractility studied in the isolated canine heart.

    PubMed

    Miyano, H; Nakayama, Y; Shishido, T; Inagaki, M; Kawada, T; Sato, T; Miyashita, H; Sugimachi, M; Alexander, J; Sunagawa, K

    1998-08-01

    We investigated the dynamic sympathetic regulation of left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees) using an isolated canine ventricular preparation with functioning sympathetic nerves intact. We estimated the transfer function from both stellate ganglion stimulation to Ees and ganglion stimulation to heart rate (HR) for both left and right ganglia by means of the white noise approach and transformed those transfer functions into corresponding step responses. The HR response was much larger with right sympathetic stimulation than with left sympathetic stimulation (4.3 +/- 1.4 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.6 beats . min-1 . Hz-1, P < 0.01). In contrast, the Ees responses without pacing were not significantly different between left and right sympathetic stimulation (0.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.76 +/- 0. 42 mmHg . ml-1 . Hz-1). Fixed-rate pacing significantly decreased the Ees response to right sympathetic stimulation (0.53 +/- 0.43 mmHg . ml-1 . Hz-1, P < 0.01), but not to left sympathetic stimulation (0.67 +/- 0.32 mmHg . ml-1 . Hz-1, not significant). Although the mechanism by which the sympathetic nervous system regulates cardiac contractility is different depending on whether the left or right sympathetic nerves are activated, this difference does not affect the apparent response of Ees to dynamic sympathetic stimulation.

  10. Increased Left Ventricular Stiffness Impairs Exercise Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure Symptoms Despite Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Sinning, David; Kasner, Mario; Westermann, Dirk; Schulze, Karsten; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Aims. Several mechanisms can be involved in the development of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure despite normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF) and may include impairment of left ventricular (LV) stiffness. We therefore investigated the influence of LV stiffness, determined by pressure-volume loop analysis obtained by conductance catheterization, on exercise capacity in HFNEF. Methods and Results. 27 HFNEF patients who showed LV diastolic dysfunction in pressure-volume (PV) loop analysis performed symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and were compared with 12 patients who did not show diastolic dysfunction in PV loop analysis. HFNEF patients revealed a lower peak performance (P = .046), breathing reserve (P = .006), and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at rest (P = .002). LV stiffness correlated with peak oxygen uptake (r = −0.636, P < .001), peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (r = −0.500, P = .009), and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold (r = 0.529, P = .005). Conclusions. CPET parameters such as peak oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold correlate with LV stiffness. Increased LV stiffness impairs exercise capacity in HFNEF. PMID:21403885

  11. A Bayesian Model to Predict Right Ventricular Failure following Left Ventricular Assist Device Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loghmanpour, Natasha A.; Kormos, Robert L.; Kanwar, Manreet K.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Murali, Srinivas; Antaki, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricular failure (RVF) continues to be a major adverse event following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. This study investigates the use of a Bayesian statistical model to address the limited predictive capacity of existing risk scores derived from multivariate analyses. This is based on the hypothesis that it is necessary to consider the inter-relationships and conditional probabilities amongst independent variables to achieve sufficient statistical accuracy. Methods The data used for this study was derived from 10,909 adult patients from INTERMACS who had a primary LVAD from December 2006 – March 2014. An initial set of 176 pre-implant variables were considered. RVF post-implant was categorized as acute (<48 hours), early (48 hours–14 days) and late (>14 days) in onset. For each of these endpoints, a separate tree-augmented Naïve Bayes model was constructed using the most predictive variables using an open source Bayesian inference engine (SMILE.) Results The acute RVF model consisted of 33 variables, including: systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), white blood cell count, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, sodium levels, and lymphocyte percentage. The early RVF model consisted of 34 variables, including systolic PAP, pre-albumin, LDH, INTERMACS profile, right ventricular ejection fraction, pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, age, heart rate, tricuspid regurgitation and BMI. The late RVF model included 33 variables and was mostly predicted by peripheral vascular resistance, MELD score, albumin, lymphocyte percentage, mean PAP and diastolic PAP. The accuracies of all the Bayesian models were between 91–97%, AUC between 0.83–0.90 sensitivity of 90% and specificity between 98–99%, significantly outperforming previously published risk scores. Conclusion A Bayesian prognostic model of RVF, based on the large, multi-center INTERMACS registry provided highly accurate predictions of acute, early, and late

  12. Early post-operative ventricular arrhythmias in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Garan, Arthur R; Levin, Allison P; Topkara, Veli; Thomas, Sunu S; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Colombo, Paolo C; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Whang, William; Jorde, Ulrich P; Uriel, Nir

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are common in patients with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD). The causes and clinical significance of early post-operative VAs have not previously been characterized in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, precipitants, and clinical impact of early VAs in patients supported by CF-LVADs. Patients with a long-term CF-LVAD receiving care between January 1, 2012, and March 1, 2014, were enrolled and followed prospectively. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) were interrogated at baseline and throughout the follow-up period. VA was defined as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation lasting >30 seconds or effectively terminated by appropriate ICD tachytherapy or external defibrillation. The primary end-point was the occurrence of early VAs (within 30 days of surgery). Secondary end-points were right ventricular (RV) failure and need for VA ablation. There were 162 patients enrolled, and 38 (23.5%) experienced at least 1 early VA. Predictors of early VA were a history of pre-operative VAs, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and older age. Several conditions frequently encountered in the early post-operative period were identified as possible precipitants for VA episodes. Early VAs were associated with post-operative RV failure, particularly when patients received shocks instead of anti-tachycardia pacing. Early VAs are common and are associated with RV failure. ICD shocks, but not anti-tachycardia pacing, for early VAs are associated with acute worsening of RV failure. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular ectopic beats on left ventricular function and exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Lelakowski, Jacek; Dreher, Adam; Majewski, Jacek; Bednarek, Jacek

    2009-08-01

    Frequent ventricular ectopic beats (VEB) in patients without significant cardiac disease are usually classified as benign arrhythmia. However, they may alter cardiac performance. RF ablation can effectively eliminate VEB. To evaluate the effects of RF ablation on selected haemodynamic parameters of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and exercise capacity in patients with VEB. The study population consisted of 22 patients (8 males, 14 females, mean age 37.8+/-8.2 years) undergoing effective RF ablation for VEB. Those over 50 years of age, with concomitant cardiovascular disease, depressed global LV function (EF<50%) and segmental wall motion abnormalities were excluded from the study. All patients underwent at baseline and at 6 months after the procedure: physical examination, standard ECG recording, 24-hour Holter monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography to evaluate LV systolic and diastolic function, and treadmill exercise test using the modified Bruce protocol to evaluate exercise duration, peak heart rate and workload achieved. NYHA functional class improved in the whole population after RF ablation. The LV end-systolic dimension (LVESD) and end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) significantly decreased (33.1+/-4.6 vs. 29.3+/-3.4 mm and 49.0+/-5.4 vs. 44.4+/-2.8 mm, respectively; p<0.001), whereas LVEF increased (58.0+/-7.0 vs. 67.8+/-4.8%; p<0.001) along with fractional shortening (FS) improvement (34.2+/-2.4 vs. 37.6+/-1.4%; p<0.001). Parameters of LV diastolic function significantly changed: the E/A ratio, diastolic pulmonary vein flow D and LV flow propagation velocity Vp significantly increased (p<0.001), whereas systolic pulmonary venous flow S and pulmonary venous atrial reversal flow AR were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Furthermore, E wave deceleration time (EDT) and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) were significantly shortened (p<0.001). The parameters of exercise capacity (exercise duration, peak heart rate and workload achieved

  14. Radial left ventricular dyssynchrony by speckle tracking in apical versus non apical right ventricular pacing- evidence of dyssynchrony on medium term follow up.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Chaurasia, Amit Kumar; Kumar, S Mahesh; Arulkumar, Ajeet; Thajudeen, Anees; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Sanjay, G; Abhilash, S P; Ajitkumar, V K; Ja, Tharakan

    2016-01-01

    To study effects of various sites of right ventricular pacing lead implantation on left ventricular function by 2-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking for radial strain and LV dyssynchrony. This was retrospective prospective study. Fifteen patients each with right ventricular (RV) apical (RV apex and apical septum) and non-apical (mid septal and low right ventricular outflow tract [RVOT]) were programmed to obtain 100% ventricular pacing for evaluation by echo. Location and orientation of lead tip was noted and archived by fluoroscopy. Electrocardiography (ECG) was archived and 2D echo radial dyssynchrony was calculated. The baseline data was similar between two groups. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was significantly more in apical location as compared to non-apical location (radial dyssynchrony: 108.2 ± 50.2 vs. 50.5 ± 24, P < 0.001; septal to posterior wall delay [SLWD] 63.5 ± 27.5 vs. 34 ± 10.7, P < 0.001, SPWD 112.5 ± 58.1 vs. 62.7 ± 12.1, P = 0.003). The left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased more in apical location than non apical location. Interventricular dyssynchrony was more in apical group but was not statistically significant. The QRS duration, QTc and lead thresholds were higher in apical group but not statistically significant. Pacing in non apical location (RV mid septum or low RVOT) is associated with less dyssynchrony by specific measures like 2D radial strain and correlates with better ventricular function in long term.

  15. Discrepancies in Left Ventricular Mass Calculation Based on Echocardiography and Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Measurements in Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hee-Young; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Park, Jun-Bean; Lee, Joo Myung; Park, Eun-Ah; Chang, Sung-A; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Park, Sung-Ji; Lee, Whal; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo; Sohn, Dae-Won; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) mass is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and its accurate assessment is important. The aim of this study was to analyze the degree of difference among various methods of LV mass calculation based on transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements, especially in patients with aortic stenosis with varying degrees of LV hypertrophy (LVH). The mechanism underlying this disagreement was also investigated. Ninety-nine patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and 33 control subjects matched for age, sex, body weight, and height were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. All patients underwent TTE and CMR imaging. LV mass index (LVMI) was calculated using three formulas on the basis of TTE measurements (the Penn-cube, American Society of Echocardiography [ASE], and Teichholz methods) and compared with measurements obtained using CMR, the reference method. Although all methods calculated using TTE measurements showed good correlations with CMR measurements, LVMI measured using the Penn-cube and ASE methods tended to be larger than LVMI measured using CMR (difference in LVMI by the Penn-cube and ASE methods, 59.3 ± 29.7 and 30.6 ± 22.3 g/m², respectively). This tendency decreased with the Teichholz method (difference in LVMI by the Teichholz method, 22.9 ± 19.1 g/m²). The degree of LVMI overestimation was significantly different among the three methods (P < .001 by one-way analysis of variance), which was more significant in patients with LVH, especially with the Penn-cube method (differences between CMR and TTE measurements in patients with aortic stenosis and LVH, 66.3 ± 34.8 vs 31.2 ± 26.6 vs 15.5 ± 20.9 g/m² for the Penn-cube, ASE, and Teichholz methods, respectively; P < .001 with post hoc Tukey analysis). There was a good correlation between LVMI and LV diameter-to-length ratio (r = 0.468, P < .001), which suggested that the

  16. Is Doppler tissue velocity during early left ventricular filling preload independent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Kaftan, A.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Korkmaz, M. E.; Flachskampf, F.; Garcia, M.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmitral Doppler flow indices are used to evaluate diastolic function. Recently, velocities measured by Doppler tissue imaging have been used as an index of left ventricular relaxation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Doppler tissue velocities are influenced by alterations in preload. METHODS: Left ventricular preload was altered in 17 patients (all men, mean (SD) age, 49 (8) years) during echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end diastolic volume, maximum left atrial area, peak early Doppler filling velocity, and left ventricular myocardial velocities during early filling. Preload altering manoeuvres included Trendelenberg (stage 1), reverse Trendelenberg (stage 2), and amyl nitrate (stage 3). Systolic blood pressure was measured at each stage. RESULTS: In comparison with baseline, left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.001), left atrial area (p = 0.003), peak early mitral Doppler filling velocity (p = 0.01), and systolic blood pressures (p = 0.001) were all changed by preload altering manoeuvres. Only left ventricular myocardial velocity during early filling remained unchanged by these manoeuvres. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to standard transmitral Doppler filling indices, Doppler tissue early diastolic velocities are not significantly affected by physiological manoeuvres that alter preload. Thus Doppler tissue velocities during early left ventricular diastole may provide a better index of diastolic function in cardiac patients by providing a preload independent assessment of left ventricular filling.

  17. Is Doppler tissue velocity during early left ventricular filling preload independent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Kaftan, A.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Korkmaz, M. E.; Flachskampf, F.; Garcia, M.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmitral Doppler flow indices are used to evaluate diastolic function. Recently, velocities measured by Doppler tissue imaging have been used as an index of left ventricular relaxation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Doppler tissue velocities are influenced by alterations in preload. METHODS: Left ventricular preload was altered in 17 patients (all men, mean (SD) age, 49 (8) years) during echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end diastolic volume, maximum left atrial area, peak early Doppler filling velocity, and left ventricular myocardial velocities during early filling. Preload altering manoeuvres included Trendelenberg (stage 1), reverse Trendelenberg (stage 2), and amyl nitrate (stage 3). Systolic blood pressure was measured at each stage. RESULTS: In comparison with baseline, left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.001), left atrial area (p = 0.003), peak early mitral Doppler filling velocity (p = 0.01), and systolic blood pressures (p = 0.001) were all changed by preload altering manoeuvres. Only left ventricular myocardial velocity during early filling remained unchanged by these manoeuvres. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to standard transmitral Doppler filling indices, Doppler tissue early diastolic velocities are not significantly affected by physiological manoeuvres that alter preload. Thus Doppler tissue velocities during early left ventricular diastole may provide a better index of diastolic function in cardiac patients by providing a preload independent assessment of left ventricular filling.

  18. [Investigations of the left ventricular dynamics in stable-angina pectoris (AP)].

    PubMed

    Negoiţă, C I; Marcu, C; Barna, S; Ardeleanu, M

    1982-01-01

    The investigations were carried out in 78 patients with stable AP without myocardiaI infarction in their case history and in 30 controls all distributed in three series: I = 37 patients with AP and marked alterations of ventricular repolarization (ST depression ≥ 52 mm and T negative waves ≥ 2 mm); II = 41 patients with AP and normal ECG and III = 30 controls, clinically and ECG normal, of similar age with the patients in the I and II series. The investigations of the left ventricular systole periods also rendered evident in the patients with AP important alterations of ventricular repolarization (Ist series): prolonged preejection period (PEP) due to the izovolumetric contraction time (IVCT), shortening of the ejection time (LVET) and decrease of PEP/LVET ratio as well as the significant increase of S(IV)/S(I) ratio. Although slightly shortened in this series, the electromechanic systole (QS(II)) does not present statistically significant alterations, the prolonged PEP being partially counter-balaced by the shortened LVET. The most sensitive index seems to be the PEP/LVET ratio. The alterations' of the left ventricular systole periods become evident late in the course of the disease, when significant ischemic lesions are present this the method has no value in determining an early diagnosis. On the other hand this type of investigation is an useful quantitative method for estimating the functional state of the cardiac muscle in the patients with the diagnosis of AP (stage diagnosis of AP) and subsequent evolution (repeated records).

  19. Coffin-Lowry syndrome and left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy with a restrictive pattern.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Hugo R; Niu, Mary C; Sutton, V Reid; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Vatta, Matteo; Jefferies, John L

    2011-12-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked dominant condition characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, characteristic facies, and hand and skeletal malformations. The syndrome is due to mutations in the gene that encodes the ribosomal protein S6 kinase-2, a growth factor-regulating protein kinase located on Xp22.2. Cardiac anomalies are known to be associated with CLS. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by left ventricular (LV) myocardial trabeculations and intertrabecular recesses that communicate with the LV cavity. Patients may present with a variety of clinical phenotypes, ranging from a complete absence of symptoms to a rapid, progressive decline in LV systolic and diastolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure, malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and systemic thromboembolic events. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is an uncommon primary cardiomyopathy characterized by biatrial enlargement, normal or decreased biventricular volume, impaired ventricular filling, and normal or near-normal systolic function. We describe a patient with CLS and LVNC with a restrictive pattern, as documented by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of concomitant CLS and LVNC. On the basis of our case, we suggest that patients with CLS be screened not only for congenital structural heart defects but also for LVNC cardiomyopathy.

  20. Changes in Spirometry After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Mohamedali, Burhan; Bhat, Geetha; Yost, Gardner; Tatooles, Antone

    2015-12-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used as life-saving therapy in patients with end-stage heart failure. The changes in spirometry following LVAD implantation and subsequent unloading of the left ventricle and pulmonary circulation are unknown. In this study, we explored long-term changes in spirometry after LVAD placement. In this retrospective study, we compared baseline preoperative pulmonary function test (PFT) results to post-LVAD spirometric measurements. Our results indicated that pulmonary function tests were significantly reduced after LVAD placement (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1 ]: 1.9 vs.1.7, P = 0.016; forced vital capacity [FVC]: 2.61 vs. 2.38, P = 0.03; diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide [DLCO]: 14.75 vs. 11.01, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed greater impairment in lung function in patients receiving HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA, USA) LVADs compared with those receiving HeartWare (HeartWare, Framingham, MA, USA) devices. These unexpected findings may result from restriction of left anterior hemi-diaphragm; however, further prospective studies to validate our findings are warranted.

  1. Passive and active ventricular elastances of the left ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liang; Ghista, Dhanjoo N; Ng, Eddie YK; Lim, Soo T

    2005-01-01

    Background Description of the heart as a pump has been dominated by models based on elastance and compliance. Here, we are presenting a somewhat new concept of time-varying passive and active elastance. The mathematical basis of time-varying elastance of the ventricle is presented. We have defined elastance in terms of the relationship between ventricular pressure and volume, as: dP = EdV + VdE, where E includes passive (Ep) and active (Ea) elastance. By incorporating this concept in left ventricular (LV) models to simulate filling and systolic phases, we have obtained the time-varying expression for Ea and the LV-volume dependent expression for Ep. Methods and Results Using the patient's catheterization-ventriculogram data, the values of passive and active elastance are computed. Ea is expressed as: ; Epis represented as: . Ea is deemed to represent a measure of LV contractility. Hence, Peak dP/dt and ejection fraction (EF) are computed from the monitored data and used as the traditional measures of LV contractility. When our computed peak active elastance (Ea,max) is compared against these traditional indices by linear regression, a high degree of correlation is obtained. As regards Ep, it constitutes a volume-dependent stiffness property of the LV, and is deemed to represent resistance-to-filling. Conclusions Passive and active ventricular elastance formulae can be evaluated from a single-beat P-V data by means of a simple-to-apply LV model. The active elastance (Ea) can be used to characterize the ventricle's contractile state, while passive elastance (Ep) can represent a measure of resistance-to-filling. PMID:15707494

  2. Nonischemic left ventricular scar and cardiac sudden death in the young.

    PubMed

    di Gioia, Cira R T; Giordano, Carla; Cerbelli, Bruna; Pisano, Annalinda; Perli, Elena; De Dominicis, Enrico; Poscolieri, Barbara; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Ciallella, Costantino; Zeppilli, Paolo; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Nonischemic left ventricular scar (NLVS) is a pattern of myocardial injury characterized by midventricular and/or subepicardial gadolinium hyperenhancement at cardiac magnetic resonance, in absence of significant coronary artery disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NLVS in juvenile sudden cardiac death and to ascertain its etiology at autopsy. We examined 281 consecutive cases of sudden death of subjects aged 1 to 35 years. NLVS was defined as a thin, gray rim of subepicardial and/or midmyocardial scar in the left ventricular free wall and/or the septum, in absence of significant stenosis of coronary arteries. NLVS was the most frequent finding (25%) in sudden deaths occurring during sports. Myocardial scar was localized most frequently within the left ventricular posterior wall and affected the subepicardial myocardium, often extending to the midventricular layer. On histology, it consisted of fibrous or fibroadipose tissue. Right ventricular involvement was always present. Patchy lymphocytic infiltrates were frequent. Genetic and molecular analyses clarified the etiology of NLVS in a subset of cases. Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings were available in more than half of subjects. The most frequent abnormality was the presence of low QRS voltages (<0.5 mV) in limb leads. In serial ECG tracings, the decrease in QRS voltages appeared, in some way, progressive. NLVS is the most frequent morphologic substrate of juvenile cardiac sudden death in sports. It can be suspected based on ECG findings. Autopsy study and clinical screening of family members are required to differentiate between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and chronic acquired myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Left Ventricular Remodeling and Myocardial Recovery on Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Marc A; Primack, Brian A.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey; Kormos, Robert L; Bermudez, Christian; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Shah, Hemal; Gorcsan, John; McNamara, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    Background Myocardial recovery after VAD is rare but appears more common in non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM). We sought to evaluate left ventricular (LV) end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) for predicting recovery after ventricular assist device (VAD). Methods and Results NICM patients receiving long-term mechanical support 1996–2008 were reviewed. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: mild, moderate and severe dilation (Group A: LVEDD <6.0 cm [n=22]; Group B: 6.0–7.0 cm [n=32]; Group C: >7.0 cm [n=48], respectively). Overall, recovery (successful explant without transplantation) occurred in 14 of 102 subjects (14%). Of these, 2 died and 2 required transplantation within one year. Recovery was more common in patients without LV dilation (Groups A/B/C = 32%/22%/0 %, P<0.001), as was sustained recovery (alive and transplant free one year after explant; A/B/C =27%/10%/0%, P=0.001). Of the recovery patients in Group A, 6/7 (86%) had sustained recovery versus 3/6 (50%) in Group B. Conclusions Recovery occurred in 32% of NICM patients without significant LV dilation at time of VAD, the majority of whom experienced significant sustained recovery. Recovery was not evident in those with severe LV dilation. Routine echocardiography at the time of implant may assist in targeting patients for recovery after VAD. PMID:20142020

  4. Renal failure in patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami M; Adeseun, Gbemisola A; Ahmed, Irfan; Mitter, Nanhi; Rame, J Eduardo; Rudnick, Michael R

    2013-03-01

    Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used as a bridge to transplantation or as destination therapy in patients with end stage heart failure refractory to conventional medical therapy. A significant number of these patients have associated renal dysfunction before LVAD implantation, which may improve after LVAD placement due to enhanced perfusion. Other patients develop AKI after implantation. LVAD recipients who develop AKI requiring renal replacement therapy in the hospital or who ultimately require long-term outpatient hemodialysis therapy present management challenges with respect to hemodynamics, volume, and dialysis access. This review discusses the mechanics of a continuous-flow LVAD (the HeartMate II), the effects of continuous blood flow on the kidney, renal outcomes of patients after LVAD implantation, dialysis modality selection, vascular access, hemodynamic monitoring during the dialytic procedure, and other issues relevant to caring for these patients.

  5. Adverse event prediction in patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Karvounis, Evaggelos C; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Katertsidis, Nikolaos S; Goletsis, Yorgos; Frigerio, Maria; Verde, Alessandro; Trivella, Maria G; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the Treatment Tool, which is a component of the Specialist's Decision Support Framework (SDSS) of the SensorART platform. The SensorART platform focuses on the management of heart failure (HF) patients, which are treated with implantable, left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). SDSS supports the specialists on various decisions regarding patients with LVADs including decisions on the best treatment strategy, suggestion of the most appropriate candidates for LVAD weaning, configuration of the pump speed settings, while also provides data analysis tools for new knowledge extraction. The Treatment Tool is a web-based component and its functionality includes the calculation of several acknowledged risk scores along with the adverse events appearance prediction for treatment assessment.

  6. Aortico--left ventricular communication: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Hung, C R; Wu, M H

    1990-03-01

    An 11-month-old male infant whose condition had been followed since birth was referred to the National Taiwan University Hospital for management of a congenital heart disease. On admission, this infant was noted to have a systolic and diastolic precordial thrill and a grade 4/6 systolic and diastolic murmur. Echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and cineangiogram revealed aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation and dilatation of the aortic root. Surgical repair was performed to correct this congenital anomaly due to the progressive congestive heart failure. Intraoperatively, a breach between the aortic valve and the edge of the sinus of Valsalva along the aortic annulus was found. This congenital defect was repaired with a Teflon patch successfully. Postoperatively, this patient convalesced steadily and was discharged. We report this unique case with aortico-left ventricular communication which we believe to be the ninth case in the English-language literature and the first in the Republic of China.

  7. Current Trends in Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    Garbade, Jens; Bittner, Hartmuth B.; Barten, Markus J.; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of appropriate donor organs and the expanding pool of patients waiting for heart transplantation have led to growing interest in alternative strategies, particularly in mechanical circulatory support. Improved results and the increased applicability and durability with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have enhanced this treatment option available for end-stage heart failure patients. Moreover, outcome with newer pumps have evolved to destination therapy for such patients. Currently, results using nonpulsatile continuous flow pumps document the evolution in outcomes following destination therapy achieved subsequent to the landmark Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance for the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Trial (REMATCH), as well as the outcome of pulsatile designed second-generation LVADs. This review describes the currently available types of LVADs, their clinical use and outcomes, and focuses on the patient selection process. PMID:21822483

  8. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Characteristics in Fetal Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Kevin G.; Schidlow, David; Freud, Lindsay; Escobar-Diaz, Maria; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) has shown promise in averting progression of mid-gestation aortic stenosis (AS) to hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a subset of patients. Patients who achieve biventricular circulation after FAV frequently have left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD). This study evaluates DD in fetuses with AS by comparing echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function in fetuses undergoing FAV (n=20) to controls (n=40) and evaluates for LV factors associated with DD in FAV patients. We also compared pre- and post-FAV DD variables (n=16). Median gestational age (24 weeks, range 18–29 weeks) and fetal heart rate were similar between FAV and controls. Compared to controls, FAV patients had universally abnormal LV diastolic parameters including fused mitral inflow E and A waves (p=0.008), higher E velocity(p<0.001), shorter mitral inflow time (p=0.001), lower LV lateral annulus E′ (p<0.001), septal E′ (p=0.003) and higher E/E′ (p<0.001) than controls. FAV patients had abnormal right ventricular mechanics with higher tricuspid inflow E velocity (p<0.001), and shorter tricuspid inflow time (p=0.03). Worse LV diastolic function (lower LV E′) was associated with higher endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) grade (r=0.74, p<0.001), large LV volume (r=0.55, p=0.013) and sphericity (r=0.58, P=0.009) and with lower LV pressure by mitral regurgitation jet (r=−0.68, p<0.001). Post-FAV, fewer patients had fused mitral inflow E and A than pre-FAV (p=0.05) and septal E′ was higher (=0.04). In conclusion, fetuses with mid-gestation AS have evidence of marked DD. Worse DD is associated with larger, more spherical LV, with more extensive EFE and lower LV pressure. PMID:24819899

  9. Development status of Terumo implantable left ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, C; Kijima, T; Maekawa, J; Horiuchi, K; Kido, T; Sugiyama, T; Mori, T; Sugiura, N; Asada, T; Umemura, W; Ozaki, T; Suzuki, M; Akamatsu, T; Westaby, S; Katsumata, T; Saito, S

    2001-05-01

    We have been developing an implantable left ventricular assist system (T-ILVAS) featuring a magnetically suspended centrifugal pump (MSCP) since 1995. In vitro and in vivo studies using a prototype MSCP composed of a polycarbonate housing and impeller (196 ml) have demonstrated long-term durability and excellent blood compatibility for up to 864 days, and excellent stability of the magnetic bearing of the MSCP. These preliminary results strongly suggested that the magnetic bearing of the MSCP is reliable and is a most feasible mechanism for a long-term circulatory assist device. We have recently devised a clinical version pump made of titanium (180 ml) with a new position sensor mechanism and a wearable controller with batteries. Cadaver fit study confirmed that the Type IV pump could be implanted in a small patient with a body surface area as small as 1.3. The in vitro performance tests of the Type IV pump demonstrated excellent hydrodynamic performances with an acceptable hemolysis rate. New position sensors for the titanium housing showed more uniform sensor outputs of a magnetic bearing than in the prototype polycarbonate pump. The Type IV pump then was evaluated in vivo in 6 sheep at the Oxford Heart Centre. Four sheep were electively sacrificed at 3 months and were allowed to survive for more than 6 months for long-term evaluation. In this particular series of experiments, no anticoagulant/antiplatelet regimen was utilized except for a bolus dose of heparin during surgery. There was a left ventricular mural thrombi around the inflow cannula in 1 sheep. Otherwise, there was no mechanical failure nor sign of thromboembolism throughout the study.

  10. Alterations in echocardiographic left ventricular function after percutaneous coronary stenting in diabetic patients with isolated severe proximal left anterior descending artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Nabati, Maryam; Taghavi, Morteza; Saffar, Naser; Yazdani, Jamshid; Bagheri, Babak

    There are conflicting theories regarding the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of isolated severe proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery stenosis in place of left internal mammary artery grafting in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCI on left ventricular function and determine difference between diabetics and non-diabetics. A prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with isolated severe proximal LAD stenosis: 23 diabetic and 27 non-diabetic patients. Successful PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was performed for all of the patients. These patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24h before and 1 month after PCI, and alterations in the left ventricular parameters were compared between the two groups. There was a significant 12% increment in the mitral annular peak systolic velocity (s') (p=0.02), 21% decrement in the trans mitral early filling deceleration time (DT) (p<0.001), 10% decrement in the systolic left ventricular internal dimension (LVIDs) (p=0.002), significant increment in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p=0.004), and significant decrement in the left atrial diameter (p=0.006) in the diabetic patients after performing PCI. Conversely, the non-diabetic patients showed a statistically significant 14% increase in the DT, 6.3% decrease in the s' velocity, 8% increase in the LVIDs, significant increment in the left atrial diameter and no change in LVEF after PCI. Our study demonstrated that everolimus-eluting stents favorably improved the markers of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic patients with isolated severe proximal LAD stenosis compared with those of non-diabetic patients with the same condition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Familial ebstein anomaly, left ventricular hypertrabeculation, and ventricular septal defect associated with a MYH7 mutation.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, Audra L; Mulder, Theodorus J; Funke, Birgit H; Lafferty, Katherine A; Longo, Sherri A; Niyazov, Dmitriy M

    2013-12-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect that most often occurs sporadically within a kindred. Familial cases, although reported, are uncommon. At this time, the genetic etiology of Ebstein anomaly is not fully elucidated. Here, we describe clinical and molecular investigations of a rare case of familial Ebstein anomaly in association with a likely pathogenic mutation of the MYH7 gene. The severity of presentation varies, and Ebstein anomaly can be observed in association with such other heart defects as ventricular septal defect and left ventricular (LV) hypertrabeculation, as seen in our family of study. In our family of study, the 31-year-old father and four of his children have been diagnosed with Ebstein anomaly. Genetic testing revealed that the father was heterozygous for the Glu1220del variant detected in exon 27 of the MYH7 gene. The MYH7 gene encodes the β-myosin heavy chain and is expressed in cardiac muscle. DNA sequencing of three of his affected children confirmed that they carried the same variant while the fourth affected child was not available for testing. This is the first report of familial Ebstein anomaly associated with the Glu1220del mutation of the MYH7 gene. The mutation segregates with disease in a family with autosomal dominant transmission of congenital heart defects including Ebstein anomaly and other associated cardiovascular defects including LV hypertrabeculation and ventricular septal defect.

  12. Right Ventricular Function and Left Ventricular Assist Device Placement: Clinical Considerations and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lainez, Romeo; Parrino, Gene; Bates, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The HeartMate II is an axial-flow left ventricular assist device that is approved for the treatment of advanced heart failure as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy. Despite the success of this device, right ventricular failure remains a persistent problem in most studies. Right ventricular dysfunction is usually defined as the need for right heart mechanical support or the persistent requirement for inotropes to support right heart function beyond 14 days. Over 21 months, 45 patients with end-stage heart disease underwent placement of the HeartMate II at our institution. This continuous cohort of patients underwent a retrospective review to evaluate the incidence of right heart failure. The perioperative survival was 91% with no incidents of mechanical support for the right ventricle and no requirements for inotropes beyond 14 days. This survival was consistent to beyond 1 year at the time of the study, and 18% of patients underwent heart transplant with 100% survival. PMID:21603391

  13. Delayed efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation on ventricular arrhythmias originating from the left ventricular anterobasal wall.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ligang; Hou, Bingbo; Wu, Lingmin; Qiao, Yu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Jinrui; Zheng, Lihui; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Linfeng; Zhang, Shu; Yao, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular anterobasal wall (LV-ABW) may represent a therapeutic challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the delayed efficacy of radiofrequency catheter (RFCA) ablation without an epicardial approach on VAs originating from the LV-ABW. Eighty patients (mean age 46.9 ± 14.9 years; 47 male) with VAs originating from the LV-ABW were enrolled. After systematic mapping of the right ventricular outflow tract, aortic root, adjacent LV endocardium, and coronary venous system, 3-4 ablation attempts were made at the earliest activation sites and/or best pace-mapping sites. Delayed efficacy was evaluated in patients with acute failure. During mean follow-up of 23.8 ± 21.9 months (range 3-72 months), complete elimination of all VAs was achieved in 47 patients (59%) and partial success in 19 (24%), for an overall success rate of 83%. In 25 of 37 patients (68%) with acute failure, VAs were eliminated or significantly reduced (>80% VA burden) by the delayed effect of RFCA during follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed that response time to ablation was a predictor of occurrence of delayed efficacy. No complications occurred during follow-up. Instead of extensive ablation, waiting for delayed efficacy of RFCA may be a reasonable choice for patients with VAs arising from the LV-ABW. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of ventricular insertion sites on rotational motion of left ventricular segments studied by cardiac MR

    PubMed Central

    Robson, M D; Rider, O J; Pegg, T J; Dasanu, C A; Jung, B A; Clarke, K; Holloway, C J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obtaining new details for rotational motion of left ventricular (LV) segments using velocity encoding cardiac MR and correlating the regional motion patterns to LV insertion sites. Methods: Cardiac MR examinations were performed on 14 healthy volunteers aged between 19 and 26 years. Peak rotational velocities and circumferential velocity curves were obtained for 16 ventricular segments. Results: Reduced peak clockwise velocities of anteroseptal segments (i.e. Segments 2 and 8) and peak counterclockwise velocities of inferoseptal segments (i.e. Segments 3 and 9) were the most prominent findings. The observations can be attributed to the LV insertion sites into the right ventricle, limiting the clockwise rotation of anteroseptal LV segments and the counterclockwise rotation of inferoseptal segments as viewed from the apex. Relatively lower clockwise velocities of Segment 5 and counterclockwise velocities of Segment 6 were also noted, suggesting a cardiac fixation point between these two segments, which is in close proximity to the lateral LV wall. Conclusion: Apart from showing different rotational patterns of LV base, mid ventricle and apex, the study showed significant differences in the rotational velocities of individual LV segments. Correlating regional wall motion with known orientation of myocardial aggregates has also provided new insights into the mechanisms of LV rotational motions during a cardiac cycle. Advances in knowledge: LV insertion into the right ventricle limits the clockwise rotation of anteroseptal LV segments and the counterclockwise rotation of inferoseptal segments adjacent to the ventricular insertion sites. The pattern should be differentiated from wall motion abnormalities in cardiac pathology. PMID:24133098

  15. Quantification of Left Ventricular Function with Premature Ventricular Complexes Reveals Variable Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Contijoch, Francisco; Rogers, Kelly; Rears, Hannah; Shahid, Mohammed; Kellman, Peter; Gorman, Joseph; Gorman, Robert C.; Yushkevich, Paul; Zado, Erica S.; Supple, Gregory E.; Marchlinski, Francis E.; Witschey, Walter R.T.; Han, Yuchi

    2016-01-01

    Background Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) are prevalent in the general population and are sometimes associated with reduced ventricular function. Current echocardiographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) techniques do not adequately address the effect of PVCs on left ventricular function. Methods and Results Fifteen subjects with a history of frequent PVCs undergoing CMR had real-time slice volume quantification performed using a 2D real-time CMR imaging technique. Synchronization of 2D real-time imaging with patient ECG allowed for different beats to be categorized by the loading beat RR-duration and beat RR-duration. For each beat type, global volumes were quantified via summation over all slices covering the entire ventricle. Different patterns of ectopy including isolated PVCs, bigeminy, trigeminy, and interpolated PVCs were observed. Global functional measurement of the different beat types based on timing demonstrated differences in preload, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. An average of hemodynamic function was quantified for each subject depending on the frequency of each observed beat type. Conclusions Application of real-time CMR imaging in patients with PVCs revealed differential contribution of PVCs to hemodynamics. PMID:27009416

  16. The effect of conduction velocity slowing in left ventricular midwall on the QRS complex morphology: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Szathmary, Vavrinec; Svehlikova, Jana; Mateasik, Anton; Gyhagen, Julia; Tysler, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Midwall fibrosis is a frequent finding in different types of left ventricular hypertrophy. Fibrosis presents a local conduction block that can create a substrate for ventricular arrhythmias and lead to the continuous generation of reentry. Having also impact on the sequence of ventricular activation it can modify the shape of QRS complex. In this study we simulated the effects of slowed conduction velocity in the midwall in the left ventricle and in its anteroseptal region on the QRS morphology using a computer model. The model defines the geometry of cardiac ventricles analytically as parts of ellipsoids; the left ventricular wall is represented by five layers. The impulse propagation velocity was decreased by 50% in one and two midwall layers, respectively, in the whole left ventricle and in LV anterior region. The effects of slowed conduction velocity on the QRS complex of the 12-lead electrocardiogram are presented as 12-lead electrocardiograms and corresponding values of ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH criteria): Gubner criterion, Sokolow-Lyon index (SLI) and Cornell voltage. All simulated situations led to increased R wave amplitude in the lead I and of S wave in the lead III, showing a leftward shift of the electrical axis and increased values of ECG-LVH criteria based on limb leads alone or in combination with precordial leads (Gubner criterion, Cornell voltage). The slowed conduction velocity in the whole LV influenced the QRS complex voltage in precordial leads, having an impact on the SLI and Cornell voltage. The changes were pronounced if two layers were involved. Using computer modeling we showed that the midwall slowing in conduction velocity modified the QRS complex morphology. The QRS complex changes were consistent with ECG-LVH criteria, i.e. QRS patterns usually interpreted as the effect of left ventricular hypertrophy (the increased left ventricular mass). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  18. Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia with Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: A Rare Combination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghui; Zhang, Jiaying; Zhang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Isolated left ventricular (LV) apical hypoplasia is a unusual and recently recognized congenital cardiac anomaly. A 19-year-old man was found to have an abnormal ECG and cardiac murmur identified during a routine health check since joining work. His ECG revealed normal sinus rhythm, right-axis deviation, poor R wave progression, and T wave abnormalities. On physical examination, a 2/6~3/6 systolic murmur was heard at the second intercostal space along the left sternal border. Subsequent echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the LV apical hypoplasia. Of note, we first found that LV apical hypoplasia was accompanied by RV outflow tract obstruction due to exaggerated rightward bulging of the basal-anterior septum during systole. A close follow-up was performed for the development of heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and potentially tachyarrhythmia.

  19. Relation of P-S4 interval to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Schapira, J N; Fowles, R E; Bowden, R E; Alderman, E L; Popp, R L

    1982-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the interval between P wave onset and the fourth heart sound (P-S4 interval) reflects changes in left ventricular myocardial stiffness. We made simultaneous measurements of the P-S4 or atrial electrogram to S4 (A-S4) interval and left ventricular pressure in 19 patients with coronary artery disease who were studied before and after atrial pacing. Thirteen patients developed angina accompanied by significant rises in their end-diastolic pressure and a consistent decrease in P-S4 or A-S4 interval; whereas the six patients who had atrial pacing without the development of angina had no change in end-diastolic pressure, P-S4, or A-S4 interval. The resting data showed in inverse correlation between left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and the P-S4 interval. In addition, the P-S4 interval let us discriminate between patients with normal and abnormal end-diastolic pressure (greater than 15 mmHg). Images PMID:7059403

  20. [Study of left ventricular function in valvular cardiopathies (mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Herreman, F; Brun, P; Cannet, G; Savin, E; Vannier, D

    1974-10-01

    A study of the left ventricular function based on the haemodynamic data combined with those provided by biplane cineangiography was performed in 35 cases with left ventricular volume overload (20 cases of mitral incompetence and 15 of aortic insufficiency). The importance of the haemodynamic changes and of the adaptation mechanisms set up were described. The more intense dilatation-hypertrophy of aortic incompetence than of mitral incompetence plays an essential part. The role of Starling's mechanism is underlined. Estimation of the contractile value of the myocardium, taken into account the mechanical overload and the conditions of late-diastolic lengthening of the fibre and of impedance to left ventricular ejection was determined. An obvious myocardial failure, demonstrated in approximately one third of the cases, by determination of some contractility indices estimated in the ejection phase, Vf sigma max in particular, the only one valid in the presence of valvular regurgitation. In the other cases, the moderate decrease of myocardial contractility was masked by compensatory mechanisms.

  1. Left ventricular outflow tract mean systolic acceleration as a surrogate for the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Fabrice; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; hide

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration (LVOT(Acc)) during alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility and LV filling. BACKGROUND: Most indexes described to quantify LV systolic function, such as LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, are dependent on loading conditions. METHODS: In 18 sheep (4 normal, 6 with aortic regurgitation, and 8 with old myocardial infarction), blood flow velocities through the LVOT were recorded using conventional pulsed Doppler. The LVOT(Acc) was calculated as the aortic peak velocity divided by the time to peak flow; LVOT(Acc) was compared with LV maximal elastance (E(m)) acquired by conductance catheter under different loading conditions, including volume and pressure overload during an acute coronary occlusion (n = 10). In addition, a clinically validated lumped-parameter numerical model of the cardiovascular system was used to support our findings. RESULTS: Left ventricular E(m) and LVOT(Acc) decreased during ischemia (1.67 +/- 0.67 mm Hg.ml(-1) before vs. 0.93 +/- 0.41 mm Hg.ml(-1) during acute coronary occlusion [p < 0.05] and 7.9 +/- 3.1 m.s(-2) before vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 m.s(-2) during coronary occlusion [p < 0.05], respectively). Left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration showed a strong linear correlation with LV E(m) (y = 3.84x + 1.87, r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Similar findings were obtained with the numerical modeling, which demonstrated a strong correlation between predicted and actual LV E(m) (predicted = 0.98 [actual] -0.01, r = 0.86). By analysis of variance, there was no statistically significant difference in LVOT(Acc) under different loading conditions. CONCLUSIONS: For a variety of hemodynamic conditions, LVOT(Acc) was linearly related to the LV contractility index LV E(m) and was independent of loading conditions. These findings were consistent with numerical modeling. Thus, this Doppler index may serve as a good noninvasive index of LV

  2. Left ventricular outflow tract mean systolic acceleration as a surrogate for the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Fabrice; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Firstenberg, Michael S; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A; Zetts, Arthur D; Thomas, James D

    2002-10-02

    The goal of this study was to analyze left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration (LVOT(Acc)) during alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility and LV filling. Most indexes described to quantify LV systolic function, such as LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, are dependent on loading conditions. In 18 sheep (4 normal, 6 with aortic regurgitation, and 8 with old myocardial infarction), blood flow velocities through the LVOT were recorded using conventional pulsed Doppler. The LVOT(Acc) was calculated as the aortic peak velocity divided by the time to peak flow; LVOT(Acc) was compared with LV maximal elastance (E(m)) acquired by conductance catheter under different loading conditions, including volume and pressure overload during an acute coronary occlusion (n = 10). In addition, a clinically validated lumped-parameter numerical model of the cardiovascular system was used to support our findings. Left ventricular E(m) and LVOT(Acc) decreased during ischemia (1.67 +/- 0.67 mm Hg.ml(-1) before vs. 0.93 +/- 0.41 mm Hg.ml(-1) during acute coronary occlusion [p < 0.05] and 7.9 +/- 3.1 m.s(-2) before vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 m.s(-2) during coronary occlusion [p < 0.05], respectively). Left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration showed a strong linear correlation with LV E(m) (y = 3.84x + 1.87, r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Similar findings were obtained with the numerical modeling, which demonstrated a strong correlation between predicted and actual LV E(m) (predicted = 0.98 [actual] -0.01, r = 0.86). By analysis of variance, there was no statistically significant difference in LVOT(Acc) under different loading conditions. For a variety of hemodynamic conditions, LVOT(Acc) was linearly related to the LV contractility index LV E(m) and was independent of loading conditions. These findings were consistent with numerical modeling. Thus, this Doppler index may serve as a good noninvasive index of LV contractility.

  3. Left ventricular outflow tract mean systolic acceleration as a surrogate for the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Fabrice; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration (LVOT(Acc)) during alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility and LV filling. BACKGROUND: Most indexes described to quantify LV systolic function, such as LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, are dependent on loading conditions. METHODS: In 18 sheep (4 normal, 6 with aortic regurgitation, and 8 with old myocardial infarction), blood flow velocities through the LVOT were recorded using conventional pulsed Doppler. The LVOT(Acc) was calculated as the aortic peak velocity divided by the time to peak flow; LVOT(Acc) was compared with LV maximal elastance (E(m)) acquired by conductance catheter under different loading conditions, including volume and pressure overload during an acute coronary occlusion (n = 10). In addition, a clinically validated lumped-parameter numerical model of the cardiovascular system was used to support our findings. RESULTS: Left ventricular E(m) and LVOT(Acc) decreased during ischemia (1.67 +/- 0.67 mm Hg.ml(-1) before vs. 0.93 +/- 0.41 mm Hg.ml(-1) during acute coronary occlusion [p < 0.05] and 7.9 +/- 3.1 m.s(-2) before vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 m.s(-2) during coronary occlusion [p < 0.05], respectively). Left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration showed a strong linear correlation with LV E(m) (y = 3.84x + 1.87, r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Similar findings were obtained with the numerical modeling, which demonstrated a strong correlation between predicted and actual LV E(m) (predicted = 0.98 [actual] -0.01, r = 0.86). By analysis of variance, there was no statistically significant difference in LVOT(Acc) under different loading conditions. CONCLUSIONS: For a variety of hemodynamic conditions, LVOT(Acc) was linearly related to the LV contractility index LV E(m) and was independent of loading conditions. These findings were consistent with numerical modeling. Thus, this Doppler index may serve as a good noninvasive index of LV

  4. Right ventricular hypertrophy causes impairment of left ventricular diastolic function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Regis R; Vaessen, Rob J; Westerhof, Nico; Stienen, Ger J M

    2007-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload causes right ventricular hypertrophy in several types of pulmonary and congenital heart diseases. The associated cardiac dysfunction has generally been attributed to alterations in RV function. However, due to global neurohormonal adaptations and mechanical ventricular interaction left ventricular (LV) function could be affected as well.Therefore,LV function, RV function and their interaction were studied in rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced RV hypertrophy and control rats. MCT (30 mg/kg) was used to induce pulmonary hypertension, which resulted, after 28 days, in marked RV hypertrophy (RV-weight: control 220 +/- 15,MCT 437 +/- 34mg,p < 0.05). In Langendorff-perfused hearts with balloons inserted in both the LV and the RV, the diastolic pressure-volume relations showed increased stiffness, and relaxation was prolonged in the LV and RV in the MCT group compared to controls. In the MCT group, developed pressures were increased only in the RV. An increase of LV volume increased RV diastolic pressure to a similar extent in both groups. However, an increase in RV volume did not affect LV diastolic pressure in controls, but significantly increased LV diastolic pressure in the MCT group. LV and RV developed pressure-volume relations were not affected. Calculated circumferential end-diastolic wall stresses (sigma) were larger in the MCT group (LV-sigma: 0.55 +/- 0.02, RV-sigma: 1.94 +/- 0.30 kN/m(2), both p< 0.05 to control) compared to controls (LV-sigma: 0.34 +/- 0.06,RV-sigma: 1.23 +/- 0.46 kN/m2). In the MCT group, collagen content was increased in the LV, septum and RV compared to controls. In conclusion, structural changes of the RV and LV result in depressed LV diastolic function during RV hypertrophy.

  5. Risk factors predictive of right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device implantation.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Stavros G; Janicki, Lindsay; Horne, Benjamin D; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Reid, Bruce B; Clayson, Stephen; Horton, Kenneth; Haddad, Francois; Li, Dean Y; Renlund, Dale G; Fisher, Patrick W

    2010-04-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation appears to be associated with increased mortality. However, the determination of which patients are at greater risk of developing postoperative RVF remains controversial and relatively unknown. We sought to determine the preoperative risk factors for the development of RVF after LVAD implantation. The data were obtained for 175 consecutive patients who had received an LVAD. RVF was defined by the need for inhaled nitric oxide for >/=48 hours or intravenous inotropes for >14 days and/or right ventricular assist device implantation. An RVF risk score was developed from the beta coefficients of the independent variables from a multivariate logistic regression model predicting RVF. Destination therapy (DT) was identified as the indication for LVAD implantation in 42% of our patients. RVF after LVAD occurred in 44% of patients (n = 77). The mortality rates for patients with RVF were significantly greater at 30, 180, and 365 days after implantation compared to patients with no RVF. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, 3 preoperative factors were significantly associated with RVF after LVAD implantation: (1) a preoperative need for intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, (2) increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and (3) DT. The developed RVF risk score effectively stratified the risk of RV failure and death after LVAD implantation. In conclusion, given the progressively growing need for DT, the developed RVF risk score, derived from a population with a large percentage of DT patients, might lead to improved patient selection and help stratify patients who could potentially benefit from early right ventricular assist device implantation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of right ventricular dyssynchrony on left ventricular performance in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Haeck, Marlieke L A; Höke, Ulas; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Holman, Eduard R; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Vliegen, Hubert W; Delgado, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been associated with right ventricular (RV) dyssynchrony which may induce left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dyssynchrony through ventricular interdependence. The present study evaluated the influence of RV dyssynchrony on LV performance in patients with pulmonary hypertension. One hundred and seven patients with pulmonary hypertension (age 63 ± 14 years, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure 60 ± 19 mmHg) and LV ejection fraction (EF) >35% were evaluated. Ventricular dyssynchrony was assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography and defined as the standard deviation of the time to peak longitudinal strain of six segments of the RV (RV-SD) and the LV (LV-SD) in the apical 4-chamber view. Mean RV-SD and LV-SD assessed with longitudinal strain speckle tracking echocardiography were 51 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 ms, respectively. The patient population was divided according to the median RV-SD value of 49 ms. Patients with RV-SD ≥49 ms had significantly worse NYHA functional class (2.7 ± 0.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.004), RV function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion: 16 ± 4 vs. 19 ± 4 mm, p < 0.001), LVEF (50 ± 10 vs. 55 ± 8%, p = 0.001), and larger LV-SD (57 ± 18 vs. 36 ± 18 ms, p < 0.001). RV-SD significantly correlated with LV-SD (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and LVEF (r = -0.23, p = 0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis showed an independent association between RV-SD and LV-SD (β = 0.35, 95%CI 0.21-0.49, p < 0.001). RV dyssynchrony is significantly associated with LV dyssynchrony and reduced LVEF in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Propolis and swimming in the prevention of atherogenesis and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, D B; Miranda, A P; Silva, D B; D'Angelo, L R B; Rosa, B B; Soares, E A; Ramalho, J G D C; Boriollo, M F G; Garcia, J A D

    2015-05-01

    The present study verified the effect of propolis alone and its association with swimming in dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy and atherogenesis of hypercholesterolemic mice. The experiments were performed in LDLr-/- mice, fed with high fat diet for 75 days, and were divided into four experimental groups (n=10): HL, sedentary, subjected to aquatic stress (5 min per day, 5 times per week); NAT submitted to a swimming protocol (1 hour per day, 5 times per week) from the 16th day of the experiment; PRO, sedentary, submitted to aquatic stress and which received oral propolis extract (70 uL/animal/day) from the 16th day of the experiment; HL+NAT+PRO, submitted to swimming and which received propolis as described above. After 75 days, blood was collected for analysis of serum lipids. The ratio between the ventricular weight (mg) and the animal weight (g) was calculated. Histological sections of the heart and aorta were processed immunohistochemically with anti-CD40L antibodies to evaluate the inflammatory process; stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius red to assess morphological and morphometric alterations. The HL animals showed severe dyslipidemia, atherogenesis and left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with a decrease in serum HDLc levels and subsequent development of cardiovascular inflammatory process, characterized by increased expression of CD40L in the left ventricle and aorta. Swimming and propolis alone and\\or associated prevented the LVH, atherogenesis and arterial and ventricular inflammation, decreasing the CD40L expression and increasing the HDLc plasmatic levels. Propolis alone or associated with a regular physical activity is beneficial in cardiovascular protection through anti-inflammatory action.

  8. [Rare cause of heart failure in an elderly woman in Djibouti: left ventricular non compaction].

    PubMed

    Massoure, P L; Lamblin, G; Bertani, A; Eve, O; Kaiser, E

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the first case of left ventricular non compaction diagnosed in Djibouti. The patient was a 74-year-old Djiboutian woman with symptomatic heart failure. Echocardiography is the key tool for assessment of left ventricular non compaction. This rare cardiomyopathy is probably underdiagnosed in Africa.

  9. Real-time detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiber, J. H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline which has potential for online use is described and basic principles of the contour detector are presented in detail. It is concluded that the data acquisition system for real time, online detection of left ventricular outlines has many advantages over presently used manual or semi-automatic procedures in a clinical investigative environment.

  10. Cardiac MRI documented left ventricular thrombus complicating acute Takotsubo syndrome: an uncommon dilemma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Veerpal; Mayer, Tom; Salanitri, John; Salinger, Michael H

    2007-10-01

    Transient left ventricular apical hypokinesis results in a typical ampullary shape and has been described as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM). We report a case of TCM with the rare complication of left ventricular thrombus formation. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging aided the diagnosis by characterizing the non-enhancing mass and evaluating the surrounding myocardium for scarring.

  11. The role of intraventricular vortices in the left ventricular filling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Perez Del Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-01

    The generation of vortices during early filling is a salient feature of left ventricular hemodynamics. Existing clinical data suggest that these intraventricular vortices may facilitate pulling flow from the left atrium. To test this hypothesis, we have quantitatively dissected the contribution of the vortex to intraventricular pressure gradients by isolating its induced flow in ultrasound-derived data in 20 patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM), 20 age-matched healthy controls and 20 patients with hypertrophied cardiomyopathy. We have observed that, in patients with NIDCM, the hemodynamic forces were shown to be partially supported by the flow inertia whereas that effect was minimized in healthy hearts. In patients with hypertrophied cardiomiopathy such effect was not observed. Supported by grants, PIS09/02603, RD06/0010 (RECAVA), CM12/00273 (to CPV) and BA11/00067 (to JB) from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. PML and JCA were partially supported by NIH grant 1R21 HL108268-01.

  12. Left ventricular mass: A tumor or a thrombus diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh Kumar, U. S.; Shetty, Shyam Prasad; Sujay, K. R.; Wali, Murugesh

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass is a rare condition, of which the most common is thrombus. Echocardiography is a very useful modality of investigation to evaluate the LV mass. We are reporting a case of LV mass presenting with neurological symptom. The diagnosis of this mass was dilemma as the echocardiographic features were favoring tumor as well as thrombi. Mass (a) measuring 3.8 cm × 1.9 cm attached to the left ventricle apex appeared to be pedunculated tumor and mass (b) measuring 2.4 cm × 1.8 cm attached to the chordae of anterior mitral leaflet resembled a thrombus or an embolized tumor entangled in the chordae. A differential diagnosis for the LV mass is thrombus, tumors such as fibroma, and vegetation. Preoperative detection of a thrombus leads to an alteration in surgical steps. A large and mobile thrombus with or without a hemodynamic alteration is an indication for surgical removal to prevent stroke, myocardial infarction, mesenteric ischemia, renal infarction, gangrene of the limbs, and mortality. PMID:27716707

  13. Long-term Prognosis of Left Ventricular Lead

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Jung; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Park, Hyo-Eun; Choi, Eue-Keun; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-June; Kim, You-Ho; Choi, Yun-Shik

    2010-01-01

    Transvenous left ventricular (LV) lead implantation is on the increase due to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, there has been paucity of data on the prognosis of LV lead. Consecutive 32 patients with LV lead for CRT (n=22) or pacemaker (n=10) were subjected. Serial changes in pacing threshold and impedance along with lead-related complications were evaluated. Over 2 yr follow-up, there was no significant change in relative threshold voltage to the initial value (100%, 110%, 89.6%, and 79.6% at baseline, 1, 6, and 24 months respectively, P=0.62) as well as lead impedance (816±272, 650±178, 647±191, and 590±185 ohm at baseline, 1, 6, and 24 months respectively, P=0.80). The threshold change was not affected by lead position, lead polarity, and indication of lead implantation. The cumulative rates of lead revision were 6.3% (n=2) and 9.4% (n=3) in 6 month and 2 yr follow-up, respectively. One case of phrenic nerve capture at left lateral decubitus position was detected 1 month after the implantation. However, there were no serious complications over 2 yr period. In conclusion, transvenous LV lead implantation showed favorable long-term prognosis. Pacing parameters remained stable without significant changes over 2 yr follow-up. PMID:20890427

  14. The Current Approach to Diagnosis and Management of Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Courtney E.; Freudenberger, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent ventricular trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses, or sinusoids, in communication with the left ventricular cavity. The low prevalence of patients with this cardiomyopathy presents a unique challenge for large, prospective trials to assess its pathogenesis, management, and outcomes. In this paper we review the embryology and genetics of LVNC, the diagnostic approach, and propose a management approach based on the current literature available. PMID:26881173

  15. Left ventricular filling after long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Baur, L H; Schipperheyn, J J; Cats, V M; van der Wall, E E; Baan, J; van Dijk, A D; Bruschke, A V

    1992-11-01

    As a rule, left ventricular relaxation is impaired in patients with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. In addition, the passive elastic properties in early and late diastole change when the ventricle dilates. Diastolic properties of the left ventricle were studied in 11 patients with congestive heart failure class II-IV (NYHA) before and 3 months after 10-20 mg enalapril was added to their regimen of salt restriction, a diuretic and occasionally digitalis. Haemodynamic studies were performed using radionuclide angiography and simultaneous pressure-volume measurements. Systemic vascular resistance decreased from 1479 to 1182 dynes.s.-1 cm-5 (P < 0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 19.2 to 15.9 mmHg (P < 0.05). Left ventricular end-diastolic volume index decreased from 130 +/- 22 to 81 +/- 22 ml (P < 0.01). Indices of early diastolic relaxation, such as peak filling rate (1.43 +/- 0.46 to 1.49 +/- 0.84 EDV/s), time to peak filling rate (460 +/- 70 to 490 +/- 70 ms), peak negative dP/dt (-903 +/- 190 to -891 +/- 190 mmHg/s) and tau, the time constant of isovolumic pressure decay (58.7 +/- 14.4 to 48.4 +/- 15.2 ms) did not change significantly. In nine patients pressure-volume loops shifted to the left in all patients but one due to reduction in end-systolic and end-diastolic volume. The steepness of the diastolic part of the pressure-volume relationship increased, indicating an increase in chamber stiffness. The stiffness constant increased about 25% towards a more normal value. The alteration in stiffness seemed to be mainly due to the change of the geometry of the ventricle and not to a major change in the visco-elastic properties of the ventricular wall. In conclusion, regression of remodelling induced by enalapril does not change diastolic function parameters in patients with chronic congestive heart failure beyond the changes caused by regression of ventricular dilation.

  16. [Hemodynamic effects of intracardiac diatritoic acid and their dependance on left ventricular function and severity of coronary sclerosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kober, G; Schröder, W; Kaltenbach, M

    1978-07-01

    In 16 patients with coronary heart disease (n = 13) and cardiomyopathy (n = 3) heart rate, left ventricular pressure and contractility (max dp/dt, min dp/dt and Vpm) were measured prior during and after three consecutive left ventricular angiograms. Heart rate decreased during angiography and increased slightly but significantly after angiography. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure, max dp/dt and min dp/dt increased after angiography, whereas Vpm remained unchanged. Any hemodynamic changes occuring were moderate and only of short duration. No significant differences were found a) between patients with angiographically proven normal and reduced left ventricular function, b) between patients with normal or increased left ventricular filling pressure or c) between those with slight or severe coronary heart disease. The investigations point to a good tolerance for the sodium methyl glucamine salt of diatrizoic acid (Urografin 76) even in patients with progressed coronary heart disease. Severe side-effects described in animal experiments indicate a poor comparibility between animal models and human studies. Moreover animal experiments are mostly done with high doses not used clinically.

  17. The initial tangent of the aortic pressure increase is an estimate of left ventricular contractility in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kisch-Wedel, Hille; Kemming, Gregor; Meisner, Franz; Flondor, Michael; Bruhn, Sebastian; Koehler, Carolina; Zwissler, Bernhard

    2008-10-01

    The aim was, to identify an estimate of left ventricular contractility derived from the aortic pressure wave without load changing manoeuvres. For this purpose, left ventricular contractility was assessed with several aortic pressure wave form derived parameters and was compared to standard parameters of left ventricular contractility (conductance technique) in an experimental study. Measurements were taken during baseline, after beta-stimulation and after injection of a beta-antagonist. The initial and the secondary tangent, the area under the aortic pressure, and the stroke volume were correlated with the endsystolic elastance, a mainly load independent measure of left ventricular contractility: The initial tangent of the aortic pressure increase correlated significantly with the endsystolic elastance (r = 0.54, P < 0.05). The initial tangent of the aortic pressure increase was significantly increased from baseline at beta-stimulation (from 20.2 +/- 4.7 to 36.4 +/- 6.8 mmHg s(-1), P < 0.05) and decreased after injection of a beta-antagonist (from 20.2 +/- 4.7 to 12.3 +/- 2.0, P < 0.05). Thus, we conclude that the initial tangent of the aortic pressure increase is a valid estimate of left ventricular contractility in piglets.

  18. [Evaluation of three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to left ventricular rotation and twist in patients with silent myocardial ischemia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baixue; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Wengang; Zhu, Wenhui; Xiao, Jidong

    2016-07-01

    To analyze the characteristics of left ventricular rotation and twist in patients with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) by three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE), and to explore the diagnostic value of this method for SMI.
 According to Gensini score, 66 patients with SMI were divided into 3 subgroups: a mild lesion group (n=16), a moderate lesion group (n=26) and a severe lesion group (n=24). Thirty patients with negative results in selective coronary angiography served as a control group. The parameters of wall motion score index (WMSI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), peak basal rotation (Ptw-B), peak apical rotation (Prot-A), left ventricular peak apical rotation (LVrot), left ventricular peak apical twist (LVtw) were measured.
 In the SMI group, with an increase in severity of myocardial ischemia, LVEF, Prot-A, Prot-B, LVrot, LVtw showed a decrease trend while WMSI exhibited an opposite phenomenon (P<0.05), and all of them displayed a significant corelation with Gensini score (P<0.05). In the diagnosis of SMI, all of the above-mentioned parameters were highly sensitive and specific. 3D-STE showed the highest diagnostic value for LVtw.
 Left ventricular rotation and twisting motion monitered by 3D-STE can evaluate the severity of myocardial ischemia in patients with SMI.

  19. Right ventricular failure after implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device: early haemodynamic predictors.

    PubMed

    Cordtz, Joakim; Nilsson, Jens C; Hansen, Peter B; Sander, Kaare; Olesen, Peter S; Boesgaard, Søren; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a significant complication after implantation of a left ventricular assist device. We aimed to identify haemodynamic changes in the early postoperative phase that predicted subsequent development of RVF in a cohort of HeartMate II (HMII) implanted patients. This was a single-centre observational study of consecutive placement of HMII devices at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. Preoperative data (right heart catheterization, biochemistry and clinical status) and postoperative readings from the first 72 h after implantation (haemodynamics, inotropic and vasoactive therapy) were included in the analysis. The data set was examined for significant differences between patients who developed RVF (RVF group, n = 11)-defined as need for inotropic or vasodilator therapy >14 days, nitric oxide therapy ≥ 48 h or right ventricular assist device therapy-and those who did not (non-RVF group, n = 22). Preoperative right heart catheterization data were similar in the two groups. Immediately after HMII implantation, the increase in cardiac index (CI) was significantly larger in the non-RVF than in the RVF group (0.96 ± 0.8 vs 0.2 ± 0.5 L/min, respectively; P = 0.018), whereas right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) decreased significantly more in the RVF group (-4.3 ± 2.0 vs -0.9 ± 2.0 g m/m(2); P < 0.001). These differences were present in spite of the RVF group receiving larger doses of catecholaminergic agents (P = 0.034). Over the ensuing 72 h, the CI of the RVF group gradually approached that of the non-RVF group; concurrently, however, the differences in inotropic therapy were further enhanced. Pump settings were similar in the two groups. The haemodynamic alterations characterizing RVF were present already immediately after HMII implantation. RVF development was not related to pump flow and settings.

  20. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: underestimated cause of hypotension and hemodynamic instability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, which is typically associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is the third most frequent cause of unexplained hypotension. This underestimated problem may temporarily accompany various diseases (it is found in even <1% of patients with no tangible cardiac disease) and clinical situations (hypovolemia, general anesthesia). It is currently assumed that left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a dynamic phenomenon, the occurrence of which requires the coexistence of predisposing anatomic factors and a physiological condition that induces it. The diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction should entail immediate implementation of the therapy to eliminate the factors that can potentially intensify the obstruction. Echocardiography is the basic modality in the diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. This paper presents four patients in whom the immediate implementation of bedside echocardiography enabled a rapid diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and implementation of proper treatment. PMID:26674265

  1. Haemodynamic effects of intravenous amrinone in patients with impaired left ventricular function.

    PubMed Central

    Wilmshurst, P T; Thompson, D S; Jenkins, B S; Coltart, D J; Webb-Peploe, M M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of intravenous amrinone on resting haemodynamic function were investigated in 15 patients with impaired left ventricular function. All patients received 1 X 5 mg/kg and 10 received a further 2 mg/kg. We observed dose related increases in heart rate and cardiac index, and reductions in mean arterial pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. A small reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic volume and a 36% increase in ejection fraction occurred. No significant change in max dp/dt, min dp/dt, (Max dp/dt/P), max (dp/dt/P), KVmax or the ratio of left ventricular end-systolic pressure to left ventricular end-systolic volume was detected. It is concluded that the beneficial effects of intravenous amrinone on the resting haemodynamics in our patients were attributable to vasodilatation, with the drug having no demonstrable positive inotropic effect. PMID:6821613

  2. Left ventricular responses to acute changes in late systolic pressure augmentation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Nancy K; Hetzel, Scott J; Skalski, Joseph; Velez, Mauricio; Eggleston, Kevin; Mitchell, Gary F

    2013-07-01

    Changes in the cardiovascular system with age may predispose older persons to development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Vascular stiffening, aortic pressure augmentation, and ventricular-vascular coupling have been implicated. We explored the potential for acute reductions in late systolic pressure augmentation to impact left ventricular relaxation in older persons without heart failure. Sixteen older persons free of known cardiovascular disease with the exception of hypertension had noninvasive tonometry and cardiac ultrasound to evaluate central augmentation index (AI) and diastolic function at baseline and after randomized, blinded administration of intravenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and hydralazine in a crossover design. AI was significantly reduced after BNP (11.4±8.9 to -0.2±14.7%; P = 0.02) and nonsignificantly reduced after hydralazine (14.7±8.4% to 11.5±8.8%; P = 0.39). With decreased AI during BNP, a trend toward worsened myocardial relaxation by tissue Doppler imaging occurred (E' velocity pre- and post-BNP: 10.0±2.5 and 8.8±2.0cm/s, respectively; P = 0.06). There was a significant fall in stroke volume with BNP (68.5±18.3 to 60.9±18.1ml; P = 0.02), suggesting that changes in preload overwhelmed effects of afterload reduction on ventricular performance. With hydralazine, neither relaxation nor stroke volume changed. Acute changes in late systolic aortic pressure augmentation do not necessarily lead to improved systolic or diastolic function in older people. Preload may be a more important determinant of cardiac performance than afterload in older people with compensated ventricular function. The potential for changes in preload to impair rather than enhance left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in older people warrants further study. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00204984.

  3. Influence of heart rate and atrial transport on left ventricular volume and function: relation to hemodynamic changes produced by supraventricular arrhythmia

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Kelly, D.T.; Hutton, B.F.; Uther, J.B.; Baird, D.K.

    1981-10-01

    The response of the left ventricle to pacing-induced changes in heart rate and the atrioventricular (A-V) relation was examined with equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography in 20 patients who had normal ventricular function after surgery for recurrent supraventricular tachycardia. In 10 patients count-derived left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were measured during sinus rhythm and during atrial pacing at 120, 140 and 160 beats/min. In the other 10 patients similar determinations were made during sequential A-V and simultaneous ventricular and atrial (V/A) pacing, both at rates of 100 and 160 beats/min. The data indicate that the hemodynamic consequences of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with normal ventricular function are due primarily to decreases in ventricular volume as heart rate is increased and atrial contribution is lost rather than to any changes in left ventricular ejection fraction.

  4. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction Assessment with Dual-Source CT

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhaoying; Ma, Heng; Zhao, Ying; Fan, Zhanming; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Choi, Sang Il; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Liu, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction on left atrial (LA) phasic volume and function using dual-source CT (DSCT) and to find a viable alternative prognostic parameter of CT for LV diastolic dysfunction through quantitative evaluation of LA phasic volume and function in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. Materials and Methods Seventy-seven patients were examined using DSCT and Doppler echocardiography on the same day. Reservoir, conduit, and contractile function of LA were evaluated by measuring LA volume (LAV) during different cardiac phases and all parameters were normalized to body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups (normal, impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive LV diastolic filling) according to echocardiographic findings. The LA phasic volume and function in different stages of LV diastolic function was compared using one-way ANOVA analysis. The correlations between indexed volume of LA (LAVi) and diastolic function in different stages of LV were evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis. Results LA ejection fraction (LAEF), LA contraction, reservoir, and conduit function in patients in impaired relaxation group were not different from those in the normal group, but they were lower in patients in the pseudonormal and restrictive LV diastolic dysfunction groups (P < 0.05). For LA conduit function, there were no significant differences between the patients in the pseudonormal group and restrictive filling group (P = 0.195). There was a strong correlation between the indexed maximal left atrial volume (LAVmax, r = 0.85, P < 0.001), minimal left atrial volume (LAVmin, r = 0.91, P < 0.001), left atrial volume at the onset of P wave (LAVp, r = 0.84, P < 0.001), and different stages of LV diastolic function. The LAVi increased as the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction increased. Conclusions LA remodeling takes place in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. At the same time, LA

  5. The effects of isoflurane and halothane on left ventricular afterload in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hettrick, D A; Pagel, P S; Kersten, J R; Lowe, D; Warltier, D C

    1997-11-01

    The effects of volatile anesthetics, including isoflurane (ISO) and halothane (HAL), on determinants of left ventricular (LV) afterload have not been comprehensively described in experimental models of, or patients with, heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that ISO and HAL produce beneficial alterations in LV afterload when evaluated with aortic input impedance and interpreted using a three-element Windkessel model in dogs before and after development of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamics and aortic pressure and blood flow waveforms were recorded in the conscious state and during 1.1- and 1.5-minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) ISO and HAL anesthesia on separate days in chronically instrumented dogs (n = 6). Dogs were then paced at 220-240 bpm for 20 +/- 3 days (mean = SEM) to develop cardiomyopathy, and the experiments were repeated after pacing had been temporarily discontinued. ISO decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean aortic blood flow (MAQ), and total arterial resistance (R) and increased total arterial compliance (C) and characteristic aortic impedance (Zc) in dogs before pacing. HAL decreased MAP and MAQ and increased C but did not alter R and Zc. Chronic rapid LV pacing increased HR and LV end-diastolic pressure and decreased MAP, LV systolic pressure, and the peak rate of increase of LV pressure. MAQ, C, R, and Zc were unchanged. ISO and HAL decreased arterial pressure but did not affect C and Zc in the presence of LV dysfunction. HAL, but not ISO, increased R at 1.1 MAC, which indicates that this drug increases resistance to LV ejection. In contrast to findings in normal dogs, these results indicate that neither ISO nor HAL reduce arterial hydraulic resistance to LV ejection or favorably improve the rectifying properties of the aorta in dogs with pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Isoflurane and halothane produce favorable alterations in the determinants of left ventricular afterload before, but not after, the production of

  6. Computational Flow Analysis of a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Benkowski, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics has been developed to a level where it has become an Indispensable part of aerospace research and design. Technology developed foe aerospace applications am also be utilized for the benefit of human health. For example, a flange-to-flange rocket engine fuel-pump simulation includes the rotating and non-rotating components: the flow straighteners, the impeller, and diffusers A Ventricular Assist Device developed by NASA Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine has a design similar to a rocket engine fuel pump in that it also consists of a flow straightener, an impeller, and a diffuser. Accurate and detailed knowledge of the flowfield obtained by incompressible flow calculations can be greatly beneficial to designers in their effort to reduce the cost and improve the reliability of these devices. In addition to the geometric complexities, a variety of flow phenomena are encountered in biofluids Then include turbulent boundary layer separation, wakes, transition, tip vortex resolution, three-dimensional effects, and Reynolds number effects. In order to increase the role of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the design process the CFD analysis tools must be evaluated and validated so that designers gain Confidence in their use. The incompressible flow solver, INS3D, has been applied to flow inside of a liquid rocket engine turbopump components and extensively validated. This paper details how the computational flow simulation capability developed for liquid rocket engine pump component analysis has bean applied to the Left Ventricular Assist Device being developed jointly by NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine.

  7. Computational Flow Analysis of a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Benkowski, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics has been developed to a level where it has become an Indispensable part of aerospace research and design. Technology developed foe aerospace applications am also be utilized for the benefit of human health. For example, a flange-to-flange rocket engine fuel-pump simulation includes the rotating and non-rotating components: the flow straighteners, the impeller, and diffusers A Ventricular Assist Device developed by NASA Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine has a design similar to a rocket engine fuel pump in that it also consists of a flow straightener, an impeller, and a diffuser. Accurate and detailed knowledge of the flowfield obtained by incompressible flow calculations can be greatly beneficial to designers in their effort to reduce the cost and improve the reliability of these devices. In addition to the geometric complexities, a variety of flow phenomena are encountered in biofluids Then include turbulent boundary layer separation, wakes, transition, tip vortex resolution, three-dimensional effects, and Reynolds number effects. In order to increase the role of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the design process the CFD analysis tools must be evaluated and validated so that designers gain Confidence in their use. The incompressible flow solver, INS3D, has been applied to flow inside of a liquid rocket engine turbopump components and extensively validated. This paper details how the computational flow simulation capability developed for liquid rocket engine pump component analysis has bean applied to the Left Ventricular Assist Device being developed jointly by NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine.

  8. Left ventricular structure and remodeling in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pelà, Giovanna; Li Calzi, Mauro; Pinelli, Silvana; Andreoli, Roberta; Sverzellati, Nicola; Bertorelli, Giuseppina; Goldoni, Matteo; Chetta, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on cardiac alterations such as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and lower stroke volume in patients with COPD are discordant. In this study, we investigated whether early structural and functional cardiac changes occur in patients with COPD devoid of manifest cardiovascular disease, and we assessed their associations with clinical and functional features. Methods Forty-nine patients with COPD belonging to all Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classes were enrolled and compared with 36 controls. All subjects underwent clinical history assessment, lung function testing, blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography, and conventional and Doppler tissue echocardiography. Patients were also subjected to computed tomography to quantify emphysema score. Results Patients with COPD had lower LV cavity associated with a marked increase in relative wall thickness (RWT), suggesting concentric remodeling without significant changes in LV mass. RWT was significantly associated with ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second to the forced vital capacity and emphysema score and was the only cardiac parameter that – after multivariate analysis – significantly correlated with COPD conditions in all individuals. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that RWT (with a cutoff point of 0.42) predicted the severity of COPD with 83% specificity and 56% sensitivity (area under the curve =0.69, 95% confidence interval =0.59–0.81). Patients with COPD showed right ventricular to be functional but no structural changes. Conclusion Patients with COPD without evident cardiovascular disease exhibit significant changes in LV geometry, resulting in concentric remodeling. In all individuals, RWT was significantly and independently related to COPD. However, its prognostic role should be determined in future studies. PMID:27257378

  9. Reversible Motor Paralysis and Early Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure Receiving Left Ventricular Assist Device Therapy.

    PubMed

    Amao, Rie; Imamura, Teruhiko; Nakahara, Yasuo; Noguchi, Satoko; Kinoshita, Osamu; Yamauchi, Haruo; Ono, Minoru; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-12-02

    Advanced heart failure (HF) is sometimes complicated with brain impairment because of a microthrombosis caused by decreased left ventricular contraction or reduced brain circulation. Some patients may recover after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. However, little is known about the perioperative therapeutic strategy in patients suffering from such complications, particularly from a cardiac rehabilitation viewpoint. We report on a 58-year-old male patient with a previous history of poliomyelitis and a light paralysis in the left upper extremity, who suffered left hemiplegia with no evidence of stroke after hemodynamic deterioration. The combination therapy of perioperative cardiac rehabilitation and LVAD therapy improved his left hemiplegia as well as activities of daily living, and the patient was discharged on foot on postoperative day 72 after briefing the family on LVAD home management. Early initiation of cardiac rehabilitation before LVAD implantation may be a key for the smooth discharge and resocialization of patients suffering from brain impairment complicated with advanced HF.

  10. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; P<0.0001) and mid (-17.5 [-15.5 to -19.0]% versus -21.1 [-19.1 to -23.0]%; P<0.0001) septal strain. Basal global circumferential strain was reduced (-18.7 [-15.7 to -22.1]% versus -20.6 [-19.0 to -22.5]%; P=0.0098), as were septal and free-wall segments. Mid circumferential strain was reduced within the free-wall. Strain rates were reduced in similar patterns. Basal septum LS, the combined average LS of basal and mid interventricular septal segments, correlated strongly with degree of PH (r=0.66; P<0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.60; P<0.0001), and right ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; P<0.0001). Brain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Validation of QwikStar Catheter for left ventricular electromechanical mapping with NOGA XP system.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marlos R; Silva, Guilherme V; Zheng, Yi; Oliveira, Edie M; Cardoso, Cristiano O; Canales, John; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Baimbridge, Fred; Perin, Emerson C

    2008-01-01

    Left ventricular electromechanical mapping (LVEM) is a method for mapping the left ventricular cavity in 3 dimensions by use of a catheter that samples points on the endocardial surface. These points provide data on unipolar voltage and linear local shortening, which can then be used to evaluate myocardial ischemia and viability. The new QwikStar multi-electrode catheter, which acquires data from multiple points simultaneously, potentially improves map quality and decreases mapping time in comparison with the single-point NogaStar catheter. Our study sought to validate the QwikStar catheter's LVEM capabilities in a porcine model of chronic ischemia.Eight pigs underwent ameroid placement over the proximal left circumflex artery, to induce chronic ischemia. In 60 days, LVEM was performed on each animal with the NogaStar and QwikStar catheters. Unipolar voltage and linear local shortening results were displayed in 9-segment polar maps. The unipolar voltage data from both maps were then correlated by means of linear regression.There were no adverse events during LVEM. Mapping time was similar for both groups (QwikStar, 44.6 +/- 25.62 min; NogaStar, 65.75 +/- 25.33 min; P = 0.13). Results of mean unipolar voltage maps acquired with the 2 catheters showed a moderate correlation (r =0.59, P <0.001). Selecting segments with more than 6 point samples increased the Pearson coefficient to 0.69 (P <0.001).Our findings show that the QwikStar catheter enables the reproducible performance of LVEM by sampling fewer points, which shortens procedure time, decreases manipulation of the left ventricular cavity, and might increase procedural safety.

  12. Multimodality imaging of a huge subaortic left ventricular aneurysm in a child.

    PubMed

    Morais, Humberto; Pedro, Albino; Reis, Maria João; Costa, João Carlos

    2017-08-22

    A subannular left ventricular aneurysm is very rare, and is mostly considered to be a congenital anomaly. A subannular left ventricular aneurysm is classified based on the type of its own orifice-submitral or subaortic. Subaortic left ventricular aneurysm occurs less frequently compared with a submitral type of subannular aneurysm. We hereby describe a rare case of a huge bilobed subaortic aneurysm, in which the orifice was located just below the left coronary cusp diagnosed with multimodality imaging in a child. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Management of left ventricular distension during peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, B; Pae, W E

    2012-07-01

    The application of peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the management of inotrope-refractory cardiogenic shock has proven controversial because of concerns about sub-optimal drainage of the left heart, resulting in left ventricular distension and pulmonary oedema. In this article, we will discuss the pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of left ventricular distension following institution of peripheral extracorporeal life support. We will also review the clinical strategies used to circumvent left ventricular distension and pulmonary oedema in these patients.

  14. In vivo quantification of intraventricular flow during left ventricular assist device support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Vi; Wong, Kin; Del Alamo, Juan; Aguilo, Pablo M. L.; May-Newman, Karen; Department of Bioengineering, San Diego State University Collaboration; Department of Mechanical; Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego Collaboration; Mechanical Assist Device Program, Sharp Memorial Hospital Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are mechanical pumps that are surgically connected to the left ventricle (LV) and aorta to increase aortic flow and end-organ perfusion. Clinical studies have demonstrated that LVADs improve patient health and quality of life and significantly reduce the mortality of cardiac failure. However, In the presence of left ventricular assisted devices (LVAD), abnormal flow patterns and stagnation regions are often linked to thrombosis. The aim of our study is to evaluate the flow patterns in the left ventricle of the LVAD-assisted heart, with a focus on alterations in vortex development and blood stasis. To this aim, we applied color Doppler echocardiography to measure 2D, time resolved velocity fields in patients before and after implantation of LVADs. In agreement with our previous in vitro studies (Wong et al., Journal of Biomechanics 47, 2014), LVAD implantation resulted in decreased flow velocities and increased blood residence time near the outflow tract. The variation of residence time changes with LVAD operational speed was characterized for each patient.

  15. Left ventricular torsion during exercise in patients with and without ischemic response to exercise echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; Martinez, Dolores; Yañez, Juan C; Lopez-Perez, Manuel; Gargallo, Paula; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Left ventricular torsion decreases during transmural myocardial ischemia, but the effect of exercise on left ventricular torsion has not been widely studied. We hypothesized that exercise-induced ischemia may impair left ventricular torsion. Therefore, our aim was to study the effects of exercise on left ventricular torsion in patients with an ischemic response to exercise echocardiography and in patients with a normal response. A retrospective analysis was performed in 172 patients with ejection fraction ≥ 50% who were referred for exercise-echocardiography and studied by speckle imaging at rest, peak and postexercise. Torsion was defined as apical rotation - basal rotation (in degrees) / left ventricular length (in centimeters). A total of 114 patients had a normal exercise echocardiography and 58 patients had an ischemic response to exercise echocardiography. Patients with ischemic response to the test exhibited less basal rotation at peak exercise (+0.30° [2.39°] vs -0.65° [2.61°] in the normal group; P = .03), whereas peak apical rotation was similar (ischemic response to the test, 7.80° [3.51°]; normal response, 7.27° [3.28°]; P =.36). Torsion at peak exercise was also similar (1.07° [0.60°] in the ischemic response to the test group vs 1.16° [0.57°] in normal group; P =.37). A more impaired peak basal rotation was found in patients with anterior or anterior+posterior involvement (anterior ischemic response, +1.22° [2.45°]; anterior + posterior ischemic response, -0.20° [2.25°]; posterior ischemic response, -0.71° [1.96°]; normal response, -0.65° [2.60°]; P =.02). Basal rotation at peak exercise is impaired in patients with an ischemic response to exercise echocardiography, particularly in those with anterior involvement. Apical rotation and torsion are similar to those in patients with normal exercise echocardiography. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. EVALUATION OF RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FILLING

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual fluid-dynamics framework for diastolic filling is developed. The convective deceleration load (CDL) is identified as an important determinant of ventricular inflow during the E-wave (A-wave) upstroke. Convective deceleration occurs as blood moves from the inflow anulus through larger-area cross-sections toward the expanding walls. Chamber dilatation underlies previously unrecognized alterations in intraventricular flow dynamics. The larger the chamber, the larger become the endocardial surface and the CDL. CDL magnitude affects strongly the attainable E-wave (A-wave) peak. This underlies the concept of diastolic ventriculoannular disproportion. Large vortices, whose strength decreases with chamber dilatation, ensue after the E-wave peak and impound inflow kinetic energy, averting an inflow-impeding, convective Bernoulli pressure-rise. This reduces the CDL by a variable extent depending on vortical intensity. Accordingly, the filling vortex facilitates filling to varying degrees, depending on chamber volume. The new framework provides stimulus for functional genomics research, aimed at new insights into ventricular remodeling. PMID:23585308

  17. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-03-19

    Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. Results A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate

  18. Electrocardiogram Performance in the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Paula Freitas Martins; Luna Filho, Bráulio; Costa, Francisco de Assis; Bombig, Maria Teresa Nogueira; de Souza, Dilma; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Oliveira Filho, Japy Angelini; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Póvoa, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events, and its detection usually begins with an electrocardiogram (ECG). Objective To evaluate the impact of complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) in hypertensive patients in the diagnostic performance of LVH by ECG. Methods A total of 2,240 hypertensive patients were studied. All of them were submitted to an ECG and an echocardiogram (ECHO). We evaluated the most frequently used electrocardiographic criteria for LVH diagnosis: Cornell voltage, Cornell voltage product, Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Sokolow-Lyon product, RaVL, RaVL+SV3, RV6/RV5 ratio, strain pattern, left atrial enlargement, and QT interval. LVH identification pattern was the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) obtained by ECHO in all participants. Results Mean age was 11.3 years ± 58.7 years, 684 (30.5%) were male and 1,556 (69.5%) were female. In patients without CLBBB, ECG sensitivity to the presence of LVH varied between 7.6 and 40.9%, and specificity varied between 70.2% and 99.2%. In participants with CLBBB, sensitivity to LVH varied between 11.9 and 95.2%, and specificity between 6.6 and 96.6%. Among the criteria with the best performance for LVH with CLBBB, Sokolow-Lyon, for a voltage of ≥ 3,0mV, stood out with a sensitivity of 22.2% (CI 95% 15.8 - 30.8) and specificity of 88.3% (CI 95% 77.8 - 94.2). Conclusion In hypertensive patients with CLBBB, the most often used criteria for the detection of LVH with ECG showed significant decrease in performance with regards to sensitivity and specificity. In this scenario, Sokolow-Lyon criteria with voltage ≥3,0mV presented the best performance. PMID:27992034

  19. Development of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction with Preservation of Ejection Fraction during Progression of Infant Right Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kitahori, Kazuo; He, Huamei; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Cowan, Douglas B.; Friehs, Ingeborg; del Nido, Pedro J.; McGowan, Francis X.

    2011-01-01

    Background Progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can be a major late complication in patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot). We therefore examined LV function (serial echocardiography and ex vivo Langendorff) and histology in a model of infant pressure-load RV hypertrophy (RVH). Methods and Results Ten-day-old rabbits (N=6 per time point, total = 48) that underwent pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were sacrificed at 2–8 weeks after PAB, and comparisons were made with age-matched sham controls. LV performance (myocardial performance index, MPI) decreased during the progression of RVH although the LV ejection fraction (EF) was maintained. In addition, RVH caused significant septal displacement, reduced septal contractility, and decreased LV end-systolic (LVDs) and diastolic (LVDd) dimensions, resulting in LV diastolic dysfunction with the appearance of preserved EF. Significant septal and LV free wall apoptosis (myocyte-specific TUNEL and activated caspase-3), fibrosis (Masson’s trichrome stain), and reduced capillary density (CD31 immunostaining) occurred in the PAB group after 6–8 wks (all p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first study showing that pressure overload of the RV resulting in RVH causes LV diastolic dysfunction while preserving EF through mechanical and molecular effects upon the septum and LV myocardium. In particular, the development of RVH is associated with septal and LV apoptosis and reduced LV capillary density. PMID:19919985

  20. Left ventricular mechanics and arterial-ventricular coupling following high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Cote, Anita T; Bredin, Shannon S D; Phillips, Aaron A; Koehle, Michael S; Glier, Melissa B; Devlin, Angela M; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-12-01

    High-intensity exercise induces marked physiological stress affecting the secretion of catecholamines. Sustained elevations in catecholamines are thought to desensitize cardiac beta receptors and may be a possible mechanism in impaired cardiac function following strenuous exercise. In addition, attenuated arterial-ventricular coupling may identify vascular mechanisms in connection with postexercise attenuations in ventricular function. Thirty-nine normally active (NA) and endurance-trained (ET) men and women completed an echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function before and after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (15 bouts of 1:2 min work:recovery cycling: 100% peak power output and 50 W, respectively). Following exercise, time to peak twist and peak untwisting velocity were delayed (P < 0.01) but did not differ by sex or training status. Interactions for sex and condition (rest vs. exercise) were found for longitudinal diastolic strain rate (men, 1.46 ± 0.19 to 1.28 ± 0.23 s(-1) vs. women, 1.62 ± 0.25 to 1.63 ± 0.26 s(-1); P = 0.01) and arterial elastance (men 2.20 ± 0.65 to 3.24 ± 1.02 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2) vs. women 2.51 ± 0.61 to 2.93 ± 0.68 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2); P = 0.04). No cardiac variables were found associated with catecholamine levels. The change in twist mechanics was associated with baseline aortic pulse-wave velocity (r(2) = 0.27, P = 0.001). We conclude that males display greater reductions in contractility in response to high-intensity interval exercise, independent of catecholamine concentrations. Furthermore, a novel association of arterial stiffness and twist mechanics following high-intensity acute exercise illustrates the influence of vascular integrity on cardiac mechanics.

  1. Electroanatomic substrate and ablation outcome for suspected epicardial ventricular tachycardia in left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cano, Oscar; Hutchinson, Mathew; Lin, David; Garcia, Fermin; Zado, Erica; Bala, Rupa; Riley, Michael; Cooper, Joshua; Dixit, Sanjay; Gerstenfeld, Edward; Callans, David; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2009-08-25

    The aim of the study was to define the epicardial substrate and ablation outcome in patients with left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and suspected epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT). Ventricular tachycardia in NICM often originates from the epicardium. Twenty-two patients with NICM underwent detailed endocardial and epicardial bipolar voltage maps and VT ablation for suspected epicardial VT. Eight patients with normal hearts and idiopathic VT served to define normal epicardial electrograms. Low-voltage regions were also assessed for wide (>80 ms), split, or late electrograms. Normal epicardial bipolar voltage was identified as >1.0 mV on the basis of the reference population. Confluent low-voltage areas were present in 18 epicardial (82%) and 12 endocardial (54%) maps and were typically over basal lateral LV. In the 18 patients with epicardial VT on the basis of activation/pacemapping, the mean epicardial area was greater than the endocardial low-voltage area (55.3 +/- 33.5 cm(2) vs. 22.9 +/- 32.4 cm(2), p < 0.01). Epicardial low-voltage areas showed 49.7% wide (>80 ms), split, and/or late electrograms rarely seen in the reference patients (2.3%). During follow-up of 18 +/- 7 months, ablation resulted in VT elimination in 15 of 21 patients (71%) including 14 of 18 patients (78%) with epicardial VT. In patients with NICM and VT of epicardial origin, the substrate is characterized by areas of basal LV epicardial > endocardial bipolar low voltage. The electrograms in these areas are not only small (<1.0 mV) but wide (>80 ms), split, and/or late, and help identify the substrate targeted for successful ablation. 2009 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation

  2. Effects of Reduced Kidney Function Because of Living Kidney Donation on Left Ventricular Mass.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Ursula; Böger, Carsten A; Farkas, Stefan; Mack, Matthias; Luchner, Andreas; Hamer, Okka W; Zeman, Florian; Debl, Kurt; Fellner, Claudia; Jungbauer, Carsten; Banas, Bernhard; Buchner, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Living kidney donation is associated with a small but significant increase in cardiovascular mortality. In addition, mildly decreased kidney function is associated with an increase of left ventricular mass and with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. To investigate this association, we evaluated the impact of mildly decreased kidney function after living kidney donation on subclinical cardiac structural and functional changes. In this prospective cohort study, cardiac and renal magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory analyses were performed in 23 living kidney donors (mean age 54±10 years, 52% male) before donation and at 4 and 12 months after nephrectomy. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 102±15 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) before donation and 70±13 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) at 12 months (P<0.001). Left ventricular mass increased from 112±22 to 115±23 g (P<0.001). In addition, heart rate was significantly increased (65±7 to 74±14; P=0.04). Concurrently, kidney and adrenal gland volume increased from 163±33 to 195±34 mL (P<0.001) and from 7.6±2.2 to 8.4±2.4 mL (P=0.032), respectively, as did procollagen type III (Δ0.11 ng/mL, P<0.001) and not N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (Δ14 pg/mL, P=0.25). The mild decrease in kidney function after living kidney donation leads to a significant but clinically negligible increase in left ventricular mass 12 months after living kidney donation. This study of a longitudinal analysis of living kidney donors provides direct evidence of a kidney-heart link.

  3. Temporary percutaneous right ventricular support using a centrifugal pump in patients with postoperative acute refractory right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device implantation.

    PubMed

    Haneya, Assad; Philipp, Alois; Puehler, Thomas; Rupprecht, Leopold; Kobuch, Reinhard; Hilker, Michael; Schmid, Christof; Hirt, Stephan W

    2012-01-01

    Acute right ventricular (RV) failure is a life-threatening condition with a poor prognosis, and sometimes the use of mechanical circulatory support is inevitable. In this article, we describe our experience using a centrifugal pump as a temporary percutaneous right ventricular assist device (RVAD) in patients with postoperative acute refractory RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We retrospectively reviewed eight consecutive patients with acute RV failure who underwent temporary percutaneous RVAD implantation using a centrifugal pump after LVAD implantation between April 2008 and February 2011. A Dacron graft was attached to the main pulmonary artery and passed through a subxiphoid exit, where the outflow cannula was inserted. The inflow cannula was percutaneously cannulated using Seldinger's technique in the femoral vein. The chest was definitely closed. The technique allowed bedside removal, avoiding chest re-opening. The median patient age was 52 years (range: 41-58). The median duration of support was 14 days (range: 12-14). RV systolic function improved; central venous pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly after RVAD support. In three patients, an oxygenator was integrated into the RVAD due to impaired pulmonary function. Six patients were successfully weaned. Five patients survived to hospital discharge. Technical problems or serious complications concerning decannulation were not observed. This report suggests that implantation of temporary percutaneous RVAD using a centrifugal pump is a safe alternative in the treatment of postoperative acute refractory RV failure. Ease of device implantation, weaning, explantation, and limited number of complications justify a liberal use.

  4. Right ventricular remodeling and updated left ventricular geometry classification: is there any relationship?

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Vukomanovic, Vladan; Kocijancic, Vesna; Celic, Vera

    2016-10-01

    We sought to evaluate right ventricular (RV) structure and function in hypertensive patients with various left ventricular (LV) geometric patterns using an updated classification for LV geometry. This cross-sectional study included 232 hypertensive subjects. All the subjects underwent complete two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic examination. Using LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter and relative wall thickness, according to the updated classification, all subjects were divided into six different groups: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH), concentric, dilated, and concentric-dilated LVH. RV wall thickness was increased in concentric and concentric-dilated LVH compared with normal LV geometry and LV concentric remodeling. RV longitudinal function was reduced in concentric and concentric-dilated patients compared with other hypertensive groups. 3D RV volumes were significantly higher in eccentric, dilated, and concentric-dilated LVH hypertensive subjects. Conversely, 3D RV ejection fraction was lower in these groups. RV longitudinal myocardial function and 3D RV function are significantly influenced by LV geometry in hypertensive patients. RV remodeling is the most pronounced in the patients with concentric, dilated, and concentric-dilated LVH geometric patterns.

  5. A Physiological Controller for Turbodynamic Ventricular Assist Devices Based on Left Ventricular Systolic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Anastasios; Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Pergantis, Panagiotis; Rebholz, Mathias; Meboldt, Mirko; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2016-09-01

    The current article presents a novel physiological feedback controller for turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (tVADs). This controller is based on the recording of the left ventricular (LV) pressure measured at the inlet cannula of a tVAD thus requiring only one pressure sensor. The LV systolic pressure (SP) is proposed as an indicator to determine the varying perfusion requirements. The algorithm to extract the SP from the pump inlet pressure signal used for the controller to adjust the speed of the tVAD shows robust behavior. Its performance was evaluated on a hybrid mock circulation. The experiments with changing perfusion requirements were compared with a physiological circulation and a pathological one assisted with a tVAD operated at constant speed. A sensitivity analysis of the controller parameters was conducted to identify their limits and their influence on a circulation. The performance of the proposed SP controller was evaluated for various values of LV contractility, as well as for a simulated pressure sensor drift. The response of a pathological circulation assisted by a tVAD controlled by the introduced SP controller matched the physiological circulation well, while over- and underpumping events were eliminated. The controller presented a robust performance during experiments with simulated pressure sensor drift. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ductal stenting retrains the left ventricle in transposition of great arteries with intact ventricular septum.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kothandam; Francis, Edwin; Krishnan, Prasad; Shahani, Jagdish

    2006-11-01

    In late presenters with transposition of the great arteries, intact ventricular septum, and regressing left ventricle, left ventricular retraining by pulmonary artery banding and aortopulmonary shunt is characterized by a stormy postoperative course and high costs. Ductal stenting in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is conceptualized to retrain the left ventricle with less morbidity. Recanalization and transcatheter stenting of patent ductus arteriosus was performed in patients with transposition to induce pressure and volume overload to the regressing left ventricle. Serial echocardiographic monitoring of left ventricular shape, mass, free wall thickness, and volumes was done, and once the left ventricle was adequately prepared, an arterial switch was performed. The ductal stent was removed and the remaining surgical steps were similar to a 1-stage arterial switch operation. Postoperative course, need for inotropic agents, and left ventricular function were monitored. Ductal stenting in 2 patients aged 3 months resulted in improvement of indexed left ventricular mass from 18.9 to 108.5 g/m2, left ventricular free wall thickness from 2.5 to 4.8 mm, and indexed left ventricular volumes from 7.6 to 29.5 mL/m2 within 3 weeks. Both patients underwent arterial switch (bypass times 125 and 158 minutes) uneventfully, needed inotropic agents and ventilatory support for 3 days, and were discharged in 8 and 10 days. Ductal stenting is a less morbid method of left ventricular retraining in transposition of the great arteries with regressed left ventricle. Its major advantages lie in avoiding pulmonary artery distortion and neoaortic valve regurgitation resulting from banding and also in avoiding thoracotomy.

  7. Loss of dystrophin is associated with increased myocardial stiffness in a model of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Donato, Martín; Buchholz, Bruno; Morales, Celina; Valdez, Laura; Zaobornyj, Tamara; Baratta, Sergio; Paez, Diamela T; Matoso, Mirian; Vaccarino, Guillermo; Chejtman, Demian; Agüero, Oscar; Telayna, Juan; Navia, José; Hita, Alejandro; Boveris, Alberto; Gelpi, Ricardo J

    2017-03-18

    Transition from compensated to decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is accompanied by functional and structural changes. Here, the aim was to evaluate dystrophin expression in murine models and human subjects with LVH by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and aortic stenosis (AS), respectively. We determined whether doxycycline (Doxy) prevented dystrophin expression and myocardial stiffness in mice. Additionally, ventricular function recovery was evaluated in patients 1 year after surgery. Mice were subjected to TAC and monitored for 3 weeks. A second group received Doxy treatment after TAC. Patients with AS were stratified by normal left ventricular end-diastolic wall stress (LVEDWS) and high LVEDWS, and groups were compared. In mice, LVH decreased inotropism and increased myocardial stiffness associated with a dystrophin breakdown and a decreased mitochondrial O2 uptake (MitoMVO2). These alterations were attenuated by Doxy. Patients with high LVEDWS showed similar results to those observed in mice. A correlation between dystrophin and myocardial stiffness was observed in both mice and humans. Systolic function at 1 year post-surgery was only recovered in the normal-LVEDWS group. In summary, mice and humans present diastolic dysfunction associated with dystrophin degradation. The recovery of ventricular function was observed only in patients with normal LVEDWS and without dystrophin degradation. In mice, Doxy improved MitoMVO2. Based on our results it is concluded that the LVH with high LVEDWS is associated to a degradation of dystrophin and increase of myocardial stiffness. At least in a murine model these alterations were attenuated after the administration of a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor.

  8. Right ventricular afterload sensitivity dramatically increases after left ventricular assist device implantation: a multi-center hemodynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Brian A.; Kalathiya, Rohan J.; Hsu, Steven; Loungani, Rahul; Davis, Mary E.; Coffin, Samuel T.; Haglund, Nicholas; Maltais, Simon; Keebler, Mary E.; Leary, Peter J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Stevens, Gerin R.; Rickard, John; Sciortino, Chris M.; Whitman, Glenn J.; Shah, Ashish S.; Russell, Stuart D.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) failure is a source of morbidity and mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We sought to define hemodynamic changes in afterload and RV adaption to afterload both early after implantation and with prolonged LVAD support. Methods We reviewed right heart catheterization (RHC) data from participants who underwent continuous-flow LVAD implantation at our institutions (n=244), excluding those on inotropic or vasopressor agents, pulmonary vasodilators, or additional mechanical support at any RHC. Hemodynamic data was assessed at five time intervals: 1) pre-LVAD (within 6 months), 2) early post-LVAD (0–6 months), 3) 7–12 months, 4) 13–18 months and 3) very-late post-LVAD (18–36 months). Results Sixty participants met the inclusion criteria. All measures of right ventricular load (effective arterial elastance, pulmonary vascular compliance and pulmonary vascular resistance) improved between the pre- and early post-LVAD time periods. Despite decreasing load and pulmonary capillary artery pressure (PAWP), RAP remained unchanged and the RAP:PAWP ratio worsened early post-LVAD (0.44 [0.38, 0.63] versus 0.77 [0.59, 1.0], p<0.001), suggesting a worsening of RV adaptation to load. With continued LVAD support, both RV load and RAP:PAWP decreased in a steep, linear and dependent manner. Conclusion Despite reducing RV load, LVAD implantation leads to worsened RV adaptation. With continued LVAD support, both RV afterload and RV adaptation improve, and their relationship remains constant over time post-LVAD. These findings suggest the RV afterload sensitivity increases after LVAD implantation, which has important clinical implications for patients struggling with RV failure. PMID:27041496

  9. Exercise capacity and blood pressure associations with left ventricular mass in prehypertensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Peter; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Faselis, Charles; Singh, Steven; Manolis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    Prehypertensive individuals are at increased risk for developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease compared with those with normal blood pressure. Early compromises in left ventricular structure may explain part of the increased risk. We assessed echocardiographic and exercise parameters in prehypertensive individuals (n=790) to determine associations between exercise blood pressure and left ventricular structure. The exercise systolic blood pressure at 5 metabolic equivalents (METs) and the change in blood pressure from rest to 5 METs were the strongest predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy. We identified the systolic blood pressure of 150 mm Hg at the exercise levels of 5 METs as the threshold for left ventricular hypertrophy. There was a 4-fold increase in the likelihood for left ventricular hypertrophy for every 10-mm Hg increment in systolic blood pressure beyond this threshold (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18). There was also a 42% reduction in the risk for left ventricular hypertrophy for every 1 MET increase in the workload (OR: 0.58; P<0.001). When compared with low-fit, moderate, and high-fit individuals exhibited significantly lower systolic blood pressure at an exercise workload of 5 METs (155+/-14 versus 146+/-10 versus 144+/-10; P<0.05), lower left ventricular mass index (48+/-12 versus 41+/-10 versus 41+/-9; P<0.05), and prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (48.3% versus 18.7% versus 21.6%; P<0.001). This suggests that moderate improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness achieved by moderate intensity physical activity can improve hemodynamics and cardiac performance in prehypertensive individuals and reduce the work of the left ventricle, ultimately resulting in lower left ventricular mass.

  10. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular filling after mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed Central

    St John Sutton, M G; Traill, T A; Ghafour, A S; Brown, D J; Gibson, D G

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate the functional effects of mitral valve surgery, echocardiograms showing left ventricular dimension were recorded and digitised in 14 normal subjects and 129 patients after mitral valve surgery. Measurements were made of peak rate of increase of dimension (dD/dt) and duration of rapid filling, studies on left ventriculograms in 36 patients having shown close correlation between these values and changes in cavity volume. In 14 patients with mitral stenosis, peak dD/dt was reduced to 7-2 +/ 1-5 cm/s, and filling period prolonged to 330 +/- 65 ms, compared with normal (16-0 +/- 3-2 cm/s, and 160 +/- 50 ms, respectively), and after mitral valvotomy, these values improved significantly (10-4 +/- 2-7 cm/s and 245 +/- 55 ms). Characteristic abnormalities were found in 67 patients with mitral prostheses. Values for the Björk-Shiley (10-5 +/- 4-2 cm/s and 180 +/- 80 ms) and Hancock (10-3 +/- 3-7 cm/s, 245 +/- 80 ms) values were similar, and both superior to the Starr-Edwards (7-4 +/- 3-0 cm/s, 295 +/- 105 ms). Results after mitral valve repair in 30 cases were not significantly different from normal (14-4 +/- 5-0 cm/s, 170 +/- 50 ms). Values outside the 95 per cent confidence limits for the valve in question allowed diagnosis of value malfunction in 18 cases. The method is value in comparing different operative procedures and in following up patients after mitral valve surgery. PMID:603728

  11. [The effect of tilidine on left-ventricular function of the human heart (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strauer, B E

    1975-04-04

    The effect of tilidine (Valoron, 1.5 mg/kg) on left-ventricular function was measured in ten patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. In the course of thirty minutes after administration there was a small fall in systemic arterial pressure, decrease in cardiac output, cardiac index and stroke volume, as well as a change in the isovolumetric inotropic state. Haemodynamic and inotropic changes were small in amount, varying between 3.4 and 14.5% of basal values. This study indicates that tilidine, while having a powerful analgesic effect, has only a mild contractility-inhibiting action. Tilidine is thus a useful alternative as an analgesic in cardiac pain.

  12. Echocardiographic outflow pump ramp test in centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Iacovoni, Attilio; Vittori, Claudia; Fontana, Alessandra; Carobbio, Alessandra; Fino, Carlo; D'Elia, Emilia; Terzi, Amedeo; Senni, Michele

    2017-04-18

    This study sought to develop a novel echocardiogram outflow ramp test to detect device malfunctions in centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). This new ramp pump test is based on the direct analyses of systolic and diastolic ratio (S/D) Doppler velocity in the outflow cannula in the HeartWare LVAD during progressive increases in speed. The results showed that in patients with normal pump function, the Doppler velocity S/D ratio gradually decreased during LVAD speed increases. This test is easily performed and seems promising to detect normal pump function in patients assisted by a centrifugal flow LVAD.

  13. Current cardiac imaging techniques for detection of left ventricular mass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of left ventricular (LV) mass has both prognostic and therapeutic value independent of traditional risk factors. Unfortunately, LV mass evaluation has been underestimated in clinical practice. Assessment of LV mass can be performed by a number of imaging modalities. Despite inherent limitations, conventional echocardiography has fundamentally been established as most widely used diagnostic tool. 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is now feasible, fast and accurate for LV mass evaluation. 3DE is also superior to conventional echocardiography in terms of LV mass assessment, especially in patients with abnormal LV geometry. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) are currently performed for LV mass assessment and also do not depend on cardiac geometry and display 3-dimensional data, as well. Therefore, CMR is being increasingly employed and is at the present standard of reference in the clinical setting. Although each method demonstrates advantages over another, there are also disadvantages to receive attention. Diagnostic accuracy of methods will also be increased with the introduction of more advanced systems. It is also likely that in the coming years new and more accurate diagnostic tests will become available. In particular, CMR and CCT have been intersecting hot topic between cardiology and radiology clinics. Thus, good communication and collaboration between two specialties is required for selection of an appropriate test. PMID:20515461

  14. A passively suspended Tesla pump left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K; Paterson, Eric G; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type left ventricular assist device blood pump are described. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 L/min at a 70 mm Hg head rise at 8,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below 0.02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned and endurance testing of the device.

  15. The totally implantable novacor left ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R C; Kown, M H; Portner, P M; Oyer, P E

    2001-03-01

    The Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System (LVAS) (Novacor Corp, Oakland, CA) was initially console-based and has been available since 1993 in a wearable configuration. It has been successfully used for the past 16 years as a bridge to cardiac transplantation in patients with end-stage congestive heart failure. The Stanford experience represents 53 patients (48 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 44 +/- 13 years (16 to 62) and a mean support time of 56 +/- 76 days (1 to 374). Complications with LVAS use consisted predominantly of bleeding (43%), infection, (30%), and embolic cerebrovascular events (24.5%). Sixty-six percent of the supported patients were successfully bridged to cardiac transplantation. In animal studies, 4 sheep had the totally implantable configuration in place for a cumulative duration of 1 year with 1 animal supported for 260 days. The next generation Novacor LVAS will be small, quiet, and fully implantable without the need for volume compensation. It will also provide physiologic pulsatile flow and will be fail-safe.

  16. Growth potential and left ventricular diastolic function in cardiomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Y; Fuse, K; Hasegawa, T; Konishi, H

    1998-05-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is an experimental operation for advanced heart failure. Current clinical results bring the possibility of its application to children. This study was designed to obtain information about the relationship between cardiomyoplasty and growth of the heart. Six beagles, 9 to 10 weeks old, underwent cardiomyoplasty without electric stimulation (cardiomyoplasty group), and another 5 beagles underwent median sternotomy and pericardiotomy (control group). Six months later, weights of hearts, wrapped latissimus dorsi muscles, and unwrapped right latissimus dorsi muscles and pressure-volume relationships were obtained. Wrapped latissimus dorsi muscles weighed 33 +/- 3 g (mean +/- standard deviation), and unwrapped muscles weighed 68 +/- 5 g. The heart weight was 82 +/- 3 g in the cardiomyoplasty group and 89 +/- 7 g in the control group. Left ventricular maximum elastance was 3.8 +/- 0.8 mm Hg/mL in the cardiomyoplasty group and 3.9 +/- 0.9 mm Hg/mL in the control group. End-diastolic pressure versus end-diastolic volume ratios were 0.52 +/- 0.03 and 0.54 +/- 0.05, respectively. Pathologic examination showed fat infiltration and muscle fiber atrophy in the cardiomyoplasty group. The wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flaps were growing and the diastolic function was not impaired. This indicates a potentially safe clinical application of dynamic cardiomyoplasty for children.

  17. Limited myocardial perfusion reserve in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.A.; Haynie, M. )

    1990-03-01

    Experimental studies in animals have suggested that coronary flow reserve may be limited in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Accordingly, to noninvasively determine the effect of LVH on myocardial perfusion reserve, 25 patients, 9 with LVH and 16 controls, underwent positron imaging with rubidium-82 (82Rb) (30-55 mCi) or nitrogen-13 (13N) ammonia (12-19 mCi) at rest and following intravenous dipyridamole and handgrip stress. LVH was documented by echocardiographic and/or electrocardiographic measurements. LVH patients had either no chest pain (n = 8) and/or a normal coronary angiogram (n = 6). Nine simultaneous transaxial images were acquired, and the mean ratio of stress to rest activity (S:R), based on all regions for each heart, was calculated as an estimate of myocardial perfusion reserve. There were no regional differences in activity (i.e., perfusion defects) in any of the studies. S:R averaged 1.41 +/- 0.10 (s.d.) for controls and 1.06 +/- 0.09 for patients with LVH (p less than 0.0001). These data provide support for an abnormality in perfusion reserve in patients with LVH.

  18. 3D Left Ventricular Strain from Unwrapped Harmonic Phase Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Bharath Ambale; Gupta, Himanshu; Lloyd, Steven G.; ‘Italia, Louis Dell; Denney, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To validate a method for measuring 3D left ventricular (LV) strain from phase-unwrapped harmonic phase (HARP) images derived from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods A set of 40 human subjects were imaged with tagged MRI. In each study HARP phase was computed and unwrapped in each short-axis and long-axis image. Inconsistencies in unwrapped phase were resolved using branch cuts manually placed with a graphical user interface. 3D strain maps were computed for all imaged timeframes in each study. The strain from unwrapped phase (SUP) and displacements were compared to those estimated by a feature-based (FB) technique and a HARP technique. Results 3D strain was computed in each timeframe through systole and mid diastole in approximately 30 minutes per study. The standard deviation of the difference between strains measured by the FB and the SUP methods was less than 5% of the average of the strains from the two methods. The correlation between peak circumferential strain measured using the SUP and HARP techniques was over 83%. Conclusion The SUP technique can reconstruct full 3-D strain maps from tagged MR images through the cardiac cycle in a reasonable amount of time and user interaction compared to other 3D analysis methods. PMID:20373429

  19. Mycotic Intracranial Aneurysm Secondary to Left Ventricular Assist Device Infection

    PubMed Central

    Remirez, Juan M.; Sabet, Yasmin; Baca, Marshall; Maud, Alberto; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycotic aneurysms are a complication of infective endocarditis. Infection of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may lead to bacteremia and fever causing complications similar to those seen in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Intracranial mycotic aneurysms are rare, and their presence is signaled by the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the setting of bacteremia and aneurysms located distal to the circle of Willis. Case Presentation We present the case of a patient with a LVAD presenting with headache who is found to have an intracranial mycotic aneurysm through computed tomography angiography of the head. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular intervention. Conclusion In patients with LVADs, mycotic aneurysms have been reported, however not intracranially. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first intracranial mycotic aneurysm secondary to LVAD infection that was successfully treated with endovascular repair. Intracranial mycotic aneurysms associated with LVADs are a rare phenomenon. The diagnosis of mycotic aneurysms requires a high index of suspicion in patients who present with bacteremia with or without headache and other neurological symptoms. Disclosure None. PMID:28243347

  20. Aortic Wave Dynamics and Its Influence on Left Ventricular Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2010-11-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that hypertension plays a key role in development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and ultimately heart failure mostly due to increased LV workload. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose and treat abnormal high LV workload at early stages. The pumping mechanism of the heart is pulsatile, thus it sends pressure and flow wave into the compliant aorta. The wave dynamics in the aorta is dominated by interplay of heart rate (HR), aortic rigidity, and location of reflection sites. We hypothesized that for a fixed cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR), interplay of HR and aortic compliance can create conditions that minimize LV power requirement. We used a computational approach to test our hypothesis. Finite element method with direct coupling method of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) was used. Blood was assumed to be incompressible Newtonian fluid and aortic wall was considered elastic isotropic. Simulations were performed for various heart rates and aortic rigidities while inflow wave, CO, and PR were kept constant. For any aortic compliance, LV power requirement becomes minimal at a specific heart rate. The minimum shifts to higher heart rates as aortic rigidity increases.

  1. Rotary blood pump control strategy for preventing left ventricular suction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2015-01-01

    The risk for left ventricular (LV) suction while maintaining adequate perfusion over a range of physiologic conditions during continuous flow LV assist device (LVAD) support is a significant clinical concern. To address this challenge, we developed a suction prevention and physiologic control (SPPC) algorithm for use with axial and centrifugal LVADs. The SPPC algorithm uses two gain-scheduled, proportional-integral controllers that maintain a differential pump speed (ΔRPM) above a user-defined threshold to prevent LV suction, while maintaining an average reference differential pressure (ΔP) between the LV and aorta to provide physiologic perfusion. Efficacy and robustness of the proposed algorithm were evaluated in silico during simulated rest and exercise test conditions for (1) ΔP/ΔRPM excessive setpoint (ES); (2) rapid eightfold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR); and (3) ES and PVR. Hemodynamic waveforms (LV pressure and volume; aortic pressure and flow) were simulated and analyzed to identify suction event(s), quantify total flow output (pump + cardiac output), and characterize the performance of the SPPC algorithm. The results demonstrated that the proposed SPPC algorithm prevented LV suction while maintaining physiologic perfusion for all simulated test conditions, and warrants further investigation in vivo.

  2. Comparison of results with different left ventricular pacing leads.

    PubMed

    Nof, Eyal; Gurevitz, Osnat; Carraso, Shemy; Bar-Lev, David; Luria, David; Bachar, Sharona; Eldar, Michael; Glikson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    To compare different coronary sinus (CS) leads and delivery systems (DSs) for left ventricular pacing. Delivery systems-related (including CS dissection and dislocations during sheath/stylet removal) and lead-related (including failure to accomplish implantations and long-term malfunctions resulting in abandonment or repositioning/replacing of the lead) complications between systems and leads were compared. We used Medtronic (MDT) attain DS (n = 123) with over-the-wire (OTW) (4193, 4194) and stylet-driven (2187) leads, and Guidant (GDT) DS (n = 126) with Easytrak OTW leads (4513, 4518, and 4525). Coronory sinus dissection occurred in 6/123 (5%) cases using the MDT DS vs. 7/126 (6%) with GDT DS (P= NS). Dislocations during sheath/stylet removal occurred in 8/123 cases (6%) with MDT DS, and in 8/126 (6%) with GDT DS (P= NS). Failure to achieve successful implantation occurred in 6/32 (19%) of the 2187 leads, in 11/87(13%) of the 4193/4194 leads, in 7/94(7%) of the 4513/4518 leads, and in 4/29 (14%) of the 4525 leads (P= NS). Long-term lead-related complications occurred in 5/32 (15%) of the 2187 leads, 19/80 (23%) of the 4193/4194 leads, 19/93 (20%) of the 4513/4518 leads, and 2/28 (7%) of the 4525 leads (P= NS). No significant differences in complication rates between systems and leads were observed.

  3. Subclinical chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction resulting from phosphine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, E; Wiszniewska, M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Kasprzak, J D; Lipiec, P

    2017-02-21

    We present a case of a 32-year-old male crew member of a cargo ship, accidentally exposed to phosphine, a fumigating substance. He and other crew members developed increasing fatigue and digestive disorders 24 h later; two died from acute pulmonary oedema. The patient was admitted to hospital, where bilateral pneumonia, acute nephritis, hepatopathy, electrolyte imbalance and leucopenia were diagnosed. He was discharged from hospital 3 weeks later. He was examined 4 months later for possible chronic consequences of acute phosphine poisoning, which included echocardiography showing normal heart size and cardiac function. However, on advanced quantitative analysis, using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, depressed global longitudinal strain was found. Our report extends previously published findings of phosphine-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction by demonstrating that subclinical myocardial dysfunction resulting from acute phosphine exposure may persist several months after the exposure in an otherwise asymptomatic patient, and potentially may not be entirely reversible. The persistence of subclinical abnormalities of LV longitudinal function can be diagnosed using the advanced quantitative echocardiographic analysis we describe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The heartmate left ventricular assist system: worldwide clinical results.

    PubMed

    Poirier, V L

    1997-04-01

    To date 482 patients have been treated with TCI's HeartMate left ventricular assist system (LVAS) at 70 clinical centers worldwide. Of those, 433 patients have undergone treatment with the HeartMate IP (implantable pneumatic) LVAS, while 49 patients were treated with the HeartMate VE (vented electric) LVAS. Currently 65 patients are on the HeartMate LVAS: 51 on the pneumatic version and 14 on the electric version. Of the 482 patients, 64% were transplanted after being supported for an average duration of 72 days (range 1-503 days) to arrive at a cumulative experience of greater than 100 patient years. Neural incidents occurred in 19% of the patients as a result of a variety of complications, including but not limited to air emboli, seizures, drug reactions, as well as thromboembolic complications whether device-related or not. Device-related complications remain quite low at the 2-3% range with minimal or no anticoagulant therapy. Fourteen patients on the electric version have been discharged to live at home for periods ranging from 1 to 7 months. Patients while being supported have successfully gone back to work or to school.

  5. Efficacy of an Anatomical Approach in Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias Originating From the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takumi; Yoshida, Naoki; Doppalapudi, Harish; Litovsky, Silvio H; McElderry, H Thomas; Kay, G Neal

    2017-05-01

    When anatomic obstacles preclude radiofrequency catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), an alternative approach from the anatomically opposite side (endocardial versus epicardial or above versus below the aortic valve) may be considered (anatomic ablation). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an anatomic ablation in idiopathic LVOT VAs. We studied 229 consecutive patients with idiopathic LVOT VAs. Radiofrequency ablation from the first suitable site was successful in 190 patients, and in the remaining 39 patients, it was unsuccessful or had to be abandoned because of anatomic obstacles. In 22 of these 39 patients, an anatomic ablation was successful, and the VA origins were located in the intramural LVOT in 17 patients, basal left ventricular summit in 4, and LVOT septum near the His bundle in 1. The anatomic ablation was highly successful for idiopathic VAs originating from the intramural LVOT (>75%) and lateral LVOT, whereas it was unlikely to be successful for idiopathic VAs originating from the basal left ventricular summit (25%) and sepal LVOT. When a standard catheter ablation targeting the best electrophysiological measure of idiopathic LVOT VAs was unsuccessful or had to be abandoned because of anatomic obstacles, an anatomic ablation was moderately successful. These idiopathic LVOT VAs with a successful anatomic ablation commonly arose from the intramural LVOT among the left coronary cusp, aortomitral continuity, and epicardium, occasionally the basal left ventricular summit, and rarely the LVOT septum near the His bundle. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy Presenting with Heart Failure in a 35-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Petrou, Petros M; Michaelides, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Isolated ventricular noncompaction, a rare genetic cardiomyopathy, is thought to be caused by the arrest of normal myocardial morphogenesis. It is characterized by prominent, excessive trabeculation in a ventricular wall segment and deep intertrabecular recesses perfused from the ventricular cavity. The condition can present with heart failure, systematic embolic events, and ventricular arrhythmias. Two-dimensional echocardiography is the typical diagnostic method. We report a case of heart failure in a 35-year-old man who presented with palpitations. Two-dimensional echocardiograms revealed left ventricular noncompaction, which markedly improved after standard heart failure therapy.

  7. Relationship between ambulatory or exercise blood pressure and left ventricular structure: prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R B; Pickering, T G

    1990-12-01

    Left ventricular mass can be accurately measured by echocardiography, and this measurement has been shown to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular morbid events or of death than blood pressure levels or all other conventional risk factors except age. Echocardiographic left ventricular mass is thus a useful 'bioassay' that can determine the effects on the heart of various measures of blood pressure. All available studies have shown a closer relationship between left ventricular mass or left ventricular wall thickness and blood pressure as measured by ambulatory monitoring over 24 h or during specific time periods, such as the working day, compared with casual pressure measurements. Similarly, blood pressure at the end of maximal or submaximal exercise predicted left ventricular mass better than causal pressures in each study of this topic. Thus there is a closer parallel between prognostically important measures of left ventricular structure and blood pressure during physical or mental activity than with clinic measurements of blood pressure. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships are not fully understood, it has been proposed that the blood pressure levels measured during activity may be more closely related to left ventricular structure than conventional clinic measurements, that these levels appear to be free from any alerting reaction to the physician taking the measurement and that there may be a fundamental biological link between the stimuli to blood pressure levels during activity and cardiovascular hypertrophy.

  8. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relations.

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, B R; Grossman, W; Mann, T; McLaurin, L P

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium nitroprusside on the relationship between left ventricular pressure and volume during diastole was studied in 11 patients with congestive heart failure. Nitroprusside was infused to lower mean arterial pressure approximately 20-30 mm Hg. High fidelity left ventricular pressures were recorded in all patients simultaneously with left ventricular cineangiography (biplane in eight and single plane in three patients), allowing precise measurement of pressure and volume throughout the cardiac cycle. Left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume curves were constructed in each patient from data obtained before and during nitroprusside infusion. In 9 of 11 patients there was a substantial downward displacement of the diastolic pressure-volume curve during nitroprusside infusion, with left ventricular pressure being lower for any given volume with nitroprusside. Serial left ventricular cineangiograms performed 15 min apart in six additional subjects who did not receive sodium nitroprusside showed no shift in the diastolic pressure-volume relation, indicating that the shift seen with nitroprusside was not due to the angiographic procedure itself. A possible explanation for the altered diastolic pressure-volume relationships with nitroprusside might be a direct relaxant effect of nitroprusside on ventricular muscle, similar to its known relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscle. Alternatively, nitroprusside may affect the diastolic pressure-volume curve by affecting viscous properties or by altering one or more of the extrinsic constraints acting upon the left ventricle. PMID:830666

  9. Renal denervation decreases susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in a canine model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaotie; Shi, Lang; Cui, Xuebin; Yu, Yang; Qi, Ting; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Xianglei

    2017-08-21

    Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to have therapeutic values in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate whether RDN could decrease susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in a canine model of CKD. Twenty-one dogs were included in this study. CKD was produced by subtotal nephrectomy in sixteen dogs with RDN treatment (CKD + RDN group, N = 8) or sham RDN (CKD group, N = 8). Another 5 dogs underwent sham operation and sham RDN to serve as controls (CTR group). Parameters of renal function, blood pressure, echocardiography, electrocardiogram, norepinephrine and inflammation were measured at baseline and 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. The ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was determined at the end of study. Subtotal nephrectomy successfully induced a canine CKD model. When compared to CTR group, subtotal nephrectomy in CKD group significantly elevated blood pressure; increased the left ventricular mass, the end-diastolic left ventricular internal dimension, the left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness, the end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness; prolonged the intervals of QT, corrected QT, Tpeak to Tend (Tp-e), corrected Tp-e, and increased the QT dispersion and the Tp-e/QT ratio; decreased the VFT; increased the serum levels of norepinephrine, C reactive protein, and interleukin 6. However, RDN significantly attenuated these changes induced by CKD. The present study demonstrated that RDN could decrease susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in this CKD model. Improvement of left ventricular hypertrophy, sympathetic activation, and inflammation by RDN may be responsible for its beneficial effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Left Ventricular Strain Rate is Reduced during Voluntary Apnea in Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Sutterfield, Shelbi L; Baumfalk, Dryden R; Didier, Kaylin D; Hammer, Shane M; Caldwell, Jacob Troy; Ade, Carl J

    2017-09-14

    During an apneic event, sympathetic nerve activity increases resulting in subsequent increases in left ventricular afterload and myocardial work. It is unknown how cardiac mechanics are acutely impacted by the increased myocardial work during an apneic event. 10 healthy individuals (23 ± 3 yrs) performed multiple voluntary end-expiratory apnea (VEEA) maneuvers exposed to room air, while a subset (n=7) completed multiple VEEA exposed to hyperoxic air (100% FiO2). Beat-by-beat blood pressure, heart rate and stroke volume were measured continuously. Effective arterial elastance (EA) was calculated as an index of cardiac afterload and myocardial work calculated as the rate pressure product (RPP). Tissue Doppler echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular (LV) tissue velocities, and deformation via strain, and strain rate (SR). Systolic blood pressure (Δ18 ± 13 mmHg, p<0.01), EA (Δ0.13 ± 0.10 mmHg/mL, p<0.01), and RPP (Δ9 ±10 mmHg x bpm 10(-2), p<0.01) significantly increased with room air VEEA. This occurred in parallel with decreases in peak longitudinal systolic (Δ-0.62 ± 0.41cm s(-1), p<0.01) and early LV filling (Δ-2.81 ± 1.99 cm s(-1), p<0.01) myocardial velocities. Longitudinal SR (Δ-0.30 ± 0.321/s, p=0.01) was significantly decreased during room air VEEA. VEEA with hyperoxia did not alter (p>0.18) EA or RPP and attenuated the systolic blood pressure response compared to room air. Myocardial velocities and LV strain rate response to VEEA were unchanged (p=0.30) with hyperoxia. Consistent with our hypotheses, VEEA-induced increases in EA and myocardial work impact left ventricular mechanics, which may depend, in part, on stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  11. Relation of age to left ventricular function and systemic hemodynamics in uncomplicated mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Slotwiner, D J; Devereux, R B; Schwartz, J E; Pickering, T G; de Simone, G; Roman, M J

    2001-06-01

    Previous studies in normotensive subjects have shown a slight decline in resting left ventricular pump function and midwall contractility with aging. We examined the relations of age to these variables and to peripheral resistance and vascular stiffness in 272 asymptomatic, unmedicated adults (25 to 80 years old) who had uncomplicated essential hypertension. Cardiac and carotid ultrasound and carotid pressure waveforms were obtained to measure left ventricular dimensions, endocardial and midwall left ventricular shortening, stroke index and cardiac index, end-systolic stress, and pulse pressure/stroke index and beta, pressure-dependent and independent measures of vascular stiffness, respectively. Endocardial and midwall stress-corrected left ventricular shortening assessed ventricular performance. Cardiac index and TPRI did not change with age in either gender, with age-related increases in systolic pressure offset by increasingly concentric ventricular geometry in women and enhanced ventricular systolic function in men. In contrast to the lack of age-related change in traditional hemodynamic indexes, pulse pressure/stroke volume and beta strongly increased with age (P<0.001). Thus, in uncomplicated, relatively mild essential hypertension, neither cardiac index nor peripheral resistance is associated with age. This hemodynamic stability is associated with age-related increased concentricity of ventricular geometry in women and increased ventricular performance indexes in hypertensive men. Vascular stiffness progressively increases with age, independent of change in mean pressure or resistance, possibly contributing to increased rates of cardiovascular events in older individuals.

  12. Impact of preload changes on positive and negative left ventricular dP/dt and systolic time intervals: preload changes on left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Peiman; Kobza, Richard; Toggweiler, Stefan; Arand, Patti; Zuber, Michel; Erne, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the electromechanical activation time (EMAT) is prolonged in patients with abnormally low left ventricular (LV) dP/dt. In the present study, we investigated whether EMAT was responsive to rapid changes in LV systolic function induced by abrupt increases in LV preload. A total of 116 patients were assessed before and after LV angiography with a bolus injection of 40 mL of non-ionic contrast dye. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) increased from 18 ± 7 mmHg to 20 ± 8 mmHg (P < 0.01). In patients with a baseline dP/dt < 1500 mmHg/sec, dP/dt increased from 1098 ± 213 mmHg/sec to 1146 ±306 mmHg/sec (P=0.02) and EMAT decreased from 106 ± 29 ms to 103 ±18 ms (P=0.02). In patients with a baseline dP/dt > 1500 mmHg/sec, dP/dt decreased from 1894 ± 368 mmHg/sec to 1762 ± 403 mmHg/sec (P=0.01) and EMAT increased from 88 ± 13 ms to 93 ± 16 ms (P=0.02). Changes in negative dP/dt were similar to changes in dP/dt. Electromechanical activation time is a non-invasively measured parameter that allows accurate and rapid detection of changes in LV contractility. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Left Ventricular Thrombus in a Patient With Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome Removed Under Thoracoscopic Support.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kota; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Hiraoka, Arudo; Tamura, Kentaro; Chikazawa, Genta; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2016-08-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis. Left ventricular thrombus with antiphospholipid syndrome is rare, and there are few reports regarding surgical resection of such cases. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid syndrome and was admitted to our hospital for treatment of left ventricular thrombus detected by an echocardiography. The thrombus was completely removed using video-assisted thoracoscopy through a right minithoracotomy. Left ventricular thrombectomy through a right minithoracotomy in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome has not been previously reported. This approach is less invasive and more effective in such coagulation system disorders.

  14. [Infarct size and left ventricular function in patients after thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Sochman, J; Málek, I; Ouhrabková, R; Englis, M; Fabián, J

    1989-06-01

    The authors give an account of factors which influence left ventricular function after thrombolytic treatment of an occluded coronary artery. They found that improvement of left ventricular function following a three-week interval after recanalization of the artery the occlusion of which led to myocardial infarction, depends on the size of the necrotic focus. Improvement of global left ventricular function and above all of the regional function of the infarction segment can be expected if the size of the focus is such that less than 40 gram-equivalent of total creatine kinase are liberated from it.

  15. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular function as a tool in clinical research. Theoretical basis and methodology.

    PubMed

    San Román, José Alberto; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Arnold, Roman; Sánchez, Pedro L; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Bermejo, Javier; Revilla, Ana; Villa, Adolfo; Cuéllar, Hug; Hernández, Carolina; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness the left ventricular ejection fraction as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials has been confirmed by numerous studies. However, if this approach is to be applied successfully, images must be acquired in a rigorously controlled manner, and it is advisable to use measurement units that have been specifically developed for quantitative analysis of the imaging parameters obtained with current imaging techniques. This review summarizes what is now known about the left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular volumes, discusses the importance of measurement units in image analysis, and describes the different imaging techniques available. Finally, there is a discussion of how to select the best imaging technique for specific clinical applications.

  16. Microaxial Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device as a Bridge to Transplantation after LVAD Malfunction

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Heidi J.; Shah, Aamir; Azarbal, Babak; Kobashigawa, Jon; Moriguchi, Jaime; Czer, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Evolving technology and improvements in the design of modern, continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices have substantially reduced the rate of device malfunction. As the number of implanted devices increases and as survival prospects for patients with a device continue to improve, device malfunction is an increasingly common clinical challenge. Here, we present our initial experience with an endovascular microaxial flow left ventricular assist device as a successful bridge to transplantation in a 54-year-old man who experienced left ventricular assist device malfunction. PMID:26664315

  17. Swimming exercise training prior to acute myocardial infarction attenuates left ventricular remodeling and improves left ventricular function in rats.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Anat; Feinberg, Micha S; Holbova, Radka; Deshet, Naamit; Scheinowitz, Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The effect of exercise training prior to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on left ventricular (LV) remodeling is poorly understood. This study investigated the protective effect of 3 weeks of swimming exercise training prior to AMI on cardiac morphology and function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 35) were randomly assigned to 3 groups: swimming training (n = 14, 90 min, 5 days/wk, 3 wk), sedentary (n =14), and controls (n = 7, no exercise, no MI). At the end of the training/sedentary period, rats were subjected to AMI (ExMI and SedMI) induced by surgical ligation of the left coronary artery. Thereafter, the rats remained sedentary for a 4-wk recovery period. Trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed in each group at the end of the exercise/sedentary period (pre-AMI), 24 hr after AMI, and following recovery (4 wk after AMI). No differences were observed in LV dimensions and function pre-AMI among the 3 groups; however, LV-end systolic diameter (LVESD) and LV-end systolic area (LVES-area) were significantly lower in the prior trained rats, 24 hr post-AMI with no additional change 4 wk post-AMI, during remodeling. Both LV-shortening fraction (SF%) and fractional area change (FAC%) were higher in the trained animals 4 wk post-AMI (39+/-12% vs 23+/-8%; p 0.002, and 48+/-14% vs. 38+/-9%; p 0.07, respectively). In conclusion, 3 wk of swimming exercise training prior to AMI significantly attenuated LV remodeling and improved LV function, despite no changes in LV dimensions or systolic function at the end of the exercise session. The data suggest that even a short-term training period is sufficient to induce cardiac protection.

  18. Left ventricular abnormal response during dynamic exercise in patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction at rest.

    PubMed

    Ennezat, Pierre V; Lefetz, Yann; Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Six-Carpentier, Marie; Deklunder, Ghislaine; Montaigne, David; Bauchart, Jean Jacques; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Jude, Brigitte; Nevière, Rémi; Bauters, Christophe; Asseman, Philippe; de Groote, Pascal; Lejemtel, Thierry H

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to limit functional capacity are incompletely understood in patients with preserved resting ejection fraction (HFpREF). We assessed left ventricular (LV) systolic response to dynamic exercise in patients with HFpREF and in patients with similar comorbidities to HFpREF patients but without history or evidence of heart failure. Twenty-five HFpREF patients in steady-state clinical condition without significant coronary artery disease and 25 hypertensive controls underwent exercise echocardiography. At rest, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, left atrial area, E/A and E/e' ratios were greater in patients with HFpREF than in control patients, whereas peak systolic mitral annular velocity was lower in HFpREF patients. The exercise-induced changes in LVEF, forward stroke volume, and cardiac output were significantly lower in HFpREF compared with control patients (-4 +/- 8 vs. +6 +/- 6 %, P = .001; -4 +/- 9 vs. +10 +/- 10 mL, P < .0001, and 1.6 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.8 L/min, P < .0001, respectively). Exercise-induced changes in effective arterial elastance significantly differed in HFpREF and control patients (0.5 +/- 0.6 vs. -0.2 +/- 0.5 mm Hg/mL, P < .0001). In addition, 7 of the 25 HFpREF patients developed functional mitral regurgitation during exercise and none in controls. When compared with patients with similar comorbidities but without history or evidence of heart failure, patients with HFpREF experience greater arterial stiffening and thereby a deterioration of global LV systolic performance during dynamic exercise.

  19. Relationship of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function to Obesity and Overweight in a Japanese Population With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seitetsu L; Daimon, Masao; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi; Nakao, Tomoko; Kawata, Takayuki; Kimura, Koichi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Hirokawa, Megumi; Kato, Tomoko S; Mizuno, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Komuro, Issei

    2016-08-25

    Obesity has been found to be associated with future development of diastolic heart failure. Other evidence has indicated that the effect of obesity on left ventricular (LV) mass varies among ethnicities. However, there are few data on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and LV diastolic dysfunction in the Japanese population. We performed echocardiography in 788 subjects without valvular disease or LV systolic dysfunction. They were divided into 3 groups by BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the clinical variables associated with diastolic parameters, including BMI. We also assessed the risk of diastolic dysfunction associated with BMI using multivariable logistic models. Overweight and obese subjects had significantly worse LV diastolic function and greater LV mass than normal weight subjects. In the multivariable analysis, BMI was independently associated with diastolic parameters. Furthermore, after adjusting for clinical factors, the increased risks of diastolic dysfunction in overweight subjects (adjusted odds ratio: 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.36) and obese subjects (4.85, 3.36-16.27) were greater than those previously observed in Western populations. The Japanese population might be more susceptible than Western subjects to the effect of BMI on LV diastolic function. Differences between ethnicities should be taken into consideration in strategies for the prevention of diastolic heart failure. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1951-1956).

  20. Effect of an increase in left ventricular pressure overload on left atrial-left ventricular coupling in patients with hypertension: a two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Oishi, Yoshifumi; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Iuchi, Arata; Nagase, Norio; Ara, Nusrat; Oki, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) has recently been applied to evaluate left atrial (LA) function in addition to left ventricular (LV) function. However, whether 2DSTE can provide insight into LA-LV interaction related to an increase in LV pressure overload remains unknown. One hundred five asymptomatic patients with hypertension were studied by conventional, pulsed and tissue Doppler, and 2DSTE. Hypertensive patients were classified into 2 groups according to the ratio of early diastolic to atrial systolic velocity (E/A) of transmitral flow: E/A ≥ 1 (n = 37) and E/A < 1 (n = 68). We used (E/peak early diastolic mitral annular motion velocity [e'])/peak systolic LA strain (S-LAs) and E/e', as parameters of LA stiffness during ventricular systole and LV diastolic stiffness, respectively. The peak early diastolic LV longitudinal strain rate, and peak early diastolic LA strain and strain rate were lower in the E/A < 1 group than in the E/A ≥ 1 group. The E/e'/S-LAs and E/e' were greater in the E/A < 1 group. In the E/A < 1 group, systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated with LV wall thickness parameters, A, e', E/e', peak early diastolic LV longitudinal strain rate, and E/e'/S-LAs. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that A, E/e', and E/e'/S-LAs were defined as strong predictors related to SBP. In patients with hypertension, an elevation in SBP leads to increased LA stiffness during ventricular systole and LV diastolic stiffness, in association with continued and further advanced LV diastolic dysfunction. 2DSTE is considered a sensitive tool for detecting abnormal LA-LV coupling related to an increased LV pressure overload. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Robotic Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation Using Left Thoracotomy Approach in Patients with Previous Sternotomies.

    PubMed

    Khalpey, Zain; Bin Riaz, Irbaz; Marsh, Katherine M; Ansari, Muhammad Zubair Ahmad; Bilal, Jawad; Cooper, Anthony; Paidy, Samata; Schmitto, Jan D; Smith, Richard; Friedman, Mark; Slepian, Marvin J; Poston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are commonly used as either a bridge-to-transplant or a destination therapy. The traditional approach for LVAD implantation is via median sternotomy, but many candidates for this procedure have a history of failed cardiac surgeries and previous sternotomy. Redo sternotomy increases the risk of heart surgery, particularly in the setting of advanced heart failure. Robotics facilitates a less invasive approach to LVAD implantation that circumvents some of the morbidity associated with a redo sternotomy. We compared the outcomes of all patients at our institution who underwent LVAD implantation via either a traditional sternotomy or using robotic assistance. The robotic cohort showed reduced resource utilization including length of hospital stay and use of blood products. As the appropriate candidates become elucidated, robotic assistance may improve the safety and cost-effectiveness of reoperative LVAD surgery.

  2. [Left ventricular dysfunction measured in diabetic patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Arrieta, Gustavo; Mendoza-Hernández, María Elsa; Pacheco-Aranda, Erika; Rivas-Duro, Miguel; Robles-Parra, Héctor Manuel; Espinosa-Vázquez, Raúl Arturo; Hernández-Cabrera, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) treated with dialysis, the diastolic and systolic left ventricular dysfunction is frequent. The aim was to assess by echocardiography the prevalence of diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction in diabetic patients with CRF treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Sixty diabetic patients with CRF in CAPD were studied. The mean age was 54.5 +/- 12 years (27-78 years). The left ventricular filling pattern (LVFP) as a diastolic function parameter and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as a systolic function parameter were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Descriptive statistical analysis was used. 27 (45 %) patients were women and 33 (55 %) were men. In 55 (91.7 %) left ventricular concentric hypertrophy was observed. Fifty-two patients (86.7 %) showed LVFP type I; three (5 %) had the type II; two (3.3 %) showed pseudonormal pattern and three (5 %) had a normal LVFP. The LVEF was 0.63 +/- 0.09 (CI = 0.41-0.82). Forty nine (81.7 %) patients had LVEF equal or greater than 0.55. The prevalence of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction was 95 % and the prevalence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction was 18.3%.

  3. Cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed by histological assessment of a left ventricular apical core excised for insertion of a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, Masahiro; Izutani, Hironori; Okamura, Toru; Shikata, Fumiaki; Okura, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuki; Oogimoto, Akiyoshi; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2013-12-01

    A 58-year-old male with no history of heart disease was admitted to hospital for congestive heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction, and clinically diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. He developed recurrent heart failure requiring several admissions to hospital and was finally referred to our institution with severe congestive heart failure. Despite medical treatment with inotropic agents, his symptoms gradually worsened. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted together with mitral and tricuspid valve repair at 22 days after hospitalization. A histological assessment of a left ventricular apical core specimen revealed non-caseating granulomas consistent with cardiac sarcoidosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he remains under cardiac rehabilitation while waiting for cardiac transplantation.

  4. The left ventricle as a mechanical engine: from Leonardo da Vinci to the echocardiographic assessment of peak power output-to-left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Dini, Frank L; Guarini, Giacinta; Ballo, Piercarlo; Carluccio, Erberto; Maiello, Maria; Capozza, Paola; Innelli, Pasquale; Rosa, Gian M; Palmiero, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Razzolini, Renato; Nodari, Savina

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the heart as a mechanical engine dates back to the teachings of Leonardo da Vinci, who was the first to apply the laws of mechanics to the function of the heart. Similar to any mechanical engine, whose performance is proportional to the power generated with respect to weight, the left ventricle can be viewed as a power generator whose performance can be related to left ventricular mass. Stress echocardiography may provide valuable information on the relationship between cardiac performance and recruited left ventricular mass that may be used in distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Peak power output-to-mass, obtained during exercise or pharmacological stress echocardiography, is a measure that reflects the number of watts that are developed by 100 g of left ventricular mass under maximal stimulation. Power output-to-mass may be calculated as left ventricular power output per 100 g of left ventricular mass: 100× left ventricular power output divided by left ventricular mass (W/100 g). A simplified formula to calculate power output-to-mass is as follows: 0.222 × cardiac output (l/min) × mean blood pressure (mmHg)/left ventricular mass (g). When the integrity of myocardial structure is compromised, a mismatch becomes apparent between maximal cardiac power output and left ventricular mass; when this occurs, a reduction of the peak power output-to-mass index is observed.

  5. Left ventricular rotation and right-left ventricular interaction in congenital heart disease: the acute effects of interventional closure of patent arterial ducts and atrial septal defects.

    PubMed

    Laser, Kai T; Haas, Nikolaus A; Fischer, Markus; Habash, Sheeraz; Degener, Franziska; Prinz, Christian; Körperich, Hermann; Sandica, Eugen; Kececioglu, Deniz

    2014-08-01

    Left ventricular rotation is physiologically affected by acute changes in preload. We investigated the acute effect of preload changes in chronically underloaded and overloaded left ventricles in children with shunt lesions. A total of 15 patients with atrial septal defects (Group A: 7.4 ± 4.7 years, 11 females) and 14 patients with patent arterial ducts (Group B: 2.7 ± 3.1 years, 10 females) were investigated using 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography before and after interventional catheterisation. The rotational parameters of the patient group were compared with those of 29 matched healthy children (Group C). Maximal torsion (A: 2.45 ± 0.9°/cm versus C: 1.8 ± 0.8°/cm, p < 0.05), apical peak systolic rotation (A: 12.6 ± 5.7° versus C: 8.7 ± 3.5°, p < 0.05), and the peak diastolic torsion rate (A: -147 ± 48°/second versus C: -110 ± 31°/second, p < 0.05) were elevated in Group A and dropped immediately to normal values after intervention (maximal torsion 1.5 ± 1.1°/cm, p < 0.05, apical peak systolic rotation 7.2 ± 4.1°, p < 0.05, and peak diastolic torsion rate -106 ± 35°/second, p < 0.05). Patients in Group B had decreased maximal torsion (B: 1.8 ± 1.1°/cm versus C: 3.8 ± 1.4°/cm, p < 0.05) and apical peak systolic rotation (B: 8.3 ± 6.1° versus C: 13.9 ± 4.3°, p < 0.05). Defect closure was followed by an increase in maximal torsion (B: 2.7 ± 1.4°/cm, p < 0.05) and the peak diastolic torsion rate (B: -133 ± 66°/second versus -176 ± 84°/second, p < 0.05). Patients with chronically underloaded left ventricles compensate with an enhanced apical peak systolic rotation, maximal torsion, and quicker diastolic untwisting to facilitate diastolic filling. In patients with left ventricular dilatation by volume overload, the peak systolic apical rotation and the maximal torsion are decreased. After normalisation of the preload, they immediately return to normal and diastolic untwisting rebounds. These mechanisms are important for

  6. Assessment of regional left ventricular myocardial function in rats after acute occlusion of left anterior descending artery by two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Xie, Mingxing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xinfang; Lv, Qing; Lu, Xiaofang; Fang, Lingyun; Chang, Long

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluated the change in regional left ventricular myocardial function in rats following acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) by using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI). Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, a myocardial infarction (MI) group, in which 50 rats were subjected to LAD occlusion for 30-45 min, and a sham-operated (SHAM) group that contained 10 rats serving as control. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 1, 4 and 8 week(s) after the operation. High frequency two-dimensional images of left ventricular short axis at papillary muscle level were recorded. Peak systolic radial strain (PRS) and circumferential strain (PCS) were measured in the mid-ventricle in short-axis view by using EchoPAC workstation. Left ventricular internal diameter at diastole (LVIDd) and systole (LVIDs), fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by anatomical M-model echocardiography. Infarct size was measured using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining 1 week and 8 weeks after the operation. Fibrosis of left ventricular myocardium was displayed using Van Gieson staining 1 week after the infarction. In terms of the TTC staining results, the left ventricle fell into three categories: infarcted, peri-infarcted and remote myocardial regions. Compared with those at baseline and in the SHAM group, (1) PRS and PCS in the infarcted, peri-infarcted and remote myocardial regions were significantly decreased in the MI group within 1 week after the operation (P<0.05) and the low levels lasted 8 weeks; (2) Compared with those at baseline, LVIDd, LVIDs, FS, EF and LVM in the MI group showed no significant difference 1 week after the operation (P>0.05). However, LVIDd, LVIDs and LVM were increased significantly 4 and 8 weeks after the operation (P<0.05), and FS and EF were decreased substantially (P<0.05). Van Gieson staining showed that fibrosis

  7. The effect of left ventricular function and drive pressures on the filling and ejection of a pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device in an acute animal model.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Branka; Zapanta, Conrad M; Khalapyan, Tigran; Connell, John; Pae, Walter E; Myers, John L; Wilson, Ronald P; Undar, Akif; Rosenberg, Gerson; Weiss, William J

    2007-01-01

    Penn State is currently developing a 12-mL, pulsatile, pneumatically driven pediatric ventricular assist device intended to be used in infants. After extensive in vitro testing of the pump in a passive-filling, mock circulatory loop, an acute animal study was performed to obtain data with a contracting ventricle. The objectives were to determine the range of pneumatic pressures and time required to completely fill and empty the pediatric ventricular assist device under various physiologic conditions, simulate reductions in ventricular contractility and blood volume, and provide data for validation of the mock circulatory loop. A 15-kg goat was used. The cannulation was achieved via left thoracotomy from the left ventricle to the descending aorta. The pump rate and systolic duration were controlled manually to maintain complete filling and ejection. The mean ejection time ranged from 280 ms to 382 ms when the systolic pressure ranged from 350 mm Hg to 200 mm Hg. The mean filling time ranged from 352 ms to 490 ms, for the diastolic pressure range of -60 mm Hg to 0 mm Hg. Esmolol produced a decrease in left ventricular pressure, required longer pump filling time, and reduced LVAD flow.

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy and angiotensin II receptor blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Maeda, K; Nakamura, M; Watanabe, T; Yoshikawa, J; Hirohashi, K

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II plays a significant role in cell growth and proliferation in model systems and in humans. Numerous studies have shown that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the risk of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic attack; all-cause deaths, and sudden death. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has provided beneficial effects on LVH regression and on cardiac remodeling in the presence of hypertension and heart failure. The new class of ARBs appears to provide cardioprotective effects that are similar to those of the ACE inhibitors. Most of the beneficial effects provided by these agents appear to be related to a more complete blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. However, costimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor appears to increase nitric oxide and thus causes some bradykinin-like effects. Evidence for the role of angiotensin II in promoting LVH as well as abnormal regulation of the angiotensin II signal transduction pathways in model systems and in humans has been reviewed. Secondly, the mechanisms for the beneficial effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers studied in model systems and in humans, including possible involvement in the formation of reactive oxygen species by mononuclear cells, are presented. Finally, results from large-scale interventions such as the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) study, as well as an overview of the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial involving the use of ARB in high-risk patients, are presented.

  9. Left ventricular assist device exchange: the Toronto General Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Hideki; Ribeiro, Roberto V P; Billia, Filio; Cusimano, Robert J; Yau, Terrence M; Badiwala, Mitesh V; Stansfield, William E; Rao, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    As support times for left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) become longer, several complications requiring device exchange may occur. To our knowledge, this is the first Canadian report regarding implantable LVAD exchange. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive, unique patients implanted with an LVAD between June 2006 and October 2015 at Toronto General Hospital. In total, 122 patients were impanted with an LVAD during the study period. Eight patients required LVAD exchange, and 1 patient had 2 replacements (9 of 122, 7.3%). There were 7 HeartMate II (HMII), 1 HVAD and 1 DuraHeart pumps exchanged. Two of these exchanges occurred early at the time of initial implant, whereas 7 occurred late (range 8-623 d). Six exchanges were made owing to pump thrombosis. Of the 3 exchanges made for other causes, 1 HMII exchange was owing to a driveline fracture, 1 DuraHeart patient had early inflow obstruction requiring exchange to HMII at the initial implant, and the third had a suspected inflow obstruction with no evidence of thrombosis at the time of the procedure. The mean support time before exchange was 225 days, and time from exchange to transplant, death or ongoing support was 245 days. Three patients were successfully bridged to transplant, and at the time of data collection 2 were supported awaiting transplant. Three patients died after a mean duration of 394.3 days (range 78-673 d) of support postreplacement. Four cases were successfully performed using a subcostal approach. Pump thrombosis is the most common cause for LVAD exchange, which can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality. The subcostal approach may be the preferred procedure for an HMII exchange when indicated.

  10. Left ventricular long-axis function in treated haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Einar Skulstad; Hervig, Tor; Omvik, Per; Gerdts, Eva

    2009-03-01

    We recently demonstrated reduced exercise capacity in treated genetic haemochromatosis, in spite of normal radial left ventricular (LV) systolic function assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography at rest. It remains unknown if haemochromatosis-related impairment of LV long-axis function can be demonstrated also at rest. LV long-axis function was assessed by echocardiography including spectral tissue Doppler of systolic (S') and early (E') diastolic velocities in 105 treated haemochromatosis patients and 50 controls. Patients had higher body mass index, systolic atrioventricular excursion, and smaller LV end-systolic diameter (all P < 0.05). Other conventional echocardiographic variables did not differ. S' was normal in both groups, though significantly higher among the patients (11.1 vs. 9.9 cm/s, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, higher S' was associated with having haemochromatosis, independently of significant contributions from higher atrioventricular excursion and LV length, and lower body mass index and E/E'-ratio (multiple R(2) = 0.44, P < 0.001). E' did not differ between patients and controls. However, in multivariate analysis lower E' was associated with having haemochromatosis independently of significant contributions from higher age and diastolic blood pressure, and lower transmitral E and end-diastolic LV length (multiple R(2) = 0.57, P < 0.001). The long-axis function in the haemochromatosis group was normal. Still haemochromatosis, even in this group of patients treated with regular phlebotomy, influenced both systolic and early diastolic long-axis function, and was associated with higher atrioventricular excursion and S', and with lower E'.

  11. Left ventricular mass in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Olalla, J; Pombo, M; Del Arco, A; de la Torre, J; Urdiales, D; García-Alegría, J

    2013-01-01

    The HIV infection has been associated with an increased incidence of vascular events. Left ventricular mass (LVM) is independently associated with greater overall mortality. Various studies have shown that patients with HIV infection have higher LVM than the uninfected population. We aim to describe the distribution of LVM in an extensive series of patients with HIV infection, and the factors associated with its increase. A cross-sectional study was performed in HIV-infected patients followed in our center from 1 December 2009 to 28 February 2011. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed in all patients who gave their consent. Demographic variables, viroimmunological status, cardiovascular risk factors, vascular risk at 10 years (VR10) and history of exposure to antiretroviral drugs were collected. LVM was considered to be the quantitative dependent variable. A univariate analysis was performed, including in the multivariate analysis those variables with P<,05. A TTE was performed in 400 patients, and the LVM was calculated in 388. Mean age was 45 years, 75.5 males. Mean LVM was 39.54g/m(2.7)(95% CI: 38.35-40.73). Age, height, body mass index, VR10, hypertension, dyslipidemia, different medications within the cardiovascular area and having taken nevirapine have been used in the history of the patient were associated to greater LVM. In the multivariate analysis, use of nevirapine in the history of the patient and VR10 remained in the model. VR10 may be associated with greater LVM. The relationship with nevirapine may respond to an indication bias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cardiac MRI for determining functional left ventricular parameters].

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Hahn, U; Bail, D M; Helber, U; Nägele, T; Scheule, A M; Schick, F; Duda, S H; Claussen, C D

    1999-01-01

    To prove the accuracy of MR methods in the determination of left ventricular (LV) functional parameters and anatomy. At 1.5 T, 20 healthy volunteers and 22 patients with aortic valvular disease (stenosis n = 15, regurgitation n = 7) were examined. Functional parameters like cardiac output, ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, aortic flow maximum, and time interval from the R-wave to maximum flow were obtained using a velocity encoding 2D FLASH sequence (TR 24 ms, TE 5 ms, venc 250 cm/sec) and segmented breath-hold cine FLASH 2D technique (TR 100 ms, TE 4.8 ms, flip angle 25 degrees, temporal resolution 50 ms). Invasive measurements (Fick principle) served as gold standard, intra- and interobserver variability were determined. Differences of functional parameters between normal volunteers and patients were detectable at a high level of significance (p < 0.0001). For cardiac output a superior correlation with the gold standard was found using flow measurements (r = 0.66, p < 0.0007) compared to volumetric calculations from cine studies (r = 0.47, p < 0.02). Interobserver variability was 2.5 +/- 2.7%/4.5 +/- 6.9% (flow quantification/calculations from cine studies), intraobserver variability was 1.7 +/- 1.6%/3.3 +/- 2.2%. MRI is an appropriate tool for determining LV functional parameters and anatomy. Differences between normal volunteers and patients with aortic valvular disease can be detected reliably. Flow measurements turned out to be more accurate than calculations from cine images. Therefore, flow quantification techniques should be preferred for clinical use.

  13. Arterial Wave Reflection and Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Takei, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takuya; Koshaka, Shun; Palmieri, Vittorio; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Increased arterial wave reflection is a predictor of cardiovascular events and has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Whether increased wave reflection is inversely associated with left ventricular (LV) systolic function in subjects without heart failure is not clear. Methods Arterial wave reflection and LV systolic function were assessed in 301 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using 2-dimensional echocardiography and applanation tonometry of the radial artery to derive central arterial waveform by a validated transfer function. Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and wasted energy index (WEi) were used as indices of wave reflection. LV systolic function was measured by ejection fraction (LVEF) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annulus peak systolic velocity (Sm), peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Participants with history of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, LVEF <50% or wall motion abnormalities were excluded. Results Mean age of the study population was 68.3±10.2 years (64.1% women, 65% hypertensive). LV systolic function by TDI was lower with increasing wave reflection, whereas LVEF was not. In multivariate analysis, TDI parameters of LV longitudinal systolic function were significantly and inversely correlated to AIx and WEi (p values from 0.05 to 0.002). Conclusions In a community cohort without heart failure and with normal LVEF, an increased arterial wave reflection was associated with subclinical reduction in LV systolic function assessed by novel TDI techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate the prognostic implications of this relationship. PMID:21169863

  14. Left ventricular remodeling after experimental myocardial cryoinjury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, Michele M; Paliotti, Roberta; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; Esposito, Arturo; Gianelli, Umberto; Busca, Giuseppe; Cioffi, Ugo; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Magrini, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    The standard coronary ligation, the most studied model of experimental myocardial infarction in rats, is limited by high mortality and produces unpredictable areas of necrosis. To standardize the location and size of the infarct and to elucidate the mechanisms of myocardial remodeling and its progression to heart failure, we studied the functional, structural, and ultrastructural changes of myocardial infarction produced by experimental myocardial cryoinjury. The cryoinjury was successful in 24 (80%) of 30 male adult CD rats. A subepicardial infarct was documented on echocardiograms, with an average size of about 21%. Macroscopic examination reflected closely the stamp of the instrument used, without transition zones to viable myocardium. Histological examination, during the acute setting, revealed an extensive area of coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage in the subepicardium. An inflammatory infiltrate was evident since the 7th hour, whereas the reparative phase started within the first week, with proliferation of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and myocytes. From the 7th day, deposition of collagen fibers was reported with a reparative scar completed at the 30th day. Ultrastructural study revealed vascular capillary damage and irreversible alterations of the myocytes in the acute setting and confirmed the histological findings of the later phases. The damage was associated with a progressive left ventricular (LV) remodeling, including thinning of the infarcted area, hypertrophy of the noninfarcted myocardium, and significant LV dilation. This process started from the 60th day and progressed over the subsequent 120 days period; at 180 days, a significant increase in LV filling pressure, indicative of heart failure, was found. In conclusion, myocardial cryodamage, although different in respect to ischemic damage, causes a standardized injury reproducing the cellular patterns of coagulation necrosis, early microvascular reperfusion, hemorrhage, inflammation

  15. Implication of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cryptogenic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Jung-Gon; Kim, Ji-Sun; Roh, Hakjae; Ahn, Moo-Young; Park, Byoung Won; Hyon, Min Su

    2014-09-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was aimed to investigate whether LVDD in cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CS) could be a clue to stroke mechanism. The clinical and echocardiographic findings of 1589 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. LVDDs among stroke subtypes were graded by transthoracic echocardiography into 4 groups by severity: normal, abnormal relaxation (grade I), pseudonormal (grade II), and restrictive diastolic filling (grade III), whereas severe LVDD was defined as grade III. We classified the lesion pattern of CS into cardioembolism-mimic or non-cardioembolism-mimic and determined whether cardioembolism-mimic lesions were associated with severe LVDD. The fraction of severe LVDD in CS was not different from that of stroke with AF (27.3% versus 37.1%; P=0.173) but was significantly higher than that of stroke without AF (27.3% versus 13.4%; P=0.008). Cardioembolism-mimic CS had more severe LVDD than non-cardioembolism-mimic CS (41.4% versus 11.5%; P=0.013). LVDD of grade II (odds ratio, 4.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.99-6.41) and grade III (odds ratio, 5.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.42-9.17) were independently related to stroke with AF after adjusting covariates. The severe LVDD could be a predictor of stroke with AF, and its frequency was similar between CS and stroke with AF. Cardioembolism-mimic CS had significantly more severe LVDD than non-cardioembolism-mimic CS. LVDD could be helpful to discriminate the stroke mechanism in the patients with acute CS. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Left ventricular dysfunction in patients with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension*

    PubMed Central

    Gavilanes, Francisca; Jr, José Leonidas Alves; Fernandes, Caio; Prada, Luis Felipe Lopes; Jardim, Carlos Viana Poyares; Morinaga, Luciana Tamie Kato; Dias, Bruno Arantes; Hoette, Susana; Souza, Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: We evaluated clinical, functional, and hemodynamic data from all patients who underwent right heart catheterization because of diagnostic suspicion of PAH-in the absence of severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), significant changes in pulmonary function tests, and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy findings consistent with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism-between 2008 and 2013 at our facility. RESULTS: During the study period, 384 patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization at our facility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was confirmed in 302 patients (78.6%). The mean age of those patients was 48.7 years. The patients without PH showed better hemodynamic profiles and lower levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. Nevertheless, 13.8% of the patients without PH were categorized as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Of the 218 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 40 (18.3%) and 178 (81.7%) were diagnosed with PH associated with LVD (PH-LVD) and with PAH, respectively. The patients in the HP-LVD group were significantly older than were those in the PAH group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The proportional difference between the PAH and PH-LVD groups was quite significant, considering the absence of echocardiographic signs suggestive of severe LVD during the pre-catheterization investigation. Our results highlight the fundamental role of cardiac catheterization in the diagnosis of PAH, especially in older patients, in whom the prevalence of LVD that has gone undiagnosed by non-invasive tests is particularly relevant. PMID:25610501

  17. Left ventricular muscle and fluid mechanics in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nucifora, Gaetano; Delgado, Victoria; Bertini, Matteo; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Van de Veire, Nico R; Ng, Arnold C T; Siebelink, Hans-Marc J; Schalij, Martin J; Holman, Eduard R; Sengupta, Partho P; Bax, Jeroen J

    2010-11-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling is characterized by the formation of intraventricular rotational bodies of fluid (termed "vortex rings") that optimize the efficiency of LV ejection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphology and dynamics of LV diastolic vortex ring formation early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in relation to LV diastolic function and infarct size. A total of 94 patients with a first ST-segment elevation AMI (59 ± 11 years; 78% men) were included. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. After 48 hours, the following examinations were performed: 2-dimensional echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis to assess the LV systolic and diastolic function, the vortex formation time (VFT, a dimensionless index for characterizing vortex formation), and the LV untwisting rate; contrast echocardiography to assess LV vortex morphology; and myocardial contrast echocardiography to identify the infarct size. Patients with a large infarct size (≥ 3 LV segments) had a significantly lower VFT (p <0.001) and vortex sphericity index (p <0.001). On univariate analysis, several variables were significantly related to the VFT, including anterior AMI, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, grade of diastolic dysfunction, LV untwisting rate, and infarct size. On multivariate analysis, the LV untwisting rate (β = -0.43, p <0.001) and infarct size (β = -0.33, p = 0.005) were independently associated with VFT. In conclusion, early in AMI, both the LV infarct size and the mechanical sequence of diastolic restoration play key roles in modulating the morphology and dynamics of early diastolic vortex ring formation.