Science.gov

Sample records for deep borehole instrumentation

  1. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Long, L.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Urhhammer, R.; Baise, L.

    2001-05-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. This report list earthquakes and stations where recordings were obtained during the period February 29, 2000 to November 11, 2000. Also, preliminary results on noise analysis for up and down hole recordings at Yerba Buena Island is presented.

  2. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  3. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  4. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

  5. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  6. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics

  7. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  8. Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, A.

    The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

  9. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L

    2005-04-22

    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high frequency calculations (Hz > 0.7) based on

  10. Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Descamps, G.E.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

  11. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  13. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  14. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  15. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  16. MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. ALBRIGHT

    2000-09-01

    Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors, large conventional-diameter wells are no longer necessary for obtaining subsurface information. Furthermore, microholes offer an environment for improved substance measurement. The combination of deep microholes having diameters of 1-3/8 in. at their terminal depth and 7/8-in. diameter logging tools will comprise a very low cost alternative to currently available technology for deep subsurface characterization and monitoring.

  17. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  18. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  19. A gas sampling system for withdrawing humid gases from deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Thordarson, W.; Kurzmack, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A gas sampling system, designed to withdraw nearly vapor-saturated gases (93 to 100% relative humidity) from deep, unsaturated zone boreholes, was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in the unsaturated zone borehole instrumentation and monitoring program at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. This gas sampling system will be used to: (1) sample formation rock gases in support of the unsaturated zone hydrochemical characterization program; and (2) verify downhole, thermocouple psychrometer measurements of water potential in support of the unsaturated zone borehole instrumentation and monitoring program. Using this sampling system, nearly vapor-saturated formation rock-gases can be withdrawn from deep boreholes without condensing water vapor in the sampling tubes, and fractionating heavy isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. The sampling system described in this paper uses a dry carrier-gas (nitrogen) to lower the dew point temperature of the formation rock-gas at its source. Mixing of the dry carrier gas with the source gas takes place inside a specially designed downhole instrument station apparatus (DISA). Nitrogen inflow is regulated in a manner that lowers the dew point temperature of the source gas to a temperature that is colder than the coldest temperature that the mixed gas will experience in moving from warmer, deeper depths, to colder, shallower depths near the land surface. A test of this gas sampling system was conducted in December, 1992, in a 12.2 meter deep borehole that was instrumented in October, 1991. The water potential calculated using this system reproduced in-situ measurements of water potential to within five percent of the average value, as recorded by two thermocouple psychrometers that had been in operation for over 12 months.

  20. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  1. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jiann -Cherng; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2015-07-01

    -profile threaded connections at each end. The internal-flush design would be suitable for loading waste that arrives from the originating site in weld-sealed, cylindrical canisters. Internal, tapered plugs with sealing filet welds would seal the tubing at each end. The taper would be precisely machined onto both the tubing and the plug, producing a metal-metal sealing surface that is compressed as the package is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. The lower plug would be welded in place before loading, while the upper plug would be placed and welded after loading. Conceptual Waste Packaging Options for Deep Borehole Disposal July 30, 2015 iv Threaded connections between packages would allow emplacement singly or in strings screwed together at the disposal site. For emplacement on a drill string the drill pipe would be connected directly into the top package of a string (using an adapter sub to mate with premium semi-flush tubing threads). Alternatively, for wireline emplacement the same package designs could be emplaced singly using a sub with wireline latch, on the upper end. Threaded connections on the bottom of the lowermost package would allow attachment of a crush box, instrumentation, etc.

  2. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  3. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  4. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  5. Exploring the oceanic crust deep biosphere through subsurface borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, Beth

    2015-04-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 327 and 336, several new subsurface borehole observatories were installed in oceanic crust, with a primary motivation to access the deep biosphere in these poorly understood environments. These new observatories have enabled unprecedented opportunities to collect high-quality samples for microbiological analysis, including metagenomic and single cell genomic investigations of the unique microbial communities living "on the rocks." This presentation will provide an overview of recent discoveries, focusing on the observatories on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank and highlighting adaptations to life in the subsurface gleaned from genomic approaches. The presentation will also highlight opportunities for continued observatory-based research within the International Ocean Discovery Program.

  6. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  7. Vertical Variations In Heat Flow Inferred From Experiments In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Y.; Romushkevich, R.; Gorobtsov, D.; Korobkov, D.

    2012-04-01

    Deep scientific and parametric continental boreholes allow to obtain representative experimental data on combination of the geothermal parameters of the crust - temperature, temperature gradient, rock thermal properties, and, as the result, heat flow density values - which are more reliable compared to the previous data from shallow boreholes. Special advantages of the scientific boreholes include also a possibility for many repeated temperature logging during long time intervals (several years often) after a finish of the drilling that allowed (1) to determine temperatures and temperature gradient values corresponding to thermal equilibrium of the formations studied, (2) to study temporal regularities in temperature and temperature gradient behaviour within different formation layers during the formation recovery process. Scientific boreholes are drilled with numerous coring (often - with continuous coring) that provides the possibility to obtain detailed information on a distribution of rock thermal conductivity along the borehole. As a result, the scientific deep and super-deep boreholes provided the unique possibility for the determination of vertical distributions of the heat flow density that can not be reached normally in other boreholes. Experimental geothermal and petrothermal investigations performed for the super-deep boreholes Kola, Ural, Vorotilovo, Tyumen, Yen-Yakha (all - Russia), Saatly (Azerbaidzhan), and deep scientific and parametric boreholes Kolva, Timano-Pechora, Tyrnyaus, (all - Russia), Krivoy Rog (Ukraine), Muruntau (Uzbekistan), Nordlingen-72 (Germany), Yaxcopoil-1 (Mexico) allowed us to establish the following important peculiarities in geothermal parameters of the crustal blocks studied with scientific deep drilling were established from the investigations: (1) temperature gradient recovery up to undisturbed values occurs essentially faster than it was assumed earlier; (2) a rate of temperature gradient recovery was found to be different

  8. Thermal Hydrology Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadgu, T.; Arnold, B. W.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations. Coupled thermal-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact fluid flow and the associated migration of radionuclides. Numerical simulations of thermal hydrology in the deep borehole disposal system were carried out with waste emplaced between depths of 3 km and 5 km. The geometry of the system consisted of a disturbed zone of higher permeability within a radius of 1m from the borehole, and low permeability rock beyond the 1m radius. The simulations considered borehole spacing of 100m and 200m, and number of boreholes of 1, 9 and 25. The base case was taken to be 9 boreholes with 200m borehole spacing. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Physical, thermal, and hydrologic properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the boreholes. The results show that for all runs single phase liquid conditions persist throughout the model area due to the large hydrostatic pressures present at the specified depths. Simulated base case temperatures for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste showed peak temperature increases of about 30 °C and 180 °C, respectively. Temperatures near the boreholes peak within about 10 years of waste emplacement. Results show minimal thermal perturbations at depths above the top of the waste, for both types of radioactive waste. Axial temperature

  9. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  10. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  11. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  12. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  14. The Effect of Borehole Flow on Salinity Profiles From Deep Monitor Wells in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, K.; Hunt, C. D.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water resource management in Hawaii is based partly on salinity profiles from deep wells that are used to monitor the thickness of freshwater lenses and the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater. Vertical borehole flow in these wells may confound understanding of the actual salinity-depth profiles in the basaltic aquifers and lead to misinterpretations that hamper effective water-resource management. Causes and effects of borehole flow on salinity profiles are being evaluated at 40 deep monitor wells in Hawaii. Step- like changes in fluid electrical conductivity with respect to depth are indicative of borehole flow and are evident in almost all available salinity profiles. A regional trend in borehole flow direction, expected from basin-wide ground-water flow dynamics, is evident as major downward flow components in inland recharge areas and major upward flow components in discharge areas near the coast. The midpoint of the transition zone in one deep monitor well showed inconsequential depth displacements in response to barometric pressure and tidal fluctuations and to pumping from nearby wellfields. Commonly, the 1 mS/cm conductivity value is used to indicate the top of the transition zone. Contrary to the more stable midpoint, the depth of the 1 mS/cm conductivity value may be displaced by as much as 200 m in deep monitor wells near pumping wellfields. The displacement is complemented with an increase in conductivity at a particular depth in the upper part of the profile. The observed increase in conductivity is linear with increase in nearby pumpage. The largest deviations from expected aquifer-salinity profiles occur in deep monitor wells located in the area extending from east Pearl Harbor to Kalihi on Oahu, which coincides with the most heavily pumped part of the aquifer.

  15. Can ice sheet models contribute to the understanding of deep borehole temperature profiles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Volker; Tarasov, Lev; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Majorowicz, Jacek; Safanda, Jan; Demezhko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    It has been argued many times that deep boreholes in Northern America and Europe have recorded basal ice sheet conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, though most of the very deep and well documented boreholes available today belong into this group, systematic investigations of this effects have been rare, and are only now emerging (Matharoo et al., Rath et al., in prep.). Here we present some early results from a case study in Northern Europe,analyzing several well-known deep boreholes in the light of the recent ice sheet model of Tarasov et al.(2008). These boreholes include temperature profiles from the Kola SG3 (Russia, >4000 m) Outokumpu (Finland, 2500 m), Udryn (Poland, 2250 m), Torun (Poland, 2920 m), and Czeszowo (Poland, 3450 m). All of these data have been independently investigated before with forward and inverse methods. For this study, we have chosen a very simple approach. Starting from a small ensemble of ground surface temperatures derived from the data-calibrated glacial Systems Model, we employed an 1D subsurface model based on the best available knowledge on local geology and climatic conditions. The synthetic borehole temperature profiles derived are then compared to the observations, and discussed with respect to earlier interpretations. Several problems related to this approach are discussed: (1) the imperfect representation of local subsurface conditions, e.g., the assumption of 1D structure; (2) the role of the driving climate, which will determine the conditions under ice-free conditions; (3) the well-known imperfect coupling of surface air and ground temperatures. We believe that this contribution will be the base for in-depth discussions, and could be seminal for further investigations.

  16. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  17. Fluid injection and withdrawal in deep geothermal borehole.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; Tramelli, A.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal systems represents a large resource that can provide, with a reasonable investment, a very high and cost-competitive power generating capacity. Considering also the very low environmental impact, their development represents, in the next decades, an enormous perspective. Despite this unquestionable potential, geothermal exploitation has always been perceived as limited, mainly because of the dependance of a site usefulness on several pre-existing conditions, mainly correlated to the reservoir rock's permeability and porosity, the amount of fluid saturation and, first of all, a convenient temperature-depth relationship. However, this major barrier it is not insurmountable and a notable progress in recent tests is achieved with the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS), where massive fluid injection and withdrawal were performed to enlarge the natural fracture system of the basement rock. The permeability of the surrounding rocks results highly increased by pressurized fluids circulation and geothermal resources, in such way, become accessible in areas where deep reservoir exploitation, otherwise, could be not advantageous or even possible. Still problematic remains, however, most of the key technical requirements as, firstly, deep fluid injection, that represents a necessary field practice in EGS development. This kind of procedure have often strong and uncontrolled physical effects on the neighboring environment, involving possibly even large areas and, in particular, they represent one of the most important sources of seismicity induced by human activities. In some cases, seismicity reaches level that can not be sustained, as in the paradigmatic case of the 2006 M=3.4 earthquake induced in the Basel city (Swiss), with the consequent EGS project early termination. We test a numerical procedure that models deep fluid injection and withdrawal, during well stimulation, and its effects on induced seismicity. We propose such a procedure as a way to estimate how

  18. Analysis of well test data from selected intervals in Leuggern deep borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, K. )

    1990-07-01

    Applicability of the PTST technique was verified by conducting a sensitivity study to the various parameters. The study showed that for ranges of skin parameters the true formation permeability was still successfully estimated using the PTST analysis technique. The analysis technique was then applied to field data from the deep borehole in Leuggern, Northern Switzerland. The analysis indicated that the formation permeability may be as much as one order of magnitude larger than the value based on no-skin analysis. Swabbing data from the Leuggern deep borehole were also analyzed assuming that they are constant pressure tests. The analysis of the swabbing data indicates that the formation transmissivity is as much as 20 times larger than the previously obtained value. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland.

  19. Apparent break in earthquake scaling due to path and site effects on deep borehole recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ide, S.; Beroza, G.C.; Prejean, S.G.; Ellsworth, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    We reexamine the scaling of stress drop and apparent stress, rigidity times the ratio between seismically radiated energy to seismic moment, with earthquake size for a set of microearthquakes recorded in a deep borehole in Long Valley, California. In the first set of calculations, we assume a constant Q and solve for the corner frequency and seismic moment. In the second set of calculations, we model the spectral ratio of nearby events to determine the same quantities. We find that the spectral ratio technique, which can account for path and site effects or nonconstant Q, yields higher stress drops, particularly for the smaller events in the data set. The measurements determined from spectral ratios indicate no departure from constant stress drop scaling down to the smallest events in our data set (Mw 0.8). Our results indicate that propagation effects can contaminate measurements of source parameters even in the relatively clean recording environment of a deep borehole, just as they do at the Earth's surface. The scaling of source properties of microearthquakes made from deep borehole recordings may need to be reevaluated.

  20. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  1. Initial seismic observations from a deep borehole drilled into the Canadian Shield in northeast Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of a deep borehole in northeastern Alberta provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the in situ metamorphic craton rocks. This borehole reaches a depth of 2.4 km, with 1.8 km in the crystalline rocks, and is the only known borehole allowing access into the deeper rocks of the metamorphic Canadian Shield. In 2011, a zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired to assist in the interpretation of seismic reflection data and geophysical logs. Three sets of upgoing tube waves interpreted from the raw profile correspond to the small-scale fluctuations in the borehole diameters and fracture zone in the crystalline rocks. A comparison between sonic log velocities and VSP velocities reveals a zone with increased velocity that could be due to the change in rock composition and texture in the basement rocks. The final processed profile is used to generate corridor stacks for differentiating between primary reflections and multiples in the seismic reflection profile. Analysis of the zero-offset VSP verifies existing log interpretation on the presence of fractures and the possible lithological changes in the metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield.

  2. A Prototype Performance Assessment Model for Generic Deep Borehole Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste - 12132

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Arnold, Bill W.; Swift, Peter N.; Hadgu, Teklu; Freeze, Geoff; Wang, Yifeng

    2012-07-01

    A deep borehole repository is one of the four geologic disposal system options currently under study by the U.S. DOE to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The immediate goal of the generic deep borehole repository study is to develop the necessary modeling tools to evaluate and improve the understanding of the repository system response and processes relevant to long-term disposal of UNF and HLW in a deep borehole. A prototype performance assessment model for a generic deep borehole repository has been developed using the approach for a mined geological repository. The preliminary results from the simplified deep borehole generic repository performance assessment indicate that soluble, non-sorbing (or weakly sorbing) fission product radionuclides, such as I-129, Se-79 and Cl-36, are the likely major dose contributors, and that the annual radiation doses to hypothetical future humans associated with those releases may be extremely small. While much work needs to be done to validate the model assumptions and parameters, these preliminary results highlight the importance of a robust seal design in assuring long-term isolation, and suggest that deep boreholes may be a viable alternative to mined repositories for disposal of both HLW and UNF. (authors)

  3. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  4. Characterization of bacterial diversity to a depth of 1500 m in the Outokumpu deep borehole, Fennoscandian Shield.

    PubMed

    Itävaara, Merja; Nyyssönen, Mari; Kapanen, Anu; Nousiainen, Aura; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2011-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the first microbiological sampling of the Outokumpu deep borehole (2516 m deep) aiming at characterizing the bacterial community composition and diversity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Finnish crystalline bedrock aquifers. Sampling was performed using a 1500-m-long pressure-tight tube that provided 15 subsamples, each corresponding to a 100-m section down the borehole. Microbial density measurements, as well as community fingerprinting with 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that microbial communities in the borehole water varied as a function of sampling depth. In the upper part of the borehole, bacteria affiliated to the family Comamonadaceae dominated the bacterial community. Further down the borehole, bacteria affiliated to the class Firmicutes became more prominent and, according to 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, dominated the bacterial community at 1400-1500 m. In addition, the largest number of bacterial classes was observed at 1400-1500 m. The dsrB genes detected in the upper part of the borehole were more similar to the dsrB genes of cultured SRBs, such as the genus Desulfotomaculum, whereas in the deeper parts of the borehole, the dsrB genes were more closely related to the uncultured bacteria that have been detected earlier in deep earth crust aquifers.

  5. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

    1996-05-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

  6. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P,T conditions - Proposed Experimental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporuscio, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the P,T conditions which "seal" material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include mafic (amphibolites) and silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries. Experiments in the system wall rock-clay-concrete-groundwater will evaluate interactions among components, including: mineral phase stability, metal corrosion rates and thermal limits. Based on engineered barrier studies, experimental investigations will move forward with three focusses. First, evaluation of interaction between "seal" materials and repository wall rock (crystalline) under fluid-saturated conditions over long-term (i.e., six-month) experiments; which reproduces the thermal pulse event of a repository. Second, perform experiments to determine the stability of zeolite minerals (analcime-wairakitess) under repository conditions. Both sets of experiments are critically important for understanding mineral paragenesis (zeolites and/or clay transformations) associated with "seals" in contact with wall rock at elevated temperatures. Third, mineral growth at the metal interface is a principal control on the survivability (i.e. corrosion) of waste canisters in a repository. The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for 'seal' components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids and other barrier materials, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits.

  7. Model Analysis of Low-Level Actinide Waste Disposal in Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, L. G.; Wolfsberg, A. V.

    2001-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal is considered as a possible mechanism for the safe removal of Greater Than Class C (GTCC) low level actinide waste (Am-241, Pu-239, and Pu-238). Of the three actinides in GTCC waste, only Pu-239 has a half-life greater than 500 years and, thus, will have the longest environmental presence. However, Am-241 and Pu-238 have the potential to create most of the heat associated with GTCC waste disposal in deep boreholes. Therefore, this study considers the nonisothermal release and subsequent migration toward a pumping well of the most persistent radionuclide, Pu-239, from a deep emplacement borehole taking into account the heat created by decay of all three actinides. The Finite-Element Heat- and Mass-Transfer code, FEHM, is employed to simulate three-dimensional, non-isothermal flow and solute transport using particle tracking. Multiple scenarios considering various source emplacement depths, aquifer properties, and hydraulic conditions are evaluated in a sensitivity analysis that seeks to demonstrate competing and offsetting processes affecting the concentration of Pu-239 in the pumped well 100 m down gradient from the borehole source. In general, lower groundwater fluxes, associated with lower gradients and/or lower aquifer permeabilities, lead to less dissolution of the source waste. However, conditions of decreasing groundwater flux also create larger sized capture zones by the pumping well, thus escalating the likelihood of pumping contaminants originating from a source deeper than the pumping well. Retardation by sorption of Pu-239, both in alluvial aquifers and following diffusion from fractures in a tuff aquifer, plays an important role both in delaying radionuclide migration and in reducing the peak aqueous concentration at the pumping well. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. This work was

  8. An electromagnetic sounding experiment in Germany using the vertical gradient of geomagnetic variations observed in a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Ulrich; Spitzer, Klaus; Steveling, Erich

    2009-09-01

    We have recorded for 13 d, geomagnetic variations simultaneously on the Earth's surface and in a borehole at 832 m depth straight below, with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. In addition, geoelectric variations were observed at the same site near Bad Königshofen in Frankonia, Germany. The penetrated moderately conductive Triassic sediments lie above highly resistive Permian deposits. A presumably crystalline basement begins at 1500-1900 m depth. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the skin effect of geomagnetic variations and to derive from it the equivalent to the magnetotelluric (MT) surface impedance, using the vertical gradient (VG) method of electromagnetic (EM) sounding. In this way, we were able to reproduce all four elements of the MT impedance tensor, except for an unexplained but consistent downward shift of VG phases against MT phases by roughly 15° for the two off-diagonal elements. Hence, our tensor evaluation goes beyond the common practice, to express the skin effect by a single VG transfer function in response to a layered structure. The otherwise good agreement of VG and MT results implies that at our test site, the MT impedance tensor is largely distortion-free and that, for example, its pronounced anisotropy should be regarded as a genuine characteristic of the EM response for a laterally non-uniform or possibly anisotropic deep structure. The drilling site lies within the range of a widespread induction anomaly. We have observed the resulting variations of the vertical magnetic component at the surface and in the borehole and found them to be identical. The thus established absence of a skin effect for the vertical component allows us to treat the sedimentary layer down to the depth of the borehole instrument as a thin sheet, and the pertinent thin-sheet approximation for EM induction forms the basis of our analysis. We have derived the required estimate of conductance from the skin effect of horizontal components, noting that this estimate

  9. Sensitivity Analysis on the Performance of Medium Deep Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storages using arrays of medium deep (400 m - 1500 m) borehole heat exchangers (BHE) have two main advantages over near surface (< 400 m) BHE storages. Medium deep borehole thermal energy storages (MD-BTES) have a lower thermal impact on shallow groundwater resources and require less surface area. However, the storage performance indicators like the efficiency, the storage capacity and the supplied fluid temperature of MD-BTES are unknown as such system has not been put into practice so far. To study the influence of various design and operation parameters on the storage performance, more than 240 numerical models of different MD-BTES systems were compared in a sensitivity analysis. Most importantly, the BHE length, the number of BHEs, the spacing between the BHEs, the inlet temperatures of the heat transfer fluid into the BHEs and the underground properties were varied. A simplified underground model was used and also a simplified operation procedure was applied for a period of 30 years of storage operation. The results show a strong dependency of the storage performance on the studied design and operation parameters as well as on the underground properties. In the best case, storage efficiency reaches over 80 % in the 30th year of operation, whereas poorly designed storage systems show efficiencies of less than 20 %.

  10. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Hampton, Donald; Lisse, Carey

    2008-09-15

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [{approx}1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of {approx}9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is {approx}1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to {approx}1%. Spectrometer read noise is {approx}2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to {approx}10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of {approx}2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to {approx}0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  11. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  12. Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jeanne; Whitechurch, Hubert; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baujard, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben Vidal J.1, Whitechurch H.1, Genter A.2, Schmittbuhl J.1, Baujard C.2 1 EOST, Université de Strasbourg 2 ES-Géothermie, Strasbourg The thermal regime of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is characterized by a series of geothermal anomalies on its French part near Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen and in the surrounding area of Strasbourg. Sedimentary formations of these areas host oil field widely exploited in the past which exhibit exceptionally high temperature gradients. Thus, geothermal anomalies are superimposed to the oil fields which are interpreted as natural brine advection occurring inside a nearly vertical multi-scale fracture system cross-cutting both deep-seated Triassic sediments and Paleozoic crystalline basement. The sediments-basement interface is therefore very challenging for geothermal industry because most of the geothermal resource is trapped there within natural fractures. Several deep geothermal projects exploit local geothermal energy to use the heat or produce electricity and thus target permeable fractured rocks at this interface. In 1980, a geothermal exploration well was drilled close to Strasbourg down to the Permian sediments at 3220 m depth. Bottom hole temperature was estimated to 148°C but the natural flow rate was too low for an economic profitability (<7 L/s). Petrophysics and reservoir investigations based on core analysis revealed a low matrix porosity with fracture zones spatially isolated and sealed in the sandstone formations. Any stimulation operation was planned and the project was abandoned. The Soultz-sous-Forêts project, initiated in 1986, explored during more than 30 years the experimental geothermal site by drilling five boreholes, three of which extend to 5 km depth. They identified a temperature of 200° C at 5 km depth in the granitic basement but with a variable flow rate. Hydraulic and chemical stimulation operations were

  13. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John O.

    2015-01-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  14. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, John

    2015-10-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source, and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts per billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measures the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  15. Derivative-assisted classification of fractured zones crossing a deep borehole.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dae Hyoung; Yeo, In Wook; Park, Kyoung-Woo; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the derivative analysis using the derivative of drawdown with respect to log-time was utilized to determine candidates for hydraulic conductor domains (HCDs). At a 500-m deep borehole in the study site, the fractured rocks crossing the borehole were first classified in fractured and nonfractured zones by core logging and geophysical loggings, such as acoustic televiewing, density, and flow loggings. After conducting the hydraulic tests such as constant head withdrawal and recovery tests at the fractured zones and the nonfractured zones, the derivative analyses were carried out, of which the results were evaluated to determine the candidates for HCDs. For the nonfractured zones, the diagnostic plot has only a big hump indicating poor connection of the background fractures to the permeable geologic media, while those of the candidates for HCDs show various flow regimes. On the basis of these results, the candidates for HCDs among the fractured zones were determined. From discussion on the results, the combination of the spacing analysis and derivative analysis following a hydraulic test is recommended for determining the candidates for HCDs rather than other geophysical loggings.

  16. Deep Borehole Measurements for Characterizing the Magma/Hydrothermal System at Long Valley Caldera, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Carrrigan, Charles R.

    1989-03-21

    The Magma Energy Program of the Geothermal Technology Division is scheduled to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California in 1989. The drilling site is near the center of the caldera which is associated with numerous shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies. This deep well will present an unparalleled opportunity to test and validate geophysical techniques for locating magma as well as a test of the theory that magma is still present at drillable depths within the central portion of the caldera. If, indeed, drilling indicates magma, the geothermal community will then be afforded the unique possibility of examining the coupling between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes in a major volcanic system. Goals of planned seismic experiments that involve the well include the investigation of local crustal structure down to depths of 10 km as well as the determination of mechanisms for local seismicity and deformation. Borehole electrical and electromagnetic surveys will increase the volume and depth of rock investigated by the well through consideration of the conductive structure of the hydrothermal and underlying regimes. Currently active processes involving magma injection will be studied through observation of changes in pore pressure and strain. Measurements of in situ stress from recovered cores and hydraulic fracture tests will be used in conjunction with uplift data to determine those models for magmatic injection and inflation that are most applicable. Finally, studies of the thermal regime will be directed toward elucidating the coupling between the magmatic source region and the more shallow hydrothermal system in the caldera fill. To achieve this will require careful logging of borehole fluid temperature and chemistry. In addition, studies of rock/fluid interactions through core and fluid samples will allow physical characterization of the transition zone between hydrothermal and magmatic regimes.

  17. Trends in instrument systems for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsky, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    Instrument systems for deep space exploration have undergone dramatic changes in the last few years. They are smaller, lighter and less poer hungry. The line between science instruments and spacecraft sensors is blurring.

  18. Deep borehole measurements for characterizing the magma/hydrothermal system at Long Valley Caldera, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Magma Energy Program of the Geothermal Technology Division is scheduled to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in long Valley Caldera, California in 1989. The drilling site is near the center of the caldera which is associated with numerous shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies. This deep well will present an unparalleled opportunity to test and validate geophysical techniques for locating magma as well as a test of the theory that magma is still present at drillable depths within the central portion of the caldera. If, indeed, drilling indicates magma, the geothermal community will then be afforded the unique possibility of examining the coupling between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes in a major volcanic system. Goals of planned seismic experiments that involve the well include the investigation of local crystal structure down to depths of 10 km as well as the determination of mechanisms for local seismicity and deformation. Borehole electrical and electromagnetic surveys will increase the volume and depth of rock investigated by the well through consideration of the conductive structure of the hydrothermal and underlying regimes. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Self-propelled instrumented deep drilling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor); Gorevan, Stephen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An autonomous subsurface drilling device has spaced-apart forward and rearward feet sections coupled to an axial thruster mechanism between them to operate using an inchworm method of mobility. In one embodiment, forward and rearward drill sections are carried on forward and rearward feet sections for drilling into material in the borehole in both forward and rearward directions, to allow the device to maneuver in any direction underground. In another embodiment, a front drill section has a drill head for cutting into the borehole and conveying cuttings through a center spine tube to an on-board depository for the cuttings. The feet sections of the device employ a foot scroll drive unit to provide radial thrust and synchronous motion to the feet for gripping the borehole wall. The axial thrust mechanism has a tandem set of thrusters in which the second thruster is used to provide the thrust needed for drilling, but not walking. A steering mechanism composed of concentric inner and outer eccentric rings provided with the rearward feet section allow small corrections in both direction and magnitude to the drilling direction as drilling commences.

  20. A hybrid method for estimating the state of stress in ICDP-sponsored deep vertical boreholes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has been the method of choice for estimating the state of stress around deep vertical boreholes for the last four decades, starting with the Rangely, Colorado and the Michigan Basin measurements (Haimson, Tectonophysics, 1975; JGR, 1977). However, recently considerable controversy has developed regarding the reliability of the maximum horizontal stress σH as derived from the classical interpretation of HF recorded data, especially at great depths. In addition, in very deep holes, HF tests are sometimes incomplete, yielding only estimates of the minimum horizontal stress σh magnitude (example: KTB, Germany; see Brudy et al, JGR 1997). As a result, an alternative hybrid method for constraining all three principal in situ stresses and their directions around deep vertical boreholes has been developed and used at several ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) sites. It involves HF tests for estimating σh, provided hydrofractures are vertical. The vertical stress σv is computed from the weight of the overlying strata. Assessing σH and its direction involves the use of geophysical logging such as the Borehole Acoustic Televiewer or the Formation Micro Imager. They capture oriented images of borehole breakouts, from which the oriented breakout span as it varies with depth is obtained. Laboratory true triaxial tests on specimens prepared out of core samples render the appropriate strength criterion for rock at the borehole wall. Using the condition of limit equilibrium between the local state of stress at the breakout-borehole intersections and the strength criterion, a non linear equation emerges from which the maximum horizontal principal stress is derived, thus completing the estimation of the prevailing state of stress. The use of this hybrid method is restricted to deep vertical boreholes that produce vertical hydrofractures and in which breakouts develop, with dimensions not affected by the drilling mud. Two ICDP

  1. A model for heat flow in deep borehole disposals of high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Fergus G. F.; Travis, Karl P.; McTaggart, Neil A.; Burley, David

    2008-05-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) is emerging as a viable alternative to mined repositories for many forms of highly radioactive waste. It is geologically safer, more secure, less environmentally disruptive and potentially more cost-effective. All high-level wastes generate heat leading to elevated temperatures in and around the disposal. In some versions of DBD this heat is an essential part of the disposal while in others it affects the performances of materials and waste forms and can threaten the success of the disposal. Different versions of DBD are outlined, for all of which it is essential to predict the distribution of temperature with time. A generic physical model is established and a mathematical model set up involving the transient conductive heat flow differential equation for a cylindrical source term with realistic decay. This equation is solved using the method of Finite Differences. A Fortran computer code (GRANITE) has been developed for the model in the context of DBD and validated against theoretical and other benchmarks. The limitations of the model, code, input parameters and data used are discussed and it is concluded that the model provides a satisfactory basis for predicting temperatures in DBD. Examples of applications to some DBD scenarios are given and it is shown that the results are essential to the design strategy of the DBD versions, geometric details and choice of materials used. Without such modeling it would be impossible to progress DBD of nuclear wastes; something that is now being given serious consideration in several countries.

  2. Introduction to the Dianaut Program: A scientific wireline re-entry in deep ocean boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert Gable; DIANAUT Shipboard Party

    1992-03-01

    Downhole measurements were successfully made, during the DIANAUT program, in three Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes in the North Atlantic, utilizing the wireline re-entry capability of the French logging shuttle Nadia which, seated in the drill re-entry cone, provides a completely stable platform with precise control of depth and logging speed. Logging activities included temperature profiles, borehole televiewer logs, flowmeter measurements, fluid sampling, and a three-component magnetometer profile. The different parameters were measured to study the heat transfer regime and hydrogeological processes within the oceanic crust as a function of age and distance from the ridge axis. Interpretation of the data obtained from holes 333A, 395A, and 534A, drilled in rocks ranging in age from 3.5 to 154 m.y., provide evidence of cold seawater circulation in the upper permeable layer of the young crust (sites 333A and 395A), thus maintaining very low temperatures and heat flow; higher temperatures were obtained from the older crust at site 534A.

  3. The technology for wireline re-entry of deep ocean boreholes employed for the Dianaut Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floury, Luc; Gable, Robert

    1992-03-01

    More than 850 holes have been drilled in the world's oceans over the past 24 years, in connection with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). At least 45 of these holes were fitted with a re-entry cone and many were cased through the sedimentary and unconsolidated layers, allowing hole re-entry with a drill string from a drilling vessel and wireline logging to the drill stem. Re-entry of seafloor drill holes with a wireline logger positioned on the seabed was first successfully accomplished during the FARE program. The DIANAUT program was a scientific application of seafloor wireline re-entry utilizing the logging shuttle ‘Nadia’ in combination with the manned submersible ‘Nautile’. The Nadia re-entry logging system was successfully seated in drill re-entry cones of three boreholes in the Atlantic Ocean (water depths of 1666, 4485, and, 4976 m) and logging operations with different probes (temperature, heat-pulse flowmeter, BHTV, fluid sampler, magnetometer) were performed from the seafloor with full logging control and data acquisition from the Nautile. In the near future the logging shuttle ‘Nadia’ could be developed into a support facility for long-term downhole measurements and later into an unmanned seafloor logging system.

  4. Introduction to the DIANAUT program: A scientific wireline re-entry in deep ocean boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, Robert

    1992-03-01

    Downhole measurements were successfully made, during the DIANAUT program, in three Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes in the North Atlantic, utilizing the wireline re-entry capability of the French logging shuttle Nadia which, seated in the drill re-entry cone, provides a completely stable platform with precise control of depth and logging speed. Logging activities included temperature profiles, borehole televiewer logs, flowmeter measurements, fluid sampling, and a three-component magnetometer profile. The different parameters were measured to study the heat transfer regime and hydrogeological processes within the oceanic crust as a function of age and distance from the ridge axis. Interpretation of the data obtained from holes 333A, 395A, and 534A, drilled in rocks ranging in age from 3.5 to 154 m.y., provide evidence of cold seawater circulation in the upper permeable layer of the young crust (sites 333A and 395A), thus maintaining very low temperatures and heat flow; higher temperatures were obtained from the older crust at site 534A.

  5. Borehole data to model caldera unrest: the example of Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; De Natale, G.; Somma, R.; Troise, C.; Kilburn, C.; Tramelli, A.; Troiano, A.; Di Guiseppe, M.; Piochi, M.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the genesis and the physics governing the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy) a drilling project started on July 2012, in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) schedules two phases: a pilot well, 500 m deep (I phase), and a 3.5 km deeper well (II planned phase), both located within the active resurgent caldera of Campi Flegrei, west to the city of Naples. In this framework new filed data from pilot borehole have been recorded by using a novel procedure of Leak Off Test (LOT). The test has been performed in order to obtain, before the onset of rock failure (which furnishes indication of the minimum principal stress value), a reliable value of in situ permeability. These new data, particularly the actual permeability, are fundamental to calibrate the caldera unrest model at Campi Flegrei and to advance in the quantitative analysis of volcanoes behavior for the assessment of possible future eruptive scenarios. Calderas worldwide are, in fact, characterized by frequent episodes of unrest which, only in few cases, culminate with eruption. This behavior is generally explained in terms of magma intrusion and/or disturbance of geothermal fluids in the shallow crust, which are both source of ground deformations and seismicity. A major goal is, thus, to determine the relative contribution of each process, because the potential for eruptions significantly enhanced if magma movements emerges as the primary component. Here we report the new results of the LOT and its implication in the modeling of Campi Flegrei caldera unrest.

  6. A new approach to hydrologic testing during drilling of a deep borehole and its application to the Swedish scientific deep drilling COSC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Rosberg, J. E.; Juhlin, C.; Niemi, A. P.; Doughty, C.; Dobson, P. F.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrogeologic testing during the drilling period. The only time hydraulic tests are performed is when drilling encounters a large-transmissivity zone as evidenced by a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid. The present paper proposes a new approach, that of conducting Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on drilling schedule, yet providing important and accurate information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their in-situ hydraulic conductivities. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The proposed method has been applied to the drilling of a 2500-m borehole at Åre, Northern Sweden, which was initiated on April 28 and completed on August 26, 2014, with 99% core recovery. This borehole, named COSC-1, was drilled as part of the Swedish Scientific Deep Drilling COSC project, where COSC stands for Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The project is a multidisciplinary project with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Scientific investigations which include a range of topics from studies of ancient orogeny to the present-day hydrological cycle are conducted under six working groups: (1) tectonics, (2) geophysics, (3) geothermics, (4) hydrology, (5) microbiology and (6) drilling management and technology. In this talk, the new approach to hydrologic testing during the drilling period will be described and its application to the drilling of COSC-1 borehole presented. Results show that from 300 m to the borehole bottom at 2500 m, there are eight hydraulically active zones or fractures in COSC-1, with very low transmissivity values ranging over one order of magnitude.

  7. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  8. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  9. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-04-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  10. Experimental Investigations Regarding the Use of Sand as an Inhibitor of Air Convection in Deep Seismic Boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, L. Gary; Sandoval, Leo; Hutt, Bob

    1998-01-01

    the level of tilt noise in long period data. However, low levels of tilt noise persisted even at great depth; this noise was caused by air convection in the vault in which the sensors were installed. Over the years, methods were developed to control the air motion with mechanical barriers (boxes) around the sensors and by stratifying (creating a situation in which the air temperature increases with height) the air in the vault near the seismometer. These methods decreased tilt noise in deep mines to very low levels. However, deep mines, that are economically and environmentally suitable and accessible to seismology, are not plentiful and are not evenly distributed over the earth's surface. Therefore, the borehole deployable Teledyne Geotech KS-36000 and later the KS-54000 sensor systems were developed to fulfill the need for instruments that could be installed at depth wherever high quality long period data was desired. Early in the development program, it became evident to the Teledyne Geotech personnel that air convection within the borehole was going to be a significant problem in KS deployments. Experimental and theoretical investigations conducted by Teledyne Geotech (see Douze and Sherwin, 1975, and Sherwin and Cook, 1976) produced a list of recommended installation procedures for reducing the effects of air convection. These procedures consisted of wrapping the sensor in a relatively thin layer of foam insulation, filling the free space volume in the vicinity of the centralizer-bail assembly with foam insulation, and the installation of styrofoam hole plugs immediately above the cable strain relief assembly at the top of the sensor package and at the top of the borehole. This technology has performed quite satisfactorily for over 20 years but evidence of tilt noise in the system output has persisted throughout the KS deployment program (the evidence was that the horizontal components were usually noisier than the vertical components) even in deep b

  11. First Microbial Community Assessment of Borehole Fluids from the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, D. P.; Anderson, C.; Bang, S.; Jones, T. L.; Boutt, D.; Kieft, T.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Murdoch, L. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Bruckner, J.; Fisher, J. C.; Newburn, J.; Wheatley, A.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid and gas samples were collected from two flowing boreholes at the 4100 (1,250 m) and 4850 ft (1478 m) levels of the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Service- and flood water samples were also collected as comparative benchmarks. With a maximum depth of 8,000 ft, (2,438 m), this mine currently hosts the Sanford Laboratory and is the proposed location for the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The uncased 4100L hole is a legacy of mining; whereas, the cased 4850 hole was drilled in 2009 in support of large cavity construction. Both were packered or valved to exclude mine air and sampled anaerobically using aseptic technique. Physical measurements, aquatic and dissolved gas chemistry, cell counts, and microbial community assessments (SSU rRNA libraries) were performed on all samples. This study represents the first at Sanford Lab/DUSEL specifically focused on the deep biosphere rather than mine microbiology. Fluids from the two holes differed markedly, with that from 4100L being characterized by NaHCO3 and 4850 by Na2SO4. pH values of 8.2 vs. 7.5, conductivities (μS) of 1790 vs. 7667 and alkalinities (mg/L) of 767 vs. 187 were obtained from 4100L and 4850, respectively. As expected, the deeper 4850L hole had the higher temperature (38 vs. 30 oC). Neither had measureable nitrate, but both had similar dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations (0.8 vs. 0.9 mg/L). Sulfate was present at 337 vs. 4,470 mg/L in 4100L and 4850L. Major dissolved gases were N2 (91 and 81 vol%), O2 (12 and 16 vol%) and CH4 (0.07 and 3.35 vol%) in 4100L and 4850L. The δ13C of CH4 was -51 and -56.7 permil in 4100L and 4850, respectively. The uncorrected 14C age of DIC was calculated at 25,310 (+/- 220) and 47,700 (+/-3,100) years for the two fluids. Cell counts were 5.9e3 and 2.01e5 in 4100L and 4850. Microbial community structure was diverse in both holes and distinct from that of service water. A large proportion of rRNA library clones were

  12. Scalable statistics of correlated random variables and extremes applied to deep borehole porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, A.; Neuman, S. P.; Nan, T.; Riva, M.; Winter, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze scale-dependent statistics of correlated random hydrogeological variables and their extremes using neutron porosity data from six deep boreholes, in three diverse depositional environments, as example. We show that key statistics of porosity increments behave and scale in manners typical of many earth and environmental (as well as other) variables. These scaling behaviors include a tendency of increments to have symmetric, non-Gaussian frequency distributions characterized by heavy tails that decay with separation distance or lag; power-law scaling of sample structure functions (statistical moments of absolute increments) in midranges of lags; linear relationships between log structure functions of successive orders at all lags, known as extended self-similarity or ESS; and nonlinear scaling of structure function power-law exponents with function order, a phenomenon commonly attributed in the literature to multifractals. Elsewhere we proposed, explored and demonstrated a new method of geostatistical inference that captures all of these phenomena within a unified theoretical framework. The framework views data as samples from random fields constituting scale mixtures of truncated (monofractal) fractional Brownian motion (tfBm) or fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn). Important questions not addressed in previous studies concern the distribution and statistical scaling of extreme incremental values. Of special interest in hydrology (and many other areas) are statistics of absolute increments exceeding given thresholds, known as peaks over threshold or POTs. In this paper we explore the statistical scaling of data and, for the first time, corresponding POTs associated with samples from scale mixtures of tfBm or tfGn. We demonstrate that porosity data we analyze possess properties of such samples and thus follow the theory we proposed. The porosity data are of additional value in revealing a remarkable cross-over from one scaling regime to another at certain

  13. Extreme value statistics of scalable data exemplified by neutron porosities in deep boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, A.; Neuman, S. P.; Nan, T.; Riva, M.; Winter, C. L.

    2014-10-01

    Spatial statistics of earth and environmental (as well as many other) data tend to vary with scale. Common manifestations of scale-dependent statistics include a tendency of increments to have symmetric, non-Gaussian frequency distributions characterized by heavy tails that decay with separation distance or lag; power-law scaling of sample structure functions (statistical moments of absolute increments) in midranges of lags; linear relationships between log structure functions of successive orders at all lags, known as extended self-similarity or ESS; and nonlinear scaling of structure function power-law exponents with function order, a phenomenon commonly attributed in the literature to multifractals. Elsewhere we proposed, explored and demonstrated a new method of geostatistical inference that captures all of these phenomena within a unified theoretical framework. The framework views data as samples from random fields constituting scale-mixtures of truncated (monofractal) fractional Brownian motion (tfBm) or fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn). Important questions not addressed in previous studies concern the distribution and statistical scaling of extreme incremental values. Of special interest in hydrology (and many other areas) are statistics of absolute increments exceeding given thresholds, known as peaks over thresholds or POTs. In this paper we explore for the first time the statistical behavior of POTs associated with samples from scale-mixtures of tfBm or tfGn. We are fortunate to have at our disposal thousands of neutron porosity values from six deep boreholes, in three diverse depositional environments, which we show possess the properties of such samples thus following the theory we proposed. The porosity data are of additional value in revealing a remarkable transition from one scaling regime to another at certain lags. The phenomena we uncover are of fundamental importance for the analysis of fluid flow and solute as well as particulate transport in

  14. Data Acquisition and Processing with a Three-Component Borehole Magnetometer in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hoerdt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2011-12-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008. The aim of this project was the understanding of the ore formation process in the Outokumpu mining region. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.75 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.2 ° in inclination. The vector information of the magnetic anomalies was used to compute models of the magnetized rock units of the environment of the borehole via numerical simulations. By differentiating between short scale (wavelength < 10 m) and long scale (wavelength > 10 m) magnetic anomalies, we developed two different models. The first concerns the drilled-through Outokumpu-assemblage in the direct vicinity (< 50 m) of the borehole. Here, we could identify a tilted layer and related the dip and dip-azimuth with the direction of fracture zones, obtained from televiewer data. The second model concerns the geological structure of the surrounding (< 1 km) of the drill site. By joint interpretation with seismic profiles we were able to link the seismic reflectivity with magnetic properties. This yields an estimate of the mineralogy for rock units away from the borehole path, which were not cored. The orientation information provided by the GBM was also used to compute the borehole path with an accuracy better than 5 m at a logging depth of 1440 m.

  15. The deep space network, volume 18. [Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, Ground Communication Facility, and Network Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  16. Petrophysical properties, mineralogy, fractures, and flow tests in 25 deep boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Kibler, Joyce E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a site investigation for the disposal of radioactive waste, numerous boreholes were drilled into a sequence of Miocene pyroclastic flows and related deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report contains displays of data from 25 boreholes drilled during 1979–1984, relatively early in the site investigation program. Geophysical logs and hydrological tests were conducted in the boreholes; core and cuttings analyses yielded data on mineralogy, fractures, and physical properties; and geologic descriptions provided lithology boundaries and the degree of welding of the rock units. Porosity and water content were computed from the geophysical logs, and porosity results were combined with mineralogy from x-ray diffraction to provide whole-rock volume fractions. These data were composited on plates and used by project personnel during the 1990s. Improvements in scanning and computer technology now make it possible to publish these displays.

  17. Joint Geophysical Assessments of Geothermal Potential from a Deep Borehole in the Canadian Shield Rocks of NE Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kueck, J.; Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Part of the feasibility study for geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of investigating the presence of subsurface fluid pathways in the crystalline basement rocks. The deepest borehole drilled in Northeastern Alberta has a depth of 2350 m and offers substantial depth coverage to study the basement rocks. Due to the limited cores available for this deep borehole, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs and borehole seismic methods are used to provide subsurface characterization of the basement in addition to the existing surface seismic reflection data. Interpretation of the geophysical logs indicate potential fracture zones at different depths that could serve as zones with enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. Fractures within the subsurface tend to be aligned by the deviatoric stress in the subsurface and their orientations can be imaged using the Formation MicroImager (FMI) log. Two sets of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired in the deep borehole in July 2011. First, a high resolution zero-offset VSP was acquired to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. Upgoing tube waves can be identified and attributed to fracture zones interpreted from the geophysical logs. Since VSP data contains higher frequency content, the final corridor stack from the zero-offset VSP offers greater resolution in correlating seismic reflections with the primary reflectors and multiples interpreted from the surface seismic reflection data. The second set of VSP data is a multi-azimuth, multi-depth walk-away VSP acquired using three-component receivers placed at depths of 800 and 1780 m. The degree of seismic anisotropy in the crystalline basement can be revealed by analyzing the first arrivals at different geophone depths. Using an assumption that the presence of fractures causes P-wave reflection anisotropy, interpretation from the walk-away VSP can be used as a method for gross fracture detection

  18. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  19. 3D seismic imaging around the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Following the successful completion of the COSC-1 drilling campaign, a number of geophysical investigations have been performed in and around the 2.5 km deep borehole. Three different seismic experiments were conducted simultaneously in the fall of 2014 to take advantage of the same source points; 1) a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) in the borehole, 2) three 2D seismic profiles across the borehole, and 3) a limited 3D seismic survey (presented here). The latter is the first 3D seismic survey on land in Scandinavia to target the Caledonian Nappes and will allow mapping a small part of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in 3D. Furthermore, it will allow extrapolation of results from downhole logging, core analysis and other seismic surveys to structures surrounding the borehole. A total number of 429 receivers (10 Hz single component geophones) were planted with 20 m separation along 7 lines spaced 200 m apart. The total area with receivers covered approximately 1.5 km2 and was centered on the drill site. A combination of a mechanical source (a rock breaking hydraulic hammer, near offsets) and explosive charges (0.5 kg fired at 3.5 - 5 m depth, far offsets) were used. The source points were activated along roads radiating outwards from the COSC-1 drill site in a star pattern. The nominal shot spacing was 20 m (vibrating source) or 80 m (explosives) and maximum horizontal offset was about 5.75 km. The high-grade metamorphic SNC is well known from previous 2D seismic studies to be a highly reflective unit. However, due to the complex 3D geometry and lithological variation within the unit, it has not been clearly imaged. The new 3D data provide a means to image these structures in more detail and to follow the lithological and structural interfaces observed in the core into the surrounding unit. Preliminary results from the 3D processing and correlation with borehole data will be presented.

  20. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be ‘corrected’ for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid–liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal

  1. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-12-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be `corrected' for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid-liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal drilling

  2. Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E. ); DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F. ); Jones, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction techniques developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes.

  3. Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E. ); DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F. ); Jones, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction technique developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes.

  4. Thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Szewzyk, U; Szewzyk, R; Stenström, T A

    1994-03-01

    A borehole drilled to a total depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence of anaerobic, thermophilic, fermenting bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was obtained only from water samples collected from a specific sampling depth in the borehole (3500 m). The hole was cased down to a depth of 5278 m and open to the formation below that level. All the water below 2000 m in depth standing in the borehole at the time of sampling must have entered at the 5278-m level or below, during a prior pumping operation. A strong salinity stratification certifies that no major amount of vertical mixing had taken place. The depth from which bacteria could be enriched was that of a pronounced local minimum of salinity. Pure cultures of thermophilic, anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylan, ethanol, and lactate. The morphology and physiology of the glucose- and starch-degrading strains indicate a relationship to Thermoanaerobacter and Thermoanaerobium species. All but one of the newly isolated strains differ however from those by lacking acetate as a fermentation product. The glucose-degrading strain Gluc1 is phylogenetically related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, with an evolutionary distance based upon rRNA sequence comparisons of 3%. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found.

  5. The 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift System, central North America: sedimentology of two deep boreholes, Lake Superior region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojakangas, Richard W.; Dickas, Albert B.

    2002-03-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of central North America is a 1.1-Ga, 2500-km long structural feature that has been interpreted as a triple-junction rift developed over a mantle plume. As much as 20 km of subaerial lava flows, mainly flood basalts, are overlain by as much as 10 km of sedimentary rocks that are mostly continental fluvial red beds. This rock sequence, known as the Keweenawan Supergroup, has been penetrated by a few deep boreholes in the search for petroleum. In this paper, two deep boreholes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are described in detail for the first time. Both the Amoco Production #1-29R test, herein referred to as the St. Amour well, and the nearby Hickey Creek well drilled by Cleveland Cliffs Mining Services, were 100% cored. The former is 7238 ft (2410 m) deep and the latter is 5345 ft (1780 m) deep. The entirety of the stratigraphic succession of the Hickey Creek core correlates very well with the upper portion of the St. Amour core, as determined by core description and point-counting of 43 thin sections selected out of 100 studied thin sections. Two Lower Paleozoic units and two Keweenawan red bed units—the Jacobsville Sandstone and the underlying Freda Sandstone—are described. The Jacobsville is largely a feldspatholithic sandstone and the Freda is largely a lithofeldspathic sandstone. Below the Freda, the remaining footage of the St. Amour core consists of a thick quartzose sandstone unit that overlies a heterogenous unit of intercalated red bed units of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale; black shale; individual basalt flows; and a basal ignimbritic rhyolite. This lower portion of the St. Amour core presents an enigma, as it correlates very poorly with other key boreholes located to the west and southwest. While a black shale sequence is similar to the petroleum-bearing Nonesuch Formation farther west, there is no conglomerate unit to correlate with the Copper Harbor Conglomerate. Other key boreholes are

  6. Analysis of fractures from borehole televiewer logs in a 500m deep hole at Xiaguan, Yunnan province, Southwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhai, Qingshan; Springer, J.E.; Zoback, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fractures from a 500 m deep hole in the Red River fault zone were analyzed using an ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Four hundred and eighty individual fractures were identified between 19 m and 465 m depth. Fracture frequency had no apparent relation to the major stratigraphic units and did not change systematically with depth. Fracture orientation, however, did change with stratigraphic position. The borehole intersected 14 m of Cenozoic deposits, 363 m of lower Ordovician clastic sediments, and 106 m of older ultramafic intrusions. The clastic sequence was encountered again at a depth of 484 m, suggesting a large fault displacement. Fractures in the top 162 m of the sedimentary section appear randomly distributed. Below that depth, they are steeply dipping with northerly and north-westerly strikes, parallel to the major active faults in the region. Fractures in the ultramafic section strike roughly eastwest and are steeply dipping. These orientations are confined to the ultramafic section and are parallel to an older, inactive regional fault set. ?? 1990.

  7. A modular subsurface borehole-tower for deep vadose zone monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most urgent contemporary societal challenges ranging from climate change to ecosystem services and food security are strongly linked to processes taking place in the vadose zone. The growing interest in this critical zone prompted a massive deployment of eco-hydrological networks (TERENO, CZO, and more) focusing on long term and highly resolved monitoring of key variables such as soil moisture, pressure, temperature, gas fluxes and more. A challenge in all these endeavors remains the reliable and consistent acquisition of variables to depths of eco-hydrological interest (a few meters in some cases), especially soil moisture. In the absence of off-the-shelf sensor systems capable of vertically resolved acquisition of these variables, we developed a prototype of a modular borehole-based tower for simultaneous monitoring of water content, temperature, oxygen and CO2 gas concentrations, and potentially other variables (relative humidity, capillary pressure). The modular tower is made up of 1.5 m sections of 75 mm PVC tubing with TDR waveguides mounted on outer walls. Each paired waveguides (0.15 m in length) were installed on two opposing sides of inflatable sections along the modular unit to ensure contact with the borehole walls. Oxygen and CO2 are measured using solid-state and optical gas sensors that could be periodically calibrated for potential drift. A prototype that could be extended to 6 m depth and preliminary calibration results will be presented (as a potential design for future CZO's). We welcome suggestions for expansion and improvements.

  8. Seismic imaging in the eastern Scandinavian Caledonides: siting the 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Hedin, Peter; Gee, David G.; Lorenz, Henning; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, a contribution to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), aims to provide a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics. Scientific investigations include a range of topics, from subduction-related tectonics to the present-day hydrological cycle. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in central Scandinavia, where rocks from the middle to lower crust of the orogen are exposed near the Swedish-Norwegian border. Here, rock units of particular interest occur in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the so-called Middle Allochthon and include granulite facies migmatites (locally with evidence of ultra-high pressures) and amphibolite facies gneisses and mafic rocks. This complex overlies greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks of the dolerite-intruded Sarv Nappes and underlying, lower grade Jamtlandian Nappes (Lower Allochthon). Reflection seismic profiles have been an important component in the activities to image the subsurface structure in the area. Subhorizontal reflections in the upper 1-2 km are underlain and interlayered with strong west- to northwest-dipping reflections, suggesting significant east-vergent thrusting. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes are a major component of the project, which will improve our understanding of the subsurface structure and tectonic history of the area. Borehole COSC-1 (IGSN: http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001), drilled in the summer of 2014, targeted the subduction-related Seve Nappe Complex and the contact with the underlying allochthon. The COSC-2 borehole will be located further east and will investigate the lower grade, mainly Cambro-Silurian rocks of the Lower Allochthon, the Jamtlandian decollement, and penetrate into the crystalline basement rocks to identify the source of some of the northwest-dipping reflections. A series of high-resolution seismic profiles have been acquired along a composite ca

  9. Effects of groundwater withdrawal on borehole flow and salinity measured in deep monitor wells in Hawai'i-implications for groundwater management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2010-01-01

    Water-resource managers in Hawai`i rely heavily on salinity profiles from deep monitor wells to estimate the thickness of freshwater and the depth to the midpoint of the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater in freshwater-lens systems. The deep monitor wells are typically open boreholes below the water table and extend hundreds of feet below sea level. Because of possible borehole-flow effects, there is concern that salinity profiles measured in these wells may not accurately reflect the salinity distribution in the aquifer and consequently lead to misinterpretations that adversely affect water-resource management. Steplike changes in salinity or temperature with depth in measured profiles from nonpumped deep monitor wells may be indicative of water moving within the well, and such changes are evident to some extent in all available profiles. The maximum vertical step length, or displacement, in measured profiles ranges from 7 to 644 feet. Vertical steps longer than 70 feet exceed the typical thickness of massive lava flows; they therefore cannot be attributed entirely to geologic structure and may be indicative of borehole flow. The longest vertical steps occur in monitor wells located in southern O'ahu, coinciding with the most heavily developed part of the aquifer. Although regional groundwater withdrawals have caused a thinning of the freshwater lens over the past several decades, the measured midpoint of the transition zone in most deep monitor wells has shown only inconsequential depth displacement in direct response to short-term variations in withdrawals from nearby production wells. For profiles from some deep monitor wells, however, the depth of the measured top of the transition zone, indicated by a specific-conductance value of 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter, has risen several hundred feet in response to withdrawals from nearby production wells. For these deep monitor wells, monitoring the apparent top of the transition zone may not

  10. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  11. Numerical simulation of flow in deep open boreholes in a coastal freshwater lens, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    The Pearl Harbor aquifer in southern O‘ahu is one of the most important sources of freshwater in Hawai‘i. A thick freshwater lens overlays brackish and saltwater in this coastal aquifer. Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells (DMWs) commonly are used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness. However, vertical flow in DMWs can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer or in an aquifer without a DWM. Substantial borehole flow and displacement of salinity in DMWs over several hundred feet have been observed in the Pearl Harbor aquifer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from DMWs. A numerical modeling approach incorporated aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge and withdrawal rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with both the natural regional flow system and groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results indicate that, with all other factors being equal, greater withdrawal rates, closer withdrawal locations, or higher hydraulic conductivities of the well cause greater borehole flow and displacement of salinity in the well. Borehole flow caused by the natural groundwater-flow system is five orders of magnitude greater than vertical flow in a homogeneous aquifer, and borehole-flow directions are consistent with the regional flow system: downward flow in inland recharge areas and upward flow in coastal discharge areas. Displacement of salinity inside the DMWs associated with the regional groundwater-flow system ranges from less than 1 to 220 ft, depending on the location and assumed hydraulic conductivity of the well. For example, upward displacements of the 2 percent and 50 percent salinity depths in a well in the coastal discharge part of the flow system are 17 and 4.4 ft, respectively, and the average salinity difference between aquifer and borehole is 0

  12. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  13. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  14. Current challenges for high-resolution monitoring of deep geological repository boreholes using terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Savunen, Johanna; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Mattila, Jussi; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Onkalo site has been selected as final deep geological repository for the disposal of nuclear waste in Finland. Several exploratory boreholes, similar to those that will host the nuclear waste, are currently under construction in order to analyse various technical aspects of the disposal. Among them, an accurate monitoring of the deformation of each borehole is required. The present study aims at finding the most suitable technique for measuring and monitoring small scale (below mm) deformations of these boreholes with high confidence and accuracy. Two different close-range monitoring techniques are compared here: a phase-shift terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006i) and photogrammetry (Canon EOS 6D&EF20mm + Adamtech 3DM Mine Mapping Suite 2.5). Both techniques are applied using multi temporal acquisitions. As for the data acquired by the terrestrial laser scanner, our study has revealed that parts of the 3D datasets are affected by an artificial distortion, with a maximum shift up to 6 mm, which is clearly below the required accuracy. The origin of this artifact is related with the data acquisition strategy: since the accuracy of the laser measurement is affected by the incidence angle, we observed that when the incidence angle is higher than 45°, the range is unsatisfactorily underestimated. Furthermore, we found another issue in the influence of the surface condition on range measurement, such as wet versus dry, or dark versus light colored rock surface. As for the photogrammetric data, we observed that, when compared to a theoretical cylinder, the 3D point cloud was affected by a sub-millimetric distortion. This distortion is due to the construction and georeferencing of the final 3D model. The error can reach up to +/- 0.8 mm in the border areas of the picture, which is significant value as a millimetric deformation should be detected. Up to now, the photogrammetric acquisitions have provided more accurate results than the laser scanning, but there is a

  15. Thermophilic fermentative bacteria from a deep borehole in granitic rock in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewzyk, Ulrich; Szewzyk, Regine; Stenstroem, Thor-Axel

    1997-07-01

    A borehole drilled to a final depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence and activity of anaerobic bacteria. The application of anaerobic enrichment and isolation techniques resulted in pure cultures of various fermenting bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was observed only in those cultures inoculated from water samples from a depth of 3500 m. Pure cultures of anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylane, ethanol, and lactate. All isolated bacteria were so far undiscribed bacteria by means of their physiological properties. One strain of the glucose fermenting bacteria was further characterized concerning its phylogenetic position and was found to be closest related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. However, by means of its characteristic metabolism, it was clearly separated from C. thermohydrosulfuricum. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found in any of the samples. Fermentative bacteria growing in the presence of hematite often reduced the iron and induced the formation and deposition of insoluble iron sulfides.

  16. Deep microbial life in high-quality granitic groundwater from geochemically and geographically distinct underground boreholes.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kohei; Konno, Uta; Kouduka, Mariko; Hirota, Akinari; Togo, Yoko S; Fukuda, Akari; Komatsu, Daisuke; Tsunogai, Urumu; Tanabe, Akihumi S; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi; Ito, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Yohey

    2016-04-01

    Deep granitic aquifer is one of the largest, but least understood, microbial habitats. To avoid contamination from the surface biosphere, underground drilling was conducted for 300 m deep granitic rocks at the Mizunami underground research laboratory (URL), Japan. Slightly alkaline groundwater was characterized by low concentrations of dissolved organic matter and sulfate and the presence of > 100 nM H2 . The initial biomass was the highest (∼10(5)  cells ml(-1) ) with the dominance of Hydrogenophaga spp., whereas the phylum Nitrospirae became predominant after 3 years with decreasing biomass (∼10(4)  cells ml(-1) ). One week incubation of groundwater microbes after 3 years with (13) C-labelled bicarbonate and 1% H2 and subsequent single-cell imaging with nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry demonstrated that microbial cells were metabolically active. Pyrosequencing of microbial communities in groundwater retrieved at 3-4 years after drilling at the Mizunami URL and at 14 and 25 years after the drilling at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, revealed the occurrence of common Nitrospirae lineages at the geographically distinct sites. As the close relatives of the Nitrospirae lineages were exclusively detected from deep groundwaters and terrestrial hot springs, it suggests that these bacteria are indigenous and potentially adapted to the deep terrestrial subsurface. PMID:26743638

  17. Deep microbial life in high-quality granitic groundwater from geochemically and geographically distinct underground boreholes.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kohei; Konno, Uta; Kouduka, Mariko; Hirota, Akinari; Togo, Yoko S; Fukuda, Akari; Komatsu, Daisuke; Tsunogai, Urumu; Tanabe, Akihumi S; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi; Ito, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Yohey

    2016-04-01

    Deep granitic aquifer is one of the largest, but least understood, microbial habitats. To avoid contamination from the surface biosphere, underground drilling was conducted for 300 m deep granitic rocks at the Mizunami underground research laboratory (URL), Japan. Slightly alkaline groundwater was characterized by low concentrations of dissolved organic matter and sulfate and the presence of > 100 nM H2 . The initial biomass was the highest (∼10(5)  cells ml(-1) ) with the dominance of Hydrogenophaga spp., whereas the phylum Nitrospirae became predominant after 3 years with decreasing biomass (∼10(4)  cells ml(-1) ). One week incubation of groundwater microbes after 3 years with (13) C-labelled bicarbonate and 1% H2 and subsequent single-cell imaging with nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry demonstrated that microbial cells were metabolically active. Pyrosequencing of microbial communities in groundwater retrieved at 3-4 years after drilling at the Mizunami URL and at 14 and 25 years after the drilling at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, revealed the occurrence of common Nitrospirae lineages at the geographically distinct sites. As the close relatives of the Nitrospirae lineages were exclusively detected from deep groundwaters and terrestrial hot springs, it suggests that these bacteria are indigenous and potentially adapted to the deep terrestrial subsurface.

  18. The measurement of long period and secular deformation with deep borehole tiltmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabaniss, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    Two clusters of instruments were emplaced in fractured bedrock in eastern Massachusetts in 1970 and 1975. The intrasite agreement at tidal periods was about two percent, but there is no agreement at longer periods. A strong temperature-induced annual component ranging from 3 to 15 urads was present on instruments installed at depths of 15-20m; it was not apparent on those at 100-120m. One instrument, in continuous operation for three years at 100m, showed a net drift of 0.3 urads down to the SW, with a maximum departure of 2.0 urads from the trend. Pore pressure variations, material corrosion and creep, and local movements are apparently the limiting factors to long-term measurements.

  19. On the suction drill as an effective tool to get rid of bore debris in a narrow deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faßwald, J.; Kömle, N.; Bentley, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this experimental study a novel method for the removal of bore debris from narrow and deep boreholes is described. The idea is to use a constant flow of inert gas (e.g. N2) to transport the fine bore debris produced by a drill head to the surface and thereby clear the bore hole from the solid material. A theoretical study [1] has previously predicted that it should be possible to construct a system able to transport particles in the micrometer to millimeter range along the vertical direction over many meters - without consuming unreasonable amounts of gas.Such a system could be of great interest for drilling and sampling on the Moon, Mars and small bodies. In order to verify this statement experimentally, a series of laboratory tests was performed. The experimental setup consists of the following main components: (i) a gas regulation system allowing accurate measurement and control of the inlet gas flux and (ii) a device representing the suction drill. The "drill" consists of a 45 cm long Plexiglas sheath within which a central metal tube leads gas to the bottom of a (simulated) borehole, where it is diverted through thin outlet openings to flow back up the tube, driving out debris particles as it does so. Experiments with two particular sample materials were performed, namely (i) glass beads with a size range of 0.25 mm - 0.50 mm and (ii) the standardised lunar analog material JSC-1A, which is a milled basaltic lava with an average particle size of about 0.1 mm. In both cases the suction mechanism under vacuum worked very well and the theoretical predictions were largely confirmed. Similar results were obtained for JSC-1A samples and glass beads, although in case of the lunar analog material adhesive forces among the irregular particles might hinder the transport. The conclusion from our experiments is that suction of particles from deep bore holes is an effective method and needs rather moderate resources of gas supply. Thus it may be better suited for

  20. CALIPSO Borehole Instrumentation Project at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI: Data Acquisition, Telemetry, Integration, and Archival Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Malin, P. E.; Shalev, E.; Elsworth, D.; Hidayat, D.; Voight, B.; Young, S. R.; Dunkley, P. N.; Herd, R.; Norton, G.

    2003-12-01

    The CALIPSO Project (Caribbean Andesite Lava Island-volcano Precision Seismo-geodetic Observatory) has greatly enhanced the monitoring and scientific infrastructure at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat with the recent installation of an integrated array of borehole and surface geophysical instrumentation at four sites. Each site was designed to be sufficiently hardened to withstand extreme meteorological events (e.g. hurricanes) and only require minimum routine maintenance over an expected observatory lifespan of >30 y. The sensor package at each site includes: a single-component, very broad band, Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, a three-component seismometer ( ˜Hz to 1 kHz), a Pinnacle Technologies series 5000 tiltmeter, and a surface Ashtech u-Z CGPS station with choke ring antenna, SCIGN mount and radome. This instrument package is similar to that envisioned by the Plate Boundary Observatory for deployment on EarthScope target volcanoes in western North America and thus the CALIPSO Project may be considered a prototype PBO installation with real field testing on a very active and dangerous volcano. Borehole sites were installed in series and data acquisition began immediately after the sensors were grouted into position at 200 m depth, with the first completed at Trants (5.8 km from dome) in 12-02, then Air Studios (5.2 km), Geralds (9.4 km), and Olveston (7.0 km) in 3-03. Analog data from the strainmeter (50 Hz sync) and seismometer (200 Hz) were initially digitized and locally archived using RefTek 72A-07 data acquisition systems (DAS) on loan from the PASSCAL instrument pool. Data were downloaded manually to a laptop approximately every month from initial installation until August 2003, when new systems were installed. Approximately 0.2 Tb of raw data in SEGY format have already been acquired and are currently archived at UARK for analysis by the CALIPSO science team. The July 12th dome collapse and vulcanian explosion events were recorded at 3 of the 4

  1. Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC): Scientific objectives for the planned 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Anderson, Mark; Dopson, Mark; Lorenz, Henning; Pascal, Christophe; Piazolo, Sandra; Roberts, Nick; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2016-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project employs two fully cored boreholes for investigating mountain building processes at mid-crustal levels in a deeply eroded Paleozoic collisional orogen of Alpine-Himalayan size. The two COSC boreholes will provide a unique c. 5 km deep composite section from a hot allochthon through the underlying 'colder' nappes, the main décollement and into the basement of the collisional underriding plate. COSC's unprecedented wealth of geophysical field and borehole data combined with the petrology, geochronology and rock physics information obtained from the drill cores will develop into an integrated model for a major collisional mountain belt. This can be utilized as an analogue to better understand similar modern tectonic settings (Himalaya, Izu-Bonin-Mariana, amongst others) and, thus, advance our understanding of such complex systems and how they affect the (human) environment. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in the Åre-Mörsil area (Sweden) of central Scandinavia. The first drill hole, COSC-1, was completed in late August 2014 with near 100% core recovery down to 2.5 km. It targeted the high-grade metamorphic Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) and its contact with the underlying allochthon, investigating how this metasedimentary unit, that was initially deeply subducted during orogeny, was exhumed and then, still hot, emplaced as an allochthon onto the foreland of the underriding plate. COSC-2 will investigate the main Caledonian décollement, which is the major detachment that separates the Caledonian allochthons from the autochthonous basement of the Fennoscandian Shield, and the character of the deformation in the basement. Combined seismic, magnetotelluric (MT) and magnetic data provide control on the basement structure and the depth to the main décollement, believed to be hosted in the carbon-rich highly conductive Alum Shale. Key targets are to understand the

  2. Long Valley Deep Hole Geophysical Observatory --- Strain Instrumentation and Installation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, S. I.; Linde, A.; Malin, P.; Roeloffs, E. A.; Hill, D. P.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Long Valley Exploratory Well, drilled in the middle of the resurgent dome in the Long Valley caldera, was started in 1989 and after rather checkered progress eventually reached a depth of about 9,831 feet. The hole is cased to a depth of 7178 feet with bare rock below that. At 8,500 feet there is an open fracture system with substantial permeability. One of the goals of the instrument installation is to enable monitoring of this deep aquifer. The most satisfactory rock away from obvious large fractures was at about 7,400 feet, and this was the installation depth. The instrumentation package consisted of a bottom hole seismometer at a depth of about 8500 feet, and a coupled instrument string that was cemented to the rock at a depth of 7400 feet. The instrument string, 73 feet long, had an inflatable packer with an extension at the bottom, coupled to a seismometer with a cement exit port above it, a 22 foot long spacing tube connected to a 20 foot long sensing volume strainmeter assembly. The strainmeter unit is essentially an annulus with the cementing pipe passing through it. In addition, two seismometer cables, two water bypass tubes and a packer inflation tube, pass through the strainmeter, which is actually two concentric strainmeters. The outer unit is a dilatometer and the inner unit is a vertical component strainmeter. Before installation, the strainmeters and the 8000 foot long stainless steel coupling tubes were filled with filtered and degassed water. The instrument string and attached bottom hole seismometer were then lowered down the hole attached to drill pipe. Two optical fiber vertical strainmeters (one interferometer and one time-of-flight loop) consisting of three fibers were attached to the drill pipe as it was installed. After the drill pipe reached target depth, it was secured to the well head. The packer, at the bottom of the instrument package, was inflated, thus providing a sealed bottom for the cement. Cement was then pumped down the

  3. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project: using borehole measurements to discriminate magmatic and geothermal effects in caldera unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Carlino, Stefano; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Piochi, Monica; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Kilburn, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Large calderas are potentially the most risky volcanic areas in the world since they are capable of producing huge eruptions whose major effects can involve human life and activities from regional to global scale. Calderas worldwide are characterized by frequent episodes of unrest which, only in few cases, culminate with eruptions. This ambiguous behavior is generally explained in terms of magma intrusion or disturbance of geothermal fluids in the shallow crust, which are both source of ground deformations and seismicity. A major goal is to determine the relative contribution of each process, because the potential for eruptions significantly enhanced if magma movements emerge as the primary component. A very important case study is the active Campi Flegrei caldera, hosting part of the large city of Naples (Southern Italy). In the framework of the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project new filed data from pilot borehole have been recorded (permeability and in situ stress) by using a novel procedure of Leak Off Test. These new data, particularly the actual permeability, are fundamental to calibrate the caldera unrest models at Campi Flegrei and, , to put constrains to forecast the maximum future eruptive scenario. We show here that these new data, integrated by fluid-dynamical modeling, allow to assess that only about a third of the maximum uplift recorded in 1982-1984 may be due to shallow aquifer perturbation, so that the remaining part should be due to magma inflow, corresponding to about 0.05 Km3 of new magma if we assume a sill-like reservoir located at 4 km of depth. Considering an almost equivalent magma inflow for the 1969-1972 unrest, which showed a similar uplift, we got a total magma inflow of 0.1 Km3. It is then very important to assess the times for cooling of such accumulated magma, in order to assess the eruption hazard.

  4. Analysis of stress-induced oval fractures in a borehole at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 504, eastern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Flamand, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Hole 504B is located in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and extends to a total depth of 2111 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf). Several acoustic televiewer logs have been obtained in this well during successive stages of drilling, and the resulting digital images have revealed numerous oval-shaped fractures seemingly etched into the borehole wall. A theoretical examination of these stress-induced features identifies a unique and ephemeral set of stress distributions and magnitudes that are necessary for their production. Consequently, the ovals provide a basis for quantifying the magnitudes and orientations of the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses, SH and Sh, at this site. Vertical, truncated breakouts and horizontal tensile fractures define the spatial boundaries of the ovals. Explicit criteria for their occurrence are combined with estimates for various physical properties of the rock to yield a range of possible values for the horizontal principal stresses. The conspicuous oval geometry is completed by a curved fracture that joins the vertical and horizontal components. Its degree of curvature is delineated by the modified Griffith failure criterion and is directly related to the principal stress difference (SH - Sh). Matching a series of type curves corresponding to specific values for (SH - Sh) with the actual undistorted well bore images allows the magnitude of the stress difference to be further constrained. With a value for (SH - Sh) of 45 ?? 5 MPa the individual magnitudes of SH and Sh are determined more precisely. Final estimates for the horizontal principal stresses in DSDP Hole 504B at a depth of 1200 mbsf are 141 MPa ??? SH ??? 149 MPa and 91 MPa ??? Sh ??? 109 MPa. Stress magnitudes derived from this approach rely heavily upon the values of a variety of physical properties, and complementary laboratory measurements performed on relevant rock samples provide critical information. Uncertainties in

  5. Numerical simulation of flow in deep open boreholes in a coastal freshwater lens, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    The Pearl Harbor aquifer in southern O‘ahu is one of the most important sources of freshwater in Hawai‘i. A thick freshwater lens overlays brackish and saltwater in this coastal aquifer. Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells (DMWs) commonly are used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness. However, vertical flow in DMWs can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer or in an aquifer without a DWM. Substantial borehole flow and displacement of salinity in DMWs over several hundred feet have been observed in the Pearl Harbor aquifer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from DMWs. A numerical modeling approach incorporated aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge and withdrawal rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with both the natural regional flow system and groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results indicate that, with all other factors being equal, greater withdrawal rates, closer withdrawal locations, or higher hydraulic conductivities of the well cause greater borehole flow and displacement of salinity in the well. Borehole flow caused by the natural groundwater-flow system is five orders of magnitude greater than vertical flow in a homogeneous aquifer, and borehole-flow directions are consistent with the regional flow system: downward flow in inland recharge areas and upward flow in coastal discharge areas. Displacement of salinity inside the DMWs associated with the regional groundwater-flow system ranges from less than 1 to 220 ft, depending on the location and assumed hydraulic conductivity of the well. For example, upward displacements of the 2 percent and 50 percent salinity depths in a well in the coastal discharge part of the flow system are 17 and 4.4 ft, respectively, and the average salinity difference between aquifer and borehole is 0

  6. Evaluation of In-Situ Stress Assessment from Deep Borehole in the Middle Coastal Plain and Its implication for Taiwan Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E. C.; Li, W. C.; Chiang, T. C.; Lin, W.; Wang, T. T.; Yu, C. W.; Chiao, C. H.; Yang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific study in deep boreholes has paid more attention as the demand of natural resources and waste disposal and risk evaluation of seismic hazard dramatically increases, such as petroleum exploitation, geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear waste disposal and seismogenic faulting. In the deep borehole geoengineering, knowledge of in-situ stress is essential for the design of drilling-casing plan. Understanding the relationship between fracture and in-situ stress is the key information to evaluate the potential of fracture seal/conduit and fracture reactivity. Also, assessment of in-situ stress can provide crucial information to investigate mechanism of earthquake faulting and stress variationfor earthquake cycles. Formations under the Coastal Plain in Taiwan have evaluated as saline-water formations with gently west-dipping and no distinct fractures endured by regional tectonics of arc-continental collision with N35W compression. The situation is characterized as a suitable place for carbon sequestration. In this study, we will integrate results from different in-situ stress determinations such as anelastic strain recovery (ASR), borehore breakout, hydraulic fracturing from a 3000m borehole of carbon sequestration testing site and further evaluate the seal feasibility and tectonic implication. Results of 30 ASR experiments between the depth of 1500m and 3000m showed the consistent normal faulting stress regime. Stress gradient of vertical stress, horizontal maximum stress and horizontal minimum stress with depth is estimated. Borehole breakout is not existed throughout 1500-3000m. The mean orientation of breakout is about 175deg and mean width of breakout is 84 deg. Based on rock mechanical data, maximum injection pressure of carbon sequestration can be evaulated. Furthermore, normal faulting stress regime is consistent with core observations and image logging, the horizontal maximum stress of 85deg inferred from breakout suggested that this place

  7. A Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Physical Property Data From the 2950 m Deep Bellevue Borehole, Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Ashwal, L. D.; Cooper, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Susceptibility (n=~110,000) and density (n=~~2500) measurements on core samples have been collected in a stratigraphic context from the Bellevue (BV-1) 2950 m deep borehole in the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld Complex. This drill core starts in the granitoid roof rocks, extends through the entire Upper Zone, and ends approximately in the middle of the Main Zone. These physical property measurements now provide an extensive database useful for geophysical modeling and stratigraphic studies. In an effort to quantify the periodicity of the layering we have applied various statistical and wavelet methods to analyze the susceptibility and density data. The density data have revealed a strong periodic layering with a scale of ~~80 m that extends through the Main and Upper Zones. In the Main Zone the layering is unusual in that the density values increase upwards by as much as 10%. This is due to systematic variation in the modal abundance of mafic silicates and appears to be related to separate pulses during emplacement. The magnetic susceptibility data in the Upper Zone also show a strong cyclicity of similar scale. The discrete wavelet transform, using the real Haar wavelet, has been applied to help discretise the susceptibility data and clarifies the geological boundaries without blurring them, which is a common problem with multipoint moving averages. As expected, the histogram of the entire data set is non-Gaussian, with a long tail for high values. We can roughly fit a power law to the log histogram plot indicating a probable fractal distribution of susceptibilities. However if we window the data in the range 750-1000 m the histogram is very different. This region shows a strong peak and no power law relationship. This dramatic change in statistical properties prompted us to investigate these properties more thoroughly. To complement the wavelet analysis we have calculated various statistical measures (mean, standard deviation, skew, and

  8. Thermal-Hydrology Simulations of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Single Deep Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgu, Teklu; Stein, Emily; Hardin, Ernest; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Hammond, Glenn Edward

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of thermal-hydrology were carried out for the emplacement of spent nuclear fuel canisters and cesium and strontium capsules using the PFLOTRAN simulator. For the cesium and strontium capsules the analysis looked at disposal options such as different disposal configurations and surface aging of waste to reduce thermal effects. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the borehole. Simulation results include temperature and vertical flux profiles around the borehole at selected depths. Of particular importance are peak temperature increases, and fluxes at the top of the disposal zone. Simulations of cesium and strontium capsule disposal predict that surface aging and/or emplacement of the waste at the top of the disposal zone reduces thermal effects and vertical fluid fluxes. Smaller waste canisters emplaced over a longer disposal zone create the smallest thermal effect and vertical fluid fluxes no matter the age of the waste or depth of emplacement.

  9. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Doppler and ranging data routinely generated at the Deep Space Stations of the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network serve as an excellent source of radio science information. Important radio science experiments based on Deep Space Network generated radio metric data have included confirmation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity, measurement of the masses and gravitational harmonics of the planets out to Saturn, and measurement of electron density distribution and turbulence in the solar corona. In response to an increased level of radio science requirements, the Deep Space Network chose in 1976 to implement a new radio science system, which was completed in late 1978. Key features include (1) highly phase stable open loop receivers, (2) reduction of recorded data bandwidth through use of programmed local oscillators, and (3) real time digitization and recording on computer compatible tape.

  10. A plan for a 5 km-deep borehole at Reykjanes, Iceland, into the root zone of a black smoker on land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.; Bignall, G.

    2013-11-01

    A summary workshop report describing the progress made so far by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is presented below. The report provides recommendations concerning technical aspects related to deep drilling, and invites international participation in both the engineering and the scientific activities of the next phase of the IDDP. No issues were identified at the workshop that should rule out attempting the drilling, sampling and testing of the proposed IDDP-2 well. Although technically challenging, the consensus of the workshop was that the drilling of such a hot deep well, and producing potentially hostile fluids, is possible but requires careful contingency planning. The future well will be explored for supercritical fluid and/or superheated steam beneath the current production zone of the Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland. This deep borehole will provide the first opportunity worldwide to directly investigate the root zone of a magma-hydrothermal system which is likely to be similar to those beneath the black smokers on the world-encircling mid-ocean rift systems.

  11. The Deep Space Network. An instrument for radio navigation of deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Yunck, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) network configurations used to generate the navigation observables and the basic process of deep space spacecraft navigation, from data generation through flight path determination and correction are described. Special emphasis is placed on the DSN Systems which generate the navigation data: the DSN Tracking and VLBI Systems. In addition, auxiliary navigational support functions are described.

  12. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  13. The Cenozoic history of the Armorican Massif: New insights from the deep CDB1 borehole (Rennes Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hugues; Bessin, Paul; Saint-Marc, Pierre; Châteauneuf, Jean-Jacques; Bourdillon, Chantal; Wyns, Robert; Guillocheau, François

    2016-05-01

    Borehole CDB1 (675.05 m) crosses the deepest Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Armorican Massif, the Rennes Basin, to reach the underlying basement at a depth of 404.92 m, made up of the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Brioverian Group, weathered down to 520 m depth. The basin's Cenozoic deposits are divided into seven formations, ranging from Early-Middle Bartonian to Late Pliocene in age. Coastal sediments at the very base, along with a thick Priabonian lacustrine episode, imply a major revision of the regional palaeogeography, whilst a very steady and low-energy lacustrine-palustrine environment throughout the Priabonian and Early Rupelian argue for an aggradational system associated with uniform subsidence. Palynological assemblages attest to environmental and climatic changes through the Eocene and Early Oligocene, in accordance with regional and global trends (Eocene-Oligocene Transition).

  14. Advanced instrument system for real-time and time-series microbial geochemical sampling of the deep (basaltic) crustal biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, James P.; Copson, David A.; Jolly, James; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Huei-Ting; Glazer, Brian T.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories provide long-term access to hydrothermal fluids circulating within the basaltic crust (basement), providing invaluable opportunities to study the deep biosphere. We describe the design and application parameters of the GeoMICROBE instrumented sled, an autonomous sensor and fluid sampling system. The GeoMICROBE system couples with CORK fluid delivery lines to draw large volumes of fluids from crustal aquifers to the seafloor. These fluids pass a series of in-line sensors and an in situ filtration and collection system. GeoMICROBE's major components include a primary valve manifold system, a positive displacement primary pump, sensors (e.g., fluid flow rate, temperature, dissolved O2, electrochemistry-voltammetry analyzer), a 48-port in situ filtration and fluid collection system, computerized controller, seven 24 V-40 A batteries and wet-mateable (ODI) communications with submersibles. This constantly evolving system has been successfully connected to IODP Hole 1301A on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Also described here is a mobile pumping system (MPS), which possesses many of the same components as the GeoMICROBE (e.g., pump, sensors, controller), but is directly powered and controlled in real time via submersible operations; the MPS has been employed repeatedly to collect pristine basement fluids for a variety of geochemical and microbial studies.

  15. The Deep Space Network as an instrument for radio science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, S. W.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1993-01-01

    Radio science experiments use radio links between spacecraft and sensor instrumentation that is implemented in the Deep Space Network. The deep space communication complexes along with the telecommunications subsystem on board the spacecraft constitute the major elements of the radio science instrumentation. Investigators examine small changes in the phase and/or amplitude of the radio signal propagating from a spacecraft to study the atmospheric and ionospheric structure of planets and satellites, planetary gravitational fields, shapes, masses, planetary rings, ephemerides of planets, solar corona, magnetic fields, cometary comae, and such aspects of the theory of general relativity as gravitational waves and gravitational redshift.

  16. Diverse Portfolio of Scientific Instrumentation Initiatives of the Deep Carbon Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, Craig; Hazen, Robert; Hemley, Russell; Mangum, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Advances in scientific instrumentation are important drivers of scientific discovery. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) supports a diverse portfolio of scientific instrumentation initiatives worldwide as part of its ten-year quest to achieve a transformational understanding of the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth's deep carbon. Substantial progress has been made in the development of a wide range of instruments, including: • Quantum cascade laser-infrared absorption spectrometer for clumped methane isotope thermometry (Shuhei Ono) • Large-radius high-mass-resolution multiple-collector isotope ratio mass spectrometer for analysis of rare isotopologues of methane and other gases (Edward Young, Douglas Rumble) • Volcanic field deployment of the laser isotope ratio-meter (Damien Weidmann) • Novel large-volume diamond anvil cell for neutron scattering (Malcolm Guthrie, Reinhard Boehler) • Novel synchrotron x-ray probes for deep carbon (Wendy Mao) • Ultrafast laser instrument for in situ measurements of elastic, electronic, and transport properties of carbon-bearing fluids and crystalline materials (Alexander Goncharov) • Combined instrument for molecular imaging in geochemistry (Andrew Steele) • Pressurized Underwater Sample Handler (Isabelle Daniel, Karyn Rogers) These and other DCO instrumentation projects are highly leveraged investments involving a large number of sponsors, partners, and collaborators.

  17. Profiles of chloride and stable isotopes in pore-water obtained from a 2000 m-deep borehole through the Mesozoic sedimentary series in the eastern Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensenouci, F.; Michelot, J. L.; Matray, J. M.; Savoye, S.; Tremosa, J.; Gaboreau, S.

    Water stable isotopes and chloride profiles in pore-water through more than 800 m of sediments were obtained from a 2000 m-deep borehole (EST 433) drilled by Andra in the eastern Paris Basin. Vapour exchange method and aqueous leaching were used to obtain the stable isotope and chloride concentrations of pore-water from 24 rock samples. Petrophysical measurements included water contents, grain densities and porosities of the studied formations. Pore-water and some groundwater samples collected during the drilling are mainly of meteoric origin: they plot near the Global Meteoric Water Line, distributed between heavy-isotope depleted Oxfordian groundwater and enriched Triassic groundwater, in good agreement with previous data. The δ2H and δ18O values describe curved profiles in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, and show an increase with depth below this formation (Dogger and Liassic). Similar trends were observed for the chloride concentrations, except in the Liassic formation where they are more or less constant. The low chloride concentrations in the basal Jurassic layers indicate that the source of salinity to the Dogger aquifer is likely the middle Liassic formation and not the Triassic salt as previously suggested. A preliminary modelling exercise showed that currently available diffusion parameters (diffusion coefficients and accessible porosities) might be used to properly simulate these exchanges for deuterium. This is not the case for chloride, perhaps because the used values for anion accessible porosity were not relevant and/or the applied modelling conditions were unsuitable.

  18. Evidence-based management of deep wound infection after spinal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Lawton, Cort D; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, evidence-based medicine is used to assess optimal surgical and medical management of patients with post-operative deep wound infection following spinal instrumentation. A computerized literature search of the PubMed database was performed. Twenty pertinent studies were identified. Studies were separated into publications addressing instrumentation retention versus removal and publications addressing antibiotic therapy regimen. The findings were classified based on level of evidence (I-III) and findings were summarized into evidentiary tables. No level I or II evidence was identified. With regards to surgical management, five studies support instrumentation retention in the setting of early deep infection. In contrast, for delayed infection, the evidence favors removal of instrumentation at the time of initial debridement. Surgeons should be aware that for deformity patients, even if solid fusion is observed, removal of instrumentation may be associated with significant loss of correction. A course of intravenous antibiotics followed by long-term oral suppressive therapy should be pursued if instrumentation is retained. A shorter treatment course may be appropriate if hardware is removed.

  19. LAqui-core, a 150 m deep borehole into the depocenter of the basin controlled by the 2009 Mw=6.1 L'Aquila earthquake fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porreca, M.; Mochales Lopez, T.; Smedile, A.; Buratti, N.; Macri', P.; Di Chiara, A.; Nicolosi, I.; D'ajello Caracciolo, F.; Carluccio, R.; Di Giulio, G.; Vassallo, M.; Amoroso, S.; Villani, F.; Tallini, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Speranza, F.

    2013-12-01

    INSAR images showed that the 2009 Mw=6.1 normal faulting L'Aquila earthquake produced a maximum co-seismic subsidence of ca. 15 cm in the depocenter of the Middle Aterno basin (Abruzzi, central Italy), on the hanging-wall of the Paganica fault. This continental basin is one of the several fault-controlled extensional basins of the central Apennines and its sedimentation history is poorly known due to the scarcity of outcrops in the weakly incised infilling cover. During May-June 2013, a 151 m deep borehole was drilled in the basin depocenter, as shown by INSAR images. The recovered core (LAqui-core) consists of continental Holocene and Pleistocene clastic sediments and it do not reach the basin substrate. In the same area, we have also performed preliminary geological and geophysical (electrical resistivity tomography and seismic noise survey) investigations in order to select the best drilling location. We have also taken into account recently published high-resolution seismic tomographic data acquired in the same area, showing an evident thickening of low Vp sediments in correspondence of the depocenter. These approaches have been useful to infer the geometry and sedimentary facies architecture of the basin. A first general stratigraphic setting has been defined by means of lithostratigraphic description of the core. It can be subdivided in two main sequences. The upper sequence is composed by 41 meters of silt and sand deposits, interbedded with m-thick rounded gravel intervals. This sequence is interpreted as related to fluvial-alluvial fan depositional environments. An erosional discontinuity separates this upper sequence from the lower clay and sand sequence, typical of a lacustrine depositional environment. The lacustrine sequence continues till the bottom of the borehole and is interrupted in the middle by a 30 m thick coarse gravel deposit. On this stratigraphic record we have collected samples for different kind of analyses (now in progress), involving

  20. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won Hyun; Kim, Seonghui; Lee, Hanshin; Yi, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Min; Ham, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sug-Whan; Yang, Ho Soon; Choi, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Zeen Chul; Lockwood, Mike; Morris, Nigel; Tosh, Ian

    2007-03-01

    The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm) in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m) and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1}) at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  1. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, A.L.; Howard, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations.

  2. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, G. D.

    2014-05-01

    A homogeneous set of temperature measurements obtained from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array between 1973 and 2013 is presented; DOI/GTN-P is the US Department of the Interior contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The 23-element array is located on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, a region of cold continuous permafrost. Most of the monitoring wells are situated on the Arctic coastal plain between the Brooks Range and the Arctic Ocean, while others are in the foothills to the south. The data represent the true temperatures in the wellbores and surrounding rocks at the time of the measurements; they have not been corrected to remove the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the wells. With a few exceptions, the drilling disturbance is estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 K or less by 1989. Thus, most of the temperature measurements acquired during the last 25 yr are little affected by the drilling disturbance. The data contribute to ongoing efforts to monitor changes in the thermal state of permafrost in both hemispheres by the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, one of the primary subnetworks of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in Arctic Alaska, as well as providing important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) repository at doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  3. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    A homogeneous set of temperature measurements obtained from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array between 1973 and 2013 is presented. The 23-element array is located on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, a region of cold continuous permafrost. Most of the monitoring wells are situated on the arctic coastal plain between the Brooks Range and the Arctic Ocean, while others are in the foothills to the south. The data represent the true temperatures in the wellbores and surrounding rocks at the time of the measurements; they have not been corrected to remove the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the wells. With a few exceptions, the drilling disturbance is estimated to have been of order 0.1 K or less by 1989. Thus, most of the temperature measurements acquired during the last 25 yr are little affected by the drilling disturbance. The data contribute to ongoing efforts to monitor changes in the thermal state of permafrost in both hemispheres by the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P), one of the primary subnetworks of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in arctic Alaska, as well as provide important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the ACADIS repository at doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  4. The Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: A Modular Instrumentation System for a Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Yim, Hester; Williamsn, Robert M.; Hafermalz, Scott; Wagner, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is focused on developing human exploration capabilities in low Earth orbit (LEO), expanding to near Earth asteroids (NEA), and finally to Mars. Habitation is a crucial aspect of human exploration, and a current focus of NASA activities. The Habitation Demonstration Unit (HDU) is a project focused on developing an autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space by providing engineers and scientists with a test bed to develop, integrate, test, and evaluate habitation systems. A critical feature of the HDU is the instrumentation system, which monitors key subsystems within the habitat. The following paper will discuss the HDU instrumentation system performance and lessons learned during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RaTS). In addition, this paper will discuss the evolution of the instrumentation system to support the 2011 Deep Space Habitat configuration, the challenges, and the lessons learned of implementing this configuration. In 2010, the HDU was implemented as a pressurized excursion module (PEM) and was tested at NASA s D-RaTS in Arizona [1]. For this initial configuration, the instrumentation system design used features that were successful in previous habitat instrumentation projects, while also considering challenges, and implementing lessons learned [2]. The main feature of the PEM instrumentation system was the use of a standards-based wireless sensor node (WSN), implementing an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. Many of the instruments were connected to several WSNs, which wirelessly transmitted data to the command and data handling system via a mesh network. The PEM instrumentation system monitored the HDU during field tests at D-RaTS, and the WSN data was later analyzed to understand the performance of this system. In addition, several lessons learned were gained from the field test experience, which fed into the instrumentation design of the next generation of the HDU.

  5. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in deep Columbia River Basalts ( Washington State, USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, K.

    1987-01-01

    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in S central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic- fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. -from Authors

  6. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  7. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  8. Mechanical behavior of deep cryogenically treated martensitic shape memory nickel–titanium rotary endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Prabhakaran, Gopalakrishnan; Rajadurai, Arunachalam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the cyclic fatigue resistance and cutting efficiency of martensitic shape memory (SM) nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary endodontic instruments. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five HyFlex® CM instruments were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each and subjected to different DCT (–185° C) conditions based on soaking time: DCT 24 group: 24 h, DCT 6 group: 6 h, and control group. Each group was randomly subdivided for evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance in custom-made artificial canals (n = 15) and cutting efficiency in plexiglass simulators (n = 10). The cyclic fatigue resistance was measured by calculating the number of cycles to failure (NCF) and cutting efficiency was measured using the loss of weight method. Results: Increase in NCF of instruments in DCT 24 group was highly significant (P < 0.01; Tukey's honest significant difference). There was no difference in weight loss of plexiglass simulators in all the groups (P > 0.05; one-way analysis of variance). In conclusion, deep dry cryogenic treatment with 24 h soaking time significantly increases the cyclic fatigue resistance without affecting the cutting efficiency of SM NiTi endodontic instruments. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five HyFlex® CM instruments were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each and subjected to different DCT (–185° C) conditions based on soaking time: DCT 24 group: 24 h, DCT 6 group: 6 h, and control group. Each group was randomly subdivided for evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance in custom-made artificial canals (n = 15) and cutting efficiency in plexiglass simulators (n = 10). The cyclic fatigue resistance was measured by calculating the number of cycles to failure (NCF) and cutting efficiency was measured using the loss of weight method. Results: Increase in NCF of instruments in DCT 24 group was highly significant (P < 0.01; Tukey's honest significant difference

  9. Who are the active players of the Iberian Margin deep biosphere? Microbial diversity of borehole U1385 through analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. A.; Orsi, W.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Biddle, J.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial community structure and activity in marine deep subsurface environments across the globe have been assayed using various molecular biology tools including 16S rDNA sequencing, microarrays, FISH/CARD-FISH, and metagenomics. Many studies involving these techniques are DNA-based. This limits study of microbial function in these environments as DNA does not degrade as quickly as RNA and may lead to misinterpreting relic microbial genes as important for present-day activity. In this study, the diversity of bacteria and archaea from sediments of the Iberian Margin IODP borehole U1385 was analyzed from bulk extracted DNA and RNA at seven different depths ranging from 10 to 123 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Presented data suggests that the picture of microbial diversity obtained from DNA is markedly different from that seen through analysis of RNA. IODP borehole U1385 offers a great comparison to ODP Site 1229, a well characterized borehole on the Peru Margin. Similar sediment depositional history and geochemistry will allow exploration of what represents a 'typical' continental margin sediment microbial community or if microbial endemism is established despite similar conditions. This study represents the first molecular exploration of sediment microbial communities from the Iberian Margin IODP Site U1385.

  10. A novel quality of life instrument for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kuehler, A; Henrich, G; Schroeder, U; Conrad, B; Herschbach, P; Ceballos-Baumann, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a short instrument to examine quality of life (QoL) which specifically addresses patients with movement disorders treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS). Design: The instrument was developed within an existing concept of a modular questionnaire (questions on life satisfaction: "general life satisfaction" QLSM-A, and "satisfaction with health" QLSM-G), in which each item is weighted according to its relative importance to the individual. Methods: Items were generated by interviews with 20 DBS patients, followed by item reduction and scale generation, factor analysis to determine relevant and final questionnaire items, estimation of reliability, and validation based on the medical outcome study 36 item short form health survey (SF-36) and the EuroQol (EQ-5D) (data from 152 patients with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, or idiopathic torsion dystonia, including 75 patients with DBS). Results: Initial questionnaires were reduced to 12 items for a "movement disorder module" (QLSM-MD), and five items for a "deep brain stimulation module" (QLSM-DBS). Psychometric analysis revealed Cronbach's α values of of 0.87 and 0.73, and satisfactory correlation coefficients for convergent validity with SF-36 and EQ-5D. Conclusions: QLSM-MD and QLSM-DBS can evaluate quality of life aspects of DBS in movement disorders. Psychometric evaluation showed the questionnaires to be reliable, valid, and well accepted by the patients. PMID:12876228

  11. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation: In Search of Reliable Instruments for Assessing Complex Personality-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Ineichen, Christian; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Christen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients have been treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). While human clinical and animal preclinical research has shed light on the complex brain-signaling disturbances that underpin e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD), less information is available when it comes to complex psychosocial changes following DBS interventions. In this contribution, we propose to more thoroughly investigate complex personality-related changes following deep brain stimulation through refined and reliable instruments in order to help patients and their relatives in the post-surgery phase. By pursuing this goal, we first outline the clinical importance DBS has attained followed by discussing problematic and undesired non-motor problems that accompany some DBS interventions. After providing a brief definition of complex changes, we move on by outlining the measurement problem complex changes relating to non-motor symptoms currently are associated with. The latter circumstance substantiates the need for refined instruments that are able to validly assess personality-related changes. After providing a brief paragraph with regard to conceptions of personality, we argue that the latter is significantly influenced by certain competencies which themselves currently play only a tangential role in the clinical DBS-discourse. Increasing awareness of the latter circumstance is crucial in the context of DBS because it could illuminate a link between competencies and the emergence of personality-related changes, such as new-onset impulse control disorders that have relevance for patients and their relatives. Finally, we elaborate on the field of application of instruments that are able to measure personality-related changes. PMID:27618110

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation: In Search of Reliable Instruments for Assessing Complex Personality-Related Changes.

    PubMed

    Ineichen, Christian; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Christen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients have been treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). While human clinical and animal preclinical research has shed light on the complex brain-signaling disturbances that underpin e.g., Parkinson's disease (PD), less information is available when it comes to complex psychosocial changes following DBS interventions. In this contribution, we propose to more thoroughly investigate complex personality-related changes following deep brain stimulation through refined and reliable instruments in order to help patients and their relatives in the post-surgery phase. By pursuing this goal, we first outline the clinical importance DBS has attained followed by discussing problematic and undesired non-motor problems that accompany some DBS interventions. After providing a brief definition of complex changes, we move on by outlining the measurement problem complex changes relating to non-motor symptoms currently are associated with. The latter circumstance substantiates the need for refined instruments that are able to validly assess personality-related changes. After providing a brief paragraph with regard to conceptions of personality, we argue that the latter is significantly influenced by certain competencies which themselves currently play only a tangential role in the clinical DBS-discourse. Increasing awareness of the latter circumstance is crucial in the context of DBS because it could illuminate a link between competencies and the emergence of personality-related changes, such as new-onset impulse control disorders that have relevance for patients and their relatives. Finally, we elaborate on the field of application of instruments that are able to measure personality-related changes. PMID:27618110

  14. Lessons Learned From the Analysis of the SAFOD Downhole Instrument Package.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wade; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2008 a downhole instrument package (DIP) consisting of a string of seismometers and tilt meters in isolated pressure vessels (PODs) was installed in the SAFOD main borehole. This package was designed to protect the sensors from the corrosive borehole environment and to operate for two years. The SAFOD borehole is not sealed at the bottom allowing borehole gasses and fluids infiltratration. Previous short-term installations of instruments in the SAFOD main borehole had also failed as a result of corrosion of the wireline cable head. The average failure time for these installations was two weeks. The use of stainless steel tubing connected to the pressure vessels through gas tight fittings was designed to block borehole fluid and gas infiltration of the individual instruments within the PODs. Unfortunately, the DIP completely failed within a month of its installation. In October of 2010, the DIP was removed from the borehole and a failure analysis was performed. This analysis involved to following steps: 1. Analysis of data to understand timeline of failure 2. Remove instrument safely, maintaining integrity of spliced section and documenting any external clues. Test instrument at surface 3. Open PODs in a way that allows for sampling and avoids damaging instruments. 4. Chemical analysis of fluids recovered from splices and PODs. 5. Instrument failure analysis by the instrument manufacturers. The analysis found that there were several design flaws in the DIP. This included the use of motor oil to take up air space in the individual PODs, use of a large number of gas tight seals, lack of internal seals, poorly done solder joints, use of non-temperature rated sensors, and lack of management oversight. The lessons learned from the attempts to instrument the SAFOD borehole are critical to the success of future deep borehole projects.

  15. Instrumentation to record evoked potentials for closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kent, Alexander R; Grill, Warren M

    2011-01-01

    Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems offer promise in relieving the clinical burden of stimulus parameter selection and improving treatment outcomes. In such a system, a feedback signal is used to adjust automatically stimulation parameters and optimize the efficacy of stimulation. We explored the feasibility of recording electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS for use as a feedback control signal. A novel instrumentation system was developed to suppress the stimulus artifact and amplify the small magnitude, short latency ECAP response during DBS with clinically relevant parameters. In vitro testing demonstrated the capabilities to increase the gain by a factor of 1,000× over a conventional amplifier without saturation, reduce distortion of mock ECAP signals, and make high fidelity recordings of mock ECAPs at latencies of only 0.5 ms following DBS pulses of 50 to 100 μs duration. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to make in vivo recordings of ECAPs during thalamic DBS in cats, without contamination by the stimulus artifact. The signal characteristics were similar across three experiments, suggesting common neural activation patterns. The ECAP recordings enabled with this novel instrumentation may provide insight into the type and spatial extent of neural elements activated during DBS, and could serve as feedback control signals for closed-loop systems. PMID:22255894

  16. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  17. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  18. The infill timing of a quaternary intermontane basin: new chrono-stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental data by a 900 m deep borehole from Campochiaro (central-southern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Cifelli, Francesca; Leone, Natalia; Mattei, Massimo; Russo Ermolli, Elda; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    The axial zone of the central-southern Apennine (Molise sector), is characterized by the presence of several quaternary tectonic depressions (Venafro, Isernia, Carpino, Sessano, Boiano and Sepino), generally NW-SE and NE-SW elongated, filled by very thick fluvial-marshy successions. Transtensive and extensional tectonic phases, alternating by relative stable tectonic periods with prevailing climatic variation induced processes, contributed to the infilling. In fact, during Early Pleistocene, the transtensive tectonic phases and, from the end of Early Pleistocene, the extensional tectonic phases, were responsible to enhance the subsidence into the basins, thanks to the activity of the high angle faults, generally NW-SE, NESW and E-O oriented, influencing also their environmental and sedimentary evolution. Between the late Middle Pleistocene and the early Upper Pleistocene, the subsidence reduced, and alluvial plain and alluvial fans environments improved. In the last years, several studies on the Boiano intermontane basin, bounded at south by Matese massif, were carried out. A detailed morpho-stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the basin was proposed since Middle Pleistocene (MIS 13, 500 ka BP), thanks to field surveys and boreholes facies analyses, supported by Ar/Ar datings, tephrostratigraphical and pollen data. However, still now, the presence of Early Pleistocene eposits was only supposed. Succession. A deep continuous core (900 m) was carried out in the Campochiaro sector of the basin. Facies analyses, supported by preliminary paleomagnetic and tephrostratigraphic data, allow us to recognize the top of the prequaternary bedrock (Molise Flysch, Miocene) at 240 m of depth and to divide the whole succession in 4 main stratigraphic units. From the bottom to the top, the infilling is made of: Unit 1 (240-150 m), presenting lacustrine-palustrine environments, alternating clays and clayey-silts layers, constrained to Early Pleistocene; Unit 2 (150-123 m

  19. GEOPHYSICS AND SITE CHARACTERIZATION AT THE HANFORD SITE THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TO POSITION BOREHOLES TO DEFINE DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION - 11509

    SciTech Connect

    GANDER MJ; LEARY KD; LEVITT MT; MILLER CW

    2011-01-14

    Historic boreholes confirmed the presence of nitrate and radionuclide contaminants at various intervals throughout a more than 60 m (200 ft) thick vadose zone, and a 2010 electrical resistivity survey mapped the known contamination and indicated areas of similar contaminants, both laterally and at depth; therefore, electrical resistivity mapping can be used to more accurately locate characterization boreholes. At the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington, production of uranium and plutonium resulted in the planned release of large quantities of contaminated wastewater to unlined excavations (cribs). From 1952 until 1960, the 216-U-8 Crib received approximately 379,000,000 L (100,000,000 gal) of wastewater containing 25,500 kg (56,218 lb) uranium; 1,029,000 kg (1,013 tons) of nitrate; 2.7 Ci of technetium-99; and other fission products including strontium-90 and cesium-137. The 216-U-8 Crib reportedly holds the largest inventory of waste uranium of any crib on the Hanford Site. Electrical resistivity is a geophysical technique capable of identifying contrasting physical properties; specifically, electrically conductive material, relative to resistive native soil, can be mapped in the subsurface. At the 216-U-8 Crib, high nitrate concentrations (from the release of nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}] and associated uranium and other fission products) were detected in 1994 and 2004 boreholes at various depths, such as at the base of the Crib at 9 m (30 ft) below ground surface (bgs) and sporadically to depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) bgs. These contaminant concentrations were directly correlative with the presence of observed low electrical resistivity responses delineated during the summer 2010 geophysical survey. Based on this correlation and the recently completed mapping of the electrically conductive material, additional boreholes are planned for early 2011 to identify nitrate and radionuclide contamination: (a) throughout the entire vertical length of the

  20. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  1. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  2. Using a multiwavelength suite of microwave instruments to investigate the microphysical structure of deep convective cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, A.; Mroz, K.; Lang, Tim; Tridon, F.; Tanelli, S.; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to the large natural variability of its microphysical properties, the characterization of solid precipitation is a longstanding problem. Since in situ observations are unavailable in severe convective systems, innovative remote sensing retrievals are needed to extend our understanding of such systems. This study presents a novel technique able to retrieve the density, mass, and effective diameter of graupel and hail in severe convection through the combination of airborne microwave remote sensing instruments. The retrieval is applied to measure solid precipitation properties within two convective cells observed on 23-24 May 2014 over North Carolina during the IPHEx campaign by the NASA ER-2 instrument suite. Between 30 and 40 degrees of freedom of signal are associated with the measurements, which is insufficient to provide full microphysics profiling. The measurements have the largest impact on the retrieval of ice particle sizes, followed by ice water contents. Ice densities are mainly driven by a priori assumptions, though low relative errors in ice densities suggest that in extensive regions of the convective system, only particles with densities larger than 0.4 g/cm3 are compatible with the observations. This is in agreement with reports of large hail on the ground and with hydrometeor classification derived from ground-based polarimetric radars observations. This work confirms that multiple scattering generated by large ice hydrometeors in deep convection is relevant for airborne radar systems already at Ku band. A fortiori, multiple scattering will play a pivotal role in such conditions also for Ku band spaceborne radars (e.g., the GPM Dual Precipitation Radar).

  3. Analysis of borehole breakouts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Kemeny, J.; Cook, N. G. W.

    1989-06-10

    Boreholes drilled into rock, which is subjected to stresses that amount to a significant fraction of the strength of the rock, may cause the rock to fail adjacent to the borehole surface. Often this results in the elongation of the cross section of the borehole in the direction of the minimum principal (compressive) stress orthogonal to the borehole axis. Such breakouts are valuable indicators of the direction of the minimum compressive stress orthogonal to the axis of the borehole. Their shapes may provide information about the magnitudes of both the maximum and minimum stresses relative to the strength of the rock. Borehole breakouts also may be impediments to drilling and to in situ measurement techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing. Observations and analyses of borehole breakouts raise three important questions. First, how does the shape of the borehole breakout evolve Second, why are breakout shapes stable despite the very high compressive stress concentrations that they produce Third, how is the shape of the breakout related to the magnitudes of the stresses in the rock In this paper, extensile splitting of rock in unconfined, plane strain compression is assumed to be the process of rock failure adjacent to the circumference of the borehole, by which a breakout forms. To simulate the evolution of a borehole breakout, this process is combined with a numerical boundary element analysis of the stresses around a borehole as its cross section evolves from the originally circular shape to that of a stable breakout.

  4. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  5. A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

    1971-01-01

    A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

  6. Fiber optics can improve borehole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow in boreholes can give scientists important information about hydrogeological processes deep beneath the surface. Most studies measure flow using heat pulse, electromagnetic, and impeller flowmeters, but these methods are time-consuming and can actually obstruct the fluid being measured.

  7. Development of a Compact, Deep-Penetrating Heat Flow Instrument for Lunar Landers: In-Situ Thermal Conductivity System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the geothermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of the vertical soil/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey and previously the International Lunar Network. One of the difficulties associated with lunar heat flow measurement on a robotic mission is that it requires excavation of a relatively deep (approx 3 m) hole in order to avoid the long-term temporal changes in lunar surface thermal environment affecting the subsurface temperature measurements. Such changes may be due to the 18.6-year-cylcle lunar precession, or may be initiated by presence of the lander itself. Therefore, a key science requirement for heat flow instruments for future lunar missions is to penetrate 3 m into the regolith and to measure both thermal gradient and thermal conductivity. Engineering requirements are that the instrument itself has minimal impact on the subsurface thermal regime and that it must be a low-mass and low-power system like any other science instrumentation on planetary landers. It would be very difficult to meet the engineering requirements, if the instrument utilizes a long (> 3 m) probe driven into the ground by a rotary or percussive drill. Here we report progress in our efforts to develop a new, compact lunar heat flow instrumentation that meets all of these science and engineering requirements.

  8. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  9. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  10. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  11. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  12. Conversion of a low cost off-the-shelf spectrometer into a suitable instrument for deep tissue spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Eric; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou

    2013-03-01

    Efficient light collection is critical in noninvasive deep tissue spectroscopy since only a small fraction of the injected light emerges from any given finite area on the surface of the probed medium. Light collection can be improved by optimizing the contact area between the detection system and the probed medium by means of light guides with large detection areas. Since the form factor of these light guides do not match the entrance of commercial spectrometers, which are usually equipped with a narrow slit to improve their spectral resolution, deep tissue spectrometers are typically custom-built. However, off-the-shelf spectrometers have attractive advantages compared to custom-made units, such as low-cost, small foot-print and availability. In this report, we present simple modifications to an off-the-shelf spectrometer to convert it into a suitable instrument for deep tissue spectroscopy. The modified spectrometer was characterized and compared to a custom-built unit specifically designed for deep tissue spectroscopy. We also present in vivo measurements acquired simultaneously with the two spectrometers in a piglet model of newborn.

  13. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  14. Tidal calibration of Plate Boundary Observatory borehole strainmeters: Roles of vertical and shear coupling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    A multicomponent borehole strainmeter directly measures changes in the diameter of its cylindrical housing at several azimuths. To transform these measurements to formation strains requires a calibration matrix, which must be estimated by analyzing the installed strainmeter's response to known strains. Typically, theoretical calculations of Earth tidal strains serve as the known strains. This paper carries out such an analysis for 12 Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters, postulating that each of the strainmeters' four gauges responds ("couples") to all three horizontal components of the formation strain tensor, as well as to vertical strain. Orientation corrections are also estimated. The fourth extensometer in each PBO strainmeter provides redundant information used to reduce the chance that coupling coefficients could be misleadingly fit to inappropriate theoretical tides. Satisfactory fits between observed and theoretically calculated tides were obtained for three PBO strainmeters in California, where the calculated tides are corroborated by other instrumentation, as well as for six strainmeters in Oregon and Washington, where no other instruments have ever recorded Earth tidal strain. Several strainmeters have unexpectedly large coupling coefficients for vertical strain, which increases the strainmeter's response to atmospheric pressure. Vertical coupling diminishes, or even changes the sign of, the apparent response to areal strain caused by Earth tides or deep Earth processes because near the free surface, vertical strains are opposite in sign to areal strain. Vertical coupling does not impair the shear strain response, however. PBO borehole strainmeters can provide calibrated shear strain time series of transient strain associated with tectonic or magmatic processes.

  15. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  16. Recording evoked potentials during deep brain stimulation: development and validation of instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. R.; Grill, W. M.

    2012-06-01

    The clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of movement disorders depends on the identification of appropriate stimulation parameters. Since the mechanisms of action of DBS remain unclear, programming sessions can be time consuming, costly and result in sub-optimal outcomes. Measurement of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS, generated by activated neurons in the vicinity of the stimulating electrode, could offer insight into the type and spatial extent of neural element activation and provide a potential feedback signal for the rational selection of stimulation parameters and closed-loop DBS. However, recording ECAPs presents a significant technical challenge due to the large stimulus artefact, which can saturate recording amplifiers and distort short latency ECAP signals. We developed DBS-ECAP recording instrumentation combining commercial amplifiers and circuit elements in a serial configuration to reduce the stimulus artefact and enable high fidelity recording. We used an electrical circuit equivalent model of the instrumentation to understand better the sources of the stimulus artefact and the mechanisms of artefact reduction by the circuit elements. In vitro testing validated the capability of the instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact and increase gain by a factor of 1000 to 5000 compared to a conventional biopotential amplifier. The distortion of mock ECAP (mECAP) signals was measured across stimulation parameters, and the instrumentation enabled high fidelity recording of mECAPs with latencies of only 0.5 ms for DBS pulse widths of 50 to 100 µs/phase. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to record in vivo ECAPs, without contamination by the stimulus artefact, during thalamic DBS in an anesthetized cat. The characteristics of the physiological ECAP were dependent on stimulation parameters. The novel instrumentation enables high fidelity ECAP recording and advances the potential use

  17. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  18. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ze-Hua; Shi, Yao-Lin

    2004-11-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It has been used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse and so on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included in one probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake, earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years, borehole strain observation is going to become one major goedetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  19. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conway Lamb, I D; Colless, J I; Hornibrook, J M; Pauka, S J; Waddy, S J; Frechtling, M K; Reilly, D J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  20. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conway Lamb, I D; Colless, J I; Hornibrook, J M; Pauka, S J; Waddy, S J; Frechtling, M K; Reilly, D J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications. PMID:26827335

  1. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway Lamb, I. D.; Colless, J. I.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Pauka, S. J.; Waddy, S. J.; Frechtling, M. K.; Reilly, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  2. Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myren, G.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

  3. Compact, Deep-Penetrating Geothermal Heat Flow Instrumentation for Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the two separate measurements of geothermal gradient in, and thermal conductivity of, the vertical soi/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey [I] and previously the International Lunar Network [2]. The two lunar-landing missions planned later this decade by JAXA [3] and ESA [4] also consider geothermal measurements a priority.

  4. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  5. Deciphering the Complex Chemistry of Deep-Ocean Particles Using Complementary Synchrotron X-ray Microscope and Microprobe Instruments.

    PubMed

    Toner, Brandy M; German, Christopher R; Dick, Gregory J; Breier, John A

    2016-01-19

    The reactivity and mobility of natural particles in aquatic systems have wide ranging implications for the functioning of Earth surface systems. Particles in the ocean are biologically and chemically reactive, mobile, and complex in composition. The chemical composition of marine particles is thought to be central to understanding processes that convert globally relevant elements, such as C and Fe, among forms with varying bioavailability and mobility in the ocean. The analytical tools needed to measure the complex chemistry of natural particles are the subject of this Account. We describe how a suite of complementary synchrotron radiation instruments with nano- and micrometer focusing, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) capabilities are changing our understanding of deep-ocean chemistry and life. Submarine venting along mid-ocean ridges creates hydrothermal plumes where dynamic particle-forming reactions occur as vent fluids mix with deep-ocean waters. Whether plumes are net sources or sinks of elements in ocean budgets depends in large part on particle formation, reactivity, and transport properties. Hydrothermal plume particles have been shown to host microbial communities and exhibit complex size distributions, aggregation behavior, and composition. X-ray microscope and microprobe instruments can address particle size and aggregation, but their true strength is in measuring chemical composition. Plume particles comprise a stunning array of inorganic and organic phases, from single-crystal sulfides to poorly ordered nanophases and polymeric organic matrices to microbial cells. X-ray microscopes and X-ray microprobes with elemental imaging, XAS, and XRD capabilities are ideal for investigating these complex materials because they can (1) measure the chemistry of organic and inorganic constituents in complex matrices, usually within the same particle or aggregate, (2) provide strong signal-to-noise data with exceedingly small

  6. Deciphering the Complex Chemistry of Deep-Ocean Particles Using Complementary Synchrotron X-ray Microscope and Microprobe Instruments.

    PubMed

    Toner, Brandy M; German, Christopher R; Dick, Gregory J; Breier, John A

    2016-01-19

    The reactivity and mobility of natural particles in aquatic systems have wide ranging implications for the functioning of Earth surface systems. Particles in the ocean are biologically and chemically reactive, mobile, and complex in composition. The chemical composition of marine particles is thought to be central to understanding processes that convert globally relevant elements, such as C and Fe, among forms with varying bioavailability and mobility in the ocean. The analytical tools needed to measure the complex chemistry of natural particles are the subject of this Account. We describe how a suite of complementary synchrotron radiation instruments with nano- and micrometer focusing, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) capabilities are changing our understanding of deep-ocean chemistry and life. Submarine venting along mid-ocean ridges creates hydrothermal plumes where dynamic particle-forming reactions occur as vent fluids mix with deep-ocean waters. Whether plumes are net sources or sinks of elements in ocean budgets depends in large part on particle formation, reactivity, and transport properties. Hydrothermal plume particles have been shown to host microbial communities and exhibit complex size distributions, aggregation behavior, and composition. X-ray microscope and microprobe instruments can address particle size and aggregation, but their true strength is in measuring chemical composition. Plume particles comprise a stunning array of inorganic and organic phases, from single-crystal sulfides to poorly ordered nanophases and polymeric organic matrices to microbial cells. X-ray microscopes and X-ray microprobes with elemental imaging, XAS, and XRD capabilities are ideal for investigating these complex materials because they can (1) measure the chemistry of organic and inorganic constituents in complex matrices, usually within the same particle or aggregate, (2) provide strong signal-to-noise data with exceedingly small

  7. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  8. Installation of EarthScope Borehole Strainmeters in Turkey to complement GONAF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Mencin, D.; Van Boskirk, E.; Ozener, H.; Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Bal, O.; Acarel, D.; Aydin, H.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated over a period of a few decades along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically damaging the city. This occurred most recently in 1509, causing 10,000 casualties in a population of about 200,000. The population is now 20 million, the building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current sequence is considered imminent. Since July 2014, UNAVCO has installed 2 EarthScope borehole geophysical instrument strings, which include Gladwin Tensor strainmeters and passive, short-period 3-component seismometers, into boreholes provided by internationally supported Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF) and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. Funding for instruments and staff participation was provided by NSF. If the project remains on schedule, we anticipate that 4 additional BSM strings will be installed by the fall 2015. Our joint international project gives an opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers (GONAF) installed near Istanbul and will permit us to image dynamic rupture along the NAF and to monitor and better understand the tectonic processes leading to failure. The tectonic and geodynamic environment of the NAF near Istanbul in many ways resembles the San Andreas Fault setting of San Francisco; these instruments will enhance the ability to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake beneath the Marmara Sea on the NAF This project has provided UNAVCO an opportunity to gain experience in strainmeters installations outside of North America. The techniques developed to adapt to the challenges of installing borehole strainmeters on islands and other remote locations with limited resources will greatly enhance our ability to install these BSM instruments in similar locations in the future.

  9. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  10. First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Marzo, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Dessages-Ardellier, F.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Festy, D.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J. C.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Legou, T.; Lim, G.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Niess, V.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Romita, M.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Stubert, D.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vita, R.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2006-11-01

    In 2005, the ANTARES Collaboration deployed and operated at a depth of 2500 m a so-called Mini Instrumentation Line equipped with Optical Modules (MILOM) at the ANTARES site. The various data acquired during the continuous operation from April to December 2005 of the MILOM confirm the satisfactory performance of the Optical Modules, their front-end electronics and readout system, as well as the calibration devices of the detector. The in situ measurement of the Optical Module time response yields a resolution better than 0.5 ns. The performance of the acoustic positioning system, which enables the spatial reconstruction of the ANTARES detector with a precision of about 10 cm, is verified. These results demonstrate that with the full ANTARES neutrino telescope the design angular resolution of better than 0.3° can be realistically achieved.

  11. Borehole seismic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seavey, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. A description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task are reported.

  12. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  13. Borehole fracture detection using magnetic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for detecting fractures in a formation penetrated by a borehole wherein the fracture is first filled with a magnetic material and the formation then logged with an instrument that responds to the earth's magnetic field. The fracture can be filled with a magnetic material by including it in the drilling mud when the well is drilled and changing the mud system before logging. The logging tool can comprise a simple compass or a magnetometer.

  14. High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

    2012-12-01

    While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

  15. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  16. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  17. New borehole-derived results on temperatures at the base of the Fennoscandian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Volker; Vogt, Christian; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Tarasov, Lev

    2014-05-01

    During the last few years, a data base of deep boreholes (>1000 m )in the area of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has been collected, including boreholes from Russia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Norway. All of these are supposed to have recorded local basal ice conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, at each of these sites we are confronted with particular problems of interpretation. Here, we will concentrate on two very deep boreholes, namely the Outokumpu ICDP borehole (OKU, ≡2500 m) and a set of boreholes of intermediate depth (up to 1300 m) in the immediate meighborhood of the Kola superdeep borehole SG3. In the first case, OKU, we have developed a strategy combining the use of a traditional variational inversion of thye Tikhonov type, with a MCMC approach for the exploration of the associated uncertainty. A wide distribution around the result of the variational approach was chosen, with a time dependent temporal correlation length reflecting the loss of resolution back in time. The results fit very well with region independent results from different proxies, multi-proxy reconstructions, and instrumental data. They also are consistent with surface temperatures derived from recent calibrated ice sheet models. The SAT-GST offset independently derived from shallow borehole observations in the area was a crucial step to obtain theses results. The second case, SG3, has been studied a long time, and no final result was obtained regarding the question whether the observed heat flow density profile is caused by paleoclimate, fluid flow, or both. Earlier studies, as well as forward modelling using the results of the aforementioned ice sheet model indicate that paleoclimate alone can not explain the observations. We tested the model derived from the set of shallow boreholes against the temperature log from the main superdeep SG3, which, in contrast to these, transects the main high-permeability zone. The comparison led to a favorable results, and is also

  18. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  19. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  20. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  1. An in vitro evaluation of the effect of deep dry cryotreatment on the cutting efficiency of three rotary nickel titanium instruments

    PubMed Central

    George, Gingu Koshy; Sanjeev, Kavitha; Sekar, Mahalaxmi

    2011-01-01

    Context: Cryogenic methods have been used to increase the strength of metals. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of deep dry cryotherapy on the cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Twenty K3, RaCe and Hero Shaper nickel titanium instruments, size 25, 0.06 taper, were taken for this study. Ten files were untreated (control group) and 10 files were deep dry cryogenically treated. Both the untreated and cryotreated files were subjected to cyclic fatigue evaluation. Cyclic fatigue was evaluated as the number of cycles it took for fracture of the instrument within a stainless steel shaping block of specific radius and angle of curvature. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were compared between different study groups by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with P < 0.05 considered as the level of significance. Results: The results showed a significant increase in the resistance to cyclic fatigue of deep dry cryotreated NiTi files over untreated files. Conclusions: It may thus be concluded that deep cryotherapy has improved the cyclic fatigue of NiTi rotary endodontic files. PMID:21814360

  2. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  3. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  4. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  5. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  6. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  7. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  8. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  9. Microbial borehole observatories deployed within the oceanic crust: Design considerations and initial results from long-term colonization experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Hulme, S.; Toner, B. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    Borehole observatories developed for long-term sampling and monitoring in the subseafloor of the deep ocean must satisfy design and operation requirements that are similar to systems deployed on land. Many of these systems are used to achieve simultaneous hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological goals, requiring innovative design, installation, and operation. There are major logistical challenges for subseafloor observatories, the foremost being having to remotely access sites kilometers underwater using multiple oceanographic platforms (drill ship, surface ship, submersible, remotely-operated vehicle) and reliance on autonomous devices that are serviced only after several years. Contamination of the analytical environment is probable during installation operations, requiring vigilance during analysis for interpretation. Subseafloor observatories also require self-contained and robust instrumentation that can withstand long-term exposure to seawater at high pressures, elevated temperatures, a variety of redox conditions, and little to no access to external power. Although subseafloor borehole observatories have been in development for hydrologic monitoring for two decades, the inclusion of experimentation to examine the deep biosphere in the marine subsurface has only recently been developed. Results from some of the first microbial colonization experiments in young basaltic rocks on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge demonstrate in situ microbial-mineral interactions that can be identified using complementary geochemical and microbiological techniques. Mineral surfaces were first colonized by iron oxidizing bacteria, and as fluid composition changed, the microbial community became dominated by Firmicutes bacteria, some of which are phylogenetically similar to microbial communities observed in the terrestrial deep biosphere.

  10. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  11. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive

  12. Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

  13. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  15. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  16. SEAMIST{trademark} in-situ instrumentation and vapor sampling system applications in the Sandia Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, D.; Dunn, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration was tasked with demonstrating innovative technologies for the cleanup of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representive of sites occurring throughout the DOE complex and the nation. The SEAMIST{trademark} inverting membrane deployment system has been used successfully at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) for multipoint vapor sampling, pressure measurement, permeability measurement, sensor integration demonstrations, and borehole lining. Several instruments were deployed inside the SEAMIST{trademark}-lined boreholes to detect metals, radionuclides, moisture, and geologic variations. The liner protected the instruments from contamination, maintained support of the uncased borehole wall, and sealed the total borehole from air circulation. Recent activities included the installation of three multipoint vapor sampling systems and sensor integration systems in 100-foot-deep vertical boreholes. A long term pressure monitoring program has recorded barometric pressure effects at depth with relatively high spatial resolution. The SEAMIST{trademark} system has been integrated with a variety of hydrologic and chemical sensors for in-situ measurements, demonstrating its versatility as an instrument deployment system that allows easy emplacement and removal. Standard SEAMIST{trademark} vapor sampling systems were also integrated with state-of-the-art volatile organic compound analysis technologies. The results and status of these demonstration tests are presented.

  17. Developing a new system for temperature measurement in boreholes - Methodical advances and field experiences within the MOREXPERT project, Kitzsteinhorn (3.203 m), Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Schrott, Lothar

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of borehole temperature data plays a major role in a large number of polar and alpine permafrost investigations. Despite its fundamental importance relatively few scientific contributions address the technical details and challenges that are associated to the instrumentation of boreholes in permafrost-affected rock. Frequently information is provided only on utilized temperature sensors and sensor spacing whereas information on installation works, casing properties etc. is usually not discussed in great detail. Within the research project MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') a number of essential methodical questions have been tackled during the development of a new system for temperature measurement in boreholes. Within the project five boreholes (20-30m deep) have been drilled into permafrost-affected bedrock (calcareous-micaschist). For temperature measurement Pt100 thermistors with an accuracy of less than ±0.1°C are used. The depths of the temperature sensors were selected in accordance with the PACE borehole strategy. Temperatures are recorded in hourly intervals to resolve near-surface thermal variations. All boreholes, drilled by 90 mm diameter air flush rotary drilling, were equipped with a new system for borehole temperature measurement which has been designed and manufactured by the Austrian company GEODATA. The measurement system consists of an impermeable polyethylene casing that prevents water and air entry into the borehole - an essential prerequisite considering the heavily fractured surrounding rock. The polyethylene casing is interrupted by brass rings which are located in the designated depths of the temperature sensors. Brass was chosen as the preferred material since it is non-corrosive and displays a very high thermal conductivity. The temperature sensors which are subsequently inserted into the casing establish mechanical contact to the brass rings. The annulus (i.e. the space between casing and bedrock

  18. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  19. Development and Application of a Newly Designed Massage Instrument for Deep Cross-Friction Massage in Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yong-Soon; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kwak, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jong Yun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To introduce a newly designed massage instrument, the Hand Grip T-bar (HT-bar) and use it to relieve chronic non-specific low back pain (nLBP) through deep cross-friction massage (roptrotherapy). Method 22 subjects (9 males and 13 females, aged 51.6±6.7) with chronic nLBP were allocated randomly to a Roptrotherapy group (n=12) and a Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) group (n=10). The Roptrotherapy group received deep cross-friction massage with the HT-bar, which was made of metal and had a cylinder for increasing weight and grooves for an easy grip. It was applied across the middle and lower back for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week for 2 weeks. The TENS group received TENS for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. The outcome was measured on the pain numeric rating scale (PNRS), by the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and by the Roland & Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) at pre-treatment, at immediate post-treatment and 2 weeks later. The application of the HT-bar was assessed by a questionnaire to 19 therapists. Results At post-treatment, immediately and 2 weeks later, both groups showed significant improvement in PNRS, ODI and RMDQ. During the two weeks after post-treatment, however, the Roptrotherapy group improved in PNRS, ODI and RMDQ, but the TENS group did not. Over 80% of the therapists responded that the HT-bar was useful and comfortable. Conclusion This study suggests that deep cross-friction massage can be a beneficial therapeutic technique and that the HT-bar can be a useful instrument in deep cross-friction massage for chronic nLBP patients. PMID:22506236

  20. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  1. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  2. High Temperature Borehole Televiewer software user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, L.E.

    1989-11-01

    The High Temperature Borehole Televiewer is a downhole instrument which provides acoustic pictures of the borehole walls that are suitable for casing inspection and fracture detection in geothermal wells. The Geothermal Drilling Organization has funded the development of a commercial tool survivable to temperatures of 275{degree}C and pressures of 5000 psi. A real-time display on an IBM-compatible PC was included as part of the development effort. This report contains a User Manual which describes the operation of this software. The software is designed in a menu format allowing the user to change many of the parameters which control both the acquisition and the display of the Televiewer data. An internal data acquisition card digitizes the waveform from the tool at a rate of 100,000 samples per second. The data from the tool, both the range or arrival time and the amplitude of the return signal, are displayed in color on the CRT screen of the computer during the logging operation. This data may be stored on the hard disk for later display and analysis. The software incorporates many features which aid in the setup of the tool for proper operation. These features include displaying and storing the captured waveform data to check the voltage and time windows selected by the user. 17 refs., 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Borehole seismic imaging: A full waveform inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Pengxiang

    Site characterization for the design of deep foundations is crucial for ensuring a reliable and economic substructure design, as unanticipated site conditions can cause significant problems and disputes during construction. Traditional invasive exploration methods sample a small volume of material and insufficiently assess spatial variation in subsurface conditions. Established and emerging surface-based geophysical exploration methods may identify large-scale spatial variability, but fail to provide a detailed picture of the rock quality at depths where a socket is required for the design of a drilled shaft foundation. In order to compensate for the shortcomings of these methods, a new borehole-based characterization method has been developed, which creates images of the shear wave velocity profile along and around the borehole to provide credible socket material analyses and detect nearby anomalies. The proposed imaging technique is based on the time-domain full waveform inversion of elastic waves generated inside a borehole, which are captured by a string of sensors placed vertically along the borehole wall. This approach has the ability to simulate all possible wave types of seismic wavefields, and then compare these simulations with observed data to infer complex subsurface properties. This method formulates and solves the forward model of elastic wave propagation within a borehole using ABAQUS, a commercially available finite element package. The inversion is cast as a least-squares optimization problem solved using the regularized Gauss-Newton method. To test the proposed imaging technique, the present study performed comprehensive numerical studies. First, the accuracy of the forward model and the effectiveness of the inversion scheme was validated. Then, the capability of the proposed imaging technique was evaluated by inverting a series of three-dimensional (3-D) synthetic data sets, including a homogeneous model, a horizontally layered model with high

  4. The Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS) and VLF ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, R. A.; Koelsch, D. E.; Berteaux, H.; Bocconcelli, A.; Bolmer, S.; Cretin, J.; Etourmy, N.; Fabre, A.; Goldsborough, R.; Gould, M.; Kery, S.; Laurent, J.; Omnes, G.; Peal, K.; Swift, S.; Turpening, R.; Zani, C.

    1994-08-01

    The Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS) has been developed to measure the pressure and threedimensional particle velocity of the VLF sound field (2 50 Hz) below the seafloor in the deep ocean. The system consists of four three-component borehole seismometers (with an optional hydrophone). a borehole digitizing unit, and a seafloor control and recording package. The system can be deployed using a wireline re-entry capability from a conventional research vessel in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) boreholes. Data from below the seafloor are acquired either onboard the research vessel via coaxial tether or remotely on the seafloor in a self-contained package. If necessary the data module from the seafloor package can be released independently and recovered on the surface. This paper describes the engineering specifications of SEABASS, the tests that were carried out, and preliminary results from an actual deep sea deployment. VLF ambient noise levels beneath the seafloor acquired on the Low Frequency Acoustic-Seismic Experiment (LFASE) are within 20 dB of levels from previous seafloor borehole seismic experiments and from land borehole measurements. The ambient noise observed on LFASE decreases by up to 12 dB in the upper 100 m of the seafloor in a sedimentary environment.

  5. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  6. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  7. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  14. Detecting a fluid-filled borehole using elastic waves from a remote borehole.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jingji; Li, Zhen; Su, Yuanda

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a fluid-filled borehole with incident elastic waves is an important topic for downhole acoustic measurements. By analyzing the wave phenomena of this problem, one can simulate the detection of a borehole target using a source-receiver system in a remote borehole. The analysis result shows that the wave signals from the target borehole are of sufficient amplitude even though the borehole size is small compared to wavelength. Consequently, the target borehole can be detected when the two boreholes are far away from each other. The result can be utilized to provide a method for testing downhole acoustic imaging tools. PMID:27586782

  15. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned

  16. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGES

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM)more » Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM

  17. Applications of a downhole programmable microprocessor for a geothermal borehole inspection tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jermance, R.L.; Moore, T.K.; Archuleta, J.; Hinz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The high-temperature scanning borehole inspection system is currently being developed jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany. The downhole instrument is a digital televiewer that utilized a microprocessor to digitize, process and transmit the acoustic information to the surface acquisition and control system. The primary operation of the downhole acoustic assembly uses a piezoelectric crystal acting as a receiver-transmitter which is mounted on the rotating head. The crystal emits a burst of acoustic energy that propagates through the borehole fluid with a portion of the energy reflected by the borehole wall back to the crystal. The time of travel and the amplitude of the reflected signal are conditioned by the microprocessor and transmitted along with other pertinent data to the surface data processing center. This instrument has been designed specifically for use in geothermal borehole environments to determine the location of fractures intersecting the borehole and provide information concerning overall borehole conditions. It may also be used for definitive casing inspection. The instrument essentially eliminates operator interaction for downhole control and simplifies assembly and maintenance procedures.

  18. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  19. The Impact II, a Very High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Instrument (QTOF) for Deep Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beck, Scarlet; Michalski, Annette; Raether, Oliver; Lubeck, Markus; Kaspar, Stephanie; Goedecke, Niels; Baessmann, Carsten; Hornburg, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Paron, Igor; Kulak, Nils A; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is one of the two major principles used in proteomics. Although based on simple fundamentals, it has over the last decades greatly evolved in terms of achievable resolution, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The Bruker impact platform of QTOF instruments takes advantage of these developments and here we develop and evaluate the impact II for shotgun proteomics applications. Adaption of our heated liquid chromatography system achieved very narrow peptide elution peaks. The impact II is equipped with a new collision cell with both axial and radial ion ejection, more than doubling ion extraction at high tandem MS frequencies. The new reflectron and detector improve resolving power compared with the previous model up to 80%, i.e. to 40,000 at m/z 1222. We analyzed the ion current from the inlet capillary and found very high transmission (>80%) up to the collision cell. Simulation and measurement indicated 60% transfer into the flight tube. We adapted MaxQuant for QTOF data, improving absolute average mass deviations to better than 1.45 ppm. More than 4800 proteins can be identified in a single run of HeLa digest in a 90 min gradient. The workflow achieved high technical reproducibility (R2 > 0.99) and accurate fold change determination in spike-in experiments in complex mixtures. Using label-free quantification we rapidly quantified haploid against diploid yeast and characterized overall proteome differences in mouse cell lines originating from different tissues. Finally, after high pH reversed-phase fractionation we identified 9515 proteins in a triplicate measurement of HeLa peptide mixture and 11,257 proteins in single measurements of cerebellum-the highest proteome coverage reported with a QTOF instrument so far.

  20. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  1. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  2. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  3. Moisture content and recharge estimates at the Yakima Barricade borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.M.; Szescody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    The DOE Deep Microbiology Program recently drilled a borehole near the Yakima Barricade, west of the 200 Areas. The area is vegetated by mature sagebrush. The borehole was drilled by cable tool and approximately every 1.5 m, sediment samples were collected in a bucket by the drill site geologist. Sediment samples for moisture content were sealed quickly Samples of opportunity'' were collected for the HSPA program (Hanford Site Performance Assessment), Isotope Recharge task. It should be noted that, although many QA Level II procedures were incorporated into the dulling and sampling, the Deep Microbiology Program is officially designated QA Level III, and therefore, the recharge values that we report here should only be usedfor planning purposes. A series of graphs illustrate the moisture content and chloride profiles in the Hanford Forrmtion at the Yakima Barricade Borehole. The gravimetric moisture content generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.08 in the first 70 m of sediment (only the first 30 m are shown in the figure), values that are typically found at the Hanford Site. The stratigraphy of this borehole is also attached. The first 1.5 m of the soil profile is Warden silt loam (designated eolian), followed by over 50 m of Hanford Formation. The Hanford Formation is composed of unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels that were carried into the area by glacial flood waters during the close of the last Ice Age. Below the Hanford Formation is the Ringold Formation composed of semiconsolidated sediments. The water table is located at a depth of approximately 100 m.

  4. Moisture content and recharge estimates at the Yakima Barricade borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.M.; Szescody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    The DOE Deep Microbiology Program recently drilled a borehole near the Yakima Barricade, west of the 200 Areas. The area is vegetated by mature sagebrush. The borehole was drilled by cable tool and approximately every 1.5 m, sediment samples were collected in a bucket by the drill site geologist. Sediment samples for moisture content were sealed quickly ``Samples of opportunity`` were collected for the HSPA program (Hanford Site Performance Assessment), Isotope Recharge task. It should be noted that, although many QA Level II procedures were incorporated into the dulling and sampling, the Deep Microbiology Program is officially designated QA Level III, and therefore, the recharge values that we report here should only be usedfor planning purposes. A series of graphs illustrate the moisture content and chloride profiles in the Hanford Forrmtion at the Yakima Barricade Borehole. The gravimetric moisture content generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.08 in the first 70 m of sediment (only the first 30 m are shown in the figure), values that are typically found at the Hanford Site. The stratigraphy of this borehole is also attached. The first 1.5 m of the soil profile is Warden silt loam (designated eolian), followed by over 50 m of Hanford Formation. The Hanford Formation is composed of unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels that were carried into the area by glacial flood waters during the close of the last Ice Age. Below the Hanford Formation is the Ringold Formation composed of semiconsolidated sediments. The water table is located at a depth of approximately 100 m.

  5. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  6. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  7. A new interpretation of the deep-part of Senegal-Mauritanian Basin in the Diourbel-Thies area by integrating seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and borehole data: Implication for petroleum exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Matar; Ngom, Papa Malick; Gorin, Georges; Villeneuve, Michel; Sartori, Mario; Medou, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The Diourbel-Thies area is located in the centre of the onshore part of the Senegal-Mauritanian Basin (SMB). The new interpretation of old petroleum data (2-D seismic lines and drilling data of three oil wells) in the deeppart of this poorly evaluated zone, integrating gravimetric and magnetic data, has allowed the distinction of the Hercynian ante-rift phase (U1) which is distinguished from the syn-rift phase (U2) probably of Permo-Triassic to Middle Jurassic age. The syn-rift phase resulted in a series of compartments or grabens infilling aligned in a North-South direction. Tholeiitic volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is present in the syn-rift phase of the Diourbel-Thies area. The syn-rift deposits and associated volcanics allow us to surmise that the Diourbel basin represents a deeper rift basin. In comparison with other Central Atlantic Margins (CAM), the Diourbel rift basin could be one of the numerous rift basins that formed during the Permo-Triassic age. From a petroleum exploration perspective, the existence of the Diourbel rift basin is attractive because of the presence of structures that are excellent for deep gas exploration.

  8. Synthetic Convection Log — Characterization of vertical transport processes in fluid-filled boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Susann

    2010-09-01

    Two main types of vertical convective flows play an important role in transport along the fluid column: forced convective and free convective flows. Forced vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes (short-circuit flow) can be detected by means of borehole measurements, e.g. different types of flowmeters, temperature logs, and fluid-logging. For detecting free vertical convection (natural convection), so far, no special logging device or interpretation algorithm was available. This paper presents a new synthetic borehole log, the so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log). It enables in-situ detection and identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements. Vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes is known to lead to transport of heat and mass. Thus, understanding free convective flow is crucial for geothermics, borehole geophysics, hydrological investigations, and meaningful fluid sampling. The SYNCO-Log is divided into two closely linked parts: (1) the cause-oriented approach compares the situation along the fluid column with critical thresholds for the onset of free convection and (2) the effect-oriented approach separates the anomalies and patterns in fluid quality that are induced by free convection. Inputs for the interpretation algorithm are simultaneously acquired temperature and mudresistivity (or fluid conductivity) logs, hydraulic pressure, and borehole diameter. Output of the algorithm is a computer generated, descriptive illustration of the results including a classified plot for delineating the type of flow. The reliability of the SYNCO-Log is high, as causes and effects, i.e. driving forces and resulting heat and mass transport, are simultaneously identified. Its applicability and the relevance of the results are shown on the example of borehole measurements from the KTB-MH deep crustal borehole, located in the Bavarian region of Germany.

  9. Four-Component Borehole Strain Meter: Observation and in-situ Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.; Shi, Y.; Ouyang, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole strain meters are a key component of some important geo-scientific projects, such as PBO, to monitor seismic and aseismic tectonic strain phenomena. Observation using a four-component borehole strain meter, namely Ouyang borehole strain meter, has been kept continuous at Changping station, Beijing, for years. The plane strain changes are obtained at the depth of 120m and from 4 horizontal measurements, spaced 45 degrees apart, of the radial deformation of the borehole in which the instrument is installed. The challenge is that, according to the theory of elasticity, the sum of any two measurements perpendicular to each other should be the same as related to areal strain. The observation at Changping agrees pretty well with this rule and, with a relative in-situ calibration correction to the transducer factors based on the rule, the agreements can be yet much improved. Since the transducers were arranged well in the orientations of North, East, North West and North East, respectively, instrument shear strains can be simply given as the differences of the two correspondent perpendicular measurements. By applying theoretic Earth strain tide as a reference signal, in-situ absolute calibration can be carried out and the proportionality constants c and d, and the orientation error as well, can be calculated separately. Fore-component borehole strain meter has the advantages of giving more accurate and more reliable data for Earth strain and of easier processing as compared to three-component borehole strain meter.

  10. The effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here, demonstrate that the theoretical tide can differ by 30% from the tide observed at surface-mounted, long-baseline strainmeters. In spite of possible inaccurate tidal models, many of the 74 borehole strainmeters installed since 2005 can be “calibrated”. However, inaccurate tidal models affect the amplitude and phase of observed transient strain changes which needs to be considered along with the precision of the data from the inherent drift of these borehole instruments. In particular, the error from inaccurate tidal model dominates the error budget in the observation of impulsive, sub-daily, strain-transients.

  11. A heat-pulse flowmeter for measuring minimal discharge rates in boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has tested a borehole-configured heat-pulse flowmeter which has good low-velocity flow-measuring sensitivity. The flowmeter was tested in the laboratory in 51-, 102-, and 152-millimeter-diameter columns using water velocities ranging from 0.35 to 250 millimeters per second. The heat-pulse flowmeter also was tested in a 15-meter-deep granite test pit with controlled water flow, and in a 58-meter-deep borehole in sedimentary materials. The flowmeter's capability to detect and measure naturally occurring, low-velocity, thermally induced convection currents in boreholes was demonstrated. Further improvements to the heat-pulse-flowmeter system are needed to increase its reliability and improve its response through four-conductor logging cable.

  12. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  13. Time ramped gain for borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes an improvement in a borehole imaging apparatus wherein a rotating acoustic transducer means is periodically pulsed to emit a sequence of acoustic pulses into the borehole fluid toward the borehole wall and the reflected response of the acoustic pulse is received by the transducer means and converted to a related electrical signal. The improvement comprises: electrical signal compensating means located in the borehole for compensating substantially each of the electrical signals. The compensating means including variable gain amplifier means controllable from the surface for continuing to increase the amount of gain applied to each electrical signal as a function of the propagation time of the acoustic energy through the borehole fluid, to reduce the effects such as initial ringdown, mud reflections, and time-dependent borehole fluid attenuation of the acoustic energy.

  14. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  15. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  16. Macrofouling of deep-sea instrumentation after three years at 3690 m depth in the Charlie Gibbs fracture zone, mid-Atlantic ridge, with emphasis on hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Shields, M. A.; Jamieson, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Macrofouling is a common problem when deploying underwater instrumentation for long periods of time. It is a problem which can effect scientific experiments and monitoring missions though the creation of artificial reefs (thus increasing local biological activity) and reduce the quality of scientific data. Macrofouling is an issue typically considered to be restricted to the photic zones and is absent or negligible in the deep sea. To the contrary, the recovery of an accidentally lost deep-sea lander after 3 years submergence at 3960 m on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (North Atlantic) revealed dense colonisation of macrofouling organisms. These organisms were found attached to all surfaces of the lander regardless of orientation and materials. The occurrence of such deep-sea macrofouling should be carefully investigated given the recent developments in long-term deep-sea observatory networks.

  17. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs at the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund site, Mercer County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    On April 14?15, 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in five open-borehole wells in and adjacent to the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund Site, Mercer County, Pa. Geophysical-logging tools used included caliper, natural gamma, single-point resistance, fluid temperature, and heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to determine casing depth, locate subsurface fractures, identify water-bearing fractures, and identify and measure direction and rate of vertical flow within the borehole. The results of the geophysical logging were used to determine the placement of borehole screens, which allows monitoring of water levels and sampling of water-bearing zones so that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can conduct an investigation of contaminant movement in the fractured bedrock. Water-bearing zones were identified in three of five boreholes at depths ranging from 46 to 119 feet below land surface. Borehole MR-3310 (MW03D) showed upward vertical flow from 71 to 74 feet below land surface to a receiving zone at 63-68 feet below land surface, permitting potential movement of ground water, and possibly contaminants, from deep to shallow zones. No vertical flow was measured in the other four boreholes.

  18. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  19. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be

  20. Experimental measurements of seismoelectric signals in borehole models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An experimental system is built for the electrokinetic measurements with a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer (1 MS s-1, 22 bits). The acoustic and seismoelectric experiments are carried out in different borehole models at the high frequency of 90 kHz in the laboratory. All the localized seismoelectric signals that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are first clearly observed with a monopole source in sandstone boreholes that are saturated by tap water. The amplitudes of these signals are measured in the range of 1-120 μV, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. Then the amplitude ratio of electric signal to acoustic pressure (REP) for each of the three waves is calculated and compared with the theoretical simulations. Based on the experimental data, we find that seismoelectric logging signals as well as REP become stronger at the more permeable borehole model. We also find that seismoelectric logging signals are more sensitive to permeability and porosity compared with acoustic logging signals. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and further indicates that the seismoelectric logging technique might be a preferable method to estimate formation parameters in the field measurements.

  1. Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F.P.; Lane, Jr., John W.; White, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the

  2. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  3. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  4. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  5. The Deep Space Network, volume 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  6. Geohydrology of the Stockton Formation and cross-contamination through open boreholes, Hatboro Borough and Warminster Township, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Macchiaroli, Paola; Towle, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The study area consists of a 9-square-mile area underlain by sedimentary rocks of the middle arkose member of the Stockton Formation of Upper Triassic age. In the Hatboro area, the Stockton Formation strikes approximately N. 65 degrees E. and dps approximately 9 degrees NW. The rocks are chiefly arkosic sandstone and siltstone. Rocks of the Stocton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous, multiaquifer system consisting of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. Most ground water in the unweathered zone moves through a network of interconnecting secondary openigns-fractures, bedding plans, and joints. Ground water is unconfined in the shallower part of the aquifer and semiconfined or confined in the deeper part of the aquifer. Nearly all deep wells in the Stockton Formation are open to several water-bearing zones and are multiaquifer wells. Each water-bearing zone usually has a different hydraulic head. Where differences in hydraulic head exist between water-bearing zones, water in the well bore flows under nonpumping conditions in the direction of decreasing head. Determination of the potential for borehole flow was based on caliper, natural-gamma, single- point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, and (or) fluid-temperature logs that were run in 162 boreholes 31 to 655 feet deep. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement were determined in 83 boreholes by the bring-tracing method and in 10 boreholes by use of a heat-pulse flowmeter. Borehole flow was measurable in 65 of the 93 boreholes (70 percent). Fluid movement at rates up to 17 gallons per minute was measured. Downward flow was measured in 36 boreholes, and upward flow was measured in 23 boreholes, not including those boreholes in which two directions of flow were measured. Both upward and downward vertical flow was measured in six boreholes; these boreholes are 396 to 470 feet deep and were among the deepest boreholes logged. Fluid movement was upward in the upper

  7. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  8. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  9. One Year of Data of Scimpi Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.; Riedel, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Pirenne, B.; Iturrino, G. J.; Masterson, W.; Furman, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-Situ (SCIMPI) is a new subseafloor observatory designed to study dynamic processes in the subseabed using a simple and low-cost approach compared to a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). SCIMPI was successfully installed at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1416 during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013. SCIMPI is designed to measure pore pressure, temperature and electrical resistivity over time in a borehole. The first SCIMPI prototype comprises nine modules joined in a single array by flexible cables. Multiple floats keep the system taut against a sinker bar weight located on SCIMPI and resting on the bottom of the borehole. All the modules record temperature and electrical resistivity, and three are also equipped with pressure sensors. Currently, SCIMPI operates as an autonomous instrument with a data logger that is recovered using an ROV. The second recovery of the SCIMPI data logger took place during the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruise, Wiring the Abyss 2014, on May 25th, 2014. The pressure sensor data show a stable trend in which tidal effects are observed in through the one year deployment. The temperature measurements in all the modules became stable over time with smaller variations over the last several months. The only temperature sensor differing from this trend is the shallowest, located at 8 meters below seafloor. This module shows a sudden spike of ~20°C that on April 5th, 2014, an event that was repeated several times from April 25th until recovery of modules. The electrical resistivity sensors show variations over time that could be related to gas hydrate dynamics at the Site. Interpretation of these data is speculative at this time but borehole-sealing processes as well as the formation of gas hydrate are potential processes influencing the recordings. SCIMPI will soon be connected to Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory at Clayoquot Slope node to

  10. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  11. Ceramic Borehole Seals for Nuclear Waste Disposal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, B.; Coates, K.; Wohletz, K.; Dunn, S.; Patera, E.; Duguid, A.; Arnold, B.; Zyvoloski, G.; Groven, L.; Kuramyssova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Sealing plugs are critical features of the deep borehole system design. They serve as structural platforms to bear the weight of the backfill column, and as seals through their low fluid permeability and bond to the borehole or casing wall. High hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures, high mineral content water, and elevated temperature due to the waste packages and geothermal gradient challenge the long term performance of seal materials. Deep borehole nuclear waste disposal faces the added requirement of assuring performance for thousands of years in large boreholes, requiring very long term chemical and physical stability. A high performance plug system is being developed which capitalizes on the energy of solid phase reactions to form a ceramic plug in-situ. Thermites are a family of self-oxidized metal/oxide reactions with very high energy content and the ability to react under water. When combined with engineered additives the product exhibits attractive structural, sealing, and corrosion properties. In the initial phase of this research, exploratory and scaled tests demonstrated formulations that achieved controlled, fine grained, homogeneous, net shape plugs composed predominantly of ceramic material. Laboratory experiments produced plug cores with confined fluid permeability as low as 100 mDarcy, compressive strength as high as 70 MPa (three times the strength of conventional well cement), with the inherent corrosion resistance and service temperature of ceramic matrices. Numerical thermal and thermal/structural analyses predicted the in-situ thermal performance of the reacted plugs, showing that they cooled to ambient temperature (and design strength) within 24 to 48 hours. The current development effort is refining the reactant formulations to achieve desired performance characteristics, developing the system design and emplacement processes to be compatible with conventional well service practices, and understanding the thermal, fluid, and structural

  12. Joint inversion of surface and borehole magnetic amplitude data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zelin; Yao, Changli; Zheng, Yuanman; Yuan, Xiaoyu

    2016-04-01

    3D magnetic inversion for susceptibility distribution is a powerful tool in quantitative interpretation of magnetic data in mineral exploration. However, the inversion and interpretation of such data are faced with two problems. One problem is the poor imaging results of deep sources when only surface data are inverted. The other is the unknown total magnetization directions of sources when strong remanence exists. To deal with these problems simultaneously, we propose a method through the joint inversion of surface and borehole magnetic amplitude data. In this method, we first transform both surface and borehole magnetic data to magnetic amplitude data that are less sensitive to the directions of total magnetization, and then preform a joint inversion of the whole amplitude data to generate a 3D susceptibility distribution. The amplitude inversion algorithm uses Tikhonov regularization and imposes a positivity constraint on the effective susceptibility defined as the ratio of magnetization magnitude over the geomagnetic field strength. In addition, a distance-based weighting function is used to make the algorithm applicable to joint data sets. To solve this positivity-constraint inversion problem efficiently, an appropriate optimization method must be chosen. We first use an interior-point method to incorporate the positivity constraint into the total objective function, and then minimize the objective function via a Gauss-Newton method due to the nonlinearity introduced by the positivity constraint and the amplitude data. To further improve the efficiency of the inversion algorithm, we use a conjugate gradient method to carry out the fast matrix-vector multiplication during the minimization. To verify the utility of the proposed method, we invert the synthetic and field data using three inversion methods, including the joint inversion of surface and borehole three-component magnetic data, the inversion of surface magnetic amplitude data, and the proposed joint

  13. Intermediate scale borehole (Room C): In situ data report (January 1989--June 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Baird, G.T.; Labreche, D.A.; Ball, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Data are presented from the intermediate scale borehole test, an in situ test fielded in the pillar separating Rooms C1 and C2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The test was to provide data on the influence of scale, if any, on the structural behavior of underground openings in salt. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1989, with the drilling of the intermediate scale borehole in December 1990. Gage data in this report cover the period from January 1989 through June 1993.

  14. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterling, S.N.; Parker, B.L.; Cherry, J.A.; Williams, J.H.; Lane, J.W.; Haeni, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 ??g/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone.

    PubMed

    Sterling, S N; Parker, B L; Cherry, J A; Williams, J H; Lane, J W; Haeni, F P

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 microg/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  1. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  2. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  3. Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.4–1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  4. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, James P R; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K; Lapworth, Daniel J; Read, Daniel S; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Townsend, Barry R; Williams, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3) at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  5. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.C.; Julian, H.E.; Pearson, H.S.; Molz, F.J.; Boman, G.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the operation and application of the TVA prototype EM borehole flowmeters, including theory, design, calibration, basic field applications, data analysis, and potential effects of various well construction and development procedures on data. The majority of these results are also applicable to the commercial version of this meter and other vertical component borehole flowmeters, including heat pulse and impeller tools. Several case studies illustrating specific uses of these tools are also discussed.

  6. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  7. Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

  8. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  10. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  11. Initial Borehole Accelerometer Array Observations Near the North Portal of the ESF

    SciTech Connect

    David von Seggern

    2005-08-17

    This report addresses observed ground motions at the site of the proposed surface facilities associated with the designated repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In 2003 an accelerometer array was installed at three boreholes on the pad of the north portal of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, by the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL). These boreholes, roughly 150 m apart and initially used for extensive geological and geophysical surveys, were ideal locations to measure the subsurface ground motions at the proposed site of surface facilities such as the Waste Handling Building. Such measurements will impact the design of the facilities. Accelerometer emplacement depths of approximately 15 m from the surface and then at the bottom of the boreholes, roughly 100 m, were chosen. Accelerometers were also placed at the surface next to the boreholes, for a total of nine accelerometers, all three-component. Data recording was accomplished with onsite recorders, with the onsite data transmitted to a central computer at a trailer on the pad. All requirements were met to qualify these data as ''Q''. Due to the lack of significant recordings during 2003, several low signal-to-noise (S/N) quality events were chosen for processing. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at the pad was approximately 1 cm/s2 in 2003; the corresponding peak ground velocity (PGV) was approximately 0.01 cm/s. PGA and PGV were obtained at all nine accelerometers for most of these events, and spectra were computed. Ground motion amplitudes varied significantly across the boreholes. Higher ground amplifications were observed at the surface for the two boreholes that penetrated a thick amount ({approx} 30 m) of fill and Quaternary alluvium compared to the one that had less than 2 m of such. Additionally, surface-to-deep recordings showed as much as a factor of five amplification at these two boreholes. Signal

  12. Optimization of Borehole Heat Exchanger Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storages for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. However, the uncertainty of geological parameters and the nonlinear behavior of the complex system make it difficult to simulate and predict the required design of borehole heat exchanger arrays. As a result, the arrays easily turn out to be over or undersized, which compromises the economic feasibility of these systems. Here, we present a novel optimization strategy for the design of borehole thermal energy storages. The arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion method is used to build a proxy model from a set of numerical training simulations, which allows for the consideration of parameter uncertainties. Thus, the resulting proxy model bypasses the problem of excessive computation time for the numerous function calls required for a mathematical optimization. Additionally, we iteratively refine the proxy model during the optimization procedure using additional numerical simulation runs. With the presented solution, many aspects of borehole heat exchanger arrays can be optimized under geological uncertainty.

  13. Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.

  14. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde.

  15. The U-tube: A new paradigm in borehole fluid sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, B. M.

    2009-10-01

    Fluid samples from deep boreholes can provide insights into subsurface physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Recovery of intact, minimally altered aliquots of subsurface fluids is required for analysis of aqueous chemistry, isotopic composition, and dissolved gases, and for microbial community characterization. Unfortunately, for many reasons, collecting geofluids poses a number of challenges, from formation contamination by drilling to maintaining integrity during recovery from depths. Not only are there substantial engineering issues in retrieval of a representative sample, but there is often the practical reality that fluid sampling is just one of many activities planned for deep boreholes. The U-tube geochemical sampling system presents a new paradigm for deep borehole fluid sampling. Because the system is small, its ability to integrate with other measurement systems and technologies opens up numerous possibilities for multifunctional integrated wellbore completions. To date, the U-tube has been successfully deployed at four different field sites, each with a different deployment modality, at depths from 260 m to 2 km. While the U-tube has proven to be highly versatile, these installations have resulted in data that provide additional insights for improving future U-tube deployments.

  16. Geothermal climate change observatory in south India 1: Borehole temperatures and inferred surface temperature histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Roy, Sukanta

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain records of changes in surface ground temperature over the past few centuries. We have recently set up a geothermal climate change observatory at the Choutuppal campus of National Geophysical Research Institute (17.29 °N, 78.92 °E) to measure subsurface temperature changes on annual to decadal timescales and quantify how well they track surface temperature changes. The site is located about 60 km to the east of Hyderabad in south India, in a designated reserved forest land and far from potential urban heat islands. In April 2009, two boreholes were drilled to depths of 210 m and 21 m respectively after careful site selection to minimize perturbations to the subsurface temperatures on account of groundwater flow in the borehole, large thermal conductivity contrasts and rugged topography. Temperature measurements in the two holes are being carried out periodically. Analysis of equilibrium temperature-depth profile in the 210 m deep borehole reveals at least two ongoing events that started during the past Century: (i) surface ground warming of 0.5 ± 0.1 °C over the past 92 ± 7 years, and (ii) a more recent cooling of ∼1 °C over the past ∼39 years, probably representing local changes to surface vegetation caused by the presence of a thicker grass cover throughout the year inside the campus since 1967 AD compared to the short cropping of grass outside it. The inferred surface ground warming is consistent with estimates from temperature measurements in three other boreholes (170-300 m deep) distributed in a 10 × 5 km 2 area in the vicinity of the observatory (mean: 0.5 ± 0.1 °C over the past 93 ± 21 years), and is characteristic of the Interior Peninsula region of south India.

  17. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  18. Thermal effects in borehole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dung Trung

    demonstration using a probabilistic approach is presented for the Barnett Shale. The selected porothermoelastic model shows that the cooling effect due to a ~30 °C temperature difference between the drilling mud and the formation is most likely the cause of the transverse tensile failures observed in horizontal open-hole borehole imaging logs.

  19. Performance of a Borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; Willard-Schmoe, Ella

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program [1]. It can be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary requirements and performance metrics for the instrument are to obtain parts-per-million (ppm) lower limits of detection over a wide range of elements in the periodic table (Magnesium to Lead). Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight ppm for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  20. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10-7-10-8 m/s and that of influx is about 10-4-10-1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  1. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  2. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2002-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  5. Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.250

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  11. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Béthoux, N.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coail, J.-Y.; Colnard, C.; Compére, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; Debonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Dessa, J.-X.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guilloux, F.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kneib, J. P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J. C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefévre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loaec, G.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Niess, V.; Noble, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H. Z.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Regnier, M.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, G.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2007-11-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented.

  12. Workshop on borehole measurements and interpretation in scientific drilling - identification of problems and proposals for their solution: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.L.; Traeger, R.K.

    1984-03-01

    Critical instrumentation needs for borehole-oriented, geoscience research were identified in a program consisting of formal presentations, psoter sessions and a workshop. The proceedings include results of the workshops, abstracts of the papers and poster sessions, and the attendance list. Details of any of the presentations should be obtained from the individual authors. Separate entries were prepared for individual presentations.

  13. Borehole water level response to barometric pressure as an indicator of aquifer vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahmoud E. A.; Odling, Noelle E.; Clark, Roger A.

    2013-10-01

    The response of borehole water levels to barometric pressure changes in semiconfined aquifers can be used to determine barometric response functions from which aquifer and confining layer properties can be obtained. Following earlier work on barometric response functions and aquifer confinement, we explore the barometric response function as a tool to improve the assessment of groundwater vulnerability in semiconfined aquifers, illustrated through records from two contrasting boreholes in the semiconfined Chalk Aquifer, East Yorkshire, UK. After removal of recharge and Earth tide influences on the water level signal, barometric response functions were estimated and aquifer and confining layer properties determined through an analytical model of borehole water level response to barometric pressure. A link between the thickness and vertical diffusivity of the confining layer determined from the barometric response function, and groundwater vulnerability is proposed. The amplitude spectrum for barometric pressure and instrument resolution favor determination of the barometric response function at frequencies to which confining layer diffusivities are most sensitive. Numerical modeling indicates that while the high frequency response reflects confining layer properties in the immediate vicinity of the borehole, the low frequency response reflects vertical, high diffusivity pathways though the confining layer some hundreds of meters distant. A characteristic time scale parameter, based on vertical diffusivities and thicknesses of the saturated and unsaturated confining layer, is introduced as a measure of semiconfined aquifer vulnerability. The study demonstrates that the barometric response function has potential as a tool for quantitative aquifer vulnerability assessment in semiconfined aquifers.

  14. LIBSLog: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) based logging tool for exploration of boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel downhole instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in terrestrial and non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars and Europa. The system can also be deployed in a wireline configuration as a logging probe, called LIBSLog. The LIBSLog could be lowered into existing boreholes and scan the borehole wall with depth. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. The results for lunar simulant NU-LHT-2M show a value for the concentration of iron ranging between 2.29% and 3.05% depending on the atomic line selected. The accepted value for the sample analyzed is 2.83%, showing the capability for the system in development to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in real-time.

  15. OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar from the KTB borehole, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guralnik, Benny; Jain, Mayank; Herman, Frédéric; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Murray, Andrew S.; Valla, Pierre G.; Preusser, Frank; King, Georgina E.; Chen, Reuven; Lowick, Sally E.; Kook, Myungho; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2015-08-01

    The reconstruction of thermal histories of rocks (thermochronometry) is a fundamental tool both in Earth science and in geological exploration. However, few methods are currently capable of resolving the low-temperature thermal evolution of the upper ∼2 km of the Earth's crust. Here we introduce a new thermochronometer based on the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspar, and validate the extrapolation of its response to artificial radiation and heat in the laboratory to natural environmental conditions. Specifically, we present a new detailed Na-feldspar IRSL thermochronology from a well-documented thermally-stable crustal environment at the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). There, the natural luminescence of Na-feldspar extracted from twelve borehole samples (0.1-2.3 km depth, corresponding to 10-70 °C) can be either (i) predicted within uncertainties from the current geothermal gradient, or (ii) inverted into a geothermal palaeogradient of 29 ± 2 °C km-1, integrating natural thermal conditions over the last ∼65 ka. The demonstrated ability to invert a depth-luminescence dataset into a meaningful geothermal palaeogradient opens new venues for reconstructing recent ambient temperatures of the shallow crust (<0.3 Ma, 40-70 °C range), or for studying equally recent and rapid transient cooling in active orogens (<0.3 Ma, >200 °C Ma-1 range). Although Na-feldspar IRSL is prone to field saturation in colder or slower environments, the method's primary relevance appears to be for borehole and tunnel studies, where it may offer remarkably recent (<0.3 Ma) information on the thermal structure and history of hydrothermal fields, nuclear waste repositories and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  16. The Deep Space Network. [tracking and communication functions and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  17. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  18. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  19. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  20. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  1. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: The development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: The CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hostab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link. After a

  2. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  3. Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.; MacCary, L.M.

    1971-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a guide for hydrologists using borehole geophysics in ground-water studies. The emphasis is on the application and interpretation of geophysical well logs, and not on the operation of a logger. It describes in detail those logging techniques that have been utilized within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and those used in petroleum investigations that have potential application to hydrologic problems. Most of the logs described can be made by commercial logging service companies, and many can be made with small water-well loggers. The general principles of each technique and the rules of log interpretation are the same, regardless of differences in instrumentation. Geophysical well logs can be interpreted to determine the lithology, geometry, resistivity, formation factor, bulk density, porosity, permeability, moisture content, and specific yield of water-bearing rocks, and to define the source, movement, and chemical and physical characteristics of ground water. Numerous examples of logs are used to illustrate applications and interpretation in various ground-water environments. The interrelations between various types of logs are emphasized, and the following aspects are described for each of the important logging techniques: Principles and applications, instrumentation, calibration and standardization, radius of investigation, and extraneous effects.

  4. Impact and mitigation of borehole related effects in permanent crosshole resistivity imaging: An example from the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Florian M.; Bergmann, Peter; Rücker, Carsten; Wiese, Bernd; Labitzke, Tim; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2015-12-01

    Geoelectrical methods are particularly suited for CO2 injection monitoring due to their high sensitivity to fluid displacement processes in porous rock formations. The use of borehole electrodes is favorable for deep storage horizons. Yet data acquisition based on permanently installed borehole electrodes can be challenged by the finite extent of the electrodes, unintended borehole deviation and complex borehole completion. Such conditions can lead to systematic errors in the electrical data sets, distortions of tomograms, and ultimately misinterpretations. We systematically analyze the effects of different borehole related error sources on tomographic inversion results and present respective methods for mitigation. Specifically, we incorporate the finite extent of the ring electrodes and the borehole completion into the electrical finite-element models and discuss the opportunity to infer borehole deviations solely based on geoelectrical data by means of a coupled inversion. While the finite extent of ring electrodes can be neglected if the electrode spacing is sufficiently large (> 5 m), different borehole completion materials used to fill the well annulus can cause potentially strong resistivity contrasts between the borehole completion and the rock formation, i.e., close to the electrodes. Resulting inversion artifacts are generally less severe when the borehole completion is more resistive compared to the surrounding rock. It is also shown that 2.5D inversion approaches are not adequate for imaging injection experiments in the presence of borehole completion. Unintended borehole deviation can result in geometric errors. Especially, vertical electrode shifts cause strong and localized inversion artifacts. Coupled inverse schemes potentially provide the opportunity to infer electrode shifts solely based on geoelectrical data provided the availability of high quality measurements (< 5% data error). After discussing the effects of the different borehole related

  5. Combined use of straddle packer testing and FLUTe profiling for hydraulic testing in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2015-05-01

    A combination of high resolution hydraulic tests using straddle packers and transmissivity (T) profiling using the FLUTe flexible liner method (liner profiling) in densely fractured rock boreholes is shown to be efficient for the determination of the vertical distribution of T along the entire hole. The liner T profiling method takes a few hours or less to scan the entire borehole length resulting in a T profile. Under favorable conditions this method has good reliability for identifying the highest T zones identified by distinct decreases in liner velocity when these zones are covered by the descending liner. In contrast, for one short test interval (e.g., 1-2 m) the multiple-test, straddle-packer method takes a few hours to measure T with good precision and accuracy using a combination of steady-state and transient tests (e.g., constant head step tests, slug tests, and constant rate pumping tests). Because of the time consuming aspect of this multiple-test method, it is most efficient in each borehole to conduct straddle packer testing only in priority zones selected after assessment of other borehole data collected prior to packer testing. The T profile from the liner method is instrumental in selecting high permeable zones for application of the multiple-test method using straddle packers, which in turn, refines the T estimation from the liner profile. Results from three boreholes in densely fractured sandstone demonstrate this approach showing the synergistic use of the methods with emphasis on information important for determining hydraulic apertures.

  6. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

  7. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  8. Development of New Fluorescence Instrument for extended Deep-UV to NIR Excitation-Emission Matrices with Simultaneous Absorbance and Inner-Filter Effect Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of dissolved organic matter components, including humic and fulvic acids, chlorophyll and algae, oils and proteins, among others, using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) is now widely accepted due to the rapidly afforded high-sensitivity and selectivity. However, to date no single instrument has been able to effectively cover the entire spectral range from 200 nm to over 800 nm and also facilitate the simultaneous absorbance spectral acquisition required for correcting the concentration dependent inner filter effects that can distort the quantification of the fluorescence signal. The new instrument uses a UV-enhanced light source coupled to a scanning double grating monochromator for the full UV-NIR absorbance and fluorescence excitation scanning as well as a UV to NIR sensitive CCD-spectrograph for rapid fluorescence emission detection. Both the absorbance and fluorescence detection are uniquely corrected using an optically and kinetically coordinated reference detector system. Other major problems solved for the long-range scanning for EEMs include 1) the removal of second order light from the excitation path which is accomplished using an automated filter wheel and 2) masking of the higher order emission bands which is accomplished by effective software masking. A key feature of the system is the facilitation of continuous ';on-the-fly' processing of the NIST traceable corrected fluorescence and absorbance data for immediate multivariate processing to support several commercially available packages for parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Several examples of qualitative and quantitative analyses with the system will be explained including: 1) measuring natural organic matter components associated with disinfection by-product formation in drinking water treatment and fouling permeates of filtration membranes, 2) measuring chlorophyll spectra associated with classification of algal species

  9. Borehole Magnetostratigraphy of Sediments in a U.S. Geological Survey Multiple-Completion Well, San Diego County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict-Philipp, A.; Cromwell, G.; Danskin, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy is a useful method in providing geochronologic information for stratigraphic sequences. In general, this dating method requires paleomagnetic samples to be collected from outcrops or drill cores, and the magnetic polarities of the samples to be determined in the laboratory. However, suitable exposures or cores are not always accessible for sampling, especially during investigations of deep-basin stratigraphy. One alternative to collecting discrete rock samples is to use a downhole magnetometer to log the magnetic properties of sediments in a borehole. Downhole measurements are often used to determine the magnetostratigraphy of sediments in deep sea drilling projects, where fine-grained sediments contain reliable paleomagnetic signals. We test whether this methodology can resolve the magnetic polarity of coarse-grained estuarine, fluvial, and marine sediments in a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multiple-depth water well in San Diego County, California, by correlating borehole magnetic data with discrete paleomagnetic samples from sediment cores collected in the same well. The well is 363 meters deep and penetrates artificial and Quaternary deposits, overlying Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary formations. We use a BVM-03 borehole probe (use of this product does constitute endorsement by the USGS), with a three-component vector magnetometer (0.1 nT sensitivity) and a susceptibility sensor, to continuously record the in situ total magnetic induction and susceptibility of the surrounding sediment. Post-processing of these magnetic data produces a continuous magnetic polarity record of the borehole sediment, and preliminary results suggest the presence of multiple magnetic polarity reversals. Successful determination of magnetic polarity in the well will allow researchers to establish more precise ages for sedimentary formations in the San Diego area, and will support the use of borehole magnetometer systems in coarse-grained, fluvial environments.

  10. Local fluid flow and borehole strain in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, S.; Segall, P.; Ágústsson, K.; Agnew, D.

    2003-12-01

    Installation of 175 borehole strainmeters is planned for PBO. It is therefore vital to understand the behavior of existing strainmeter installations. We investigate signals recorded by three borehole dilatometers in the south Iceland seismic zone following two Mw6.5 earthquakes in June 2000. Poroelastic relaxation has been documented following these events based on InSAR and water level data [Jónsson et al., 2003, Nature]. According to poroelastic theory for a homogeneous isotropic (unfractured) medium, the anticipated post-seismic volumetric strain has the same sign as the coseismic strain step. For example, coseismic compression results in pore-pressure increases; post-earthquake fluid drainage causes additional compression. However, we find that observed strain changes vary considerably between different instruments after the earthquakes. One instrument (HEL) behaves as expected with transient strain increasing with the same sign as the coseismic strain step. Another instrument (SAU) shows partial strain relaxation, opposite in sign to the coseismic signal. The third (BUR) exhibits complete strain relaxation by 3-4 days after the earthquakes (i.e., BUR does not record any permanent strain). BUR has responded in the same fashion to three different earthquakes and two volcanic eruptions, demonstrating conclusively that the transient response is due to processes local to the borehole. Fluid drainage from cracks can explain these observations. Rapid straining results in compression (extension) of the rock and strainmeter. Fluid filled fractures near the borehole transmit normal stress, due to the relative incompressibility of water. Thus, at short time scales the instrument records a coseismic strain step. With time, however, fluid flows out of (in to) the fractures, and the normal stress transmitted across the fractures decreases (increases). As the stress relaxes the strainmeter expands (contracts), reversing the coseismic strain. Barometric responses are

  11. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  12. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem

  13. Visual texture for automated characterisation of geological features in borehole televiewer imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sit, Waleed; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Marelli, Matteo; Al-Ataby, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Detailed characterisation of the structure of subsurface fractures is greatly facilitated by digital borehole logging instruments, the interpretation of which is typically time-consuming and labour-intensive. Despite recent advances towards autonomy and automation, the final interpretation remains heavily dependent on the skill, experience, alertness and consistency of a human operator. Existing computational tools fail to detect layers between rocks that do not exhibit distinct fracture boundaries, and often struggle characterising cross-cutting layers and partial fractures. This paper presents a novel approach to the characterisation of planar rock discontinuities from digital images of borehole logs. Multi-resolution texture segmentation and pattern recognition techniques utilising Gabor filters are combined with an iterative adaptation of the Hough transform to enable non-distinct, partial, distorted and steep fractures and layers to be accurately identified and characterised in a fully automated fashion. This approach has successfully detected fractures and layers with high detection accuracy and at a relatively low computational cost.

  14. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Site Characterization of Deep Bedrock with Integrated Geophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, C.; Eun, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    In order to utilize the deep underground storage facility stable for a long time, precise site characterization is required before its construction. Various kinds of geophysical survey as well as drilling and geological survey should be used to know the status of deep bedrock. A research had been conducted to make the site characterization of deep bedrock for several years, and to achieve its purpose, integrated geophysical survey were applied to the test area which had gneiss bedrock. DC resistivity survey for six surficial profiles was conducted to find the appropriate location of drilling survey. Cross-hole/surface-to-hole resistivity tomography survey and borehole reflection radar survey were applied to the drill holes after its installation completed. Three bore holes of which length was 500 meter were drilled to investigate the status of deep bedrock, and cross-hole tomography survey was applied between two boreholes among these. Also borehole reflection radar survey was conducted to another two boreholes. Deep seated fracture zones which were not identified with the surficial geological and resistivity survey were found through the analysis of tomography section. Fracture zones were consisted of steep slope fault and these were also identified with the result of borehole radar section. After the basic survey was completed, one of three holes was extended to the depth of 1 km. Radar reflection survey which was only available to the deep drill-hole was applied. Because steel casing was installed to the depth of 750 m to stabilize the extended drill-hole, resistivity method was not available and borehole radar reflection method was only available among the geophysical method used in this research. Through results of radar reflection survey, several fracture zones were identified for the newly extended section of drill hole and some of those facture has relatively large size and passed through the bore hole.

  16. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  17. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  18. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  19. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  20. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  1. Modelling spatial oscillations in soil borehole bacteria.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M J; Cribbin, L B; Winstanley, H F; Fowler, A C

    2014-12-21

    Spatial oscillations in groundwater contaminant concentrations can be successfully explained by consideration of a competitive microbial community in conditions of poor nutrient supply, in which the effects of spatial diffusion of the nutrient sources are included. In previous work we showed that the microbial competition itself allowed oscillations to occur, and, in common with other reaction-diffusion systems, the addition of spatial diffusion transforms these temporal oscillations into travelling waves, sometimes chaotic. We therefore suggest that irregular chemical profiles sometimes found in contaminant plume borehole profiles may be a consequence of this competition.

  2. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  3. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic

  4. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  5. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  6. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  7. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  8. Acoustic-electromagnetic effects of tectonic movements of the crust - borehole survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, V. N.; Malkin, E. I.; Druzhin, G. I.; Sannikov, D. V.; Pukhov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Borehole radiophysical properties are briefly described. Borehole investigation of lithosphere acoustic-electromagnetic radiation was carried out in a seismically active region. Four main types of anomalies of acoustic-electromagnetic radiation were distinguished. They correspond to shear and bulk relaxations of tectonic stress. Stability of phase relations of acoustic and electromagnetic signals in the region of anomalies was detected that allows us to state their coherence. It was concluded that the reason of mutual coherence of acoustic and electromagnetic signals is the magnetoelastic effect of the casing pipe. A mechanism of generation of rock self-induced vibrations during tectonic stress relaxation causing acoustic-electromagnetic emission was suggested. It was concluded that "sigmoid" anomalies may correlate with excitation of eigen vibrations in a fracture cavity during brittle shear relaxation of rock tectonic stress. An explanation of the change of anomalous "sigmoid" signal frequency was given. It is considered to be the result of growth of rock fracture cavity and the decrease of tectonic stress relaxation. It was concluded that a borehole, cased in a steel pipe, together with a system of inductance coils and a hydrophone is the effective sounding sensor for acoustic fields of interior deep layers. It may be applied to investigate and to monitor the geodynamic activity, in particular, in earthquake forecasts and in monitoring of hydrocarbon deposits during their production.

  9. Role of borehole plugging in the evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, T.O.

    1980-01-01

    Research on borehole plugging (BHP) is part of an integrated strategy to develop technology that can assure successful nuclear waste isolation. The application of this strategy to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has included an assessment of the role BHP plays in the development of a repository at that site. This paper presents a description of the WIPP site, repository design, and the current research and development program. The status of drill holes - those drilled for petroleum and potash exploration and those drilled for site characterization - within the proposed site boundaries is presented. Sixty-six holes are present on the 7700 hectare (19,000 acre) site, yet only 8 penetrate as deep as the proposed repository location. The assumptions made about shaft and borehole sealing in consequence assessment studies are presented. The results of these studies indicate that borehole seals with effective permeabilities greater than tens of darcies would result in doses to maximally exposed individuals of less than 0.01% of natural background.

  10. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  11. Exploring anisotropic seismic property of the seismogenic plate boundary in the Nankai Trough using a seafloor borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Takaesu, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakano, M.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stress state in the vicinity of a seismogenic fault would be a key parameter governing its fault dynamics. Stress analysis in a borehole such as breakout may give stress information, but drilling seismogenic fault at depth is still challenging and it is even more difficult to perform repeated stress measurements for temporal evolution of stress state. Here we consider applying seismic anisotropy as an index of stress state and by observing its temporal change to identify change of stress around the seismogenic fault. In this study, we explored techniques to assess seismic anisotropy in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism, using a borehole seismometer deployed in IODP borehole C0002G, which is located just above the Tonankai earthquake fault. The borehole seismometer is situated at about 900 m below 1966 m deep seafloor, and is operational since January 2013 when the observatory was connected to DONET seafloor cable network. We developed a technique to analyze seismic anisotropy on converted S-wave from microseismic noise records and applied the technique on the borehole seismometer records, by which we expect to evaluate temporal change of anisotropy continuously. We obtained anisotropy of a few percent. We further evaluated depth dependency of anisotropy direction and obtained the difference between the uppermost sedimentary basin and accretionary prism near the plate boundary. We also performed airgun array shooting around the borehole in November 2013 to check validity of the anisotropy result. We applied two different analysis on the airgun records, the one was P-wave seismic anisotropy from the travel time, and the other was S-wave anisotropy using converted S-wave from airgun P-wave. Preliminary results from these analysis were consistent with the microseismic noise analysis. Repeated airgun shooting is planned at the interval of a year or so to evaluate our ability to detect its temporal change.

  12. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  13. Borehole P- and S-wave velocity at thirteen stations in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Boore, David M.; Tinsley, John C.; Mueller, Charles S.

    2001-01-01

    from five of the shallower holes to supplement the velocity interpretation. The two 90-meter boreholes (SB1, CPB) have been instrumented with borehole seismometers for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity (Rogers et al., 1998). No drill samples or cuttings were obtained from the other six sites, but driller's logs were scanned for major changes noted there. The velocity models at those sites were interpreted using only the measured data and major changes in the driller's log as noted above. The sites are shown in Figure 1 and listed in Table 1, which gives references to information regarding the strong-motion data. Several hundred strong-motion records of the main-shock were written by this moderate size earthquake (ML = 5.9), making it important from a scientific and engineering prospective (Brady et al., 1988; Shakal et al., 1988).

  14. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  15. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  16. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  17. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  18. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  19. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  20. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

  2. Tilt observations using borehole tiltmeters. 2. Analysis of data from Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Meertens, C.; Levine, J.; Busby, R. National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )

    1989-01-10

    The authors have installed borehole tiltmeters at five sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and have used these instruments to measure the spatial variation of the amplitude and phase of the principal semidiurnal tide. The measured tides vary both with position and azimuth and differ from the sum of the body tide and the ocean load by up to 50%. The difference predicted by a finite element model constructed from seismic, refraction, and gravity data has a maximum value of only 12%, although the discrepancy between these observations and the model is only marginally significant at some sites. The disagreement between the model and the observations is much larger than they observed using the same instruments a other sites and cannot be attributed to an instrumental effect. They have been unable to modify the model to explain their results while keeping it consistent with the previous observations.

  3. A Bayesian partition modelling approach to resolve spatial variability in climate records from borehole temperature inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Gallagher, Kerry; Pain, Christopher C.

    2009-08-01

    temperature profiles are calculated using surface air temperatures of a global climate model simulation. In the final case, 23 real boreholes from the United Kingdom, previously used for climatic reconstructions, are examined and the results compared with a local instrumental temperature series and the previous estimate derived from the same borehole data. The results indicate that the majority (17) of the 23 boreholes are unsuitable for climatic reconstruction purposes, at least without including other thermal processes in the forward model.

  4. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  5. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2005-08-21

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  6. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2006-05-05

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  7. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2005-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-12-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2005-03-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-06-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-12-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-05-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS.

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-01-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2003-12-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-07-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  19. Microbial Adaptations to Biosustainabilitiy in Deep-Subsurface Environments on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2005-12-01

    Exploration for life on Mars and icy moons in our solar system necessitates development of innovative techniques for life-detection followed by field testing in analogue environments on Earth. A collaborative international effort is underway to drill and sample within regions of persistent permafrost in northern Canada for the purpose of characterizing microbial ecosystems adapted to long-term cold conditions. In 2001 and 2002, Finnish and Canadian scientists installed an instrumented borehole array in a commercial gold mine with sampling valves at 890 and 1130 meters below the surface. Numerous water and gas samples from the Lupin borehole array have been analyzed for molecular and isotopic compositions of organic and inorganic chemical constituents. Boreholes with the lowest concentration of methane and largest 34S fractionation between dissolved sulfate and sulfide are the focus of microbiological sampling. Microbial diversity at Lupin is being assessed by culturing, sequencing, and direct detection of microbial reactions. Cell counts indicate a low biodensity, ranging from 100 to100,000 cells/ml. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA indicates low biodiversity with the planktonic biota dominated by a distinctive new phlyotype having 95-97% similarity to Thiohalobaccili. Similarly, the subsurface brines sampled at depths of 1500 to 3500 meters in the Witwatersrand basin of South Africa yield low biodensity and biodiversity with the dominant phylotype being a Desulfotomaculum-like organism that appears to represent a new species and new family. Microbes sampled in fracture water at kilometer depths below the surface are significantly different from surface extremophiles and show specific genetic adaptations to biosustainability in deep-subsurface environments.

  20. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  1. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  2. Combined wave propagation analysis of earthquake recordings from borehole and building sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, B.; Parolai, S.; Dikmen, U.; Safak, E.; Moldobekov, B.; Orunbaev, S.

    2015-12-01

    In regions highly exposed to natural hazards, Early Warning Systems can play a central role in risk management and mitigation procedures. To improve at a relatively low cost the spatial resolution of regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, decentralized onsite EEW and building monitoring, a wireless sensing unit, the Self-Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) was developed and further improved to include the multi-parameter acquisition. SOSEWINs working in continuous real time mode are currently tested on various sites. In Bishkek and Istanbul, an instrumented building is located close to a borehole equipped with downhole sensors. The joint data analysis of building and borehole earthquake recordings allows the study of the behavior of the building, characteristics of the soil, and soil-structure interactions. The interferometric approach applied to recordings of the building response is particularly suitable to characterize the wave propagation inside a building, including the propagation velocity of shear waves and attenuation. Applied to borehole sensors, it gives insights into velocity changes in different layers, reflections and mode conversion, and allows the estimation of the quality factor Qs. We used combined building and borehole data from the two test sites: 1) to estimate the characteristics of wave propagation through the building to the soil and back, and 2) to obtain an empirical insight into soil-structure interactions. The two test sites represent two different building and soil types, and soil structure impedance contrasts. The wave propagation through the soil to the building and back is investigated by the joint interferometric approach. The propagation of up and down-going waves through the building and soil is clearly imaged and the reflection of P and S waves from the earth surface and the top of the building identified. An estimate of the reflected and transmitted energy amounts is given, too.

  3. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs at Area C, Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at Area C of the former Naval Air Warfare Center in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa., in support of hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Navy to address ground-water contamination in the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were collected, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were made, and borehole television surveys were run in seven boreholes ranging from 31 to 75 feet deep. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to identify fractures and the location of possible water-bearing zones. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to identify fractures that were water-bearing zones. Natural-gamma and single-point-resistance logs were used to correlate lithology across the area. Elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were measured in water samples from wells with water-bearing zones in the interval of the aquifer where monitor well HN-23A is screened. Water samples from wells with water-bearing zones above or below this interval had substantially lower concentrations of PCE. Wells screened in this interval yielded less than 0.5 gallon per minute, indicating that the interval has low permeability; this may account for the small areal extent and slow migration of PCE.

  4. A new high-precision borehole-temperature logging system used at GISP2, Greenland, and Taylor Dome, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, G.D.; Saltus, R.W.; Waddington, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a high-precision (0.1-1.0 mK) borehole-temperature (BT) logging system developed at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for use in remote polar regions. We discuss calibration, operational and data-processing procedures, and present an analysis of the measurement errors. The system is modular to facilitate calibration procedures and field repairs. By interchanging logging cables and temperature sensors, measurements can be made in either shallow air-filled boreholes or liquid-filled holes up to 7 km deep. Data can be acquired in either incremental or continuous-logging modes. The precision of data collected by the new logging system is high enough to detect and quantify various thermal effects at the milli-Kelvin level. To illustrate this capability, we present sample data from the 3 km deep borehole at GISP2, Greenland, and from a 130m deep air-filled hole at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. The precision of the processed GTSP2 continuous temperature logs is 0.25-0.34 mK, while the accuracy is estimated to be 4.5 mK. The effects of fluid convection and the dissipation of the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the borehole are clearly visible in the data. The precision of the incremental Taylor Dome measurements varies from 0.11 to 0.32mK, depending on the wind strength during the experiments. With this precision, we found that temperature fluctuations and multi-hour trends in the BT measurements correlate well with atmospheric-pressure changes.

  5. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  6. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  7. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  8. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  9. Coseismic offsets recorded by borehole strainmeters from the 2014, Mw 6.0 South Napa, California earthquake: Reconciling tidal calibrations with earthquake source models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets in tidally-calibrated strains have RMS deviation of 130 ppb from strains predicted by previously published moment tensor derived from seismic data. Here, I show that the large misfit can be reduced by a combination of better tidal calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although borehole strainmeters accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 to 18 ppb. This suggests that calibrations derived solely from tidal models limits the accuracy of borehole strainmeters. On the other hand, the revised calibration derived here becomes testable on strain measurements from future, large Bay area events.

  10. Aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E; Koppe, H

    1924-01-01

    The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

  11. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10‑7-10‑8 m/s and that of influx is about 10‑4-10‑1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  12. Simple, affordable and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hotstab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link

  13. Simple, affordable, and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2015-05-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost-effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. Here we report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerat) seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit), is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. In these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A stands for autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference); the CORK-B (B stands for bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and utilises a hot-stab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hot-stab connection from beneath in which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect porewater in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner

  14. Borehole seismic in crystalline environment at the COSC-project in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2016-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled 2.5 km deep COSC-1 borehole. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this, the Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved case of Paleozoic collision of the Laurentia and Baltica continental plates. Surface geology and geophysical data provide knowledge about the geometry of the Caledonian structure. The reflectivity geometry of the upper crust was imaged by regional seismic data and the resistivity structure by magnetotelluric methods. The crustal model was refined by seismic pre-site surveys in 2010 and 2011 to define the exact position of the first borehole, COSC-1. The completely cored COSC-1 borehole was drilled in Central Sweden through the Seve Nappe Complex, a part of the Middle Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides that comprises units originating from the outer margin of Baltica. The upper 2350 m consist of alternating layers of highly strained felsic and calc-silicate gneisses and amphibolites. Below 1710 m the mylonite content increases successively and indicates a high strain zone of at least 800 m thickness. At ca. 2350 m, the borehole leaves the Seve Nappe Complex and enters underlying mylonitised lower grade metasedimentary units of unknown tectonostratigraphic position. The seismic survey consisted of three parts: a limited 3D-survey, a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profile) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP (MSP) experiment with sources and receivers along three surface profiles and receivers at seven different depth levels of the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source was used and activated over a period of 20 s as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. The wave field was recorded with 3

  15. Borehole logging at the COSC-1 drill hole: a new dataset of in-situ geophysical properties through the lower Seve Nappe Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Théo; Alm, Per-Gunnar; Wenning, Quinn; Almqvist, Bjarne; Kück, Jochem; Hedin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) drilling project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program was designed to study mountain building processes in a deeply eroded Paleozoic orogen. The first half of this project, COSC-1, targeted the lower part of the high grade Seve Nappe Complex and its basal thrust zone near Åre in the Jämtland county, Sweden. From May to August 2014, the COSC drilling crew drilled to a depth of 2496 m from the surface with an almost fully recovered core sample. During this drilling period, four borehole-logging runs have been conducted by Lund University with a low impact on drilling schedule and two supplementary ones once the drilling was completed. Three-Arm Caliper, Electrical Logging, Sidewall Density, Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity, High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer and Full Waveform Sonic sondes have been used to investigate in-situ physical properties of the borehole. In addition, the ICDP operational support group has conducted two continuous borehole-logging runs from the surface to the bottom of the COSC-1 borehole in September and October. Due to technical problems, some of the planned logging have not been completed, however natural gamma, rock resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature and fluid conductivity have been measured all along the borehole. We used the continuous natural gamma log from the ICDP logging group as the depth reference to depth-match and stack the composite borehole logging done during the drilling. These borehole logging operations result in reliable continuous data of resistivity, density, velocity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature, fluid conductivity, pressure, diameter as well as an image (amplitude and travel time of reflected ultrasounds) of the borehole till its bottom. Only the density, velocity and image datasets stop at 1600 m depth due to instrumentation limits. Preliminary conclusions from

  16. Seasonal reorganization of subglacial drainage inferred from measurements in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Shulamit; Sharp, Martin; Hubbard, Bryn; Smart, Chris; Ketterling, Brad; Willis, Ian

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the formation of a major subglacial drainage channel on the behaviour of the subglacial drainage system of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, was investigated using measurements of borehole water level and the electrical conductivity and turbidity of basal meltwaters. Electrical conductivity profiles were also measured within borehole water columns to identify the water sources driving water level changes, and to determine patterns of water circulation in boreholes. Prior to channel formation, boreholes showed idiosyncratic and poorly coordinated behaviour. Diurnal water level fluctuations were small and driven by supraglacial/englacial water inputs, even when boreholes were connected to a subglacial drainage system. This system appeared to consist of hydraulically impermeable patches interspersed with storage spaces, and transmitted a very low water flux. Drainage reorganization, which occurred around 31 July, 1993, in response to rapidly rising meltwater and rainfall inputs, seems to have involved the creation of a connection between an incipient channel and a well-established channelized system located further down-glacier. Once a major channel existed within the area of the borehole array, borehole water level fluctuations were forced by discharge-related changes in channel water pressure, although a diversity of responses was observed. These included (i) synchronous, (ii) damped and lagged, (iii) inverse, and (iv) alternating inverse/lagged responses. Synchronous responses occurred in boreholes connected directly to the channel, while damped and lagged responses occurred in boreholes connected to it by a more resistive drainage system. Pressure variations within the channel resulted in diurnal transfer of mechanical support for the ice overburden between connected and unconnected areas of the bed, producing inverse and alternating patterns of water level response.

  17. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  18. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    PubMed

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  19. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    PubMed

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  20. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Everett C.; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  1. Large Permafrost Warming in Northern Alaska During the 1990's Determined from GTN-P Borehole Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior currently maintains 9 automated active-layer monitoring stations and an array of 21 deep boreholes in northern Alaska as part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The GTN-P network is used both for climate change detection and for documenting the sensitivity of permafrost to climate change; GTN-P is one component of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), which in turn is part of the long-term Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During August 2002, temperatures were re-measured in the majority of the DOI/GTN-P boreholes to determine the present thermal state of deep permafrost in northern Alaska. A preliminary comparison with earlier temperature logs from the borehole array shows that permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain and Alaskan Arctic Foothills has warmed ~ 3 K since the late 1980's. This warming of the Arctic cryosphere coincides with the shift in atmospheric dynamics described by the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) that also began in the late 1980's.

  2. The strong ground motion in Mexico City: array and borehole data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullé, A.; Chávez-García, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    Site response at Mexico City has been intensively studied for the last 15 years, since the disastrous 1985 earthquakes. After those events, more than 100 accelerographs were installed, and their data have been extremely useful in quantifying amplification and in the subsequent upgrading of the building code. However, detailed analysis of the wavefield has been hampered by the lack of absolute time in the records and the large spacing between stations in terms of dominant wavelengths. In 2001, thanks to the support of CONACYT, Mexico, a new dense accelerographic network was installed in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. The entire network, including an existing network of 3 surface and 2 borehole stations operated by CENAPRED, consists in 12 surface and 4 borehole stations (at 30, 102 and 50 meters). Each station has a 18 bits recorder and a GPS receiver so that the complete network is a 3D array with absolute time. The main objective of this array is to provide data that can help us to better understand the wavefield that propagates in Mexico City during large earthquakes. Last year, a small event of magnitude 6.0 was partially recorded by 6 of the 12 surface stations and all the borehole stations. We analysed the surface data using different array processing techniques such as f-k methods and MUSIC algorithm and the borehole ones using a cross-correlation method. For periods inferior to the site resonance period, the soft clay layer with very low propagation velocities (less than 500 m/s) and a possible multipathing rule the wavefield pattern. For the large period range, the dominant surface wave comes from the epicentral direction and propagates with a quicker velocity (more than 1500 m/s) that corresponds to the velocity of deep layers. The analysis of borehole data shows the presence of different quick wavetrains in the short period range that could correspond to the first harmonic modes of Rayleigh waves. To complete this study, four others events recorded in

  3. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  4. Use of borehole radar tomography to monitor steam injection in fractured limestone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, C.; Joesten, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole radar tomography was used as part of a pilot study to monitor steam-enhanced remediation of a fractured limestone contaminated with volatile organic compounds at the former Loring Air Force Base, Maine, USA. Radar tomography data were collected using 100-MHz electric-dipole antennae before and during steam injection to evaluate whether cross-hole radar methods could detect changes in medium properties resulting from the steam injection. Cross-hole levelrun profiles, in which transmitting and receiving antennae are positioned at a common depth, were made before and after the collection of each full tomography data set to check the stability of the radar instruments. Before tomographic inversion, the levelrun profiles were used to calibrate the radar tomography data to compensate for changes in traveltime and antenna power caused by instrument drift. Observed changes in cross-hole radar traveltime and attenuation before and during steam injection were small. Slowness- and attenuation-difference tomograms indicate small increases in radar slowness and attenuation at depths greater than about 22 m below the surface, consistent with increases in water temperature observed in the boreholes used for the tomography. Based on theoretical modelling results, increases in slowness and attenuation are interpreted as delineating zones where steam injection heating increased the electrical conductivity of the limestone matrix and fluid. The results of this study show the potential of cross-hole radar tomography methods to monitor the effects of steam-induced heating in fractured rock environments. ?? 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  5. Stress magnitude and orientation in deep coalbed biosphere off Shimokita ~IODP Expedition337 drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. Y.; Lin, W.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    One of IODP expedition (Borehole C0020A) is located in the forearc basin formed by the subducting between Pacific plate and Eurasian plate off Shimokita Peninsula. This ~2.5km deep scientific drilling collected the high-resolution wire-line resistivity logging, caliper data, Dipole Sonic waveforms; geophysical properties measurements and core samples. The riser drilling operations produced one good conditions borehole even this drilling operation was applied right after 311 Tohoku earthquake. Based on the high-resolutions Formation Micro Imager (FMI) images, both breakout and tensile fractures along the borehole wall indicating the in-situ stress orientation are detected in the unwrapped resistivity images. In this research, a reasonable geomechanical model based on the breakout width and physical properties is constructed to estimate the stress magnitude profile in this borehole. Besides, the openhole leak-off test revealed the information of Shmin magnitude. In general, stress direction along the borehole is slight rotated to east with drilling to the bottom of the borehole. Geomechanical model constarined the principal stresses in Strike-slip stress regime to satisfy the occurrences of borehole enlargements and tensile fractures. Some blank zones with no borehole wall failure and vertical fractures indicated the stress anomaly might be controlled by local lithological facies. Comparing to the JFAST drilling, this site is out of Japan trench slip zone and shows almost parallel stress direcion to the trench (~90 degree apart of Shmin with Site C0019).

  6. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E.; Cooper, D.C.

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  7. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  8. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  9. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  10. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  11. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  12. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  14. The Synthetic Convection Log - geophysical detection and identification of density-driven convection in monitoring wells and boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, S.

    2009-12-01

    column into sections that are characterized by density-driven flow and sections that are characterized by no density-driven convective flow. Additionally, it classifies the sections with density-driven flow according to its flow type. The applicability of the SYNCO-Log and relevance of the results is shown on the example of borehole measurements from both groundwater monitoring wells and deep boreholes of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). The research is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) under the label BO 1082/10-1 within the priority program 1006 “International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP)“.

  15. Microbial communities at the borehole observatory on the Costa Rica Rift flank (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A)

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Lisa M.; Harris, Kate; Orcutt, Beth N.; Hyde, Andrew; Clayton-Luce, Samuel; Becker, Keir; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The microbiology of subsurface, hydrothermally influenced basaltic crust flanking mid-ocean ridges has remained understudied, due to the difficulty in accessing the subsurface environment. The instrumented boreholes resulting from scientific ocean drilling offer access to samples of the formation fluids circulating through oceanic crust. We analyzed the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities of fluid and microbial mat samples collected in situ from the observatory at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A, drilled into ~6.5 million-year-old basaltic crust on the flank of the Costa Rica Rift in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from borehole fluid and from a microbial mat coating the outer surface of the fluid port revealed both unique and shared phylotypes. The dominant bacterial clones from both samples were related to the autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing genus Thiomicrospira. Both samples yielded diverse gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes, as well as members of the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Analysis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) genes (cbbL and cbbM) from the sampling port mat and from the borehole fluid demonstrated autotrophic carbon assimilation potential for in situ microbial communities; most cbbL genes were related to those of the sulfur-oxidizing genera Thioalkalivibrio and Thiomicrospira, and cbbM genes were affiliated with uncultured phylotypes from hydrothermal vent plumes and marine sediments. Several 16S rRNA gene phylotypes from the 896A observatory grouped with phylotypes recovered from seawater-exposed basalts and sulfide deposits at inactive hydrothermal vents, but there is little overlap with hydrothermally influenced basaltic boreholes 1026B and U1301A on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, suggesting that site-specific characteristics of Hole 896A (i.e., seawater mixing into borehole fluids) affect the microbial community composition. PMID

  16. Microbial communities at the borehole observatory on the Costa Rica Rift flank (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A).

    PubMed

    Nigro, Lisa M; Harris, Kate; Orcutt, Beth N; Hyde, Andrew; Clayton-Luce, Samuel; Becker, Keir; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The microbiology of subsurface, hydrothermally influenced basaltic crust flanking mid-ocean ridges has remained understudied, due to the difficulty in accessing the subsurface environment. The instrumented boreholes resulting from scientific ocean drilling offer access to samples of the formation fluids circulating through oceanic crust. We analyzed the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities of fluid and microbial mat samples collected in situ from the observatory at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A, drilled into ~6.5 million-year-old basaltic crust on the flank of the Costa Rica Rift in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from borehole fluid and from a microbial mat coating the outer surface of the fluid port revealed both unique and shared phylotypes. The dominant bacterial clones from both samples were related to the autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing genus Thiomicrospira. Both samples yielded diverse gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes, as well as members of the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Analysis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) genes (cbbL and cbbM) from the sampling port mat and from the borehole fluid demonstrated autotrophic carbon assimilation potential for in situ microbial communities; most cbbL genes were related to those of the sulfur-oxidizing genera Thioalkalivibrio and Thiomicrospira, and cbbM genes were affiliated with uncultured phylotypes from hydrothermal vent plumes and marine sediments. Several 16S rRNA gene phylotypes from the 896A observatory grouped with phylotypes recovered from seawater-exposed basalts and sulfide deposits at inactive hydrothermal vents, but there is little overlap with hydrothermally influenced basaltic boreholes 1026B and U1301A on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, suggesting that site-specific characteristics of Hole 896A (i.e., seawater mixing into borehole fluids) affect the microbial community composition.

  17. 25 years long-term deformation at Mt. Etna Continuous Borehole Tilt and Vertical GPS Displacements recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Bonforte, Alessandro; Gambino, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    In the 1980s, shallow borehole tilt measurements saw a reprise in the monitoring of geodynamic active areas, while from the beginning of the 1990s the Global Positioning System (GPS) development also provided the opportunity to repeat geodetic measurements in geodynamic and volcanic areas. At Mt. Etna, the continuous measurements from shallow borehole tiltmeters have been successfully used to infer the mechanisms of magma accumulation and intrusive processes that foreran and accompanied the several eruptions occurring during the last thirty years on this very active volcano. The long-term deformation, associated with unrest and/or eruptive phases, is expected to be larger than tectonic deformation and therefore significant long-lived trends could be detected. For the first time, we present 25 years (1990 - 2014) of continuous borehole tilt recorded at Etna volcano at different stations and vertical displacement periodically measured by GPS. We analyze long-term series that comprise several main flank eruptions, which we believe are unique in the landscape of instrumental monitoring of geodynamic active areas. The good similarity of the patterns obtained from the two independent long-term measurements (borehole tilt and GPS) confirms the long-term stability of the borehole signals, the overall reliability of vertical GPS variations and provides robust support to the interpretation on the volcano dynamics. The tilt and GPS data series reveal that during this lengthy period, there were two primary volcanic phases: i) a major recharging in the period 1994 - 2001 that culminated with the two major explosive-effusive flank eruptions in 2001 and 2002-2003, and ii) a subsequent prolonged period of re-equilibrium that was accompanied by three other effusive flank eruptions and 44 episodes of lava fountains in 2011-2013. This highlights that, in the long-term (tens of years), a single strong recharge phase may not imply a following single main eruption, but could even

  18. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ∼500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  19. Estimation of unsaturated hydraulic parameters using cross-borehole geophysics through a hydrogeophysical data fusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looms, M. C.; Scholer, M.; Binley, A.; Nielsen, L.

    2011-12-01

    Cross-borehole geophysical methods, such as cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), have been used over the past decade with wide success to monitor infiltration processes in the unsaturated zone. These minimally invasive geophysical methods can provide a valuable link between small-scale cores used for laboratory experiments (typically a few hundred cm3) and the large scaled numerical grids used in catchment modeling. Whilst these methods may offer qualitative information about flow pathways, an important question is how to best utilize the information obtained about the geophysical properties (i.e., dielectric permittivity and electrical resistivity) in order to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the subsurface. This inverse problem is highly nonlinear, typically with many local minima, making a unique and deterministic estimation non-trivial and, perhaps, futile. Furthermore, the petrophysical equations used to convert the measured properties to hydraulic state variables (i.e. moisture content and tracer concentration) introduce many uncertainties. In this study we evaluate whether cross-borehole GPR and ERT data, collected during a forced infiltration experiment into a 30-m-deep unsaturated zone, can be used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic parameters at the field site. The geophysical data is used directly in the hydrological inversion using a hydrogeophysical data fusion approach; a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion is used to fully explore the a priori parameter ranges. A coring at the site, with detailed information of the grain size distribution, is used to conceptualize the subsurface in addition to validating the findings of the inversion.

  20. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400

  1. The 1996-2009 borehole dilatometer installations, operation, and maintenance at sites in Long Valley Caldera, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myren, Glenn; Johnston, Malcolm; Mueller, Robert

    2011-01-01

    High seismicity levels with accelerating uplift (under the resurgent dome) in Long Valley caldera in the eastern Sierra Nevada from 1989 to 1997, triggered upgrades to dilational strainmeters and other instrumentation installed in the early 1980's following a series of magnitude 6 earthquakes. This included two additional high-resolution borehole strainmeters and replacement of the failed strainmeter at Devil's Postpile. The purpose of the borehole-monitoring network is to monitor crustal deformation and other geophysical parameters associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes in the Long Valley Caldera. Additional instrumentation was added at these sites to improve the capability of providing continuous monitoring of the magma source under the resurgent dome. Sites were selected in regions of hard crystalline rock, where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of an earthquake of magnitude 4 or greater is large. For the most part, the dilatometers were installed near existing arrays of surface tiltmeters, seismometers, level line, and GPS arrays. At each site, attempts are made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources in each instrument type. Each of these sites was planned to be a multi-parameter monitoring site, which included measurements of 3-component seismic velocity and acceleration, borehole strain, tilt, pore pressure and magnetic field. Using seismicity, geophysical knowledge, geologic and topographic maps, and geologists recommendations, lists of preliminary sites were chosen. Additional requirements were access, and telemetry constraints. When the final site choice was made, a permit was obtained from the U.S. Forest Service. Following this selection process, two new borehole sites were installed on the north and south side of the Long Valley Caldera in June of 1999. One site was located near Big Spring Campground to the east of Crestview. The second site was

  2. Experience in applying acoustopolarization method for rock samples from the Kola (SG-3), German (KTB) and Finnish (OKU) investigation boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Felix F.

    2013-04-01

    The Kola Superdeep Borehole (SG-3) was drilled in the NW-part of the Kola Peninsula [1]. The borehole intersected the lower Proterozoic complex (0-6848 m) of the Pechenga Formation and an Archaean granite and metamorphic complex (6848-12261 m). Our investigations show that rocks of the Archaean complex (paragneiss, metabasite, amphibolites) have high elastic anisotropy. It correlates with breakouts from the walls of the borehole and its inclination (deviation) from the vertical during drilling. Because of this when drilling SG-3 at a depth of 7.7 km to 10.1 km accidents occurred with the loss of the drill string part. Sinking the German drill hole ?-? (9101 m) was also accompanied by complications during its drilling [2]. The drill hole was drilled in the crystalline basement of the Bohemian massif in the south of Germany. The main rocks composing the massif are paragneiss, metabasite, granite and metasedimentary rocks. Our investigations of the ?-? samples from the 4.1-7.1 km interval also showed a high level of elastic anisotropy. The investigation drill hole Outokumpu (OKU) located in SE Finland, reached a final depth of 2516 m. The drill hole has passed through mica schists, biotite gneiss, serpentinite and pegmatite granite. Excluding pegmatite granite, all rocks have a high level of elastic anisotropy. Joint analyses of rock samples from SG-3, ?-? and OKU showed that the use of the acoustopolariscopy method can reveal intervals with breakouts and inclinations of the drill hole from the vertical. Elastic anisotropy monitoring of rocks performed by the acoustopolariscopy method will prevent accidents during sinking wells. 1. Gorbatsevich, F.F. & Smirnov, Yu.P. 2000. Kola Superdeep Borehole: 3-D model of elastic anisotropy of crystalline rocks in the upper and middle crust. In: The results of the study of the deep substance and physical processes in the Kola Superdeep Borehole section down to a depth of 12261 m. (Eds. F.P. Mitrofanov, F.F. Gorbatsevich). Apatity

  3. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  4. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  5. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Instrumental networks for monitoring short-period tectonic motions in seismic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    For some years the monitoring of crustal movements in seismic zones has consisted mainly of periodic resurvey measurements using triangulation, trilateration, leveling, and gravity measurements. The frequency of remeasurements has been limited by the costs. Some fixed instruments have contributed also, such as creepmeters, tidegages, and devices for measuring tilts in lake levels. A number of inexpensive, shallow-borehole tiltmeters were installed recently in the U.S.A., but so far the noise level due to local ground motions appears to be fairly high for many instruments. Volumetric strainmeters are being used in several countries. 700 meter long laser strainmeters and a superconducting gravimeter have been in operation for several years at one site in California. Other simpler strainmeters and tiltmeters exist at a number of locations in seismic zones. Recently there has been increased interest both in trying to obtain frequent observations with fixed instruments and in reducing the noise level. Long-baseline liquid tiltmeters, deep-borehole tiltmeters, superconducting gravimeters, multi-wavelength laser distance-measuring devices, and laser strainmeters are capable of improved accuracy. However, they are more expensive than most previously used instruments. An additional future possibility is to use signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites to monitor networks of points. The accuracy would be limited almost completely by uncertainty in the water-vapor corrections along the various satellite-to-ground propagation paths. It seems possible that 1 cm accuracy for detecting baseline changes with very low false alarm rates can be achieved by using water-vapor radiometers at many of the sites, provided that sufficient accuracy can be achieved with the radiometers. Highly mobile instruments are being constructed in the U.S.A. which will use the spread-spectrum GPS signals as noise sources for long baseline radio interferometry. Initial tests using the

  7. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  8. Heat-flow determination in three DSDP boreholes near the Japan trench

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, T.K.; Langseth, M.G.

    1981-10-10

    The first deep borehole determinations of temperature gradients and heat flow of the landward wall of the Japan Trench and forearc were made on IPOD DSDP leg 57. These heat flow values are based on temperature logs corrected to equilibrium, using a detailed model of the drilling disturbance. Heat flow values on a deeply submerged terrace, landward of the trench slope break are 28 and 32 mW m/sup -2/. A measurement in the midslope terrace basin on the landward wall of the trench yielded a value of 22 mW m/sup -2/. The results are in good agreement with earlier seafloor measurements and indicate that most of the forearc area is characterized by heat flow about one half of that over oceanic lithosphere seaward of the trench. Our observations indicate only a small increase of heat flow from the trench to the volcanic arc, in agreement with thermal models, which suggests that the subduction of the relatively cold oceanic plate continues to dominate the temperature structure for distances of up to 250 km landward of the trench. The temperature profile in the borehole on the midslope terrace indicates possible vertical flow of pore waters. Hundreds of conductivity determinations were made using a new technique.

  9. The application of moment methods to the analysis of fluid electrical conductivity logs in boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, S. ); Tsang, Chin-Fu; Hale, F.V. ); Hufschmied, P. , Baden )

    1990-08-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Previous reports have presented a procedure for analyzing a time sequence of wellbore electric conductivity logs in order to obtain outflow parameters of fractures intercepted by the borehole, and a code, called BORE, used to simulate borehole fluid conductivity profiles given these parameters. The present report describes three new direct (not iterative) methods for analyzing a short time series of electric conductivity logs based on moment quantities of the individual outflow peaks and applies them to synthetic as well as to field data. The results of the methods discussed show promising results and are discussed in terms of their respective advantages and limitations. In particular it is shown that one of these methods, the so-called Partial Moment Method,'' is capable of reproducing packer test results from field experiments in the Leuggern deep well within a factor of three, which is below the range of what is recognized as the precision of packer tests themselves. Furthermore the new method is much quicker than the previously used iterative fitting procedure and is even capable of handling transient fracture outflow conditions. 20 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  11. Negative hysteresis effect observed during calibration of the US Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Ganow, H.C.

    1985-08-01

    The US Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gauge (BMG) was designed in the early 1960`s to allow rock stress measurements by the overcoring method. Since that time it has become a de facto standard against which the performance of other borehole deformation gauges is often judged. However, during recent in situ stress studies in the Climax Stock at the Nevada Test Site a strange "negative hysteresis" in the order of 300 to 500 microstrains was observed in standard calibration data. Here, the relaxation curve lies below the indentation (compression) curves as if the system were to somehow respond with an energy release. Therefore, a precision micro-indentation apparatus has been designed and used to perform a series of tests allowing a better understanding of the BMG button to cantilever interaction. Results indicate that the hysteresis effect is caused by differential motion between the button base and the cantilever resulting from the geometric motion inherent in the cantilever. The very large apparent hysteresis is mainly caused by cycling opposing cantilevers through the instrument`s entire dynamic range, and the fundamental imprecision inherent in use of the standard micrometers to calibrate the BMG. Laboratory mean hysteresis magnitudes for a polished cantilever typically range from 3 to 25 microstrain for 100 and 1000 microstrain relaxations on 1000 microstrain deflection loops intended to simulate typical field data. The error percentage is thought to remain fairly constant with deformation loop size, and is sufficiently small such that it can be safely ignored. The hysteresis effect can probably be reduced, and instrument stability improved by machining a small 90 degree cone in the cantilever in which a slightly larger mating cone on the base of the indentation button would reside. 5 refs. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shihong

    numerical method is stable and efficient for the simulation of wave propagation in boreholes surrounded by complex invasion zones. Additional tests of the inversion algorithm are performed on array waveform data acquired in a low-porosity gas field. Mud-filtrate invasion effects are not measurable on the estimated P- and S-wave velocities for depths of invasion around 2--3 borehole diameters. Acoustic log corrections performed with the Blot-Gassmann fluid substitution model can only be used for the case of deep invasion. The inversion examples indicate that physically consistent radial profiles of formation density and P- and S-wave velocities can be reconstructed from array waveform data.

  13. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of borehole profiling using a temperature probe for identifying hydraulically active fractures in rock has improved due to the combination of two advances: improved temperature sensors, with resolution on the order of 0.001 °C, and temperature profiling within water inflated flexible impermeable liners used to temporarily seal boreholes from hydraulic cross-connection. The open-hole cross-connection effects dissipate after inflation, so that both the groundwater flow regime and the temperature distribution return to the ambient (background) condition. This paper introduces a third advancement: the use of an electrical heating cable that quickly increases the temperature of the entire static water column within the lined hole and thus places the entire borehole and its immediate vicinity into thermal disequilibrium with the broader rock mass. After heating for 4-6 h, profiling is conducted several times over a 24 h period as the temperature returns to background conditions. This procedure, referred to as the Active Line Source (ALS) method, offers two key improvements over prior methods. First, there is no depth limit for detection of fractures with flow. Second, both identification and qualitative comparison of evidence for ambient groundwater flow in fractures is improved throughout the entire test interval. The benefits of the ALS method are demonstrated by comparing results from two boreholes tested to depths of 90 and 120 m in a dolostone aquifer used for municipal water supply and in which most groundwater flow occurs in fractures. Temperature logging in the lined holes shows many fractures in the heterothermic zone both with and without heating, but only the ALS method shows many hydraulically active fractures in the deeper homothermic portion of the hole. The identification of discrete groundwater flow at many depths is supported by additional evidence concerning fracture occurrence, including continuous core visual inspection

  14. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  15. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  16. Near-surface velocities and attenuation at two boreholes near Anza, California, from logging data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Fumal, T.; Hsi-Ping, Liu; Carroll, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate near-surface site effects in granite rock, we drilled 300-m deep boreholes at two sites which are collocated with stations from the digital array at Anza, California. Significant motion perpendicular to the polarizations of the first shear-wave arrival was recorded within a few meters of the surface. Apparently, the rock structure is sufficiently complicated that body waves are being converted (SH to SV at oblique incidence) very close to the surface. The presence of these elliptical particle motions within a mere few m of the pure shear-wave source suggests that the detection of polarizations perpendicular to the main shear arrival at a single location at the surface is not, by itself, a good method for detecting shear-wave splitting within the upper few tens of kilometers of the earth's crust. -from Authors

  17. Characterizing the Weeks Island Salt Dome drilling of and seismic measurements from boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Harding, R.S.; Jacobson, R.D.; Finger, J.T.; Keefe, R.; Neal, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    A sinkhole 36 ft across, 30 ft deep was first observed in the alluvium over the Weeks Island Salt Dome (salt mine converted for oil storage by US Strategic Petroleum Reserve) May 1992. Four vertical, two slanted boreholes were drilled for diagnostics. Crosswell seismic data were generated; the velocity images suggest that the sinkhole collapse is complicated, not a simple vertical structure. The coring operation was moderately difficult; limited core was obtained through the alluvium, and the quality of the salt core from the first two vertical wells was poor. Core quality improved with better bit selection, mud, and drilling method. The drilling fluid program provided fairly stable holes allowing open hole logs to be run. All holes were cemented successfully (although it took 3 attempts in one case).

  18. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  19. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of granite and its effects on borehole stability in high temperature and three-dimensional stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Bao-lin; Zhu, Hai-yan; Yan, Chuan-liang; Li, Zhi-jun; Wang, Zhi-qiao

    2014-01-01

    When exploiting the deep resources, the surrounding rock readily undergoes the hole shrinkage, borehole collapse, and loss of circulation under high temperature and high pressure. A series of experiments were conducted to discuss the compressional wave velocity, triaxial strength, and permeability of granite cored from 3500 meters borehole under high temperature and three-dimensional stress. In light of the coupling of temperature, fluid, and stress, we get the thermo-fluid-solid model and governing equation. ANSYS-APDL was also used to stimulate the temperature influence on elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability. In light of the results, we establish a temperature-fluid-stress model to illustrate the granite's stability. The compressional wave velocity and elastic modulus, decrease as the temperature rises, while poisson ratio and permeability of granite increase. The threshold pressure and temperature are 15 MPa and 200 °C, respectively. The temperature affects the fracture pressure more than the collapse pressure, but both parameters rise with the increase of temperature. The coupling of thermo-fluid-solid, greatly impacting the borehole stability, proves to be a good method to analyze similar problems of other formations. PMID:24778592

  20. Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Granite and Its Effects on Borehole Stability in High Temperature and Three-Dimensional Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bao-lin, Liu; Hai-yan, Zhu; Chuan-liang, Yan; Zhi-jun, Li; Zhi-qiao, Wang

    2014-01-01

    When exploiting the deep resources, the surrounding rock readily undergoes the hole shrinkage, borehole collapse, and loss of circulation under high temperature and high pressure. A series of experiments were conducted to discuss the compressional wave velocity, triaxial strength, and permeability of granite cored from 3500 meters borehole under high temperature and three-dimensional stress. In light of the coupling of temperature, fluid, and stress, we get the thermo-fluid-solid model and governing equation. ANSYS-APDL was also used to stimulate the temperature influence on elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability. In light of the results, we establish a temperature-fluid-stress model to illustrate the granite's stability. The compressional wave velocity and elastic modulus, decrease as the temperature rises, while poisson ratio and permeability of granite increase. The threshold pressure and temperature are 15 MPa and 200°C, respectively. The temperature affects the fracture pressure more than the collapse pressure, but both parameters rise with the increase of temperature. The coupling of thermo-fluid-solid, greatly impacting the borehole stability, proves to be a good method to analyze similar problems of other formations. PMID:24778592

  1. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of granite and its effects on borehole stability in high temperature and three-dimensional stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Bao-lin; Zhu, Hai-yan; Yan, Chuan-liang; Li, Zhi-jun; Wang, Zhi-qiao

    2014-01-01

    When exploiting the deep resources, the surrounding rock readily undergoes the hole shrinkage, borehole collapse, and loss of circulation under high temperature and high pressure. A series of experiments were conducted to discuss the compressional wave velocity, triaxial strength, and permeability of granite cored from 3500 meters borehole under high temperature and three-dimensional stress. In light of the coupling of temperature, fluid, and stress, we get the thermo-fluid-solid model and governing equation. ANSYS-APDL was also used to stimulate the temperature influence on elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability. In light of the results, we establish a temperature-fluid-stress model to illustrate the granite's stability. The compressional wave velocity and elastic modulus, decrease as the temperature rises, while poisson ratio and permeability of granite increase. The threshold pressure and temperature are 15 MPa and 200 °C, respectively. The temperature affects the fracture pressure more than the collapse pressure, but both parameters rise with the increase of temperature. The coupling of thermo-fluid-solid, greatly impacting the borehole stability, proves to be a good method to analyze similar problems of other formations.

  2. A simple pendulum borehole tiltmeter based on a triaxial optical-fibre displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawah, P.; Chéry, J.; Boudin, F.; Cattoen, M.; Seat, H. C.; Plantier, G.; Lizion, F.; Sourice, A.; Bernard, P.; Brunet, C.; Boyer, D.; Gaffet, S.

    2015-11-01

    Sensitive instruments like strainmeters and tiltmeters are necessary for measuring slowly varying low amplitude Earth deformations. Nonetheless, laser and fibre interferometers are particularly suitable for interrogating such instruments due to their extreme precision and accuracy. In this paper, a practical design of a simple pendulum borehole tiltmeter based on laser fibre interferometric displacement sensors is presented. A prototype instrument has been constructed using welded borosilicate with a pendulum length of 0.85 m resulting in a main resonance frequency of 0.6 Hz. By implementing three coplanar extrinsic fibre Fabry-Perot interferometric probes and appropriate signal filtering, our instrument provides tilt measurements that are insensitive to parasitic deformations caused by temperature and pressure variations. This prototype has been installed in an underground facility (Rustrel, France) where results show accurate measurements of Earth strains derived from Earth and ocean tides, local hydrologic effects, as well as local and remote earthquakes. The large dynamic range and the high sensitivity of this tiltmeter render it an invaluable tool for numerous geophysical applications such as transient fault motion, volcanic strain and reservoir monitoring.

  3. A joint TEM-HLEM geophysical approach to borehole sitting in deeply weathered granitic terrains.

    PubMed

    Meju, M A; Fontes, S L; Ulugergerli, E U; La Terra, E F; Germano, C R; Carvalho, R M

    2001-01-01

    The accurate location of aquiferous fracture zones in granite beneath a > 50 m thick weathered mantle in semi-arid regions is a major hydrogeological problem. It is expected that the zone of intensive fracturing will be more susceptible to weathering and thus be characterized by the thickest development of saprolite, a good electrically conductive target for deep-probing electromagnetic systems. The single-loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) technique is well known to have the capability for detecting concealed steep mineralized targets in mining environments and can be adapted to this hydrogeological problem. We propose that combining the conventional frequency-domain horizontal-loop electromagnetic (HLEM) and single-loop TEM is an effective practical approach to locating concealed aquiferous fracture zones. In the supporting case studies presented here, we deployed multifrequency HLEM profiling (with 50 m transmitter-receiver separation) and TEM soundings with contiguous 10 or 20 m sided loops along the survey lines in a granitic terrain affected by deep (> 50 m) weathering in northeast Brazil. A somewhat layered structure consisting of resistive hardpan/leached zone, conductive saprolite, and resistive basement is identifiable in the typical TEM depth sounding data. We obtained coincident HLEM and TEM anomalies at all the sites, enabling a relatively straightforward selection of potential drilling positions. Simple resistivity-depth transformation of the TEM data was done for each site, yielding an approximate section from which drilling depths were estimated. All of the boreholes located were successful. Although our results appear to indicate that the single-loop TEM method could be used independently for borehole sitting in deeply weathered granitic terrains and that the weathering profile over granite can be mapped using TEM depth soundings of appropriate observational bandwidth, we recommend a joint electromagnetic approach for optimal well sitting.

  4. Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Johnson Paul A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Guyer, Robert; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.

  5. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  6. Hydrologic Monitoring in the Deep Subsurface to Support Repository Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Heath, G. L.; Scott, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INL has installed and operated several vadose and ground water monitoring systems in arid and humid sites to depths of about 200m. Some of these systems have been in continuous operation for over 12 years. It is important that the systems be physically robust, simple, yet versatile enough that it can operate for extended time periods with little or no maintenance. Monitoring instruments are frequently installed and run to characterize the site, collect data during site operation, and continue to run for long-term stewardship, necessitating sensors that can be maintained or serviced. Sensors are carefully chosen based on the perceived data requirements over the life of the site. An emphasis is given on direct measurements such as tensiometers (portable and advanced), neutron probe, drain gauge, temperature, wells or sampling for fluids and gases. Other complementary data can include using TDR/capacitance, radiation detectors, and larger scale geophysical techniques (3-d resistivity and EM) for volumetric measurements. Commercially available instruments may have to be modified for their use at greater depths, to allow multiple instruments in a single borehole or to perform the intended monitoring function. Access tubes (some open at the bottom) can be placed to allow insertion of multiple sensors (radiation, neutron and portable sensors/samplers), future drilling/sampling and to install new instruments at a later time. The installation techniques and backfill materials must be chosen and the measurement technique tested to ensure representative data collection for the parameters of interest. The data collection system can be linked to climatic data (precipitation, barometric pressure, snow depth, runoff, surface water sources) that may influence the site's subsurface hydrology. The instruments are then connected to a real-time automated data collection system that collect, stores, and provides access to the data. These systems have been developed that allow easy

  7. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  8. Rupture Process for Hayward Microearthquakes Inferred from Borehole Seismic Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in the San Francisco Bay Area, California is one of the major strands of the San Andreas fault system, extending for about 70 km. Crustal deformation along the HF is characterized by a wide variety of fault slip behaviors from aseismic creep to stick-slip earthquake including a Mw ~6.8 earthquake in 1868. We here document the high-resolution imaging of the rupture models for the recent M 3+ HF earthquakes by making use of waveforms from the Hayward Fault Network (HFN). The HFN is an array of borehole seismic instrumentation and provides an unprecedented high-resolution coverage of the earthquake source study for HF earthquakes. Using the finite-source rupture inversion with an empirical Green's function approach, we find a variety of rupture propagations including subevents, directivity, and high stress drop. Our finite-source modeling reveals a complex slip distribution for the 2013 Mw 3.2 Orinda earthquake that is characterized by a patch of slip with a maximum slip of 4 cm concentrated near the hypocenter at about 6.6 km depth, with a large secondary patch of slip (peak slip of 2 cm) centered up-dip and southeast from the hypocenter at a distance of about 400 m away. The two subevents release 43% and 23% of the total seismic moment (6.7 x 1013 N m) and the inferred peak stress drops are 18 MPa and 10 MPa. The 2011 Mw 4.0 Berkeley and 2012 Mw 4.0 El Cerrito earthquakes are marked by high stress drop. The inferred peak and mean stress drops are about 130-165 MPa and 45 MPa, respectively, which suggests that there are locally high levels of the fault strength on the HF. Our finite-source modeling suggests that the radiation efficiency determined for these two earthquakes is very low (< 0.1) and implies that majority of energy is dissipated during the earthquake rupture process.

  9. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  11. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  12. Borehole Water Level Measurements in Kamchatka and Broadband Records of Very Large (M≧7.6) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimova, V.; Kopylova, G.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of seismic waves from distant very large earthquakes can be accompanied by various changes in the groundwater mode. Such effects are observed at distances up to thousands of kilometers from the epicenter and indicate a change in the stress-strain state of geological environment. One of the methods of geophysical monitoring of seismically active regions is the water level observations in the boreholes. Different variations of water level caused by the passage of seismic waves from the very large earthquakes are recorded in piezometric boreholes in Kamchatka. In connection with the very large earthquakes it was observed four types of variations of water level in borehole UZ-5 (Kamchatka, Russia). To quantify the impact of the characteristics of seismic waves on the state of groundwater can be used assess the amplitude and frequency of maximum phase ground motion (velocity, displacement and acceleration) according to the registration of seismic signals of broadband seismic instrumentation. The purpose of this study is to determine the dependence of expression of different types of variations of water level in borehole UZ-5 from the amplitude and frequency of seismic signals from the very large earthquakes recorded by IRIS seismic equipment on the seismic station Petropavlovsk (s/s PET). We used records of earthquakes since 1997, M≧7.6 and 10-minute data of water level meter observations on the borehole UZ-5. Analysis of seismic signals in the time and frequency-time domain with the assessment times, amplitudes and periods of maximum oscillation phases was carried out using the interactive software DIMAS. The restoration of initial ground motion (displacement, acceleration) was carried out. The evaluation of amplitudes and frequency content of maximum oscillation phases of ground and the comparison with the variations of water level in the hole UZ-5 was executed. Dependences of the amplitude-frequency content of maximum oscillation phases of ground

  13. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California: Part I, description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, Gary S.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Ryberg, Trond; Benthien, Mark L.; Simila, Gerry; Perron, J. Taylor; Yong, Alan K.; Reusser, Luke; Lutter, William J.; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell; Van Schaack, John R.; Criley, Edward E.; Kaderabek, Ronald; Kohler, Will M.; Magnuski, Nickolas H.

    2001-01-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The purpose of this project is to produce seismic images of the subsurface of the Los Angeles region down to the depths at which earthquakes occur, and deeper, in order to remedy a deficit in our knowledge of the deep structure of this region. This deficit in knowledge has persisted despite over a century of oil exploration and nearly 70 years of recording earthquakes in southern California. Understanding the deep crustal structure and tectonics of southern California is important to earthquake hazard assessment. Specific imaging targets of LARSE include (a) faults, especially blind thrust faults, which cannot be reliably detected any other way; and (b) the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins. Imaging of faults is important in both earthquake hazard assessment but also in modeling earthquake occurrence. Earthquake occurrence cannot be understood unless the earthquake-producing "machinery" (tectonics) is known (Fuis and others, 2001). Imaging the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins is important because earthquake shaking at the surface is enhanced by basin depth and by the presence of sharp basin edges (Wald and Graves, 1998, Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995; Field and others, 2001). (Sedimentary basins are large former valleys now filled with sediment eroded from nearby mountains.) Sedimentary basins in the Los Angeles region that have been investigated by LARSE include the Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando Valley, and Santa Clarita Valley basins. The seismic imaging surveys of LARSE include recording of earthquakes (both local and distant earthquakes) along several corridors (or transects) through the Los Angeles region and also recording of man-made sources along these same corridors. Man-made sources have included airguns offshore and borehole

  14. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  15. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  16. Report on the Test and Evaluation of the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q730B Borehole Digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    KROMER,RICHARD P.; MCDONALD,TIMOTHY S.

    1999-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q730B-bb (broadband) and Q730B-sp (short period) borehole installation remote digitizers. The test results included in this report were for response to static and dynamic input signals, seismic application performance, data time-tag accuracy, and reference signal generator (calibrator) performance. Most test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and P1241 (Preliminary Draft) for Analog to Digital Converters; others were designed by Sandia specifically for seismic application evaluation and for supplementary criteria not addressed in the IEEE standards. When appropriate, test instrumentation calibration is traceable to the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST).

  17. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  18. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...) Boreholes shall be drilled in such a manner to insure that the advancing face will not accidently break...

  19. PBO Borehole Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    A major goal of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) was to enable researchers to study the role aseismic transients play in the earthquake cycle. To attain this goal the Observatory includes 75 borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in targeted regions, one being the area to the north and east of San Francisco. The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake was the largest earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area in 25 years and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the response of BSMs to a nearby strong earthquake and analyze the temporal evolution of the postseismic shear strains. In this presentation we will document the co and postseismic signals recorded by the two PBO BSMs in the area, one in Lucas Valley, north of San Francisco, at 30 km from the epicenter and the other in the East Bay, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the event. One month after the event the Lucas Valley instrument continues to record a large postseismic signal in the shear strains. We will compare the coseismic offsets as recorded by the BSMs with those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and with those recorded by nearby USGS borehole instruments and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at the Lucas Valley strainmeter. UNAVCO operates a network of 1100 GPS sites and 75 BSMs as part of the NSF funded PBO program. For information on the PBO network see http://www.unavco.org/projects/major-projects/pbo/pbo.html , for further information on PBO BSM design, installation techniques and suite of data products see http://www.unavco.org/data/strain-seismic/bsm-data/bsm-data.html.

  20. Improved analysis of borehole ground penetrating radar to monitor transient water flow in the vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    Measuring the relative apparent dielectric permittivity of the subsurface is an easy and inexpensive way to indirectly obtain the volumetric water content. Many of the instruments that measure the dielectric, specifically borehole ground penetrating radar, rely on the travel time of an electromagnetic wave through a moist soil. Through inversion of the travel time, the water content can be calculated provided the path over which the wave travels is known exactly. In traditional interpretations of water content, the travel path of the electromagnetic wave is assumed to be direct from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna, irregardless of the propagation velocity structure. A new analysis is presented for the interpretation of first arrival travel time measurements from borehole ground penetrating radar during zero-offset profiling that considers critically refracted ray paths. By considering critical refraction at interfaces between contrasting propagation velocities, the travel path becomes dependent upon the velocity structure. Several infiltration experiments were performed to test whether critical refraction occurs in the subsurface. The infiltrating water will change the velocity structure of the subsurface in a predictable manner. The interpretations of travel time were then compared to predictions made with an unsaturated flow model and supporting instrumentation. It was found that when critical refraction was not considered, the volumetric water content was underestimated by up to 30%. Correcting for critical refractions, therefore, becomes an important step in properly characterizing the subsurface. The new analysis presented herein may improve our ability to use direct measurements in water resource management practices to assess water availability in semi arid regions.

  1. TRENDS IN BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION: ASSAYING AND REMOTE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    Several borehole geophysical techniques have been developed in recent years. Assaying technique development has been concentrated on nuclear methods, with some progress being made on using electrical and magnetic properties for mineral identification. Adaptation of conventional surface geophysical techniques to the borehole for locating near-misses of mineralized zones has led to the development of borehole resistivity, electromagnetic (EM), gravity and magnetic methods to the borehole environment. This paper discusses some of the applications and pitfalls of these new techniques.

  2. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  3. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  4. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  6. Borehole Stability Analysis of Horizontal Drilling in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jun-Liang; Deng, Jin-Gen; Tan, Qiang; Yu, Bao-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Chun

    2013-09-01

    Serious wellbore instability occurs frequently during horizontal drilling in shale gas reservoirs. The conventional forecast model of in situ stresses is not suitable for wellbore stability analysis in laminated shale gas formations because of the inhomogeneous mechanical properties of shale. In this study, a new prediction method is developed to calculate the in situ stresses in shale formations. The pore pressure near the borehole is heterogeneous along both the radial and tangential directions due to the inhomogeneity in the mechanical properties and permeability. Therefore, the stress state around the wellbore will vary with time after the formation is drained. Besides, based on the experimental results, a failure criterion is verified and applied to determine the strength of Silurian shale in the Sichuan Basin, including the long-term strength of gas shale. Based on this work, horizontal well borehole stability is analyzed by the new in situ stress prediction model. Finally, the results show that the collapse pressure will be underestimated if the conventional model is used in shale gas reservoirs improperly. The collapse pressure of a horizontal well is maximum at dip angle of 45°. The critical mud weight should be increased constantly to prevent borehole collapse if the borehole is exposed for some time.

  7. Borehole televiewer for fracture detection and cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.; Clerke, E.A.

    1991-02-12

    This patent describes a method for acoustically logging a borehole in the earth to detect anomalies in the earth formation beyond the wall of the borehole. It comprises generating a plurality of narrow beam acoustic pulses with a rotating transducer at a first location in the borehole, wherein the complete circumference of the borehole at the first location is scanned by the pulses; receiving at the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses and producing a first electrical signal; receiving at a second location vertically spaced from the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses with a single element annular thin film omnidirectional receiver and producing a second electrical signal; recording the first and second electrical signals to provide a visual display of the elapsed time between the generating of the acoustic pulses and the occurrence of reflection events from the anomalies in the first and second electrical signals; and analyzing the display to locate the position of the anomalies.

  8. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  10. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  11. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  12. Comparison of phase velocities from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and results calculated from borehole shear-wave velocity profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Boore, David M.; Joyner, William B.; Oppenheimer, David H.; Warrick, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenbo; Hamilton, John C.; Brown, Leo T.

    2000-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities (VS) are widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. VS data are now largely obtained using borehole methods. Drilling holes, however, is expensive. Nonintrusive surface methods are inexpensive for obtaining VS information, but not many comparisons with direct borehole measurements have been published. Because different assumptions are used in data interpretation of each surface method and public safety is involved in site characterization for engineering structures, it is important to validate the surface methods by additional comparisons with borehole measurements. We compare results obtained from a particular surface method (array measurement of surface waves associated with microtremor) with results obtained from borehole methods. Using a 10-element nested-triangular array of 100-m aperture, we measured surface-wave phase velocities at two California sites, Garner Valley near Hemet and Hollister Municipal Airport. The Garner Valley site is located at an ancient lake bed where water-saturated sediment overlies decomposed granite on top of granite bedrock. Our array was deployed at a location where seismic velocities had been determined to a depth of 500 m by borehole methods. At Hollister, where the near-surface sediment consists of clay, sand, and gravel, we determined phase velocities using an array located close to a 60-m deep borehole where downhole velocity logs already exist. Because we want to assess the measurements uncomplicated by uncertainties introduced by the inversion process, we compare our phase-velocity results with the borehole VS depth profile by calculating fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from an earth model constructed from the borehole data. For wavelengths less than ~2 times of the array aperture at Garner Valley, phase-velocity results from array measurements agree with the calculated Rayleigh-wave velocities to better than 11%. Measurement errors become larger for wavelengths 2

  13. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  14. Sonde with rotatable pad for carrying out logging measurements in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Desbrandes, R.; Norel, G.

    1981-09-15

    The sonde comprises a measuring wheel carried by an arm which holds it in contact with the borehole wall and rotates it around the sonde axis so that the measuring wheel follows a helical path on the borehole wall as the sonde is raised in the borehole.

  15. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  16. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  17. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  18. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  19. The deep space network, volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The deep space instrumentation facility, the ground communications facility, and the network control system are described. Other areas reported include: Helios Mission support, DSN support of the Mariner Mars 1971 extended mission, Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 mission support, Viking mission support, radio science, tracking and ground-based navigation, network control and data processing, and deep space stations.

  20. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  1. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  2. Geotechnical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, G. E.; Mikkelsen, P. E.; Mayne, P. W.; Frost, D. D.; Dowding, C. H.

    1988-12-01

    The 11 papers in the report deal with the following areas: deformation measurements with inclinometers; dilatometer experience in Washington, D.C., and vicinity; ground vibration monitoring instrumentation and computerized surveillance; instrumentation for tests of piles subjected to axial loading; use of the wave equation by the North Carolina Department of Transportation; NYSDOT's construction control of pile foundations with dynamic pile testing; discussion of procedures for the determination of pile capacity; modern specification of driven pile work; analysis of laterally loaded piles with nonlinear bending behavior; unified design of piles and pile groups, and LTBASE, a computer program for the analysis of laterally loaded piers including base and slope effects.

  3. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  4. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change, which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Additionally, a surface microearthquake observation array, consisting of 8-10 seismometers around the borehole is established to obtain continuous high resolution locations of micro-seismicity and to better understand the existing seismically active structures and their roles in local tectonic settings.Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is

  5. SPIRE instrument for FIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Matthew J.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Vigroux, Laurent G.

    2000-07-01

    SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, will be a bolometer instrument for ESA's FIRST satellite. Its main scientific goals are deep extragalactic and galactic imaging surveys and spectroscopy of star-forming regions in own and nearby galaxies. The SPIRE detectors are feedhorn- coupled NTD spider-web bolometers. The instrument comprises a three-band imaging photometer covering the 250 - 500 micrometers range, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200 - 670 micrometers . The photometer has a field of view of 4 X 8 arcminutes which is observed simultaneously at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers with dichroic beam dividers separating the three spectral bands. Its angular resolution is determined by the telescope diffraction limit, with FWHM beam widths of approximately 17, 24 and 35 arcseconds at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers , respectively. An internal beam steering mirror can be used for spatial modulation of the telescope beam, and observations can also be made by scanning the telescope without chopping, providing better sensitivity for source confusion-limited deep surveys. The FTS has a field of view of 2.6 arcminutes and an adjustable spectral resolution of 0.04 - 2 cm-1 ((lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) equals 20 - 1000 at 250 micrometers ). It employs a dual-beam configuration with novel broad-band intensity beam dividers to provide high efficiency and separated output and input ports.

  6. Deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  7. Deep learning.

    PubMed

    LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-28

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  8. Deep learning.

    PubMed

    LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-28

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech. PMID:26017442

  9. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ``area characterization`` phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ``Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.``

  10. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  11. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-10

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  12. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  13. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Wellbore breakouts of the main borehole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) and determination of the present tectonic stress state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jun-wen; Wang, Lian-jie; Li, Pengwu; Tang, Zhe-min; Sun, Dong-sheng

    2009-09-01

    The Sulu-Dabie high-pressure (HP)-ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt as the product of subduction-collision between the northern China plate and Yangtze plate underwent a process of formation and evolution from deep subduction→exhumation→extension→slow uplift. The study of its modern tectonic stress field has great significance for a complete understanding of the process of formation and evolution of the HP-UHP metamorphic belt, especially the exhumation and uplift of the belt. Wellbore breakouts are the most visual tectonic phenomenon which can characterize the modern stress action in the main borehole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD). Ultrasonic borehole televiewer reflection wave data show that wellbore breakouts began to occur at 1216 m depth of the main borehole. A total of 143 borehole televiewer images were collected from 1216 to 5118 m depth (hole completion depth). After data processing and statistics, the average azimuth of the long dimension of the wellbore breakout obtained was 319.5° ± 3.5°, indicating that the average azimuth of the maximum horizontal principal stress causing wellbore breakout initiation was 49.5° ± 3.5°. The maximum and minimum horizontal principal stress values at 52 depths in the interval of 1269 to 5047 m were estimated using the elements of wellbore shapes (wellbore depth and width), combined with the cohesive strength and internal frictional angle of the rock obtained by rock mechanical tests on samples, and the static load stresses at corresponding depths were calculated according to the rock density logging data. The results indicate that: the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses are 41.4 and 25.3 MPa at 1269 m depth respectively and 164.7 and 122 MPa at 5047 m depth respectively; the maximum vertical stress is 141.3 MPa at 5047 m depth with a density of 2.8 g/cm 3; the in-situ stresses increase nearly linearly with depth. The magnitudes and directions of the three principal

  15. A Comparison of Microbial Communities from Deep Igneous Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Flores, G. E.; Fisk, M. R.; Colwell, F. S.; Thurber, A. R.; Mason, O. U.; Popa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Recent investigations of life in Earth's crust have revealed common themes in organism function, taxonomy, and diversity. Capacities for hydrogen oxidation, carbon fixation, methanogenesis and methanotrophy, iron and sulfur metabolisms, and hydrocarbon degradation often predominate in deep life communities, and crustal mineralogy has been hypothesized as a driving force for determining deep life community assemblages. Recently, we found that minerals characteristic of the igneous crust harbored unique communities when incubated in the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank borehole IODP 1301A. Here we present attached mineral biofilm morphologies and a comparison of our mineral communities to those from a variety of locations, contamination states, and igneous crustal or mineralogical types. We found that differences in borehole mineral communities were reflected in biofilm morphologies. Olivine biofilms were thick, carbon-rich films with embedded cells of uniform size and shape and often contained secondary minerals. Encrusted cells, spherical and rod-shaped cells, and tubes were indicative of glass surfaces. We also found that the attached communities from incubated borehole minerals were taxonomically more similar to native, attached communities from marine and continental crust than to communities from the aquifer water that seeded it. Our findings further support the hypothesis that mineralogy selects for microbial communities that have distinct phylogenetic, morphological, and potentially functional, signatures. This has important implications for resolving ecosystem function and microbial distributions in igneous crust, the largest deep habitat on Earth.

  16. Petrography of Permian "Gondwana" coals from boreholes in northwestern Bangladesh, based on semiautomated reflectance scanning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bostick, N.H.; Betterton, W.J.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Nazrul, Islam M.

    1991-01-01

    Drilling through Quaternary alluvium and Tertiary cover at low-gravity anomalies in northwestern Bangladesh showed the presence of Permian sedimentary rocks in depressions that may be as much as a thousand meters deep in the crystalline basement. These Permian strata include low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coals in beds as thick as 15 m. The maceral group composition of these coals was determined by semiautomated reflectance scanning with a motorized microscope stage, rather than by point counting. This method was chosen to give objectively recorded raw analytical data and to provide a graphical picture of each sample. The coals are mostly "Gondwana" type (poorly layered "plum pudding" with abundant minerals and inertinite in a vitrinite groundmass) that would be classed as semi-dull (inerto-gelitite) coals. However, six samples have more than 70% vitrinite. None of the samples would be classed as sapropelic (liptinitic). The upper, middle, and lower main seams in borehole GDH-45 were sampled in 10 benches (0.1-3 m thick) each. Inertinite ranges from 7 to 100 vol% (mineral free basis) in individual benches, but composite seam averages are 41, 54 and 67%. Inertinite increases toward the top of two main seams so the bottom would yield the most valuable first mine slices. Some benches with extremely high inertinite content, such as the top 7 m of the lower thick seam, might be mined specially for blending with foreign low-inert coals to increase coke strength. The free swelling index reaches 7.5 in several vitrinite-rich benches, which can indicate good coking coal. Much of the vitrinite is fluorescent, which indicates secondary bituminization characteristic of vitrinite in good coking coals. Ash yields range from 8 to 52%, with composite seam averages of 15, 14 and 24%. Rare visible pyrite is in veinlets or small nodules; framboids and dispersed pyrite are absent. In borehole GDH-40 near Barapukuria (200-500 m depth), the mean random reflectance of vitrinite "A

  17. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  18. Air - Ground - Bedrock Temperature Coupling, Its Monitoring at Borehole Climate Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermák, V.

    2012-04-01

    Reconstructing ground surface temperature (GST) histories from present-day temperature-depth logs is now generally accepted as one of the independent and physically justified method to obtain information about the past climate history on the time scale of hundreds to thousands years. Any temperature change at the Earth`s surface slowly propagates downward and deeper we go farther back in time the measured temperature carries certain memory on what has happened on the surface in the past. Due to diffusive character of the process, however, the resolution quickly decreases for the remote events and the reconstructed GST at a given moment is a weighted average of temperature over a certain period of time. For better understanding of the temperature state in the subsurface T(z) logs can be suitably completed with long-run temperature-time monitoring at selected depth intervals, namely within the near-surface active layer affected by seasonal temperature variations (usually uppermost 30-40 m). In addition to GST inversions applied on deep T(z) profiles existing all over the world, several permanent borehole climate observatories were actually established in the last two decades to test the validity of the assumption that GST variations track the SAT (surface air temperature) changes as well as to study various environmental/local effects, such as the vegetation cover type/change, rain/snow precipitation, thawing/melting/freezing, etc. which controls the whole heat transfer process. Long-term monitoring of the shallow subsurface temperature field in suitably geographically located sites may additionally also help to understand the different conditions in e.g. urban vs. countryside environments and to assess the potential anthropogenic contribution to the present-day warming rate within the natural climate variability. This presentation summarizes main results obtained at the Czech borehole sites since 1992 completed with brief comparison of similar results collected

  19. Borehole cylindrical noise during hole-surface and hole-hole resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, James L.; Nimmer, Robin; Binley, Andrew M.

    2004-04-01

    Drilled boreholes generally are the only feasible means to access the subsurface for the emplacement of downhole electrodes for most hole-hole and hole-surface resistivity experiments. However, the very existence of the borehole itself creates the potential for significant noise due to the inevitable conductivity contrast that develops between the borehole walls and the formation. Borehole cylindrical noise develops whenever a current source is placed in a drilled borehole. Borehole geometries may range from nearly perfect cylinders to highly, irregular, rugose holes in consolidated rock, to relatively minor, collapsed, disturbed zones in caving sediments. Boreholes in non-caving formations generally are filled with artificial, conductive materials to afford crucial, electrical continuity between downhole electrodes and the borehole walls. Filled boreholes form cylindrically shaped heterogeneiti