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Sample records for decremental open lung

  1. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  2. Diesel exhaust modulates ozone-induced lung function decrements in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min) intermittently on two consecutive days. Day 1 exposures were either to filtered air, DE (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.300 ppm), or the combination of both pollutants. On Day 2 all exposures were to O3 (0.300 ppm), and Day 3 served as a followup observation day. Lung function was assessed by spirometry just prior to, immediately after, and up to 4 hr post-exposure on each exposure day. Functional pulmonary responses to the pollutants were also characterized based on stratification by glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) genotype. On Day 1, exposure to air or DE did not change FEV1 or FVC in the subject population (n = 15). The co-exposure to O3 and DE decreased FEV1 (17.6%) to a greater extent than O3 alone (9.9%). To test for synergistic exposure effects, i.e., in a greater than additive fashion, FEV1 changes post individual O3 and DE exposures were summed together and compared to the combined DE and O3 exposure; the p value was 0.057. On Day 2, subjects who received DE exposure on Day 1 had a larger FEV1 decrement (14.7%) immediately after the O3 exposure than the individuals’ matched response following a Day 1 air exposure (10.9%). GSTM1 genotype did not affect the magnitude of lung function changes in a significant fashion. These data suggest that altered respiratory responses to the combination of O3 and DE exposure can be observed showing a greater than additive manner. In addition, O3-induced lung function decrements are greater with a prior exposure to DE compared to a prior exposure to filtered air. Based on the joint occurrence of these pollutants in the ambient environment, the potential exists for interactions in more than an additive fashion affecting lung physiological

  3. Personal and Ambient Air Pollution Exposures and Lung Function Decrements in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J.; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Gillen, Dan; Kleinman, Michael T.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Cooper, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have shown associations between asthma outcomes and outdoor air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter mass < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). Independent effects of specific pollutants have been difficult to detect because most studies have relied on highly correlated central-site measurements. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of daily changes in percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) with personal and ambient air pollutant exposures. Methods For 10 days each, we followed 53 subjects with asthma who were 9–18 years of age and living in the Los Angeles, California, air basin. Subjects self-administered home spirometry in themorning, afternoon, and evening. We measured personal hourly PM2.5 mass, 24-hr PM2.5 elemental and organic carbon (EC–OC), and 24-hr NO2, and the same 24-hr average outdoor central-site(ambient) exposures. We analyzed data with transitional mixed models controlling for personal temperature and humidity, and as-needed β2-agonist inhaler use. Results FEV1 decrements were significantly associated with increasing hourly peak and daily average personal PM2.5, but not ambient PM2.5. Personal NO2 was also inversely associated with FEV1. Ambient NO2 was more weakly associated. We found stronger associations among 37 subjects not taking controller bronchodilators as follows: Personal EC–OC was inversely associated with morning FEV1; for an interquartile increase of 71 μg/m3 1-hr maximum personal PM2.5, overall percent-predicted FEV1 decreased by 1.32% [95% confidence interval (CI), −2.00 to −0.65%]; and for an interquartile increase of 16.8 ppb 2-day average personal NO2, overall percent-predicted FEV1 decreased by 2.45% (95% CI, −3.57 to −1.33%). Associations of both personal PM2.5 and NO2 with FEV1 remained when co-regressed, and both confounded ambient NO2. Conclusions Independent pollutant associations with lung function might be missed

  4. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of different conditions, such as: Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Wegener granulomatosis Risks There is a possibility of ... biopsy Malignant mesothelioma Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Solitary fibrous tumor Viral pneumonia ...

  5. Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lung Inflammation by IgE Decrement in an OVA Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Camargo Hizume-Kunzler, Deborah; Greiffo, Flavia R; Fortkamp, Bárbara; Ribeiro Freitas, Gabriel; Keller Nascimento, Juliana; Regina Bruggemann, Thayse; Melo Avila, Leonardo; Perini, Adenir; Bobinski, Franciane; Duarte Silva, Morgana; Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Vargas Horewicz, Verônica; Soares Dos Santos, Adair Roberto; Cattelan Bonorino, Kelly

    2017-04-07

    Aerobic exercise (AE) reduces lung function decline and risk of exacerbations in asthmatic patients. However, the inflammatory lung response involved in exercise during the sensitization remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of exercise for 2 weeks in an experimental model of sensitization and single ovalbumin-challenge. Mice were divided into 4 groups: mice non-sensitized and not submitted to exercise (Sedentary, n=10); mice non-sensitized and submitted to exercise (Exercise, n=10); mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, n=10); and mice sensitized, submitted to exercise and exposed to OVA (OVA+Exercise, n=10). 24 h after the OVA/saline exposure, we counted inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), lung levels of total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-1ra, measurements of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and VEGF and NOS-2 expression via western blotting. AE reduced cell counts from BALF in the OVA group (p<0.05), total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 lung levels and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers (p<0.05). There was an increase of NOS-2 expression, IL-10 and IL-1ra lung levels in the OVA groups (p<0.05). Our results showed that AE attenuated the acute lung inflammation, suggesting immunomodulatory properties on the sensitization process in the early phases of antigen presentation in asthma.

  6. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  7. Decrements in lung function related to arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Mazumder, D N Guha; Yuan, Yan; Samanta, Sambit; Balmes, John; Sil, Arabinda; Ghosh, Nilima; Hira-Smith, Meera; Haque, Reina; Purushothamam, Radhika; Lahiri, Sarbari; Das, Subhankar; Smith, Allan H

    2005-09-15

    During 1998-2000, the authors investigated relations between lung function, respiratory symptoms, and arsenic in drinking water among 287 study participants, including 132 with arsenic-caused skin lesions, in West Bengal, India. The source population involved 7,683 participants who had been surveyed for arsenic-related skin lesions in 1995-1996. Respiratory symptoms were increased among men with arsenic-caused skin lesions (versus those without lesions), particularly "shortness of breath at night" (odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 7.6) and "morning cough" (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 6.6) in smokers and "shortness of breath ever" (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 20.6) in nonsmokers. Among men with skin lesions, the average adjusted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was reduced by 256.2 ml (95% CI: 113.9, 398.4; p < 0.001) and the average adjusted forced vital capacity (FVC) was reduced by 287.8 ml (95% CI: 134.9, 440.8; p < 0.001). In men, a 100-microg/liter increase in arsenic level was associated with a 45.0-ml decrease (95% CI: 6.2, 83.9) in FEV1 (p = 0.02) and a 41.4-ml decrease (95% CI: -0.7, 83.5) in FVC (p = 0.054). Women had lower risks than men of developing skin lesions and showed little evidence of respiratory effects. In this study, consumption of arsenic-contaminated water was associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function in men, especially among those with arsenic-related skin lesions.

  8. [Evaluating the effectiveness of "open lung" maneuvre].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Borisov, R Iu; Egorov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study--a comparative evaluation of the treatment of postoperative acute respiratory insufficiency in cardio surgical patients with lung opening maneuver and conventional mechanical ventilation. The study included 81 patients operated on the heart and magistral vessels in which the immediate postoperative period was complicated by the development of acute lung injury. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 (main) group (48 patients), on which the open lung technique was used, 2 (control) group (33 patients) who underwent a standard respiratory support. The initial values of the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood and the oxygenation index in patients of both groups were significantly reduced, and the fraction of intrapulmonary shunting - significantly increased. Starting with 1 day sharp increase in PaO2 and IE in patients with the first group was noticed, which coincides with the beginning of the opening of the alveoli. At the same time, the dynamics of these indicators in the second group had the reverse tendency. After the recruiting maneuver in all patients significant improvements in the mechanics of breathing were noticed. As a result of the recruiting maneuver in the first group sustained improvement of arterial oxygenation was achieved in 35 patients. In patients with acute postoperative respiratory failure recruiting maneuver led to a significant increase in arterial oxygenation and reduce the fraction of intrapulmonary shunt. Application of "open lung" maneuver leads to the resolution of respiratory failure, which greatly reduces the timing of mechanical ventilation and length of stay of patients in intensive care units in comparison with traditional methods of respiratory therapy.

  9. Open lung biopsy: a safe, reliable and accurate method for diagnosis in diffuse lung disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, S S; Tsang, V; Goldstraw, P

    1992-01-01

    The ideal method for obtaining lung tissue for diagnosis should provide high diagnostic yield with low morbidity and mortality. We reviewed all 432 patients (mean age 55 years) who underwent an open lung biopsy at this hospital over a 10-year period. Twenty-four patients (5.5%) were immunocompromised. One hundred and twenty-five patients were on steroid therapy at the time of operation. Open lung biopsy provided a firm diagnosis in 410 cases overall (94.9%) and in 20 out of 24 patients in the immunocompromised group (83.3%). The commonest diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (173 patients). Twenty-two patients (5.1%) suffered complications following the procedure: wound infection 11 patients, pneumothorax 9 patients and haemothorax 1 patient. Thirteen patients (3.0%) died following open lung biopsy, but in only 1 patient was the death attributable to the procedure itself. We conclude that open lung biopsy is an accurate and safe method for establishing a diagnosis in diffuse lung disease with a high yield and minimal risk.

  10. Dielectric decrement of electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderhof, B. U.

    We calculate the dielectric decrement of ionic solutions in a continuum model. We show that apart from a familiar static contribution there are three kinetic contributions to the effect, two of which are related by a symmetry relation. The third contribution is due to frequency dispersion of the friction coefficient and for small ions reduces the total effect considerably. We find that the total effect as calculated from the continuum model is too small to account for the experimental data.

  11. Antiinflammatory effect of sevoflurane in open lung surgery with one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Potočnik, Iztok; Novak-Janković, Vesna; Šostarič, Maja; Jerin, Ales; Štupnik, Tomaž; Skitek, Milan; Markovič-Božič, Jasmina; Klokočovnik, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Aim To prospectively assess the antiinflammatory effect of volatile anesthetic sevoflurane in patients undergoing open lung surgery with one lung ventilation (OLV). Methods This prospective, randomized study included 40 patients undergoing thoracic surgery with OLV (NCT02188407). The patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups that received either propofol or sevoflurane. Four patients were excluded from the study because after surgery they received blood transfusion or non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs. Inflammatory mediators (interleukins 6, 8, and 10, C-reactive protein [CRP], and procalcitonin) were measured perioperatively. The infiltration of the nonoperated lung was assessed on chest x-rays and the oxygenation index was calculated. The major postoperative complications were counted. Results Interleukin 6 levels were significantly higher in propofol than in sevoflurane group (P = 0.014). Preoperative CRP levels did not differ between the groups (P = 0.351) and in all patients they were lower than 20 mg/L, but postoperative CRP was significantly higher in propofol group (31 ± 6 vs 15 ± 7 ng/L; P = 0.035); Pre- and postoperative procalcitonin was within the reference range (<0.04 µg/L) in both groups. The oxygenation index was significantly lower in propofol group (339 ± 139 vs 465 ± 140; P = 0.021). There was no significant difference between the groups in lung infiltrates (P = 0.5849). The number of postoperative adverse events was higher in propofol group, but the difference was not-significant (5 vs 1; P = 0.115). Conclusion The study suggests an antiinflammatory effect of sevoflurane in patients undergoing thoracotomy with OLV. PMID:25559834

  12. Factors affecting opening and filling pressures in the lungs of the lizard Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Wood, P G; Daniels, C B

    1996-02-01

    We have previously reported that levels of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs of the lizard Pogona vitticeps increase with increasing body temperature. Static lung compliance decreases with increasing body temperature, and is only marginally affected by the presence of surfactant. Here, we examined the effects of surfactant, temperature, ventilatory pattern and autonomic neurotransmitters on opening and filling pressures. Isolated lungs were ventilated at either 18 or 37 degrees C at low, intermediate and high ventilatory regimes. The effects of acetylcholine and adrenaline were examined using an isolated perfused lung preparation at 27 degrees C. Changing ventilatory pattern or experimental temperature had no effect on either filling or opening pressures. Removal of surfactant increased both opening and filling pressures. Adrenaline administration reduced opening and filling pressures. Normal variations in surfactant levels, which occur with changes in body temperature, do not affect either opening or filling pressures. A critical amount of surfactant may be necessary to prevent adhesion of epithelial surfaces in the lungs of Pogona vitticeps. The anti-glue function of pulmonary surfactant may be more important at 18 than at 37 degrees C.

  13. Open Lung Biopsy Among Critically Ill, Mechanically Ventilated Patients. A Metaanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Walkey, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Open lung biopsy may be performed to guide therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with diagnostic uncertainty regarding etiology of pulmonary infiltrates. Current evidence for open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients comes from single-center case series. Objectives: We performed a metaanalysis of case series to determine diagnoses, complications, and changes in therapy after lung biopsy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods: We searched Medline for case series of lung biopsies in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. We pooled results of individual case series using random effects metaanalysis models to obtain summary proportions. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 14 case series including a total of 512 mechanically ventilated patients with 530 histopathological diagnoses. The most common diagnoses were “fibrosis/pneumonitis” (n = 155, 25%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14–37%) and infection (n = 113, 20%; 95% CI, 15–27%). Viruses were the most commonly identified infectious etiology identified on open lung biopsy, representing 50% of potential pathogens. Diffuse alveolar damage was present in a minority of specimens (n = 100, 16%; 95% CI, 8–25%). Therapeutic changes after lung biopsy occurred in 399 patients (78%; 95% CI, 64–81%). Procedure-related complications occurred in 29% of patients (95% CI, 25–33%), most commonly persistent air leak. Mortality among mechanically ventilated patients after diagnostic open lung biopsy was 54%. Conclusions: Among mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure of unclear etiology, lung biopsy yielded a wide range of diagnoses and was associated with a change in therapy in most patients. PMID:26065712

  14. The Effect of Arousal on Warm Up Decrement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect warm-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated warm-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to warm-up decrement are explored.…

  15. Sorafenib for lung cancer: is the "Battle" still open?

    PubMed

    Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2012-10-01

    In the recent years, the improved understanding of the biological relevance of angiogenesis as a major cancer hallmark led to the development of a heterogeneous group of agents targeting this key process. Among the anti-angiogenic drugs (including monoclonal antibodies such as Bevacizumab, and other molecules with different mechanism of action, such as the vascular disrupting agents Vadimezan), the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Pazopanib, and Axitinib), are commonly thought to inhibit angiogenesis through a most rational and promising approach. In this regard, many tyrosine kinase inibitors, such as Sorafenib, are multi-targeted, which allows for the inhibition of those multiple functional pathways which are considered to be critical for both tumor development and progression. Besides, this multi-targeted activity may theoretically increase efficacy but also toxicity. As a member of this group, Sorafenib has already been approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma not suitable for locoregional treatment, and it is currently under investigation for advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), either alone or in combination with other biological/cytotoxic agents.

  16. The benefits of open lung biopsy in patients with previous non-diagnostic transbronchial lung biopsy. A guide to appropriate therapy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, L H; DeMeester, T R; Kinealey, A; MacMahon, H; Churg, A; Golomb, H

    1980-05-01

    In a 17-month period, 20 immunosuppressed patients underwent transbronchial biopsy of the lung for diagnostic evaluation of a pulmonary infiltrate of unknown etiology. In 19 patients, the transbronchial biopsy was nondiagnostic. Thirteen of the 19 patients were critically ill and were referred for an open lung biopsy. Eleven (85 percent) of these 13 patients left the hospital after open lung biopsy and appropriate medical treatment. Two patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of open biopsy succumbed to the combination of their underlying disease and respiratory failure. There were no deaths directly attributed to the open lung biopsy. Of the six patients whose condition appeared stable and who did not undergo open lung biopsy, two died from unrecognized progress of their underlying malignant disease. The remainder recovered. We conclude that open lung biopsy is safe in and beneficial to the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of unknown pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients who previously had a nondiagnostic fiberoptic transbronchial biopsy of the lung.

  17. A System for Open-Access 3He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field

    PubMed Central

    RUSET, I.C.; TSAI, L.L.; MAIR, R.W.; PATZ, S.; HROVAT, M.I.; ROSEN, M.S.; MURADIAN, I.; NG, J.; TOPULOS, G.P.; BUTLER, J.P.; WALSWORTH, R.L.; HERSMAN, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser-polarized 3He gas. The system employs an open four-coil electromagnet with an operational B0 field of 4 mT, and planar gradient coils that generate gradient fields up to 0.18 G/cm in the x and y direction and 0.41 G/cm in the z direction. This system was used to obtain 1H and 3He phantom images and supine and upright 3He images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50 –200 kHz, including noise filtering and compensation for narrow-bandwidth coils. PMID:20354575

  18. The role of open lung biopsy in early and late survival of ventilator-dependent patients with diffuse idiopathic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C; Mentzer, R M

    1994-04-01

    Because of the high mortality associated with a diagnostic open lung biopsy in patients on mechanical ventilatory support, the clinical benefits of this procedure remain controversial. To assess the surgical results and the usefulness of open lung biopsies performed in this subset of patients, the clinical records of 27 patients who underwent open lung biopsy between January, 1987 and December, 1992 were reviewed. All patients were intubated for respiratory failure of unknown origin and were treated with antibiotics and/or steroids prior to the open lung biopsy. There were 13 men and 14 women with the mean age of 51 +/- 4.7 years (3 mos. to 82 years). The average duration for ventilatory support was 9 +/- 3.7 days (1 to 98 days). Nonoperative invasive diagnostic procedures were performed in 19 patients (70%). The operative approach for biopsy was an anterolateral thoracotomy using a linear stapler: right in 10 patients (37%), left in 17 (63%). A specific histologic diagnosis with open lung biopsy was established in all patients. Based on the biopsy findings, a change in treatment was unnecessary in 9 patients (33%), the dose of corticosteroids was increased in 7 (26%), the corticosteroids were initiated in 6 (22%), and a new antibiotic was added in 5 (19%). Perioperative complications occurred in 11 patients (40%). Prolonged air leak was the most common complication (6/11 patients). Fourteen patients (52%) died within 30 days of the biopsy procedure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance.

  20. Comparison of open gastrostomy tube to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in lung transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sharven; Ambur, Vishnu; Jayarajan, Senthil; Gaughan, John; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Dauer, Elizabeth; Sjoholm, Lars Ola; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Goldberg, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lung transplant patients require a high degree of immunosuppression, which can impair wound healing when surgical procedures are required. We hypothesized that because of impaired healing, lung transplant patients requiring gastrostomy tubes would have better outcomes with open gastrostomy tube (OGT) as compared to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG). Methods The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database (2005–2010) was queried for all lung transplant recipients requiring OGT or PEG. Results There were 215 patients requiring gastrostomy tube, with 44 OGT and 171 PEG. The two groups were not different with respect to age (52.0 vs. 56.9 years, p = 0.40) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (3.3 vs. 3.5, p = 0.75). Incidence of acute renal failure was higher in the PEG group (35.2 vs. 11.8%, p = 0.003). Post-operative pneumonia, myocardial infarction, surgical site infection, DVT/PE, and urinary tract infection were not different. Post-operative mortality was higher in the PEG group (11.2 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.02). Using multiple variable analysis, PEG tube was independently associated with mortality (HR: 1.94, 95%C.I: 1.45–2.58). Variables associated with survival included age, female gender, white race, and larger hospital bed capacity. Discussion OGT may be the preferred method of gastric access for lung transplant recipients. Conclusions In lung transplant recipients, OGT results in decreased morbidity and mortality when compared to PEG. PMID:26900455

  1. The effects of open lung ventilation on respiratory mechanics and haemodynamics in atelectatic infants after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Cui, Q; Zhou, H; Zhao, R; Liu, J; Yang, X; Zhu, H; Zheng, Q; Gu, C; Yi, D

    2009-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) frequently occurs in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery and it sometimes develops into acute respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill infants, which can be life threatening. This study investigated the effects of open lung ventilation on the haemodynamics and respiratory mechanics of 64 infants (34 males; 30 females) with a mean +/- SD age of 8.3 +/- 0.3 months who developed ALI following CPB surgery. Open lung ventilation significantly improved the respiratory mechanics and oxygenation parameters of the infants, including the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO(2)), the ratio of PaO(2)/FiO(2) (fraction of inspired oxygen), peak inspiratory pressure, static compliance and airway resistance. It is concluded that open lung ventilation can greatly improve oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in infants with ALI following CPB surgery.

  2. Unusual presentation of pneumocystis pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient diagnosed by open lung biopsy.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kassem; Maroun, Rabih; Chalhoub, Michel; Elsayegh, Dany

    2012-04-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. It is a fungal infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci which can be isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy subjects. The infection occurs mainly in HIV patients; with CD4 lymphocyte count drop to less than 200 cells/μL. PCP has been reported in non-HIV patients with other risk factors such as immunosuppressive medications, malignancies, and other inflammatory conditions. PCP has been rarely reported in immunocompetent subjects. However, in most of these patients, PCP occurred after a period of acute illness with bacterial pneumonia and antibiotic therapy. In this report, we describe a case of PCP in an immunocompetent patient with nonreactive HIV and no immunosuppressive risk factors. The patient had large pulmonary nodules discovered incidentally on chest film as preoperative evaluation for hip surgery. Bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsies (TBB), and computed tomography (CT) guided needle biopsy were all negative for P. jiroveci. PCP diagnosis was made after open lung biopsy and wedge resection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PCP in immunocompetent patient with negative BAL, TBB and CT guided biopsy. The diagnosis of PCP required open lung biopsy and the patient recovered without complications.

  3. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  4. Mueller-Lyer decrement: practice or prolonged inspection?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiano, D. J.; Jordan, K.

    1990-01-01

    Noting the similarity between the illusion decrement and selective adaptation paradigms, Long has challenged the view that illusion decrement effects reflect a strategic--as opposed to a structural--underlying mechanism, and has called for further research on this issue. To investigate the confound between prolonged free inspection and repeated trials in the standard decrement procedure, the effects of three inspection conditions (continuous, intermittent, and immediate) on the magnitude of the overestimation Mueller-Lyer illusion have been assessed under two levels of trials (a total of two or six judgments). Significant illusion decline was found only under conditions of repeated trials, with either continuous or intermittent inspection. These findings do not support the predictions of purely structural theories (including neural adaptation and efferent readiness theories), according to which degree of decrement should be determined solely by viewing time. Instead, the data demonstrate that illusion decrement is a product of practice, providing converging evidence for the view of decrement as involving a cognitive 'recalibration' or learning process.

  5. Nonlinear electrophoresis in the presence of dielectric decrement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuzzi, B.; Chan, W. H. R.; Buie, C. R.; Moran, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces strongly influence electrokinetic effects, including electro-osmosis and electrophoresis. In particular, saturation effects due to either dielectric decrement or ion crowding effects are of paramount importance. Dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the EDL at high ζ potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this article, we present a model incorporating both steric effects due to the finite size of ions and dielectric decrement to describe the physics in the electric double layer. The model remains valid in both weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes, as long as the electric double layer remains in quasiequilibrium. We apply this model to the study of two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles.

  6. Clinical significance of respiratory bronchiolitis on open lung biopsy and its relationship to smoking related interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Moon, J.; du Bois, R. M; Colby, T.; Hansell, D.; Nicholson, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RBILD) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease which may present in similar fashion to other types of chronic interstitial pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to undertake a clinicopathological review of 10 patients with RBILD and to examine the clinical and imaging data related to its histopathological pattern, in particular the relationship of RBILD to smoking.
METHODS—Thirteen out of 168 retrospectively reviewed patients, from whom biopsy specimens were taken for suspected diffuse lung disease, were identified with a histopathological pattern of RBILD. Three cases were rejected as follow up data were unavailable. The 10remaining cases constituted the study group and both clinical and imaging data were collected from patients' notes and referring physicians.
RESULTS—Histopathologically, four cases of RBILD overlapped with the pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP) and nine also had microscopic evidence of centrilobular emphysema. Nine patients were smokers, ranging from 3 to 80 pack years. The one non-smoker had an occupational exposure to the fumes of solder flux. The sex distribution was equal with an age range of 32-65 years. Two patients were clubbed. Lung function tests showed both restrictive and obstructive patterns together with severe reductions in carbon monoxide transfer factor in seven patients. Chest radiographs showed reticular or reticulonodular infiltrates in five patients and a ground glass pattern in two. CT scans were consistent with either DIP or RBILD in six of eight patients. Although seven patients remained stable or improved, either with or without treatment, three patients deteriorated.
CONCLUSIONS—This study adds weight to the hypothesis that smoking can cause clinically significant interstitial lung disease, with deterioration in pulmonary function despite treatment. Given the overlapping histopathological patterns of RBILD

  7. The diagnostic yield and complications of open lung biopsies in kidney transplant patients with pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Daniere Yurie Vieira; Pacheco, Eduardo Souza; de Sandes-Freitas, Tainá Veras; Viana, Laila Almeida; de Oliveira Pontes, Edgar Porto; Tamura, Nikkei; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro; Freitas, Flávio Geraldo Rezende

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of open lung biopsy (OLB) in determining the specific diagnosis and the related complications in patients with undiagnosed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Methods This single center, retrospective study included adult kidney transplant patients who underwent OLB. The patients had diffuse pulmonary infiltrates without definitive diagnoses and failed to respond to empiric antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the number of specific diagnoses, changes in treatment and the occurrence of complications in these patients. A logistic regression was used to determine which variables were predictors of hospital mortality. Results From April 2010 to April 2014, 87 patients consecutively underwent OLB. A specific diagnosis was reached in 74 (85.1%) patients. In 46 patients (53%), their therapeutic management was changed after the OLB results. Twenty-five (28.7%) patients had complications related to the OLB. The hospital mortality rate was 25.2%. Age, SAPS3 score and complications related to the procedure were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Conclusions OLB is a high-risk procedure with a high diagnostic yield in kidney transplant patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates who did not have a definitive diagnosis and who failed to respond to empiric antibiotic treatment. Complications related to OLB were common and were independently associated with intra-hospital mortality. PMID:28203420

  8. Physical and Psychological Decrements Affecting Reading in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Molly M.

    While reading has been recognized as a potentially useful and enjoyable pastime for the elderly, physical and psychological decrements affect the ability of the elderly to read. As the eyes age, near-point tasks become more difficult. In addition to reduced sensory intake, perceptual changes occur. The central nervous system slows, and data travel…

  9. Open lung biopsy in early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Huang, Chung-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has heterogeneous etiologies, rapid progressive change and a high mortality rate. To improve the outcome of ARDS, accurate diagnosis is essential to the application of effective early treatment. The present study investigated the clinical effects and safety of open lung biopsy (OLB) in patients with early-stage ARDS of suspected non-infectious origin. Methods We undertook a retrospective study of 41 patients with early-stage ARDS (defined as one week or less after intubation) who underwent OLB in two medical intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital from 1999 to 2005. Data analyzed included baseline characteristics, complication rate, pathological diagnoses, treatment alterations, and hospital survival. Results The age of patients was 55 ± 17 years (mean ± SD). The average ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 116 ± 43 mmHg (mean ± SD) at biopsy. Seventeen patients (41%) were immunocompromised. Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients (8/41). All biopsies provided a pathological diagnosis with a diagnostic yield of 100%. Specific pathological diagnoses were made for 44% of patients (18/41). Biopsy findings led to an alteration of treatment modality in 73% of patients (30/41). The treatment alteration rate was higher in patients with nonspecific diagnoses than in patients with specific diagnoses (p = 0.0024). Overall mortality was 50% (21/41) and was not influenced by age, gender, pre-OLB oxygenation, complication rate, pathological results, and alteration of treatment. There was no surgery-related mortality. The survival rate for immunocompromised patients was better than that for immunocompetent patients (71% versus 33%; p = 0.0187) in this study. Conclusion Our retrospective study suggests that OLB was a useful and acceptably safe diagnostic procedure in some selected patients with early-stage ARDS. PMID:16859510

  10. An open-loop controlled active lung simulator for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Stefano; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We describe the underlying theory, design and experimental evaluation of an electromechanical analogue infant lung to simulate spontaneous breathing patterns of preterm infants. The aim of this work is to test the possibility to obtain breathing patterns of preterm infants by taking into consideration the air compressibility. Respiratory volume function represents the actuation pattern, and pulmonary pressure and flow-rate waveforms are mathematically obtained through the application of the perfect gas and adiabatic laws. The mathematical model reduces the simulation interval into a step shorter than 1 ms, allowing to consider an entire respiratory act as composed of a large number of almost instantaneous adiabatic transformations. The device consists of a spherical chamber where the air is compressed by four cylinder-pistons, moved by stepper motors, and flows through a fluid-dynamic resistance, which also works as flow-rate sensor. Specifically designed software generates the actuators motion, based on the desired ventilation parameters, without controlling the gas pneumatic parameters with a closed-loop. The system is able to simulate tidal volumes from 3 to 8 ml, breathing frequencies from 60 to 120 bpm and functional residual capacities from 25 to 80 ml. The simulated waveforms appear very close to the measured ones. Percentage differences on the tidal volume waveform vary from 7% for the tidal volume of 3 ml, down to 2.2-3.5% for tidal volumes in the range of 4-7 ml, and 1.3% for the tidal volume equal to 8 ml in the whole breathing frequency and functional residual capacity ranges. The open-loop electromechanical simulator shows that gas compressibility can be theoretically assessed in the typical pneumatic variable range of preterm infant respiratory mechanics.

  11. Deviation of tracheal pressure from airway opening pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a porcine lung model.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Amélie; Zollhoefer, Bernd; Eujen, Ulrike; Kredel, Markus; Rauch, Stefan; Roewer, Norbert; Muellenbach, Ralf M

    2013-04-01

    Oxygenation during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation is secured by a high level of mean airway pressure. Our objective was to identify a pressure difference between the airway opening of the respiratory circuit and the trachea during application of different oscillatory frequencies. Six female Pietrain pigs (57.1 ± 3.6 kg) were first ventilated in a conventional mechanical ventilation mode. Subsequently, the animals were switched to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation by setting mean airway opening pressure 5 cmH(2)O above the one measured during controlled mechanical ventilation. Measurements at the airway opening and at tracheal levels were performed in healthy lungs and after induction of acute lung injury by surfactant depletion. During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, the airway opening pressure was set at a constant level. The pressure amplitude was fixed at 90 cmH(2)O. Starting from an oscillatory frequency of 3 Hz, the frequency was increased in steps of 3 Hz to 15 Hz and then decreased accordingly. At each frequency, measurements were performed in the trachea through a side-lumen of the endotracheal tube and the airway opening pressure was recorded. The pressure difference was calculated. At every oscillatory frequency, a pressure loss towards the trachea could be shown. This pressure difference increased with higher oscillatory frequencies (3 Hz 2.2 ± 2.1 cmH(2)O vs. 15 Hz 7.5 ± 1.8 cmH(2)O). The results for healthy and injured lungs were similar. Tracheal pressures decreased with higher oscillatory frequencies. This may lead to pulmonary derecruitment. This has to be taken into consideration when increasing oscillatory frequencies and differentiated pressure settings are mandatory.

  12. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  13. Cognitive Performance Decrement in U.S. Army Aircrews.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-31

    PERFORMANCE DECREMENT IN U.S. ARMY AIRCREWS Joseph I. Peters Mark A. Archer Michael J. Moyer Science Applications International Corporation P.O. Box 1303...Science Applications (if applicable) Director International Corporation Defense Nuclear Agency 6c ADDRESS (City, State. and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City...Technology Division of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Biomedical Effects Directorate of the Defense Nuclear Agency under

  14. Nanomagnetosols: magnetism opens up new perspectives for targeted aerosol delivery to the lung.

    PubMed

    Plank, Christian

    2008-02-01

    A recent article in Nature Nanotechnology reports the guiding of aerosols to specific regions of the lung using an external magnetic field. This novel approach of nanomagnetic drug targeting is made feasible with aerosols that comprise magnetically responsive nanoparticles along with a drug of choice. This promising method could be used in the future to specifically accumulate effective drug doses in diseased lung regions and thus reduce undesired side effects.

  15. Application of the open-lung concept during positive-pressure ventilation reduces pulmonary inflammation in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    van Kaam, Anton H; Dik, Willem A; Haitsma, Jack J; De Jaegere, Anne; Naber, Birgitta A; van Aalderen, Wim M; Kok, Joke H; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that application of the open-lung concept (OLC) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) attenuates pulmonary inflammation. We hypothesized that this attenuation could also be achieved by applying the OLC during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). After repeated whole-lung lavage, newborn piglets were assigned to one of three ventilation groups: (1) PPV(OLC); (2) HFOV(OLC), or (3) conventional PPV (PPV(CON)). After a ventilation period of 5 h, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a reduced influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, interleukin 8, and thrombin activity in both OLC groups as compared with the PPV(CON) group. There were no differences in tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. We conclude that application of the OLC during PPV reduces pulmonary inflammation as compared with conventional PPV and that the magnitude of this reduction is comparable to that of HFOV.

  16. Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener on potassium transport and alveolar fluid clearance in the resected human lung.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, T; Takahashi, K; Ohya, N; Nakada, T; Matthay, M A

    1998-07-01

    Since the effect of an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) opener on the function of alveolar epithelial cells is unknown, the effect of YM934, a newly synthesized KATP channel opener, on potassium influx into the alveolar spaces and alveolar fluid clearance was determined in the resected human lung. An isosmolar albumin solution with a low potassium concentration was instilled into the distal airspaces of resected human lungs. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured by the progressive increase in alveolar protein concentration. Net potassium transport was measured by the change in potassium concentration and alveolar fluid volume. YM934 (10(-4) M) increased net influx of potassium by 140% into the alveolar spaces and also increased alveolar fluid clearance by 60% in the experiments with a potassium concentration of 0.3 mEq/1. Glibenclamide (10(-4) M), a KATP channel blocker, inhibited the YM934-increased influx of potassium transport and the increase in alveolar fluid clearance. Also amiloride (10(-5) M), an inhibitors of apical sodium uptake, blocked the YM934 stimulated increase in net alveolar fluid clearance. These results indicate that a KATP channel opener can effect potassium transport and net vectorial fluid movement across the human alveolar epithelium.

  17. Hypokinesia without decrement distinguishes progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ling, Helen; Massey, Luke A; Lees, Andrew J; Brown, Peter; Day, Brian L

    2012-04-01

    Repetitive finger tapping is commonly used to assess bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. The Queen Square Brain Bank diagnostic criterion of Parkinson's disease defines bradykinesia as 'slowness of initiation with progressive reduction in speed and amplitude of repetitive action'. Although progressive supranuclear palsy is considered an atypical parkinsonian syndrome, it is not known whether patients with progressive supranuclear palsy have criteria-defined bradykinesia. This study objectively assessed repetitive finger tap performance and handwriting in patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 15), progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9) and healthy age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16). The motion of the hand and digits was recorded in 3D during 15-s repetitive index finger-to-thumb tapping trials. The main finding was hypokinesia without decrement in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, which differed from the finger tap pattern in Parkinson's disease. Average finger separation amplitude in progressive supranuclear palsy was less than half of that in controls and Parkinson's disease (P < 0.001 in both cases). Change in tap amplitude over consecutive taps was computed by linear regression. The average amplitude slope in progressive supranuclear palsy was nearly zero (0.01°/cycle) indicating a lack of decrement, which differed from the negative slope in patients with Parkinson's disease OFF levodopa (-0.20°/cycle, P = 0.002). 'Hypokinesia', defined as <50% of control group's mean amplitude, combined with 'absence of decrement', defined as mean positive amplitude slope, were identified in 87% of finger tap trials in the progressive supranuclear palsy group and only 12% in the Parkinson's disease OFF levodopa group. In progressive supranuclear palsy, the mean amplitude was not correlated with disease duration or other clinimetric scores. In Parkinson's disease, finger tap pattern was compatible with criteria-defined bradykinesia

  18. An open-access, very-low-field MRI system for posture-dependent 3He human lung imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the design and operation of an open-access, very-low-field, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for in vivo hyperpolarized 3He imaging of the human lungs. This system permits the study of lung function in both horizontal and upright postures, a capability with important implications in pulmonary physiology and clinical medicine, including asthma and obesity. The imager uses a bi-planar B0 coil design that produces an optimized 65 G (6.5 mT) magnetic field for 3He MRI at 210 kHz. Three sets of bi-planar coils produce the x, y, and z magnetic field gradients while providing a 79-cm inter-coil gap for the imaging subject. We use solenoidal Q-spoiled RF coils for operation at low frequencies, and are able to exploit insignificant sample loading to allow for pre-tuning/matching schemes and for accurate pre-calibration of flip angles. We obtain sufficient SNR to acquire 2D 3He images with up to 2.8 mm resolution, and present initial 2D and 3D 3He images of human lungs in both supine and upright orientations. 1H MRI can also be performed for diagnostic and calibration reasons.

  19. An Open-Access, Very-Low-Field MRI System for Posture-Dependent 3He Human Lung Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of an open-access, very-low-field, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for in-vivo hyperpolarized 3He imaging of the human lungs. This system permits the study of lung function in both horizontal and upright postures, a capability with important implications in pulmonary physiology and clinical medicine, including asthma and obesity. The imager uses a bi-planar B0 coil design that produces an optimized 65 G (6.5 mT) magnetic field for 3He MRI at 210 kHz. Three sets of bi-planar coils produce the x, y, and z magnetic field gradients while providing a 79-cm inter-coil gap for the imaging subject. We use solenoidal Q-spoiled RF coils for operation at low frequencies, and are able to exploit insignificant sample loading to allow for pre-tuning/matching schemes and for accurate pre-calibration of flip angles. We obtain sufficient SNR to acquire 2D 3He images with up to 2.8 mm resolution, and present initial 2D and 3D 3He images of human lungs in both supine and upright orientations. 1H MRI can also be performed for diagnostic and calibration reasons. PMID:18550402

  20. Resistance to extinction, generalization decrement, and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Dulaney, Alana E; Bell, Matthew C

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated generalization decrement during an extinction resistance-to-change test for pigeon key pecking using a two-component multiple schedule with equal variable-interval 3-min schedules and different reinforcer amounts (one component presented 2-s access to reinforcement and the other 8s). After establishing baseline responding, subjects were assigned to one of the two extinction conditions: hopper stimuli (hopper and hopper light were activated but no food was available) or Control (inactive hopper and hopper light). Responding in the 8-s component was more resistant to extinction than responding in the 2-s component, the hopper stimuli group was more resistant to extinction compared to the Control group, and an interaction between amount of reinforcement, extinction condition, and session block was present. This finding supports generalization decrement as a factor that influences resistance to extinction. Hopper-time data (the amount of time subjects spent with their heads in the hopper) were compared to resistance-to-change data in an investigation of the role of conditioned reinforcement on resistance to change.

  1. Tracking Decrement as a Result of Grip Holding Endurance.

    PubMed

    Bloswick, D S; Ellis, N C

    1974-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using the static strength and endurance relationships suggested by Rohmert in 1960 to predict pursuit tracking performance, Ten male subjects are tested on a pursuit rotor before and after being subjected to specific levels of loading on a grip holding device. The loading corresponded to specific levels of each subject's maximum endurance as determined from Rohmert's strength and endurance equation. The hypotheses are: (a) predetermined schedules of strength expenditure cause a systematic decrement in tracking efficiency; and (b) the process of recovering efficiency is dependent upon the expenditure schedules. Resulting data support these hypotheses, suggesting that tracking efficiency can be reliably predicted using some of the strength and endurance relationships postulated by Rohmert.

  2. Lymph Node Dissection in Surgery for Lung Cancer: Comparison of Open vs. Video-Assisted vs. Robotic-Assisted Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Demirhan, Özkan; Ayalp, Kemal; Kaba, Erkan; Uyumaz, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We compared open, video-assisted and robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgical techniques in the dissection of N1 and N2-level lymph nodes during surgery for lung cancer. Methods: This retrospective analysis is based on prospectively collected data of patients (excluding those with N2 or N3 diseases, and sleeve resections) undergoing mediastinal lymph node dissection via open (n = 96), video-assisted thoracoscopy (n = 68), and robotic-assisted thoracoscopy (n = 106). The groups are compared according to the number of lymph node stations dissected, the number of lymph nodes dissected, and the number of lymph nodes dissected by stations. Results: Three techniques had similar results based on the number of the dissected N1 and N2-level lymph node stations. Robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery yielded significantly more lymph nodes in total (p = 0.0007), and in the number of dissected N1-level nodes (p <0.0001). All techniques yielded similar number of mediastinal lymph nodes, whereas robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) yielded more station #11 and #12 lymph nodes compared to the other groups. Conclusions: In this study, robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has been shown to dissect more lymph nodes at N1 level. However, taking the open approach as standard, we could claim that both currently robotic and video-assisted techniques may provide similar number of dissected N1 and N2-level lymph node stations. PMID:27507107

  3. Mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome: The open lung revisited.

    PubMed

    Amado-Rodríguez, L; Del Busto, C; García-Prieto, E; Albaiceta, G M

    2017-02-23

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still related to high mortality and morbidity rates. Most patients with ARDS will require ventilatory support. This treatment has a direct impact upon patient outcome and is associated to major side effects. In this regard, ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) is the main concern when this technique is used. The ultimate mechanisms of VALI and its management are under constant evolution. The present review describes the classical mechanisms of VALI and how they have evolved with recent findings from physiopathological and clinical studies, with the aim of analyzing the clinical implications derived from them. Lastly, a series of knowledge-based recommendations are proposed that can be helpful for the ventilator assisted management of ARDS at the patient bedside.

  4. Open-lung biopsy in patients with undiagnosed lung lesions referred at a tertiary cancer center is safe and reveals noncancerous, noninfectious entities as the most common diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, S P; Sampsonas, F L; Rice, D; Granger, J M; Swisher, S; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic yield of open-lung biopsies (OLBs) in a large tertiary cancer center to determine the role of infectious diseases as causes of undiagnosed pulmonary lesions. All consecutive adult patients with either single or multiple pulmonary nodules or masses who underwent a diagnostic OLB over a period of 10 years (1998-2007) were retrospectively identified. Their risk factors for malignancy and clinical and radiological characteristics were reviewed, and their postoperative complications were assessed. We evaluated 155 patients with a median age of 57 years (range, 19-83 years). We identified infectious etiologies in 29 patients (19 %). The most common diagnosis in this group was histoplasmosis (12 [41 %]), followed by nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (7 [24 %]) and aspergillosis (4 [14 %]). The majority of the 126 remaining patients had nonmalignant diagnoses, the most prevalent being nonspecific granuloma (26 %), whereas only 17 % had malignant diagnoses. We observed no significant differences among the patients with infectious, malignant, or both noninfectious and nonmalignant final diagnoses regarding their demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics. Six percent of the patients had at least one post-OLB complication, and the post-OLB mortality rate was 1 %. OLB is a safe diagnostic procedure which frequently identifies a wide variety of infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  5. Early Open-Lung Ventilation Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Left Cardiac Dysfunction Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bolzan, Douglas W.; Gomes, Walter José; Rocco, Isadora S.; Viceconte, Marcela; Nasrala, Mara L. S.; Pauletti, Hayanne O.; Moreira, Rita Simone L.; Hossne Jr, Nelson A.; Arena, Ross; Guizilini, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare pulmonary function, functional capacity and clinical outcomes amongst three groups of patients with left ventricular dysfunction following off-pump coronary artery bypass, namely: 1) conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); 2) late open lung strategy (L-OLS); and 3) early open lung strategy (E-OLS). Methods Sixty-one patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1) CMV (n=21); 2) L-OLS (n=20) initiated after intensive care unit arrival; and 3) E-OLS (n=20) initiated after intubation. Spirometry was performed at bedside on preoperative and postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and pulmonary shunt fraction were evaluated preoperatively and on POD1. The 6-minute walk test was applied on the day before the operation and on POD5. Results Both the open lung groups demonstrated higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second on PODs 1, 3 and 5 when compared to the CMV group (P<0.05). The 6-minute walk test distance was more preserved, shunt fraction was lower, and PaO2 was higher in both open-lung groups (P<0.05). Open-lung groups had shorter intubation time and hospital stay and also fewer respiratory events (P<0.05). Key measures were significantly more favorable in the E-OLS group compared to the L-OLS group. Conclusion Both OLSs (L-OLS and E-OLS) were able to promote higher preservation of pulmonary function, greater recovery of functional capacity and better clinical outcomes following off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation. However, in this group of patients with reduced left ventricular function, initiation of the OLS intra-operatively was found to be more beneficial and optimal when compared to OLS initiation after intensive care unit arrival. PMID:27982344

  6. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects. VI. H i line decrements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Giannini, T.; Rigliaco, E.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Stelzer, B.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Hydrogen recombination emission lines commonly observed in accreting young stellar objects represent a powerful tracer for the gas conditions in the circumstellar structures (accretion columns, and winds or jets). Aims: Here we perform a study of the H i decrements and line profiles, from the Balmer and Paschen H i lines detected in the X-shooter spectra of a homogeneous sample of 36 T Tauri objects in Lupus, the accretion and stellar properties of which were already derived in a previous work. We aim to obtain information on the H i gas physical conditions to delineate a consistent picture of the H i emission mechanisms in pre-main sequence low-mass stars (M∗< 2 M⊙). Methods: We have empirically classified the sources based on their H i line profiles and decrements. We identified four Balmer decrement types (which we classified as 1, 2, 3, and 4) and three Paschen decrement types (A, B, and C), characterised by different shapes. We first discussed the connection between the decrement types and the source properties and then compared the observed decrements with predictions from recently published local line excitation models. Results: We identify a few groups of sources that display similar H i properties. One third of the objects show lines with narrow symmetric profiles, and present similar Balmer and Paschen decrements (straight decrements, types 2 and A). Lines in these sources are consistent with optically thin emission from gas with hydrogen densities of order 109 cm-3 and 5000 < T < 15 000 K. These objects are associated with low mass accretion rates. Type 4 (L-shaped) Balmer and type B Paschen decrements are found in conjunction with very wide line profiles and are characteristic of strong accretors, with optically thick emission from high-density gas (log nH > 11 cm-3). Type 1 (curved) Balmer decrements are observed only in three sub-luminous sources viewed edge-on, so we speculate that these are actually type 2 decrements that are reddened

  7. Usefulness of open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients with undiagnosed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates: influence of comorbidities and organ dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Yong; Suh, Gee Young; Choi, Jae Chol; Koh, Won Jung; Lim, Si Young; Han, Joungho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of open lung biopsy (OLB) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates of unknown etiology. Methods This was a 10-year retrospective study in a 10-bed medical intensive care unit. The medical records of 36 ventilator-dependent patients who underwent OLB for the diagnosis of unknown pulmonary infiltrates from 1994 to 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Data analyzed included demographic data, Charlson age–comorbidity score, number of organ dysfunctions, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, ventilation variables, and radiological patterns. Diagnostic yield, effect on subsequent treatment changes, and complications of OLB were also assessed. Results A specific clinico-pathologic diagnosis was obtained for 31 patients (86%). The most common diagnoses were interstitial pneumonia (n = 17, including 8 acute interstitial pneumonia) and viral pneumonia (n = 4). Therapeutic modifications were made in 64% of patients. Patients who received OLB less than 1 week after initiation of mechanical ventilation were more likely to survive (63% versus 11%; P = 0.018). There were no major complications associated with the procedure. Factors independently associated with survival were the Charlson age-comorbidity score, number of organ dysfunction and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day of the OLB. Conclusion OLB can provide a specific diagnosis in many ventilator-dependent patients with undiagnosed pulmonary infiltrate. Early OLB seems to be useful in critically ill patients with isolated respiratory failure. PMID:17725820

  8. The effects of deep and light propofol anesthesia on stress response in patients undergoing open lung surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mee

    2015-01-01

    Background This prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken to compare stress hormone response to open thoracotomy for lung resection at different anesthetic depths, as determined by bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, in patients under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Methods Forty-eight adult patients scheduled for lung resection surgery using one-lung ventilation were randomly assigned to either a deep anesthesia group (BIS score of 40 ± 5, n = 24) or a light anesthesia group (BIS score of 60 ± 5, n = 24) by adjusting propofol infusion rates. Blood norepinephrine, epinephrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol levels were measured before the induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and at 2 hours postoperatively. Blood glucose, hemodynamic, and oxygenation-ventilation variables, and postoperative outcomes were also measured. Results Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels remained unchanged over time in the deep group, but norepinephrine levels significantly increased in the light group at 2 h after surgery than at baseline (P = 0.007 and 0.004, respectively). Temporal changes in norepinephrine, but not in epinephrine, were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.036). Plasma glucose levels in the light group increased with time and were significantly higher than in the deep group at the end of surgery (P = 0.002). Conclusions A deep level of anesthesia achieved using high propofol infusion rates during lung surgery provided lower perioperative norepinephrine and glucose responses than light level of anesthesia during the early postoperative period but failed to affect immediate postoperative outcomes. PMID:26045924

  9. A randomized trial of open lung biopsy versus empiric antimicrobial therapy in cancer patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Browne, M J; Potter, D; Gress, J; Cotton, D; Hiemenz, J; Thaler, M; Hathorn, J; Brower, S; Gill, V; Glatstein, E

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-four cancer patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonitis (DIP) were randomized to undergo an open lung biopsy (OLB) within 8 hours of presentation (12 patients) or to receive empiric antimicrobial therapy (ET) with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) erythromycin for a minimum of 4 days (12 patients). Patients whose condition deteriorated underwent an OLB on day 4. Eight of 12 patients (67%) having OLB survived versus 10 of 12 (83%) receiving ET (P = .64). Morbidity occurred in nine of 12 (75%) having OLB versus eight of 12 (67%) receiving ET (P = 1.0). Concurrently, there were 14 additional cancer patients with DIP who were not randomized (nine refused, three had a coagulopathy contraindicating surgery, two were excluded by primary care physicians) and who were comparable demographically to the randomized group. Two received OLB and 12 ET. Combining the randomized and nonrandomized groups, eight of 14 (57%) having an initial OLB survived versus 18 of 24 (75%) of ET-treated patients (P2 = .19). Results of the OLB were seven Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), five nonspecific pneumonitis (NSP), one cytomegalovirus, and one lymphoma. Results of OLB led to discontinuation of antibiotics in three patients. Of the 24 ET patients, eight failed to improve by day 4 and had an OLB. Results were two NSP, two PCP, two cancer, one blastomycosis, and one Candida pneumonia. Complications were seen in 10 of 14 (72%) initial OLB patients versus 14 of 24 (58%) patients on the ET arm (P = .65). When the complication rate between patients receiving only empiric antibiotics was compared with all patients having an OLB (initially or on day 4), the difference was greater in patients undergoing OLB (37% v 72%, respectively) (P2 = .14). ET with TMP-SMX plus erythromycin and broad spectrum antibiotics in granulocytopenic patients appeared to be as successful and potentially less toxic than an OLB in this study. Although the number of patients in this study was small, these

  10. Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J; Pokorny, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Signals from rods can alter chromatic discrimination. Here, chromatic discrimination ellipses were determined in the presence of rod incremental and decremental pedestals at mesopic light levels. The data were represented in a relative cone Troland space, normalized by discrimination thresholds measured along the cardinal axes without a rod pedestal. In the quadrant of cone space where L-cone relative to M-cone excitation increased, and S-cone excitation decreased, rod incremental pedestals degraded chromatic discrimination, and rod decremental pedestals improved chromatic discrimination. Discrimination in the other three quadrants of cone space was unaffected by the incremental or decremental rod pedestals. A second experiment measured chromatic discrimination under conditions where cone pedestals were matched to the appearances of the incremental and decremental rod pedestals. Based on the matching pedestal data, discrimination then could be measured independently along the cardinal axes using either chromatic [L/(L + M); S/(L + M)] or luminance (L + M) pedestal components. The discrimination data altered by the rod pedestals were similar to chromatic cone pedestals for L/M increment discrimination, but similar to luminance cone pedestals for S decrement discrimination. The results indicated that the rod and cone signals combined differently in determining chromatic discrimination for different post-receptoral pathways.

  11. Time-on-task decrements in "steer clear" performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findley, L. J.; Suratt, P. M.; Dinges, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in tasks that require sustained attention and timely responses, both of which are key components in safe driving performance.

  12. Challenges in the Detection of Working Memory and Attention Decrements Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.; Manning, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study is unique in employing unusually difficult attention and working memory tasks to reveal subtle cognitive decrements among overweight/obese adolescents. It evaluated novel measures of background electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during one of the tasks and tested correlations of these and other measures with psychological and psychiatric predictors of obesity maintenance or progression. Methods Working memory and sustained attention tasks were presented to 158 female adolescents who were rated on dichotomous (body mass index percentile < vs. >=85) and continuous (triceps skinfold thickness) measures of adiposity. Results The results revealed a significant association between excess adiposity and performance errors during the working memory task. During the sustained attention task, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited more EEG frontal beta power as well as greater intraindividual variability in reaction time and beta power across task periods than their normal-weight peers. Secondary analyses showed that frontal beta power during the sustained attention task was positively correlated with anxiety, panic, borderline personality features, drug abuse, and loss of control over food intake. Conclusions The findings suggest that working memory and sustained attention decrements do exist among overweight/obese adolescent girls. The reliable detection of the decrements may depend on the difficulty of the tasks as well as the manner in which performance and brain activity are measured. Future studies should examine the relevance of these decrements to diet education efforts and treatment response. PMID:26812684

  13. Further studies of bulk and orosensory decrement in producing satiation of feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Horn, C C; Geizhals, C R; Kupfermann, I

    2001-11-09

    Prior evidence has suggested that meal satiation in the marine mollusk Aplysia is associated with stretch of the crop. The current data, however, suggest that under some conditions, bulk in the crop can be dissociated from the propensity to feed. The crop was hyper-distended 6 h after a satiating meal of rehydrated seaweed; that is, the crop took in water and therefore contained a greater volume than it had contained immediately after satiation. Animals presented with food 6 h after an initial satiating meal consumed a new meal despite the fact that their crop was distended beyond the level at which they had previously terminated feeding. This unexpected result led to additional experiments designed to study possible orosensory decrement during presentation of food. Orosensory input was assessed by recording from the metacerebral cell (MCC) in free-moving animals. The MCC receives excitatory input in response to chemosensory stimulation of the lips, and exhibited a slow decrement during the course of a meal or during repeated lip stimulation without ingestion. Lesions of the cerebro-buccal connectives abolished the long-term MCC response decrement to lip stimulation. This result suggests that the MCC long-term response decrement to lip stimulation is a product of buccal-ganglion feedback and may not reflect sensory decrement of chemosensory pathways. Therefore, satiation may not produce a change in lip sensitivity to chemosensory input. Our data suggest that one important factor that determines satiation is a stretch stimulus of the posterior esophagus/anterior crop. This stretch stimulus may subside over several hours as the crop contents are redistributed or as receptors slowly adapt.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Physical and Cognitive Performance Decrement from Mechanical and Inhalation Insults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    on specific short term problems. 1.1.1 Dynamic Physiological Modeling The oxygenation of the blood by the lung through respiration is a critical...with severe lung injuries such as pneumothorax, hemothorax , severe lung contusion. However, in order to be able to integrate the biomechanical models... on the functions of regions of lung and whole lung have to be 4 understood, which requires accurate anatomical and functional models of lung at

  15. Cognitive Decrement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-31

    Mark A. Archer Science Applications International Corporation P. 0. Box 1303 McLean, VA 22102-1303 31 August 1985 Technical Report CONTRACT No. DNA 001...International Corporation Defense Nuclear Agency 6c ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) P.O. Box 1303 Washington...UNCLASSIF IED ’ 0 , PREFACE This report was prepared by the Human Performance Technology Division of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC

  16. Improvement of decentralized random decrement technique for data processing in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengyin; Xu, Chunchuan; Teng, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The Random Decrement Technique (RDT), based on decentralized computing approaches implemented in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), has shown advantages for modal parameter and data aggregation identification. However, previous studies of RDT-based approaches from ambient vibration data are based on the assumption of a broad-band stochastic process input excitation. The process normally is modeled by filtered white or white noise. In addition, the choice of the triggering condition in RDT is closely related to data communication. In this project, research has been conducted to study the nonstationary white noise excitations as the input to verify the random decrement technique. A local extremum triggering condition is chosen and implemented for the purpose of minimum data communication in a RDT-based distributed computing strategy. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed technique is capable of minimizing the amount of data transmitted over the network with accuracy in modal parameters identification.

  17. Illusion decrement as a function of duration of inspection and figure type.

    PubMed

    Brosvic, G M; Walker, M A; Perry, N; Degnan, S; Dihoff, R E

    1997-06-01

    Illusion decrement for the Müller-Lyer and Horizontal-Vertical illusions was examined. The experiment consisted of an initial adjustment of an illusion followed by 20 test trials, each with an intervening 60-sec. intertrial interval during which a comparator line and a standard line set to equality were visually inspected for 0, 20, 40, or 60 sec. After each intertrial interval the length of the comparator line was reset by the experimenter to either 0 or 90 cm, and subjects then adjusted its length to perceived equality with the standard line (42 cm). Illusion decrement was inversely related to the duration of inspection for each illusion, with significant reductions in magnitude of illusion observed for all groups. These results support prior demonstrations that perceptual learning mechanisms are operative during brief periods of visual inspection, especially when these periods are followed by the opportunity to make repeated adjustments.

  18. Antegrade and retrograde decremental conduction properties of an accessory pathway associated with the coronary sinus musculature.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kohki; Naito, Shigeto; Kaseno, Kenichi; Oshima, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man underwent catheter ablation of an orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. The sinus rhythm electrocardiogram exhibited a normal PQ interval and no delta waves, but atrial pacing produced a prolonged PQ interval and wide QRS morphology with right bundle-branch block due to antegrade accessory pathway (AP) conduction. During the tachycardia, atrial double potentials consisting of the coronary sinus musculature (CSM) and left atrial (LA) potentials were observed. Ventricular extrastimulation exhibited retrograde decremental conduction with an identical atrial activation sequence as during the tachycardia. A radiofrequency application within the posterolateral CS during ventricular pacing eliminated the CSM-LA conduction and concomitantly the ventriculoatrial conduction via the AP was abolished. In this case, the CSM was associated with the bidirectional decremental conduction properties of the AP, and the antegrade slow conduction resulted in the absence of a shortening of the PQ interval and delta waves during sinus rhythm despite the continuous presence of antegrade AP conduction.

  19. On-line failure detection and damping measurement of aerospace structures by random decrement signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Random decrement signatures of structures vibrating in a random environment are studied through use of computer-generated and experimental data. Statistical properties obtained indicate that these signatures are stable in form and scale and hence, should have wide application in one-line failure detection and damping measurement. On-line procedures are described and equations for estimating record-length requirements to obtain signatures of a prescribed precision are given.

  20. Chlorpheniramine as a Prophylaxis to Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement in the Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The effectiveness of the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate in preventing the early performance decrement in monkeys following a supralethal dose... chlorpheniramine and were performance tested 24 hours prior to irradiation. These five animals and 10 additional animals were then injected with 10 mg of... chlorpheniramine at 60 minutes and at 30 minutes before irradiation. The monkeys were tested and their performance was recorded for 2 hours following a 4000

  1. Critical Review of Selected Components of RIPD (Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    consideration both the prompt gamma and the neutron exposures that would be expected after a nuclear detonation. Since RIPD was designed for...performance decrement; • incidence of lethality; • time to lethality. The RIPD model applies to whole–body exposures to gamma rays and/or neutrons ...exposures to gamma rays and/or neutrons ; dose–rate histories can be complex and the exposure period can be as long as one week. RIPD estimates severity

  2. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men.

  3. Lung cancer diagnosis and staging with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with conventional approaches: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Navani, Neal; Nankivell, Matthew; Lawrence, David R; Lock, Sara; Makker, Himender; Baldwin, David R; Stephens, Richard J; Parmar, Mahesh K; Spiro, Stephen G; Morris, Stephen; Janes, Sam M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The diagnosis and staging of lung cancer is an important process that identifies treatment options and guides disease prognosis. We aimed to assess endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration as an initial investigation technique for patients with suspected lung cancer. Methods In this open-label, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients who had undergone a CT scan and had suspected stage I to IIIA lung cancer, from six UK centres and randomly assigned them to either endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) or conventional diagnosis and staging (CDS), for further investigation and staging. If a target node could not be accessed by EBUS-TBNA, then endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was allowed as an alternative procedure. Randomisation was stratified according to the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes measuring 1 cm or more in the short axis and by recruiting centre. We used a telephone randomisation method with permuted blocks of four generated by a computer. Because of the nature of the intervention, masking of participants and consenting investigators was not possible. The primary endpoint was the time-to-treatment decision after completion of the diagnostic and staging investigations and analysis was by intention-to-diagnose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00652769. Findings Between June 10, 2008, and July 4, 2011, we randomly allocated 133 patients to treatment: 66 to EBUS-TBNA and 67 to CDS (one later withdrew consent). Two patients from the EBUS-TBNA group underwent EUS-FNA. The median time to treatment decision was shorter with EBUS-TBNA (14 days; 95% CI 14–15) than with CDS (29 days; 23–35) resulting in a hazard ratio of 1·98, (1·39–2·82, p<0·0001). One patient in each group had a pneumothorax from a CT-guided biopsy sample; the patient from the CDS group needed intercostal drainage

  4. Hot and Hypoxic Environments Inhibit Simulated Soccer Performance and Exacerbate Performance Decrements When Combined

    PubMed Central

    Aldous, Jeffrey W. F.; Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Dascombe, Ben; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP), and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorized treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarization sessions and four randomized crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18°C 50% rH), HOT (30°C; 50% rH), HYP (1000 m; 18°C 50% rH), and HH (1000 m; 30°C; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin, and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate, and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (−4%), High-speed distance (~−8%), and variable run distance (~−12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (−9%), high-speed distance (−15%), and variable run distance (−15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged (p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (−8%) compared with CON. Body mass (−2%), temperatures (+2–5%), and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, SaO2 (−8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS, and SaO2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate (p < 0.001) and plasma volume (p < 0.001) were only significantly altered in HH. Perceived exertion was elevated (p < 0.05) by 7% in all conditions compared with CON. Regression analysis identified that absolute TS and absolute

  5. Hot and Hypoxic Environments Inhibit Simulated Soccer Performance and Exacerbate Performance Decrements When Combined.

    PubMed

    Aldous, Jeffrey W F; Chrismas, Bryna C R; Akubat, Ibrahim; Dascombe, Ben; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP), and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorized treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarization sessions and four randomized crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18°C 50% rH), HOT (30°C; 50% rH), HYP (1000 m; 18°C 50% rH), and HH (1000 m; 30°C; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin, and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate, and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (-4%), High-speed distance (~-8%), and variable run distance (~-12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (-9%), high-speed distance (-15%), and variable run distance (-15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged (p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (-8%) compared with CON. Body mass (-2%), temperatures (+2-5%), and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, SaO2 (-8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS, and SaO2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate (p < 0.001) and plasma volume (p < 0.001) were only significantly altered in HH. Perceived exertion was elevated (p < 0.05) by 7% in all conditions compared with CON. Regression analysis identified that absolute TS and absolute rise in skin and

  6. TLR4 Signaling Is Coupled to SRC Family Kinase Activation, Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Zonula Adherens Proteins, and Opening of the Paracellular Pathway in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelia*

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Angelini, Daniel J.; Yang, Shiqi; Xia, Guanjun; Cross, Alan S.; Mann, Dean; Bannerman, Douglas D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Goldblum, Simeon E.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and their substrates required for LPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). LPS disrupted barrier integrity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and prior broad spectrum PTK inhibition was protective. LPS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, VE-cadherin, γ-catenin, and p120ctn. Two SRC family PTK (SFK)-selective inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656, blocked LPS-induced increments in tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn and paracellular permeability. In HMVEC-Ls, c-SRC, YES, FYN, and LYN were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels. Selective small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of c-SRC, FYN, or YES diminished LPS-induced SRC Tyr416 phosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn, and barrier disruption, whereas knockdown of LYN did not. For VE-cadherin phosphorylation, knockdown of either c-SRC or FYN provided total protection, whereas YES knockdown was only partially protective. For p120ctn phosphorylation, knockdown of FYN, c-SRC, or YES each provided comparable but partial protection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was expressed both on the surface and intracellular compartment of HMVEC-Ls. Prior knockdown of TLR4 blocked both LPS-induced SFK activation and barrier disruption. These data indicate that LPS recognition by TLR4 activates the SFKs, c-SRC, FYN, and YES, which, in turn, contribute to tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins to open the endothelial paracellular pathway. PMID:18326860

  7. Estimating the ride quality characteristics of vehicles with random decrement analysis of on-the-road vibration response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Rouillard, Vincent; Sek, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the application of a practical analytical technique based on the random decrement method to estimate the rigid sprung mass dynamic characteristics (frequency response function) of road vehicles using only vibration response data during constant-speed operation. A brief history and development of the random decrement technique is presented, along with a summary of work undertaken on optimal parameter selection to establish the random decrement signature. Two approaches to estimate the dynamic characteristics from the random decrement signature are described and evaluated. A custom, single-wheeled vehicle (physical quarter car) was commissioned to undertake a series of on-the-road experiments at various nominally constant operating speeds. The vehicle, also instrumented as an inertial profilometer, simultaneously measured the longitudinal pavement profile to establish the vehicle's actual dynamic characteristics during operation. The main outcome of the paper is that the random decrement technique can be used to provide accurate estimates of the sprung mass mode of the vehicle's dynamic characteristics for both linear and nonlinear suspension systems of an idealised vehicle.

  8. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life

  9. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DETECTION OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH DECREMENT IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS ASSOCIATED WITH LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Nick; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Appel, John W.; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D.; Battaglia, Nick; Richard Bond, J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Duenner, Rolando; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2011-07-20

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central SZ temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y{sub 200} and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity to halo mass. We also use a relation between brightest cluster galaxy luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be around 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}.

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Detection or Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Decrement in Groups and Clusters Associated with Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Nick; Appel, John William; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; McLaren, Mike; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y(sub 200) and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity bins to mass. We also use a relation between BCG luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be in the range approx.10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14)/h Stellar Mass, a lower range than has been previously probed.

  11. Advances in artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kei

    2010-04-01

    Artificial lungs have already been developed as complete artificial organs, and results of many investigations based on innovative concepts have been reported continuously. In open-heart surgery, artificial lungs are used for extracorporeal circulation to maintain gas exchange, and the commercial products currently available perform adequately, including providing for antithrombogenicity. However, patients after cardiopulmonary arrest or severe respiratory/circulatory failure have required long-term assist with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The number of artificial lungs used for ECMO in those cases has shown significant growth in recent years. Therefore, it is expected that durability and antithrombogenicity will ensure the prolonged use of an artificial lung for several weeks or months. Furthermore, interests in research are shifting to use of oxygenators as a bridge to lung transplantation and an implantable artificial lung. This paper discusses recent advances in artificial lungs, focusing on the current state and on trends in research and development.

  12. Auditory Memory Decrements, Without Dissimulation, among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Ciaran M.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Walker, Sara J.; McFadden, E. Michelle; Franti, Lindsay M.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.; Maixner, Daniel F.; Giordani, Bruno; Berent, Stanley; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Questions have been raised about whether poor performance on memory tasks by individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) might be the result of poor or variable effort or disease-related disruption of neural circuits supporting memory functions. The present study examined performance on a measure of task engagement and on an auditory memory task among 45 patients with MDD (M age = 47.82, SD = 19.55) relative to 32 healthy controls (HC; M age = 51.03, SD = 22.09). One-hundred percent of HC and MDD volunteers performed above the threshold for adequate effort on a formal measure of task engagement. The MDD subjects performed significantly more poorly than the HC subjects on an auditory learning and memory test. The present results suggest that auditory memory difficulties do occur among those with MDD and that decrements in performance in this group may be related to factors other than lack of effort. PMID:21593060

  13. Comparisons of PRD (power-reactivity-decrements) components for various EBR-II configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1986-09-19

    Comparison of detailed calculations of contributions by region and component of the power-reactivity-decrements (PRD) for four differing loading configurations of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) are given. The linear components and Doppler components are calculated. The non-linear (primarily subassembly bowing) components are deduced by differences relative to measured total PRD values. Variations in linear components range from about 10% to as much as about 100% depending upon the component. The deduced non-linear components differ both in magnitude and sign as functions of reactor power. Effects of differing assumptions of the nature of the fuel-to-clad interactions upon the PRD components are also calculated.

  14. Submitting to defeat: social anxiety, dominance threat, and decrements in testosterone.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; Miller, Saul L; Schmidt, Norman B; Eckel, Lisa A

    2008-08-01

    Although theory suggests a link between social anxiety and social dominance, direct empirical evidence for this link is limited. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that socially anxious individuals, particularly men, would respond to a social-dominance threat by exhibiting decrements in their testosterone levels, an endocrinological change that typically reflects pronounced social submission in humans and other animals. Participants were randomly assigned to either win or lose a rigged face-to-face competition with a confederate. Although no zero-order relationship between social anxiety and level of testosterone was observed, testosterone levels showed a pronounced drop among socially anxious men who lost the competition. No significant changes were observed in nonanxious men or in women. This research provides novel insight into the nature and consequences of social anxiety, and also illustrates the utility of integrating social psychological theory with endocrinological approaches to psychological science.

  15. Stimulated emission and the flat Balmer decrements of cataclysmic variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elitzur, M.; Ferland, G. J.; Mathews, S. G.; Shields, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Balmer emission lines from cataclysmic variables often have nearly equal intensities rather than the rapid decrement predicted by simple nebular theory. Traditionally, this has been interpreted in terms of local thermodynamic equilibrium emission from a dense gas with small volume located just above the accretion disk. It is shown that the intense radiation field within a close binary system can affect excited state populations and optical emission in ways which allow a relatively low density gas to closely mimic the high density situation. In at least one case, the old nova V603 Aql, the emitting gas has a low density and nearly fills the orbital plane of the system. If this is characteristic of other systems, then the determination of orbital parameters and masses of cataclysmic variables from emission line radial velocities, as well as the prediction of soft X-ray emission from accreting binaries, will be affected.

  16. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... advanced ILD may have: Abnormal enlargement of the base of the fingernails ( clubbing ) Blue color of the ... scan of the chest Echocardiogram Open lung biopsy Measurement of the blood oxygen level at rest or ...

  17. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  18. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  19. Sleep Deprivation and Time-on-Task Performance Decrement in the Rat Psychomotor Vigilance Task

    PubMed Central

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J.; Krueger, James M.; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. Design: The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Participants: Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Interventions: Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. Conclusions: The rat psychomotor vigilance task manifests similarities to the human psychomotor vigilance task in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. Citation: Oonk M, Davis CJ, Krueger JM, Wisor JP, Van Dongen HPA. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task. SLEEP 2015;38(3):445–451. PMID:25515099

  20. Relating lab to life: Decrements in attention over time predict math productivity among children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Whitney D; Hawk, Larry W

    2017-02-01

    A child's ability to sustain attention over time (AOT) is critical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet no prior work has examined the extent to which a child's decrement in AOT on laboratory tasks relates to clinically-relevant behavior. The goal of this study is to provide initial evidence for the criterion validity of laboratory assessments of AOT. A total of 20 children with ADHD (7-12 years of age) who were enrolled in a summer treatment program completed two lab attention tasks (a continuous performance task and a self-paced choice discrimination task) and math seatwork. Analyses focused on relations between attention task parameters and math productivity. Individual differences in overall attention (OA) measures (averaged across time) accounted for 23% of the variance in math productivity, supporting the criterion validity of lab measures of attention. The criterion validity was enhanced by consideration of changes in AOT. Performance on all laboratory attention measures deteriorated as time-on-task increased, and individual differences in the decrement in AOT accounted for 40% of the variance in math productivity. The only variable to uniquely predict math productivity was from the self-paced choice discrimination task. This study suggests that attention tasks in the lab do predict a clinically-relevant target behavior in children with ADHD, supporting their use as a means to study attention processes in a controlled environment. Furthermore, this prediction is improved when attention is examined as a function of time-on-task and when the attentional demands are consistent between lab and life contexts.

  1. Associated decrements in rate of force development and neural drive after maximal eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Bjerre, J; de Paoli, F; Vissing, K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD) and the neural drive following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-four subjects performed 15 × 10 maximal isokinetic eccentric knee extensor contractions. Prior to and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h during post-exercise recovery, isometric RFD (30, 50 100, and 200 ms), normalized RFD [1/6,1/2, and 2/3 of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of electromyography rise (RER; 30, 50, and 75 ms) were measured. RFD decreased by 28-42% peaking at 48 h (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and remained depressed at 168 h (P < 0.05). Normalized RFD at 2/3 of MVC decreased by 22-39% (P < 0.01), peaked at 72 h and returned to baseline at 168 h. These changes in RFD were associated with a decrease in RER at 48 h-96 h (P < 0.05-P < 0.001). Accumulated changes (area under curve) revealed a greater relative decrease in accumulated RFD at 100 ms by -2727 ± 309 (%h; P < 0.05) and 200 ms by -3035 ± 271 (%h; P < 0.001) compared with MVC, which decreased, by -1956 ± 234 (%h). In conclusion, RFD and RER are both markedly reduced following a bout of maximal eccentric exercise. This association suggests that exercise-induced decrements in RFD can, in part, be explained decrements in neural drive.

  2. [Humidifier lung].

    PubMed

    Gerber, P; de Haller, R; Pyrozynski, W J; Sturzenegger, E R; Brändli, O

    1981-02-07

    Breathing air from a humidifier or an air conditioning unit contaminated by various microorganisms can cause an acute lung disease involving fever, cough and dyspnea, termed "humidifier fever". This type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was first described in 1959 by PESTALOZZI in the Swiss literature and subsequently by BANASZAK et al. in the Anglo-American. Here a chronic form of this disease which led to pulmonary fibrosis is described: A 37-year-old woman who works in a cheese shop presented with dyspnea which had been progressive over two years, weight loss, a diffuse reticular pattern radiographically and a severe restrictive defect in lung function tests. Open lung biopsy revealed chronic interstitial and alveolar inflammation with non-caseating granulomas and fibrotic changes. Circulating immune complexes and precipitins against the contaminated humidifier water and cheese mites were found, but no antibodies suggesting legionnaires' disease. Two out of five otherwise healthy employees of this cheese shop, where a new humidifying system had been installed 7 years earlier, also had precipitins against the contaminated water from the humidifier and the cheese mites. Despite ending of exposure and longterm steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, the signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis persisted. Contrary to the acute disease, this chronic form is termed "humidifier lung". The importance is stressed of investigating the possibility of exposure to contaminated humidifiers or air conditioning units in all cases of newly detected pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. The vigilance decrement in executive function is attenuated when individual chronotypes perform at their optimal time of day.

    PubMed

    Lara, Tania; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Correa, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Time of day modulates our cognitive functions, especially those related to executive control, such as the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses. However, the impact of individual differences in time of day preferences (i.e. morning vs. evening chronotype) had not been considered by most studies. It was also unclear whether the vigilance decrement (impaired performance with time on task) depends on both time of day and chronotype. In this study, morning-type and evening-type participants performed a task measuring vigilance and response inhibition (the Sustained Attention to Response Task, SART) in morning and evening sessions. The results showed that the vigilance decrement in inhibitory performance was accentuated at non-optimal as compared to optimal times of day. In the morning-type group, inhibition performance decreased linearly with time on task only in the evening session, whereas in the morning session it remained more accurate and stable over time. In contrast, inhibition performance in the evening-type group showed a linear vigilance decrement in the morning session, whereas in the evening session the vigilance decrement was attenuated, following a quadratic trend. Our findings imply that the negative effects of time on task in executive control can be prevented by scheduling cognitive tasks at the optimal time of day according to specific circadian profiles of individuals. Therefore, time of day and chronotype influences should be considered in research and clinical studies as well as real-word situations demanding executive control for response inhibition.

  4. The Vigilance Decrement in Executive Function Is Attenuated When Individual Chronotypes Perform at Their Optimal Time of Day

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Tania; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Correa, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Time of day modulates our cognitive functions, especially those related to executive control, such as the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses. However, the impact of individual differences in time of day preferences (i.e. morning vs. evening chronotype) had not been considered by most studies. It was also unclear whether the vigilance decrement (impaired performance with time on task) depends on both time of day and chronotype. In this study, morning-type and evening-type participants performed a task measuring vigilance and response inhibition (the Sustained Attention to Response Task, SART) in morning and evening sessions. The results showed that the vigilance decrement in inhibitory performance was accentuated at non-optimal as compared to optimal times of day. In the morning-type group, inhibition performance decreased linearly with time on task only in the evening session, whereas in the morning session it remained more accurate and stable over time. In contrast, inhibition performance in the evening-type group showed a linear vigilance decrement in the morning session, whereas in the evening session the vigilance decrement was attenuated, following a quadratic trend. Our findings imply that the negative effects of time on task in executive control can be prevented by scheduling cognitive tasks at the optimal time of day according to specific circadian profiles of individuals. Therefore, time of day and chronotype influences should be considered in research and clinical studies as well as real-word situations demanding executive control for response inhibition. PMID:24586404

  5. Brief and Rare Mental "Breaks" Keep You Focused: Deactivation and Reactivation of Task Goals Preempt Vigilance Decrements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Atsunori; Lleras, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We newly propose that the vigilance decrement occurs because the cognitive control system fails to maintain active the goal of the vigilance task over prolonged periods of time (goal habituation). Further, we hypothesized that momentarily deactivating this goal (via a switch in tasks) would prevent the activation level of the vigilance goal from…

  6. Learning to ignore: a modeling study of a decremental cholinergic pathway and its influence on attention and learning.

    PubMed

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A; Nitz, Douglas A; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-17

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus basalis region (SI/nBM) to the neocortex are necessary to increase attention to relevant stimuli and have been well studied. Lesser known are ACh projections from the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) to the hippocampus and the cingulate that are necessary to reduce attention to irrelevant stimuli. We developed a neural simulation to provide insight into how ACh can decrement attention using this distinct pathway from the MS/VDB. We tested the model in behavioral paradigms that require decremental attention. The model exhibits behavioral effects such as associative learning, latent inhibition, and persisting behavior. Lesioning the MS/VDB disrupts latent inhibition, and drastically increases perseverative behavior. Taken together, the model demonstrates that the ACh decremental pathway is necessary for appropriate learning and attention under dynamic circumstances and suggests a canonical neural architecture for decrementing attention.

  7. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Lung transplant Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or ... lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people who have tried other ...

  8. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  9. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  10. Separation of structural modes and harmonic frequencies in Operational Modal Analysis using random decrement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is used to extract modal parameters of a structure on the basis of their output response measured during operation. OMA, when applied to mechanical engineering structures is often faced with the problem of harmonics present in the output response. A complex structure may have many dominant frequency components in its response frequency spectrum. These may contain frequency components associated with resonant frequencies of the structure, which and the associated mode shapes and the damping factors represent the data of interest, but may also contain frequencies or harmonics associated with the excitation sources. Since in OMA the characteristics of the excitation sources are not known, one of the problems lies in separating the resonant frequencies from the harmonic excitation frequencies. Any error in this regard may lead to an error in modal identification with the consequence that a harmonic may be construed as a structural mode and vice versa. This issue is addressed in this paper and a method is presented for separating resonant frequencies from harmonic excitation frequencies using random decrement of the response. The principle of the method is presented using an analytical study on a single degree of freedom system. The effectiveness of the method is then demonstrated through numerical studies on a lumped parameter multi-degree of freedom system and a simulated plate structure. Detection of single and multiple harmonics in the response that are well separated as well as close to resonant frequencies are considered.

  11. Harmonics elimination algorithm for operational modal analysis using random decrement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, S. V.; Rawal, Chetan; Kundra, T. K.

    2010-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) extracts modal parameters of a structure using their output response, during operation in general. OMA, when applied to mechanical engineering structures is often faced with the problem of harmonics present in the output response, and can cause erroneous modal extraction. This paper demonstrates for the first time that the random decrement (RD) method can be efficiently employed to eliminate the harmonics from the randomdec signatures. Further, the research work shows effective elimination of large amplitude harmonics also by proposing inclusion of additional random excitation. This obviously need not be recorded for analysis, as is the case with any other OMA method. The free decays obtained from RD have been used for system modal identification using eigen-system realization algorithm (ERA). The proposed harmonic elimination method has an advantage over previous methods in that it does not require the harmonic frequencies to be known and can be used for multiple harmonics, including periodic signals. The theory behind harmonic elimination is first developed and validated. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through a simulated study and then by experimental studies on a beam and a more complex F-shape structure, which resembles in shape to the skeleton of a drilling or milling machine tool. Cases with presence of single and multiple harmonics in the response are considered.

  12. Choking under pressure: the neuropsychological mechanisms of incentive-induced performance decrements

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the assumption of efficiency wage models, which state that wage incentives should be positively correlated with productivity, high incentives may produce performance decrements in real life scenarios. Such a “choking under pressure” phenomenon exemplifies how psychological stress can profoundly shape human behavior, for good or for bad. Previous theories suggest that individual choking under pressure because that high pressure may distract individuals’ attention away from the task (the distraction account), raise the attention paid to step-by-step skill processes (the explicit monitoring account), or elevate the arousal in general (the over-arousal account). Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions implicated in motivation and top-down control of attention also play a key role in stress-induced choking, supporting for the over-arousal and distraction theories of choking. This review aims to identify psychological factors that determine choking and the neural underpinnings of these processes. Insights into how incentives influence performance may aid engineering training regimens and interventions that equip individuals to better handle high-stakes-induced psychological stress, and to thrive under stress. PMID:25713517

  13. The effects of incentive framing on performance decrements for large monetary outcomes: behavioral and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chib, Vikram S; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2014-11-05

    There is a nuanced interplay between the provision of monetary incentives and behavioral performance. Individuals' performance typically increases with increasing incentives only up to a point, after which larger incentives may result in decreases in performance, a phenomenon known as "choking." We investigated the influence of incentive framing on choking effects in humans: in one condition, participants performed a skilled motor task to obtain potential monetary gains; in another, participants performed the same task to avoid losing a monetary amount. In both the gain and loss frame, the degree of participants' behavioral loss aversion was correlated with their susceptibility to choking effects. However, the effects were markedly different in the gain and loss frames: individuals with higher loss aversion were susceptible to choking for large prospective gains and not susceptible to choking for large prospective losses, whereas individuals with low loss aversion choked for large prospective losses but not for large prospective gains. Activity in the ventral striatum was predictive of performance decrements in both the gain and loss frames. Moreover, a mediation analysis revealed that behavioral loss aversion hindered performance via the influence of ventral striatal activity on motor performance. Our findings indicate that the framing of an incentive has a profound effect on an individual's susceptibility to choking effects, which is contingent on their loss aversion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ventral striatum serves as an interface between incentive-driven motivation and instrumental action, regardless of whether incentives are framed in terms of potential losses or gains.

  14. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based) and non-spatial (feature based). When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants' performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative) gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive) were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL.

  15. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based) and non-spatial (feature based). When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants' performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative) gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive) were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL. PMID:23403477

  16. Generalization decrement and not overshadowing by associative competition among pairs of landmarks in a navigation task.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Victoria D; Rodríguez, Clara A; Espinet, Alfredo; Mackintosh, N J

    2012-07-01

    When they are trained in a Morris water maze to find a hidden platform, whose location is defined by a number of equally spaced visual landmarks round the circumference of the pool, rats are equally able to find the platform when tested with any two of the landmarks (Prados, & Trobalon, 1998; Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren, & Mackintosh, 1997). This suggests that none of the landmarks was completely overshadowed by any of the others. In Experiment 1 one pair of groups was trained with four equally salient visual landmarks spaced at equal intervals around the edge of the pool, while a second pair was trained with two landmarks only, either relatively close to or far from the hidden platform. After extensive training, both male and female rats showed a reciprocal overshadowing effect: on a test with two landmarks only (either close to or far from the platform), rats trained with four landmarks spent less time in the platform quadrant than those trained with only two. Experiment 2 showed that animals trained with two landmarks and then tested with four also performed worse on test than those trained and tested with two landmarks only. This suggests that generalization decrement, rather than associative competition, provides a sufficient explanation for the overshadowing observed in Experiment 1. Experiment 3 provided a within-experiment replication of the results of Experiments 1 and 2. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that rats trained with a configuration of two landmarks learn their identity.

  17. Effects of chronotype and time of day on the vigilance decrement during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Correa, Angel; Molina, Enrique; Sanabria, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    The current study tested for the first time the effect of individual differences in circadian rhythmicity (chronotype) on both driving performance and its evolution along time on task. Morning-type and evening-type female participants were tested in morning (8 am) and evening (8 pm) sessions, in which we controlled for prior sleep duration and prior wake. Measures of body temperature, subjective activation and affect, reaction times (RT) in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), behavioral performance (error position) and EEG alpha power during simulated driving were collected. The main result showed strong linear increments of mean and standard deviation of error position along time on task (vigilance decrement) when evening-type participants drove at their non-optimal time of day, that is, during the morning session. In contrast, driving performance in the morning-type group remained stable over time on task and was not affected by time of day. This finding can be due to differences in personality traits (e.g., conscientiousness, sensation seeking) and task appraisal associated to extreme chronotypes. The consideration of chronotype in vigilance and driving tasks can enhance safety and human performance by promoting work schedules and countermeasures to prevent failures in the accomplishment of tasks under non-optimal circadian conditions.

  18. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Whigham, Leah D; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Lieberman, Harris R; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2015-02-01

    Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block design, 39 non-obese young adults (21±1 years, BMI 25±1 kg/m(2)) consumed diets containing 0.8 g, 1.6 g or 2.4 g protein per kg body weight per day for 31 days. Carbohydrate intake was reduced to accommodate higher protein intakes while dietary fat was maintained at 30% of total energy intake. Cognitive performance, mood, self-reported sleep quality, and plasma amino acid concentrations were periodically assessed during a 10-day energy balance period and a subsequent 21-day, 40% energy deficit period. Anger, tension and total mood disturbance increased during the initial ten days of energy deficit (P<0.05), but by the end of the energy deficit returned to levels not different from those measured during energy balance. No effects of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on cognitive performance, mood or self-reported sleep quality were observed during energy balance or energy deficit. Thus, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diets do not appear to benefit or impair cognition, mood or sleep in non-obese adults during energy deficit. These findings suggest that energy deficit may initially be psychologically difficult for non-obese individuals attempting to lose weight, but that these changes are transient. Employing strategies that alleviate decrements in mood during this initial period of adaptation may help sustain weight loss efforts.

  19. Design of flattening filters for the fast-neutron beam at TAMVEC by use of decrement lines.

    PubMed

    Otte, V A; Smathers, J B; Wright, R E

    1976-01-01

    Isodose distributions in a tissue-equivalent phantom produced by fast neutrons from 50-MeV deuterons incident on a thick beryllium target exhibit strong forward peaking, particularly for large fields. The design by use of decrement lines and the construction of polyethylene filters used to "flatten" those distributions are discussed and the results are illustrated. Also, the compromises of central-axis attenuation versus effective filter width and of off-axis peaking versus depth of "flattening" are discussed.

  20. Hippocampal damage in rats disrupts decrements in the processing of an intramaze landmark in a spatial task.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J M

    2001-05-18

    Using a four-arm plus-shaped maze, rats with neurotoxic lesions in the dorsal hippocampus were trained in a spatial reference memory task in which both the extramaze constellation of stimuli and an intramaze landmark (a piece of sandpaper covering the floor of the goal) indicated the location of the goal arm. After reaching criterion, animals were given two transfer tests in order to investigate how much they had learned about the intra and extramaze cues. Results showed that during the intramaze transfer, based exclusively on the intramaze cue, hippocampal rats produced a performance clearly superior to that of the controls. Importantly, the average percentage of correct responses recorded in the hippocampal group during the extra versus the intramaze transfer test was similar. Thus, no decremental processing of the intramaze cue was detected in the lesioned group. In contrast, control rats showed a decremental processing of the intramaze landmark performing worse during the intramaze transfer as compared with the extramaze transfer. These results support the view that the hippocampus regulates decremental changes in the processing of normally irrelevant stimuli, extending this claim into a spatial domain.

  1. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... are used to treat people who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary hypertension Complications of lung transplantation include rejection of the transplanted lung and infection. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  2. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the arteries of the lungs ( pulmonary hypertension ) Sarcoidosis Lung transplant may not be done for people ... Chronic Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Lung disease Sarcoidosis Review Date 4/13/2015 Updated by: Dale ...

  3. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... they can't breathe deeply. Pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis are examples of lung tissue disease. Lung circulation ... tuberculosis Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Patient Instructions Chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  4. Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2016-01-01

    evidence for the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System and the gaps in relation to exploration, as identified by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The research reviewed here indicates strategies to establish methods, technologies, and requirements that increase food stability, support adequate nutrition, quality, and variety, enable supplementation with grow-pick-and-eat salad crops, ensure safety, and reduce resource use. Obtaining the evidence to establish an adequate food system is essential, as the resources allocated to the food system may be defined based on the data relating nutritional stability and food quality requirements to crew performance and health.

  5. An integrated physiology model to study regional lung damage effects and the physiologic response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This work expands upon a previously developed exercise dynamic physiology model (DPM) with the addition of an anatomic pulmonary system in order to quantify the impact of lung damage on oxygen transport and physical performance decrement. Methods A pulmonary model is derived with an anatomic structure based on morphometric measurements, accounting for heterogeneous ventilation and perfusion observed experimentally. The model is incorporated into an existing exercise physiology model; the combined system is validated using human exercise data. Pulmonary damage from blast, blunt trauma, and chemical injury is quantified in the model based on lung fluid infiltration (edema) which reduces oxygen delivery to the blood. The pulmonary damage component is derived and calibrated based on published animal experiments; scaling laws are used to predict the human response to lung injury in terms of physical performance decrement. Results The augmented dynamic physiology model (DPM) accurately predicted the human response to hypoxia, altitude, and exercise observed experimentally. The pulmonary damage parameters (shunt and diffusing capacity reduction) were fit to experimental animal data obtained in blast, blunt trauma, and chemical damage studies which link lung damage to lung weight change; the model is able to predict the reduced oxygen delivery in damage conditions. The model accurately estimates physical performance reduction with pulmonary damage. Conclusions We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model to predict performance decrement endpoints in the presence of thoracic damage; simulations can be extended to estimate human performance and escape in extreme situations. PMID:25044032

  6. Cloud-Based NoSQL Open Database of Pulmonary Nodules for Computer-Aided Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Reproducible Research.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Junior, José Raniery; Oliveira, Marcelo Costa; de Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and its main manifestation is pulmonary nodules. Detection and classification of pulmonary nodules are challenging tasks that must be done by qualified specialists, but image interpretation errors make those tasks difficult. In order to aid radiologists on those hard tasks, it is important to integrate the computer-based tools with the lesion detection, pathology diagnosis, and image interpretation processes. However, computer-aided diagnosis research faces the problem of not having enough shared medical reference data for the development, testing, and evaluation of computational methods for diagnosis. In order to minimize this problem, this paper presents a public nonrelational document-oriented cloud-based database of pulmonary nodules characterized by 3D texture attributes, identified by experienced radiologists and classified in nine different subjective characteristics by the same specialists. Our goal with the development of this database is to improve computer-aided lung cancer diagnosis and pulmonary nodule detection and classification research through the deployment of this database in a cloud Database as a Service framework. Pulmonary nodule data was provided by the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), image descriptors were acquired by a volumetric texture analysis, and database schema was developed using a document-oriented Not only Structured Query Language (NoSQL) approach. The proposed database is now with 379 exams, 838 nodules, and 8237 images, 4029 of them are CT scans and 4208 manually segmented nodules, and it is allocated in a MongoDB instance on a cloud infrastructure.

  7. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans-Flynn, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren B.; Vessey, William

    2015-01-01

    Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk.

  8. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide increases tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins and opens the paracellular pathway in lung microvascular endothelia through TLR4, TRAF6, and src family kinase activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: LPS is a key mediator in vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections and opens the pulmonary vascular endothelial paracellular pathway through protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. We asked which PTKs and signaling molecules mediate LPS-induced endothel...

  9. Beginnings of open-heart surgery in Gdansk – double role of the Pemco heart-lung machine and new facts about Dutch-Polish cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first open-heart surgery in Gdansk took place in 1975. It was possible thanks to the gift of a Pemco extracorporeal circulation machine from the Netherlands to the Surgery Institute of the Medical Academy of Gdansk. The article presents additional, unpublished informations which enable a new interpretation of the previously known facts. PMID:27516801

  10. Topographical distribution of decrements and recovery in muscarinic receptors from rat brains repeatedly exposed to sublethal doses of soman

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Jackson, J.L.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.; McDonough, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors decreased after repeated exposure to soman, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. The topographical distribution of this decrement was analyzed by quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 4 weeks of soman, three times a week, quinuclidinyl benzilate binding decreased to 67 to 80% of control in frontal and parietal cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, hippocampal body, dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, and central grey. Minor or no decreases were observed in thalamic or hypothalamic nuclei, reticular formation, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the seventh nerve, and cerebellum. Scatchard analyses of saturation curves using frontal cortex sections from soman-treated rats revealed a decrease in maximal quinuclidinyl benzilate binding from that in control rats and a return toward control levels by 24 days without any significant change in affinity. These brain areas showing significant decrements in muscarinic receptors recovered with a similar time course. An estimate of the time for 50% recovery for some of the brain areas was 14 days for superior colliculus, 16 days for cortex, and 19 days for hippocampal body. The application of quantitative receptor autoradiography to analyze receptor alterations has been valuable in localizing the telencephalon as a region more susceptible to change in receptor concentration.

  11. Lung Parenchymal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Suki, Béla; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This article focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  12. Lung parenchymal mechanics.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Stamenović, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This chapter focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed.

  13. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  14. PRD (power-reactivity-decrement) components of a homogeneous U10Zr-fueled 900 MWt LMR

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The linear and Doppler feedback components of the regional contributions of the power-reactivity-decrement (PRD) for a representative 900 MWt homogeneous U10Zr-fueled sodium-cooled reactor are calculated. The PRD is the reactivity required to bring the reactor from zero-power hot-critical condition to a given power level. These components are further separated into power dependent and power-to-flow dependent parts. The values are compared with corresponding quantities calculated for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The implications of these comparisons upon inherent safety characteristics of metal-fueled sodium-cooled reactors are discussed. The effects of fuel axial restraint on feedback, resulting from possible fuel-clad interactions due to burnup are also calculated. The possible enhancement of desirable feedbacks by use of appropriately designed subassembly-duct bowing feedback characteristics is estimated.

  15. Lung-protective ventilation in neonatology.

    PubMed

    van Kaam, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is considered an important risk factor in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is primarily caused by overdistension (volutrauma) and repetitive opening and collapse (atelectrauma) of terminal lung units. Lung-protective ventilation should therefore aim to reduce tidal volumes, and recruit and stabilize atelectatic lung units (open lung ventilation strategy). This review will summarize the available evidence on lung-protective ventilation in neonatology, discussing both high-frequency ventilation (HFV) and positive pressure ventilation (PPV). It shows that HFV does not appear to have a clear benefit over PPV, although most studies failed to apply a true open lung ventilation strategy during HFV. The evidence on the optimal tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the role for lung recruitment during lung-protective PPV is extremely limited. Volume-targeted ventilation seems to be a promising mode in terms of lung protection, but more studies are needed. Due to the lack of convincing evidence, lung-protective ventilation and modes seem to be implemented in daily clinical practice at a slow pace.

  16. Cholesterol, lipoproteins and subclinical interstitial lung disease: the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Podolanczuk, Anna J; Raghu, Ganesh; Tsai, Michael Y; Kawut, Steven M; Peterson, Eric; Sonti, Rajiv; Rabinowitz, Daniel; Johnson, Craig; Barr, R Graham; Hinckley Stukovsky, Karen; Hoffman, Eric A; Carr, J Jeffrey; Ahmed, Firas S; Jacobs, David R; Watson, Karol; Shea, Steven J; Lederer, David J

    2017-01-27

    We investigated associations of plasma lipoproteins with subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) by measuring high attenuation areas (HAA: lung voxels between -600 and -250 Hounsfield units) in 6700 adults and serum MMP-7 and SP-A in 1216 adults age 45-84 without clinical cardiovascular disease in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. In cross-sectional analyses, each SD decrement in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was associated with a 2.12% HAA increment (95% CI 1.44% to 2.79%), a 3.53% MMP-7 increment (95% CI 0.93% to 6.07%) and a 6.37% SP-A increment (95% CI 1.35% to 11.13%), independent of demographics, smoking and inflammatory biomarkers. These findings support a novel hypothesis that HDL-C might influence subclinical lung injury and extracellular matrix remodelling.

  17. Brain injury requires lung protection

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The paper entitled “The high-mobility group protein B1-Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (HMGB1-RAGE) axis mediates traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced pulmonary dysfunction in lung transplantation” published recently in Science Translational Medicine links lung failure after transplantation with alterations in the axis HMGB1-RAGE after TBI, opening a new field for exploring indicators for the early detection of patients at risk of developing acute lung injury (ALI). The lung is one of the organs most vulnerable to the inflammatory cascade triggered by TBI. HMGB1 is an alarm in that can be released from activated immune cells in response to tissue injury. Increased systemic HMGB1 concentration correlates with poor lung function before and after lung transplant, confirming its role in acute ALI after TBI. HMGB1 exerts its influence by interacting with several receptors, including the RAGE receptor. RAGE also plays an important role in the onset of innate immune inflammatory responses, and systemic levels of RAGE are strongly associated with ALI and clinical outcomes in ventilator-induced lung injury. RAGE ligation to HMGB1 triggers the amplification of the inflammatory cascade involving nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Identifying early biomarkers that mediate pulmonary dysfunction will improve outcomes not only in lung transplantation, but also in other scenarios. These novel findings show that upregulation of the HMGB1-RAGE axis plays an important role in brain-lung crosstalk. PMID:26046092

  18. Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1) mediates decrements in cardiac mechanical function and dysrhythmia caused by a single air pollution exposure in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work, which will be presented at SOT 2014, demonstrates that a single exposure to either ozone or acrolein causes decrements in cardiac function and altered electrical activity (i.e. arrhythmia). The results suggest that this effect is mediated by the airway sensor TRPA1. ...

  19. Predicting Radiation Induced Performance Decrements of AH-1 Helicopter Crews. Volume 1. Predicted Versus Actual Performance of AH-1 Crews Induced with Symptons Simulating Radiation Sickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    principal method under study was the Performance Decrement Questionnaire, developed as part of DNA’s Intermediate Dose Program. A secondary aspect of...3) Develop MicroSAINT models of AH-1 crew performance based on simulation data and PDQ estimates, and (4) Evaluate the relationship between Walter...48 5.2 Approach ...................................................................................................... 49 5.3 Model Development

  20. A cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Gene, foraging, Modifies Habituation-Like Response Decrement of the Giant Fiber Escape Circuit in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jeff E.; Xie, Xian-Jin; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila giant fiber jump-and-flight escape response is a model for genetic analysis of both the physiology and the plasticity of a sensorimotor behavioral pathway. We previously established the electrically induced giant fiber response in intact tethered flies as a model for habituation, a form of nonassociative learning. Here, we show that the rate of stimulus-dependent response decrement of this neural pathway in a habituation protocol is correlated with PKG (cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase) activity and foraging behavior. We assayed response decrement for natural and mutant rover and sitter alleles of the foraging (for) gene that encodes a Drosophila PKG. Rover larvae and adults, which have higher PKG activities, travel significantly farther while foraging than sitters with lower PKG activities. Response decrement was most rapid in genotypes previously shown to have low PKG activities and sitter-like foraging behavior. We also found differences in spontaneous recovery (the reversal of response decrement during a rest from stimulation) and a dishabituation-like phenomenon (the reversal of response decrement evoked by a novel stimulus). This electrophysiological study in an intact animal preparation provides one of the first direct demonstrations that PKG can affect plasticity in a simple learning paradigm. It increases our understanding of the complex interplay of factors that can modulate the sensitivity of the giant fiber escape response, and it defines a new adult-stage phenotype of the foraging locus. Finally, these results show that behaviorally relevant neural plasticity in an identified circuit can be influenced by a single-locus genetic polymorphism existing in a natural population of Drosophila. PMID:11040266

  1. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  2. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been a steady drop in lung cancer deaths among men, mainly because fewer men are smoking, and since the turn of the century, lung cancer deaths in women have been slowly declining. Cigarette smoking rates had been dropping steadily in the 1990s ...

  3. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  4. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  5. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  6. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  7. Damage detection using transient trajectories in phase-space with extended random decrement technique under non-stationary excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Mao, Zhu; Todd, Michael

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a damage detection method based on the geometrical variation of transient trajectories in phase-space, and the proposed methodology is compatible with non-stationary excitations (e.g., earthquake-induced ground motion). The work presented assumes zero-mean non-stationary excitation, and extends the random decrement technique to convert non-stationary response signals of the structure into free-vibration data. Transient trajectories of the structure are reconstructed via the embedding theorem from the converted free-vibration data, and trajectories are mapped successively into phase-space to enhance statistical analysis. Based upon the characterized system dynamics in terms of phase-space, the time prediction error is adopted as the damage index. To identify the presence and severity of damage in a statistically rigorous way, receiver operating characteristic curves and the Bhattacharyya distance are employed. The results from both numerical simulations and experiments validate the proposed framework, when the test structures are subject to non-stationary excitations. The extension achieved in this paper enables the phase-space damage detection approach to be compatible with non-stationary scenarios, such as traffic, wind, and earthquake loadings. Moreover, the results indicate that this phase-state-based method is able to identify damage-induced nonlinearity in response, which is an intrinsic characteristic associated with most structural damage types.

  8. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.

  9. Power reactivity decrement components of a homogeneous UPu10Zr-fueled 900-MW(thermal) liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Linear and Doppler feedback components of the power reactivity decrement (PRD) for a 900-MW(thermal) homogeneous UPu10Zr-fueled sodium-cooled reactor have been calculated. (The PRD is the negative of the reactivity required to bring the reactor from a zero-power hot-critical condition to a given power level.) The components are further separated into power-dependent and power-to-flow-dependent parts. These delineations enhance understanding of the contributions of the components to the feedback process. The delineation also enables the PRDs for other values of coolant flows to be estimated. The linear and Doppler components of the PRD are obtained using the EBRPOCO code, which calculates detailed axially delineated contributions of the components for every subassembly of a loading configuration. Separation of the components into power and power-to-flow parts is made by calculations of the components, assuming infinite thermal conductivities to obtain the power-to-flow values. Subtractions of these from the corresponding PRD quantities give the power-dependent parts. The values of the various feedback components are compared with corresponding quantities reported for an analogous U10Zr-fueled case.

  10. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.

  11. A systematic review of the association between pleural plaques and changes in lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kopylev, Leonid; Christensen, Krista Yorita; Brown, James S; Cooper, Glinda S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of changes in lung function in relation to presence of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed populations. Methods Database searches of PubMed and Web of Science were supplemented by review of papers’ reference lists and journals’ tables of contents. Methodological features (eg, consideration of potential confounding by smoking) of identified articles were reviewed by ≥two reviewers. Meta-analyses of 20 studies estimated a summary effect of the decrements in per cent predicted (%pred) forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) associated with presence of pleural plaques. Results Among asbestos-exposed workers, the presence of pleural plaques was associated with statistically significant decrements in FVC (4.09%pred, 95% CI 2.31 to 5.86) and FEV1 (1.99%pred, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.77). Effects of similar magnitude were seen when stratifying by imaging type (X-ray or high-resolution CT) and when excluding studies with potential methodological limitations. Undetected asbestosis was considered as an unlikely explanation of the observed decrements. Several studies provided evidence of an association between size of pleural plaques and degree of pulmonary decrease, and presence of pleural plaques and increased rate or degree of pulmonary impairment. Conclusions The presence of pleural plaques is associated with a small, but statistically significant mean difference in FVC and FEV1 in comparison to asbestos-exposed individuals without plaques or other abnormalities. From a public health perspective, small group mean decrements in lung function coupled with an increased rate of decline in lung function of the exposed population may be consequential. PMID:25504898

  12. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  13. The utility of open lung biopsy in patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates as related to respiratory distress, its impact on decision making by urgent intervention, and the diagnostic accuracy based on the biopsy location.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ming-Lung; Lin, I-Feng; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Vintch, Janine R E; Pang, Leuo-Chuan

    2003-01-01

    Patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates (DPI), especially those who present with respiratory distress (RD), may benefit from early open lung biopsy (OLB) to guide management. Benefits of urgent OLB would be expected by saving the time to reach accurate specific diagnoses. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the impact of OLB between patients presenting with and without RD, (2) to focus on the impact of an urgent OLB as compared to an elective OLB, and (3) to compare the different yields of specific diagnoses in the middle lobe or lingula as compared to the other lobes. Thirty-four patients (17 patients presented with RD and 17 patients did not) with an average age of 43 years who presented with DPI were selected to undergo an OLB. An urgent OLB was performed in 11 unselected patients. Twelve specimens from the middle lobe or lingula were compared to 25 specimens from the other lobes. The impact of the OLB results on decision making did not differ significantly between patients with and without RD. Patients with RD suffered a higher in-hospital mortality rate, OLB-related complications, and longer mechanical ventilation requirements than the patients without RD. The impact on decision making and complications between urgent OLB and elective OLB was comparable. The diagnostic yield from biopsy sites in the middle lobe or lingula resembled those specimens from the other lobes. The authors conclude that OLB may play a role in decision making for patients with DPI. However, OLB makes no difference in decision making between patients with and without RD. Patients with RD undergoing OLB procedures may suffer a poorer outcome. Urgent OLB may not benefit patients with DPI in decision making. The biopsy site does not appear to affect the accuracy of the diagnostic yield from an OLB procedure.

  14. Systematic review of pleural plaques and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural plaques are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural plaques and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify plaques. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural plaques and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with plaques. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural plaques were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural plaques do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994

  15. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... will recover in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) before moving to a hospital room for one to three weeks. Your doctor may recommend pulmonary rehabilitation after your lung transplant surgery to help you ...

  16. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  17. Random Decrement Method and Modeling H/V Spectral Ratios: An Application for Soft Shallow Layers Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Rodriguez-Lozoya, H. E.; Espinoza-Barreras, F.

    2009-05-01

    Results of an ongoing study to estimate the ground response upon weak and moderate earthquake excitations are presented. A reliable site characterization in terms of its soil properties and sub-soil layer configuration are parameters required in order to do a trustworthy estimation of the ground response upon dynamic loads. This study can be described by the following four steps: (1) Ambient noise measurements were collected at the study site where a bridge was under construction between the cities of Tijuana and Ensenada in Mexico. The time series were collected using a six channels recorder with an ADC converter of 16 bits within a maximum voltage range of ± 2.5 V, the recorder has an optional settings of: Butterworth/Bessel filters, gain and sampling rate. The sensors were a three orthogonal component (X, Y, Z) accelerometers with a sensitivity of 20 V/g, flat frequency response between DC to 200 Hz, and total full range of ±0.25 of g, (2) experimental H/V Spectral Ratios were computed to estimate the fundamental vibration frequency at the site, (3) using the time domain experimental H/V spectral ratios as well as the original recorded time series, the random decrement method was applied to estimate the fundamental frequency and damping of the site (system), and (4) finally the theoretical H/V spectral ratios were obtained by means of the stiffness matrix wave propagation method.. The interpretation of the obtained results was then finally compared with a geotechnical study available at the site.

  18. Probing cosmology and galaxy cluster structure with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement versus X-ray temperature scaling relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Cien; Haiman, Zoltán; Verde, Licia

    2009-12-01

    Scaling relations among galaxy cluster observables, which will become available in large future samples of galaxy clusters, could be used to constrain not only cluster structure, but also cosmology. We study the utility of this approach, employing a physically motivated parametric model to describe cluster structure and applying it to the expected relation between the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement (Sν) and the emission-weighted X-ray temperature (Tew). The slope and normalization of the entropy profile, the concentration of the dark matter potential, the pressure at the virial radius and the level of non-thermal pressure support as well as the mass and redshift dependence of these quantities are described by free parameters. With a suitable choice of fiducial parameter values, the cluster model satisfies several existing observational constraints. We employ a Fisher matrix approach to estimate the joint errors on cosmological and cluster structure parameters from a measurement of Sν versus Tew in a future survey. We find that different cosmological parameters affect the scaling relation differently: predominantly through the baryon fraction (Ωm and Ωb), the virial overdensity (w0 and wa for low-z clusters) and the angular diameter distance (w0 and wa for high-z clusters; ΩDE and h). We find that the cosmology constraints from the scaling relation are comparable to those expected from the number counts (dN/dz) of the same clusters. The scaling-relation approach is relatively insensitive to selection effects and it offers a valuable consistency check; combining the information from the scaling relation and dN/dz is also useful to break parameter degeneracies and help disentangle cluster physics from cosmology. Our work suggests that scaling relations should be a useful component in extracting cosmological information from large future cluster surveys.

  19. [Epidemiology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Becker, N

    2010-08-01

    Lung cancer is by far the most common form of cancer worldwide and in Germany is now "only" still the commonest cause of death from cancer. The most important single risk factor is smoking but in selected population groups, for example in the professional area, other factors can also play a role which cannot be ignored and open up a corresponding potential for prevention. Effective early detection procedures are at present unknown. The most promising, however, is multislice computed tomography (MSCT) which for this reason is presently being tested for effectiveness in several large research projects. The results are not expected for some years. Until then the early detection of lung cancer with MSCT cannot be considered suitable for routine use but can only be justified within the framework of research studies.

  20. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  1. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  2. Lung Nodules: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  3. Open reading frame 3 of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus inhibits nuclear factor-κappa B signaling induced by tumor necrosis factor-α in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Fan; Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment.

  4. Furrier's lung

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J. Cortez

    1970-01-01

    As is known, the inhalation of animal hairs can provoke immunological reactions in the respiratory tract affecting the naso-tracheo-bronchial sector and giving rise to asthma-like syndromes. Another form of disease, found in furriers with long exposure to `hair dust', is described. It is characterized by a granulomatous interstitial pneumonia, of the tuberculoid type, very similar to that described in other diseases related to the inhalation of organic dusts, both vegetable and animal, such as `farmer's lung' and `bird fancier's lung'. This new disease—which we experimentally reproduced—can be diagnosed from the occupational history together with the finding on lung biopsy of hair shafts within granulomatous lesions (birefringence and histo-chemical reactions). As in other diseases of this type, a host factor of probable immunological nature is suggested. Attention is drawn to the need to protect workers in the furrier's trade. Images PMID:5484998

  5. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using a ... clot from the pulmonary artery ( pulmonary embolism ) Treat complications of tuberculosis Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be used to treat many of these ...

  6. Analysis of Lung Tissue Using Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, J. L.; Barrera, R.; Miranda, J.

    2002-08-01

    In this work a comparative study is presented of the contents of metals in lung tissue from healthy patients and with lung cancer, by means of two analytical techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The samples of cancerous tissue were taken from 26 autopsies made to individuals died in the National Institute of Respiratory Disease (INER), 22 of cancer and 4 of other non-cancer biopsies. When analyzing the entirety of the samples, in the cancerous tissues, there were increments in the concentrations of S (4%), K (635%), Co (85%) and Cu (13%). Likewise, there were deficiencies in the concentrations of Cl (59%), Ca (6%), Fe (26%) and Zn (7%). Only in the cancerous tissues there were appearances of P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Br and Sr. The tissue samples were classified according to cancer types (adenocarcinomas, epidermoides and of small cell carcinoma), personal habits (smokers and alcoholic), genetic predisposition and residence place. There was a remarkable decrease in the concentration of Ca and a marked increment in the Cu in the epidermoide tissue samples with regard to those of adenocarcinoma or of small cells cancer. Also, decrements were detected in K and increments of Fe, Co and Cu in the sample belonging to people that resided in Mexico City with regard to those that resided in the State of Mexico.

  7. Fast concurrent array-based stacks, queues and deques using fetch-and-increment-bounded, fetch-and-decrement-bounded and store-on-twin synchronization primitives

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alana; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert

    2014-09-16

    Implementation primitives for concurrent array-based stacks, queues, double-ended queues (deques) and wrapped deques are provided. In one aspect, each element of the stack, queue, deque or wrapped deque data structure has its own ticket lock, allowing multiple threads to concurrently use multiple elements of the data structure and thus achieving high performance. In another aspect, new synchronization primitives FetchAndIncrementBounded (Counter, Bound) and FetchAndDecrementBounded (Counter, Bound) are implemented. These primitives can be implemented in hardware and thus promise a very fast throughput for queues, stacks and double-ended queues.

  8. Lung cancer in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Onorati, Ilaria; Anile, Marco; Mantovani, Sara; Rendina, Erino A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a worldwide-accepted evidence of a population shift toward older ages. This shift favors an increased risk of developing lung cancer that is primarily a disease of older populations. Decision making is extremely difficult in elderly patients, since this group is under-represented in clinical trials with only 25% of them historically opening to patients older than 65 years. For all these reasons, a “customized” preoperative assessment to identify physiological or pathological frailty should be encouraged since standard tools may be less reliable. The work already done to improve patient selection for lung surgery in the elderly population clearly shows that surgical resection seems the treatment of choice for early stage lung cancer. Further studies are required to improve outcome by reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:27942414

  9. Use of the accelerating rotarod for assessment of motor performance decrement induced by potential anticonvulsant compounds in nerve agent poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Capacio, B.R.; Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Gales, V.

    1992-12-31

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepan, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. AH compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (micrometer ol/kg) values and peak effect tunes were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepwn, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMET)). I serve agents, anticonvulsants, diazepam, accelerating rotarod, motor performance.

  10. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk as follows: Sleep loss is apparent during spaceflight. Astronauts consistently average less sleep during spaceflight relative to on the ground. The causes of this sleep loss remain unknown, however ground-based evidence suggests that the sleep duration of astronauts is likely to lead to performance impairment and short and long-term health consequences. Further research is needed in this area in order to develop screening tools to assess individual astronaut sleep need in order to quantify the magnitude of sleep loss during spaceflight; current and planned efforts in BHP's research portfolio address this need. In addition, it is still unclear whether the conditions of spaceflight environment lead to sleep loss or whether other factors, such as work overload lead to the reduced sleep duration. Future data mining efforts and continued data collection on the ISS will help to further characterize factors contributing to sleep loss. Sleep inertia has not been evaluated during spaceflight. Ground-based studies confirm that it takes two to four hours to achieve optimal performance after waking from a sleep episode. Sleep inertia has been associated with increased accidents and reduced performance in operational environments. Sleep inertia poses considerable risk during spaceflight when emergency

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage in talc induced lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, A A; Ettensohn, D B; Khan, M; Kessimian, N

    1988-01-01

    A 65 year old woman with a history of occupational talc inhalation presented with hypoxaemia, cough, and dyspnoea with a normal chest radiograph. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed considerable lymphocytosis, with a predominance of T8+ T lymphocytes, and open lung biopsy showed peribronchiolar granulomas containing talc crystals. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in dramatic improvement. Bronchoalveolar lavage may aid in the diagnosis of talc related lung injury. Images PMID:3238633

  12. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  13. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Review Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  14. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  15. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  16. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  17. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  18. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  19. Intraoperative Motor-Evoked Potential Disappearance versus Amplitude-Decrement Alarm Criteria During Cervical Spinal Surgery: A Long-Term Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Choi, Young-Doo; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chi Heon; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Park, Kyung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose We studied the clinical significance of amplitude-reduction and disappearance alarm criteria for transcranial electric muscle motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) during cervical spinal surgery according to different lesion locations [intramedullary (IM) vs. nonintramedullary (NIM)] by evaluating the long-term postoperative motor status. Methods In total, 723 patients were retrospectively dichotomized into the IM and NIM groups. Each limb was analyzed respectively. One hundred and sixteen limbs from 30 patients with IM tumors and 2,761 limbs from 693 patients without IM tumors were enrolled. Postoperative motor deficits were assessed up to 6 months after surgery. Results At the end of surgery, 61 limbs (2.2%) in the NIM group and 14 limbs (12.1%) in the IM group showed MEP amplitudes that had decreased to below 50% of baseline, with 13 of the NIM limbs (21.3%) and 2 of the IM limbs (14.3%) showing MEP disappearance. Thirteen NIM limbs (0.5%) and 5 IM limbs (4.3%) showed postoperative motor deficits. The criterion for disappearance showed a lower sensitivity for the immediate motor deficit than did the criterion for amplitude decrement in both the IM and NIM groups. However, the disappearance criterion showed the same sensitivity as the 70%-decrement criterion in IM (100%) and NIM (83%) surgeries for the motor deficit at 6 months after surgery. Moreover, it has the highest specificity for the motor deficits among diverse alarm criteria, from 24 hours to 6 months after surgery, in both the IM and NIM groups. Conclusions The MEP disappearance alarm criterion had a high specificity in predicting the long-term prognosis after cervical spinal surgery. However, because it can have a low sensitivity in predicting an immediate postoperative deficit, combining different MEP alarm criteria according to the aim of specific instances of cervical spinal surgery is likely to be useful in practical intraoperative monitoring. PMID:27730765

  20. Study parameters influencing NOAEL and LOAEL in toxicity feeding studies for pesticides: exposure duration versus dose decrement, dose spacing, group size and chemical class.

    PubMed

    Zarn, Jürg A; Engeli, Barbara E; Schlatter, Josef R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of exposure duration on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) in rodent pesticide feeding studies was evaluated. Ratios of NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentrations in feed, were calculated from subacute to subchronic, subchronic to chronic and subacute to chronic studies. There was no statistical significant effect of exposure duration on ratio distributions. Whereas geometric means of ratios were in a narrow range of 1.1-2.5, the geometric standard deviations and 95th percentiles increased with dose spacing of the involved studies. With the exception of carbamates, the chemical class of pesticides had no influence on the ratio distributions. However, the number of animals in the shorter-term study of ratio couples being ≤ 1 was statistically significantly higher than in ratio couples being >1. Ratios ≤ 1 may be partly explained by the dose decrement over time observed in feeding studies applying the test substances in constant concentrations. The dose decrement possibly converts initially toxic doses to less toxic doses beyond the subacute phase. Ratios >1 seem to be caused predominantly by differences in study design parameters. In dietary risk assessment, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is compared to pesticide intake estimates based on mean food consumption (i.e. the so called theoretical maximum daily intake, TMDI) being orders of magnitude lower than actual food consumption on eating occasions for certain food commodities. As subacute, subchronic and chronic NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentration in feed did not differ statistically significantly, the TMDI as benchmark for the ADI may underestimate the significance of the toxicity of subacute exposure.

  1. Spanish genetic admixture is associated with larger V(O2) max decrement from sea level to 4338 m in Peruvian Quechua.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban J; Shriver, Mark D; Gamboa, Alfredo; Palacios, Jose-Antonio; Rivera, Maria; Rodriguez, Ivette; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-08-01

    Quechua in the Andes may be genetically adapted to altitude and able to resist decrements in maximal O2 consumption in hypoxia (DeltaVo2 max). This hypothesis was tested via repeated measures of Vo2 max (sea level vs. 4338 m) in 30 men of mixed Spanish and Quechua origins. Individual genetic admixture level (%Spanish ancestry) was estimated by using ancestry-informative DNA markers. Genetic admixture explained a significant proportion of the variability in DeltaVo2 max after control for covariate effects, including sea level Vo2 max and the decrement in arterial O2 saturation measured at Vo2 max (DeltaSpO2 max) (R2 for admixture and covariate effects approximately 0.80). The genetic effect reflected a main effect of admixture on DeltaVo2 max (P = 0.041) and an interaction between admixture and DeltaSpO2 max (P = 0.018). Admixture predicted DeltaVo2 max only in subjects with a large DeltaSpO2 max (P = 0.031). In such subjects, DeltaVo2 max was 12-18% larger in a subgroup of subjects with high vs. low Spanish ancestry, with least squares mean values (+/-SE) of 739 +/- 71 vs. 606 +/- 68 ml/min, respectively. A trend for interaction (P = 0.095) was also noted between admixture and the decrease in ventilatory threshold at 4338 m. As previously, admixture predicted DeltaVo2 max only in subjects with a large decrease in ventilatory threshold. These findings suggest that the genetic effect on DeltaVo2 max depends on a subject's aerobic fitness. Genetic effects may be more important (or easier to detect) in athletic subjects who are more likely to show gas-exchange impairment during exercise. The results of this study are consistent with the evolutionary hypothesis and point to a better gas-exchange system in Quechua.

  2. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  3. An open question.

    PubMed

    Ayling, John

    2004-01-01

    The lungs are surrounded by the pleural membranes. The visceral pleura directly covers the lung and is separated from the parietal pleura by a layer of surfactant, which reduces friction during respiratory movement. A potential space exists between these two layers, and they may become separated by fluid or air. A lung can collapse to the size of a fist under pressure from either. Standard treatment in the field for an open chest wound is an occlusive dressing. The first thing that can be used to occlude the wound is a gloved hand. After placing the dressing, evaluate the breath sounds and determine if they have improved. The dressing should be taped down on three sides, leaving one side open to relieve the pressure during exhalation (one-way valve). "Burping" the dressing involves lifting one side to make sure any pressure buildup is relieved, as occasionally the dressing can become adhered to the skin, which may lead to a tension pneumothorax. If, after ensuring the occlusive dressing is properly in place, the respiratory rate increases, distress level worsens, oxygen saturations fall and breath sounds decrease, then needle decompression is required. A neurovascular bundle is located underneath each rib, and it is important to avoid damage to that bundle by performing a decompression over the top of a rib. If the patient is intubated before the development of a tension pneumothorax, carefully evaluate the breath sounds (especially if the left-side sounds are diminished) to determine if the ET tube needs to be withdrawn a centimeter. The rescuer performing ventilation will usually recognize a tension pneumothorax by the difficulty in bagging the patient. Remember, when you perform a needle thoracentesis, you are creating an open chest wound. Early signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include diminished or absent breath sounds, severe dyspnea, narrowing pulse pressure, tachycardia and restlessness. Neck veins may be distended, but this can be a normal

  4. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation.

  5. 76 FR 58523 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The meeting... of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. ] Date: October 18, 2011. Open: 8...

  6. 78 FR 28229 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The meeting... of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. ] Date: June 19, 2013. Open: 8:00...

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling is coupled to src family kinase activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein tyrosine kinase (PT...

  8. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  9. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  10. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  11. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  12. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  13. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This is most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... it may mean any of the following problems: Sarcoidosis (disease in which inflammation occurs in the lungs ...

  14. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  15. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  16. Lung cancer screening update

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Loewen, Gregory; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally and the American cancer society estimates approximately 226,160 new cases and 160,340 deaths from lung cancer in the USA in the year 2012. The majority of lung cancers are diagnosed in the later stages which impacts the overall survival. The 5-year survival rate for pathological st age IA lung cancer is 73% but drops to only 13% for stage IV. Thus, early detection through screening and prevention are the keys to reduce the global burden of lung cancer. This article discusses the current state of lung cancer screening, including the results of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial, the consideration of implementing computed tomography screening, and a brief overview of the role of bronchoscopy in early detection and potential biomarkers that may aid in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:23599684

  17. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 442 Cervical Uterine Ovarian Breast Lung RESEARCH FUNDING LEVELS FISCAL YEAR 2012 (DOLLARS PER DEATH) MORE RESEARCH URGENT LY NEEDED • The biology of lung cancer is different in women • Mutations ...

  18. The therapeutic effects of tuberostemonine against cigarette smoke-induced acute lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Beak, Hyunjung; Park, Soojin; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Sangwon; Kim, Jinju; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-03-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mainly caused by cigarette smoking and is characterized by the destruction of lung parenchyma, structural alterations of the small airways, and systemic inflammation. Tuberostemonine (TS) is an alkaloid-type phytochemical from Stemona tuberosa. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of TS in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mouse model of acute lung inflammation. The mice were whole-body exposed to CS or fresh air for 7 days. TS was administered by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 1h before exposure to CS. To test the effects of TS, the numbers of total cells, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were counted. Furthermore, we measured the levels of several chemokines, such as GCP-2, MIP-3α, MCP-1 and KC, in the lung tissue. The cellular profiles and histopathological analysis demonstrated that the infiltration of peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cells significantly decreased in the TS-treated groups compared with the CS-exposure group. The TS treatment significantly ameliorated the airway epithelial thickness induced by CS exposure and caused a significant decrement in the production of chemokines in the lung. These results suggest that TS has anti-inflammatory effects against CS-induced acute lung inflammation.

  19. Bereavement is associated with time-dependent decrements in cellular immune function in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Goodkin, K; Feaster, D J; Tuttle, R; Blaney, N T; Kumar, M; Baum, M K; Shapshak, P; Fletcher, M A

    1996-01-01

    Seventy-nine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive homosexual men participating in a longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection were assessed twice, 6 months apart, to investigate associations between bereavement and cellular immune function. Subjects were assessed by using a theory-driven model comprising life stressors, social support and coping style, and control variables. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity was decreased among the bereaved at both times. Lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin was decreased among the bereaved at the second time point but not at the first. These functional immune decrements are associated with increased neuroendocrine responses of the sympathetic adrenomeduallary system as well as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Implications for differential neuroendocrine responses over time are discussed. Active coping style was independently and positively related to both immune measures. The results imply that a bereavement support group intervention merits investigation for an effect on immunological measures and clinical progression of HIV-1 infection as well as grief resolution. PMID:8770514

  20. Fundamental Vibration Frequency and Damping Estimation: A Comparison Using the Random Decrement Method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition, and the HV Spectral Ratio Method for Local Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Upegui Botero, F. M.; Pulliam, J.; Willemann, R. J.; Pasyanos, M.; Schmitz, M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Louie, J. N.; Moschetti, M. P.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Polanco, E.

    2013-12-01

    Site characterization in civil engineering demands to know at least two of the dynamic properties of soil systems, which are: (i) dominant vibration frequency, and (ii) damping. As part of an effort to develop understanding of the principles of earthquake hazard analysis, particularly site characterization techniques using non invasive/non destructive seismic methods, a workshop (Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute: New Frontiers in Geophysical Research: Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation) was conducted during july 15-25, 2013 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic by the alliance of Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), jointly supported by Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Preliminary results of the site characterization in terms of fundamental vibration frequency and damping are here presented from data collected during the workshop. Three different methods were used in such estimations and later compared in order to identify the stability of estimations as well as the advantage or disadvantage among these methodologies. The used methods were the: (i) Random Decrement Method (RDM), to estimate fundamental vibration frequency and damping simultaneously; (ii) Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), to estimate the vibration modes, and (iii) Horizontal to Vertical Spectra ratio (HVSR), to estimate the fundamental vibration frequency. In all cases ambient vibration and induced vibration were used.

  1. A Comparison of Oxycodone and Alfentanil in Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with a Time-Scheduled Decremental Infusion after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Suk; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Na Rea; Kim, Seong Su; Kim, Young Ki; Hwang, Byeong Mun; Kang, Seong Sik; Son, Hee Jeong; Lim, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid, has been widely used for acute and chronic pain. Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of oxycodone and alfentanil on postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 82 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive either oxycodone or alfentanil using intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). PCA was administered as a time-scheduled decremental continuous infusion based on lean body mass for 48 hours postoperatively. Patients were assessed for pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS), the cumulative PCA dose, adverse effects, sedation level at 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, and satisfaction during the postoperative 48 hours. Results. There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) between the two groups in VAS score, cumulative PCA dose, adverse effects, sedation level at 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, and satisfaction during the postoperative 48 hours. Conclusions. Our data showed that the analgesic and adverse effects of oxycodone and alfentanil were similar. Therefore, oxycodone may be a good alternative to alfentanil for pain management using intravenous PCA after laparoscopic cholecystectomy when used at a conversion ratio of 10 : 1. This trial is registered with KCT0001962.

  2. A Comparison of Oxycodone and Alfentanil in Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with a Time-Scheduled Decremental Infusion after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Su; Kim, Seong Su; Kim, Young Ki; Hwang, Byeong Mun; Kang, Seong Sik; Son, Hee Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid, has been widely used for acute and chronic pain. Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of oxycodone and alfentanil on postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 82 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive either oxycodone or alfentanil using intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). PCA was administered as a time-scheduled decremental continuous infusion based on lean body mass for 48 hours postoperatively. Patients were assessed for pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS), the cumulative PCA dose, adverse effects, sedation level at 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, and satisfaction during the postoperative 48 hours. Results. There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) between the two groups in VAS score, cumulative PCA dose, adverse effects, sedation level at 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, and satisfaction during the postoperative 48 hours. Conclusions. Our data showed that the analgesic and adverse effects of oxycodone and alfentanil were similar. Therefore, oxycodone may be a good alternative to alfentanil for pain management using intravenous PCA after laparoscopic cholecystectomy when used at a conversion ratio of 10 : 1. This trial is registered with KCT0001962. PMID:27725791

  3. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  5. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, or chILD, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, ...

  6. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  7. Positive End-Expiratory Pressure and Variable Ventilation in Lung-Healthy Rats under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Luciana M.; Ávila, Mariana B.; Cruz, Luis Felipe S.; Ribeiro, Gabriel C. M.; Spieth, Peter M.; Reske, Andreas A.; Amato, Marcelo; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A.; Carvalho, Alysson R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Variable ventilation (VV) seems to improve respiratory function in acute lung injury and may be combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in order to protect the lungs even in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that VV in combination with moderate levels of PEEP reduce the deterioration of pulmonary function related to general anesthesia. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the alveolar stability and lung protection of the combination of VV at different PEEP levels. Design Randomized experimental study. Setting Animal research facility. Subjects Forty-nine male Wistar rats (200–270 g). Interventions Animals were ventilated during 2 hours with protective low tidal volume (VT) in volume control ventilation (VCV) or VV and PEEP adjusted at the level of minimum respiratory system elastance (Ers), obtained during a decremental PEEP trial subsequent to a recruitment maneuver, and 2 cmH2O above or below of this level. Measurements and Main Results Ers, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables were measured. Cytokines were determined in lung homogenate and plasma samples and left lung was used for histologic analysis and diffuse alveolar damage scoring. A progressive time-dependent increase in Ers was observed independent on ventilatory mode or PEEP level. Despite of that, the rate of increase of Ers and lung tissue IL-1 beta concentration were significantly lower in VV than in VCV at the level of the PEEP of minimum Ers. A significant increase in lung tissue cytokines (IL-6, IL-1 beta, CINC-1 and TNF-alpha) as well as a ventral to dorsal and cranial to caudal reduction in aeration was observed in all ventilated rats with no significant differences among groups. Conclusions VV combined with PEEP adjusted at the level of the PEEP of minimal Ers seemed to better prevent anesthesia-induced atelectasis and might improve lung protection throughout general anesthesia. PMID:25383882

  8. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-02

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  9. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  10. Trephine biopsy of the lung and pleura

    PubMed Central

    Steel, S. J.; Winstanley, D. P.

    1969-01-01

    During the last five years 140 biopsies of the lung or pleura have been performed with a high-speed air-drill. A specially designed trephine, 2·1 mm. in bore, proved effective in obtaining adequate specimens from patients with diffuse lung lesions. With this method 111 out of 119 (93%) consecutive lung biopsies were successful in producing specimens of lung tissue for histological examination and 101 (85%) of these biopsies were diagnostically significant. Conditions such as sarcoidosis, berylliosis, alveolar proteinosis, polyarteritis nodosa, asbestosis, and diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis were conclusively diagnosed. Complications were not serious and the commonest, pneumothorax, which occurred in 26% of the lung biopsies, was usually asymptomatic. The procedure is rapid and painless and breath-holding is unnecessary. It is performed under local anaesthesia and can be repeated, if required, thus having many advantages over biopsy by open thoracotomy. However, full thoracic surgical cover should be available. Indications include diffuse and localized lesions of the lung or pleura where a definitive diagnosis is required for the purpose of treatment, prognosis, or a claim for industrial compensation. Images PMID:5348325

  11. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  12. Perioperative Lung Protection Provided by High-Dose Ambroxol in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Huayong; Zhang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The purpose is to observe the clinical effect of large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride in lung protection during the perioperative period of lung cancer operation. Fifty-six lung cancer patients who have undergone open-thoracic pulmonary lobectomy were divided randomly into two groups, and were given normal and large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride, respectively, during their perioperative period. Statistics based on post-operation clinical observations were analyzed in terms of ease of expectoration and expectoration properties, duration of antibiotics dependence, occurrence of lung complications, and adverse reactions related to ambroxol hydrochloride. On the third and the seventh day, the experimental group showed signs of improvement in terms of ease of expectoration and expectoration properties, compared with the controlled group. In terms of occurrence of post-operation lung complications and duration of antibiotics dependence, the experimental group also performed better. Using large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride would result in better clinical effects than using normal doses in preventing post-operation complications, and its clinical value in lung protection during lung cancer perioperative period calls for further research and promotion.

  13. Mechanism of action of ozone on the human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Hazucha, M.J.; Bates, D.V.; Bromberg, P.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Fourteen healthy normal volunteers were randomly exposed to air and 0.5 ppm of ozone (O3) in a controlled exposure chamber for a 2-h period during which 15 min of treadmill exercise sufficient to produce a ventilation of approximately 40 l/min was alternated with 15-min rest periods. Before testing an esophageal balloon was inserted, and lung volumes, flow rates, maximal inspiratory (at residual volume and functional residual capacity) and expiratory (at total lung capacity and functional residual capacity) mouth pressures, and pulmonary mechanics (static and dynamic compliance and airway resistance) were measured before and immediately after the exposure period. After the postexposure measurements had been completed, the subjects inhaled an aerosol of 20% lidocaine until response to citric acid aerosol inhalation was abolished. All of the measurements were immediately repeated. We found that the O3 exposure (1) induced a significant mean decrement of 17.8% in vital capacity (this change was the result of a marked fall in inspiratory capacity without significant increase in residual volume), (2) significantly increased mean airway resistance and specific airway resistance but did not change dynamic or static pulmonary compliance or viscous or elastic work, (3) significantly reduced maximal transpulmonary pressure (by 19%) but produced no changes in inspiratory or expiratory maximal mouth pressures, and (4) significantly increased respiratory rate (in 5 subjects by more than 6 breaths/min) and decreased tidal volume.

  14. Opening the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.

    2002-10-01

    We hope to "open the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.

  15. Causation of Binet IQ Decrements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    The 1972 re-norming of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale for children from three to six years of age produced unusually high scores. When these children were retested three years later, some drop in scores was noted. Reasons for the initial scores and the score decline are discussed. (Author/JKS)

  16. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  17. Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Stone, Jason D.; Turner, Stephanie M.; Anzalone, Anthony J.; Eimerbrink, Micah J.; Pane, Marco; Amoruso, Angela; Rowlands, David S.; Oliver, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B.) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic–placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise. PMID:27754427

  18. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  19. Half-squat or jump squat training under optimum power load conditions to counteract power and speed decrements in Brazilian elite soccer players during the preseason.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Zanetti, Vinicius; Gil, Saulo; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test which specific type of exercise (i.e., jump squat (JS) or half-squat (HS)) is more effective at maintaining speed and power abilities throughout a preseason in soccer players. Twenty-three male soccer players were randomly allocated into two groups: JS and HS. The mean propulsive power, vertical jumping ability, and sprinting performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of a preseason period. The optimum power loads for the JS and HS exercises were assessed and were used as load-references. The soccer players performed 10 power oriented training sessions in total. Both JS and HS maintained power in JS and speed abilities (P > 0.05, for main effects and interaction effect) as indicated by ANCOVA. Both groups demonstrated reduced power during HS (ES = -0.76 vs. -0.78, for JS and HS, respectively); both groups improved acceleration (ACC) from 5 to 10 m (ES = 0.52). JS was more effective at reducing the ACC decrements over 0-5 m (ES = -0.38 vs. -0.58, for JS and HS, respectively). The HS group increased squat jump height (ES = 0.76 vs. 0.11, for HS and JS, respectively). In summary, JS is more effective in reducing the ACC capacity over very short sprints while HS is more effective in improving squat jump performance. Both strategies improve ACC over longer distances. New training strategies should be implemented/developed to avoid concurrent training effects between power and endurance adaptations during professional soccer preseasons.

  20. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity.

  1. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  2. Lung cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Rodriguez, Raúl; Morales-Fuentes, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. PMID:28210127

  3. Ozone inhalation effects in females varying widely in lung size: Comparison with males

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, T.D.; Adams, W.C. )

    1990-07-01

    It has been suggested that lung size accounts for observed gender differences in responsiveness to the same total inhaled dose of O3. To test the hypothesis that lung size is a determinant of magnitude of response within a gender, two groups of 14 healthy young adult females differing significantly in forced vital capacity (FVC; i.e., small-lung group mean = 3.74 liters (range 3.2-4.0) and large-lung group mean = 5.11 liters (range 4.5-6.2)) were exposed for 1 h to filtered air (FA) and to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. On each occasion, subjects exercised continuously on a cycle ergometer at a work rate that elicited a mean minute ventilation of approximately 47 l/min. For the small-lung group (mean total lung capacity (TLC) = 4.52 liters) exercise O2 uptake was 67% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), and that for the large-lung group (TLC 6.37 liters) was 61% of VO2max. Statistical analysis revealed significant decrements for both groups in FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow rate in the middle half of FVC on exposure to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. Exercise respiratory frequency increased, and tidal volume decreased significantly in both groups in response to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3 exposure. On exposure to 0.30 ppm O3, the number of individual subjective symptoms reported and their severity were significantly greater for both groups than those reported for the FA and 0.18 ppm O3 exposures. Both groups evidenced similar percent changes in pulmonary function and exercise ventilation response, and in subjective symptom response.

  4. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  5. [Microstructure of the lung: diffusion measurement of hyperpolarized 3Helium].

    PubMed

    Morbach, Andreas E; Gast, Klaus K; Schmiedeskamp, Jörg; Herweling, Annette; Windirsch, Michael; Dahmen, Anja; Ley, Sebastian; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Heil, Werner; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Schreiber, Wolfgang G

    2006-01-01

    Imaging methods to study the lung are traditionally based on x-ray or on radioactive contrast agents. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has only limited applications for lung imaging because of the low tissue density of protons concentration of hydrogen atoms, which are usually the basis for the imaging. The introduction of hyperpolarized noble gases as a contrast agent in MRI has opened new possibilities for lung diagnosis. The present paper describes this new technique. Diffusion-weighted MRI for assessment of the lung microstructure is presented here as an example of the new possibilities of functional imaging. Studies to determine the sensitivity of the diffusion measurement and regarding the correlation with traditionally established methods are also presented, along with results of the measurement of the reproducibility determined in a clinical pilot study on healthy volunteers and patients. Furthermore, a pilot measurement of the 3He diffusion tensor in the lung is presented.

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  7. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  9. Lung protective strategies in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, B; Slinger, P

    2010-12-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period including atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anaesthetic management can cause, exacerbate, or ameliorate these injuries. This review examines the effects of perioperative mechanical ventilation and its role in ventilator-induced lung injury. Lung protective ventilatory strategies to specific clinical situations such as cardiopulmonary bypass and one-lung ventilation along with newer novel lung protective strategies are discussed.

  10. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  11. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  12. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  13. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  14. Artificial lung: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Go, T; Macchiarini, P

    2008-10-01

    While the number of the patients suffering from end-stage pulmonary disease has been increasing, the most common treatment for this entity remains mechanical ventilation that entails the risks of lung damage by itself. Although the lung protective strategy for the prevention of further damage to the lung tissue has been elucidated and performed, mechanical ventilation alone as the management tactic coping with the patients of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic respiratory failure and lung transplantations has been a frustrated scenario. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or extracorporeal lung assist have been applied to these patients with occasional success, but it always accompanies difficulties such as multiple blood transfusion, labor intensity, technically complexity and tendency to infection. In contrast to advances in the development of cardiac or renal support systems for adults, the development of extra-, para- and intracorporeal mechanical systems for acute or chronic lung respiratory failure has logged far behind. It has been mostly due to the lack of the capable technologies. Entering 21st century with advent of new technology especially invention of the low resistance oxygenator, the developments of artificial lungs have entered the new stage. In this report current status of the artificial lungs will be reviewed.

  15. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  16. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  17. Lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Lynn T; Tanner, Nichole T; Gould, Michael K; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. This recommendation is largely based on the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial. Both policy-level and clinical decision-making about LDCT screening must consider the potential benefits of screening (reduced mortality from lung cancer) and possible harms. Effective screening requires an appreciation that screening should be limited to individuals at high risk of death from lung cancer, and that the risk of harm related to false positive findings, overdiagnosis, and unnecessary invasive testing is real. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of screening will inform appropriate implementation, with the objective that an evidence-based and systematic approach to screening will help to reduce the enormous mortality burden of lung cancer.

  18. Lung transplant infection.

    PubMed

    Burguete, Sergio R; Maselli, Diego J; Fernandez, Juan F; Levine, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become an accepted therapeutic procedure for the treatment of end-stage pulmonary parenchymal and vascular disease. Despite improved survival rates over the decades, lung transplant recipients have lower survival rates than other solid organ transplant recipients. The morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation is largely due to infection- and rejection-related complications. This article will review the common infections that develop in the lung transplant recipient, including the general risk factors for infection in this population, and the most frequent bacterial, viral, fungal and other less frequent opportunistic infections. The epidemiology, diagnosis, prophylaxis, treatment and outcomes for the different microbial pathogens will be reviewed. The effects of infection on lung transplant rejection will also be discussed.

  19. An alternative method to achieve one-lung ventilation by surgical pneumothorax in difficult lung isolation patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Pin-Hung; Hsu, Po-Kai

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to establish one-lung ventilation in difficult airway patients. Surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing to obtain well-collapsed lung is a feasible method for thoracic surgery. A 76-year-old man with right empyema was scheduled for decortication. The patient had limited mouth opening due to facial cellulitis extending from the left cheek to neck. Generally, lung isolation is achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tube or bronchial blocker. Double-lumen tube insertion is difficult for patients with limited mouth opening and right-side placement of bronchial blocker usually causes insufficient deflation. We introduce an alternative lung isolation technique by surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing simply with an endotracheal tube placement. This technique has never been applied into the management of difficult one-lung ventilation. By this method, we provide an ideal surgical condition with safer, less time-consuming, and less skill-demanding anesthesia. It would be an alternative choice for management of one-lung ventilation in the difficult lung isolation patient.

  20. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  1. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  2. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  3. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung presenting as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Safadi, R; Berkman, N; Haviv, Y S; Ben-Yehuda, A; Amir, G; Naparstek, Y

    1997-12-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with fever, dyspnea, and bilateral cavitary lung lesions. Following percutaneous transthoracic CT guided needle biopsy of the lung, a diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was made and the patient was treated with corticosteroids. Despite a good initial response he developed new lung lesions within six months, associated with a lack of response to corticosteroids. Due to further deterioration and the development of Guillian-Barre' syndrome an open lung biopsy was performed and revealed T-cell rich, B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma with BOOP. We suggest that BOOP may be the presenting manifestation of primary lung lymphoma. We recommend that when BOOP has an atypical course or does not respond to corticosteroids open lung biopsy should be performed in order to exclude pulmonary lymphoma.

  4. Micro-imaging of the Mouse Lung via MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    Quantitative measurement of lung microstructure is of great significance in assessment of pulmonary disease, particularly in the earliest stages. Conventional stereological assessment of ex-vivo fixed tissue specimens under the microscope has a long and successful tradition and is regarded as a gold standard, but the invasive nature limits its applications and the practicality of use in longitudinal studies. The technique for diffusion MRI-based 3He lung morphometry was previously developed and validated for human lungs, and was recently extended to ex-vivo mouse lungs. The technique yields accurate, quantitative information about the microstructure and geometry of acinar airways. In this dissertation, the 3He lung morphometry technique is for the first time successfully implemented for in-vivo studies of mice. It can generate spatially-resolved maps of parameters that reveal the microstructure of mouse lung. Results in healthy mice indicate excellent agreement between in-vivo morphometry via 3He MRI and microscopic morphometry after sacrifice. The implementation and validation of 3He morphometry in healthy mice open up new avenues for application of the technique as a precise, noninvasive, in-vivo biomarker of changes in lung microstructure, within various mouse models of lung disease. We have applied 3He morphometry to the Sendai mouse model of lung disease. Specifically, the Sendai-virus model of chronic obstructive lung disease has demonstrated an innate immune response in mouse airways that exhibits similarities to the chronic airway inflammation in human COPD and asthma, but the effect on distal lung parenchyma had not been investigated. We imaged the time course and regional distribution of mouse lung microstructural changes in vivo after Sendai virus (SeV) infection with 1H and 3He diffusion MRI. 1H MR images detected the SeV-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo and 3He lung morphometry showed modest increase in alveolar duct radius distal to airway

  5. Open Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bough, Max, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal provides 12 brief articles focused on open education. Topics explored include (1) open education and reading, (2) mainstreaming, (3) characteristics of an open teacher, (4) administration of an open concept school, (5) an existential methodology in the language arts, (6) social studies in open education, (7) open education in early…

  6. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  7. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  8. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients.

  9. Ultrasensitive characterization of site-specific glycosylation of affinity-purified haptoglobin from lung cancer patient plasma using 10 μm i.d. porous layer open tubular liquid chromatography-linear ion trap collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongdong; Hincapie, Marina; Rejtar, Tomas; Karger, Barry L

    2011-03-15

    Site-specific analysis of protein glycosylation is important for biochemical and clinical research efforts. Glycopeptide analysis using liquid chromatography-collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (LC-CID/ETD-MS) allows simultaneous characterization of the glycan structure and attached peptide site. However, due to the low ionization efficiency of glycopeptides during electrospray ionization, 200-500 fmol of sample per injection is needed for a single LC-MS run, which makes it challenging for the analysis of limited amounts of glycoprotein purified from biological matrixes. To improve the sensitivity of LC-MS analysis for glycopeptides, an ultranarrow porous layer open tubular (PLOT) LC column (2.5 m × 10 μm i.d.) was coupled to a linear ion trap (LTQ) collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometer to provide sensitive analysis of N-linked protein glycosylation heterogeneity. The potential of the developed method is demonstrated by the characterization of site-specific glycosylation using haptoglobin (Hpt) as a model protein. To limit the amount of haptoglobin to low picomole amounts of protein, we affinity purified it from 1 μL of pooled lung cancer patient plasma. A total of 26 glycoforms/glycan compositions on three Hpt tryptic glycopeptides were identified and quantified from 10 LC-MS runs with a consumption of 100 fmol of Hpt digest (13 ng of protein, 10 fmol per injection). Included in this analysis was the determination of the glycan occupancy level. At this sample consumption level, the high sensitivity of the PLOT LC-LTQ-CID/ETD-MS system allowed glycopeptide identification and structure determination, along with relative quantitation of glycans presented on the same peptide backbone, even for low abundant glycopeptides at the ∼100 amol level. The PLOT LC-MS system is shown to have sufficient sensitivity to allow characterization of site-specific protein glycosylation from trace

  10. Bioengineering Lungs for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2016-05-01

    Whole lung extracellular matrix scaffolds can be created by perfusion of cadaveric organs with decellularizing detergents, providing a platform for organ regeneration. Lung epithelial engineering must address both the proximal airway cells that function to metabolize toxins and aid mucociliary clearance and the distal pneumocytes that facilitate gas exchange. Engineered pulmonary vasculature must support in vivo blood perfusion with low resistance and intact barrier function and be antithrombotic. Repopulating the native lung matrix with sufficient cell numbers in appropriate anatomic locations is required to enable organ function.

  11. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  12. Familial risk for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Madiha; Ding, Xiao-Ji; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer, which has a low survival rate, is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Smoking and air pollution are the major causes of lung cancer; however, numerous studies have demonstrated that genetic factors also contribute to the development of lung cancer. A family history of lung cancer increases the risk for the disease in both smokers and never-smokers. This review focuses on familial lung cancer, in particular on the familial aggregation of lung cancer. The development of familial lung cancer involves shared environmental and genetic factors among family members. Familial lung cancer represents a good model for investigating the association between environmental and genetic factors, as well as for identifying susceptibility genes for lung cancer. In addition, studies on familial lung cancer may help to elucidate the etiology and mechanism of lung cancer, and may identify novel biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis, targeted therapy and improved prevention strategies. This review presents the aetiology and molecular biology of lung cancer and then systematically introduces and discusses several aspects of familial lung cancer, including the characteristics of familial lung cancer, population-based studies on familial lung cancer and the genetics of familial lung cancer. PMID:28356926

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to have a tube inserted in the space between the collapsed lung and the chest wall to remove the air and allow the lung to re-expand. If ... to a few days (usually) to drain the air allowing the small hole in the lung to ... may collect in the space between the lung and its covering membrane. If ...

  14. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... following substances increases the risk of lung cancer: Asbestos . Arsenic . Chromium. Nickel. Beryllium. Cadmium . Tar and soot. ... being exposed to cancer-causing substances, such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, and chromium, may help lower their ...

  15. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... another type of non-small cell lung cancer Larynx: The voice box; located above the windpipe Limited ... allows for the passage of air from the larynx to the bronchial tubes Transfusion: The infusion of ...

  16. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  18. What Are the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your ... breathing possible. (For more information, go to "The Respiratory System" section of this article.) Rate This Content: NEXT >> ...

  19. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung, mediastinum, and pleura. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, Venbrux AC, Morgan RA, eds. Image- ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  20. Lung epinephrine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. )

    1990-04-01

    We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

  1. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  2. Lung Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in the world and continually leads in mortality among cancers. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer has risen only 4% (from 12% to 16%) over the past 4 decades, and late diagnosis is a major obstacle in improving lung cancer prognosis. Survival of patients undergoing lung resection is greater than 80%, suggesting that early detection and diagnosis of cancers before they become inoperable and lethal will greatly improve mortality. Lung cancer biomarkers can be used for screening, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, stratification, therapy response monitoring, and so on. This review focuses on noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. For that purpose, our discussion in this review will focus on biological fluid-based biomarkers. The body fluids include blood (serum or plasma), sputum, saliva, BAL, pleural effusion, and VOC. Since it is rich in different cellular and molecular elements and is one of the most convenient and routine clinical procedures, serum or plasma is the main source for the development and validation of many noninvasive biomarkers. In terms of molecular aspects, the most widely validated ones are proteins, some of which are used in the clinical sector, though in limited accessory purposes. We will also discuss the lung cancer (protein) biomarkers in clinical trials and currently in the validation phase with hundreds of samples. After proteins, we will discuss microRNAs, methylated DNA, and circulating tumor cells, which are being vigorously developed and validated as potential lung cancer biomarkers. The main aim of this review is to provide researchers and clinicians with an understanding of the potential noninvasive lung cancer biomarkers in biological fluids that have recently been discovered.

  3. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  4. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  5. Indoor nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, D; Leaderer, B; Chinn, S; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important pollutant of indoor and outdoor air, but epidemiological studies show inconsistent health effects. These inconsistencies may be due to failure to account for the health effects of nitrous acid (HONO) which is generated directly from gas combustion and indirectly from NO2. Methods: Two hundred and seventy six adults provided information on respiratory symptoms and lung function and had home levels of NO2 and HONO measured as well as outdoor levels of NO2. The association of indoor HONO levels with symptoms and lung function was examined. Results: The median indoor HONO level was 3.10 ppb (IQR 2.05–5.09), with higher levels in homes with gas hobs, gas ovens, and in those measured during the winter months. Non-significant increases in respiratory symptoms were observed in those living in homes with higher HONO levels. An increase of 1 ppb in indoor HONO was associated with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted (–0.96%; 95% CI –0.09 to –1.82) and a decrease in percentage FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (–0.45%; 95% CI –0.06 to –0.83) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Measures of indoor NO2 were correlated with HONO (r = 0.77), but no significant association of indoor NO2 with symptoms or lung function was observed. After adjustment for NO2 measures, the association of HONO with low lung function persisted. Conclusion: Indoor HONO levels are associated with decrements in lung function and possibly with more respiratory symptoms. Inconsistencies between studies examining health effects of NO2 and use of gas appliances may be related to failure to account for this association. PMID:15923247

  6. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  7. Type I Interferons as Regulators of Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Spyridon; Paulsen, Michelle; Johansson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Immune responses to lung infections must be tightly regulated in order to permit pathogen eradication while maintaining organ function. Exuberant or dysregulated inflammation can impair gas exchange and underlies many instances of lung disease. An important driver of inflammation in the lung is the interferon (IFN) response. Type I IFNs are antiviral cytokines that induce a large range of proteins that impair viral replication in infected cells. This cell-intrinsic action plays a crucial role in protecting the lungs from spread of respiratory viruses. However, type I IFNs have also recently been found to be central to the initiation of lung inflammatory responses, by inducing recruitment and activation of immune cells. This helps control virus burden but can cause detrimental immunopathology and contribute to disease severity. Furthermore, there is now increasing evidence that type I IFNs are not only induced after viral infections but also after infection with bacteria and fungi. The pro-inflammatory function of type I IFNs in the lung opens up the possibility of immune modulation directed against this antiviral cytokine family. In this review, the initiation and signaling of type I IFNs as well as their role in driving and maintaining lung inflammation will be discussed. PMID:28344581

  8. Protective lung ventilation in operating room: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Constantin, J M; Jaber, S

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications adversely affect clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization, so that prevention has become a measure of the quality of perioperative care. Mechanical ventilation is an essential support therapy to maintain adequate gas exchange during general anesthesia for surgery. Mechanical ventilation using high tidal volume (VT) (between 10 and 15 mL/kg) has been historically encouraged to prevent hypoxemia and atelectasis formation in anesthetized patients undergoing abdominal and thoracic surgery. However, there is accumulating evidence from both experimental and clinical studies that mechanical ventilation, especially the use of high VT and plateau pressure, may potentially aggravate or even initiate lung injury. Ventilator-associated lung injury can result from cyclic alveolar overdistension of non-dependent lung tissue, and repetitive opening and closing of dependent lung tissue resulting in ultrastructural damage at the junction of closed and open alveoli. Lung-protective ventilation, which refers to the use of lower VT and limited plateau pressure to minimize overdistension, and positive end-expiratory pressure to prevent alveolar collapse at end-expiration, was shown to improve outcome in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been recently suggested that this approach might also be beneficial in a broader population, especially in critically ill patients without ARDS at the onset of mechanical ventilation. There is, however, little evidence regarding a potential beneficial effect of lung protective ventilation during surgery, especially in patients with healthy lungs. Although surgical patients are frequently exposed to much shorter periods of mechanical ventilation, this is an important gap in knowledge given the number of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the operating room. This review developed the benefits of lung protective ventilation during surgery

  9. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: From Innovation to Standard of Care.

    PubMed

    White, Abby; Swanson, Scott J

    2016-11-15

    The era of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer follows decades of research; the collection and interpretation of countless qualitative and quantitative data points; and tireless efforts by a few pioneering thoracic surgeons who believed they could deliver a safe and oncologically sound operation with less tissue trauma, an improved physiologic profile, and fewer complications than traditional open surgery. This review highlights those efforts and the role of minimally invasive surgery for early-stage lung cancer in light of evolving technology, the emerging understanding of the biology of early-stage lung cancer, and lung cancer screening.

  10. Adaptive lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Linton, D M

    2001-09-01

    Adaptive lung ventilation (ALV) is a method of closed-loop mechanical ventilation analogous to modern closed-loop technology in aviation such as the autopilot and automatic landing system. The algorithm of the controller of ALV is designed to automatically provide pressure-controlled synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (P-SIMV) and weaning as individually required in any clinical situation. The synchronized pressure limited breaths constantly adapt to the patient requirements to encourage optimal alveolar ventilation with minimal adverse physiological disturbance and timely weaning. The ease of application, efficiency, and safety of the first ALV controllers have been demonstrated in lung models, in patients with normal lungs undergoing general anesthesia, in patients requiring unusual positioning, in transition to and from one-lung anesthesia, and in long-term ventilation of patients with various lung pathologies and in weaning patients who have restrictive or obstructive pulmonary disease. Prospective comparative studies of ALV versus other currently used manually selected modes of mechanical ventilation, such as the one reported in this article, should confirm the safety and identify the benefits of this form of advanced closed-loop mechanical ventilation technology.

  11. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  12. [Indium lung disease].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-01

    "Indium lung" is a new occupational lung disease. The global demand for indium, the major material used in manufacturing flat-screen display panels, has skyrocketed since the 1990s (Japan comprises 85% of the worldwide demand). The first case was reported in Japan in 2003, followed by seven cases (interstitial pneumonia and emphysema) in Japan. Two pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) cases in the USA followed in 2011. Indium lung has been described as interstitial pneumonia, pneumothorax, emphysema, and PAP. In 2013, The Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued an "Ordinance on the Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances" requiring employers to provide regular health checks for employees and measurements of work environment concentrations of respirable indium dust.

  13. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  14. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  15. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and the heart ... ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, indicated with the arrow (seen on the left ...

  16. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  17. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  18. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD How the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Oxygen Therapy Sarcoidosis Stress Testing Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, ...

  19. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  20. Lung-MAP Clinical Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Lung-MAP study, which will examine treatment outcomes for patients with squamous cell lung cancer assigned to different targeted drugs based on the results of genomic tumor profiling.

  1. Lung Ablation: Whats New?

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lillian; Dupuy, Damian E

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer had an estimated incidence of 221,200 in 2015, making up 13% of all cancer diagnoses. Tumor ablation is an important treatment option for nonsurgical lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic patients. Radiofrequency ablation has been used for over a decade with newer modalities, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation presenting as additional and possibly improved treatment options for patients. This minimally invasive therapy is best for small primary lesions or favorably located metastatic tumors. These technologies can offer palliation and sometimes cure of thoracic malignancies. This article discusses the current available technologies and techniques available for tumor ablation.

  2. Radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bleehen, N.M.; Cox, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    The role of radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer was reviewed at a workshop held in Cambridge, England, in June 1984. It was concluded that there was a continuing role for radiation therapy in the primary management of small cell lung cancer, including the loco-regional treatment for patients with limited disease. Radical radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell carcinoma could be curative for a proportion of patients with limited disease. Careful planning and quality control was essential. Palliative radiotherapy provided useful treatment for many other patients. Other related aspects of treatment are also presented.

  3. Poverty and lung health.

    PubMed

    Rusen, I D; Squire, S Bertel; Billo, Nils E

    2010-04-01

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) held its 40th World Conference on Lung Health in Cancun, Mexico, between 3 and 7 December 2009. It was attended by over 2000 delegates from 104 countries around the world. The conference featured four stimulating plenary sessions and an extensive selection of scientific symposia. A total of 1125 abstracts were also presented from five broad categories: clinical trials and TB basic science, clinical research for treatment and care, epidemiology, education, advocacy and social issues, and policy and program implementation. In addition, the conference was preceded by a series of well-attended postgraduate courses and workshops.

  4. Lung Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Pamela; Wistuba, Ignacio I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular characterization of lung cancer has changed the classification and treatment of these tumors, becoming an essential component of pathologic diagnosis and oncologic therapy decisions. Through the recognition of novel biomarkers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations, it is possible to identify subsets of patients who benefit from targeted molecular therapies. The success of targeted anticancer therapies and new immunotherapy approaches has created a new paradigm of personalized therapy and has led to accelerated development of new drugs for lung cancer treatment. This article focuses on clinically relevant cancer biomarkers as targets for therapy and potential new targets for drug development.

  5. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  6. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    lung mechanics in vivo during spontaneous breathing (dynamic) and mechanical ventilation (static), and the static compliance of the excised lung after...to depth. Physiological Zoology, 1982. 55(1): p. 105-111. 6. Fahlman, A., et al., Estimating the effect of lung collapse and pulmonary shunt on gas...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals Andreas Fahlman

  7. Current and future molecular diagnostics in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Man; Chu, Wing Ying; Wong, Di Lun; Tsang, Hin Fung; Tsui, Nancy Bo Yin; Chan, Charles Ming Lok; Xue, Vivian Wei Wen; Siu, Parco Ming Fai; Yung, Benjamin Yat Ming; Chan, Lawrence Wing Chi; Wong, Sze Chuen Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The molecular investigation of lung cancer has opened up an advanced area for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer patients. Gene alterations in cancer initiation and progression provide not only information on molecular changes in lung cancer but also opportunities in advanced therapeutic regime by personalized targeted therapy. EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement are important predictive biomarkers for the efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in lung cancer patients. Moreover, epigenetic aberration and microRNA dysregulation are recent advances in the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer. Although a wide range of molecular tests are available, standardization and validation of assay protocols are essential for the quality of the test outcome. In this review, current and new advancements of molecular biomarkers for non-small-cell lung cancer will be discussed. Recommendations on future development of molecular diagnostic services will also be explored.

  8. Quantitative assessment of lung microstructure in healthy mice using an MR-based 3He lung morphometry technique

    PubMed Central

    Osmanagic, E.; Sukstanskii, A. L.; Quirk, J. D.; Woods, J. C.; Pierce, R. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Weibel, E. R.

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed technique of lung morphometry using hyperpolarized 3He diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) (Yablonskiy DA, Sukstanskii AL, Woods JC, Gierada DS, Quirk JD, Hogg JC, Cooper JD, Conradi MS. J Appl Physiol 107: 1258–1265, 2009) permits in vivo study of lung microstructure at the alveolar level. Originally proposed for human lungs, it also has the potential to study small animals. The technique relies on theoretical developments in the area of gas diffusion in lungs linking the diffusion attenuated MR signal to the lung microstructure. To adapt this technique to small animals, certain modifications in MR protocol and data analysis are required, reflecting the smaller size of mouse alveoli and acinar airways. This is the subject of the present paper. Herein, we established empirical relationships relating diffusion measurements to geometrical parameters of lung acinar airways with dimensions typical for mice and rats by using simulations of diffusion in the airways. We have also adjusted the MR protocol to acquire data with much shorter diffusion times compared with humans to accommodate the substantially smaller acinar airway length. We apply this technique to study mouse lungs ex vivo. Our MR-based measurements yield mean values of lung surface-to-volume ratio of 670 cm−1, alveolar density of 3,200 per mm3, alveolar depth of 55 μm, and mean chord length of 62 μm, all consistent with published data obtained histologically in mice by unbiased methods. The proposed technique can be used for in vivo experiments, opening a door for longitudinal studies of lung morphometry in mice and other small animals. PMID:20798272

  9. [Lung auscultation--an overview].

    PubMed

    Bürgi, Urs; Huber, Lars Christian

    2015-07-01

    The auscultation of the lungs is - among anamnesis - the most important part in the assessment of patients presenting with pulmonary symptoms. The lung auscultation is reproducible, cost efficient and very helpful to distinguish between differential diagnoses, in particular in emergency situations. Detection and description of lung sounds requires experience and should be performed by strict adherence to the internationally accepted terminology.

  10. Environmental radiation and the lung

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Philip E.; Walsh, Phillip J.

    1974-01-01

    Environmental sources of radioactive materials and their relation to lung doses and lung burdens are described. The approaches used and the problems encountered in estimating lung doses are illustrated. Exposure to radon daughter products is contrasted to exposure to plutonium as particular examples of the hazards associated with radioactive materials of different chemical and physical characteristics. PMID:4620334

  11. Respiratory compliance but not gas exchange correlates with changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver: an experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Henzler, Dietrich; Pelosi, Paolo; Dembinski, Rolf; Ullmann, Annette; Mahnken, Andreas H; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Atelectasis is a common finding in acute lung injury, leading to increased shunt and hypoxemia. Current treatment strategies aim to recruit alveoli for gas exchange. Improvement in oxygenation is commonly used to detect recruitment, although the assumption that gas exchange parameters adequately represent the mechanical process of alveolar opening has not been proven so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether commonly used measures of lung mechanics better detect lung tissue collapse and changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver as compared to measures of gas exchange Methods In eight anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, acute lung injury was induced by saline lavage and a recruitment maneuver was performed by inflating the lungs three times with a pressure of 45 cmH2O for 40 s with a constant positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O. The association of gas exchange and lung mechanics parameters with the amount and the changes in aerated and nonaerated lung volumes induced by this specific recruitment maneuver was investigated by multi slice CT scan analysis of the whole lung. Results Nonaerated lung correlated with shunt fraction (r = 0.68) and respiratory system compliance (r = 0.59). The arterial partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and the respiratory system compliance correlated with poorly aerated lung volume (r = 0.57 and 0.72, respectively). The recruitment maneuver caused a decrease in nonaerated lung volume, an increase in normally and poorly aerated lung, but no change in the distribution of a tidal breath to differently aerated lung volumes. The fractional changes in PaO2, arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and venous admixture after the recruitment maneuver did not correlate with the changes in lung volumes. Alveolar recruitment correlated only with changes in the plateau pressure (r = 0.89), respiratory system compliance (r = 0.82) and parameters obtained from the pressure-volume curve

  12. Stereology of the lung.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Ochs, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific projects require a quantitative assessment of organ, tissue and cell (ultra)structure. Such quantitative (morphometric) data are essential to make statistically valid comparisons between experimental groups. The structures of interest are measured at different microscopic levels. However, measurements in microscopy pose two problems: 1) Only a small fraction of the whole biological system can be analyzed (sampling problem). 2) The analysis is performed on nearly two-dimensional (physical, optical or virtual) sections through the object although the aim is to obtain biologically meaningful three-dimensional data (3D vs 2D problem). These problems are solved by the application of unbiased sampling and measurement tools known as stereology. This chapter gives a brief introduction to the theory and practical application of stereology, using the lung as an example. Stereological tools needed to quantify volume, number and surface area are introduced and examples are given how to estimate total lung volume, volume of lung parenchyma, alveolar surface area and number of alveolar epithelial type II cells per lung.

  13. Lung transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100120.htm Lung transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 ...

  14. Agenesis of the lung.

    PubMed

    Sbokos, C G; McMillan, I K

    1977-07-01

    Agenesis of the lung is rare. The cases of ten patients with this malformation are recorded and illustrated. Most had congenital malformation of other organs, especially the heart, as well. All had hypoplasia of the pulmonary artery or its branches. A pantaloon-like appearance of the trachea and the main bronchi on the bronchograms is described. Exercise tolerance was impaired in all patients.

  15. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  16. An amyloid lung

    PubMed Central

    Zundel, W. E.; Prior, A. P.

    1971-01-01

    A 55-year-old housewife died from an illness characterized by progressive respiratory incapacity. Changes were confined to the lungs and consisted of a diffuse infiltration by amyloid. No adequate cause was found for this amyloid, and we suggest that this is a case of primary alveolar septal amyloidosis. Images PMID:5559913

  17. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Bridging to lung transplantation for severe pulmonary hypertension using dual central Novalung lung assist devices.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Jonathan; Niranjan, Gunaratnam; Dark, John; Clark, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    This case describes the technique of using dual Novalungs (a pumpless extracorporeal system) to bridge a patient with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension to bilateral lung transplantation. A 41-year old lady with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (with a possible veno-occlusive element) presented with symptoms of end-stage heart and lung failure. This was refractory to medical management with iloprost, sildenafil and bosentan. The patient was placed on the urgent waiting list for lung transplantation and central pulmonary artery to left atrial Novalung insertion was performed. Local anaesthetic was given before performing peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass due to the high risk of cardiac arrest. Two days later, donor organs became available and the patient was taken for double-lung transplantation. The pulmonary artery cannula was removed leaving a large defect. This was then closed using a bovine pericardial patch. Due to the damaged right superior pulmonary vein from Novalung cannulation, cardioplegia was given to facilitate an open atrial anastomosis. After 13 days in the intensive therapy unit, she was transferred to the ward. There were no further complications and she has been discharged home.

  19. Fluorometry of ischemia reperfusion injury in rat lungs in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Jacobs, E. R.; Audi, S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to evaluate lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rats lungs under various chemically-induced respiratory states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute ischemia on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in vivo using optical fluorometry. Under ischemic conditions, insufficient oxygen supply to the mitochondrial chain should reduce the mitochondrial redox state calculated from the ratio of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavoprotein Adenine Dinucleotide). The chest of anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rat was opened to induce acute ischemia by clamping the left hilum to block both blood flow and ventilation to one lung for approximately 10 minutes. NADH and FAD fluorescent signals were recorded continuously in a dark room via a fluorometer probe placed on the pleural surface of the left lung. Acute ischemia caused a decrease in FAD and an increase in NADH, which resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial redox ratio (RR=NADH/FAD). Restoration of blood flow and ventilation by unclamping the left hilum returned the RR back to its baseline. These results (increase in RR under ischemia) show promise for the fluorometer to be used in a clinical setting for evaluating the effect of pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in real time.

  20. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Charlotte U; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Hilberg, Ole; Simonsen, Ulf

    2013-10-03

    The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge on PH in relation to COPD and ILD from a clinical perspective with emphasis on diagnosis, biomarkers, prevalence, impact, treatment, and practical implications. PH in COPD and ILD is associated with a poor prognosis, and is considered one of the most frequent types of PH. However, the prevalence of PH among patients with COPD and ILD is not clear. The diagnosis of PH in chronic lung disease is often established by echocardiographic screening, but definitive diagnosis requires right heart catheterization, which is not systematically performed in clinical practice. Given the large number of patients with chronic lung disease, biomarkers to preclude or increase suspicion of PH are needed. NT-proBNP may be used as a rule-out test, but biomarkers with a high specificity for PH are still required. It is not known whether specific treatment with existent drugs effective in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is beneficial in lung disease related PH. Studies investigating existing PAH drugs in animal models of lung disease related PH have indicated a positive effect, and so have case reports and open label studies. However, treatment with systemically administered pulmonary vasodilators implies the risk of worsening the ventilation-perfusion mismatch in patients with lung disease. Inhaled vasodilators may be better suited for PH in lung disease, but new treatment modalities are also required.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 deficiency exacerbates bleomycin-induced lung dysfunction but not fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Card, Jeffrey W; Voltz, James W; Carey, Michelle A; Bradbury, J Alyce; Degraff, Laura M; Lih, Fred B; Bonner, James C; Morgan, Daniel L; Flake, Gordon P; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2007-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Uncertainty regarding the influence of COX-2 on experimental pulmonary fibrosis prompted us to clarify the fibrotic and functional effects of intratracheal bleomycin administration in mice genetically deficient in COX-2. Further, the effects of airway-specific COX-1 overexpression on fibrotic and functional outcomes in wild-type and COX-2 knockout mice were assessed. Equivalent increases in airway cell influx, lung collagen content, and histopathologic evidence of fibrosis were observed in wild-type and COX-2 knockout mice 21 d after bleomycin treatment, suggesting that COX-2 deficiency did not alter the extent or severity of fibrosis in this model. However, bleomycin-induced alterations in respiratory mechanics were more severe in COX-2 knockout mice than in wild-type mice, as illustrated by a greater decrease in static compliance compared with genotype-matched, saline-treated control mice (26 +/- 3% versus 11 +/- 4% decreases for COX-2 knockout and wild-type mice, respectively; P < 0.05). The influence of COX-1 overexpression in airway Clara cells was also examined. Whereas the fibrotic effects of bleomycin were not altered in wild-type or COX-2 knockout mice overexpressing COX-1, the exaggerated lung function decrement in bleomycin-treated COX-2 knockout mice was prevented by COX-1 overexpression and coincided with decreased airway cysteinyl leukotriene levels. Collectively, these data suggest an important regulatory role for COX-2 in the maintenance of lung function in the setting of lung fibrosis, but not in the progression of the fibrotic process per se.

  2. Dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, and longitudinal decline of lung function in young coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Carta, P; Aru, G; Barbieri, M T; Avataneo, G; Casula, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the role of dust exposure on incidence of respiratory symptoms and decline of lung function in young coal miners. METHODS: The loss of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (MEF), carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO)) with time and the incidence of respiratory symptoms in 909 Sardinian coal miners (followed up between 1983 and 1993 with seven separate surveys) has been compared with the past and current individual exposures to respirable mixed coal dust. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used simultaneously controlling for age, smoking, past occupational exposures, and other relevant covariates. RESULTS: According to the relatively low dust exposures experienced during the follow up few abnormal chest x ray films were detected. In the cross sectional analysis of initial data, significant associations between individual cumulative exposure to dust, decrements in FEV1 and MEFs, and increasing prevalence of respiratory symptoms were detected after allowing for the covariates included in the model. The yearly decline of FVC, FEV1, and single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO/VA) was still significantly related to the individual exposure to dust experienced during the follow up, even after allowing for age, smoking, initial cumulative exposure to dust, and initial level of each functional variable. In logistic models, dust exposure was a significant predictor of the onset of respiratory symptoms besides age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that even moderate exposures to mixed coal dust, as in our study, significantly affect lung function and incidence of symptoms of underground miners. Although the frequency of chest x ray examination might be fixed at every three or four years, yearly measurements of lung function (spirometry, MEFs, and TLCO) are recommended for evaluation of the respiratory risk from the coal mine environment to

  3. A brief update on lung stereology.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Lung stereology has a long and successful tradition. From mice to men, the application of new stereological methods at several levels (alveoli, parenchymal cells, organelles, proteins) has led to new insights into normal lung architecture, parenchymal remodelling in emphysema-like pathology, alveolar type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy and intracellular surfactant alterations as well as distribution of surfactant proteins. The Euler number of the network of alveolar openings, estimated using physical disectors at the light microscopic level, is an unbiased and direct estimate of alveolar number. Surfactant-producing alveolar type II cells can be counted and sampled for local size estimation with physical disectors at a high magnification light microscopic level. The number of their surfactant storage organelles, lamellar bodies, can be estimated using physical disectors at the EM level. By immunoelectron microscopy, surfactant protein distribution can be analysed with the relative labelling index. Together with the well-established classical stereological methods, these design-based methods now allow for a complete quantitative phenotype analysis in lung development and disease, including the structural characterization of gene-manipulated mice, at the light and electron microscopic level.

  4. Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    The Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG) aims to provide near-real time smart meter data to consumers without the delays or latencies associated with it being transported to the utility data center and then back to the consumer's application. To do this, the gateway queries the local Smart Meter to which it is bound to get energy consumption information at pre-defined intervals (minimum interval is 4 seconds). OpenSEG then stores the resulting data internally for retrieval by an external application.

  5. Acute Lung Injury: Making the Injured Lung Perform Better and Rebuilding Healthy Lungs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    regenerate 3D alveolar lung structure (Figures 4C–4H). To examine this, sorted day 15 Nkx2-1GFP+ ESC-derived cells, delivered by intra-tracheal...indicative of lung and thyroid lineages and can recellularize a 3D lung tissue scaffold. Thus, we have derived a pure population of progenitors able to...Media and Recellularize 3D Lung Tissue Scaffolds A known feature of primary fetal lung epithelial cells late in devel- opment is their capacity to respond

  6. Lung function in children in relation to ethnicity, physique and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1 year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8) years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (p<0.001 for all). Although further adjustment for sitting height and chest width reduced differences attributable to ethnicity by up to 16%, significant differences persisted after adjusting for all potential determinants, including socioeconomic circumstances.Ethnic differences in spirometric lung function persist despite adjusting for a wide range of potential determinants, including body physique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results.

  7. Using electron microscopes to look into the lung.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Matthias; Knudsen, Lars; Hegermann, Jan; Wrede, Christoph; Grothausmann, Roman; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In the nineteenth century, there was a dispute about the existence of a lung alveolar epithelium which remained unsolved until the invention of electron microscopy (EM) and its application to the lung. From the early 1960s, Ewald Weibel became the master of lung EM. He showed that the alveolar epithelium is covered with a lining layer containing surfactant. Weibel also explained the phenomenon of "non-nucleated plates" observed already in 1881 by Albert Kölliker. Weibel's most significant contribution was to the development of stereological methods. Therefore, quantitative characterization of lung structure revealing structure-function relationships became possible. Today, the spectrum of EM methods to study the fine structure of the lung has been extended significantly. Cryo-preparation techniques are available which are necessary for immunogold labeling of molecules. Energy-filtering techniques can be used for the detection of elements. There have also been major improvements in stereology, thus providing a very versatile toolbox for quantitative lung phenotype analyses. A new dimension was added by 3D EM techniques. Depending on the desired sample size and resolution, the spectrum ranges from array tomography via serial block face scanning EM and focused ion beam scanning EM to electron tomography. These 3D datasets provide new insights into lung ultrastructure. Biomedical EM is an ever-developing field. Its high resolution remains unparalleled. Moreover, EM has the unique advantage of providing an "open view" into cells and tissues within their full architectural context. Therefore, EM will remain an indispensable tool for a better understanding of the lung's functional design.

  8. Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding.

    PubMed

    Simon, Malene; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter T

    2012-11-01

    Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. Analysis of 479 lunges from five humpback whales reveals that the whales accelerate as they acquire prey, opening their gape in synchrony with strong fluke strokes. The high forward speed (mean depth rate: 2.0±0.32 m s(-1)) during engulfment serves both to corral active prey and to expand the ventral margin of the buccal pouch and so maximize the engulfed water volume. Deceleration begins after mouth opening when the pouch nears full expansion and momentum starts to be transferred to the engulfed water. Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1-1.5 m s(-1) after the lunge has ended. Subsequent filtration and prey handling appear to take an average of 46 s and are performed in parallel with re-positioning for the next lunge.

  9. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices.

    PubMed

    Schilders, Kim A A; Eenjes, Evelien; van Riet, Sander; Poot, André A; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, Roman; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Rottier, Robbert J

    2016-04-23

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as understanding the biomechanical properties to build artificial lung devices. In addition, the continuing efforts to better define the disease origin, progression and pathology by basic scientists and clinicians contributes to insights in the basic principles of lung biology. However, the use of different model systems, experimental approaches and readout systems may generate somewhat conflicting or contradictory results. In an effort to summarize the latest developments in the lung epithelial stem cell biology, we provide an overview of the current status of the field. We first describe the different stem cells, or progenitor cells, residing in the homeostatic lung. Next, we focus on the plasticity of the different cell types upon several injury-induced activation or repair models, and highlight the regenerative capacity of lung cells. Lastly, we summarize the generation of lung mimics, such as air-liquid interface cultures, organoids and lung on a chip, that are required to test emerging hypotheses. Moreover, the increasing collaboration between distinct specializations will contribute to the eventual development of an artificial lung device capable of assisting reduced lung function and capacity in human patients.

  10. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  11. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Lingling; Herbst, Roy S; Morgensztern, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of patients with good performance status and advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer has been based on the use of first-line platinum-based doublet and second-line docetaxel. Immunotherapy represents a new therapeutic approach with the potential for prolonged benefit. Although the vaccines studied have not shown benefit in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors against the PD-1/PD-L1 axis showed increased overall survival compared with docetaxel in randomized clinical trials, which led to the approval of nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Because only a minority of patients benefit from this class of drugs, there has been an intense search for biomarkers.

  12. Fire-eater's lung.

    PubMed

    Załęska, Jolanta; Błaszczyk, Arkadiusz; Jakubowska, Lilia; Szopiński, Janusz; Polaczek, Mateusz; Grudny, Jacek; Zych, Jacek; Roszkowski-Śliż, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Fire eater's lung (FEL) is an acute hydrocarbon pneumonitis caused by aspiration or inhalation into airways of liquid hydrocarbons. This disorder is classified into distinct form of chemical toxic pneumonitis. An amateur fire-eater is presented in this work. He accidentally aspirated into airways about 1/3 of glass of grill lighter fluid composed of mixture of liquid hydrocarbons. A few hours after this incident he had severe symptoms like weakness, high temperature, midsternal pleuritic chest pain, myalgia of the back, shortness of breath, and dry cough. Radiologic examination revealed consolidations with well-defined cavitary lesions (pneumatoceles) in lower lobes mainly in the left lower lobe. After one week of this event clinical improvement was observed. The lesions resolved nearly completly during three months. The review of the literature connected with fire-eater's lung is also presented.

  13. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  14. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  15. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  16. Open Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  17. Nutrition aspects of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cranganu, Andreea; Camporeale, Jayne

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer, and is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Notable carcinogens involved in the development of lung cancer include smoking, secondhand smoke, and radon. Lung cancer is divided into 2 major types: non-small-cell lung cancer, the most prevalent, and small-cell lung cancer. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of the same. Medical nutrition therapy is often required for nutrition-related side effects of cancer treatment, which include but are not limited to anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and esophagitis. The best protection against lung cancer is avoidance of airborne carcinogens and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Studies have shown that smokers taking large amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplements had increased lung cancer incidence and mortality. However, ingestion of beta-carotene from foods, along with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, has a protective role against lung disease. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by lung cancer patients is prevalent; therefore, clinicians should investigate whether complementary and alternative therapies are used by patients and advise them on the use of these therapies to avoid any potential side effects and interactions with conventional therapies. The article concludes with a case study of a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer and illustrates the use of medical nutrition therapy in relation to cancer treatment side effects.

  18. Angiosarcoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Grafino, Mónica; Alves, Paula; de Almeida, Margarida Mendes; Garrido, Patrícia; Hasmucrai, Direndra; Teixeira, Encarnação; Sotto-Mayor, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis. PMID:26982044

  19. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ≥ 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  20. Application Period Open for NCI Biospecimen Use | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The application period for investigators interested in obtaining biospecimens and data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial re-opened June 1. A separate application for obtaining biospecimens and data with research funding is also open. |

  1. Regional tidal lung strain in mechanically ventilated normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Paula, Luis Felipe; Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Venegas, Jose G; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Carvalho, Alysson R; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2016-12-01

    Parenchymal strain is a key determinant of lung injury produced by mechanical ventilation. However, imaging estimates of volumetric tidal strain (ε = regional tidal volume/reference volume) present substantial conceptual differences in reference volume computation and consideration of tidally recruited lung. We compared current and new methods to estimate tidal volumetric strains with computed tomography, and quantified the effect of tidal volume (VT) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on strain estimates. Eight supine pigs were ventilated with VT = 6 and 12 ml/kg and PEEP = 0, 6, and 12 cmH2O. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans were analyzed in eight regions of interest along the ventral-dorsal axis. Regional reference volumes were computed at end-expiration (with/without correction of regional VT for intratidal recruitment) and at resting lung volume (PEEP = 0) corrected for intratidal and PEEP-derived recruitment. All strain estimates demonstrated vertical heterogeneity with the largest tidal strains in middependent regions (P < 0.01). Maximal strains for distinct estimates occurred at different lung regions and were differently affected by VT-PEEP conditions. Values consistent with lung injury and inflammation were reached regionally, even when global measurements were below critical levels. Strains increased with VT and were larger in middependent than in nondependent lung regions. PEEP reduced tidal-strain estimates referenced to end-expiratory lung volumes, although it did not affect strains referenced to resting lung volume. These estimates of tidal strains in normal lungs point to middependent lung regions as those at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. The different conditions and topography at which maximal strain estimates occur allow for testing the importance of each estimate for lung injury.

  2. Synchronous Multiple Lung Adenocarcinomas: Estrogen Concentration in Peripheral Lung

    PubMed Central

    Shinchi, Yusuke; Sanada, Mune; Motooka, Yamato; Fujino, Kosuke; Mori, Takeshi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background The detection rate of synchronous multiple lung adenocarcinomas (SMLA), which display multiple ground glass opacity nodules in the peripheral lung, is increasing due to advances in high resolution computed tomography. The backgrounds of multicentric development of adenocarcinoma are unknown. In this study, we quantitated estrogen concentration in the peripheral lungs of postmenopausal female patients with SMLA. Methods The tissue concentration of estrogens (estrone [E1] and estdadiol [E2]) in the noncancerous peripheral lung were measured with liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in postmenopausal female patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The expression levels of CYP19A1 in the normal lung were also quantitated with real-time PCR. Thirty patients with SMLA and 79 cases of control patients with single lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Results The concentrations of E1 and E2 in the noncancerous tissue were significantly higher in SMLA cases than control cases (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02, respectively). The minor allele (A) of single nucleotide polymorphism rs3764221 were significantly associated with higher concentration of E1 and E2 (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively) and higher CYP19A1 mRNA expression (P = 0.03). Conclusion The tissue estrogen concentration of peripheral lung was significantly higher in SMLA than control cases. The high concentration of estrogen may be one of the causes of multicentric development of peripheral lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:27526096

  3. Morphometric examination of native lungs in human lung allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, B M; Burton, C M; Milman, N; Iversen, M; Andersen, C B

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the degree of lung damage in patients with alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) at the time of lung transplantation. Using unbiased stereological methods, lung-, bronchial- and vessel-volume, capillary length, and alveolar surface area and densities were estimated in recipient lungs from 21 consecutive patients with pre-transplant diagnoses including COPD (n=7), alpha1AT deficiency (n=6) and CF (n=8). Six unused adult donor lungs served as controls. Information relating to patient demography and pre-transplant lung function was obtained by retrospective chart review. Disease groups differed significantly with respect to demographics and pre-transplant lung function. Total lung volume was similar in all groups. Bronchial volume was significantly larger in CF patients compared to the control group (p<0.0001) and to the other two diagnostic groups: alpha1AT deficiency (p=0.0001) and COPD (p<0.0001). Alveolar surface density and capillary length density were significantly lower in patients with alpha1AT deficiency and COPD compared to controls (p<0.0001, respectively) and to patients with CF (p<0.0002, respectively). There were no correlations between clinical lung function and morphometric measurements. We conclude that unbiased microscopic stereological morphometry is an evolving science with the potential to elucidate pulmonary disease pathogenesis.

  4. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  5. [Asbestos-related lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Lotti, M

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of tumour death and a large percentage of it is associated with tobacco smoking. Epidemiology has shown that asbestos cumulative exposures increase the risk of lung cancer to a variable extent, depending on the manufacturing process and the specific job. The risk appears relatively small (< or = 2) and is detectable after massive exposures only. Clinical diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer is based upon medical history (exposures > 25 ff.ml years double the risk), possible lung fibrosis and counts of asbestos bodies and fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissues. Pleural plaques do not correlate with the cumulative exposures that are associated with lung cancer. The multiplicative interaction between smoke and asbestos is only detectable when the risk associated with asbestos exposure is increased, i.e. after high exposures.

  6. Imaging lung tissue oscillations using high-speed X-ray velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Thurgood, Jordan; Dubsky, Stephen; Uesugi, Kentaro; Curtis, Michael; Samarage, Chaminda R; Thompson, Bruce; Zosky, Graeme; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This work utilized synchrotron imaging to achieve a regional assessment of the lung's response to imparted oscillations. The forced oscillation technique is increasingly being used in clinical and research settings for the measurement of lung function. During the forced oscillation technique, pressure oscillations are imparted to the lungs via the subjects' airway opening and the response is measured. This provides information about the mechanical properties of the airways and lung tissue. The quality of measurements is dependent upon the input signal penetrating uniformly throughout the lung. However, the penetration of these signals is not well understood. The development and use of a novel image-processing technique in conjunction with synchrotron-based imaging was able to regionally assess the lungs' response to input pressure oscillation signals in anaesthetized mice. The imaging-based technique was able to quantify both the power and distribution of lung tissue oscillations during forced oscillations of the lungs. It was observed that under forced oscillations the apices had limited lung tissue expansion relative to the base. This technique could be used to optimize input signals used for the forced oscillation technique or potentially as a diagnostic tool itself.

  7. Time dependence of recruitment and derecruitment in the lung: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason H T; Irvin, Charles G

    2002-08-01

    Recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) of air spaces within the lung is greatly enhanced in lung injury and is thought to be responsible for exacerbating injury during mechanical ventilation. There is evidence to suggest that R/D is a time-dependent phenomenon. We have developed a computer model of the lung consisting of a parallel arrangement of airways and alveolar units. Each airway has a critical pressure (Pcrit) above which it tends to open and below which it tends to close but at a rate determined by how far pressure is from Pcrit. With an appropriate distribution of Pcrit and R/D velocity characteristics, the model able to produce realistic first and second pressure-volume curves of a lung inflated from an initially degassed state. The model also predicts that lung elastance will increase transiently after a deep inflation to a degree that increases as lung volume decreases and as the lung becomes injured. We conclude that our model captures the time-dependent mechanical behavior of the lung due to gradual R/D of lung units.

  8. Palliative care in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Betty; Koczywas, Marianna; Grannis, Fred; Harrington, Annie

    2011-04-01

    Advancements in the surgical and medical treatment of lung cancer have resulted in more favorable short-term survival outcomes. After initial treatment, lung cancer requires continued surveillance and follow-up for long-term side effects and possible recurrence. The integration of quality palliative care into routine clinical care of patients with lung cancer after surgical intervention is essential in preserving function and optimizing quality of life through survivorship. An interdisciplinary palliative care model can effectively link patients to the appropriate supportive care services in a timely fashion. This article describes the role of palliative care for patients with lung cancer.

  9. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Xin; Rice, Shawn J; Belani, Chandra P

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease with high morbidity and mortality despite targeted therapy. Symptom burden related to cancer impairs quality of life and functional status in patients with lung cancer and in survivors. Pulmonary rehabilitation has been recognized as an effective, noninvasive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory disease. It is well established that pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with chronic obstruction pulmonary disease through improved exercise capacity and symptoms. Evidence is increasing that the benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation can be applied to patients with lung cancer. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation has made its way as a cornerstone of integrated care for patients with lung cancer.

  10. Current status of lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lau, C L; Patterson, G A

    2003-11-01

    Two decades have passed since the first successful clinical lung transplant was performed in 1983, and, in the interim, lung transplantation has become the preferred treatment option for a variety of end-stage pulmonary diseases. Remarkable progress has been made in the field through refinement of technique and improved understanding of transplant immunology and microbiology. Unfortunately, donor shortages continue to limit the more widespread application of lung transplantation. In order to address this issue, marginal donors, living lobar and split lung donor techniques, and nonheartbeating donors have been used clinically to increase the number of donor lungs available. Chronic rejection of the lung allograft is currently the major hurdle limiting longterm survival. To date, prevention of known risk factors and treatment strategies have not lessened the devastating toll this process has on lung transplant survival. Better understanding of the cause of chronic rejection is needed in order to develop novel strategies for its treatment. Promotion of immune tolerance is a promising area that could potentially eliminate chronic rejection. The present article discusses recent advances in lung transplantation. It also details the major issues facing the field today. Only through continued clinical and experimental investigation will lung transplantation eventually reach its full potential.

  11. [Radiotherapy for primary lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Lacornerie, T; Mornex, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy, for primary lung carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  12. Assessment of peripheral lung mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason H T; Suki, Béla

    2008-11-30

    The mechanical properties of the lung periphery are major determinants of overall lung function, and can change dramatically in disease. In this review we examine the various experimental techniques that have provided data pertaining to the mechanical properties of the lung periphery, together with the mathematical models that have been used to interpret these data. These models seek to make a clear distinction between the central and peripheral compartments of the lung by encapsulating functional differences between the conducing airways, the terminal airways and the parenchyma. Such a distinction becomes problematic in disease, however, because of the inevitable onset of regional variations in mechanical behavior throughout the lung. Accordingly, lung models are used both in the inverse sense as vehicles for extracting physiological insight from experimental data, and in the forward sense as virtual laboratories for the testing of specific hypothesis about mechanisms such as the effects of regional heterogeneities. Pathologies such as asthma, acute lung injury and emphysema can alter the mechanical properties of the lung periphery through the direct alteration of intrinsic tissue mechanics, the development of regional heterogeneities in mechanical function, and the complete derecruitment of airspaces due to airway closure and alveolar collapse. We are now beginning to decipher the relative contributions of these various factors to pathological alterations in peripheral lung mechanics, which may eventually lead to the development and assessment of novel therapies.

  13. Open Babel: An open chemical toolbox

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A frequent problem in computational modeling is the interconversion of chemical structures between different formats. While standard interchange formats exist (for example, Chemical Markup Language) and de facto standards have arisen (for example, SMILES format), the need to interconvert formats is a continuing problem due to the multitude of different application areas for chemistry data, differences in the data stored by different formats (0D versus 3D, for example), and competition between software along with a lack of vendor-neutral formats. Results We discuss, for the first time, Open Babel, an open-source chemical toolbox that speaks the many languages of chemical data. Open Babel version 2.3 interconverts over 110 formats. The need to represent such a wide variety of chemical and molecular data requires a library that implements a wide range of cheminformatics algorithms, from partial charge assignment and aromaticity detection, to bond order perception and canonicalization. We detail the implementation of Open Babel, describe key advances in the 2.3 release, and outline a variety of uses both in terms of software products and scientific research, including applications far beyond simple format interconversion. Conclusions Open Babel presents a solution to the proliferation of multiple chemical file formats. In addition, it provides a variety of useful utilities from conformer searching and 2D depiction, to filtering, batch conversion, and substructure and similarity searching. For developers, it can be used as a programming library to handle chemical data in areas such as organic chemistry, drug design, materials science, and computational chemistry. It is freely available under an open-source license from http://openbabel.org. PMID:21982300

  14. Challenges in inhaled product development and opportunities for open innovation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ben; Asgharian, Bahman; Dailey, Lea Ann; Ferguson, Douglas; Gerde, Per; Gumbleton, Mark; Gustavsson, Lena; Hardy, Colin; Hassall, David; Jones, Rhys; Lock, Ruth; Maas, Janet; McGovern, Tim; Pitcairn, Gary R; Somers, Graham; Wolff, Ron K

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry, safety and the efficacy of drugs in the lungs are critical factors in the development of inhaled medicines. This article considers the challenges in each of these areas with reference to current industry practices for developing inhaled products, and suggests collaborative scientific approaches to address these challenges. The portfolio of molecules requiring delivery by inhalation has expanded rapidly to include novel drugs for lung disease, combination therapies, biopharmaceuticals and candidates for systemic delivery via the lung. For these drugs to be developed as inhaled medicines, a better understanding of their fate in the lungs and how this might be modified is required. Harmonized approaches based on 'best practice' are advocated for dosimetry and safety studies; this would provide coherent data to help product developers and regulatory agencies differentiate new inhaled drug products. To date, there are limited reports describing full temporal relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) measurements. A better understanding of pulmonary PK and PK/PD relationships would help mitigate the risk of not engaging successfully or persistently with the drug target as well as identifying the potential for drug accumulation in the lung or excessive systemic exposure. Recommendations are made for (i) better industry-academia-regulatory co-operation, (ii) sharing of pre-competitive data, and (iii) open innovation through collaborative research in key topics such as lung deposition, drug solubility and dissolution in lung fluid, adaptive responses in safety studies, biomarker development and validation, the role of transporters in pulmonary drug disposition, target localisation within the lung and the determinants of local efficacy following inhaled drug administration.

  15. [Biopsy of lung tissue in the diagnosis of disseminated transformations].

    PubMed

    Lewaschow, J N; Orsheschkowskij, O W

    1988-01-01

    The results of complex studies in 440 patients with disseminated processes are presented. In 135 of them the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical, roentgenologic and laboratory data and by biopsies of skin, muscles and subcutaneous lymph nodes. Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed in 218 patients. It gave positive results in 65% of the cases. Open biopsy of lung was performed in 134 cases. Hemodynamic and gas exchange studies during the operation indicated its insignificant traumatism. Complications (limited hemothorax, partial pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, wound suppuration) were noted in 10 (7.5%) cases in the postoperative period. Pulmonary tests performed three weeks after the operation did not reveal significant changes in the subjects, even those with considerable initial disorders. Open biopsy permitted to verify the diagnosis in 131 (98%) patients. In 52% of these cases the diagnosis did not correspond to the presumed one and considerably influenced the subsequent treatment.

  16. p63 expression in assessment of bronchioloalveolar proliferations of the lung.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Hina A; Fuhrer, Kimberly; Cieply, Kathleen; Yousem, Samuel

    2004-09-01

    Discrimination of well-differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma from reactive bronchioloalveolar epithelium can be difficult on routine histology, especially with small biopsies. Ancillary studies to help in this distinction are desirable. p63, a p53-homologous nuclear protein, is a marker of reserve cells of the bronchus and terminal lobular unit. In this study, 33 cases of adenocarcinoma (20 open lung and 13 transbronchial/percutaneous biopsies) and 43 cases of benign lungs with fibrosis and metaplasia (22 open lung and 21 transbronchial/percutaneous biopsies) were studied for nuclear p63 expression by immunohistochemistry (Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA). Five additional cases each of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenosquamous carcinoma and three cases of squamous carcinoma (all open lung biopsies) were also stained. The diagnostic categories of benign lung conditions were usual interstitial pneumonia, parenchymal scar, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage. In neoplastic cases, p63 positivity was calculated as percentage of all tumor cells examined. In areas of normal lung, p63 decorated the reserve cells of large and small airways and occasional cells of the distal lobular unit. In fibrotic reactive processes, an interrupted but distinct pattern of nuclear staining was present in all cases, with staining of basal cells of the airways as well as bronchiolar- and squamous-metaplastic epithelium (43/43, 100%). p63 immunoreactivity was less uniform in areas of acute lung injury within these cases. One adenocarcinoma and two cases of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia showed strong immunoreactivity (>80%), while three adenocarcinomas highlighted only rare tumor nuclei (<5% of tumor cells). Morphologic areas where p63 immunostaining was not helpful included the junction of normal lung and lepidic growth of adenocarcinoma, and retrograde spread of adenocarcinoma into small airways. Our results highlight the differential expression of p63

  17. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  18. PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, display distinct biological activities and varied influences on lung cancer biology. PPARα activation generally inhibits tumorigenesis through its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Activated PPARγ is also antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, regulating several functions of cancer cells and controlling the tumor microenvironment. Unlike PPARα and PPARγ, whether PPARβ/δ activation is anti- or protumorigenic or even inconsequential currently remains an open question that requires additional investigation. This review of current literature emphasizes the multifaceted effects of PPAR agonists in lung cancer and discusses how they may be applied as novel therapeutic strategies for the disease. PMID:28316613

  19. Interdependent regional lung emptying during forced expiration: a transistor model.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Fredberg, J J; Ingram, R H; Pedersen, O F; Drazen, J M

    1987-05-01

    We recognized similarities between isovolume pressure-flow curves of the lung and emitter-collector voltage-current characteristics of bipolar transistors, and used this analogy to model expiratory flow limitation in a two-generation branching network with parallel nonhomogeneity. In this model, each of two bronchi empty parenchymal compliances through a common trachea, and each branch includes resistances upstream and downstream of a flow-limiting site. Properties of each airway are specified independently, allowing simulation of differences between the tracheal and bronchial generations and between the parallel bronchial paths. Simulations of four types of parallel asymmetry were performed: unilateral peripheral bronchoconstriction; unilateral central bronchoconstriction; asymmetric redistribution of parenchymal compliance; and unilateral alteration of the bronchial area-transmural pressure characteristic. Our results indicate that multiple axial choke points can exist simultaneously in a symmetric lung when large airway opening-pleural pressure gradients exist; despite severe nonhomogeneity of regional lung emptying, flow interdependence among parallel branches tends to maintain a near normal configuration of the overall maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve throughout a large fraction of the vital capacity; and sudden changes of slope of the MEFV curve ("knees" or "bumps") may reflect choking in one branch in a nonuniform lung, but need not be obvious even when severe heterogeneity of lung emptying exists.

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  1. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  2. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  3. Opening and Closing in Open Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Orrin E.

    In open information systems, such as in the case of human interchange with the self and the environment, input quantities have no upper limits. The human information utilization system, however, is psychologically and behaviorally unable to accept ever increasing loads of information. Because of this apparent fact, human information systems should…

  4. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  5. Lung cancer treatment rates and the role of the lung cancer nurse specialist: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Judy; McDonnell, Ann; Borthwick, Diana; White, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study examines how the Lung Cancer Nurse Specialist (LCNS) role operates and why they may be able to increase access to treatment. Setting 4 Hospital NHS Foundation Trusts in England. Design A multiple case study design using semistructured interviews, observation and Framework Analysis techniques. Participants Four LCNSs, comprised the ‘cases’. Twenty four clinicians who worked with the LCNS participated in individual interviews. Six LCNSs took part in a group interview and 60 lung cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) members and co-ordinators were observed in the MDT meeting. Results The LCNS is crucial within the MDT and can act as a catalyst to patient access to treatment. The study identified the clinical activity (assessment, managing symptoms, psychological support and information provision) and role characteristics that can facilitate treatment access. These characteristics are the LCNS's presence across the patient pathway, acting as the ‘hub’ of the MDT, maintaining a holistic patient focus and working to an advanced level of practice. The findings indicate how factors may have a cumulative impact on treatment access. Conclusions If UK patient with lung cancer survival rates are to improve in line with comparable countries, we need to employ every advantage. This study demonstrates how the LCNS role may open doors to positive patient outcomes, including treatment. Further research is required to explore patients’ experiences, decision-making and attitudes to treatment. PMID:26685023

  6. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... air is necessary for keeping humans (and many animals) alive. And the two parts that are large and in charge when it comes to breathing? If you guessed your lungs, you're right! Your lungs make up one of the largest ...

  7. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  8. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Your Lungs & Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Lungs & Respiratory System Print A A A What's in this article? ... in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, ...

  9. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties. PMID:21772848

  10. Mitochondria in lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Best known for their critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondria are essential for nutrient and oxygen sensing and for the regulation of critical cellular processes, including cell death and inflammation. Such diverse functional roles for organelles that were once thought to be simple may be attributed to their distinct heteroplasmic genome, exclusive maternal lineage of inheritance, and ability to generate signals to communicate with other cellular organelles. Mitochondria are now thought of as one of the cell’s most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing systems. Specific signatures of mitochondrial dysfunction that are associated with disease pathogenesis and/or progression are becoming increasingly important. In particular, the centrality of mitochondria in the pathological processes and clinical phenotypes associated with a range of lung diseases is emerging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitochondrial processes of lung cells will help to better define phenotypes and clinical manifestations associated with respiratory disease and to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:26928034

  11. Mitochondria in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cloonan, Suzanne M; Choi, Augustine M K

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Best known for their critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondria are essential for nutrient and oxygen sensing and for the regulation of critical cellular processes, including cell death and inflammation. Such diverse functional roles for organelles that were once thought to be simple may be attributed to their distinct heteroplasmic genome, exclusive maternal lineage of inheritance, and ability to generate signals to communicate with other cellular organelles. Mitochondria are now thought of as one of the cell's most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing systems. Specific signatures of mitochondrial dysfunction that are associated with disease pathogenesis and/or progression are becoming increasingly important. In particular, the centrality of mitochondria in the pathological processes and clinical phenotypes associated with a range of lung diseases is emerging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitochondrial processes of lung cells will help to better define phenotypes and clinical manifestations associated with respiratory disease and to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  13. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  14. Nanoparticle delivery in infant lungs

    PubMed Central

    Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Holger; Takenaka, Shinji; Butler, James P.; Henry, Frank S.; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with the emerging theory that as alveoli form through secondary septation, alveolar flow becomes chaotic and chaotic mixing kicks in, significantly enhancing particle deposition. This finding has significant implications for the application of nanoparticle-based inhalation therapeutics in young children with immature lungs from birth to ˜2 y of age. PMID:22411799

  15. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  16. Egress door opening assister

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  17. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  18. Open Source Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. PMID:27631126

  19. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  20. Guidelines on Open Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    These Guidelines on open expression at the University of Pennsylvania include: (1) a statement of principles, expressing support for freedom of thought, inquiry, speech and lawful assembly, and for the need to ensure continuing openness and effectiveness of channels of communication; (2) a description of the newly created Committee on Open…

  1. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

  2. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  3. The Argument for Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Is open source business intelligence (OS BI) software ready for prime time? The author thoroughly investigated each of three OS BI toolsets--Pentaho BI Suite, Jaspersoft BI Suite, and Talend Open Studio--by installing the OS BI tools himself, by interviewing technologists at academic institutions who had implemented these OS BI solutions, and by…

  4. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  5. Opening a New Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

  6. OpenSearch Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Doug; Silva, Sam; Mitchell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We will present an overview of our OpenSearch efforts over the past 6 months. We will discuss our Best Practices and those of CEOS concentrating on the compatibility issues between the two. We will also discuss the state of earth data OpenSearch implementations and their adherence to the standards, extensions and best practices available.

  7. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  8. Stability of open pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flach, Edward H.; Schnell, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    We consider the steady state of an open biochemical pathway, with controlled flow. Previously we have shown that the steady state of open enzyme catalysed reactions may be unstable, which discourages the application of the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) (IEE Proc. Syst. Biol. 153 (2006) 187). Here we examine basic open biochemical pathway structures, to see the stability of their steady states. Following De Leenheer et al. (J. Math. Chem. 41 (2007) 295), we employ the Gershgorin circle theorem, which elegantly assesses stability. This is the key tool for our analysis. Once we have the linear stability matrix laid out in a suitable form, the application of the method is straightforward. We find that in open biochemical pathways, simple chains, branches and loops always have stable steady states. We conclude that simple open pathways are stable. PMID:20875827

  9. Open thoracotomy for pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Lazaridis, George; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Mpakas, Andreas; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Lampaki, Sofia; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kipourou, Maria; Lada, Martha; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A thoracotomy is an incision into the pleural space of the chest. It is performed by surgeons (or emergency physicians under certain circumstances) to gain access to the thoracic organs, most commonly the heart, the lungs, or the esophagus, or for access to the thoracic aorta or the anterior spine. This surgical procedure is a major surgical maneuver it is the first step in many thoracic surgeries including lobectomy or pneumonectomy for lung cancer and as such requires general anesthesia with endotracheal tube insertion and mechanical ventilation, rigid bronchoscope can be also used if necessary. Thoracotomies are thought to be one of the most difficult surgical incisions to deal with post-operatively, because they are extremely painful and the pain can prevent the patient from breathing effectively, leading to atelectasis or pneumonia. In the current review we will present the steps of this procedure. PMID:25774309

  10. Advances in lung ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Miguel José; Rahal, Antonio; Vieira, Fabio Augusto Cardillo; Silva, Paulo Savoia Dias da; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established. Some scanning protocols have been used in patient management. The Blue, FALLS and C.A.U.S.E. protocols are examples of algorithms using artifact combinations to achieve accurate diagnoses. Combined chest ultrasonography and radiography are often sufficient to diagnose and manage lung and chest wall conditions. Chest ultrasonography is a highly valuable diagnostic tool for radiologists, emergency and intensive care physicians. RESUMO O exame ultrassonográfico do tórax avançou nas últimas décadas, sendo utilizado para o diagnóstico de inúmeras condições patológicas, e fornecendo informações qualitativas e quantitativas. Os pulmões aerados e o arcabouço ósseo do tórax representam barreira sonora para o estudo ultrassonográfico, gerando artefatos que, bem conhecidos, são utilizados como ferramentas diagnósticas. Eco pleural normal, linhas A, linhas B, linhas C, linhas E e Z (conhecidas como falsas linhas B) são artefatos com características peculiares. Os padrões de consolidação e de pneumotórax também são bem estabelecidos. Alguns protocolos têm sido utilizados no manuseio dos pacientes: Blue Protocol, Protocolo FALLS e Protocolo C.A.U.S.E são exemplos de três propostas que, por meio da associação entre os artefatos, permitem sugerir diagnósticos precisos. A ultrassonografia de tórax, aliada à radiografia de tórax, muitas vezes é suficiente para o diagn

  11. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. [Normal lung volumes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema].

    PubMed

    Casas, Juan Pablo; Abbona, Horacio; Robles, Adriana; López, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern, resulting from reduction of pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. Previous reports suggest that when both diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. We report 4 male patients of 64, 60, 73 and 70 years, all with heavy cigarette smoking history and progressive breathlessness. Three of them had severe limitation in their quality of life. All four showed advanced lung interstitial involvement, at high resolution CT scan, fibrotic changes predominantly in the subpleural areas of lower lung fields and concomitant emphysema in the upper lobes. Emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy in one patient. The four patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange and poor exercise tolerance evaluated by 6 minute walk test. Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension was also confirmed in three patients. Normal lung volumes does not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  13. Delivering nanoparticles to lungs while avoiding liver and spleen through adsorption on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Aaron C; Gupta, Vivek; Zern, Blaine J; Pan, Daniel; Zakrewsky, Michael; Muzykantov, Vladimir; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-12-23

    Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are one of the most widely investigated approaches for developing novel therapies for a variety of diseases. However, rapid clearance and poor targeting limit their clinical utility. Here, we describe an approach to harness the flexibility, circulation, and vascular mobility of red blood cells (RBCs) to simultaneously overcome these limitations (cellular hitchhiking). A noncovalent attachment of nanoparticles to RBCs simultaneously increases their level in blood over a 24 h period and allows transient accumulation in the lungs, while reducing their uptake by liver and spleen. RBC-adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited ∼3-fold increase in blood persistence and ∼7-fold higher accumulation in lungs. RBC-adsorbed nanoparticles improved lung/liver and lung/spleen nanoparticle accumulation by over 15-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Accumulation in lungs is attributed to mechanical transfer of particles from the RBC surface to lung endothelium. Independent tracing of both nanoparticles and RBCs in vivo confirmed that RBCs themselves do not accumulate in lungs. Attachment of anti-ICAM-1 antibody to the exposed surface of NPs that were attached to RBCs led to further increase in lung targeting and retention over 24 h. Cellular hitchhiking onto RBCs provides a new platform for improving the blood pharmacokinetics and vascular delivery of nanoparticles while simultaneously avoiding uptake by liver and spleen, thus opening the door for new applications.

  14. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  15. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  16. Cannabis and the lung.

    PubMed

    Reid, P T; Macleod, J; Robertson, J R

    2010-12-01

    The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. Studies on cannabis are challenging and subject to confounding by concomitant use of tobacco and other social factors, and while many of the studies referred to in this review are beset by the difficulties inherent in undertaking epidemiological research of the effects of cannabis, there is an emerging concern among many chest physicians who would suggest that habitual smoking of cannabis may contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumothorax and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis. Special attention should be given to the risk of lung cancer, particularly as biological plausibility may precede epidemiology.

  17. Vanishing lung syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Im, Yunhee; Farooqi, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Giant bullae often mimic pneumothorax on radiographic appearance. We present the case of a 55-year-old man admitted to a referring hospital with dyspnea, cough, and increasing sputum production; he refused thoracotomy for tension pneumothorax and presented to our hospital for a second opinion. A computed tomography (CT) scan at our hospital revealed a giant bulla, which was managed conservatively as an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thoracic surgery was consulted but advised against bullectomy. Giant bullae can easily be misdiagnosed as a pneumothorax, but the management of the two conditions is vastly different. Distinguishing between the two may require CT scan. Symptomatic giant bullae are managed surgically. We highlight the etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of bullous lung disease, especially in comparison to pneumothorax. PMID:27695175

  18. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  19. Lunge performance and its determinants.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John; McNair, Peter J; Marshall, Robert N

    2003-01-01

    For activities such as squash, badminton and fencing, the ability to quickly complete a lunge and return to the start or move off in another direction is critical for success. Determining which strength qualities are important predictors of lunge performance was the focus of this study. Thirty-one male athletes performed: (1) a unilateral maximal squat (one-repetition maximum, 1-RM) and unilateral jump squat (50% 1-RM) on an instrumented supine squat machine, and (2) a forward lunge while attached to a linear transducer. We performed stepwise multiple regression analysis with lunge performance as the dependent variable and various strength, flexibility and anthropometric measures as the independent variables. From the many strength and power measures calculated, time to peak force was the best single predictor of lunge performance, which accounted for 55% of the explained variance. The best three-variable model for predicting lunge performance accounted for 76-85% of the explained variance. The models differed, however, according to whether lunge performance was expressed relative to body mass (time to peak force, mean power and relative strength = 76%) or taken as an absolute value (time to peak force, leg length and flexibility = 85%). We conclude that one to two trials were reliable for strength diagnosis and that one strength measure cannot accurately explain functional performance because other factors, such as body mass, flexibility and leg length, have diverse effects on the statistical models.

  20. In Praise of Openness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.

    2010-10-01

    Open access brings greater visibility and impact to the work of scientists as is evidenced in the examples discussed in this paper. Researchers are often reluctant and afraid to deposit their works in Institutional Repositories. However, as is shown here, once they do so, they do not regret it. Open access will shortly become the norm and will be accepted by the vast majority of scientists. Seen through the lens of the philosophy of Bertrand Russell, the moral, economic and philosophical imperatives for open access are indeed strong.

  1. Occupational and environmental lung disease.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures.

  2. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  3. Pain management in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  4. The role of an ambient pressure oxygen source during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, J

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is facilitated by prompt collapse of the non-ventilated ('operated') lung, and interrupted and impeded if there is a need for oxygen (O2) delivery by continuous positive airways pressure in order to manage hypoxaemia. It has been proposed that connecting an ambient pressure O2 source to the airway of the non-ventilated lung at the time one-lung ventilation is initiated and before the chest is opened will, by avoiding entrainment of ambient nitrogen, serve to facilitate lung collapse. It has also been proposed that leaving the O2 source connected will enable, not only ongoing apnoeic oxygenation before the chest is opened, but also the thoracoscopic procedure to commence with the operated lung fully pre-oxygenated (with an inspired oxygen fraction of 1), and apnoeic oxygenation to continue throughout the operative procedure in those patients who exhibit a degree of small airways patency at ambient pressure. In reality, several factors can influence the speed of collapse of the operated lung, and very many factors can influence the incidence of hypoxaemia during one-lung ventilation. It therefore appears unlikely that the necessary evidence to support these proposals will be forthcoming from randomised clinical studies on large numbers of patients. Rather, the necessary evidence may only be provided by specifically designed within-patient clinical measurement studies. Nevertheless, it is argued that, in the meantime, there is already sufficient rationale for an ambient pressure O2 source to be connected to the airway of the non-ventilated lung, and for it to remain connected for the duration of one-lung ventilation.

  5. Commentary: open access, open business, closed fairness!

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A strong trend to move from print to online publication is largely perceived in scientific and nonscientific fields. A growing number of publishers increasingly opt for online publication as an option or a compulsory alternative. From readers' perspective, this is a highly appreciated facility, but from the author's, things are different mainly because of excessive article processing charges (APC) that make the open access system sometimes as a hindrance for many authors but a lucrative enterprise for many shareholders, enticing the most traditional and conservative publishers.

  6. [Current status and future of lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Date, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    Lung transplantation has been a widely accepted treatment modality for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent indication for lung transplantation according to the report from International Society for Lung and Heart Transplantation. However, it is a minor population in Japan. A total of 204 lung transplants have been performed in Japan to date. Among them, 10 patients were suffering from severe COPD. Nine of them received cadaveric lung transplantation and one received living-donor lobar lung transplantation. All are currently alive during follow-up period of 3-87 months.

  7. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  8. Open Rotor Spin Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...

  9. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  10. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting.

  11. [Current state and development of artificial lungs].

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaoxian; Sun, Xin; Wu, Qi

    2010-12-01

    The artificial lung is a technical device for providing life support; it will be put in use when the natural lungs are failing and are not able to maintain sufficient oxygenation of the body's organ systems. From the viewpoint of long-term development, the artificial lung should be permanently implanted in the body, so that it will substitute for the human pulmonary function partially or completely. In this paper, four artificial lung technologies were expounded with reference to the development and research process of artificial lung. They were extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, intravascular artificial lung, implantable artificial lung, and pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. In this paper were described the structure of the four kinds of artificial lung, the working principle, and their advantages, disadvantages and indications. The prospect of artificial lung was evaluated in the light of the data from the existing animal experiments and from the clinical experience of the centers.

  12. Time-dependent changes of markers associated with inflammation in the lungs of humans exposed to ambient levels of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.; Becker, S.; Perez, R.; McDonnell, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Acute exposure of humans to 0.4 ppm ozone results in reversible respiratory function decrements, and cellular and biochemical changes leading to the production of substances which can mediate inflammation and acute lung injury. The purpose of the study was to determine whether inflammatory changes occur relatively rapidly (within 1h) following exposure to ozone, or if the cascade of events which are initiated by ozone and lead to inflammation, take some time to develop. The authors exposed 10 healthy volunteers twice: once to filtered air and once to 0.4 ppm ozone. Each exposure lasted for 2h at an exercise level of 60 1/min, and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1h following exposure. The data from the study were exposed to 03 under identical conditions except that bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 18h following exposure. The results of the present study demonstrate that 03 is capable of inducing rapid cellular and biochemical changes in the lung. These changes were detectable as early as 1h following a 2h exposure of humans to ozone. The profiles of these changes were different at 1h and 18h following ozone exposures. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had levels of neutrophils, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 that were higher at 1h than at 18h post exposure.

  13. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  14. Open source molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io.

  15. OpenTopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

    2012-04-01

    OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of

  16. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D.; Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L.; Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W.; Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M.; McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A.; Bunker, A.

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  17. The Open AUC Project.

    PubMed

    Cölfen, Helmut; Laue, Thomas M; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schilling, Kristian; Karabudak, Engin; Langhorst, Bradley W; Brookes, Emre; Dubbs, Bruce; Zollars, Dan; Rocco, Mattia; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These improvements are needed for the next generation of AUC-based research. The Open AUC Project combines on-going work from several different groups. A new base instrument is described, one that is designed from the ground up to be an analytical ultracentrifuge. This machine offers an open architecture, hardware standards, and application programming interfaces for detector developers. All software will use the GNU Public License to assure that intellectual property is available in open source format. The Open AUC strategy facilitates collaborations, encourages sharing, and eliminates the chronic impediments that have plagued AUC innovation for the last 20 years. This ultracentrifuge will be equipped with multiple and interchangeable optical tracks so that state-of-the-art electronics and improved detectors will be available for a variety of optical systems. The instrument will be complemented by a new rotor, enhanced data acquisition and analysis software, as well as collaboration software. Described here are the instrument, the modular software components, and a standardized database that will encourage and ease integration of data analysis and interpretation software.

  18. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2 /FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40-84] vs. 39 [36-46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953).

  19. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca’ Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2/FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2/FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40–84] vs. 39 [36–46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). PMID:24628890

  20. Single-lung ventilation in pediatric anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Dinesh K

    2005-12-01

    Single-lung ventilation is requested for an increasing spectrum of surgical procedures in infants and children. A clear understanding of the physiology of single-lung ventilation, the techniques of lung separation, and the technical skill necessary to apply these techniques are essential for an anesthesiologist practicing thoracic anesthesia. This article focuses on various devices available for single-lung ventilation in the pediatric age group, the relevant respiratory physiology, and the strategies that optimize oxygenation during one-lung anesthesia.

  1. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  2. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  3. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  4. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  5. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Aging changes in the lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004011.htm Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  7. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Vasarmidi, Eirini; Jacob, Joseph; Wells, Athol U; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2015-09-01

    For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs.

  8. Solubilized xenon 133 lung scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Lung scanning using solubilized xenon 133 can provide important information concerning both pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. This technique proved valuable in establishing the diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema in a 7-month-old baby.

  9. Lung Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Scleroderma is a multisystem disease characterized by a severe inflammatory process and exuberant fibrosis. Lung involvement is a frequent complication and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this syndrome. Two major pulmonary syndromes are associated with scleroderma; a pulmonary vascular disorder evolving over time into relatively isolated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Each syndrome, when present, is a cause of morbidity and significantly reduces survival of scleroderma patients when compared to patients free of lung complication. When pulmonary hypertension and ILD are combined, survival is further reduced. Current therapy appears to have no meaningful effect on either condition and, thus, there is a need for better understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This review focuses on clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of PAH and ILD as well as other frequent but less debilitating lung complications of scleroderma. PMID:21195581

  10. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... be applied. For nodules that are small and deep within the lung, or located near blood vessels, ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  11. Tuberculosis in the lung (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M bovis , M africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

  12. rOpenSci - open tools for open science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, K.

    2013-12-01

    Solving many of the basic and applied challenges in ecology and evolution requires access to large amounts of data, often spanning long spatial and temporal scales. The long-established model where researchers collect and analyze their own data will soon be replaced by one where disparate datasets are brought to bear on both basic and applied problems. As science becomes more data-driven, it faces a whole new set of challenges. Researchers will not only have to maintain expertise in their domains but also learn new skills to curate, retrieve, and analyze these newly available data. In order to fully realize the potential of data-driven science and allow researchers to draw insights from these vast data stores, we need to address challenges associated with all aspects of the research life cycle. To foster and support a new generation of data-driven science, my colleagues and I founded a project called rOpenSci (http://ropensci.org). The project is an integrated effort to build tools and training using Ecology and Evolution as a model community. In this talk I will outline several of the barriers that need to be overcome including better incentive mechanisms for data, training gaps, and lowering technical barriers.

  13. Lung embolism with liquid silicone.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; Martínez, M C; Lopez-Artíguez, M; Soria, M L; Bernier, F; Repetto, M

    1989-03-01

    A lung embolism was reported in a case involving death following repeated injections of liquid silicone for aesthetic reasons. The liquid extracted from the sites of injection was identified as methylsilicone using infrared spectrophotometry, and the presence of silicone in vacuoles in the lung was verified by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). A study has been carried out with rats after intravenous and subcutaneous injections of methylsilicone.

  14. [A three dimensional fractal simulation of the lung bronchial tree].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuyi; Tan, Xiaoping; Pei, Juemin

    2004-06-01

    The lungs are naturally irregular and asymmetrical organ in anatomy. The conducting bronchial trees in the lungs display complex self-similar structure. We have established the host mesh coordinates of the right lung on the basis of the anatomical data from the literature. A three-dimensional fractal model of the conducting airways was set up by calculating the coordinates of the mass centers of the divided blocks, searching the branch direction and determining branch lengths with the use of the drawing tool OpenGL. Specific data of the lengths at various grades, branching angles, and capillary diameters were obtained. As a result, the computed data were identical with those of the existing statistical data. The fractal covering dimensionality obtained in the computation of this model was 2.19, which is very close to the ideal dimensionality, 2.17, from the literature. The present model has laid the foundation for further research of the gas diffusion and transfer performance in the lungs using the fractal concept, and furthermore, it helps to save the computer memories and fastening the graphic transfer.

  15. Nanomedicine as an emerging platform for metastatic lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Peer, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Metastatic lung cancer is one of the most common cancers leading to mortality worldwide. Current treatment includes chemo- and pathway-dependent therapy aiming at blocking the spread and proliferation of these metastatic lesions. Nanomedicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that offers unprecedented access to living cells and promises the state of the art in cancer detection and treatment. Development of nanomedicines as drug carriers (nanocarriers) that target cancer for therapy draws upon principles in the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics, biology, and engineering. Given the zealous activity in the field as demonstrated by more than 30 nanocarriers already approved for clinical use and given the promise of recent clinical results in various studies, nanocarrier-based strategies are anticipated to soon have a profound impact on cancer medicine and human health. Herein, we will detail the latest innovations in therapeutic nanomedicine with examples from lipid-based nanoparticles and polymer-based approaches, which are engineered to deliver anticancer drugs to metastatic lung cells. Emphasis will be placed on the latest and most attractive delivery platforms, which are developed specifically to target lung metastatic tumors. These novel nanomedicines may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention carrying new class of drugs such as RNAi and mRNA and the ability to edit the genome using the CRISPER/Cas9 system. Ultimately, these strategies might become a new therapeutic modality for advanced-stage lung cancer.

  16. Lung oxidative damage by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Tuesta, M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described.

  17. Lung Oxidative Damage by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, O. F.; Tuesta, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described. PMID:22966417

  18. openPMD-viewer

    SciTech Connect

    Lehe, Remi

    2015-10-01

    Many simulation software produce data in the form of a set of field values or of a set of particle positions. (one such example is that of particle-in-cell codes, which produce data on the electromagnetic fields that they simulate.) However, each particular software uses its own particular format and layout, for the output data. This makes it difficult to compare the results of different simulation software, or to have a common visualization tool for these results. However, a standardized layout for fields and particles has recently been developed: the openPMD format ( HYPERLINK "http://www.openpmd.org/"www.openpmd.org) This format is open- source, and specifies a standard way in which field data and particle data should be written. The openPMD format is already implemented in the particle-in-cell code Warp (developed at LBL) and in PIConGPU (developed at HZDR, Germany). In this context, the proposed software (openPMD-viewer) is a Python package, which allows to access and visualize any data which has been formatted according to the openPMD standard. This package contains two main components: - a Python API, which allows to read and extract the data from a openPMD file, so as to be able to work with it within the Python environment. (e.g. plot the data and reprocess it with particular Python functions) - a graphical interface, which works with the ipython notebook, and allows to quickly visualize the data and browse through a set of openPMD files. The proposed software will be typically used when analyzing the results of numerical simulations. It will be useful to quickly extract scientific meaning from a set of numerical data.

  19. Spatiotemporal Aeration and Lung Injury Patterns Are Influenced by the First Inflation Strategy at Birth.

    PubMed

    Tingay, David G; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Zonneveld, C Elroy; Black, Don; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Lavizzari, Anna; Frerichs, Inéz; Zahra, Valerie A; Davis, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    Ineffective aeration during the first inflations at birth creates regional aeration and ventilation defects, initiating injurious pathways. This study aimed to compare a sustained first inflation at birth or dynamic end-expiratory supported recruitment during tidal inflations against ventilation without intentional recruitment on gas exchange, lung mechanics, spatiotemporal regional aeration and tidal ventilation, and regional lung injury in preterm lambs. Lambs (127 ± 2 d gestation), instrumented at birth, were ventilated for 60 minutes from birth with either lung-protective positive pressure ventilation (control) or as per control after either an initial 30 seconds of 40 cm H2O sustained inflation (SI) or an initial stepwise end-expiratory pressure recruitment maneuver during tidal inflations (duration 180 s; open lung ventilation [OLV]). At study completion, molecular markers of lung injury were analyzed. The initial use of an OLV maneuver, but not SI, at birth resulted in improved lung compliance, oxygenation, end-expiratory lung volume, and reduced ventilatory needs compared with control, persisting throughout the study. These changes were due to more uniform inter- and intrasubject gravity-dependent spatiotemporal patterns of aeration (measured using electrical impedance tomography). Spatial distribution of tidal ventilation was more stable after either recruitment maneuver. All strategies caused regional lung injury patterns that mirrored associated regional volume states. Irrespective of strategy, spatiotemporal volume loss was consistently associated with up-regulation of early growth response-1 expression. Our results show that mechanical and molecular consequences of lung aeration at birth are not simply related to rapidity of fluid clearance; they are also related to spatiotemporal pressure-volume interactions within the lung during inflation and deflation.

  20. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    PubMed

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin (< or = 10 micrograms/mL) affect Mv1Lu cell number. TGF-beta and TNF-alpha at high concentrations (> or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  1. [Idiopathic lung fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, L; Geldszus, R; Molitor, S J

    1990-02-01

    In a 39-year-old patient with chronic progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the genetic aspects, course and therapeutic possibilities of the disease are discussed. In February, 1987, the English-born patient, Anthony V., attended for initial examination on account of progressive dyspnoea, on which occasion radiology and pulmonary function analysis revealed advanced pulmonary fibrosis. The patient's family history revealed a familial genesis, since both his father (?) and his sister had died of this disease. A comparative of the patient's chest films with original chest films of his sister revealed almost identical findings. Within the previous twelve months, follow-up examinations done on A.V. revealed an increase in the restrictive component (reduction of vital capacity from 2,400 ml to 1,500 ml), development of partial respiratory failure at rest, and global respiratory failure in response to mild ergometric exercise despite intermittent high-dose steroid administrations superimposed on long-term, low-dose steroid therapy. The unfavourable evolution observed over the past 12 months is underscored by an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure from 18 mmHg initially to a present 34 mmHg at rest, and 46 mmHg under submaximal ergometric loading. The only option still left to the patient is the possibility of a lung transplantation, which - probably initially unilateral - is scheduled to be carried out in the near future at the Chest Surgery Department of the Medical University at Hannover.

  2. Global OpenSearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  3. Natural Killers Are Made Not Born: How to Exploit NK Cells in Lung Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Carrega, Paolo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in the characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in lung malignancies, and we have now gained a better understanding of the frequency, localization, phenotype, and functional status of NK cells infiltrating these tumors. NK cell subset recruited in lung cancer is mainly capable of producing relevant cytokines rather than exerting direct cancer cell killing. Thus, the relevance of NK cells in tumor microenvironment might also go beyond the killing of tumor cells, being NK cells endowed with regulatory functions toward an ample array of immune effectors. Nevertheless, boosting their cytotoxic functions and redirecting the migration of cytotoxic NK cell subset to the tumor site might open new therapeutic avenues for lung cancer. Also, we believe that a deeper investigation into the impact of both conventional (e.g., chemotherapy) or new therapies (e.g., anti-immune checkpoints mAbs) on NK cell homeostasis in lung cancer patients is now required. PMID:28348567

  4. Impact of video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection on immune function.

    PubMed

    Ng, Calvin S H; Wan, Innes Y P; Yim, Anthony P C

    2009-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection for early stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma has been associated with less postoperative pain, better preserved pulmonary function, shorter hospital stay, and enhanced tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy compared to thoracotomy. Initial concerns regarding safety, oncological clearance, and cost effectiveness were unfounded. Several recent trials have reported improved long-term survival in patients with early stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection, compared to the open technique, although there are inconsistencies. Interestingly, the immune status and autologous tumor killing ability of lung cancer patients have previously been associated with long-term survival. Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resection results in an attenuated postoperative inflammatory response, but more importantly, it better preserves postoperative immune function. Circulating natural killer and T-cell numbers, T-cell oxidative activity, and levels of immunochemokines such as insulin growth factor binding protein-3 are higher after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery than after thoracotomy. Recently, interest has developed in the role of the angiogenesis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, after cancer surgery. Whether differences in immunological and biochemical mediators contribute towards improved long-term survival following video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection for cancer remains to be confirmed.

  5. Aptamers Selected to Postoperative Lung Adenocarcinoma Detect Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zamay, Galina S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Zamay, Tatiana N; Glazyrin, Yury E; Krat, Alexey V; Zubkova, Olga; Spivak, Ekaterina; Wehbe, Mohammed; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Komarova, Mariia; Grigorieva, Valentina; Savchenko, Andrey; Modestov, Andrey A; Berezovski, Maxim V; Zamay, Anna S

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells and valuable clinical markers of prognosis of metastasis formation and prediction of patient survival. Most CTC analyses are based on the antibody-based detection of a few epithelial markers; therefore miss an important portion of mesenchymal cancer cells circulating in blood. In this work, we selected and identified DNA aptamers as specific affinity probes that bind to lung adenocarcinoma cells derived from postoperative tissues. The unique feature of our selection strategy is that aptamers are produced for lung cancer cell biomarkers in their native state and conformation without previous knowledge of the biomarkers. The aptamers did not bind to normal lung cells and lymphocytes, and had very low affinity to A549 lung adenocarcinoma culture. We applied these aptamers to detect CTCs, apoptotic bodies, and microemboli in clinical samples of peripheral blood of lung cancer and metastatic lung cancer patients. We identified aptamer-associated protein biomarkers for lung cancer such as vimentin, annexin A2, annexin A5, histone 2B, neutrophil defensin, and clusterin. Tumor-specific aptamers can be produced for individual patients and synthesized many times during anticancer therapy, thereby opening up the possibility of personalized diagnostics. PMID:26061649

  6. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels.

  7. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  8. Bargaining for Open Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojahn, Oliver W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the bargaining problem between countries when negotiating bilateral air service agreements. To do so, we use the methods of bargaining and game theory. We give special attention to the case where a liberal minded country is trying to convince a less liberal country to agree to bilateral open skies, and the liberal country might also unilaterally open up its market. The following analysis is positive in the sense that the results help explain and predict the outcome of negotiations under different payoffs and structures of the bargaining process. They are normative in the sense that adequate manipulation of the bargaining conditions can ensure a desired outcome.

  9. Lung cancer and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P; Maisonneuve, P

    1995-06-01

    The dominant role of tobacco smoking in the causation of lung cancer has been repeatedly demonstrated over the past 50 years. Current lung cancer rates reflect cigarette smoking habits of men and women in the past decades, but not necessarily current smoking patterns, since there is an interval of several decades between the change in smoking habits in a population and its consequences on lung cancer rates. Over 90% of lung cancer may be avoidable simply through avoidance of cigarette smoking. There is at present a huge premature loss of life world-wide caused by smoking. Rates of lung cancer present in central and eastern Europe at the present time are higher than those ever before recorded elsewhere; lung cancer has increased 10-fold in men and eightfold in women in Japan since 1950. There is a world-wide epidemic of smoking among young women which will be translated into increasing rates of tobacco-related disease, including cancer, in the coming decades. There is another epidemic of lung cancer and tobacco-related deaths building up in China as the cohorts of men in whom tobacco smoking became popular reach ages where cancer is an important hazard. Many solutions have been attempted to reduce cigarette smoking and increasingly many countries are enacting legislation to curb this habit. Cigarette smoking remains the number one target for Public Health action aimed at reducing cancer risk in the general population. General practitioners, hospital physicians and everyone working in oncology have a particularly important exemplary role to play in this process.

  10. Transcriptomic Microenvironment of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Yohan; Sazonova, Olga; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Bastien, Nathalie; Conti, Massimo; Pagé, Sylvain; Trahan, Sylvain; Couture, Christian; Joubert, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Background: Tissues surrounding tumors are increasingly studied to understand the biology of cancer development and identify biomarkers.Methods: A unique geographic tissue sampling collection was obtained from patients that underwent curative lobectomy for stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Tumor and nontumor lung samples located at 0, 2, 4, and 6 cm away from the tumor were collected. Whole-genome gene expression profiling was performed on all samples (n = 5 specimens × 12 patients = 60). Analyses were carried out to identify genes differentially expressed in the tumor compared with adjacent nontumor lung tissues at different distances from the tumor as well as to identify stable and transient genes in nontumor tissues with respect to tumor proximity.Results: The magnitude of gene expression changes between tumor and nontumor sites was similar with increasing distance from the tumor. A total of 482 up- and 843 downregulated genes were found in tumors, including 312 and 566 that were consistently differentially expressed across nontumor sites. Twenty-nine genes induced and 34 knocked-down in tumors were also identified. Tumor proximity analyses revealed 15,700 stable genes in nontumor lung tissues. Gene expression changes across nontumor sites were subtle and not statistically significant.Conclusions: This study describes the transcriptomic microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent nontumor lung tissues collected at standardized distances relative to the tumor.Impact: This study provides further insights about the molecular transitions that occur from normal tissue to lung adenocarcinoma and is an important step to develop biomarkers in nonmalignant lung tissues. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 389-96. ©2016 AACR.

  11. Developing EZH2-Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Epigenetic targets are exciting new avenues for cancer drug discovery. Zhang and colleagues have designed the open-source EZH2 inhibitor JQEZ5 and shown antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in preclinical studies in murine and human lung adenocarcinoma models expressing high levels of EZH2.

  12. Low Concentration Ozone Reacts with Plasmalogen Glycerophosphoethanolamine Lipids in Lung Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Wynalda, Kelly M.; Murphy, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Ozone is a common environmental toxicant to which individuals are exposed to on a daily basis. While biochemical endpoints such as increased mortality, decrements in pulmonary function and initiation of inflammatory processes are known, little is actually understood regarding the chemical mechanisms underlying changes in pulmonary health, especially for low concentrations of ozone. This study was undertaken to investigate ozone induced oxidation of endogenous lipids that are potentially exposed to environmental ozone within lung, specifically focusing on plasmalogen glycerophospholipids present in pulmonary surfactant. Sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were developed to follow oxidation of diacyl and plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) phospholipids, and to identify and quantitate products generated by ozonolysis. Using a unilamellar vesicle system containing a 1:1 molar mixture of 1-O-octadec-1’-enyl-2-octadecenoyl-PE and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-PC, these studies revealed the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens was oxidized preferentially at low concentrations of ozone (100 ppb), when compared to olefinic bond oxidation on ω-9 of the fatty acyl chain in the same phospholipids. Major phospholipid products generated were identified as 1-formyl-2-octadecenoyl-PE and 1-hydroxy-2-octadecenoyl-PE. Heptadecanal and heptadecanoic acid production was also quantitated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and production was consistent with oxidation of the vinyl ether, at low concentrations of ozone. Analysis of murine lung surfactant from C57Bl/6 mice revealed several plasmalogen PE lipid species, encompassing ~38% of total PE species. Upon exposure of ozone (0 ppb, 100 ppb) to murine surfactant, plasmalogen PE molecular species preferentially reacted, as compared to diacyl PE molecular species. Lysophospholipids, pentadecanal, and nonanal were found to be the primary products of surfactant ozone oxidation. PMID:19916514

  13. Avalanche Dynamics of Crackle Sound in the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Alencar, Adriano M.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Majumdar, Arnab; Stanley, H. Eugene; Suki, Bela

    2001-08-20

    We analyze a sequence of short transient sound waves, called 'crackles,' which are associated with explosive openings of airways during lung inflation. The distribution of time intervals between consecutive crackles {Delta}t shows two regimes of power law behavior. We develop an avalanche model which fits the data over five decades of {Delta}t. We find that the regime for large {Delta}t is related to the dynamics of distinct avalanches in a Cayley tree, and the regime for small {Delta}t is determined by the dynamics of crackle propagation within a single avalanche. We also obtain a mean-field solution of the model which provides information about lung inflation.

  14. Lung Injury After One-Lung Ventilation: A Review of the Pathophysiologic Mechanisms Affecting the Ventilated and the Collapsed Lung.

    PubMed

    Lohser, Jens; Slinger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Lung injury is the leading cause of death after thoracic surgery. Initially recognized after pneumonectomy, it has since been described after any period of 1-lung ventilation (OLV), even in the absence of lung resection. Overhydration and high tidal volumes were thought to be responsible at various points; however, it is now recognized that the pathophysiology is more complex and multifactorial. All causative mechanisms known to trigger ventilator-induced lung injury have been described in the OLV setting. The ventilated lung is exposed to high strain secondary to large, nonphysiologic tidal volumes and loss of the normal functional residual capacity. In addition, the ventilated lung experiences oxidative stress, as well as capillary shear stress because of hyperperfusion. Surgical manipulation and/or resection of the collapsed lung may induce lung injury. Re-expansion of the collapsed lung at the conclusion of OLV invariably induces duration-dependent, ischemia-reperfusion injury. Inflammatory cytokines are released in response to localized injury and may promote local and contralateral lung injury. Protective ventilation and volatile anesthesia lessen the degree of injury; however, increases in biochemical and histologic markers of lung injury appear unavoidable. The endothelial glycocalyx may represent a common pathway for lung injury creation during OLV, because it is damaged by most of the recognized lung injurious mechanisms. Experimental therapies to stabilize the endothelial glycocalyx may afford the ability to reduce lung injury in the future. In the interim, protective ventilation with tidal volumes of 4 to 5 mL/kg predicted body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 to 10 cm H2O, and routine lung recruitment should be used during OLV in an attempt to minimize harmful lung stress and strain. Additional strategies to reduce lung injury include routine volatile anesthesia and efforts to minimize OLV duration and hyperoxia.

  15. Sleep in patients with restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Won, Christine H J; Kryger, Meir

    2014-09-01

    Restrictive lung disease leads to ventilatory defects and diffusion impairments. These changes may contribute to abnormal nocturnal pathophysiology, including sleep architecture disruption and impaired ventilation and oxygenation. Patients with restrictive lung disease may suffer significant daytime fatigue and dysfunction. Hypercarbia and hypoxemia during sleep may impact progression of lung disease and related symptoms. Little is known about the impact of treatment of sleep disruption on sleep quality and overall prognosis in restrictive lung disease. This review discusses the pathophysiology of sleep and comorbid sleep disorders in restrictive lung diseases including interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular disease, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

  16. Neonatal opaque right lung: delayed fluid resorption

    SciTech Connect

    Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, K.; Richardson, J.

    1981-12-01

    Eight newborn infants with opaque right lungs were examined. Clinically, the main problem associated with the opaque right lung is mild respiratory distress, and radiographyically, the findings consist of (a) a totally opaque right lung, (b) a semiopaque right lung, or (c) an opaque right upper lobe only. These findings are usually interpreted as representing pneumonia, empyema, or hydrochlothorax, but the fact that they clear within 24 to 48 hours indicates that none of these diseases is the cause. It is thought that neonatal opaque right lung results from the transient retention of normal fetal fluid in the right lung.

  17. Open Entry/Open Exit Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Marvin

    Open entry/open exit refers to formats and procedures which allow learners to enter a program whenever they are ready and available, and allows them to leave or complete programs when competencies for job entry are attained. This study sought to provide base data on the concept of open entry/open exit by surveying involved individuals and to…

  18. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  19. Information of Open Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimontovich, Yuri L.

    In the theory of communication two definitions of the concept "information" are known. One of them coincides according to its form with the Boltzmann entropy. The second definition of information is the difference between unconditional and conditional entropies. In the present work this latter is used for the definition of the information about states of open systems with various meanings of the control parameter. Two kinds of open systems are considered. The first class of systems concerns those which with zero value of the control parameter are in an equilibrium state. The information on an equilibrium state is equal to zero. During self- organizing in the process of departing from an equilibrium state the information increases. For open systems of this class the conservation law for the sum of the information and entropy with all values of control parameter is proved. In open systems of the second class the equilibrium condition is impossible. For them the concept "norm of a chaoticity" is introduced. It allows to consider two kinds of processes of self-organization and to give the corresponding definitions of information. The statement is carried out on a number of (classical and quantum) examples of physical systems. The example of a medico-biological system also is considered.

  20. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  1. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the…

  2. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  3. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  4. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  5. Open Systems Interconnection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for standards allowing computer-to-computer communication and gives examples of technical issues. The seven-layer framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is explained and illustrated. Sidebars feature public data networks and Recommendation X.25, OSI standards, OSI layer functions, and a glossary.…

  6. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  7. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  8. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  9. Surgical wound care - open

    MedlinePlus

    Surgical incision care; Open wound care ... your wound again with sutures, you need to care for it at home, since it may take ... Your health care provider will tell you how often to change your dressing . To prepare for the dressing change: Clean your ...

  10. An Open Forum Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieblot, Bernice A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an open letter addressed to Morton B. Zuckerman of "U.S. News & World Report" concerning the magazine's survey/article "America's Best Colleges" which received a great deal of public attention. Criticizes the survey for failing to help families make better choices among institutions and failing to encourage colleges to do a better job for…

  11. Open G2 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; de Medeiros, Paul; El-Showk, Sheer; Sinkovics, Annamaria

    2008-02-01

    We consider an open string version of the topological twist previously proposed for sigma-models with G2 target spaces. We determine the cohomology of open strings states and relate these to geometric deformations of calibrated submanifolds and to flat or anti-self-dual connections on such submanifolds. On associative three-cycles we show that the worldvolume theory is a gauge-fixed Chern-Simons theory coupled to normal deformations of the cycle. For coassociative four-cycles we find a functional that extremizes on anti-self-dual gauge fields. A brane wrapping the whole G2 induces a seven-dimensional associative Chern-Simons theory on the manifold. This theory has already been proposed by Donaldson and Thomas as the higher-dimensional generalization of real Chern-Simons theory. When the G2 manifold has the structure of a Calabi-Yau times a circle, these theories reduce to a combination of the open A-model on special Lagrangians and the open B + B-bar-model on holomorphic submanifolds. We also comment on possible applications of our results.

  12. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  13. Apraxia of lid opening.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta; Teimory, Masoud

    2007-07-01

    We describe eyelid movement abnormalities in an 80-year-old man with apraxia of lid opening (ALO), resulting from involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition (ILPI) and pretarsal orbicularis oculi (OO) contraction. He was unable to open his lids at will following closure. Attempted eye opening resulted in forceful contraction of the frontalis muscle, backward thrusting of the head and lengthened lid closure. The inability to reopen the lids was not evident during spontaneous reflex blinking and he had no difficulty in keeping the lids open once they had been manually lifted up. There were no episodes of involuntary drooping of the eyelids or spasmodic contraction of the OO causing involuntary eyelid closure. Pursuit eye movements were not restricted, the vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved and both horizontal and vertical saccades were normal. Despite the clinically visible persistence of pretarsal OO activity, treatment with botulinum toxin injections in the pretarsal and preseptal portions of the muscle did not reduce his difficulty in initiating lid elevation but he found some benefit using lid crutches. ALO is thought to be due to an abnormality in the supranuclear control of eyelid movement. ILPI can present either isolated or combined with blepharospasm. The excitatory levator palpebrae response necessary to lift the lids up is likely to be in very close connection with the OO antagonistic inhibitory response. Alterations in one or another pre-motor structure may result in inability to raise the lids due to inhibition of the levator palpebrae as well as persistence of the pretarsal OO.

  14. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  15. Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  16. Starting a Lung Transplant Program

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Geist, Lois; Keech, John; Zabner, Joseph; Gruber, Peter J.; Iannettoni, Mark D.; Parekh, Kalpaj

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation is an effective therapy for many patients with end-stage lung disease. Few centers across the United States offer this therapy, as a successful lung transplant program requires significant institutional resources and specialized personnel. Analysis of the United Network of Organ Sharing database reveals that the failure rate of new programs exceeds 40%. These data suggest that an accurate assessment of program viability as well as a strategy to continuously assess defined quality measures is needed. As part of strategic planning, regional availability of recipient and donors should be assessed. Additionally, analysis of institutional expertise at the physician, support staff, financial, and administrative levels is necessary. In May of 2007, we started a new lung transplant program at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and have performed 101 transplants with an average recipient 1-year survival of 91%, placing our program among the top in the country for the past 5 years. Herein, we review internal and external factors that impact the viability of a new lung transplant program. We discuss the use of four prospectively identified quality measures: volume, recipient outcomes, financial solvency, and academic contribution as one approach to achieve programmatic excellence. PMID:25940255

  17. Thermal ablation of lung tumors.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Ryan A; Dupuy, Damian E

    2007-06-01

    Thermal ablation can be applied to treat any thoracic malignancy: primary lung cancers, recurrent primary lung cancers, metastatic disease, chest wall masses, and painful, bony metastases. Since the first reported use of thermal ablation for lung cancer in 2000 there has been an explosive use of the procedure, and by 2010 the number of procedures to treat thoracic malignancy is expected to exceed 150,000 per year. Presently, thermal ablation is best used for patients with early-stage lung cancers in patients who are not surgical candidates, patients with small and favorably located pulmonary metastases, and patients in whom palliation of tumor-related symptoms is the goal. Radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, and cryoablation are novel treatment modalities for lung cancer and can safely accomplish tumor destruction and even complete eradication of tumor in patients who are not candidates for surgical resection. In this article, we discuss technical considerations for each modality and the periprocedure and postprocedure management of patients with this disease.

  18. Robotic lung segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Ayalp, Kemal; Uyumaz, Elena; Kaba, Erkan; Demirhan, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical use of robots has evolved over the last 10 years. However, the academic experience with robotic lung segmentectomy remains limited. We aimed to analyze our lung segmentectomy experience with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Prospectively recorded clinical data of 21 patients who underwent robotic lung anatomic segmentectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were done using the da Vinci System. A three incision portal technique with a 3 cm utility incision in the posterior 10th to 11th intercostal space was performed. Individual dissection, ligation and division of the hilar structures were performed. Systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling was performed in 15 patients either with primary or secondary metastatic cancers. Results Fifteen patients (75%) were operated on for malignant lung diseases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients. Mean console robotic operating time was 84±26 (range, 40-150) minutes. Mean duration of chest tube drainage and mean postoperative hospital stay were 3±2.1 (range, 1-10) and 4±1.4 (range, 2-7) days respectively. The mean number of mediastinal stations and number of dissected lymph nodes were 4.2 and 14.3 (range, 2-21) from mediastinal and 8.1 (range, 2-19) nodes from hilar and interlobar stations respectively. Conclusions Robot-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions appears to be practical, safe, and associated with few complications and short postoperative hospitalization. Lymph node removal also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer patients. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life needs a comparative, prospective series particularly with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:25093090

  19. CREATION OF FEMALE COMPUTATIONAL PHANTOMS FOR CALIBRATION OF LUNG COUNTERS.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Pasquale Alessandro; Lebacq, Anne Laure; Vanhavere, Filip

    2016-09-01

    Plutonium isotopes are of high concern because they lead to high doses. In case of contamination, the activity burden inside the lungs should be assessed accurately. Many studies showed that the presence of breasts has a substantial influence on lung counting efficiencies. Currently, the calibration of most lung counting systems is done by means of physical phantoms representing only male chests. A set of female computational phantoms has been developed in order to provide gender-specific efficiency calibrations for the (241)Am gamma emission (59.54 keV). The phantoms were created starting from a library of female chest phantoms provided by Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) (Farah, J. Amélioration des mesures anthroporadiamétriques personnalisées assistées par calcul Monte Carlo: optimisation des temps de calculs et méthodologie de mesure pour l'établissement de la répartition d'activite. PhD Thesis, 2011). While the IRSN phantoms represent a supine measurement position, the SCK•CEN lung counter set-up requires the persons to be sitting in a chair. Using open-source software, the breast shapes of the original phantoms have been recreated to simulate the drooping of breasts in vertical sitting position. A Monte Carlo approach was chosen for calculating calibration coefficients for female lung counting. The results obtained with MCNPx 2.7 simulations showed a significant decrease in the detection efficiency. For bigger bust and breast sizes, the detection efficiency showed to be up to 10 times lower than the ones measured with the Livermore male torso phantom.

  20. Statistical Physics Approaches to Respiratory Dynamics and Lung Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suki, Bela

    2004-03-01

    The lung consists of a branching airway tree embedded in viscoelastic tissue and provides life-sustaining gas exchange to the body. In diseases, its structure is damaged and its function is compromised. We review two recent works about lung structure and dynamics and how they change in disease. 1) We introduced a new acoustic imaging approach to study airway structure. When airways in a collapsed lung are inflated, they pop open in avalanches. A single opening emits a sound package called crackle consisting of an initial spike (s) followed by ringing. The distribution n(s) of s follows a power law and the exponent of n(s) can be used to calculate the diameter ratio d defined as the ratio of the diameters of an airway to that of its parent averaged over all bifurcations. To test this method, we measured crackles in dogs, rabbits, rats and mice by inflating collapsed isolated lungs with air or helium while recording crackles with a microphone. In each species, n(s) follows a power law with an exponent that depends on species, but not on gas in agreement with theory. Values of d from crackles compare well with those calculated from morphometric data suggesting that this approach is suitable to study airway structure in disease. 2) Using novel experiments and computer models, we studied pulmonary emphysema which is caused by cigarette smoking. In emphysema, the elastic protein fibers of the tissue are actively remodeled by lung cells due to the chemicals present in smoke. We measured the mechanical properties of tissue sheets from normal and emphysematous lungs and imaged its structure which appears as a heterogeneous hexagonal network of fibers. We found evidence that during uniaxial stretching, the collagen and elastin fibers in emphysematous tissue can fail at a critical stress generating holes of various sizes (h). We developed network models of the failure process. When the failure is governed by mechanical forces, the distribution n(h) of h is a power law which

  1. Spectrum of fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Padilla, Maria L

    2009-02-01

    The interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the pulmonary interstitium. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society revised the classification of interstitial lung diseases and introduced the term diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subtype of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are subdivided into usual interstitial pneumonia (with its clinical counterpart idiopathic interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, and lymphocytic pneumonia. Sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the 2 most common granulomatous diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (causing antisynthetase syndrome) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of known association because these conditions are associated with connective tissue disease. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare genetic diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by the clinical triad of pulmonary disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and bleeding diathesis. This review provides an overview of the chronic fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Its primary objective is to illuminate the clinical challenges encountered by clinicians who manage the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases regularly and to offer potential solutions to those challenges. Treatment for the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases is limited, and for many patients with end-stage disease, lung transplantation remains the best option. Although much has been learned about the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases during the past decade, research in these diseases is urgently needed.

  2. What Are the Key Statistics for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinoid Tumors What Are the Key Statistics About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? About 1% to 2% of all ... Lung Carcinoid Tumor Research and Treatment? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  3. What Happens after Treatment for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Lung Carcinoid Tumors? For many people with carcinoid tumors, ... Lung Carcinoid Tumor Treatment Stops Working More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  4. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staging What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? It is important to have honest, ... Your Doctor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  5. Lung Macrophage Diversity and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages (MPs) are one of the most prominent leukocyte populations in the lung and, in many ways, a forgotten player in asthma pathogenesis. Diverse functions in asthma initiation and maintenance in chronic disease have been demonstrated, which has led to confusion as to if pulmonary MPs are agents of good or evil in asthma. Much of this is due to the wide diversity of MP populations in the lung, many of which are inaccessible experimentally in most clinical studies. This review frames lung MP biology in the context of location, phenotype, function, and response phase in asthma pathogenesis. It also assesses new findings regarding MP diversity that have challenged old dogmas and generates new ways to understand how MPs function. PMID:27027949

  6. Cilia Dysfunction in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Ann E.; Walters, Matthew S.; Shaykhiev, Renat; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the human airway epithelium is the presence of ciliated cells bearing motile cilia, specialized cell surface projections containing axonemes comprised of microtubules and dynein arms, which provide ATP-driven motility. In the airways, cilia function in concert with airway mucus to mediate the critical function of mucociliary clearance, cleansing the airways of inhaled particles and pathogens. The prototypical disorder of respiratory cilia is primary ciliary dyskinesia, an inherited disorder that leads to impaired mucociliary clearance, repeated chest infections, and progressive destruction of lung architecture. Numerous acquired lung diseases are also marked by abnormalities in both cilia structure and function. In this review we summarize current knowledge regarding airway ciliated cells and cilia, how they function to maintain a healthy epithelium, and how disorders of cilia structure and function contribute to inherited and acquired lung disease. PMID:25386990

  7. Functional imaging in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harders, S W; Balyasnikowa, S; Fischer, B M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) have demonstrated promising results within this field. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a brief and balanced introduction to these three functional imaging modalities and their current or potential application in the care of patients with lung cancer. PMID:24289258

  8. Farmer's lung disease in Somerset.

    PubMed Central

    Pether, J V; Greatorex, F B

    1976-01-01

    A survey of laboratory records was made to assess the value of the precipitin test and isolation methods in the diagnosis of farmer's lung disease and also to determine its prevalence in the farming population of Somerset. A link was established between the clinical diagnosis as written on the form that accompanied the specimen and the actual number of positive laboratory diagnoses made. Fifty (43%) of the clinically diagnosed patients were serologically positive for farmer's lung during a four-year period. If the clinically diagnosed but serologically negative cases of farmer's lung disease are added to this number, a prevalence of about 23 per 1000 of the farming population of Somerset is obtained. PMID:999800

  9. Opening Reproducible Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Open access is not only a form of publishing such that research papers become available to the large public free of charge, it also refers to a trend in science that the act of doing research becomes more open and transparent. When science transforms to open access we not only mean access to papers, research data being collected, or data being generated, but also access to the data used and the procedures carried out in the research paper. Increasingly, scientific results are generated by numerical manipulation of data that were already collected, and may involve simulation experiments that are completely carried out computationally. Reproducibility of research findings, the ability to repeat experimental procedures and confirm previously found results, is at the heart of the scientific method (Pebesma, Nüst and Bivand, 2012). As opposed to the collection of experimental data in labs or nature, computational experiments lend themselves very well for reproduction. Some of the reasons why scientists do not publish data and computational procedures that allow reproduction will be hard to change, e.g. privacy concerns in the data, fear for embarrassment or of losing a competitive advantage. Others reasons however involve technical aspects, and include the lack of standard procedures to publish such information and the lack of benefits after publishing them. We aim to resolve these two technical aspects. We propose a system that supports the evolution of scientific publications from static papers into dynamic, executable research documents. The DFG-funded experimental project Opening Reproducible Research (ORR) aims for the main aspects of open access, by improving the exchange of, by facilitating productive access to, and by simplifying reuse of research results that are published over the Internet. Central to the project is a new form for creating and providing research results, the executable research compendium (ERC), which not only enables third parties to

  10. Impacts of Exercise on Prognostic Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the abdomen (diaphragm), the membranes surrounding the space between the lungs (mediastinal pleura), or membranes of ... tumor of any size has grown into the space between the lungs (mediastinum), the heart, the large ...

  12. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  13. Ebola Can Linger in Lungs, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162904.html Ebola Can Linger in Lungs, Study Finds Discovery in ... Researchers say they've discovered signs that the Ebola virus could lurk in the lungs and reproduce ...

  14. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... depends on the underlying cause. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here Atelectasis (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Atelectasis (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Pneumothorax (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  15. Airway complications after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Machuzak, Michael; Santacruz, Jose F; Gildea, Thomas; Murthy, Sudish C

    2015-01-01

    Airway complications after lung transplantation present a formidable challenge to the lung transplant team, ranging from mere unusual images to fatal events. The exact incidence of complications is wide-ranging depending on the type of event, and there is still evolution of a universal characterization of the airway findings. Management is also wide-ranging. Simple observation or simple balloon bronchoplasty is sufficient in many cases, but vigilance following more severe necrosis is required for late development of both anastomotic and nonanastomotic airway strictures. Furthermore, the impact of coexisting infection, rejection, and medical disease associated with high-level immunosuppression further complicates care.

  16. Cigarette smoke and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.; Lowe, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps specifically at airway bifurcations. The elevated risk of lung cancer to smokers may result from a complex interplay between smoking and exposure to ambient Rn progeny, including the promotional-effect role (as opposed to being the initiating event) of cigarette smoke in tumor development. It has been determined that smokers exposed to average indoor Rn progency levels receive surprisingly high doses at hot spots within bronchial bifurcations.

  17. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  18. Clinical neurology in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wigfield, Christopher H; Love, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is the only established therapeutic option for several end-stage respiratory diseases. Limited mostly by lack of suitable allografts, the results have measurably improved over the last decade. Numerous surgical and pharmaceutical improvements have had positive impact on outcomes. The potential for critical care issues and the need for interdisciplinary management remains paramount. Cardiac, renal, and metabolic complications are frequently encountered in the acute postoperative phase. Allograft rejection and infectious diseases as well as problems related to immunosuppressive regimen are seen later after lung transplantation. Neurologic manifestations with a range of etiologies are discussed here in this context.

  19. Complement System in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Pankita H.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to its established contribution to innate immunity, recent studies have suggested novel roles for the complement system in the development of various lung diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that complement may serve as a key link between innate and adaptive immunity in a variety of pulmonary conditions. However, the specific contributions of complement to lung diseases based on innate and adaptive immunity are just beginning to emerge. Elucidating the role of complement-mediated immune regulation in these diseases will help to identify new targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24901241

  20. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-05

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  2. Naval open systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

  3. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  4. Bronchopleural Fistula and Empyema After Anatomic Lung Resection.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Giorgio; Mitchell, John D

    2015-11-01

    Empyema after anatomic lung resection is rare but causes serious morbidity, particularly if associated with a bronchopleural fistula. Careful assessment of preoperative risk factors and proper surgical technique can minimize risks. Empyema after segmentectomy or lobectomy may respond to simple drainage and antibiotics, or may require decortication with or without muscle transposition. After pneumonectomy, treatment principles include initial drainage of the intrathoracic space, closure of the fistula if present, and creation of an open thoracostomy, which is packed and later closed. Success rates can exceed 80%.

  5. Clinical review: Bedside lung ultrasound in critical care practice

    PubMed Central

    Bouhemad, Bélaïd; Zhang, Mao; Lu, Qin; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Lung ultrasound can be routinely performed at the bedside by intensive care unit physicians and may provide accurate information on lung status with diagnostic and therapeutic relevance. This article reviews the performance of bedside lung ultrasound for diagnosing pleural effusion, pneumothorax, alveolar-interstitial syndrome, lung consolidation, pulmonary abscess and lung recruitment/derecruitment in critically ill patients with acute lung injury. PMID:17316468

  6. OpenGL VGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Nickolas L.; Bhaumik, Dharmajyoti; Hodges, Larry F.; Ribarsky, William; Koller, David; Lindstrom, Peter

    1996-06-01

    Georgia Tech has developed the Virtual GIS (VGIS) system, a real time visualization system for terrain, image, and geographic information systems (GIS) data sets. The initial systems developed at Georgia Tech were non- realtime, but had fast generation of perspective scenes from multisources data sets and the ability to query for GIS attributes associated with terrain of 3D structures inserted within the terrain. The basic concept of a virtual GIS was implemented in realtime using the Silicon Graphics International graphics language. This system has been extended in capability to allow realtime traversal within a very large geographic database and to show the finest detail information available when it is near to the view point. Extensive work has been done in the management of large arrays of information and the efficient paging of that information into the rendering system. An effective level of detail management system is implemented to dynamically allocate the appropriate amount of detail relative to the viewer location. A major use of this system has been in the area of battlefield visualization. The advent of OpenGL as a defacto standard has now made it possible to provide the VGIS capacity on a number of other platforms, thereby extending its usefulness to other applications and users. OpenGL has been developed as a general purpose Graphics rendering toolkit that will be supported on various computers and special purpose rendering systems. There are hardware and software implementations of OpenGL. This should allow VGIS to operate on many systems, taking advantage of specialized graphics hardware when it is present. This paper addresses the implementation of the VGIS system in OpenGL and the use of the system in driving the Evans and Sutherland Freedom series graphics rendering hardware.

  7. OpenEIS Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  8. Open Source Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Agency’s XMM-Newton Observatory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and others. These are three highly visible astrophysics research projects whose...In scientific fields like astrophysics that critically depend on software, open source is considered an essential precondition for research to...space are made, this in turn often leads to modification, extension, and new versions of the astronomical software in use that enable astrophysical

  9. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Howard; Curtis, Anthony; Welch, Aaron; Fridley, Andrew

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  10. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  11. Probable Phaeoacremonium parasiticum as a cause of cavitary native lung nodules after single lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S K; Parto, P; Lombard, G A; James, M A; Beckles, D L; Lick, S; Valentine, V G

    2013-02-01

    Lung nodules after lung transplantation most often represent infection or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the allograft. Conversely, native lung nodules in single lung transplant recipients are more likely to be bronchogenic carcinoma. We present a patient who developed native lung cavitary nodules. Although malignancy was anticipated, evaluation revealed probable Phaeoacremonium parasiticum infection. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum is a dematiaceous fungus first described as a cause of soft tissue infection in a renal transplant patient. Lung nodules have not been previously described and this is the first case, to our knowledge, of P. parasiticum identified after lung transplantation.

  12. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  13. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  14. Primary Open Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Gruber, Ronald P

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty is perhaps the most complex cosmetic surgery procedure performed today. It is characterized by an intricate interplay between form and function, with patient satisfaction being dependent not only on improvement of nasal appearance but also resolution of preexisting airway symptoms. The prerequisite for successful execution of this challenging procedure is a thorough understanding of nasal anatomy and physiology. Hence, a thorough preoperative evaluation is at least as important and the surgical skill in performing the operation. Establishing an accurate diagnosis through a comprehensive nasal analysis is obligatory. As to the surgical approach, much has been written about the advantages and disadvantages of closed vs open rhinoplasty. The more commonly chosen open approach has numerous advantages, including improved visualization without distortion, thus, enabling precise diagnosis and correction of deformities. While the surgical treatment of existing nasal deformities is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, the authors have noted a total of 10 essential components to form the foundation for successful technical execution of rhinoplasty. These include: (1) septoturbinotomy; (2) opening the nose; (3) humpectomy/spreader flaps; (4) tip-plasty; (5) supratip-plasty; (6) columellar strut; (7) dorsal augmentation; (8) nasal base reduction; (9) osteotomies; and (10) rim grafts. Postoperative, a variety of problems, such as edema, may be successfully addressed without surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative management is critical in ensuring a positive patient experience. Finally, a comprehensive understanding of possible postoperative complications, such as bleeding, ecchymosis, edema, and persistent or new iatrogenic deformity is mandatory prior to offering rhinoplasty to patients.

  15. The Therapeutic Potential of Differentiated Lung Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells in Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mokhber Dezfouli, Mohammad Reza; Chaleshtori, Sirous Sadeghian; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Tavanaeimanesh, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Tahamtani, Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Lung diseases cause great morbidity and mortality. The choice of effective medical treatment is limited and the number of lung diseases are difficult to treat with current treatments. The embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to differentiate into cell types of all three germinal layers, including lung epithelial cells. So they can be a potential source for new cell therapies for hereditary or acquired diseases of the airways and lungs. One method for treatment of lung diseases is cell therapy and the use of ESCs that can replace the damaged epithelial and endothelial cells. Progress using ESCs has developed slowly for lung regeneration because differentiation of lung cells from ESCs is more difficult as compared to differentiation of other cells. The review studies the therapeutic effects of differentiated lung cells from embryonic stem cells in lung diseases. There are few studies of differentiation of ESCs into a lineage of respiratory and then investigation of this cell in experimental model of lung diseases.

  16. One-lung overventilation does not induce inflammation in the normally ventilated contralateral lung.

    PubMed

    Almendros, Isaac; Gutierrez, Patricia T; Closa, Daniel; Navajas, Daniel; Farre, Ramon

    2008-06-30

    The aim was to assess whether induction of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in one lung triggers a concomitant inflammatory response in the normally ventilated contralateral lung. To this end, a differential ventilator was used in 6 rats. One lung was normally ventilated (3.5 ml/kg b.w.) and the contralateral lung was overstretched (15 ml/kg b.w.). Six control rats were normally ventilated (3.5 ml/kg b.w. each lung). After 3h, edema and gene expression of MIP-2 in the lung, and plasma and liver TNF-alpha were assessed. Overexpression of MIP-2 and edema were found in the overventilated lung but not in the normally ventilated contralateral lung. No detectable levels of circulating and liver TNF-alpha were detected. These data do not support the hypothesis of an early positive feedback in the lung inflammation during the mechanical ventilation.

  17. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    PubMed

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented.

  18. Bispectrum from open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ``open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ``vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ``Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as langleζk1ζk2ζk3ranglepropto1/k12k34 in the so-called squeezed configurations, k3 << k1 ≈ k2, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k1 = k2+k3, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius.

  19. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (ζ{sub k{sub 1}}ζ{sub k{sub 2}}ζ{sub k{sub 3}})∝1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order

  20. 9 CFR 325.8 - Transportation and other transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions... transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions and restrictions. (a) Lungs or lung lobes, other than those condemned under § 310.16(b) of...

  1. 9 CFR 325.8 - Transportation and other transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions... transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions and restrictions. (a) Lungs or lung lobes, other than those condemned under § 310.16(b) of...

  2. 9 CFR 325.8 - Transportation and other transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions... transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions and restrictions. (a) Lungs or lung lobes, other than those condemned under § 310.16(b) of...

  3. 9 CFR 325.8 - Transportation and other transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions... transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions and restrictions. (a) Lungs or lung lobes, other than those condemned under § 310.16(b) of...

  4. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Lung function in sisal ropemakers.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M D; Irwig, L M; Johnston, J R; Turner, D M; Bezuidenhout, B N

    1979-01-01

    Lung function was measured by spirometry in 66 workers in a sisal ropemaking factory, and in their matched controls. The major atmospheric contaminant was the lubricant (or a component part thereof) used to soften the fibre. The concentration of airborne matter was generally less than 1 mug m--3. There was no difference in lung function between the two groups before the start of the working shift, that is, the mixture of softening lubricant and sisal caused no long-term effects. Although there was no change in lung function over the working shift in the group making sisal rope, the control group did show a significant increase in lung function over the same period. This suggests that an effect attributable to the lubricant and sisal dust did exist. In previous studies little mention has been made of the softeners used in the processing of sisal fibre. These additives may exert a significant effect on ventilatory capacity and may act in conjunction with sisal dust. PMID:500780

  6. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... present in up to half of all lung cancer cases. These genes each provide instructions for making a protein that is embedded within the cell membrane. When these proteins are turned on (activated) by binding to other molecules, signaling pathways are triggered within cells that promote cell growth ...

  7. [Lung infiltrations in Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ciurea-Löchel, A; Ciurea, A; Stey, C; Pestalozzi, B

    2001-08-02

    We report the case of a young patient presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy and interstitial pulmonary infiltrates due to Hodgkin's Disease. Although lung involvement regressed under chemotherapy, we observed new alveolar infiltrates during treatment. Steroid administration after exclusion of an infectious cause was followed by rapid clinical and radiological improvement, indicating the probable presence of pulmonary bleomycine toxicity.

  8. Probabilistic elastography: estimating lung elasticity.

    PubMed

    Risholm, Petter; Ross, James; Washko, George R; Wells, William M

    2011-01-01

    We formulate registration-based elastography in a probabilistic framework and apply it to study lung elasticity in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. The elasticity calculations are based on a Finite Element discretization of a linear elastic biomechanical model. We marginalize over the boundary conditions (deformation) of the biomechanical model to determine the posterior distribution over elasticity parameters. Image similarity is included in the likelihood, an elastic prior is included to constrain the boundary conditions, while a Markov model is used to spatially smooth the inhomogeneous elasticity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to characterize the posterior distribution over elasticity from which we extract the most probable elasticity as well as the uncertainty of this estimate. Even though registration-based lung elastography with inhomogeneous elasticity is challenging due the problem's highly underdetermined nature and the sparse image information available in lung CT, we show promising preliminary results on estimating lung elasticity contrast in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue.

  9. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  10. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Lung VQ Scan Related Topics Arrhythmia Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... this topic. Related reading Chest X Ray Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, 2016 Twitter ...

  11. Metastatic cancer to the lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray Lung with squamous cell cancer - CT scan Respiratory system References Arenberg DA, Pickens A. Metastatic malignant tumors. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  12. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Critical Care and Pain Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, Massachusetts phone: 617-667-3092 email: sloring@bidmc.harvard.edu...well these data compare. We will then compare these data to our previous data from excised lungs collected at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

  13. [Lung cancer and lymph drainage].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is lymphophile and may involve lymph nodes (LN) belonging to lung lymph drainage. LN metastases are figured within stations numbered 1 to 14. These stations are located along lymph vessels. The lymph vessels and the LN are forming together anatomical chains. Lymph vessels are valved and pulsatile and travel to the cervical venous confluence where they pour the lung lymph into the blood circulation. They may be totally or partly nodeless along their travel, anastomose with each other around the trachea, and connect with the thoracic duct within the mediastinum. Within the anatomical LN chains, LN are variable in number and in size from one individual to another. They may be absent from one or several stations of the international mapping. Stations are located along the anatomical chains: pulmonary ligament (9), tracheal bifurcation(8 and 7), right paratracheal (4R, 2R and 1), preaortic (5 and 6), left paratracheal (4L, 2L and 1). Station 3 is located on 2 differents chains (phrenic and right esophagotracheal). Station 10 are located at the beginning of the mediastinal lymph nodes chains. Each chain connects with the blood circulation, anastomoses with he neighbouring chains and behave as an own entity whatever the number of its LN. International station mapping misknowns this anatomy and occults the true pronostic value of lung lymph drainage.

  14. The scope of no return: Openness predicts the spatial distribution of Inhibition of Return.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kristin E; Lowe, Matthew X; Ruppel, Justin; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    How and what we attend to is foundational in determining the content of our experience, thus differences in attention contribute significantly to how we perceive the world, learn, and develop. Personality also plays a role in constraining how we learn to perceive the world and it is conceivable that some facets of personality interact with visual attention; however, the relationship between these two constitutional aspects of psychology remains unclear. To address this interplay between cognition and personality, we looked at how the Big Five personality traits relate to the spatial scope of attention, as indexed by the spatial distribution of Inhibition of Return (IOR). IOR is marked by a decrement in reaction time when a target appears at a cued location, more than 200 ms after that cue. As the cue/target distance increases there is a release from inhibition, providing a measure of the spatial distribution of IOR and reflecting the spatial scope of attention. The results presented here show personality does predict the distribution of IOR. Specifically, higher trait Openness is associated with a broader distribution of IOR and attention. This finding suggests there is an intimate connection between personality, particularly Openness, and the spatial allocation of attention.

  15. Lung cancer tissue diagnosis in poor lung function: addressing the ongoing percutaneous lung biopsy FEV1 paradox using Heimlich valve.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, R; Tavare, A N; Creamer, A; Creer, D; Vancheeswaran, R; Hare, S S

    2016-08-01

    Many centres continue to decline percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) in patients with poor lung function (particularly FEV1 <1 L) due to the theoretically increased risk of pneumothorax. This practice limits access to novel lung cancer therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Our retrospective single-centre analysis of 212 patients undergoing PLB, all performed prospectively and blinded to lung function, demonstrates that using ambulatory Heimlich valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant postbiopsy pneumothorax facilitates safe, diagnostic, early discharge lung biopsy irrespective of lung function with neither FEV1 <1 L nor transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (TLCO) <40% predicted shown to be independent predictors of HVCD insertion or pneumothorax outcomes. Incorporating ambulatory HVCD into standard PLB practice thereby elegantly bridges the gap that currently exists between tissue diagnosis in patients with poor lung function and the advanced therapeutic options available for this cohort.

  16. Lung function in insulation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Netterstrøm, B; Wolff, C

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of working with modern insulation materials (rock and glass wool), the members of the Copenhagen Union of Insulation Workers were invited to participate in a study based on a health examination that included lung function tests. Three hundred and forty men (74%) agreed to participate, and 166 bus drivers served as the control group. Age distribution, height, and smoking habits were similar in the two groups. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used as tests for lung function. There were no differences in FVC between the study and control groups, but the insulation workers had significantly lower values of FEV1 (mean 2.51) compared with the controls (mean 3.4 1), independent of smoking habits. Six years before the present study, 114 of the insulation workers participated in a similar study, and eight years after the initial study, the lung function of 59 of the bus drivers was tested. The decline in FVC in insulation workers who smoked was significantly higher (7.7 cl/year) than in bus drivers who smoked (3.1 cl/year); the decline in FEV1 was significantly higher in insulation workers independent of smoking habits (17.0 cl/year v 2.9 cl/year). Self assessed former exposure to asbestos was not associated with lung function in insulation workers. The study concludes that working with modern insulation materials is associated with increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease. PMID:8457492

  17. Artificial lung: progress and prototypes.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, Brittany A; Clemson, Lindsey A; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2006-07-01

    Lung disease is the fourth leading cause of death (one in seven deaths) in the USA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) affects approximately 150,000 patients a year in the USA, and an estimated 16 million Americans are afflicted with chronic lung disease, accounting for 100,000 deaths per year. Medical management is the standard of care for initial therapy, but is limited by the progression of disease. Chronic mechanical ventilation is readily available, but is cumbersome, expensive and often requires tracheotomy with loss of upper airway defense mechanisms and normal speech. Lung transplantation is an option for less than 1100 patients per year since demand has steadily outgrown supply. For the last 15 years, the authors' group has studied ARDS in order to develop viable alternative treatments. Both extracorporeal gas exchange techniques, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, extracorporeal and arteriovenous CO(2) removal, and intravenous oxygenation, aim to allow for a less injurious ventilatory strategy during lung recovery while maintaining near-normal arterial blood gases, but precludes ambulation. The paracorporeal artificial lung (PAL), however, redefines the treatment of both acute and chronic respiratory failure with the goal of ambulatory total respiratory support. PAL prototypes tested on both normal sheep and the absolute lethal dose smoke/burn-induced ARDS sheep model have demonstrated initial success in achieving total gas exchange. Still, clinical trials cannot begin until bio- and hemodynamic compatibility challenges are reconciled. The PAL initial design goals are for a short-term (weeks) bridge to recovery or transplant, but eventually, for long-term support (months).

  18. The OpenSHMEM Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Oscar

    2014-07-30

    The OpenSHMEM Analyzer is a compiler-based tool that can help users detect errors and provide useful analyses about their OpenSHMEM applications. The tool is built on top of the OpenUH compiler (a branch of Open64 compiler) and presents OpenSHMEM information as feedback to the user. Some of the analyses it provides include checks for correct usage of symmetric variables in OpenSHMEM calls, out-of-bounds checks for symmetric data, checks for the correct initialization of pointers to symmetric data, and symmetric data alias information.

  19. Science, medicine, and the future. Lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, T.

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancer, the most prevalent cancer in the Western world, is mainly caused by smoking. Nevertheless, only 20% of smokers develop lung cancer and while prevention is important, environmental factors are expected to contribute to the predicted rise in the incidence of lung cancer in the next 25 years. Survival of lung cancer is still poor, and new treatments are urgently needed. This review examines potential new therapeutic developments which have arisen from a greater understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of lung cancers. PMID:9066480

  20. Ventilatory management of one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Coccia, C

    2011-05-01

    Hypoxemia is considered to be the most important challenge during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Recent studies, however, have shown that one-lung ventilation can involve some lung damage and can therefore be per se a cause of hypoxemia. OLV can be associated to an injury: but the techniques used to improve oxygenation may also damage the lung. A new ventilator approach should be used and applied with regards to what is so far known in terms of "lung protection" also during OLV.