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Sample records for deep drilling project

  1. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  2. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  3. Reporting from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Geoscience-related topics are in many cases difficult to communicate to the public: Often they include dead soil which not easily tells lively stories. And it is hard to sell those topics to editors of public media. In addition the topics might also be politically supercharged if they are resource-related with a visible environmental impact. Therefore any researcher involved might be overcautious while talking to journalists. With a grant from the EGU Science Journalist Fellowship I travelled to Iceland in autumn 2016 to report about the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The project which started just weeks prior to my arrival aimed to drill the deepest borehole in a volcanically active region. During earlier trials the borehole collapsed or the drill string unintentionally hit magma. If successful the IDDP promises a much higher level of geothermal energy harvested. The IDDP was therefore ideally suited to be sold to public media outlets since Iceland's volcanic legacy easily tells a lively story. But the drilling's potential environmental impact makes it a political topic in Iceland - even though geothermal energy has a positive public perception. Therefore the IDDP included some pitfalls I observed several times before while reporting about geoscience research. Those could be circumvented if researchers and journalists knew better about their expectations before any interview takes place.

  4. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  5. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  6. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    DOE PAGES

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; ...

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have includedmore » a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  7. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano-tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  8. Inferring Earthquake Physics from Deep Drilling Projects of Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Kuo, L. W.; Mittempergher, S.; Remitti, F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Mitchell, T. M.; Gualtieri, A.; Hadizadeh, J.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep drilling projects of active faults offer the opportunity to correlate physical and chemical processes identified in core samples with experiments reproducing the seismic cycle in the laboratory and with high-resolution seismological and geophysical data. Here we discuss the constraints about earthquakes source processes at depth gained by fault cores retrieved from the deep drilling projects SAFOD (2.7 km depth, San Andreas Fault), J-FAST (0.9 km depth, following the Mw 9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake), TCDP (1.1 km depth, following the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi 1999 earthquake) and WFSD (1.2 km depth, following the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan 2008 earthquake). Recovered samples were tested at room temperature with the rotary shear apparatus SHIVA installed in Rome (INGV, Italy). All the tested samples were made by clay-rich gouges (usually including smectite/illite), though their bulk mineralogy and modal composition were different (e.g., SAFOD samples included saponite, WFSD carbonaceous materials). The gouges were investigated before and after the experiments with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, etc. A common behavior of all the tested gouges was that their friction coefficient was low (often less than 0.1) under room-humidity and wet conditions when sheared at slip rates of ca. 1 m/s (seismic deformation conditions). Moreover, when the natural fault rocks next to the principal slipping zones were sheared from sub-seismic (few micrometers/s) to seismic slip rates, the experimental products had similar microstructures to those found in the principal slipping zones of the drilled faults. This included the formation of mirror-like surfaces, graphite-rich materials, foliated gouges, nanograins, amorphous materials, etc. In most cases the mechanical data were consistent with several seismological (> 50 m of seismic slip for the fault zone drilled by J-FAST) and geophysical observations (absence of a thermal anomaly in the fault

  9. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (2) Petrology and geochemistry of rhyolitic melts drilled at Krafla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmundsson

    2009-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) in the Krafla Geothermal Field was intended to investigate the feasibility of producing energy from geothermal systems at supercritical conditions. Drilling was stopped at 2104 meter when a rhyolitic melt was intersected. Sporadic cuttings included abundant dark brown, sparsely phyric obsidian. Most fragments were poorly vesiculated, but white frothy pumice, some with highly stretched bubbles, sere also present. The dense obsidian and highly vesiculated samples have identical phenocryst assemblages, major element compositions, and volatile contents. The glass is a high silica (75.0 wt %) rhyolite with low TiO2 (0.3 wt %) and 3.7 and 3.0 wt % Na2O and K2O, respectively. Phenocrysts include titanomagnetite, plagioclase, augite and pigeonite, with minor amounts of apatite, rare zircon crystals and pyrrhotite, which occurs as rounded droplets of an immiscible sulfide liquid. Augite and pigeonite each contain abundant exsolution lamellae of the complimentary phase. Plagioclase shows some compositional zoning, but mostly is in the range from An45-An48. The low water contents (1.75 wt %) are consistent with the absence of hydrous phenocrysts, and together with the CO2 content (75 ppm) indicate relatively shallow (<4 km) degassing. Stable isotope compositions (δ18O = 3.2‰, δD = -118‰) indicate an origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered crustal rock, as do chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns, that are enriched in light elements and relatively flat for middle and heavy elements. Fragments of a partially crystallized granite intrusion with areas of interstitial melt quenched to glass by the drilling fluids also are present in the drill cuttings from the bottom of the hole. The granite is composed of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, augite and titanomagnetite. The interstitial glass has a silica content (75.6 wt. %) similar to the rhyolite melt, but is easily distinguished from it by higher K2O and

  10. Determining Scientific Projects for the Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.; Given, Holly K.; Eguchi, Nobuhisa

    2013-07-01

    An international, multidisciplinary community workshop convened to define scientific projects for the next decade of scientific ocean drilling utilizing unique capabilities afforded by the drilling vessel Chikyu ("Earth" in Japanese). The meeting, attended by 397 participants from 21 countries, featured 10 keynote lectures. Participants in working groups identified important projects that are fundamental to understanding the Earth system and that require deep penetration of the seafloor.

  11. A new approach to hydrologic testing during drilling of a deep borehole and its application to the Swedish scientific deep drilling COSC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Rosberg, J. E.; Juhlin, C.; Niemi, A. P.; Doughty, C.; Dobson, P. F.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrogeologic testing during the drilling period. The only time hydraulic tests are performed is when drilling encounters a large-transmissivity zone as evidenced by a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid. The present paper proposes a new approach, that of conducting Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on drilling schedule, yet providing important and accurate information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their in-situ hydraulic conductivities. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The proposed method has been applied to the drilling of a 2500-m borehole at Åre, Northern Sweden, which was initiated on April 28 and completed on August 26, 2014, with 99% core recovery. This borehole, named COSC-1, was drilled as part of the Swedish Scientific Deep Drilling COSC project, where COSC stands for Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The project is a multidisciplinary project with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Scientific investigations which include a range of topics from studies of ancient orogeny to the present-day hydrological cycle are conducted under six working groups: (1) tectonics, (2) geophysics, (3) geothermics, (4) hydrology, (5) microbiology and (6) drilling management and technology. In this talk, the new approach to hydrologic testing during the drilling period will be described and its application to the drilling of COSC-1 borehole presented. Results show that from 300 m to the borehole bottom at 2500 m, there are eight hydraulically active zones or fractures in COSC-1, with very low transmissivity values ranging over one order of magnitude.

  12. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  13. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2008-12-01

    The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require drilling to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km. Modeling suggests that supercritical water could yield an order of magnitude greater power output than that produced by conventional geothermal wells. The consortium plans to test this concept in three different geothermal fields in Iceland. If successful, major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources could result worldwide. In June 2008 preparation of the first deep IDDP well commenced in the Krafla volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. Selection of the first drill site for this well was based on geological, geophysical and geochemical data, and on the results of extensive geothermal drilling since 1971. During 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred in the caldera, involving 9 volcanic eruptions. In parts of the geothermal field acid volcanic gases made steam from some of the existing wells unsuitable for power generation for the following decade. A large magma chamber at 3-7 km depth was detected by S-wave attenuation beneath the center of the caldera, believed to be the heat source of the geothermal system. A recent MT-survey has confirmed the existence of low resistivity bodies at shallow depths within the volcano. The IDDP well will be drilled and cased to 800m depth in September, before the winter snows, and in spring 2009 it will be drilled and cased to 3.5km depth and then deepened to 4.5 km in July. Several spot cores for scientific studies will be collected between 2400m and the total depth. After the well heats, it will be flow tested and, if successful, a pilot plant for power

  14. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.

  15. Integrated deep drilling, coring, downhole logging, and data management in the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, Lothar; Bintakies, Eckhard; Kück, Jochem; Conze, Ronald; Harms, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    Impact structures in the solar system are mainly recognized and explored through remote sensing and, on Earth, through geophysical deep sounding. To date, a continuous scientific sampling of large impact craters from cover rocks to target material has only seldom been performed. The first project to deep-drill and core into one of the largest and well-preserved terrestrial impact structures was executed in the winter of 2001/2002 in the 65 Myr-old Chicxulub crater in Mexico using integrated coring sampling and in situ measurements. The combined use of different techniques allows a three-dimensional insight and a better understanding of impact processes. Here, we report the integration of conventional rotary drilling techniques with wireline mining coring technology that was applied to drill the 1510 m-deep Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) well about 40 km southwest of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. During the course of the project, we recovered approximately 900 m of intact core samples including the transitions of reworked ejecta to post-impact sediments, and that one from large blocks of tilted target material to impact-generated rocks, i.e., impact melt breccias and suevites. Coring was complemented by wireline geophysical measurements to obtain a continuous set of in situ petrophysical data of the borehole walls. The data acquired is comprised of contents of a natural radioactive element, velocities of compressional sonic waves, and electrical resistivity values. All the digital data sets, including technical drilling parameters, initial scientific sample descriptions, and 360° core pictures, were distributed during the course of the operations via Internet and were stored in the ICDP Drilling Information System (http://www.icdp-online.org), serving the global community of cooperating scientists as a basic information service.

  16. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) A New Era in Geothermal Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) announced in September 2007 that an international industrial consortium has signed a new contract to collaborate in exploratory deep drilling in Iceland. The main objective of the IDDP is to investigate whether it is economically feasible to produce energy from geothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This will require drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km in order to reach temperatures of 400 to 600°C. Today, geothermal wells in Iceland typically range up to 2.5 km in depth and produce steam at about 300°C, or less, at a rate sufficient to generate about 4 to 7 megawatts of electricity. It is estimated that producing steam from a well penetrating a reservoir with temperatures >450°C, and at a rate of 0.67 cubic meters a second, could generate 40 to 50 MWe. If IDDP's test of this concept proves successful, it could lead to major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The consortium collaborating to fund this investigation of supercritical geothermal energy consists of three leading Icelandic power companies, Hitaveita Sudurnesja Ltd., Landsvirkjun, Orkuveita Reykjavikur, together with Orkustofnun (the National Energy Authority) and Alcoa Inc. (an international aluminum company). The three power companies financed a feasibility study for the project that was completed in 2003. Each of the three power companies is committed to drill, at their own cost, a 3.5 to 4.0 km deep well in a geothermal field that they operate. The design of these wells will permit them to be deepened to 4.5 or 5.0 km by the IDDP, and funded by the consortium with additional funds from international scientific agencies. The first deep IDDP well will be drilled in the latter part of 2008 in the Krafla geothermal field near the northern end of the central rift zone of Iceland, within a volcanic caldera that has had recent volcanic activity. Two new wells, ~4 km deep, will then be drilled at the Hengill and

  17. Method of deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S. A.

    1984-11-20

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  18. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  19. Uncovering a Salt Giant. Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messinian Events (DREAM) multi-phase drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Aoisi, Vanni; Lofi, Johanna; Hübscher, Christian; deLange, Gert; Flecker, Rachel; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Gvirtzman, Zohar; Krijgsman, Wout; Lugli, Stefano; Makowsky, Yizhaq; Manzi, Vinicio; McGenity, Terry; Panieri, Giuliana; Rabineau, Marina; Roveri, Marco; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Waldmann, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, the DREAM MagellanPlus Workshop was held in Brisighella (Italy). The initiative builds from recent activities by various research groups to identify potential sites to perform deep-sea scientific drilling in the Mediterranean Sea across the deep Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) sedimentary record. In this workshop three generations of scientists were gathered: those who participated in formulation of the deep desiccated model, through DSDP Leg 13 drilling in 1973; those who are actively involved in present-day MSC research; and the next generation (PhD students and young post-docs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify locations for multiple-site drilling (including riser-drilling) in the Mediterranean Sea that would contribute to solve the several open questions still existing about the causes, processes, timing and consequences at local and planetary scale of an outstanding case of natural environmental change in the recent Earth history: the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. The product of the workshop is the identification of the structure of an experimental design of site characterization, riser-less and riser drilling, sampling, measurements, and down-hole analyses that will be the core for at least one compelling and feasible multiple phase drilling proposal. Particular focus has been given to reviewing seismic site survey data available from different research groups at pan-Mediterranean basin scale, to the assessment of additional site survey activity including 3D seismics, and to ways of establishing firm links with oil and gas industry. The scientific community behind the DREAM initiative is willing to proceed with the submission to IODP of a Multi-phase Drilling Project including several drilling proposals addressing specific drilling objectives, all linked to the driving objectives of the MSC drilling and understanding . A series of critical drilling targets were identified to address the still open questions

  20. Borehole data to model caldera unrest: the example of Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; De Natale, G.; Somma, R.; Troise, C.; Kilburn, C.; Tramelli, A.; Troiano, A.; Di Guiseppe, M.; Piochi, M.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the genesis and the physics governing the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy) a drilling project started on July 2012, in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) schedules two phases: a pilot well, 500 m deep (I phase), and a 3.5 km deeper well (II planned phase), both located within the active resurgent caldera of Campi Flegrei, west to the city of Naples. In this framework new filed data from pilot borehole have been recorded by using a novel procedure of Leak Off Test (LOT). The test has been performed in order to obtain, before the onset of rock failure (which furnishes indication of the minimum principal stress value), a reliable value of in situ permeability. These new data, particularly the actual permeability, are fundamental to calibrate the caldera unrest model at Campi Flegrei and to advance in the quantitative analysis of volcanoes behavior for the assessment of possible future eruptive scenarios. Calderas worldwide are, in fact, characterized by frequent episodes of unrest which, only in few cases, culminate with eruption. This behavior is generally explained in terms of magma intrusion and/or disturbance of geothermal fluids in the shallow crust, which are both source of ground deformations and seismicity. A major goal is, thus, to determine the relative contribution of each process, because the potential for eruptions significantly enhanced if magma movements emerges as the primary component. Here we report the new results of the LOT and its implication in the modeling of Campi Flegrei caldera unrest.

  1. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  2. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Status and Future Plans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Reed, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    drilling. The industrial consortium will fund the >20 million USD cost of drilling and the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research by a team of approximately 50 scientists from seven countries is underway; the US investigators are reporting some initial studies at Reykjanes and Krafla in a series of accompanying papers. In the coming decade the IDDP will drill a series of deep holes in Icelandic geothermal fields, including a return to the seawater system at Reykjanes. In addition to exploring for new sources of energy, this project will provide the first opportunity worldwide to investigate the coupling of hydrothermal and magmatic processes in volcanic systems on a mid-ocean ridge. This will allow a broad array of scientific studies involving water/rock reactions at high temperatures. Supercritical fluids have greatly enhanced rates of mass transfer and chemical reaction. Active processes in such deep high-temperature reaction zones that control fluid compositions on mid-ocean ridges have never before been available for such comprehensive direct sampling and study.

  3. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project: understanding the structure and mechanisms of large collapse calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Large calderas are the most dangerous volcanoes on the Earth. They are produced by collapse during explosive super-eruptions, which are capable of triggering global catastrophes comparable to large meteorite impacts. The mechanisms of unrest and eruption at calderas are at a large extent unknown and, as demonstrated by volcanological research in the last decades, they may be very different from those characterizing more commonly studied stratovolcanoes. Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) represents an ideal natural laboratory to fully understand mechanisms of caldera dynamics and to develop techniques for eruption forecast and effective risk mitigation. It is an active volcanic area marked by a quasi-circular caldera depression, formed by huge ignimbritic eruptions. The caldera has recently experienced intense deformation, originating uplift phenomena of more than 3.5 m in 15 years, with maximum rates of 1 m/year in the period 1982-1984, which caused the temporary evacuation of 30,000 people from the centre of Pozzuoli and exposed more than 500,000 to impending eruption risk (several millions in case of an ignimbritic eruption). This area will be the target of a leading International project, the ‘Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project', sponsored by ICDP, aimed to study in detail, by a crustal deviated drilling reaching the depth of about 4 km, the deep structure of the caldera. The role of deep drilling at this area is crucial. It could give a fundamental, precise insight into the substructure, the geometry and character of the geothermal systems and their role in the unrest episodes, as well as to explain magma chemistry and the mechanisms of magma-water interaction. One of the main goal will be giving a precise determination of the magma depth, based on the extrapolation of the geothermal gradient in purely conductive conditions, occurring below the maximum aquifer depth. The choice of Campi Flegrei as a target for the deep study of large calderas is justified by the

  4. Seismic site characterization for the Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glomb, Vera; Buske, Stefan; Kovacs, Adrienn; Gorman, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand (South Island) is one of the largest active plate-bounding continental fault zones on earth with earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occuring every 200-400 years. Due to the surface exposure and the shallow depth of mechanical and chemical transitions it is a globally significant natural laboratory. Within the ICDP Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault (DFDP-AF; https://wiki.gns.cri.nz/DFDP) a drill hole shall give insight into the geological structure of the fault zone and its evolution to understand the related deformation and earthquake processes. With the help of advanced seismic imaging techniques the shallow structure of the Alpine Fault is imaged to find the most suitable drill site location. A new seismic reflection profile has been acquired in 2011 by the WhataDUSIE project team consisting of partners from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada). The reflection profile, located in the Whataroa river valley, has a total length of about 5 km. Up to 643 geophones with spacings between 4-8 m recorded the approximately 100 shot points along the profile line. Single shot gathers as well as preliminary imaging results will be presented. The high-quality data show various indicators of the Alpine Fault such as strong reflections and distorted first-arrival wavefields which are clearly visible already in single shot gathers. With the help of high resolution seismic images we can study the shallow structures of the subsurface thus gaining information about the location and dip of reflectors. Further detailed processing and intensive interpretative work will enable a seismic site characterization providing important information for the selection of the borehole location. Additionally the high resolution seismic images themselves allow a better understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic settings.

  5. Lithology of the long sediment record recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Brauer, Achim; Schwab, Markus J.; Waldmann, Nicolas D.; Enzel, Yehouda; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Torfstein, Adi; Frank, Ute; Dulski, Peter; Agnon, Amotz; Ariztegui, Daniel; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Goldstein, Steven L.; Stein, Mordechai

    2014-10-01

    The sedimentary sections that were deposited from the Holocene Dead Sea and its Pleistocene precursors are excellent archives of the climatic, environmental and seismic history of the Levant region. Yet, most of the previous work has been carried out on sequences of lacustrine sediments exposed at the margins of the present-day Dead Sea, which were deposited only when the lake surface level rose above these terraces (e.g. during the Last Glacial period) and typically are discontinuous due to major lake level variations in the past. Continuous sedimentation can only be expected in the deepest part of the basin and, therefore, a deep drilling has been accomplished in the northern basin of the Dead Sea during winter of 2010-2011 within the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) in the framework of the ICDP program. Approximately 720 m of sediment cores have been retrieved from two deep and several short boreholes. The longest profile (5017-1), revealed at a water depth of ˜300 m, reaches 455 m below the lake floor (blf, i.e. to ˜1175 m below global mean sea level) and comprises approximately the last 220-240 ka. The record covers the upper part of the Amora (penultimate glacial), the Last Interglacial Samra, the Last Glacial Lisan and the Holocene Ze'elim Formations and, therewith, two entire glacial-interglacial cycles. Thereby, for the first time, consecutive sediments deposited during the MIS 6/5, 5/4 and 2/1 transitions were recovered from the Dead Sea basin, which are not represented in sediments outcropping on the present-day lake shores. In this paper, we present essential lithological data including continuous magnetic susceptibility and geochemical scanning data and the basic stratigraphy including first chronological data of the long profile (5017-1) from the deep basin. The results presented here (a) focus on the correlation of the deep basin deposits with main on-shore stratigraphic units, thus providing a unique comprehensive stratigraphic framework for

  6. Messinian Salinity Crisis - DREAM (Deep-sea Record of Mediterranean Messinian events) drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea was transformed into a giant saline basin. This event, commonly referred to as the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), changed the chemistry of the global ocean and had a permanent impact on both the terrestrial and marine ecosystems of a huge area surrounding the Mediterranean area. The first fascinating MSC scenario was proposed following DSDP Leg XIII in 1970 and envisaged an almost desiccated deep Mediterranean basin with a dramatic ~1,500 m drop of sea level, the incision of deep canyons by rivers on the continental margins, and a final catastrophic flooding event when the connections between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic were re-established ~5.33 My ago. In spite of 40 years of multi-disciplinary research conducted on the MSC, modalities, timing, causes, chronology and consequence at local and planetary scale are still not yet fully understood, and the MSC event remains one of the longest-living controversies in Earth Science. Key factor for the controversy is the lack of a complete record of the MSC preserved in the deepest Mediterranean basins. Anywhere else, the MSC mostly generated a sedimentary/time lag corresponding to a widespread erosion surface. Correlations with the offshore depositional units are thus complex, preventing the construction of a coherent scenario linking the outcropping MSC evaporites, the erosion on the margins, and the deposition of clastics and evaporites in the abyssal plains. Recent activity by various research groups in order to identify locations for multiple-site drilling (including riser-drilling) in the Mediterranean Sea that would contribute to solve the open questions still existing about the MSC has culminated in two DREAM Magellan+ Workshops held in 2013 and 2014. A strategy and work plan have been established in order to submit an IODP Multi-phase Drilling Project("Uncovering A Salt Giant")including several site-specific drilling proposals addressing different scientific

  7. The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research in China: Results from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Huang, L.; Dai, X.; Wang, Y.; Lu, G.; Dong, Z.; Dong, X.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial abundance and community structure from ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks and deep fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project were investigated by using geochemical and cultivation and molecular microbiology methods. The drilling site is located in the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) orogenic belt at the convergent plate boundary between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plates. This integrated approach conclusively demonstrates that microbes can survive in the deep continental subsurface (down to ~4500 m) and they play important roles in biogeochemical transformations of minerals and rocks. Direct cell counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis identified microbial life in rock samples taken from as deep as ~4500 m, where the temperature was estimated to be approximately 130oC. The subsurface distribution of microorganisms was continuous and the abundance of microbial cells was unrelated to the depth. However, analysis of 16S rDNA sequences derived from the rock DNA samples by PCR showed that the diversity of microorganisms decreased with increasing depth. The bacterial clone sequences shifted from a Proteobacteria-dominated community to a Firmicutes-dominated one with increased depth. From the ground surface to 2030 m, most clone sequences were related to nitrate reducers, with a saline, alkaline, and cold habitat. From 2290 to ~4500 m most clone sequences were closely related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. A number of enrichments and isolates were obtained from the rocks and fluids, including thermophilic metal reducers and alkaliphiles. Thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria were incubated with lactate as the electron donor and structural Fe(III) in solid minerals as

  8. Stratigraphy, climate and downhole logging data - an example from the ICDP Dead Sea deep drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coianiz, Lisa; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Lazar, Michael

    2017-04-01

    During the late Quaternary a series of lakes occupied the Dead Sea tectonic basin. The sediments that accumulated within these lakes preserved the environmental history (tectonic and climatic) of the basin and its vicinity. Most of the information on these lakes was deduced from exposures along the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, e.g. the exposures of the last glacial Lake Lisan and Holocene Dead Sea. The International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project conducted in the Dead Sea during 2010-2011 recovered several cores that were drilled in the deep depocenter of the lake (water depth of 300 m) and at the margin (depth of 3 m offshore Ein Gedi spa). New high resolution logging data combined with a detailed lithological description and published age models for the deep 5017-1-A borehole were used to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Lakes Amora, Samra, Lisan and Zeelim strata. This study presents a stratigraphic timescale for reconstructing the last ca 225 ka. It provides a context within which the timing of key sequence surfaces identified in the distal part of the basin can be mapped on a regional and stratigraphic time frame. In addition, it permitted the examination of depositional system tracts and related driving mechanisms controlling their formation. The sequence stratigraphic model developed for the Northern Dead Sea Basin is based on the identification of sequence bounding surfaces including: sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and maximum flooding surface (MFS). They enabled the division of depositional sequences into a Lowstand systems tracts (LST), Transgressive systems tracts (TST) and Highstand systems tracts (HST), which can be interpreted in terms of relative lake level changes. The analysis presented here show that system tract stacking patterns defined for the distal 5017-1-A borehole can be correlated to the proximal part of the basin, and widely support the claim that changes in relative lake

  9. Coccolith and silicoflagellate stratigraphy, northern mid-Atlantic Ridge and Reykjanes Ridge, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 49

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bukry, David

    1979-01-01

    Leg 49 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project recovered 192 cores at eight drilling sites, 407 through 414 (Figure 1). Light-microscope techniques were used to study the cocoliths, silicoflagellates, and sponge spicules of 120 samples from these cores. The cocolith zonation of the samples follows Bukry (1975a), and is summarized in Figure 2. Silicoflagellate zonation, summarized in Figure 3, is explained in the text. Siliceous sponge spicules are common in many samples and are briefly discussed and illustrated. One new silicoflagellate, Distephanus sulcatus, from the Plicene of Site 407, is described.

  10. Stress magnitude and orientation in deep coalbed biosphere off Shimokita ~IODP Expedition337 drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. Y.; Lin, W.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    One of IODP expedition (Borehole C0020A) is located in the forearc basin formed by the subducting between Pacific plate and Eurasian plate off Shimokita Peninsula. This ~2.5km deep scientific drilling collected the high-resolution wire-line resistivity logging, caliper data, Dipole Sonic waveforms; geophysical properties measurements and core samples. The riser drilling operations produced one good conditions borehole even this drilling operation was applied right after 311 Tohoku earthquake. Based on the high-resolutions Formation Micro Imager (FMI) images, both breakout and tensile fractures along the borehole wall indicating the in-situ stress orientation are detected in the unwrapped resistivity images. In this research, a reasonable geomechanical model based on the breakout width and physical properties is constructed to estimate the stress magnitude profile in this borehole. Besides, the openhole leak-off test revealed the information of Shmin magnitude. In general, stress direction along the borehole is slight rotated to east with drilling to the bottom of the borehole. Geomechanical model constarined the principal stresses in Strike-slip stress regime to satisfy the occurrences of borehole enlargements and tensile fractures. Some blank zones with no borehole wall failure and vertical fractures indicated the stress anomaly might be controlled by local lithological facies. Comparing to the JFAST drilling, this site is out of Japan trench slip zone and shows almost parallel stress direcion to the trench (~90 degree apart of Shmin with Site C0019).

  11. Seismic Imaging at Whataroa Valley (New Zealand) for the Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, V.; Buske, S.; Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand (South Island) is one of the largest active plate-bounding continental fault zones on Earth with earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occuring every 200-400 years. Due to the surface exposure and the shallow depth of mechanical and chemical transitions it is a globally significant natural laboratory. Within the ICDP Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault (DFDP-AF; https://wiki.gns.cri.nz/DFDP) a drill hole shall give insight into the geological structure of the fault zone and its evolution to understand the related deformation and earthquake processes. With the help of advanced seismic imaging techniques the shallow structure of the Alpine Fault is imaged to find the most suitable drill site location. A new seismic reflection profile has been acquired in 2011 by the WhataDUSIE project team consisting of partners from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada). The reflection profile, located in the Whataroa river valley, has a total length of about 5 km. Up to 643 geophones with spacings between 4-8 m recorded the approximately 100 shots along the profile line. Single shot gathers as well as imaging results will be presented. The obtained data quality was in general very good. Nevertheless, extensive preprocessing of the data had to be performed to obtain shot gathers usable for imaging. Due to the field conditions the profile was divided into 5 parts with different features concerning geophone spacing and eigenfrequency of the geophones. To combine the single stations to one shot gather, we used overlapping geophones to derive the relative time corrections by crosscorrelating these particular traces. Additionally three Reftek 130 stations were recording continuously. By correlating the absolute Reftek time and the adjacent geophone trace we extracted the absolute shot time and applied the resulting time-shift to the corresponding traces. Finally the merged single shot

  12. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  13. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  14. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  15. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project, a 5 km Deep Drillhole Underway to Investigate Deep Geothermal Resources on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Pope, E. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Schiffmann, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term study of high-temperature hydrothermal systems on the Reykjanes Peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge emerges on to the SW tip of Iceland. The IDDP is a collaborative effort, by a consortium of Icelandic power companies and the Icelandic government, to investigate if utilizing supercritical geothermal fluids would improve the economics of power production from geothermal fields. Over the next decade this will involve drilling a series of wells >4 km deep, to reach temperatures ~450°C. The deepest of these wells so far was completed at 3.1 km in February 2005. The rocks penetrated consist of Holocene basaltic lavas, subglacial hyaloclastites, marine sediments, submarine pillow basalts, and diabase dikes. In 2006, the IDDP will rotary drill and spot core this, or another candidate well, to 4.0 km, and in 2007, the IDDP will deepen the borehole from 4.0 km to 5.0 km, using continuous wireline coring. Such deep, hot wells present both technical challenges and opportunities for important scientific studies. For example, preliminary analyses of rock samples and fluids from the existing geothermal wells indicate that the shallow geothermal system is complex, as indicated by paragenetic relations and strong compositional zoning in calc-silicate minerals, such as epidote. Calculation of local equilibria between calc-silicates and calcite suggests that the CO2 content of the geothermal fluids increased during the evolution of this geothermal system. Zoned hydrothermal amphiboles at 3.1 km depth include tschermakitic hornblende (~13 wt. % Al2O3), suggesting temperatures in the upper 300°C range. Similarly, analyses of hydrogen isotopic ratios of epidotes and amphiboles currently underway indicate that meteoric water has mixed with seawater during the evolution of the Reykjanes geothermal system. The Reykjanes Peninsula is a superb location for scientific investigations of the deeper levels of a high enthalpy

  16. Interstitial solutions and diagenesis in deeply buried marine sediments: results from the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayles, F.L.; Manheim, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Through the Deep Sea Drilling Project samples of interstitial solutions of deeply buried marine sediments throughout the World Ocean have been obtained and analyzed. The studies have shown that in all but the most slowly deposited sediments pore fluids exhibit changes in composition upon burial. These changes can be grouped into a few consistent patterns that facilitate identification of the diagenetic reactions occurring in the sediments. Pelagic clays and slowly deposited (<1 cm/103yr) biogenic sediments are the only types that exhibit little evidence of reaction in the pore waters. In most biogenic sediments sea water undergoes considerable alteration. In sediments deposited at rates up to a few cm/103 yr the changes chiefly involve gains of Ca2+ and Sr2+ and losses of Mg2+ which balance the Ca2+ enrichment. The Ca-Mg substitution may often reach 30 mM/kg while Sr2+ may be enriched 15-fold over sea water. These changes reflect recrystallization of biogenic calcite and the substitution of Mg2+ for Ca2+ during this reaction. The Ca-Mg-carbonate formed is most likely a dolomitic phase. A related but more complex pattern is found in carbonate sediments deposited at somewhat greater rates. Ca2+ and Sr2+ enrichment is again characteristic, but Mg2+ losses exceed Ca2+ gains with the excess being balanced by SO4post staggered2- losses. The data indicate that the reactions are similar to those noted above, except that the Ca2+ released is not kept in solution but is precipitated by the HCO3post staggered- produced in SO4post staggered2- reduction. In both these types of pore waters Na+ is usually conservative, but K+ depletions are frequent. In several partly consolidated sediment sections approaching igneous basement contact, very marked interstitial calcium enrichment has been found (to 5.5 g/kg). These phenomena are marked by pronounced depletion in Na+, Si and CO2, and slight enhancement in Cl-. The changes are attributed to exchange of Na+ for Ca2+ in silicate

  17. Deep-sea observations at hydrocarbon drilling locations: Contributions from the SERPENT Project after 120 field visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Andrew R.; Benfield, Mark C.; Booth, David J.; Fowler, Ashley M.; Skropeta, Danielle; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2017-03-01

    The SERPENT Project has been running for over ten years. In this time scientists from universities and research institutions have made more than 120 visits to oil rigs, drill ships and survey vessels operated by 16 oil companies, in order to work with the industry's Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV). Visits have taken place in Europe, North and South America, Africa and Australasia at water depths from 100 m to nearly 3000 m. The project has directly produced >40 peer reviewed publications and data from the project's >2600 entry online image and video archive have been used in many others. The aim of this paper is to highlight examples of how valuable data can be obtained through collaboration with hydrocarbon exploration and production companies to use existing industry infrastructure to increase scientific discovery in unexplored areas and augment environmental monitoring of industrial activity. The large number of industry ROVs operating globally increases chance encounters with large, enigmatic marine organisms. SERPENT video observations include the deepest known records of species previously considered epipelagic such as scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) and southern sunfish (Mola ramsayi) and the first in situ observations of pelagic species such as oarfish (Regalecus glesne). Such observations enable improvements to distribution records and description of behaviour of poorly understood species. Specimen collection has been used for taxonomic descriptions, functional studies and natural products chemistry research. Anthropogenic effects been assessed at the local scale using in situ observations and sample collection at the time of drilling operations and subsequent visits have enabled study of recovery from drilling. Future challenges to be addressed using the SERPENT approach include ensuring unique faunal observations by industry ROV operators are reported, further study of recovery from deep-water drilling activity and to carry out in situ studies to

  18. Initial Geochemistry Data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) DEEP -Site Sediment Record: The ICDP Scopsco Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid on the Balkans is thought to be the oldest lake in Europe. With 212 endemic species described to date, it is also a hotspot of evolution. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, an international group of scientists, conducted a deep drilling campaign in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid). Overall, about 2,100 m of sediments were recovered from four drill sites. At the main drill site (DEEP-site) in central parts of the lake where seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, a total of more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered until a penetration depth of 569 m. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL scanning, sub-sampling (16 cm resolution), and inorganic and organic geochemical as well as sedimentological analyses of the sediment cores from the DEEP site are in progress at the University of Cologne. Previous studies at Lake Ohrid have shown that interglacial periods are characterized by high TIC and TOC contents, likely associated with high contents of calcite and organic matter in the sediments. In contrast, during glacial periods negligible TIC and low TOC contents correspond to high K counts indicating enhanced supply of clastic material. Similar patterns can be observed in the biogeochemical analyses of the subsamples and in the XRF data of the DEEP site record. Following these variations on a glacial-interglacial time scale, TIC and TOC data obtained from the subsamples and from core catcher samples indicate that the DEEP site sequence provides a 1.2 million year old continuous record of environmental and climatological variability in the Balkan Region. The age control can be further improved by first findings of macroscopic tephra horizons. Peaks in K, Sr, Zr, and magnetic

  19. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  20. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Kerr, D.; Sunda, W.

    1970-01-01

    Eleven samples of fluids which had been squeezed on board ship, and four, packaged sediment samples were received in our laboratories. As in Leg 2, the volumes of fluid available were scanty and did not permit multiple determinations of constituents in many of the samples; in Hole 21 the fluid available sufficed only for refractometer readings (a few tenths of a milliliter). Therefore, analytical scatter is again responsible for partially obscuring variations (and constancy) in the conservative constituents such as sodium. However, on the whole the results confirm the features which appeared in Legs 1 and 2. Central oceanic sediments display a remarkable constancy in total salinity, chlorinity and sodium concentration to the greatest depths and ages yet penetrated in the project drillings. Variations attributable to postburial reactions do occur in the remaining major ions, but they usually show little systematic trend with depth--with the exception of potassium, which will be discussed later. Methods remain similar to those employed for Leg 2; the detailed techniques are now being prepared for submission, but a brief description may be obtained from the previous Leg reports (Manheim and Sayles, 1969; Chan and Manheim, 1970). Results from four unsqueezed samples are not complete and, therefore, do not appear here.

  1. Pervasive, high temperature hydrothermal alteration in the RN-17B drill core, Reykjanes Geothermal System-Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2010-12-01

    In November 2008, 9.5 m of core were recovered from Reykjanes production well RN-17B at a depth of 2800m. The core consists mainly of hyaloclastite breccias, hetrolithic breccias with clasts of crystalline basalt, and volcaniclastic sandstones/siltstones. Much of the material appears to have been transported and redeposited, but homolithic breccias and hyaloclastites, some with upright flow lobes of basalt with quenched rims, are interpreted to have erupted in situ. Fine-scale features (glass rims, quench crystals, vesicles, phenocrysts) are well preserved, but all lithologies are pervasively hydrothermally altered such that primary clinopyroxene is ubiquitously uralitized and primary plagioclase (An42-80) is replaced by albite and/or more calcic plagioclase. In contrast, cuttings of similar lithologies, recovered by rotary drilling in intervals immediately above and below the core, exhibit much lesser degrees of hydrothermal alteration and commonly contain igneous plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Vitric clasts in the core are recrystallized into aggregates of chlorite and actinolite. In some breccias, cm-scale metadomains are composed of patchy albite or actinolite/magnesiohornblende giving the core a green and white spotted appearance. Minor amounts (<1%) of disseminated pyrite occur throughout the core, but two intervals with more abundant sulfide contain chalcopyrite and sphalerite in addition to pyrite. Amygdales and vugs in the breccias, initially filled with chlorite, actinolite, epidote, and/or albite, have been partly overprinted with hornblende and anorthite. The core is cut in places by < 1 cm- wide veins composed of early epidote + actinolite + titanite and later anorthite + magnesiohornblende/pargasite. Quartz is not present in any alteration domains observed in the core, although it is reported from virtually all of the cutting intervals above and below the cored section. Seawater-basalt reaction calculations suggest that albite formed during early

  2. Preliminary geophysical, geohazard, and geomorphic mapping of the Alpine Fault Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP), Gaunt Creek, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, G. P.; Davies, T.; Nobes, D. C.; Quigley, M.; Sutherland, R.; Toy, V. G.; Norris, R. J.; Langridge, R. M.; Stahl, T.; Klahn, A.; Townend, J.

    2010-12-01

    In central South Island, the dextral-reverse Alpine Fault Zone (AFZ) forms the major plate boundary structure between the Pacific and Australian plates. The AFZ is thought to fail in large earthquakes (~ Mw 7-8) approximately every 200 to 400 years, to have last ruptured in 1717 and is associated with high rates of strain release and exhumation. The AFZ is the target of a multidisciplinary proposal called the Deep Fault Drilling Project or DFDP which proposes to drill, retrieve core, and test subsurface conditions of the AFZ from a shallow, < 200 m-long core at Gaunt Creek, followed by a < 1500 m-long core near Whataroa to characterise the fault zone. Most recent traces of the AFZ are concealed at Gaunt Creek due to a combination of post-1717 fluvial erosion and deposition and landslides, therefore geophysical, geomorphic, and geohazard mapping was undertaken to map fault traces and subsurface geometry, and geohazards at the proposed drilling site and observatory. Geohazard reconnaissance was undertaken to determine site suitability for drilling and long-term occupation by the DFDP observatory because major flooding occurred at the site in 1967 and abundant landslides are present at the site. Site suitability was evaluated based on the fluvial, tectonic, and landslide history of fluvial terraces on the northern side of Gaunt Creek. Vegetation colonization (reflecting recent flooding) and presence of boulders and landslide debris were used to select sites. Over 600 m of ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects using a 50 MHz antenna, and 400 m of electrical resistivity data, were collected along the Late-Holocene alluvial fans to map subsurface stratigraphy. Preliminary GPR results show fluvial stratigraphy, bedrock contacts and faults in bedrock and sediments between 0 and 25 m below ground surface at Gaunt Creek. Electrical resistivity data imaged to 10 m. Geomorphic mapping (including fault trace mapping, terrace mapping, and surficial geological mapping) was

  3. Along strike applicability of results from the Deep Fault Drilling Project, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, C. J.; Toy, V. G.; Barth, N. C.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    A large proportion of coseismic slip is thought to occur along narrow principal slip zones (PSZs) that are millimeters to centimeters- thick. Understanding the physical properties of PSZ gouges and cataclasites, and their along strike extent, is a primary goal of fieldwork being done in conjunction with the Deep Fault Drilling Program (DFDP), Alpine Fault. Core retrieved from two shallow boreholes at Gaunt Creek contains mylonites with a Pacific Plate Alpine Schist protolith, cataclasites derived from Pacific Plate mylonites and from Australian Plate felsic igneous rocks, gneisses, and possibly metasediments, and three PSZ gouges. These three PSZ gouges are: (1) DFDP-1a PSZ gouge (90.5 - 90.8 m depth), which occurs at the contact between Pacific Plate cataclasite and Australian Plate Late Quaternary gravel; (2) DFDP-1b PSZ1 gouge (128.0 - 128.3 m depth), which occurs below Pacific Plate cataclasite and above mixed Pacific and Australian Plate-derived cataclasite; (3) DFDP-1b PSZ2 gouge (143.83 - 143.94 m depth), which occurs below the mixed protolith cataclasite and above Australian Plate augen mylonite Microstructurally, PSZ gouges in the core are similar to those documented in a nearby outcrop at Gaunt Creek by Boulton et al. (2012). Brown PSZ gouge layers contain reworked fault gouge clasts together with subrounded to rounded clasts of mylonite, ultramylonite, quartz and carbonate-rich fragments. From quantitative XRD, the brown PSZ gouges in DFDP-1b comprise 18% dioctahedral smectite, along with quartz (25 - 29%), orthoclase/microcline (3 - 4%), albite (24 - 25%), calcite (8 - 9%), kaolinite (0 - 6%), muscovite/illite (12 - 17%), chlorite (0 - 1%), and trace amounts of pyrite. Boulton et al. (2012) reported similar mineralogy for Gaunt Creek outcrop and Waikukupa Thrust outcrop PSZ gouges and found that the PSZ gouges have lower friction coefficients and lower permeability than surrounding cataclasites. Mineralogically, microstructurally, and geochemically

  4. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  5. Leg 67: the Deep Sea Drilling Project Mid-America Trench transect off Guatemala.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Huene, R.

    1980-01-01

    Drilling on the Cocos plate recovered a basal chalk sequence deposited during early and mid-Miocene time, a short interval of abyssal red clay, and an upper sequence of late Miocene and younger sediment deposited within an area influenced by a terrigenous source. In the trench, a mud and sand fill less than 400,000 yr old overlies the oceanic sequence. The entire section shows no evidence of compressive deformation. In contrast, the section cored on the trench's landward slope 3 km from the trench axis is affected by tectonism. The section contains a Cretaceous to Pliocene claystone sequence capped by Pliocene to Quaternary hemipelagic slope deposits.- from Authors

  6. The environmental and evolutionary history of Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania): interim results from the SCOPSCO deep drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Albrecht, Christian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; D'Addabbo, Michele; Donders, Timme H.; Föller, Kirstin; Giaccio, Biagio; Grazhdani, Andon; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Joannin, Sebastien; Jovanovska, Elena; Just, Janna; Kouli, Katerina; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Krastel, Sebastian; Lacey, Jack H.; Leicher, Niklas; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Lindhorst, Katja; Masi, Alessia; Mercuri, Anna M.; Nomade, Sebastien; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Peyron, Odile; Reed, Jane M.; Regattieri, Eleonora; Sadori, Laura; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Stelbrink, Björn; Sulpizio, Roberto; Tofilovska, Slavica; Torri, Paola; Vogel, Hendrik; Wagner, Thomas; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wolff, George A.; Wonik, Thomas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Zhang, Xiaosen S.

    2017-04-01

    This study reviews and synthesises existing information generated within the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling project. The four main aims of the project are to infer (i) the age and origin of Lake Ohrid (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Republic of Albania), (ii) its regional seismotectonic history, (iii) volcanic activity and climate change in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (iv) the influence of major geological events on the evolution of its endemic species. The Ohrid basin formed by transtension during the Miocene, opened during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and the lake established de novo in the still relatively narrow valley between 1.9 and 1.3 Ma. The lake history is recorded in a 584 m long sediment sequence, which was recovered within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) from the central part (DEEP site) of the lake in spring 2013. To date, 54 tephra and cryptotephra horizons have been found in the upper 460 m of this sequence. Tephrochronology and tuning biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters revealed that the upper 247.8 m represent the last 637 kyr. The multi-proxy data set covering these 637 kyr indicates long-term variability. Some proxies show a change from generally cooler and wetter to drier and warmer glacial and interglacial periods around 300 ka. Short-term environmental change caused, for example, by tephra deposition or the climatic impact of millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events are superimposed on the long-term trends. Evolutionary studies on the extant fauna indicate that Lake Ohrid was not a refugial area for regional freshwater animals. This differs from the surrounding catchment, where the mountainous setting with relatively high water availability provided a refuge for temperate and montane trees during the relatively cold and dry glacial periods. Although Lake Ohrid experienced

  7. Analysis of stress-induced oval fractures in a borehole at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 504, eastern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Flamand, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Hole 504B is located in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and extends to a total depth of 2111 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf). Several acoustic televiewer logs have been obtained in this well during successive stages of drilling, and the resulting digital images have revealed numerous oval-shaped fractures seemingly etched into the borehole wall. A theoretical examination of these stress-induced features identifies a unique and ephemeral set of stress distributions and magnitudes that are necessary for their production. Consequently, the ovals provide a basis for quantifying the magnitudes and orientations of the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses, SH and Sh, at this site. Vertical, truncated breakouts and horizontal tensile fractures define the spatial boundaries of the ovals. Explicit criteria for their occurrence are combined with estimates for various physical properties of the rock to yield a range of possible values for the horizontal principal stresses. The conspicuous oval geometry is completed by a curved fracture that joins the vertical and horizontal components. Its degree of curvature is delineated by the modified Griffith failure criterion and is directly related to the principal stress difference (SH - Sh). Matching a series of type curves corresponding to specific values for (SH - Sh) with the actual undistorted well bore images allows the magnitude of the stress difference to be further constrained. With a value for (SH - Sh) of 45 ?? 5 MPa the individual magnitudes of SH and Sh are determined more precisely. Final estimates for the horizontal principal stresses in DSDP Hole 504B at a depth of 1200 mbsf are 141 MPa ??? SH ??? 149 MPa and 91 MPa ??? Sh ??? 109 MPa. Stress magnitudes derived from this approach rely heavily upon the values of a variety of physical properties, and complementary laboratory measurements performed on relevant rock samples provide critical information. Uncertainties in

  8. A comparison of the use of X-ray and neutron tomographic core scanning techniques for drilling projects: insights from scanning core recovered during the Alpine Fault Deep Fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jack N.; Bevitt, Joseph J.; Toy, Virginia G.

    2017-05-01

    It is now commonplace for non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans to be taken of core recovered during a drilling project. However, other forms of tomographic scanning are available, and these may be particularly useful for core that does not possess significant contrasts in density and/or atomic number to which X-rays are sensitive. Here, we compare CT and neutron tomography (NT) scans of 85 mm diameter core recovered during the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) through New Zealand's Alpine Fault. For the instruments used in this study, the highest resolution images were collected in the NT scans. This allows clearer imaging of some rock features than in the CT scans. However, we observe that the highly neutron beam attenuating properties of DFDP-1 core diminish the quality of images towards the interior of the core. A comparison is also made of the suitability of these two scanning techniques for a drilling project. We conclude that CT scanning is far more favourable in most circumstances. Nevertheless, it could still be beneficial to take NT scans over limited intervals of suitable core, where varying contrast is desired.

  9. The SCOPSCO Deep Drilling Project: a 1.3 million-year palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Ohrid using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Jack; Leng, Melanie; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wagner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Lake Ohrid is a large, ancient lake situated on the Balkan Peninsula in the central northern Mediterranean region. The lake hosts a world-class degree of endemic biodiversity and an extensive sedimentary archive. In 2013, an extremely successful International Continental scientific Drilling Program deep drilling campaign was conducted as part of the transdisciplinary Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project and recovered over 2100 m of sediment from the lake. The main target site in the central basin provided a 584-m composite record covering at least 1.3 million years. Here, we present new oxygen and carbon isotope data (δ18O and δ13C) from carbonate for the entire lacustrine sequence (upper 430 m) of the SCOPSCO cores spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 41-1, based on chronological information derived from tephrostratigraphy, palaeomagnetic analyses, and orbital tuning of biogeochemical proxies. Contemporary monitoring data suggest variations in δ18O are primarily a function of changes in regional water balance. This is confirmed through the Holocene where the isotope dataset shows a stable transition from wetter conditions in the Early Holocene to a drier climate in the Late Holocene, which is consistent with a regional pattern of aridification. At the onset of deep-water lacustrine conditions around 1.3 Ma, very low δ18O are comparable to measured values for surface inflow today and infer that Lake Ohrid had a greatly reduced residence time and volume. Multiple rapid shifts to higher values in long-term average δ18O are observed in the early lake history, most likely associated with lake ontogeny and the progressive deepening of Lake Ohrid. After MIS 10, the observed variability between glacial and interglacial δ18O increases dramatically concomitant with a lower reconstructed lake level, suggesting a more pronounced sensitivity to hydroclimate change. A trend to higher interglacial δ18O through this time

  10. Detailed record of the Neogene Sr isotopic evolution of seawater from DSDP Site 590B. [Deep Sea Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, D.J.

    1986-02-01

    A detailed study of strontium isotope variations in Neogene marine carbonate sediments from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 590B, using techniques that allow the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio to be determined to better than +/- 0.000 01, gives a high-resolution record of the Sr isotopic evolution of seawater. The data show that the rate of change of the marine /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio has varied significantly even on time scales as short as 1 m.y. Periods of particularly rapid growth appear to follow major marine regressions and probably reflect an increase in the delivery of radiogenic Sr from the continents coupled with a decreased submarine carbonate dissolution rate (greater carbonate compensation depth). Periods of relatively slowly changing /sup 97/Sr//sup 86/Sr follow major marine transgressions. On the basis of correlations with the marine oxygen isotope record and the times of major continental glacier growth, it is inferred that the effects of sea-level variations are modified by climatic factors that affect the intensity of continental weathering and runoff. The effects of sea-floor generation rate variations are not discernible for the Neogene. The maximum attainable stratigraphic resolution using Sr isotopes is between 0.1 and 2 m.y. for this time period. 24 references.

  11. Downhole tools can increase deep drilling rig productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, D.A.; Doiron, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Explains how there is much to be gained by better utilization of current drilling equipment, particularly for the much more expensive deep drilling. Optimized mud weight, better hydraulics, and higher rpm offer the best opportunities with increased bit weight as a fourth possibility. Current RandD in such areas as shock absorbers, downhole motors, new materials and designs for bits, and improved instrumentation will decrease drilling costs. Concludes that a reasonable projection is that drilling time for deep wells can be halved within the next decade.

  12. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project: Leg 10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Sayles, Fred L.; Waterman, Lee S.

    1973-01-01

    Leg 10 interstitial water analyses provide new indications of the distribution of rock salt beneath the floor of the Gulf of Mexico, both confirming areas previously indicated to be underlain by salt bodies and extending evidence of salt distribution to seismically featureless areas in the Sigsbee Knolls trend and Isthmian Embayment. The criterion for presence of salt at depth is a consistent increase in interstitial salinity and chlorinity with depth. Site 86, on the northern margin of the Yucatan Platform, provided no evidence of salt at depth. Thus, our data tend to rule out the suggestion of Antoine and Bryant (1969) that the Sigsbee Knolls salt was squeezed out from beneath the Yucatan Scarp. Cores from Sites 90 and 91, in the central Sigsbee Deep, were not obtained from a great enough depth to yield definite evidence for the presence of buried salt.

  13. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (III) Evidence for amphibolite grade contact metamorphism in an active geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Franzson, H.

    2008-12-01

    One of the scientific goals of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project is to reach the depths of transition from greenschist to amphibolite grade metamorphism in an active geothermal system. The deepest borehole to date in the Reykjanes system is RN-17, which was drilled to a depth of 3082 m. This well had been considered as a candidate for deepening by the IDDP until it collapsed during a flow test in November 2005. Temperatures in the lower portion of the borehole were never recorded due to an obstruction at 2100 m depth, but are estimated to be approximately 340°C. Epidote, albite, and actinolite are ubiquitous within pillow basalt, hyaloclastite, and in veins, implying that greenschist grade conditions have been attained throughout much of the well below approximately 1200 m. Intrusive lithologies constitute approximately 50% of the observed cuttings between 2600 and 2700 m. These intrusive rocks have produced small, but recognizable contact metamorphic effects characterized by granoblastic hornfels consisting of amphibolite grade assemblages of quartz + anorthite + diopside + magnetite + titanite. These have, in turn, been locally cut by actinolite veins, presumably reflective of the present-day, thermal state of the hydrothermal system at these depths. Based on their siliceous bulk composition, we believe the hornfels represent the thermally- recrystallized products of earlier-formed, hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz, epidote, and actinolite. The metamorphic plagioclase is distinctly more anorthitic (An90 to An98) than igneous plagioclase in adjacent mafic intrusives (An33 to An80) and also exhibits consistently lower Mg content and higher iron (up to 2.07 wt.% as Fe2O3). Stoichiometry implies that much of the iron in hydrothermal anorthite is Fe3+, which may imply recrystallization from precursor epidote under relatively oxidizing conditions. Diopside compositions (average Wo0.48En0.27Fs0.25) are consistently less calcic than hydrothermal clinopyroxenes

  14. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1971-01-01

    Sediments from Leg 6 sites, west of the Hawaiian Islands, consisted primarily of various combinations of deep-sea biogenic oozes, volcanic ash, and its breakdown products. Pore fluids from most of the sites were similar in composition to present day ocean water, and in some sties almost identical. However, interstitial fluids from Site 53 (Philippine Sea) showed changes in ionic composition which were beyond those previously considered attributable to diagenetic influence. These samples show the beginnings of metamorphism by dramatic increases in calcium concentrations and corresponding decreases in alkali concentrations. Analytical methods were similar to those outlined in previous Leg Reports. However, obvious contamination of aliquots for sodium determination in the laboratory made it necessary to determine all sodium values by difference between anion and cation balances. These values are, if anything, more accurate than direct determinations which have been discussed in earlier legs. However, the authors will continue to analyze sodium directly, and in the future they may be able to improve the precision of the determinations to the point where small losses and gains of sodium in the pore fluids may be established accurately. Agreement between colorimetric and spectrometric determinations of silicon has improved, but there are still occasional marked differences for which the writers have no explanation. T. Takahashi has allowed the authors to compare total Carbon Dioxide (CO2) measurements from his laboratory with their alkalinity determinations: both sets of data were obtained from fluids from the same squeezings of sediments and should give similar values at the indicated pH levels. Some disturbingly large discrepancies in the two sets of data are evident. The authors do not think that their back-titration alkalinity technique alone is responsible for the differences. However, they have not evaluated the possible influence of the heat-sealed polyethylene

  15. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1971-01-01

    Sediments from Leg 6 sites, west of the Hawaiian Islands, consisted primarily of various combinations of deep-sea biogenic oozes, volcanic ash, and its breakdown products. Pore fluids from most of the sites were similar in composition to present day ocean water, and in some sties almost identical. However, interstitial fluids from Site 53 (Philippine Sea) showed changes in ionic composition which were beyond those previously considered attributable to diagenetic influence. These samples show the beginnings of metamorphism by dramatic increases in calcium concentrations and corresponding decreases in alkali concentrations. Analytical methods were similar to those outlined in previous Leg Reports. However, obvious contamination of aliquots for sodium determination in the laboratory made it necessary to determine all sodium values by difference between anion and cation balances. These values are, if anything, more accurate than direct determinations which have been discussed in earlier legs. However, the authors will continue to analyze sodium directly, and in the future they may be able to improve the precision of the determinations to the point where small losses and gains of sodium in the pore fluids may be established accurately. Agreement between colorimetric and spectrometric determinations of silicon has improved, but there are still occasional marked differences for which the writers have no explanation. T. Takahashi has allowed the authors to compare total Carbon Dioxide (CO2) measurements from his laboratory with their alkalinity determinations: both sets of data were obtained from fluids from the same squeezings of sediments and should give similar values at the indicated pH levels. Some disturbingly large discrepancies in the two sets of data are evident. The authors do not think that their back-titration alkalinity technique alone is responsible for the differences. However, they have not evaluated the possible influence of the heat-sealed polyethylene

  16. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  17. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Reaching Water: Planetary Deep Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B.; Bergman, D.; Davis, R.; Hoftun, C.; Lee, P.; Johansen, B.

    2017-02-01

    Deeper drilling to 100m depths is easy on Earth, but an extreme challenge on other solar system bodies. Deeper planetary subsurface access into ocean worlds or to the Mars cryosphere is possible with new drilling concepts.

  19. Initial geochemistry data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) "DEEP" site sediment record: The ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja; Mantke, Nicole; Klinghardt, Dorothea

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ohrid, located at the border of Macedonia and Albania is about 30 km long, 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe. The ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the "DEEP" site in the center of the lake, seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Initial data from core catcher samples and on-site susceptibility measurements indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years and provides a continuous archive of environmental and climatological variability in the area. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL -scanning, core correlation, and sub-sampling of the sediment cores from the "DEEP" site is conducted at the University of Cologne. High-resolution geochemical data obtained from XRF-scanning imply that the sediments from the "DEEP" site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area over the last few glacial

  20. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic

  1. Deep Drilling Teleoperation Ffom Mars Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B.; McKay, C.; Stoker, C.; Zacny, K.; Hoftun, C.

    2012-06-01

    Access to Martian volatiles, hydrosphere, and signs of past and extant life will probably require deeper drilling in the 100m-2km range. With a human crew in the vicinity of Mars, real-time teleoperation of a deep Martian drill rig becomes possible.

  2. Exploring the deep continental crust by drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.

    Although geology transcends national boundaries, geologists are not free of national influences. To the question “Is continental scientific drilling an idea whose time has come?,” answers might range from an enthusiastic “yes” in the Soviet Union and the Federal Republic of Germany, and a qualified “yes” in Sweden, to “We hope so” in Canada, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere, but most likely “We don't know” in the United States.In August 1988 at Jaroslavl in the U.S.S.R., Y. A. Kozlovsky, Minister of Geology, challenged participants in the international seminar Superdeep Continental Drilling and Deep Geophysical Research with his proposal for Project GLOBUS, a very-large-scale collaborative study of Earth's crust [Kozlovsky, 1988; Sass and Barber, 1989]. GLOBUS would investigate the crust of all of the world's continents and oceans by a network of geophysical transects, supported by up to 50 deep (5-10 km), to superdeep (>10 km), research boreholes, situated at the nodal points of the net to calibrate the geophysical interpretations and serve as permanent crustal observatories (Figure 1).

  3. Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.H.; Money, R.C.; Palmer, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    Deep, hard or directional drilling imposes extraordinary stresses on drill string components. Because of the additional economic risks of deep drilling, the use of drill string components should be based upon their compliance with API or user acceptance standards. Inspection procedures which provide the highest probability of finding and eliminating unacceptable components should also be employed. Often, too much reliance is placed on a ''report'' or ''certification'' that the drill string components have been ''inspected''. The operator assumes that because the material has been inspected, it is suitable for the intended service. This report addresses three areas in which the above approach leads to trouble: Widespread, established practices have resulted in many applicable API guidelines being unintentionally ignored by users and inspection companies. API standards for used drill pipe do not address some items which should concern operators engaged in deep or critical drilling. Inspection companies frequently do not follow simple quality control steps that can markedly improve the results of their work. Examples of shortcomings in present industry practices are given. Corrective actions which have been implemented by several companies in the last 12-18 months are also given. A hand held calculator program which will aid in evaluating the wear limits on rotary shouldered connections is provided in the appendix to this paper.

  4. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

  5. Age depth model construction of the upper section of ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project based on the high-resolution 14C dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, H.; Nakamura, T.; Neugebauer, I.; Schwab, M. J.; Brauer, A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    To reconstruct environmental, climatic and tectonic histories of the Levant, a deep drilling has been accomplished in the northern basin of the Dead Sea during the fall winter of 2010-2011 by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) in the framework of the ICDP program. The sediment cores from site 5017-1 (water depth of ~300 m) recorded the paleoenvironmental and paleohydrological changes in the Dead Sea and the Levant during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles (Neugebauer et al., QSR in press). To provide precise timing of sedimentological - limnological events in the lake and its watershed, and more critically the relative timing of these events, radiocarbon dating of >70 well-preserved terrestrial plants and some carbonate deposits from the upper 150 m long section of the sediment core were performed. Based on the high-resolution radiocarbon dating, a statistical age-depth model was constructed with assumptions on the deposition condition and the radiocarbon age offset of carbonate samples. We discuss the practicality and the limitation of the age-depth model toward interpreting the high-resolution records of environmental, climatic and tectonic events recorded in the long sediment cores from site 5017-1.

  6. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole: Window to the Precambrian bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Suvi; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2017-04-01

    strong reflector. This fracture, as well as other fractures penetrated by the drill hole, contains saline water and gases, mainly methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium. Salinity of water in the deeper part (>1000 m) of the drill hole has continuously increased since the drilling. Gas-rich water slowly seeps upward and bubble out at the water table. In total, five different water types have been discerned along the drill hole by geochemical and isotopic methods and residence times up to 58 Ma indicated by the accumulation of noble gases. Microbiological studies in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole show that not only do different fracture zones act as places for shift in groundwater chemistry but also in the microbial communities. After a decade of research, Outokumpu drill hole site is geologically well known and thus provides a good environment to test new tools developed for exploration, microbiological or hydrogeological purposes, for example. Geological Survey of Finland is open for new research collaboration projects related to the drill site.

  7. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  8. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  9. Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: New evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, US east coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, W.; Poag, C. Wylie; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Folger, David W.; Powars, David S.; Mixon, Robert B.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Bruce, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15 000 km2 beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils along with trace quantities of impact ejecta. The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalent to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612. It is postulated that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. 

  10. Deep Drilling Basic Research: Volume 5 - System Evaluations. Final Report, November 1988--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    This project is aimed at decreasing the costs and increasing the efficiency of drilling gas wells in excess of 15,000 feet. This volume presents a summary of an evaluation of various drilling techniques. Drilling solutions were compared quantitatively against typical penetration rates derived from conventional systems. A qualitative analysis measured the impact of a proposed system on the drilling industry. The evaluations determined that the best candidates f o r improving the speed and efficiency of drilling deep gas wells include: PDC/TSD bits, slim-hole drilling, roller-cone bits, downhole motors, top-driven systems, and coiled-tubing drilling.

  11. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato

    2017-04-01

    The 501 m deep hole of the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the Campi Flegrei caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcanotectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.

  12. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro A.; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The 501 m deep hole of the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the Campi Flegrei caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.

  13. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium

  14. Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (VI) Fluid-rock Interactions in the Reykjanes Geothermal System as Indicated by Alteration Mineralogy and Sulfur Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2006-12-01

    The composition and salinity of geothermal fluids at Reykjanes resemble evolved seawater, suggesting that subsurface conditions at Reykjanes may be analogous to sea-floor black smokers. The high temperature reaction zone that is presumed to control the composition of the hydrothermal fluid is interpreted to occur deeper than the present depth of drilling, which reached just over 3 km in the well RN-17, during the initial stage of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project. The geothermal fluids deposit massive sulfide scale in production pipes with sulfur isotope values ranging from 2.0° to 4.4°, similar to black smoker sulfide deposits. Sulfur isotope values from altered basalt in drill cuttings range from 4.3° to 10.5°, suggesting a larger component of reduced seawater sulfate in the shallow up-flow zone relative to the H2S in the high temperature hydrothermal fluid. Minor element distributions in the samples suggest the presence of two or more lava series with varying degrees of differentiation. The cutting samples are primarily composed of glassy hyaloclastites, holocrystalline basalt flows, and hypabyssal diabasic intrusives. An assemblage of greenschist facies alteration minerals, including actinolite, prehnite and epidote, that implies temperatures reached at least 250°C, is found at depths as shallow as 350 m. This requires hydrostatic pressures that exceed the boiling point to depth curve, and therefore it must record alteration at higher fluid pressures when Reykjanes was covered by a Pleistocene ice sheet. These alteration phases are presumed to have formed from meteoric waters, rather than from the presently active seawater-recharged system. There is a profound disparity in the intensity of alteration within the two dominant rock types even at greenschist grades. The holocrystalline basalts/intrusives have undergone only limited alteration: plagioclase is mostly unalbitized and uralitization of clinopyroxene is very limited. In contrast, the hyaloclastites

  15. Foraminiferal, lithic, and isotopic changes across four major unconformities at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 548, Goban Spur: Chapter 14 in Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Mazzullo, James M.; Keigwin, Loyd D.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment samples taken at close intervals across four major unconformities (middle Miocene/upper Miocene, lower Oligocene/upper Oligocene, lower Eocene/upper Eocene, lower Paleocene/upper Paleocene) at DSDP-IPOD Site 548, Goban Spur, reveal that coeval biostratigraphic gaps, sediment discontinuities, and seismic unconformities coincide with postulated low stands of sea level. Foraminiferal, lithic, and isotopic analyses demonstrate that environments began to shift prior to periods of marine erosion, and that sedimentation resumed in the form of turbidites derived from nearby upper-slope sources. The unconformities appear to have developed where a water-mass boundary intersected the continental slope, rhythmically crossing the drill site in concert with sea-level rise and fall.

  16. Subsolidus evolution and alteration of titanomagnetite in ocean ridge basalts from Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program Hole 504B9 Leg 83: Implications for the timing of magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shau, Y.-H.; Torii, M.; Horng, C.-S.; Peacor, D. R.

    2000-10-01

    Magnetic minerals in six samples of oceanic basalts of the transition zone and upper sheeted dikes from Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program (DSDP/ODP) Hole 504B, Leg 83, were studied by methods of rock magnetism and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM observations showed that the magnetic mineral in these basalts is end-member magnetite (TMO) of extremely fine-grain size (30-100 nm) primarily in the range of pseudosingle-domain magnetite, consistent with the rock magnetic properties including hysteresis parameters, Curie temperature, and low-temperature measurements (Verwey transition). Magnetite formed by two different processes: (1) oxidation-"exsolution," true exsolution, and hydrothermal alteration, and (2) oxidation-exsolution, a second stage of oxidation-exsolution, and hydrothermal alteration. The primary titanomagnetite (TM60-70) that crystallized from the melt thus evolved to end-member magnetite coexisting with titanite (sphene), kassite, ulvöspinel (TM ˜ 87), and ilmenite on a submicroscopic scale. On the basis of the formation mechanisms of the magnetic carrier, the primary titanomagnetite (TM ˜ 60) with Curie temperature of ˜180°C did not acquire thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) in these basalts. Instead, the Ti-bearing magnetite (TM ˜ 10-20) that formed as oxidized or exsolved lamellae acquired its first thermal chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) at ˜ 500-400°C during subsolidus cooling. Upon the onset of hydrothermal alteration the recrystallized end-member magnetite acquired a second CRM. The natural remanent magnetization of the basalts from the transition zone and upper sheeted dikes is therefore characteristic of CRMs that were acquired when titanomagnetite altered, in part, to magnetite during subsolidus cooling and hydrothermal alteration close to the ridge axis.

  17. Residual glasses and melt inclusions in basalts from DSDP Legs 45 and 46 - Evidence for magma mixing. [Deep Sea Drilling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, M. A.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Microprobe analyses of natural glasses in basalts recovered by Legs 45 and 46 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project are reported and interpreted in the context of other geochemical, petrographic and experimental data on the same rocks (Rhodes et al., 1978). Residual glass compositions in the moderately evolved aphyritic and abundantly phyric basalts within each site indicate that none of the units is related to any other or to a common parent by simple fractional crystallization. The compositional trends, extensive disequilibrium textures in the plagioclase phenocrysts and the presence in evolved lavas of refractory plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts bearing primitive melt inclusions provide evidence that magma mixing had a major role in the genesis of the Leg 45 and 46 basalts. The magma parental to these basalts was most likely characterized by high Mg/(Mg + Fe/+2/), CaO/Al2O3, CaO/Na2O and low lithophile concentrations. A mixing model involving incremental enrichment of magmaphile elements by repeated episodes of mixing of relatively primitive and moderately evolved magmas, followed by a small amount of fractionation is consistent with the characteristics of the basalts studied.

  18. Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: New evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, U. S. east coast

    SciTech Connect

    Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.; Folger, D.W. ); Powars, D.S.; Mixon, R.B.; Edwards, L.E. ); Bruce, S. )

    1992-09-01

    A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15,000 km[sup 2] beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils from the same seven stratigraphic units, along with trace quantities of impact ejecta (tektite glass and shocked quartz). The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalence to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 (New Jersey continental slope), the authors postulate that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. The most promising candidate for the bolide impact site (identified on seismic reflection profiles) is 40 km north-northwest of DSDP Site 612 on the New Jersey outer continental shelf.

  19. Oceanographic and climatic changes over the past 160,000 years at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 594 off southeastern New Zealand, southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Cooke, Penelope J.; Hendy, Chris H.; Cuthbertson, Alison M.

    1993-08-01

    High-resolution textural, carbonate, microfossil, and oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotopic analyses are presented for the late Quaternary (isotopic stages 1 to 6) interval of a core at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 594, situated just south of the present Subtropical Convergence in northernmost Subantarctic surface waters on the southern flank of Chatham Rise in the southwest Pacific. Downcore alternations of pelagic and hemipelagic oozes correspond to interglacial and glacial episodes, respectively. Interglacial oozes contain a northern Subantarctic assemblage of planktonic foraminifera, with rare cool subtropical species, while glacial oozes are characterized by species typical of southern(most) Subantarctic waters and include radiolaria with affinity for Antarctic waters. The planktonic δ18O record for the site supports a 3°-6°C temperature change in near-surface waters between interglacial and glacial stages and indicates that during stage 5e, the near-surface waters were about 1°C warmer than at present. A pronounced cooling during stage 5d matches that of the Vostok ice core δD record, and negative excursions at the end of stages 2 and 6 support a southern latitude warming preceding northern hemisphere deglaciation. Benthic foraminifera typical of cold intermediate to deep waters can increase dramatically in abundance in the hemipelagic ooze intervals when δ18O results suggest a temperature drop in glacial stage bottom waters of 2°-4°C, possibly a result of upward displacement of Antarctic Intermediate Water by Circumpolar Deep Water at the site. The foraminiferal δ13C records support a reduced influence of North Atlantic Deep Water in the southwest Pacific during glacial stages, when nutrient enhancement occurred in both bottom and surface waters. Despite the pronounced changes between interglacial and glacial conditions inferred at site 594, contributed to by a substantial northward shift by at least 5° of latitude in the position of

  20. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a

  1. Postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate, nitrate, and chloride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, R.; Traufetter, F.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Piel, C.; Miller, H.

    2004-04-01

    We quantified postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate (MSA-), nitrate, and chloride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) drilling site in Dronning Maud Land (DML) (75°S, 0°E). Analyses of four intermediate deep firn cores and 13 snow pits were considered. We found that about 26 ± 13% of the once deposited nitrate and typically 51 ± 20% of MSA- were lost, while for chloride, no significant depletion could be observed in firn older than one year. Assuming a first order exponential decay rate, the characteristic e-folding time for MSA- is 6.4 ± 3 years and 19 ± 6 years for nitrate. It turns out that for nitrate and MSA- the typical mean concentrations representative for the last 100 years were reached after 5.4 and 6.5 years, respectively, indicating that beneath a depth of around 1.2-1.4 m postdepositional losses can be neglected. In the area of investigation, only MSA- concentrations and postdepositional losses showed a distinct dependence on snow accumulation rate. Consequently, MSA- concentrations archived at this site should be significantly dependent on the variability of annual snow accumulation, and we recommend a corresponding correction. With a simple approach, we estimated the partial pressure of the free acids MSA, HNO3, and HCl on the basis of Henry's law assuming that ionic impurities of the bulk ice matrix are localized in a quasi-brine layer (QBL). In contrast to measurements, this approach predicts a nearly complete loss of MSA-, NO3-, and Cl-.

  2. Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

  3. > Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2012-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to drill two fully cored scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of Åre (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface geophysics and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major geophysical transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, geophysics, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground

  4. The ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project: An overview and the potential for high-resolution records of floods and droughts in the Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, I.; Brauer, A.; Schwab, M. J.; Frank, U.; Dulski, P.; Waldmann, N.; Enzel, Y.; Ariztegui, D.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Dsddp Scientific Party

    2012-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records are essential for a detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Levant, which is tightly related to the origin, dispersal and evolution of modern human civilisations. Holocene and late Pleistocene sediments of the Dead Sea are unique archives of the climatic, environmental and tectonic history of the Levant and hence a focus of research. Therefore, during winter of 2010-11 an ICDP-drilling project in the Dead Sea (DSDDP) recovered approximately 720 metres of sediment cores from two deep and several short boreholes with the longest core located in the deepest part of the northern basin reaching 456 m below the lake-floor (at ~710 m below mean lake level). Based on initial geophysical and geochemical analyses of this core, we estimate the record to comprise ca the last 200 ka including the Zeelim (Holocene), Lisan (last Glacial) (Stein, 2001) and Samra (last Interglacial; Waldmann et al., 2009) formations and the later part of the penultimate Glacial (Amora Fm.; Torfstein et al., 2009). Magnetic susceptibility values strongly fluctuate during Interglacial periods, but remain constantly lower in Glacial intervals. Deposition of sediments in the Dead Sea basin is strongly related to precipitation (Enzel et al., 2008) favouring sedimentation of alternated detrital clay and authigenic aragonite during wetter intervals and evaporites (e.g., halite and gypsum) in times of increased aridity and lower lake stands. Detailed initial facies analyses focused on two intervals in the deep core: 1) the upper Lisan Formation from ca 17 to 15 ka BP, and 2) the upper Zeelim Formation from ca 4 to 2 ka BP. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, µXRF element scanning and thin section microscopy allow high-resolution analyses at sub-annual timescales. These combined micro-facies analyses demonstrate the great potential for depicting small-scale variability of climate and even single droughts or flood events. Enzel et al., 2008. Global and

  5. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (7) Arsenic distribution within a Basalt-Hosted, High-Temperature Geothermal System, Reykjanes, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, N. J.; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Reykjanes geothermal system is an active, high-temperature, seawater-dominated system located on the southwestern coast of Iceland and is a target site for deep drilling by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). Geothermal fluids produced from drillholes in the Reykjanes geothermal system contain As concentrations up to 240 ppb; however, the distribution of arsenic within the geothermal system is poorly known. The Reykjanes geothermal system is located along the landward continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and has been studied extensively through the efforts of the IDDP and others, and so provides an opportunity to evaluate the hydrothermal geochemistry of arsenic in a basalt-hosted geothermal system. We measured the bulk rock concentration of As, Fe, S, Ti and thirteen other trace metals and metalloids by ICP-MS and ICP-OES in fifty drillhole cutting samples from 350 to 3050 m depth in Reykjanes geothermal well RN-17. The host rock consists of layers of hyaloclastite and fractured crystalline basalts that are frequently intruded by shallow mafic intrusives. Previous studies indicate that the As content of Icelandic basalts is related to their degree of differentiation, with olivine-tholeiites containing 0.02-0.18 ppm As, tholeiites 0.36-0.38 ppm As, and Icelandites 0.76-1.59 ppm As. In RN-17, As content varied between 0.4 and 0.8 ppm for ~70% of the 2700 m profile, suggesting a background concentration of ~0.6 ppm As for the system. The As minima was 0.3 ppm at 2000 m. There were two distinct As maxima in the drillhole cuttings: As was elevated to 0.8-2.3 ppm and 1.7-2.9 ppm at 400-650 m and 1750-1900 m, respectively. From 2300 to ~2700 m, arsenic was slightly elevated (>0.6 - 1.1 ppm). Of the elements analyzed, As correlated most closely with S, and it did so more closely than any of the other elements, including the common chalcophiles Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. This suggests that hydrothermal sulfides efficiently sequester arsenic and that arsenic is

  6. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ≥ 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10

  7. Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in dip of faults was found, and no increase in strata rotation was evident with increasing depth. In the two drill holes located near prominent faults that dip toward the holes (USW G-3 and G-2), an apparent increase in the frequency of faults occurs below the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills. Some of this increase occurs in brittle lavas and flow breccias in the lower part of the volcanic section. In the two holes presumed to be relatively removed from the influence of important faults at depth, the vertical distribution of faults is relatively uniform. Calcite occurs mainly in two general zones, voids in welded portions of the Paintbrush Tuff, and in a deeper zone, mostly below 3,500 feet. Calcite is least abundant in USW G-4, which may reflect the fewer faults and fractures encountered in that drill hole.

  8. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  9. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the

  10. Elastic wave velocities within oceanic layer 2 from sonic full waveform logs in Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 395A, 418A, and 504B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moos, Daniel; Pezard, Philippe; Lovell, Michael

    1990-06-01

    Multichannel full waveform acoustic logs were recorded in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 418A during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) leg 102, DSDP hole 395A during ODP leg 109, and DSDP hole 504B during ODP leg 111, to provide nearly continuous measurements of elastic wave velocities as a function of depth within oceanic layer 2 for different spreading rates and crustal ages. The velocities depend primarily on the morphology of the basalt. Massive units have Vp above 5 km/s, Vs above 2.8 km/s, and Vp/Vs below 1.9. Their velocities increase with depth as expected from crack closure due to confining stress and are lower where fractures are present. Vp and Vs within pillows are quite variable but in general are lower than in massive units, and Vp/Vs is higher. Velocities within breccias are similar to or lower than those of pillows. Within a given morphology the elastic properties do not depend on spreading rate. Within pillows, velocity variations depend primarily on the degree of alteration infilling and the mineralogy of the infilling material, and secondarily on conditions at emplacement. Coherent shear arrivals are sometimes not found within shallow pillows, and in extreme cases the compressional arrival is also incoherent, because of scattering resulting from the similarity between the sonic wavelength and the pillow size. This "sampling bias" in the sonic log is the most likely cause of somewhat higher average sonic than seismic velocities measured within extrusive basalts at shallow depths. Other causes include the fact that laterally finite massive units may be oversampled by borehole measurements and that voids between pillows and fractures, whose size is within an order of magnitude of the sonic wavelength, have less effect on sonic than on seismic velocities. The crustal section can be separated only roughly into seismic layers on the basis of the sonic velocities. Changes in velocity with depth within the extrusive section at a single site giving rise

  11. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  12. Organic carbon cycling in deep-sea benthic ecosystem across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: Implication from ostracodes at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 401, North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Norris, R. D.; Bornemann, A.

    2011-12-01

    An ecological function of marine benthos is to change contents of oxygen and organic matters in sediments. There has been much interest in how global environmental changes affect ecological functions of marine communities and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) that has been held up as a past analog to future environmental change. During the PETM, deep-sea benthic foraminifers decreased their body-size and increased their productivity, metabolic rates, and food consumption in response to abruptly increasing temperature and surface water productivity. This implies an increased organic carbon flux between foraminifera and sediments during the event. Here we find that marine ostracodes, multicellular benthos, experienced a reduction in species diversity and individual longevity in response to PETM warming. However, our results, based upon ostracode communities from the upper Paleocene to the lower Eocene sediments at DSDP Site 401, outer Bay of Biscay, show that reduced valve-sizes were probably caused by rapid growth due to higher bottom water temperature. Estimates of body volume, temperature, valve abundances, and sedimentation rates suggest a decline in lifetime metabolic rate, respiration, food consumption, and biomass flux in the ostracode community during and after the PETM. These declines suggest that changes in the benthic ecosystem structure such as food-web and reduction of organic carbon flux between the community and the sediment during the PETM and its afterward. The reduced ostracode carbon flux contrasts the benthic foraminiferal signal. The latter shows an increase in the organic carbon flux between sediment and benthic foraminifer and they switched their community composition towards lower oxygen contents or higher organic matter supply.

  13. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  14. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  15. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling.

    PubMed

    Makinson, Keith; Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A; Bentley, Michael J; Smith, Andrew M; Tranter, Martyn; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John; Siegert, Martin J

    2016-01-28

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets.

  16. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

  17. Precise Electrochemical Drilling of Repeated Deep Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincheloe, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Tooling enables maintenance of close tolerances. Tooling includes guide that holds electrochemical drilling electrodes in proper relative alinement and guide-positioning fixture clamps directly on reference surfaces of strut. High precision achieved by positioning tooling anew on each strut before drilling: Tolerances of (0.008 mm) maintained in some details.

  18. Self-propelled instrumented deep drilling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor); Gorevan, Stephen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An autonomous subsurface drilling device has spaced-apart forward and rearward feet sections coupled to an axial thruster mechanism between them to operate using an inchworm method of mobility. In one embodiment, forward and rearward drill sections are carried on forward and rearward feet sections for drilling into material in the borehole in both forward and rearward directions, to allow the device to maneuver in any direction underground. In another embodiment, a front drill section has a drill head for cutting into the borehole and conveying cuttings through a center spine tube to an on-board depository for the cuttings. The feet sections of the device employ a foot scroll drive unit to provide radial thrust and synchronous motion to the feet for gripping the borehole wall. The axial thrust mechanism has a tandem set of thrusters in which the second thruster is used to provide the thrust needed for drilling, but not walking. A steering mechanism composed of concentric inner and outer eccentric rings provided with the rearward feet section allow small corrections in both direction and magnitude to the drilling direction as drilling commences.

  19. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  20. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  1. Deep learning in assessment of drill condition on the basis of images of drilled holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurek, Jaroslaw; Swiderski, Bartosz; Jegorowa, Albina; Kruk, Michal; Osowski, Stanislaw

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents novel approach to drill condition assessment using deep learning. The assessment regarding level of the drill wear is done on the basis of the drilled hole images. Two states of the drill are taken into account: the sharp enough to continue production and worn out. The decision is taken on the basis of the shape of hole and also the level of hole shredding. In this way the drill condition is associated with the problem of image analysis and classification. Novel approach to this classification task in the form of deep learning has been applied in solving this problem. The important advantage of this method is great simplification of the recognition procedure, since any handy craft prepared features are not needed and the focus may be concentrated on the most interesting aspects of data mining and machine learning. The obtained results belong to the best in comparison to other approaches to the problem solution.

  2. The Future of Deep-Ocean Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Maxwell, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scientific accomplishments of the International Program of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) during its first decade. Notable are the scientific contributions to understanding the sea floor. Critical decisions for the second decade include economic and social implications. (MA)

  3. The Future of Deep-Ocean Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Maxwell, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scientific accomplishments of the International Program of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) during its first decade. Notable are the scientific contributions to understanding the sea floor. Critical decisions for the second decade include economic and social implications. (MA)

  4. ICDP Drilling in the Scandinavian Caledonides: the COSC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.; Parrish, R. R.; Rosberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project is a multidisciplinary investigation of the Scandian mountain belt. Cenozoic uplift of the Scandes has exposed a lower- to middle-crustal level section through this Himalaya-type orogen, providing unique opportunities to better understand not only the Caledonides, but also on-going orogeny and the earthquake-prone environments of modern mountains belts. COSC will also contribute to our knowledge of mountain belt hydrology, provide the first information about deep thermal gradients for paleoclimate modeling and potential geothermal energy resources, contribute new information about the deep biosphere, and improve our understanding of the Cenozoic uplift history of the Scandes. The drilling program targets the far-traveled (> 400 km) allochthons of the Scandinavian Caledonides and their emplacement across the Baltoscandian foreland basin onto the platform of continent Baltica. Two 2.5 km deep holes are planned. COSC-1, with drilling to be started in the late Spring of 2014, will target the high-grade metamorphic complex of the Seve Nappes (SNC) and its contact to underlying allochthons. COSC-2 will start in the lower thrust sheets, pass through the basal décollement and investigate the character of the deformation in the underlying basement. An international science team, including expertise on Himalaya-Tibet and other young orogens, is running the science program. New high-resolution reflection seismic data provide excellent images of the upper crust, allowing the drilling to also test the origin of the upper crustal reflectivity in this area. The site of COSC-1 is based on a 3D geological model, constructed from surface geology, recent and vintage regional reflection seismic profiles, regional and local gravity data, and high-resolution aeromagnetics, acquired recently by the Geological Survey of Sweden. The drilling will be carried out utilizing the new Swedish scientific drilling

  5. The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.; Sass, John H.

    1988-11-01

    In March 1986 a research borehole, called the "State 2-14," reached a depth of 3.22 km in the Salton Sea geothermal system of southern California. This was part of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP), the first major (i.e., multimillion dollar) research drilling project in the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The principal goals of the project were to investigate the physical and chemical processes of a high-temperature, high-salinity, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. The borehole encountered temperatures of up to 355°C and produced metal-rich, alkali chloride brines containing 25 wt% of total dissolved solids. The rocks penetrated exhibit metamorphism and ore genesis in action. They show a progressive transition from unconsolidated lacustrine and deltaic sediments to hornfelses, with lower amphibolite facies mineralogy, accompanied by pervasive veins containing iron, copper, lead, and zinc ore minerals. The SSSDP included an intensive program of rock and fluid sampling, flow testing, and downhole logging and scientific measurement. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research on the SSSDP, to describe briefly the background of the project and the drilling and testing of the borehole, to summarize the initial scientific results, and to discuss how the lessons learned are applicable to future scientific drilling projects.

  6. Overview of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, S.; Liu, T.; Fan, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) is one of the projects of the National Science and Technology Supporting Program. It aims to drill five boreholes along the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake zone in Sichuan province, China, more specifically along the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault belt and the Anxian-Guanxian fault belt, at the front of Longmenshan Range (with depths of 500 m, 1200 m, 2000 m and 3000 m). The sub-surface data will allow scientists to better understand the mechanism of the Wenchuan earthquake through scientific drilling. Long-term earthquake observation stations will be set up and the earthquake detection instruments will be installed in the boreholes to provide the critical and basic data for earthquake monitoring, forecasting and warning. At present, two boreholes have been completed, two more are being drilled, and the 3000 m-deep hole should be drilled in 2011. The drilling technical scheme has been conceived according to the Longmenshan fault zone's formation condition , which is highly fractured and the fault gouge very thick because of the repeated earthquakes. Based on the technical and economical evaluation on the existing coring methods, we have selected the top-drive and wireline coring method as the main drilling and coring method of the project. We have developed an hydraulic top-drive deep drill rig and a set of large diameter wireline coring tool. The drill rig has an electro-hydraulic proportional control, is easy to operate, and has a long feeding stroke. It can be used in coring, back and forth reaming. Its depth capacity is 3000 m for the 150 mm final diameter. We have used split barrel coring technology to solve the problem of coring in fractured formation. The core barrel is 4.5 m-long and the core diameter ranges from 85 to 100 mm. Over 92% core recovery is achieved with the cores being in good original state. Some extreme technical difficulties, such as hole gushing water, fractured formation, borehole

  7. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data

  8. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  9. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

    2006-03-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been

  10. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  11. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  12. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  13. Deep water drilling risers in calm and harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Olufsen, A.; Nordsve, N.T.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of the work presented in this paper is to increase the knowledge regarding application of deep water drilling risers in different environmental conditions. Identification of key parameters and their impact on design and operation of deep water drilling risers are emphasized. Riser systems for two different cases are evaluated. These are: drilling offshore Nigeria in 1,200 m water depth; drilling at the Voering Plateau offshore Northern Norway in 1,500 m water depth. The case studies are mainly referring to requirements related to normal drilling operation of the riser. They are not complete with respect to describe of total riser system design. The objectives of the case studies have been to quantify the important of various parameters and to establish limiting criteria for drilling. Dynamic riser analyses are also performed. For the Nigeria case, results for a design wave with 100 years return period show that the influence of dynamic response is only marginal (but it may of course be significant for fatigue damage/life time estimation). The regularity of the drilling operation is given as the probability that jointly occurring wave heights and current velocities are within the limiting curve.

  14. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Drill Pipes in Deep Drilling Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC), or environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) have been identified as the most challenging causes of catastrophic brittle fracture of drill pipes during drilling operations of deep oil and natural gas wells. Although corrosion rates can be low and tensile stresses during service can be below the material yield stress, a simultaneous action between the stress and corrosive environment can cause a sudden brittle failure of a drill component. Overall, EAC failure consists of two stages: incubation and propagation. Defects, such as pits, second-phase inclusions, etc., serve as preferential sites for the EAC failure during the incubation stage. Deep oil and gas well environments are rich in chlorides and dissolved hydrogen sulfide, which are extremely detrimental to steels used in drilling operations. This article discusses catastrophic brittle fracture mechanisms due to EAC of drill pipe materials, and the corrosion challenges that need to be overcome for drilling ultra-deep oil and natural gas wells.

  15. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  16. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  17. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  18. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  19. Investigation of the feasibility of deep microborehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.S.; Cohen, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology, microelectronics, and telemetry technology make it feasible to produce miniature wellbore logging tools and instrumentation. Microboreholes are proposed for subterranean telemetry installations, exploration, reservoir definition, and reservoir monitoring this assumes that very small diameter bores can be produced for significantly lower cost using very small rigs. A microborehole production concept based on small diameter hydraulic or pneumatic powered mechanical drilling, assemblies deployed on coiled tubing is introduced. The concept is evaluated using, basic mechanics and hydraulics, published theories on rock drilling, and commercial simulations. Small commercial drill bits and hydraulic motors were selected for laboratory scale demonstrations. The feasibility of drilling deep, directional, one to two-inch diameter microboreholes has not been challenged by the results to date. Shallow field testing of prototype systems is needed to continue the feasibility investigation.

  20. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  1. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  2. Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.250

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

  3. Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (V) Isotopic Evidence of Hydrothermal Exchange and Seawater Ingress from Alteration Minerals in the Reykjanes Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, N. E.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Reykjanes geothermal system is a seawater recharged hydrothermal system located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland. Fluid compositions in the system have evolved through time as a result of changing proportions of meteoric water as well as differing pressure and temperature conditions imposed by glaciation (Sveinbjornsdottir, 1986; Fridleifsson et al., 2005; Marks et al., 2009). Samples from the deepest part of Reykjanes well RN-17 include greenschist to pyroxene hornfels facies assemblages, suggesting seawater penetration into a part of the system that is close to the high temperature reaction zone. Electron microprobe studies of drill cuttings reveal intense alteration of hyaloclastites with calc-silicate alteration assemblages comprising calcic hydrothermal plagioclase, grandite garnet, prehnite, epidote, hydrothermal clinopyroxene, and titanite. In contrast, crystalline basalts and intrusive rocks display a wide range in alteration intensity from essentially unaltered to pervasive and nearly complete replacement of feldspar and pyroxene. Epidote is widely distributed throughout the RN-17 samples and fills veins and vugs, replaces glass in hyaloclastites and the interstitial matrix of basalt samples, and is also an alteration product of primary plagioclase. 87Sr/86Sr values of individual epidote grains measured by LA-ICPMS were typically 0.7045-0.7050, but ranged as high as 0.7073 in individual grains. Anhydrite is widespread in shallow portions of the Reykjanes system to about 1500 m. 87Sr/86Sr values of anhydrite from the Reykjanes geothermal system range from 0.7044-0.7053, and gypsum values range from 0.7093 to 0.7094. The Sr isotopic ratios of alteration minerals are shifted from basaltic values (0.7030-0.7034; O’Nions and Grönvold, 1973; Sun and Jahn, 1975) toward seawater values (0.70916; Palmer and Edmond, 1989). This suggests that seawater Sr is able to penetrate deep within the geothermal system, and that seawater Sr

  4. Project DEEP STEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschliman, D. P.; Clay, R. G.; Donaldson, A. B.; Eisenhawer, S. W.; Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Mulac, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oils from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are the development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. During the period January 1-March 31, 1981, effort has continued on a low pressure combustion downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and on two high pressure designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). The Sandia design was prepared for deployment in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. Initial bare string field data are reported on the insulated tubular test at Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada.

  5. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  6. Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Objectives, Successes, Surprises and Frustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) is a long-running project undertaken with the objective of studying a mantle plume by drilling an extended sequence of lavas from a single Hawaiian volcano. The project originated with a proposal to NSF in late 1986 with the idea of drilling to the Moho under Hilo; the target depth was estimated at 12km, commensurate with the depth reached by the drilling program then being pursued by the USSR and that proposed in the U.S. for the southern Appalachians, and in line with the aspirations of the nascent DOSECC program. Subsequently, due to limitations in funding and reorganization of the drilling program into what later became the NSF Continental Dynamics Program, HSDP was re-scoped with the objective of drilling deeply enough (ca. 4.5km) to recover most of the eruptive history of a single volcano. The project first went to a pilot stage, which resulted in coring to a depth of 1.1km in late 1993. The pilot stage was relatively inexpensive (1M including science) and productive. Funding was then obtained from NSF and ICDP in 1995 (ca. 12M) with the objective of drilling to 4.5km. Drilling was originally planned for a five-year period, in two campaigns. The first campaign, in 1999, resulted in efficient coring to a depth of 3.1km over a period of 6 months; it used about 40 percent of the funds and was also highly productive. Deepening the hole below 3.1km turned out to be both difficult and expensive, although for interesting reasons. To facilitate deeper drilling the hole needed to be reamed to a larger diameter; but when this was done the well unexpectedly started to flow. We now know that there are several deep pressurized aquifers, with varying salt content, but these hydrological phenomena were totally unanticipated. A key finding, also unanticipated, is that cold seawater circulates through the volcanic pile in volumes sufficient to refrigerate the entire section below 700m depth to temperatures about 25 degrees below a

  7. Overview of the Barberton Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Wilson, Allan; Mason, Paul; Hofmann, Axel; Lowe, Don

    2013-04-01

    The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa is one of the best-preserved successions of mid- Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, and, as such, a remarkable natural laboratory where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Volcanic and sedimentary sequences in the belt provide information on the environment in which life emerged and evolved. A drilling project, sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), and many national funding agencies, was completed in May 2012. More than 3000 m of core from 5 holes at four sites were recovered. At the Tjakastad site, two ca. 300 m holes were drilling through sequences of komatiites and komatiitic basalts. The other three holes targeted sedimentary rocks: the Buck Reef hole sampled over 700m of mainly banded black and white cherts; the Mid Fig Tree hole sampled a sequence of ferruginous charts and mudstones; and the Barite Valley hole samples a more varied sequence including sandstone, shale, cherts and volcaniclastic rocks. The core is stored and has been logged in facilities of the University of the Wirwatersrand. Core logs can be found at tp://www.peeringintobarberton.com/Sites.html . An open call for proposals to work on the core, sent out in November 2012, was answered by over 50 scientists from 12 countries who plan to study the core using techniques ranging from petrography, through major and trace-element analysis, to sophisticated isotopic analysis. A workshop to discuss the drilling project and to view the core is planned at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg from Mon 18th to Wed the 21st February 2013, followed by a short trip to the Barberton belt to visit the drilling sites.

  8. Noise characteristics of short drilled and deep drilled braced monuments in the PBO continuous GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Meertens, C.; Jackson, M.

    2008-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS network consists of 1,100 continuously operating stations, 880 of which were built between 2003 and 2008 to a standard set of specifications. With a few exceptions, all built stations incorporate a Trimble NetRS receiver (firmware v.1.1) and a Trimble TRM29659.00 choke ring antenna, so differences in station performance due to GPS equipment should be negligible. Station monuments are split almost exclusively between slightly modified versions of the Wyatt- Agnew deep drilled braced and the SCIGN short drilled braced types, both of which are considered to be the state-of-the-art in stable GPS monumentation. Deep drilled braced monuments are designed to anchor the GPS antenna to a depth of more than 3 m in order to isolate the antenna from expansion/contraction of the near subsurface from temperature or moisture variability, but installation costs are substantially higher than for shallow monuments. Determining the gain in stability due to deeper anchoring would benefit design decisions for future networks. We test the assumption that deep drilled braced monuments offer superior stability over short drilled braced by examining the noise characteristics of a large subset of the PBO GPS network. We apply analytical techniques widely used to study GPS noise, examining the amplitudes of seasonal and sub-seasonal cycles and various stochastic noise processes in detrended vertical and horizontal time series. Seasonal forcing of the near subsurface is correlated with seasonal variations in site-specific effects such as multipath and regional effects such as groundwater recharge, complicating the analysis. Restricting the analysis to these two monument types allows us to isolate shallow subsurface effects to the greatest extent possible, not only to assess the relative performance of deep versus shallow monumentation, but also to weigh the absolute magnitude of shallow effects against that of other noise sources.

  9. Italian Experience and Problems in Deep Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cigni, U.; Del Gaudio, P.; Fabbri, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal exploration at depth is being conducted in the Larderello area of Italy, in order to ascertain whether it is possible to extract geothermal fluids from the layers which underlie the reservoir now being exploited. The main operating problems are caused by the high thermality and the chemical corrosiveness of the fluids encountered; and by the practical problems involved in drilling without circulation to the surface in mainly hard but anhomogeneous fractured formations. The technology employed for deep geothermal well drilling plays an important role in this research. In deep geothermal well drilling it is essential that the equipment and the materials employed are suitable for use in areas which are characterized by high thermality and chemical corrosiveness. The results of the experiences gained in Italy concerning the materials and tools employed in deep geothermal exploration are presented. The various problems involved are described in detail and particular mention is made of drift control, fishing operations, cementation of the deep casing, control of the circulation fluid, and choice of the tubular materials.

  10. Combining conventional and thermal drilling in order to increase speed and reduce costs of drilling operations to access deep geothermal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Edoardo; Kant, Michael A.; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    The exploitation of deep geothermal resources for energy production relies on finding cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance in hard rocks. Conventional rotary drilling techniques, based on mechanical rock exportation, result in high rates of drilling tool wearing, causing significant costs. Additionally, rotary drilling results in low drilling speeds in the typically hard crystalline basement rocks targeted for enhanced geothermal energy utilization technologies. Furthermore, even lower overall drilling rates result, when considering tripping times required to exchange worn drill tools. Therefore, alternative drilling techniques, such as hammering, thermal drilling, plasma drilling, and jetting processes are widely investigated in order to provide cost-effective alternatives to conventional drilling methods. A promising approach, that combines conventional rotary and thermal drilling techniques, is investigated in the present work. Here, the rock material is thermally weakened before being exported by conventional cutters. Heat is locally provided by a flame, which moves over the rock surface, heat-treating the material. Besides reducing the rock strength, an in-depth smoothening effect of the mechanical rock properties is observed due to the thermal treatment. This results in reduced rates of drill bit wearing and higher rates of penetration, which in turn decreases drilling costs significantly, particularly for deep-drilling projects. Due to the high heating rates, rock-hardening, commonly observed at moderate temperatures, can be avoided. The flame action can be modelled as a localized, high heat transfer coefficient flame treatment, which results in orders of magnitude higher heating rates than conventional oven treatments. Therefore, we analyse rock strength variations after different maximum temperatures, flame-based heating rates, and rock confinement pressures. The results show that flame treatments lead to a monotonous decrease of

  11. Depositional history of the Apollo 16 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.; Morris, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements were performed on 212 samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The total iron content is generally uniform with a mean value of 5.7 plus or minus 0.9 wt%. The soils range in maturity from immature to mature. Two major contacts were observed. The contact at 13 cm depth represents a fossil surface whereas the contact at 190 cm depth has no time-stratigraphic significance. The data suggest that the core section below 13 cm depth was deposited in a single impact event and subjected to meteoritic gardening for about 450 m.y. However, our data do not preclude deposition by a series of closely spaced events. About 50 m.y. ago, the top 13 cm were added. Comparison with the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/60010 does not yield any evidence for a stratigraphic correlation with the deep drill core.

  12. Evaluation of direct-use-project drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Childs, F.W.; Allman, D.W.; Sanders, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates drilling and completion costs from eleven low-to-moderate temperature geothermal projects carried out under the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) and User-Coupled Confirmation Drilling Programs. Several studies have evaluated geothermal drilling costs, particularly with respect to high-temperature-system drilling costs. This study evaluates drilling costs and individual cost elements for low-to-moderate temperature projects. It considers the effect of drilling depth, rock types, remoteness of location, rig size, and unique operating and subsurface conditions on the total drilling cost. This detailed evaluation should provide the investor in direct-use projects with approximate cost projections by which the economics of such projects can be evaluated.

  13. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

    2006-06-22

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent

  14. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  15. 43 CFR 3252.12 - How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How deep may I drill a temperature... RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.12 How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well? (a) You may drill a temperature gradient well to any depth that we approve in your exploration...

  16. 43 CFR 3252.12 - How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How deep may I drill a temperature... RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.12 How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well? (a) You may drill a temperature gradient well to any depth that we approve in your exploration...

  17. 43 CFR 3252.12 - How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How deep may I drill a temperature... RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.12 How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well? (a) You may drill a temperature gradient well to any depth that we approve in your exploration...

  18. 43 CFR 3252.12 - How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How deep may I drill a temperature... RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.12 How deep may I drill a temperature gradient well? (a) You may drill a temperature gradient well to any depth that we approve in your exploration...

  19. Mars Deep Drill - A Mission Concept for the Next Decade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sylvia L.; Essmiller, John C.; Beaty, David W.

    2004-01-01

    In the not too distant future, NASA may consider sending a robotic mission to Mars to drill tens of meters below the surface to search for evidence of life. Mars science groups, including NASA's Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), have repeatedly concluded that in situ scientific analyses of samples from significant depths below the surface are important for understanding Mars in general and for searching for evidence of past or present life in particular. Furthermore, there are several ongoing technology developments for relevant drills, the readiness of which seem promising for use by the second decade of this century. By accessing and analyzing material from tens of meters below the surface, in situ science investigations may help answer some important questions about Mars, in particular about whether life ever existed there. Drilling is a proven technique for terrestrial applications that appears viable for accessing Martian subsurface samples and bringing them to the surface for analysis by a variety of instruments. An end-to-end mission concept for a Deep Drill mission has been developed and appears feasible for launch in the next decade.

  20. Introduction to the Illinois Deep Hole Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, M. S.; Haimson, B. C.; Hinze, W. J.; van Schmus, W. R.

    1983-09-01

    Commonwealth Edison recently drilled three engineering test holes in northwestern Illinois. The three holes (UPH 1, 2, and 3) were 0.6, 1.6, and 1.6 km deep, respectively, and the latter two penetrated nearly 1 km of Precambrian granitic basement. In 1980, continuous core from all three holes and access to UPH 3 were made available for scientific investigations through the Illinois Deep Hole Project. The drill hole and cores provided an excellent opportunity for "piggyback" scientific investigations because (1) the basement geology of the region was poorly known, (2) a large vertical depth of continuous core was available, and (3) one of the holes was available for testing where corresponding core is available. The principal study of these holes was an integrated investigation of surface and in-hole experiments, plus detailed petrologic, geochemical, and physical property studies of the core samples. The combined results of these studies contributed significatnly to our understanding of the regional geology of the Precambrian basement, the regional geophysics and tectonics, and the correlation between geophysical well logging and the true character of the rocks penetrated. Furthermore, this project has shown that substantial scientific benefit can be obtained from continental drilling "holes of opportunity" if members of the scientific community are able to respond in a timely and coordinated fashion.

  1. An overview of McKittrick coiled tubing drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Ramagno, R.A.; Hurkmans, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to reduce drilling costs on thermal wells, service companies began reducing casing sizes and well pad location sizes in 1993. Based on a successful four-well pilot project completed in early 1994 at the Belridge Field, a 115-well steam injector project was completed in the McKittrick Field in late 1994, of which 68 wells were drilled with coiled tubing. This paper will discuss why slimhole completions and coiled tubing drilling were selected for this project, the operational aspects of drilling 68 wells in 92 working days, and conclusions about the project.

  2. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  3. Drilling below the salt in the Western Mediterranean Sea : the GOLD-1 (Gulf of Lion Drilling) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Alain, Karine; Participants, International

    2010-05-01

    In recent years the Gulf of Lion within the Occidental Mediterranean Sea has become a unique natural laboratory for the study both the evolution and interaction of deep processes (geodynamics, tectonics, subsidence, isostasy) and surficial processes (river behavior, sedimentary fluxes, sea-level changes, climatic impacts). Here, representing a large group of international researchers, we present the main objectives for a deep drilling project at the foot of the continental slope (2400 m water depth) in the Gulf of Lion. This position is the only place in the Gulf of Lion where the sedimentary column is expected to be complete without major erosional hiatuses or time gaps. It is located sufficiently far from the shelf and slope to not have been affected by the extraordinarly erosional event of the Messinian, and at the same time be free from salt-related faulting and diapirism. At this position we have recorded nearly a complete high-resolution history of the last 23 through 30 Ma of Mediterranean history in some 7.7 km of sedimentary archive. From the petroleum exploration perspective the deepest part of the margin reamain underexplored since all existing wells were drilled on the shelf and slope GLP1 & 2 being the deepest one. New interpretations in the region (especially concerning the Messinian event) have considerably changed earlier views of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. New results expected from deep drilling are numerous: 1) For the substratum: the upper continental crust thins to less than 5 km, and changes laterally to a relatively thin crust with high velocities whose precise nature is still undetermined (Gailler et al., 2009). The aim of the drilling is to reach this crucial information which is essential for the understanding of the evolution of the sedimentary basin (Aslanian et al., 2009). 2) The drilling will allow the dating and characterization of the impact of the initiation and changes in glacioeustatic cyclicity in alpine glaciers and

  4. Effect of alteration, formation absorption, and standoff on the response of the thermal neutron porosity log in gabbros and basalts: Examples from Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglia, Cristina; Ellis, Darwin

    1990-06-01

    This study focuses on the effects of hydrous alteration minerals, formation absorption, and standoff on the response of the thermal neutron porosity log in the basaltic and gabbroic rocks logged at sites 395, 418, 504, 642, and 735 during the Ocean Drilling Program. The concentration of hydrogen present in the rocks in the form of free water (pore space) and bound water (hydrous minerals) is the primary factor controlling the neutron elastic scattering process, while the presence of other elements, such as chlorine, gadolinium, boron, lithium, and samarium in the fluids and in the rock matrix can largely affect the thermal diffusion phase. These neutron absorbers cause an increase of the capture cross section, and in turn of the apparent thermal porosity. Further perturbations occur when the recording conditions depart from those under which the tool has been calibrated; a large and irregular hole diameter and a lack of eccentralization both produce erroneous porosity readings. The effect of hydrous alteration minerals on the thermal neutron porosity log has been estimated from 922 core oxide measurements using an analysis program that calculates the slowing-down length and converts it into apparent porosity. The results show that the computed apparent porosity ranges from less than 1% in fresh basalts and gabbros to about 30% in highly altered units. Depending on the alteration mineral assemblage, natural gamma ray, capture cross section, or hydrogen logs have been used to continuously predict the effect of bound hydrogen at each site. Corrected porosities generally show excellent agreement with core data for massive units, whereas they are higher for pillow basalts and fractured zones. The discrepancy is interpreted as the result of (1) difference in the volume of rock investigated (core specimens do not sample large vugs and fractures) and (2) frequent variations in the hole size and lack of tool contact with the borehole wall (standoff), not completely

  5. Permeability and seismic velocity and their anisotropy across the Alpine Fault, New Zealand: An insight from laboratory measurements on core from the Deep Fault Drilling Project phase 1 (DFDP-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. J.; Tatham, D.; Faulkner, D. R.; Mariani, E.; Boulton, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Alpine Fault, a transpressional plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, is known to rupture quasiperiodically with large magnitude earthquakes (Mw 8). The hydraulic and elastic properties of fault zones are thought to vary over the seismic cycle, influencing the nature and style of earthquake rupture and associated processes. We present a suite of laboratory permeability and P (Vp) and S (Vs) wave velocity measurements performed on fault lithologies recovered during the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1), which sampled principal slip zone (PSZ) gouges, cataclasites, and fractured ultramylonites, with all recovered lithologies overprinted by abundant secondary mineralization, recording enhanced fluid-rock interaction. Core material was tested in three orthogonal directions, orientated relative to the down-core axis and, when present, foliation. Measurements were conducted with pore pressure (H2O) held at 5 MPa over an effective pressure (Peff) range of 5-105 MPa. Permeabilities and seismic velocities decrease with proximity to the PSZ with permeabilities ranging from 10-17 to 10-21 m2 and Vp and Vs ranging from 4400 to 5900 m/s in the ultramylonites/cataclasites and 3900 to 4200 m/s at the PSZ. In comparison with intact country rock protoliths, the highly variable cataclastic structures and secondary phyllosilicates and carbonates have resulted in an overall reduction in permeability and seismic wave velocity, as well as a reduction in anisotropy within the fault core. These results concur with other similar studies on other mature, tectonic faults in their interseismic period.

  6. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  7. Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

    2004-12-01

    The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once

  8. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with

  9. Deep drilling into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.; Browning, J.V.; Cockell, C.S.; Horton, J.W.; Kenkmann, T.; Kulpecz, A.A.; Powars, D.S.; Sanford, W.E.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Samples from a 1.76-kilometer-deep corehole drilled near the center of the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure (Virginia, USA) reveal its geologic, hydrologic, and biologic history. We conducted stratigraphic and petrologic analyses of the cores to elucidate the timing and results of impact-melt creation and distribution, transient-cavity collapse, and ocean-water resurge. Comparison of post-impact sedimentary sequences inside and outside the structure indicates that compaction of the crater fill influenced long-term sedimentation patterns in the mid-Atlantic region. Salty connate water of the target remains in the crater fill today, where it poses a potential threat to the regional groundwater resource. Observed depth variations in microbial abundance indicate a complex history of impact-related thermal sterilization and habitat modification, and subsequent post-impact repopulation.

  10. Horizontal well drilled into deep, hot Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Johnson, M.; Godfrey, B.

    1995-04-03

    Bent-housing steerable downhole motors helped maintain course for a deep, hot, horizontal well in the Austin chalk. The Navasota Unit No. 1 was planned as a B zone, single downdip lateral, Austin chalk horizontal well with a maximum departure from vertical of 3,767 ft and a planned total depth (TD) of 17,342 ft measured depth (MD)/14,172 ft TVD. The Austin chalk was found significantly deeper in this well than planned, which resulted in an actual TD of 17,899 ft MD/14,993 ft TVD, the deepest (TVD) horizontal well in the Austin chalk to date. The well was spudded on August 6, 1994, and took 52 days to reach TD. The static bottom hole temperature was almost 350 F. The paper describes the well plan, drilling results, and the lateral section.

  11. Irradiation stratigraphy in the Apollo 16 deep drill section 60002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Wood, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Particle track density frequency distributions, abundance of track rich grains and minimum track densities are reported for the upper 20 cm of the 60002 section of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The principal stratigraphic feature is a boundary approximately 7 cm from the top of the section. Experimental evidence does not conclusively determine whether this contact is an ancient regolith surface or is simply a depositional boundary. If it is an ancient surface, it has a model exposure age of 3 to 7 million years and a reworking depth of about 0.5 cm. However, because track density frequency distributions indicate the mixing of soils of different maturities, we favor interpreting this contact as a depositional boundary. There may be a second depositional boundary approximately 19 cm below the top of 60002.

  12. Deep drilling into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure.

    PubMed

    Gohn, G S; Koeberl, C; Miller, K G; Reimold, W U; Browning, J V; Cockell, C S; Horton, J W; Kenkmann, T; Kulpecz, A A; Powars, D S; Sanford, W E; Voytek, M A

    2008-06-27

    Samples from a 1.76-kilometer-deep corehole drilled near the center of the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure (Virginia, USA) reveal its geologic, hydrologic, and biologic history. We conducted stratigraphic and petrologic analyses of the cores to elucidate the timing and results of impact-melt creation and distribution, transient-cavity collapse, and ocean-water resurge. Comparison of post-impact sedimentary sequences inside and outside the structure indicates that compaction of the crater fill influenced long-term sedimentation patterns in the mid-Atlantic region. Salty connate water of the target remains in the crater fill today, where it poses a potential threat to the regional groundwater resource. Observed depth variations in microbial abundance indicate a complex history of impact-related thermal sterilization and habitat modification, and subsequent post-impact repopulation.

  13. Continental Scientific Drilling (CSD): Technology Barriers to Deep Drilling Studies in Thermal Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, George A.; Rowley, John C.

    1987-01-16

    This report is the proceedings of a workshop. The primary thrust of these discussion was to identify the major key technology barriers to the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Thermal Regimes CSD projects and to set priorities for research and development. The major technological challenge is the high temperature to be encountered at depth. Specific problems derived from this issue were widely recognized among the participants and are reflected in this summary. A major concern for the projected Thermal Regimes CSD boreholes was the technology required for continuous coring, in contrast to that required for drilling without core or spot coring. Current commercial technology bases for these two techniques are quite different. The DOE has successfully fielded projects that used both technologies, i.e, shallow continuous coring (Inyo Domes and Valles Caldera) and deeper drilling with spot cores (Imperial Valley-SSSDP). It was concluded that future scientific objectives may still require both approaches, but continuous coring is the most likely requirement in the near term. (DJE-2005)

  14. Methane in Crystalline Bedrock: the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietäväinen, R.; Ahonen, L.; Niinikoski, P.; Itävaara, M.; Kukkonen, I. T.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon is a key element for life. One of the most interesting forms of carbon is methane, as it is both consumed and produced by microorganisms. Methane has also several possible ways of abiotic origin, some of which could provide understanding of the origin of life itself. The study of methane is thus important in order to understand deep subsurface ecosystems such as those found in the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole within the Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield in eastern Finland. There rock types differ from graphite-bearing mica schist and black schist to serpentinite and pegmatitic granodiorite and saline, gas-rich water, with up to 32 mmol l-1 of methane, and residence times of tens of millions of years occupies the fracture zones which host diverse microbial life, including methanogenic archaea. In order to understand methane systematics in crystalline bedrock, we analysed several forms of carbon, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), methane and ethane from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole for their isotopic composition. In addition, isotopic compositions of water and hydrogen were determined. The results show that hydrogen is in isotopic equilibrium in the system H2O-H2-CH4 at ambient temperatures, which could either indicate equilibration due to long residence time or relatively recent production of methane in situ. Therefore hydrogen is not a very useful indicator for the origin of methane in this case. Carbon isotope analysis shows that both methane and DIC becomes generally more enriched in 13C with depth, which could indicate higher amounts of microbial methane in the upper part of the bedrock. Based on carbon isotope composition, two types of ethane can be discerned. Taken all the evidence together, this leads us to suggest that at least two mechanisms are responsible for the methane production in Outokumpu: 1) Biotic which comprise most of methane and 2) abiotic which dominates in the deeper parts of the bedrock. The former type may include

  15. Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

    2012-04-01

    We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data

  16. Drilling a crater at the Equator-insides from ICDP DeepCHALLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Inka; Van Daele, Maarten; Tanghe, Niels; Eloy, Jonas; Verschuren, Dirk; De Batist, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Long and continuous sediment records from equatorial Africa are rare, resulting in a so far fragmentary understanding of the effects of a warming atmosphere on the tropical hydrological cycle at the regional scale. Serve and recurrent droughts is the principle weather-related hazard throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and the quality of long-term weather prediction a principle bottleneck hampering drought mitigation and adaptation. The impact of 21st-century anthropogenic climate change on the African rainfall is highly uncertain, implying unforeseeable effects on freshwater resources. During the "CHALLACEA" project (2005-2008) detailed investigations of Lake Challa, a relatively small and deep crater lake on the border between Kenya and Tanzania, revealed the lake is a key site for reconstructing the climate and environmental history of equatorial East Africa. Various biological, bio-geochemical and sedimentological investigations of the 22 long CHALLACEA-core helped to understand the systematics of Lake Challa under present-day conditions as well as to reconstruct environmental changes over the past 25,000 years. Due to the good quality of the Lake Challa sediment and the high scientific outcome of the record, a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP) project "DeepCHALLA" was established to drill a longer sediment record, going further back in time. During the drilling campaign in November 2016 a 215 m long sediment sequence was obtained which will provide unique information about environmental changes in low-latitudes over a complete glacial - interglacial cycle. Therefore, the record opens new opportunities to study East African environmental changes and paleo-hydrological conditions much further back in time, encompassing the entire known existence of modern humans (Homo sapiens) in East Africa. Here we present a compilation of the environmental reconstructions based on the CHALLACEA sediment sequence and will give an outline of future

  17. ICDP drilling in the Scandinavian Caledonides: the SDDP-COSC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher; Gee, David; Pascal, Christophe; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Pedersen, Karsten; Rosberg, Jan-Erik

    2013-04-01

    The Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project is a multidisciplinary investigation of the Scandian mountain belt. Cenozoic uplift of the Scandes has exposed a lower- to middle-crustal level section through this Himalaya-type orogen, providing unique opportunities to better understand not only the Caledonides, but also on-going orogeny and the earthquake-prone environments of modern mountains belts. COSC will also contribute to our knowledge of mountain belt hydrology, provide the first information about deep thermal gradients for paleoclimate modeling and potential geothermal energy resources, contribute new information about the deep biosphere, and improve our understanding of the Cenozoic uplift history of the Scandes. The drilling program targets the far-traveled (> 400 km) allochthons of the Scandinavian Caledonides and their emplacement across the Baltoscandian foreland basin onto the platform of continent Baltica. Two 2.5 km deep holes are planned. COSC-1, to be drilled in the summer of 2013, will target the high-grade metamorphic complex of the Seve Nappes (SNC) and its contact to underlying allochthons. COSC-2 will start in the lower thrust sheets, pass through the basal décollement and investigate the character of the deformation in the underlying basement. An international science team, including expertise on Himalaya-Tibet and other young orogens, is running the science program. New high-resolution reflection seismic data provide excellent images of the upper crust. Alternative interpretations of the reflectors' origin, particularly those in the basement, will be tested. The site of COSC-1 is based on a 3D geological model, constructed from surface geology, recent and vintage regional reflection seismic profiles, regional and local gravity data, and high-resolution aeromagnetics, acquired recently by the Geological Survey of Sweden. The drilling will be carried out utilising the new Swedish

  18. Canadian operator succeeds in slant-hole drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Lowen, B.M.; Gradeen, G.D.

    1982-08-01

    Describes the first application of slant-hole drilling to shallow gas reservoirs. The project required development of new downhole drilling techniques and equipment, as well as an innovative rig design. Ocelot is one of the largest producers of natural gas from southeastern Alberta's shallow Milk RiverMedicine Hat formations. With slant-hole drilling, multiple wells can be drilled from a single surface location. Also, pipelining costs are reduced and field operations are simplified. Diagram shows how, on multiple well sites, well centers are spaced 50 ft apart, parallel to the lake shore to allow rig movement. Concludes that the program was successful and proved slant-hole drilling could be a viable method of developing shallow gas reserves which would be otherwise unrecoverable due to topography. Future projects are being planned around topography and from multiple well sites to reduce land usage.

  19. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, S.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.

    2004-12-01

    Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set at sea level. Drilling operation was started in Feb. 2003. In the shallow section, frequent lost circulation and accidental side-track occurred due to the unconsolidated zone, and caused_@many troubles. Although the drilling was delayed, we succeeded in drilling down to 396m with the inclination of 25 degree in 17-1/2 inch hole and 13-3/8 inch casing section. 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled using TDS, EM-MWD, and DHM. When the inclination was built up to 75 degree at 795 m, we changed the drilling mode of trajectory control to keep the angle. A large fracture of total loss was encountered at 807m, and serious cuttings bed occurred. The latter made the drilling impossible to continue. Then, we inserted 9-5/8 inch casing down to 796 m. Trajectory correction runs was completed in 8-5/8 inch hole, and 7 inch casing was set down to 1550m. In 6-1/4 inch hole, though EM-MWD and DHM were not used, drilling inclination and azimuth were stable. Spot coring was started at 1582 m, the levels of spot coring depth were chosen based on the data of temperature measurement and cuttings observation. Though the drilling exceeded 1800m, the original target depth, drilling was continued, because we could not encounter the high temperature conduit at that time. Finally, the well reached the 1995 m, and succeeded in taking cores highly probable of magmatic conduit in July 2004. We could carry out geophysical logging mostly throughout the whole sections. Spot coring were done at 16 times; its total length was 75m. Although the highest measured temperature was 155 deg. C, the formation temperature may reach at least 200 deg. C. The

  20. Chemical stratigraphy of the Apollo 17 deep drill cores 70009-70007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehmann, W. D.; Ali, M. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an analysis of a total of 26 samples from three core segments (70009, 70008, 70007) of the Apollo 17 deep drill string. The deep drill string was taken about 700 m east of the Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon. Three core segments have been chemically characterized from the mainly coarse-grained upper portion of the deep drill string. The chemical data suggest that the entire 70007-70009 portion of the deep drill string examined was not deposited as a single unit, but was formed by several events sampling slightly different source materials which may have occurred over a relatively short period of time. According to the data from drill stem 70007, there were at least two phases of deposition. Core segment 70009 is probably derived from somewhat different source material than 70008. It seems to be a very well mixed material.

  1. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology. Final Technical Research Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Kenneth; Woskov, Paul; Einstein, Herbert; Livesay, Bill

    2014-12-30

    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260°C, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be

  2. Canadian operator succeeds in slant-hole drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Lowen, B.M.; Gradeen, G.D.

    1982-08-01

    In 1981, Ocelot successfully developed the Bantry gas field in southeastern Alberta with a unique slant-hole drilling technique in areas where surface topography made conventional drilling impossible. Ocelot initiated the project to develop the shallow (1050-1460 ft) Milk River and Medicine Hat gas reserves under the Tilley B manmade lake. Cheaper than offshore drilling, the slant-hole technique provided a means of reaching the reserves from the shore. Spudding the well at a 45/sup 0/ angle doubled the horizontal displacement achieved by conventional directional drilling to the depth required. A conventional single-stand, hydraulic rig - converted to drill slant holes - incorporated several new features that saved time in handling the pipe and in moving the rig between sites.

  3. The Towuti Drilling Project: paleoenvironments, biological evolution, and geomicrobiology of a tropical Pacific lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Vogel, Hendrik; Melles, Martin; Kallmeyer, Jens; Ariztegui, Daniel; Crowe, Sean; Fajar, Silvia; Hafidz, Abdul; Haffner, Doug; Hasberg, Ascelina; Ivory, Sarah; Kelly, Christopher; King, John; Kirana, Kartika; Morlock, Marina; Noren, Anders; O'Grady, Ryan; Ordonez, Luis; Stevenson, Janelle; von Rintelen, Thomas; Vuillemin, Aurele; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel; Wicaksono, Satrio; Wonik, Thomas; Bauer, Kohen; Deino, Alan; Friese, André; Henny, Cynthia; Imran; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Ode Ngkoimani, La; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Ode Safiuddin, La; Simister, Rachel; Tamuntuan, Gerald

    2016-07-01

    The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) is an international research program, whose goal is to understand long-term environmental and climatic change in the tropical western Pacific, the impacts of geological and environmental changes on the biological evolution of aquatic taxa, and the geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry of metal-rich, ultramafic-hosted lake sediments through the scientific drilling of Lake Towuti, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti is a large tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a chain of five highly biodiverse lakes that are among the oldest lakes in Southeast Asia. In 2015 we carried out a scientific drilling program on Lake Towuti using the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Deep Lakes Drilling System (DLDS). We recovered a total of ˜ 1018 m of core from 11 drilling sites with water depths ranging from 156 to 200 m. Recovery averaged 91.7 %, and the maximum drilling depth was 175 m below the lake floor, penetrating the entire sedimentary infill of the basin. Initial data from core and borehole logging indicate that these cores record the evolution of a highly dynamic tectonic and limnological system, with clear indications of orbital-scale climate variability during the mid- to late Pleistocene.

  4. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  5. The Danish Deep Drill Progress Report: February-March 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    A down-hole computer is stationed below the battery pack. The computer monitors and controls various functions down-hole and sends information to...incorporates several unique features. The chip collector sucks up the chips in much the same way a syringe sucks up fluids. A down-hole computer ... monitors certain drilling parameters, and can control the drilling operation if desired. A hinged tower assembly can bring the drill to a horizontal position

  6. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  7. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Sedimentary sequences in ancient or long-lived lakes can reach several thousands of meters in thickness and often provide an unrivalled perspective of the lake's regional climatic, environmental, and biological history. Over the last few years, deep-drilling projects in ancient lakes became increasingly multi- and interdisciplinary, as, among others, seismological, sedimentological, biogeochemical, climatic, environmental, paleontological, and evolutionary information can be obtained from sediment cores. However, these multi- and interdisciplinary projects pose several challenges. The scientists involved typically approach problems from different scientific perspectives and backgrounds, and setting up the program requires clear communication and the alignment of interests. One of the most challenging tasks, besides the actual drilling operation, is to link diverse datasets with varying resolution, data quality, and age uncertainties to answer interdisciplinary questions synthetically and coherently. These problems are especially relevant when secondary data, i.e., datasets obtained independently of the drilling operation, are incorporated in analyses. Nonetheless, the inclusion of secondary information, such as isotopic data from fossils found in outcrops or genetic data from extant species, may help to achieve synthetic answers. Recent technological and methodological advances in paleolimnology are likely to increase the possibilities of integrating secondary information. Some of the new approaches have started to revolutionize scientific drilling in ancient lakes, but at the same time, they also add a new layer of complexity to the generation and analysis of sediment-core data. The enhanced opportunities presented by new scientific approaches to study the paleolimnological history of these lakes, therefore, come at the expense of higher logistic, communication, and analytical efforts. Here we review types of data that can be obtained in ancient lake drilling

  8. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral... Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.40 Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep...

  9. Solicitation - Geothermal Drilling Development and Well Maintenance Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    Energy (DOE)-industry research and development (R and D) organization, sponsors near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling and well maintenance costs. Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) administers DOE funds for GDO cost-shared projects and provides technical support. The GDO serves a very important function in fostering geothermal development. It encourages commercialization of emerging, cost-reducing drilling technologies, while fostering a spirit of cooperation among various segments of the geothermal industry. For Sandia, the GDO also serves as a means of identifying the geothermal industry's drilling fuel/or well maintenance problems, and provides an important forum for technology transfer. Successfully completed GDO projects include: the development of a high-temperature borehole televiewer, high-temperature rotating head rubbers, a retrievable whipstock, and a high-temperature/high-pressure valve-changing tool. Ongoing GDO projects include technology for stemming lost circulation; foam cement integrity log interpretation, insulated drill pipe, percussive mud hammers for geothermal drilling, a high-temperature/ high-pressure valve changing tool assembly (adding a milling capability), deformed casing remediation, high- temperature steering tools, diagnostic instrumentation for casing in geothermal wells, and elastomeric casing protectors.

  10. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project Archival Reference, Final Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-13

    This report provides an archival reference to the scientific information and other pertinent documents and materials associated with the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSDP). This archiving process ensures that valuable technical data and information obtained during the life of the project can be retrieved, organized and maintained as a historical record for future reference. This paper describes the background of the project and the process used for archiving the materials. [DJE-2005

  11. The objectives for deep scientific drilling in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The western area of the United Stated contains three young silicic calderas, all of which contain attractive targets for scientific drilling. Of the three, the Yellowstone caldera complex is the largest, has the most intense geothermal anomalies, and is the most seismically active. On the basis of scientific objectives alone. it is easily the first choice for investigating active hydrothermal processes. This report briefly reviews what is known about the geology of Yellowstone National Park and highlights unique information that could be acquired by research drilling only in Yellowstone. However, it is not the purpose of this report to recommend specific drill sites or to put forth a specific drilling proposal. 175 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Wireline Deep Drill for the Exploration of Icy Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Mellerowicz, B.; Craft, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L.; Sherrit, S.; Badescu, M.; Corsetti, F.; Ibarra, Y.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most pressing current questions in space science is whether life has ever arisen anywhere else in the universe. Water is a critical prerequisite for all life-as-we-know-it, thus the possible exploration targets for extraterrestrial life are bodies that have or had copious liquid: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Due to the oxidizing nature of Mars' surface, as well as subsurface liquid water reservoirs present on Europa and Enceladus, the search for evidence of existing life must likely focus on subsurface locations, at depths sufficient to support liquid water or retain biologic signatures. To address these questions, an Auto-Gopher sampler has been developed that is a wireline type drill. This drill is suspended on a tether and its motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill is retracted from the borehole, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass and the complexity of the system (i.e. penetration rate was 40 cm per hour). Drilling to 2 meter depth and recovering of cores every 10 cm took a total time of 15 hours (a single step of drilling 10 cm and retrieving the core was 45 minutes). Total energy to reach the 2 m depth was 500 Whr. The Weight on Bit was limited to less than 70 Newton. The core recovery was 100%.

  13. Wireline deep drill for exploration of Mars, Europa, and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L.; Sherrit, S.; Badescu, M.; Mellerowicz, B.; Rzepiejewska, O.; Craft, J.; Sadick, S.; Corsetti, F.; Ibarra, Y.; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lee, Hyeone Jae; Abbey, B.

    One of the most pressing current questions in space science is whether life has ever arisen anywhere else in the universe. Water is a critical prerequisite for all life-as-we-know-it, thus the possible exploration targets for extraterrestrial life are bodies that have or had copious liquid: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Due to the oxidizing nature of Mars' surface, as well as subsurface liquid water reservoirs present on Europa and Enceladus, the search for evidence of existing life must likely focus on subsurface locations, at depths sufficient to support liquid water or retain biologic signatures. To address these questions, an Auto-Gopher sampler has been developed that is a wireline type drill. This drill is suspended on a tether and its motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill is retracted from the borehole, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass and the complexity of the system. The Auto-gopher has been successfully tested in a laboratory environment in rock to a depth of 2 m. Field testing of the drill took place in November, 2012 at the US Gypsum quarry outside Borrego Springs, CA. The drill successfully penetrated to over 3 m depth with an average penetration rate of 1 m/hr.

  14. Wireline Deep Drill for the Exploration of Icy Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Mellerowicz, B.; Craft, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L.; Sherrit, S.; Badescu, M.; Corsetti, F.; Ibarra, Y.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most pressing current questions in space science is whether life has ever arisen anywhere else in the universe. Water is a critical prerequisite for all life-as-we-know-it, thus the possible exploration targets for extraterrestrial life are bodies that have or had copious liquid: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Due to the oxidizing nature of Mars' surface, as well as subsurface liquid water reservoirs present on Europa and Enceladus, the search for evidence of existing life must likely focus on subsurface locations, at depths sufficient to support liquid water or retain biologic signatures. To address these questions, an Auto-Gopher sampler has been developed that is a wireline type drill. This drill is suspended on a tether and its motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill is retracted from the borehole, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass and the complexity of the system (i.e. penetration rate was 40 cm per hour). Drilling to 2 meter depth and recovering of cores every 10 cm took a total time of 15 hours (a single step of drilling 10 cm and retrieving the core was 45 minutes). Total energy to reach the 2 m depth was 500 Whr. The Weight on Bit was limited to less than 70 Newton. The core recovery was 100%.

  15. Preliminary Results of Recent Deep Drilling on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Koteff, C; Cotton, J E

    1962-07-06

    In 1961 a 1000-foot drill hole near Harwich on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, penetrated 435 feet of Pleistocene deposits above 50 to 60 feet of crystalline limestone and phyllitic schist, and more than 500 feet of phyllitic schist with abundant quartz veins. Similar rock is known in the Pennsylvanian and Precambrian (?) sections of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Material of Eocene age was found in earlier drilling near Provincetown, but none was identified from this hole.

  16. Esmeralda Energy Company, Final Scientific Technical Report, January 2008. Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project, DOE GRED III

    SciTech Connect

    Deymonaz, John; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nash, Gregory D.; Schriener, Alex

    2008-01-22

    The Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project (ESDP) was a highly successful, phased resource evaluation program designed to evaluate the commercial geothermal potential of the eastern margin of the northern Fish Lake Valley pull-apart basin in west-central Nevada. The program involved three phases: (1) Resource evaluation; (2) Drilling and resource characterization; and (3) Resource testing and assessment. Efforts included detailed geologic mapping; 3-D modeling; compilation of a GIS database; and production of a conceptual geologic model followed by the successful drilling of the 2,938 foot deep 17-31 slimhole (core hole), which encountered commercial geothermal temperatures (327⁰ F) and exhibits an increasing, conductive, temperature gradient to total depth; completion of a short injection test; and compilation of a detailed geologic core log and revised geologic cross-sections. Results of the project greatly increased the understanding of the geologic model controlling the Emigrant geothermal resource. Information gained from the 17-31 core hole revealed the existence of commercial temperatures beneath the area in the Silver Peak Core Complex which is composed of formations that exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. Knowledge gained from the ESDP may lead to the development of a new commercial geothermal field in Nevada. Completion of the 17-31 core hole also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of deep core drilling as an exploration tool and the unequaled value of core in understanding the geology, mineralogy, evolutional history and structural aspects of a geothermal resource.

  17. Drilling below the salt in the Western Mediterranean Sea: the GOLD project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabineau, M.; Droxler, A. W.; Kuroda, J.; Eguchi, N.; Aslanian, D.; Alain, K.; Gorini, C.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the Gulf of Lion within the western Mediterranean Sea has become a unique natural laboratory to study both the evolution and interaction of deep processes (geodynamics, tectonics, subsidence, isostasy) and surficial processes (river behavior, sedimentary fluxes, sea-level changes, climatic impacts). We present the three main objectives for the GOLD deep drilling project at the foot of the continental slope (2400 m water depth) in the Gulf of Lion, the only place where the complete high-resolution history of the last 30 Ma of Mediterranean history is recorded in some 7.7 km of sedimentary archive 1) For the substratum: the upper continental crust thins to less than 5 km, and changes laterally to a relatively thin crust with high velocities whose precise nature is still undetermined (Gailler et al., 2009). The aim of the drilling is to reach this crucial zone, which is essential for the understanding of margin formation and the evolution of sedimentary basin (Aslanian et al., 2009). 2) The drilling will allow the dating and characterization of the impact of climate variations on sedimentation in the deep basin. For the Miocene and older sediments the drilling, will yield information about the nature, paleoenvironments and age of deposits enabling an astronomically-tuned Neogene time scale to be refined for the period of Aquitanian through Langhian interval. The Messinian extreme event represents a unique crisis in Earth history. It is a unique case to study the impact of sea-level drop (more than 1000 m, one order of magnitude greater than Late Quaternary glaciations) on sedimentary river behavior, deltaic and evaporitic deposition and ensuing biotic crisis. Deep drilling with the R/V Chikyu is the only way to go through the complete series of evaporites in the Provence Basin, sample the initiation and evolution of the crises, the first deposits related to the lowering of sea-level on the one hand and to the salinity crisis on the other. 3) The

  18. Development of Observatories for the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Saruhashi, T.; Sawada, I.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Kano, Y.; Yamano, M.; Muraki, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Davis, E. E.; Sun, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and accompanying tsunami produced the largest slip ever recorded in an earthquake and devastated much of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. The IODP proposal for JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling project) planned to drill into the Tohoku subduction zone using the research ship Chikyu, measure the fault zone physical properties, recover fault zone material, and install an observatory to directly record the temperature anomaly caused by frictional slip during the earthquake. Considering the significant technical and operational challenges related to the great water depth of ~7,000 meters, and timing constraints, the observatory needed to be both robust and simple. After frequent discussions among scientists, engineers and operators, we decided to prepare two different types of observatories. 1. Autonomous MTL (Miniature Temperature Logger) observatory. The important temperature monitoring is accomplished by 55 MTLs attached to a string (Vectran rope) which is suspended inside a 4.5" casing in the borehole. The string latches at the top of the casing to allow retrieval using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kaiko operated by JAMSTEC. This observatory avoids risks associated with a thermistor cable and wellhead data logger, and increases reliability by applying proven technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this configuration allows flexibility in defining the final depth distribution of the temperature sensors. This is advantageous since information of the exact depth of the fault zone will be known only after drilling and logging. Also, the judicious placement of weak links along the string helps to minimize possible loss of the entire sensor string if it is clamped by post-seismic movements that deform the casing. 2. Telemetered PT (Pressure and Temperature) observatory. Based on the previous deployment experience of the NanTroSEIZE C0010 observatory, we prepared another system that enables long term monitoring and repeated ROV data

  19. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  20. Italian river crossing; Horizontal drilling meets pipeline project criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The River Piave flows out of the Italian Alps, crossing the Veneto farmlands on its way to the Adriatic Sea. It is an important commerce-carrying waterway. SNAM, the Italian state gas pipeline company, wanted to install a 22-in. pipeline across the Piave just north of Venice. The method chosen for crossing the river had to meet several important criteria. InArc had used its river crossing method on seven previous SNAM projects and recommended the Piave crossing should be drilled. This paper describes the use of this horizontal drilling method for this application.

  1. The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-11-01

    During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  2. Research and development of improved cavitating jets for deep-hole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Lindenmuth, W.T.; Chahine, G.L.; Conn, A.F.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Improved cavitating nozzles have been developed as part of an on-going program to increase the rate of penetration of deep-hole drill bits. Based on the four criteria of: incipient cavitation number, amplitude of pressure fluctuation (and hence enhanced structuring of the jet flow), rock cutting, and cleaning chips from the hole bottom - these new, STRATOJET (STRuctured Acoustically Tuned Oscillating JET) cavitating nozzle systems have out-performed both conventional drill bit nozzles and the basic CAVIJET cavitating jets. Although nozzle designs which provide large amplitude pressure modulations are now available for the operation in water, additional research is needed to optimize self-resonating jets for use: (a) in mud, (b) in specific drill bit designs, and (c) at higher system pressures than now currently used for deep-hole drilling.

  3. Engineering for Deep Sea Drilling for Scientific Purposes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    controlled buoyancy requiren a design study that needs to be ultimately linked to obtaining reliable environmental data fcm the drilling area and site...advance understanding of the processes of earthquakes and volcanoes, as well as identify potential deposits of minerals and fossil fuels . Called the Ocean

  4. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  5. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  6. Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1ω7 and 18:1ω9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  7. 75 FR 48305 - Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project AGENCY: Forest... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project, posted in the Federal...-delivered to Kaibab National Forest, Attn: VANE Minerals Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project, 800 S. 6th St...

  8. Procedures control total mud losses while drilling in deep water

    SciTech Connect

    Dewar, J. ); Halkett, D. )

    1993-11-01

    In the deepwater (830-1,000 m) drilling program offshore Philippines, reefal limestones were encountered in which total mud losses could be expected because of the presence of large fractures. The danger was that a sudden drop in hydrostatic head (resulting from the losses) could allow any natural gas to enter the well bore quickly. The gas could then migrate up the well bore and form hydrates in the blowout preventers (BOPs). Once hydrates form, they are difficult to remove and can make a BOP stack inoperable. To combat this potential problem, containment procedures were developed to cope with these fluid losses. The philosophy behind the procedures was to prevent hydrocarbons from entering the well bore and, if they did enter, to ensure that they did not move up the well bore and into the riser. Additionally, procedures were developed to allow drilling to continue during the losses and the curing of losses.

  9. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  10. Drilling a Deep Geologic Test Well at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, is drilling a deep geologic test well at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Georgia. The operation is scheduled to run between mid-February and mid-April 2010. When completed, the well will be about 1,500 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Savannah area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  11. Feasibility study of tuned-resonator, pulsating cavitating water jet for deep-hole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Lindenmuth, W.T.; Conn, A.F.; Frederick, G.S.

    1981-08-01

    This study presents the advantages of pulsing a submerged jet to increase its erosion capability (particularly as caused by cavitation) in augmenting deep-hole drill bits. Various methods of accomplishing the pulsation are presented and discussed. The most attractive systems uncovered are acoustic oscillators which passively accomplish pulsations in the flow at frequencies corresponding to a Strouhal number in the range of 0.2 to 1.0. Such passive oscillators are assessed to be feasible candidates for development into practical deep hole drill bit systems and a long range plan for this research and development is presented and discussed.

  12. Using Deep-Sea Scientific Drilling to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Michael; Cooper, Sharon; Kurtz, Nicole; Burgio, Marion; Cicconi, Alessia

    2017-04-01

    Beginning with confirmation of sea floor spreading in Leg 3 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project in 1968, scientific ocean drilling has provided much of the evidence supporting modern understanding of the Earth System, global climate changes, and many other important concepts. But for more than three decades, results of discoveries were published primarily in scientific journals and cruise volumes. On occasion, science journalists would write articles for the general public, but organized educational outreach efforts were rare. Starting about a decade ago, educators were included in the scientific party aboard the JOIDES Resolution. These "teachers-at-sea" developed formats to translate the technical and scientific activities into language understandable to students, teachers, and the public. Several "Schools of Rock" have enabled groups of teachers and informal science educators to experience what happens aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Over the past few years, educational outreach efforts based on scientific drilling expanded to create a large body of resources that promote Ocean Science Literacy. Partnerships between scientists and educators have produced a searchable database of inquiry-centered classroom and informal science activities. These are available for free through the JOIDES Resolution website, joidesresolution.org. Activities are aligned with the Ocean Literacy Principles (http://oceanliteracy.wp2.coexploration.org/) and Science Education Standards. In addition to a suite of lessons based on the science behind scientific drilling, participants have developed a range of educational resources that include graphic novels ("Tales of the Resolution" (http://joidesresolution.org/node/263) ; children's books ("Uncovering Earth's Secrets" and "Where the Wild Microbes Grow" http://joidesresolution.org/node/2998); posters, videos, and other materials. Cooper and Kurtz are currently overseeing improvements and revisions to the JR education website pages. The

  13. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  14. Results of Deep Drilling in the Western Moat of Long Valley California

    SciTech Connect

    Suemnicht, Gene

    1987-01-20

    Long Valley caldera has been explored for its potential geothermal resources for at least two decades. Unocal Geothermal drilled two deep test wells on the resurgent dome of the caldera during 1979. Neither of these wells encountered a deep, high temperature geothermal reservoir. The results from these wells and other geologic data focused exploration on the western caldera moat. Encouraging temperature gradient data in 1982 led to the drilling of a deep test well in 1985. That well, IDFU 44-16, encountered deep temperature reversals and a sequence of rocks unlike the previous penetrations on the resurgent dome. Evidently the well is still within the ring fracture system of the caldera and not within a central, upwelling, hydrothermal system which supplies the caldera’s discharge. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  15. The Lake El'gygytgyn Scientific Drilling Project - Conquering Arctic Challenges through Continental Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Koeberl, C.; Andreev, A.; Cook, T.; Fedorov, G.; Gebhardt, C.; Haltia-Hovi, E.; Kukkonen, M.; Nowaczyk, N.; Schwamborn, G.; Wennrich, B.; El'gygytgyn Scientific Party, the

    2011-03-01

    Between October 2008 and May 2009, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) co-sponsored a campaign at Lake Eĺgygytgyn, located in a 3.6-Ma-old meteorite impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Drilling targets included three holes in the center of the 170-m-deep lake, utilizing the lake ice cover as a drilling platform, plus one hole close to the shore in the western lake catchment. At the lake's center. the entire 315-m-thick lake sediment succession was penetrated. The sediments lack any hiatuses (i.e., no evidence of basin glaciation or desiccation), and their composition reflects the regional climatic and environmental history with great sensitivity. Hence, the record provides the first comprehensive and widely timecontinuous insights into the evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since mid-Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 meters and uppermost 150 meters of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100% recovery and likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ~2.9 Ma, respectively. Nearly 200 meters of underlying rock were also recovered; these cores consist of an almost complete section of the various types of impact breccias including broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks and associated melt clasts. The investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the Eĺgygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behavior of the volcanic basement rocks. Complementary information on the regional environmental history, including the permafrost history and lake-level fluctuations, is being developed from a 142-m-long drill core recovered from the permafrost deposits in the lake catchment. This core consists of gravelly and sandy alluvial fan deposits in ice-rich permafrost, presumably comprising a discontinuous record of both Quaternary and Pliocene deposits. doi:Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is about 30 km long and 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe, providing a high-resolution, continuous archive of environmental change and tectonic and tephrostratigraphic history in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 within the scope of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the 'DEEP' site in the center of the lake, seismic data implied a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Coarse-grained gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies sediments hampered deeper penetration. 6 boreholes at the 'DEEP' site resulted in a total of 1526 m of sediment cores and a composite field recovery of 544 m (95%). Initial geochemical and magnetic susceptibility data imply that the sediments from 'DEEP' site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area probably over the last 1.5 Mio years. Long-term climate oscillations on

  16. Relevance of East African Drill Cores to Human Evolution: the Case of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, R.

    2016-12-01

    Drill cores reaching the local basement of the East African Rift were obtained in 2012 south of the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya, 20 km from excavations that document key benchmarks in the origin of Homo sapiens. Sediments totaling 216 m were obtained from two drilling locations representing the past 1 million years. The cores were acquired to build a detailed environmental record spatially associated with the transition from Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology and extensive turnover in mammalian species. The project seeks precise tests of how climate dynamics and tectonic events were linked with these transitions. Core lithology (A.K. Behrensmeyer), geochronology (A. Deino), diatoms (R.B. Owen), phytoliths (R. Kinyanjui), geochemistry (N. Rabideaux, D. Deocampo), among other indicators, show evidence of strong environmental variability in agreement with predicted high-eccentricity modulation of climate during the evolutionary transitions. Increase in hominin mobility, elaboration of symbolic behavior, and concurrent turnover in mammalian species indicating heightened adaptability to unpredictable ecosystems, point to a direct link between the evolutionary transitions and the landscape dynamics reflected in the Olorgesailie drill cores. For paleoanthropologists and Earth scientists, any link between evolutionary transitions and environmental dynamics requires robust evolutionary datasets pertinent to how selection, extinction, population divergence, and other evolutionary processes were impacted by the dynamics uncovered in drill core studies. Fossil and archeological data offer a rich source of data and of robust environment-evolution explanations that must be integrated into efforts by Earth scientists who seek to examine high-resolution climate records of human evolution. Paleoanthropological examples will illustrate the opportunities that exist for connecting evolutionary benchmarks to the data obtained from drilled African muds. Project members: R. Potts, A

  17. The remarkable chemical uniformity of Apollo 16 layered deep drill core section 60002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic absorption and colorimetric spectrophotometers were used to determine major- and minor-element abundances in 12 samples from layered section 60002 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. It is suggested that gardening of a relatively thick local unit produced the layering in this section in such a manner that the proportions of materials of different compositions remained virtually unchanged.

  18. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 2013. Based on several coring seismic campaigns between 2004 and 2011, Lake Ohrid became the target of an ICDP deep drilling campaign, with specific research aims: (i) obtain precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) unravel the lake's seismotectonic history, (iii) obtain a continuous record of Quaternary volcanic activity and climate change, and (iv) investigate the influence of major geological/environmental events on evolution and the generation of extraordinary endemic biodiversity. Drilling began in April 2013 using the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of DOSECC (USA). The campaign, completed by late May, was deemed one of the most successful ICDP lake drilling projects, with a total of ~2100 m of sediment recovered from four different sites. At the central "DEEP" site, hydro-acoustic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m was recovered. Coarse gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies hampered deeper penetration. A total of 1526 m of sediment cores was collected from six boreholes, with a composite field recovery ('master core') of 544 m (95%). Three additional sites were drilled in order to analyze lake-level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ("Cerava", deepest drilled depth: 90 m), to investigate active tectonics and spring dynamics ("Gradiste", deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and to try to understand the geological origins of the Ohrid Basin ("Pestani

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  1. Assessing the deep drilling potential of Lago de Tota, Colombia, with a seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. W.; Wattrus, N. J.; Fonseca, H.; Velasco, F.; Escobar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconciling orbital-scale patterns of inter-hemispheric South American climate during the Quaternary requires continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records that span multiple glacial cycles from both hemispheres. Southern Andean Quaternary climates are represented by multi-proxy results from Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) spanning the last 400 ka and by pending results from the Lago Junin Drilling Project (Peru). Although Northern Andean sediment records spanning the last few million years have been retrieved from the Bogota and Fúquene Basins in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, climatic reconstructions based on these cores have thus far been limited to pollen-based investigations. When viewed together with the Southern Hemisphere results, these records suggest an anti-phased hemispheric climatic response during glacial cycles. In order to better assess orbital-scale climate responses, however, independent temperature and hydroclimate proxies from the Northern Hemisphere are needed in addition to vegetation histories. As part of this objective, an effort is underway to develop a paleoclimate record from Lago de Tota (3030 m asl), the largest lake in Colombia and the third largest lake in the Andes. One of 17 highland tectonic basins in Eastern Cordillera, Lago de Tota formed during Tertiary uplift that deformed pre-foreland megasequences, synrift and back-arc megasequences. The precise age and thickness of sediments in the Lago de Tota basin has not previously been established. Here, we present results from a recent single-channel seismic reflection survey collected with a small (5 cubic inch) air gun and high-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom data. With these data, we examine the depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Lago de Tota and assess its potential as a deep drilling target.

  2. Coring to the West Antarctic ice sheet bed with a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.; Taylor, K. C.; Shturmakov, A. J.; Mason, W. P.; Emmel, G. R.; Lebar, D. A.

    2005-05-01

    As a contribution to IPY 2007-2008, the U.S. ice core research community, supported by the National Science Foundation, plans to core through the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) at the ice-flow divide between the Ross Sea and Amundsen Sea drainage systems. The aim is to develop a unique series of interrelated climatic, ice-dynamic, and biologic records focused on understanding interactions among global earth systems. There will be approximately 15 separate but synergistic projects to analyze the ice and interpret the records. The most significant expected outcome of the WAIS Divide program will be climate records for the last ~40,000 years with an annually resolved chronology (through layer counting), comparable to the records from central Greenland. The data will also extend, at lower temporal resolution, to approximately 100,000 BP. These records will permit comparison of environmental conditions between the northern and southern hemispheres, and study of greenhouse gas concentrations in the paleoatmosphere, with unprecedented detail. To accomplish the coring, an innovative new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill is being built at the University of Wisconsin. The modular design of the bore-hole assembly (sonde) provides high flexibility for producing a 122 mm diameter ice core to depths of 4,000 m with maximum core lengths of 4 m. The DISC drill has a rotating outer barrel that can be used with or without an inner barrel designed to improve core recovery in brittle ice. Separate and independent motors for the drill and pump allow cutter speeds from 0 to 150 rpm and pump rates from 0 to 140 gpm. The high pumping rate should alleviate problems drilling in warm ice near the bed; it also helps make tripping speeds several times faster than with the old US drill. Other innovations include vibration and acoustic sensors for monitoring the drilling process, a segmented core barrel to avoid the formerly persistent problem of bent core barrels, and a high-speed data

  3. Drilling into the deep interior of the Nankai accretionary prism: Preliminary results of IODP NanTroSEIZE Expedition 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, H. J.; Hirose, T.; Saffer, D. M.; Toczko, S.; Maeda, L.

    2014-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, the latest advance of the NanTroSEIZE project, started on 13 September 2013 and was completed on 29 January 2014. During Expedition 348, the drilling vessel Chikyu advanced the ultra-deep riser hole at Site C0002, located 80 km offshore of the Kii Peninsula, from a depth of 860 meters below sea floor (mbsf) to 3058.5 mbsf, the world record for the deepest scientific ocean drilling, and cased it for future deepening. The drilling operation successfully obtained data on formation physical properties from logging while drilling (LWD) tools, as well as from lithological analyses of cuttings and core from the interior of the active accretionary prism at the Nankai Trough. IODP Site C0002 is the currently only borehole to access the deep interior of an active convergent margin. Preliminary scientific results of Expedition 348 are as follows: (1) Fine-grained turbiditic mudstones with coarser silty and sandy interbeds, exhibiting steep dips (between ~60 and 90 degrees) are predominant in the prism down to ~3000 mbsf. The biostratigraphic age of the sediments in the lowermost part of the hole is thought to be 9-11 Ma, with an assumed age of accretion of 3-5 Ma. (2) Slickenlined surfaces, deformation bands and mineral veins are present throughout the drilled interval, while well-developed scaly clay fabrics are increasingly observed below ~2200 mbsf. A substantial fault zone with well-developed foliation was successfully cored from the deep interior of the prism at ~2205 mbsf. (3) Porosity generally decreases from ~60% to ~20% from the seafloor to 3000 mbsf. However, physical properties including grain density, electrical conductivity and P-wave velocity suggest fairly homogeneous properties in the interior of the prism between ~2000 and 3000 mbsf. (4) Mud gas analysis during the riser drilling indicates that a source of methane gas shifts from microbial origin to thermogenic at around 2325 mbsf. (5) The maximum

  4. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  5. Yellowstone National Park as an opportunity for deep continental drilling in thermal regions. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera represnets the most intense magnatic and thermal anomaly within the conterminous United States. Voluminous rhyolite ash flows, accompanied by formation of huge calderas, occurred approximately 2.0, 1.3, and 0.6 My B.P. Although the last lava flow was about 70,000 B.P., much evidence suggests that magma may still be present at relatively shallow depth. The evidence from gravity and magnetic lows, magnetotelluric soundings, seismic wave velocities, maximum depths of earthquake foci, significant recent uplift of the caldera floor, and exceptionally high heat flux suggest that magmatic temperatures may be attained 5 to 10 km beneath much of the caldera. Most of the hot-spring and geyser activity occurs within the caldera and along a fault zone that trends north from the caldera rim through Norris Geyser Basin and Mammoth Hot Springs. The thermal waters and gases have been extensively sampled and analyzed over a period of 100 years. The chemical, isotopic, and hydrologic data obtained from natural discharges and from shallow wells drilled in thermal areas, enable formulation of models of the hydrothermal system. No previous intermediate-depth drilling has been conducted at Yellowstone to help select the best location for a deep drill hole, and because Yellowstone is a National Park, no commercial drilling will be available for add-on experiments. Also, a deep drill hole in Yellowstone would have to be sited with great regard to environmental and ecological considerations. Nevertheless, the large amount of existing data is sufficient to formulate testable models. The Yellowstone thermal anomaly is so extensive and scientifically interesting that almost any suitable drilling site there may be superior to the best drilling site in any other silicic caldera complex in the United States.

  6. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Rotary-Hammer Auto-Gopher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Beegle, L. W.; Bao, X.

    2011-12-01

    Deep penetration and sample acquisition are critical capabilities for the NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including the missions to Mars. A rotary-hammering drilling and coring device called Auto-Gopher is being developed that addresses this need by producing a rotary-hammering drilling and coring device that It employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and electric motor generated rotation that removes the cuttings. The percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher are activated simultaneously to optimize the penetration rate. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that allows thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths in subsurfaces and it is intended to establish the capability to penetrate the subsurface of Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone and acquire pristine samples. The Auto-Gopher that is under development represents a lessons learned from the development of the Gopher drill that is percussive only and was demonstrated to penetrated about 2 meters deep ice at in Antarctica in 2005. The demonstration of the Auto-Gopher will include coring gypsum and limestone substrates and it will be field tested to reach as deep as 3 to 5 meters.

  7. Proposed scientific activities for the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) has been organized for the purpose of investigating a hydrothermal system at depths and temperatures greater than has been done before. Plans are to deepen an existing well or to drill a new well for research purposes for which temperatures of 300/sup 0/C will be reached at a depth of less than 3.7 km and then deepen that well a further 1.8 km. This report recounts the Congressional history of the appropriation to drill the hole and other history through March 1984, gives a review of the literature on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and its relationship to other geothermal systems of the Salton Trough, and describes a comprehensive series of investigations that have been proposed either in the well or in conjunction with the SSSDP. Investigations in geophysics, geochemistry and petrology, tectonics and rock mechanics, and geohydrology are given. A tabulation is given of current commercial and state-of-the-art downhole tools and their pressure, temperature, and minimum hole size limitations.

  8. 1983 temperature gradient and heat flow drilling project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    During the Summer of 1983, a three-hole drilling program was carried out to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The general locations of the project areas are shown. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens - Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  9. Deep Drill 1972 Revisited: New Data on the Composition and Age of the Bermuda Volcanic Edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, M.; Villeneuve, M.; Blasco, S.

    2006-12-01

    Much of our knowledge of the subsurface geology of the Bermuda Seamounts is based on the study of an 800- metre section of continuous core recovered during the Dalhousie University Deep Drill 1972. The initial work by F. Aumento and B. Gunn, and later studies by J. Peckenham and S.D. Olsen, led to the identification of 1000 units consisting of tholeiitic lava flows intruded by strongly undersaturated melilite nephelinites. Published reports of K-Ar dating of lava units and dykes by R. Gees and P. Reynolds were inconclusive, citing ages of 52, 48 and 91 Ma for the lavas and a more coherent set of K-Ar ages averaging 35 Ma for intrusive rocks. The lack of any robust data on the duration of volcanic activity and chronology of dyke intrusion places important limits on current interpretations of the mantle processes that led to the formation of the Bermuda volcanic edifice. Unlike most seamount chains, the four Bermuda volcanoes do not exhibit a linear pattern but form a cluster. The identification of a volcanic pedestal and a wide compositional gap in the lava succession are consistent with the two-stage magmatic history of many island or seamount chains produced by the passage of a lithospheric plate over a hot spot. However, there is no geophysical evidence for eastward migration of igneous activity along the continental margin or data to support age-progressive magmatism along the Bermuda Rise. As a result, the magmatic, uplift and subsidence histories of the volcanic edifice, and the origin of the Bermuda Rise, are still poorly understood. We present new CO2 laser 40Ar-39Ar age data and trace element analyses for a set of carefully selected samples from the 1972 Deep Drill. The study is part of a project initiated by the Geological Survey of Canada in collaboration with the Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute. A preliminary age of 51 Ma was obtained from amphibole separated from a dyke that intruded at the base of the 800 m borehole. The presence of extraneous

  10. Study of the organic matter in the DSDP /JOIDES/ cores, legs 10-15. [Deep Sea Drilling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The composition of the organic matter collected on legs 10 to 15 of the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) is described. Distributions of various alkanes, carboxylic acids, steroids and terpenoids, isoprenoid ketones and olefins, and aromatic polycyclic compounds are given. Samples analyzed had terrigenous clay components, with variable organic carbon contents and thus diverse solvent soluble matter. The distribution patterns for the various compound series monitored were of marine derivation, with the terrigenous components superimposed. Diagenesis of steroids appeared to proceed via both stanones and stanols to their respective steranes. Degradative processes were observed to be operative: oxidative products, mainly ketones derived from steroids and phytol, were identified, probably due to microbial alteration prior to or during sedimentation. Loss of alkane and fatty acid C preferences and presence of polycyclic aromatics evinced maturation. Results indicate that the accumulation, degradation, diagenesis and maturation of organic matter occurs in various steps in the deep sea environment.

  11. Evolution of hole shape and size during short and ultrashort pulse laser deep drilling.

    PubMed

    Döring, Sven; Szilagyi, John; Richter, Sören; Zimmermann, Felix; Richardson, Martin; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2012-11-19

    A detailed study of the influence of the pulse duration, from the femtosecond to the nanosecond regime, on the evolution of the hole shape and depth during percussion drilling in silicon is presented. Real-time backlight imaging of the hole development is obtained for holes up to 2 mm deep with aspect ratios extending to 25:1. For low pulse energies, the hole-shape and drilling characteristics are similar for femtosecond, picoseconds and nanosecond regimes. At higher pulse energies, ns-pulses exhibit slower average drilling rates but eventually reach greater final depths. The shape of these holes is however dominated by branching and large internal cavities. For ps-pulses, a cylindrical shape is maintained with frequent small bulges on the side-walls. In contrast, fs-pulses cause only a limited number of imperfections on a tapered hole shape.

  12. Multipolarity remanences in lower oceanic crustal gabbros recovered by drilling at Hess Deep (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Antony; Horst, Andrew; Friedman, Sarah; Nozaka, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    A long-term goal of the scientific ocean drilling community is to understand the processes by which the ocean crust is constructed through magmatism, deformation, metamorphism and hydrothermal cooling. Insights into the magnetic properties of the lower crust have come from drilling at oceanic core complexes and in tectonic windows. At the Hess Deep Rift, propagation of the Cocos-Nazca Ridge into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise crust exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete lower crustal section. Here, IODP Expedition 345 (Site U1415) recovered primitive plutonic lithologies including gabbro, troctolitic gabbro and olivine gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. Metamorphism is dominated by background greenschist facies alteration associated with cataclastic deformation that likely results from Cocos-Nazca rifting. Some intervals display complex, multiple remanence components within individual samples. A high temperature component unblocks above 500°-520°C and an intermediate temperature component of nearly antipodal direction unblocks between 425°-450°C and 500°-520°C. In addition, a few samples display a third component that unblocks between 100-350°C that is nearly parallel to the highest temperature component. These multiple, nearly antipodal components suggest that remanence was acquired in different geomagnetic chrons, and represent the first multipolarity remanences seen in Pacific lower oceanic crust. Similar remanence structures, however, have been reported in lower crustal gabbros recovered from slow-spreading rate crust along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been interpreted to reflect protracted accretion or protracted cooling. In contrast, at Hess Deep unblocking temperatures appear consistent with temperatures inferred for successive phases of alteration, suggesting an alteration history spanning at least two polarity chrons.

  13. Multipolarity Remanences in Lower Oceanic Crustal Gabbros Recovered By Drilling at Hess Deep (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A.; Horst, A. J.; Friedman, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    A long-term goal of the scientific ocean drilling community is to understand the processes by which the ocean crust is constructed through magmatism, deformation, metamorphism and hydrothermal cooling. Insights into the magnetic properties of the lower crust have come from drilling at oceanic core complexes and in tectonic windows. At the Hess Deep Rift, propagation of the Cocos-Nazca Ridge into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise crust exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete lower crustal section. Here, IODP Expedition 345 (Site U1415) recovered primitive plutonic lithologies including gabbro, troctolitic gabbro and olivine gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. Metamorphism is dominated by background greenschist facies alteration associated with cataclastic deformation that likely results from Cocos-Nazca rifting. Some intervals display complex, multiple remanence components within individual samples. A high temperature component unblocks above 500°-520°C and an intermediate temperature component of nearly antipodal direction unblocks between 425°-450°C and 500°-520°C. In addition, a few samples display a third component that unblocks between 100-350°C that is nearly parallel to the highest temperature component. These multiple, nearly antipodal components suggest that remanence was acquired in different geomagnetic chrons, and represent the first multipolarity remanences seen in Pacific lower oceanic crust. Similar remanence structures, however, have been reported in lower crustal gabbros recovered from slow-spreading rate crust along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been interpreted to reflect protracted accretion or protracted cooling. In contrast, at Hess Deep unblocking temperatures appear consistent with temperatures inferred for successive phases of alteration, suggesting an alteration history spanning at least two polarity chrons.

  14. Record of deep-well drilling for 1905

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Myron Leslie; Sanford, Samuel

    1906-01-01

    The present is the second of the series of reports on the collection of deep-well samples, the first of which, covering the period from the beginning of the work July 1, 1904, to December 31, 1904, was published as Bulletin No. 264. This report presents the records of a large number of wells from which more or less complete sets of samples have been secured and placed on file at the Survey, and. also many additional records not represented by samples.The work has been conducted by the eastern section, division of hydrology, the expense being shared with the western section of hydrology and the geologic branch. The writer has continued in charge of the investigations and has been assisted by Messrs. E. F. Lines and Samuel Sanford. The burden of executive details has fallen mainly on Mr. Sanford since his assignment to the work on its relinquishment by Mr. Lines April 1. The methods followed are in most particulars those formulated by Mr. A. C. Veatch on the inauguration of the work in 1904, but to Mr. Sanford is due the credit for materially increasing the usefulness of the work to the driller, especially in furnishing geologic information.

  15. Clean hot water drilling for exploration of the Antarctic deep subglacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinson, K.; Pearce, D.; Hodgson, D.; Bentley, M.; Smith, A.; Tranter, M.; Rose, M. C.; Ross, N.; Mowlem, M. C.; Parnell, J.; Siegert, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Overlain by several kilometres of ice, the subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet are regarded as extreme habitats for microbial life and repositories of important paleoclimate records. Of significant scientific interest, yet remaining largely unexplored, accessing and sampling these environments presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, much of it part of a hydrological drainage network, accessing of this environment must conform to international environmental contamination protocols. This makes hot water drilling the most viable option for clean, fast, access through thick ice. After two decades of planning, involving the development of drilling techniques for subglacial access, instrument design and logistics set up, significant progress has been made in attempts to directly access, measure, and sample subglacial lakes and sediments. Combining the experiences from the notable setbacks and successes, as well as recent field testing for this drilling technique, the most practical technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into Subglacial Lake Ellsworth and other deep (>3000 m) access targets will be presented.

  16. An evaluated list of Cenozic-Recent radiolarian species names (Polycystinea), based on those used in the DSDP, ODP and IODP deep-sea drilling programs.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, David; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Caulet, Jean-Pierre; Nigrini, Catherine; Goll, Irina; Goll, Robert; Dolven, Jane K; Diver, Patrick; Sanfilippo, Annika

    2015-08-11

    A first reasonably comprehensive evaluated list of radiolarian names in current use is presented, covering Cenozoic fossil to Recent species of the primary fossilising subgroup Polycystinea. It is based on those species names that have appeared in the literature of the Deep Sea Drilling Project and its successor programs, the Ocean Drilling Program and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, plus additional information from the published literature, and several unpublished taxonomic database projects. 1192 names are recognised as valid, and several hundred additional names including synonyms and mispellings are given as well. A brief list of valid names is provided in the main paper, while the full list, with synonyms, author, year of publication, family assignment, geologic age interval and notes is provided as a SOM spreadsheet table.

  17. Influence of ambient pressure on the hole formation in laser deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, S.; Richter, S.; Heisler, F.; Ullsperger, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the temporal evolution of the hole depth and shape for percussion drilling at different ambient pressure conditions. Deep drilling is performed in silicon as target material by ultrashort laser pulses at 1030 nm and a duration of 8 ps. Simultaneously, the backlit silhouette of the hole is imaged perpendicular to the drilling direction. While typical process phases like depth development and shape evolution are very similar for atmospheric pressure down to vacuum conditions (10-2 mbar), the ablation rate in the initial process phase is significantly increased for reduced pressure. The number of pulses till the stop of the drilling process also increases by a pressure reduction and exceeds drilling at atmospheric conditions by two orders of magnitude for a pressure of ca. 10-2 mbar. Accordingly, the maximum achievable hole depth is more than doubled. We attribute this behavior to an enlarged mean free path for ablation products at reduced pressure and therefore lower or no deposition of particles inside the hole capillary under vacuum conditions while debris fills the hole already after a few thousand pulses at atmospheric pressure. This is supported by scanning electron cross section images of the holes.

  18. Keeping Research Data from the Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) Accessible and Taking First Steps Towards Digital Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Ulbricht, D.; Conze, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) was a scientific drilling project from 1987 to 1995 near Windischeschenbach, Bavaria. The main super-deep borehole reached a depth of 9,101 meters into the Earth's continental crust. The project used the most current equipment for data capture and processing. After the end of the project key data were disseminated through the web portal of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The scientific reports were published as printed volumes. As similar projects have also experienced, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a data portal over a long time. Changes in software and underlying hardware make a migration of the entire system inevitable. Around 2009 the data presented on the ICDP web portal were migrated to the Scientific Drilling Database (SDDB) and published through DataCite using Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) as persistent identifiers. The SDDB portal used a relational database with a complex data model to store data and metadata. A PHP-based Content Management System with custom modifications made it possible to navigate and browse datasets using the metadata and then download datasets. The data repository software eSciDoc allows storing self-contained packages consistent with the OAIS reference model. Each package consists of binary data files and XML-metadata. Using a REST-API the packages can be stored in the eSciDoc repository and can be searched using the XML-metadata. During the last maintenance cycle of the SDDB the data and metadata were migrated into the eSciDoc repository. Discovery metadata was generated following the GCMD-DIF, ISO19115 and DataCite schemas. The eSciDoc repository allows to store an arbitrary number of XML-metadata records with each data object. In addition to descriptive metadata each data object may contain pointers to related materials, such as IGSN-metadata to link datasets to physical specimens, or identifiers of literature interpreting the data

  19. Interim report for SNL/NM environmental drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.; Meyer, R.D.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-02-01

    Concern for the environment and cost reduction are the driving forces for a broad effort in government and the private sector to develop new, more cost-effective technologies for characterizing, monitoring and remediating environmental sites. Secondary goals of the characterization, monitoring and remediation (CMR) activity are: minimize secondary waste generation, minimize site impact, protect water tables, and develop methods/strategies to apply new technologies. The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) project in directional boring for CMR of waste sites with enhanced machinery from the underground utility installation industry was initiated in 1990. Preliminary activities included surveying the directional drilling access needs of various DOE sites, identifying an existing class of machinery that could be enhanced for environmental work through development, and establishing a mutually beneficial working relationship with an industry partner. Since that time the project has tested a variety of prototype machinery and hardware built by the industrial partner, and SNL. The project continues to test and develop the machinery and technique refinements needed for future applications at DOE, DOD, and private sector sites. The original goal of cost-effectiveness is being met through innovation, adaptation, and application of fundamental concepts. Secondary goals are being met via a basic philosophy of ``cut/thrust and compact cuttings without adding large quantities of fluid`` to an environmental problem site. Technology transfer to the private sector is ongoing and ultimately should result in commercial availability of the machinery. Education of regulatory agencies resulting in restructuring appropriate regulatory standards for specification of the horizontal drilling techniques will be a final project goal.

  20. Instability regimes and self-excited vibrations in deep drilling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depouhon, Alexandre; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes the stability of the discrete model proposed by Richard et al. (2004 [1], 2007 [2]) to study the self-excited axial and torsional vibrations of deep drilling systems. This model, which relies on a rate-independent bit/rock interaction law, reduces to a coupled system of state-dependent delay differential equations governing the axial and angular perturbations to the stationary motion of the bit. A linear stability analysis indicates that, although the steady-state motion of the bit is always unstable, the nature of the instability depends on the nominal angular velocity Ω0 of the drillstring imposed at the rig. On the one hand, if Ω0 is larger than a critical velocity Ωc, the angular dynamics is responsible for the instability. However, on the timescale of the resonance period of the drillstring viewed as a torsional pendulum, the system behaves like a marginally stable one, provided that exogenous perturbations are of limited magnitude. The instability then only appears on a much larger timescale, in the form of slowly growing oscillations that ultimately lead to an undesired drilling regime such as bit-bouncing or stick-slip vibrations. On the other hand, if Ω0 is smaller than Ωc, the instability manifests itself on the timescale of the bit motion due to a dominating unstable axial dynamics; perturbations to the steady-state motion then rapidly degenerate into stick-slip limit cycles or bit-bouncing. For typical deep drilling field conditions, the critical angular velocity Ωc is virtually independent of the axial force acting on the bit and of the bit bluntness. It can be approximated by a power law monomial, a function of known parameters of the drilling system and of the intrinsic specific energy (a quantity characterizing the energy required to drill a particular rock). This approximation holds on account that the dissipation in the drilling structure is negligible with respect to that taking place through the bit/rock interaction, as

  1. Problems of deep drilling in abnormally pressured zones of the Kara Sea continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    There are discussed results of drilling operations in shelf hydrocarbon areas of the Far North of Tyumen Region (Kharassavieskaya, Bovanenkovskaya and Krusenshternskaya ones) and on the Bely Island. The author describes equipment and technologies used, problems arising in the process of operations and possible ways of solving them. Application of the results discussed in the report seems rather attractive in connection with possible realization of joint projects on development of the mentioned areas. Thus, Amoco Eurasia plans to participate in development of Bovanenkovskoye and Novoportovskoye fields. Well planning for Amoco has been done of specialists of ZapSibBurNIPI. Experience of Russian drilling companies in the Yamal area (Far North of Tyumen Region) has proved that well planning for shelf areas requires special attention as drilling-in both overpressured zones (Bovanenkovskoye field) and underpressured ones (Novoportovskoye field) is done actually in balance. Investigated are reasons for such drilling problems as kicks and lost circulation. Taking them into consideration will help to decrease considerably the cost of well drilling in shelf areas.

  2. An international and multidisciplinary drilling project into a young complex impact structure: The 2004 ICDP Bosumtwi Crater Drilling Project—An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Milkereit, Bernd; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Boamah, Daniel; Danuor, Sylvester; Karp, Tobias; Kueck, Jochem; Hecky, Robert E.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.

    The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, arguably the best-preserved complex young impact structure known on Earth, displays a pronounced rim and is almost completely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, a hydrologically closed basin. It is the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites. The structure was excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old metasediments and metavolcanics of the Birimian Supergroup. A drilling project was conceived that would combine two major scientific interests in this crater: 1) to obtain a complete paleoenvironmental record from the time of crater formation about one million years ago, at a near-equatorial location in Africa for which very few data are available so far, and 2) to obtain a complete record of impactites at the central uplift and in the crater moat, for ground truthing and comparison with other structures. Within the framework of an international and multidisciplinary drilling project led by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), 16 drill cores were obtained from June to October 2004 at six locations within Lake Bosumtwi, which is 8.5 km in diameter. The 14 sediment cores are currently being investigated for paleoenvironmental indicators. The two impactite cores LB-07A and LB-08A were drilled into the deepest section of the annular moat (540 m) and the flank of the central uplift (450 m), respectively. They are the main subject of this special issue of Meteoritics & Planetary Science, which represents the first detailed presentations of results from the deep drilling into the Bosumtwi impactite sequence. Drilling progressed in both cases through the impact breccia layer into fractured bedrock. LB-07A comprises lithic (in the uppermost part) and suevitic impact breccias with appreciable amounts of impact melt fragments. The lithic clast content is dominated by graywacke, besides various metapelites, quartzite, and a carbonate target component. Shock deformation in the form of quartz grains with planar microdeformations is

  3. Characterization of Deep Internal Layers and Basal Conditions Around the WAIS Divide Drill Site by Surface-Based Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, C. M.; Blake, W. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Allen, C. T.; Leuschen, C. J.; Braaten, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    We used an ultra-wideband, very high frequency (120 to 300 MHz) surface-based radar to simultaneously map ice thickness, deep internal layers and the ice-bed interface around the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep drill site at a fine resolution. The radar was built by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project with the main goal of developing and testing surface-operated radars to characterize ice thickness and bedrock conditions in Antarctica and Greenland. The system was fine-tuned in the field to a center frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz to produce greater sensitivity. The survey covered a 30 km by 8 km area with 1-km line spacing along a polar stereographic grid that overlapped both the drill site and the WAIS Divide. The data have been processed for general use and are available on the CReSIS website (www.cresis.ku.edu). Echograms and digital ice thickness, bed elevation and bed reflectivity maps have been produced while analysis continues. Our major findings to date include: 1) internal layers are observed nearly continuously to 2800 m depth, as much as 500 m below the deepest previously mapped layers in this region, 2) internal layers have been detected to within 350 m of the bed, covering about 90% of the ice thickness, 3) ice thickness varies between approximately 3100 m and 3550 m over the grid and is about 3500 m at the drill site, 4) basal returns were mapped nearly continuously along grid lines and vary by more than 30 dB, indicating a wet bed at the drill site and frozen conditions elsewhere. The data will aid rigorous interpretations of the WAIS ice cores (including impurity records and the depth/age scale) and the morphology and evolution of the WAIS (mean annual accumulation rates, spatial extent, divide migration and volcanism). Fine-resolution information on deep internal layers, basal conditions and ice thickness/bed elevation will help

  4. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  5. Initial report on drilling into seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes from deep South African gold mines (DSeis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ito, Takatoshi; van Aswegen, Gerrie; Grobbelaar, Michelle; Funato, Akio; Ishida, Akimasa; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki; Mngadi, Siyanda; Manzi, Musa; Ziegler, Martin; Ward, Tony; Moyer, Pamela; Boettcher, Margaret; Ellsworth, Bill; Liebenberg, Bennie; Wechsler, Neta; Onstott, Tullis; Berset, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    other holes at the M3.5 seismogenic zone. As we successfully conducted DCDA with the above-mentioned drilled core, we look forward to shedding light on spatial variations of stress in the seismogenic zones following our ICDP DSeis drilling. A M5.5 earthquake which took place near Orkney, South Africa on 5 August 2014, offers a special opportunity to compare seismically inverted spatio-temporal evolution of both the main rupture and the aftershock activity with the information directly probed by the ICDP DSeis project. Moyer et al. (2016 Seismol. Res. Lett. submitted) calls for comparing seismic source models as part of a workshop proposed to the Southern California Earthquake Center for Fall 2017. In addition, the upper edge of the M5.5 rupture is located hundreds of meters below the mining horizon, sufficiently away from anthropogenic activity. This allows geomicrobiologists to investigate deep microbiological activity fueled by H2 from seismic rupture to address questions about Earth's early life. Drilling machines are being rigged underground soon to kick off our ICDP DSeis drilling in early 2017.

  6. Significant results of deep drilling at Elk Hills, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fishburn, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve 1 (Elk Hills) is located in the southwestern San Joaquin basin one of the most prolific oil-producing areas in the US. Although the basin is in a mature development stage, the presence of favorable structures and high-quality source rocks continue to make the deeper parts of the basin, specifically Elk Hills, an inviting exploration target. Of the three deep tests drilled by the US Department of Energy since 1976, significant geologic results were achieved in two wells. Well 987-25R reached low-grade metamorphic rock at 18,761 ft after penetrating over 800 ft of salt below the Eocene Point of Rocks Sandstone. In well 934-29R, the deepest well in California, Cretaceous sedimentary rocks were encountered at a total depth of 24,426 ft. In well 934-29R several major sand units were penetrated most of which encountered significant gas shows. Minor amounts of gas with no water were produced below 22,000 ft. In addition, production tests at 17,000 ft produced 46{degree} API gravity oil. Geochemical analysis of cores and cuttings indicated that the potential for hydrocarbon generation exists throughout the well and is significant because the possibility of hydrocarbon production exists at a greater depth than previously expected. A vertical seismic profile in the well indicated that basement at this location is at approximately 25,500 ft. Successful drilling of well 934-29R was attributed to the use of an oil-based mud system. The well took 917 days to drill, including 9,560 rotating hr with 134 bits. Bottom-hole temperature was 431{degree}F and pressures were approximately 18,000 psi. The high overburden pressure at 24,000 ft created drilling problems that ultimately led to the termination of drilling at 24,426 ft.

  7. Origin of the Apollo 17 deep drill coarse-grained layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Plachy, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A depositional model of the coarse-grained layer of the Apollo 17 deep drill is described which takes into account thermoluminescence, tracks, Na-22 and Al-26 studies. On the basis of this evidence, it appears that the coarse-grained layer was emplaced some 100 m.y. ago associated either with Camelot Crater or the Central Cluster craters; at that time it was capped by some 25 cm of material which were recently (about 2 m.y.) excavated. The resulting depression has partially and gradually filled since.

  8. Final report for SNL/NM environmental drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.; Meyer, R.D.; Staller, G.E.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    Concern for the environment and cost reduction are driving forces for a broad effort in government and the private sector to develop new, more cost-effective technologies for characterizing, monitoring and remediating environmental sites. Secondary goals of the characterization, monitoring and remediation (CMR) activity are: minimize secondary waste generation, minimize site impact, protect water tables, and develop methods/strategies to apply new technologies. The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) project in directional boring for CMR of waste sites with enhanced machinery from the underground utility installation industry was initiated in 1990. The project has tested a variety of prototype machinery and hardware built by the industrial partner, Charles Machine Works (CMW), and SNL at several sites (Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, SNL, Kirtland AFB (KAFB), CMW), successfully installed usable horizontal environmental test wells at SRS and SNL/KAFB, and functioned as a clearing house for information regarding application of existing commercial machinery to a variety of governmental and commercial sites. The project has continued to test and develop machinery in FY 94. The original goal of cost-effectiveness is being met through innovation, adaptation, and application of fundamental concepts. Secondary goals are being met via a basic philosophy of {open_quotes}cut/thrust and compact cuttings without adding large quantities of fluid{close_quotes} to an environmental problem site. This technology will be very cost-effective where applicable. Technology transfer and commercialization by CMW is ongoing and will continue into FY 95. Technology transfer to the private sector is ongoing and reflected in increasing machinery sales to environmental contractors. Education of regulatory agencies resulting in restructuring of appropriate regulatory standards for specification of the horizontal drilling techniques continues to be a long-range goal.

  9. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam; Guerin, Gilles; Abe, Natsue; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J.; Adriao, Alden de Brito; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J.; Friedman, Sarah A.; Godard, Marguerite M.; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J.; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M.; John, Barbara E.; Koepke, Juergen H.; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  10. "Probing Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India through Scientific Deep Drilling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Nayak, S.; Bansal, B.; Rao, P.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave a further impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of a few tens of meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Two of them have been already in operation and six more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work include: Submitting a proposal to ICDP for the main boreholes by Jan 15, 2015

  11. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India to Investigate Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Nayak, Shailesh; Bansal, Brijesh; Roy, Sukanta; Purnachandra Rao, Nemalikanti; S, Satyanarayana H. V.; M, Tiwari V.; Arora, Kusumita; K, Patro B. P.; Dodla, Shashidhar; Kothamasu, Mallika

    2015-04-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave an impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of ~ 50 meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Four of them are already in operation and four more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work includes: • Submitting a proposal to ICDP for two pilot boreholes by Jan 15, 2015.

  12. Earthquakes and Ice Cores Point to Wet Feet at the NorthGRIP Deep Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Gundestrup, N. S.

    2001-12-01

    A seismic broadband station was placed at the NorthGRIP deep drill site (75N, 42W) on the Greenland Ice Cap for the summer 2000. During the 2 month acquisition period 15 earthquakes with sufficient quality for Receiver Function analysis aimed at crust and mantle structure under NorthGRIP were recorded. The models are consistent with the presence of a thin sedimentary layer at the base of the ice. The seismic velocities in the sediments are lower than in the ice, indicating wet sediments. The results from the deep drilling program reveal high basal temperatures at the base of the 3080 m thick ice at NorthGRIP. The measured temperatures and the observed layer thickness' in the ice core indicate that there is basal melting of the order of 5 mm /yr. and that the geothermal heatflow is of the order of 100 mW/m2 (REF), much higher than expected. A detailed radio echo mapping of the bedrock show that NorthGRIP is located in a large, flat-bottomed valley, suggesting that the sediments observed are lacustrine. The thin layer of sediments cannot account for the unexpected high heatflow causing equally unexpected basal melting. The geology is presumed to be Precambrian. Heatflow determined in a similar way at the GRIP deep drill site (73N, 38W) is 51 mW/ m2 (Dahl-Jensen et al, 1998), more in line with expected values. Magnetic anomaly data do not indicate any volcanic structures, which could help explain the high heatflow. Gravity anomaly data show that NorthGRIP is located at the edge of marked gravity discontinuity. The cause of the discontinuity is not known, but "edge effects" could be speculated upon to be the cause of the high heatflow. D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, L.B. Larsen in press: The NorthGRIP drilling program. Annals of Glaciology, vol 35 D. Dahl-Jensen, K Mosegaard, N. Grundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnson and N. Balling 1998: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice

  13. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  14. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  15. The Inchworm Deep Drilling System for Kilometer Scale Subsurface Exploration of Europa (IDDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafeek, S.; Gorevan, S. P.; Bartlett, P. W.; Kong, K. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Inchworm Deep Drilling System (IDDS) is a compact subsurface transport system capable of accessing regions of astrobiological interest deep below the surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa. The IDDS answers Focus Investigation Area 1 as an innovative concept for implementing subsurface exploration of Europa. The concept is being developed at Honeybee Robotics to reach depths on the order of one kilometer with no tether or umbilical of any kind. The device's unique, inchworm-burrowing method appears capable of achieving this near-term depth goal and it is foreseeable that the IDDS will be capable of autonomously drilling to tens of kilometers below the surface. Logical applications of the concept also include accessing the proposed subsurface oceans on Ganymede and Callisto, subsurface water ice on Mars, and Lake Vostok on Earth. The conference presentation will communicate the IDDS concept and how it can enable the search for prebiotic and biotic chemical processes on Europa by bringing proper instrumentation to the subsurface ocean for in-situ investigation and/or returning samples to the surface. Currently, a proposal for breadboarding the IDDS is pending for the Research Opportunities for Space Science's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development NRA. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  17. The "DREAM" IODP project to drill the Mediterranean Salt Giant on the Balearic Promontory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Aloisi, Giovanni; Maillard, Agnès; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Huebscher, Christian; Kuroda, Junichiro

    2017-04-01

    Salt giants preserving kilometer-thick evaporite layers are the sedimentary expression of extreme environmental events of global relevance. Despite their global occurrence and general importance on Earth, there is currently no complete stratigraphic record through an un-deformed salt giant of marine origin. Similarly, there is a significant lack of knowledge about the factors controlling salt giants deposition, their early evolution, the impact they exert on the isostatic response of continental margins and on sub-salt formations, and the unprecedented deep biosphere they may harbor. The Mediterranean Messinian salt giant, which formed 5.5 Myrs ago, is one of the youngest salt giant on Earth and is currently lying below the Plio-Quaternary cover in a relatively un-deformed state close to its original depositional configuration. This salt giant is thus accessible by drilling and forms an ideal case study that could be used as a reference for older salt giants. However, since its discovery in 1970 during the DSDP Leg XIII, and despite 40 years or multi-disciplinary researches, this salt giant is still not fully understood and remains one of the longest-living controversies in Earth Science. In this context, the IODP DREAM project aims at exploring the Mediterranean salt giant by drilling with the JOIDES Resolution a transect of 4 sites on the southern margin of the Balearic promontory (Western Mediterranean). We identified this area as likely the only place in the Mediterranean where we could implement a shallow-to-deep transect of non-riser drilling sites. Due to the geological history and pre-structuration of the Promontory, MSC deposits are found preserved in a series of sedimentary basins lying at different water depths between the present-day coastline and the deep central salt basins. DREAM thus offers a unique opportunity to sample several hundred of meters of material forming the Mediterranean salt giant in varied water depths. This unique sedimentary record

  18. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  19. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic

  20. The Last Interglacial in the Levant: Perspective from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Torfstein, A.; Stein, M.; Kushnir, Y.; Enzel, Y.; Haug, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project provide a new perspective on the climate history of the Levant during the last interglacial period MIS5. They record the extreme impacts of an intense interglacial characterized by stronger insolation, warmer mean global temperatures, and higher sea-levels than the Holocene. Results show both extreme hyper-aridity during MIS5e, including an unprecedented drawdown of Dead Sea water levels, and the impacts of a strong precession-driven African monsoon responsible for a major sapropel event (S5) in the eastern Mediterranean. Hyper-arid conditions at the beginning of MIS5e prior to S5 (~132-128 ka) are evidenced by halite deposition, indicating declining Dead Sea lake levels. Surprisingly, the hyper-arid phase is interrupted during the MIS5e peak (~128-120 ka), coinciding with the S5 sapropel, which is characterized by a thick (23 m) section of silty detritus (without any halite) whose provenance indicates southern-sourced wetness in the watershed. Upon weakening of the S5 monsoon (~120-115 ka), the return of extreme aridity resulted in an unprecedented lake level drawdown, reflected by massive salt deposition, and followed by a sediment hiatus (~115-100 ka) indicating prolonged low lake level. The resumption of section follows classic Levant patterns with more wetness during cooler MIS5b and hyper-aridity during warmer MIS5a. The ICDP core provides the first evidence for a direct linkage between an intense precession-driven African monsoon and wetness at the high subtropical latitude (~30N) of the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Negev speleothems and travertines, and calcitification of Red Sea corals, the evidence indicates a wet climatic corridor that could facilitate homo sapiens migration out of Africa during the MIS5e peak. In addition, the MIS 5e hyper-arid intervals may provide an important cautionary analogue for the impact of future warming on regional water resources.

  1. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Fowle, David; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Haffner, Doug; King, John

    2013-04-01

    stability, and modes of speciation (sympatric, allopatric). We established an international science team, reviewed datasets from the site survey, and selected three drill sites that are best suited to address the objectives of the TOWUTI project during an ICDP and NSF sponsored workshop held in Bandung, Indonesia in March 2012. Important milestones concerning the operational and logistical preparation of a deep drilling at Lake Towuti have been achieved by the PI team in close collaboration with DOSECC, local authorities and businesses in Indonesia, and ICDP. A drilling proposal has been submitted to ICDP in January 2013 and proposals for matching funds will be submitted to national funding agencies in the course of 2013. Drilling operations are envisaged to commence in early 2015.

  2. Extending the deep biosphere through ocean drilling: Bioalteration of volcanic glass in the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; French, J.

    2003-12-01

    Scientific ocean drilling through the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has provided a window into the deep biosphere. Microbial communities have been identified within hydrothermal vent systems at ocean floor spreading centers, deep within oceanic sediments, and within glassy portions of the basaltic oceanic crust of varying age. Questions still remain regarding the utilized metabolic pathways, how long such microbial activity persists within the oceanic crust, and how well it may be preserved on Earth or other planets. Microbial alteration of basaltic glass from ODP/DSDP cores and ophiolites can be documented by petrographic and biogeochemical techniques. Microbial alteration is seen as either tubular or granular textures. Tubular textures are characterized by micron-scale channel-like features extending from palagonite alteration rims into fresh glass. Granular textures appear as irregular patches of spherical bodies protruding into fresh glass. Detailed SEM imaging of these features commonly reveals delicate filament-like structures and material resembling desiccated biofilm. X-ray element maps invariably show elevated levels of C, N, P, and K associated with suspected microbial alteration features. Comparison of glasses from different ODP/DSDP holes indicates that carbon isotope ratios of carbonates in samples of microbially altered volcanic glass are commonly depleted by as much as -20 per mil, except in samples from slow-spreading ridges where both elevated and depleted C-isotope ratios are observed. In general, the microbes appear to be living off of dissolved organic matter with some evidence of lithoautotrophy at slow-spreading ridges. Maximum microbial activity seems to occur at ˜70° C but is moderated by pore water flow. We have applied nucleic acid staining techniques to many samples and imaged them with epifluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. This has produced exceptional images that provide high

  3. Mixer for drill cuttings and drilling mud on a drilling location

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, J. G. J.; Entrop, W.

    1985-05-14

    A device for mixing of liquids and particulate solids, such as for instance a drilling liquid and drill cuttings on a drilling location. This drilling location can be a deep well drilled for gas and/or oil by means of a drilling tower on-or off-shore. The invention provides an elongated, rectangular open mixing tank on which a series of replacable agitating units having their axes in one vertical plane is mounted. The agitating devices each comprise a unit having a rotatably driven head carrying two support arms of unequal length which each support a mixing screw projecting into the mixture of liquids and particulate solids. This arrangement provides a thorough mixture of the drilling liquid, having a high viscosity and high specific gravity, with the drill cuttings frequently comprising heavy clay and/or rock particles.

  4. Constraining Crustal Anisotropy by Receiver Functions at the Deep Continental Drilling Site KTB in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. In order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RF) methodology has started to be widely applied recently. Such effects of anisotropy on RF were illustrated in theoretical studies, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RF on the 3D characteristics of the media sampled by the waves. The use of teleseismic RF has the advantage of not being affected by a heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique however, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test the technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. A field experiment has thus been carried out around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz area in Southeastern Germany, in order to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments, and geological studies. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. The drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body. The SKS shear-wave splitting method has been applied as well, revealing coherent results for the whole region with exception

  5. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Drilling engineering package used for extended reach project

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P. ); Good, A. )

    1995-02-20

    Extended reach drilling can improve the economics of some field developments by minimizing the number of facilities required to access remote reserves. The technique requires detailed engineering design and monitoring, however, to minimize the risk of operating at the limits of drilling equipment. Working as a team over the past 4 years, BP Exploration (BPX) and Baker Hughes Inteq have developed an integrated drilling engineering package for the planning, monitoring, and review of well construction data. The drilling engineering application platform (DEAP) is now used by BP Exploration worldwide for the integrated engineering design, monitoring, and review of its wells. These engineering applications are linked together via a data base and drilling reporting system. Integration between rig site reporting and the engineering applications allows the current drilling operation to be analyzed at the touch of a single computer button. DEAP also provides links to commercially available software packages. This facility, along with its graphical user interface, encourages and simplifies the use of engineering tools at the rig site. The full capabilities of DEAP can perhaps be seen as four key functions necessary for successful well bore construction management.

  7. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  8. Paleomagnetic and Magnetostratigraphic Studies in Drilling Projects of Impact Craters - Recent Studies, Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.

    2013-05-01

    Paleomagnetic studies have long been successfully carried out in drilling projects, to characterize the borehole columns and to investigate the subsurface structure and stratigraphy. Magnetic susceptibility logging and magnetostratigraphic studies provide data for lateral correlation, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation, physical properties, etc., and are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. The inclusion of continuous core recovery in scientific drilling projects have greatly expanded the range of potential applications of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies, by allowing laboratory measurements on core samples. For this presentation, we concentrate on drilling studies of impact structures and their usefulness for documenting the structure, stratigraphy and physical properties at depth. There are about 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small number compared to what is observed in the Moon, Mars, Venus and other bodies of the solar system. Of the terrestrial impact craters, only a few have been studied by drilling. Some craters have been drilled as part of industry exploration surveys and/or academic projects, including notably the Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake and El gygytgyn craters. Drilling of terrestrial craters has proved important in documenting the shallow stratigraphy and structure, providing insight on the cratering and impact dynamics. Questions include several that can only be addressed by retrieving core samples and laboratory analyses. Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been conducted in the various craters, which are here summarized with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater and Yucatan carbonate platform. Chicxulub is buried under a kilometer of younger sediments, making drilling an essential tool. Oil

  9. Mission Moho: Rationale for drilling deep through the ocean crust into the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, B.; Abe, N.; Kelemen, P. B.; Kumagai, H.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Wilson, D. S.; Moho Proponents, Mission

    2009-04-01

    Sampling a complete section of the ocean crust to the Moho was the original inspiration for scientific ocean drilling, and remains the main goal of the 21st Century Mohole Initiative in the IODP Science Plan. Fundamental questions about the composition, structure, and geophysical characteristics of the ocean lithosphere, and about the magnitude of chemical exchanges between the mantle, crust and oceans remain unresolved due to the absence of in-situ samples and measurements. The geological nature of the Mohorovičić discontinuity itself remains poorly constrained. "Mission Moho" is a proposal that was submitted to IODP in April 2007, with the ambition to drill completely through intact oceanic crust formed at a fast spreading rate, across the Moho and into the uppermost mantle. Although, eventually, no long-term mission was approved by IODP, the scientific objectives related to deep drilling in the ocean crust remain essential to our understanding of the Earth. These objectives are to : - Determine the geological meaning of the Moho in different oceanic settings, determine the in situ composition, structure and physical properties of the uppermost mantle, and understand mantle melt migration, - Determine the bulk composition of the oceanic crust to establish the chemical links between erupted lavas and primary mantle melts, understand the extent and intensity of seawater hydrothermal exchange with the lithosphere, and estimate the chemical fluxes returned to the mantle by subduction, - Test competing hypotheses of the ocean crust accretion at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges, and quantify the linkages and feedbacks between magma intrusion, hydrothermal circulation and tectonic activity, - Calibrate regional seismic measurements against recovered cores and borehole measurements, and understand the origin of marine magnetic anomalies, - Establish the limits of life in the ocean lithosphere. The "MoHole" was planned as the final stage of Mission Moho, which requires

  10. Characterization of the indigenous microorganisms in Exter Formation sandstone rock cores obtained during deep drilling and evaluation of contamination by drill mud using fluorescein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, Linda; Neumann, Dominik; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms are very effective catalysts and have an important function in mineral and elemental distribution within geological formations. CO2 injection may influence the microbial activities by affecting the composition of the rock-fluid system. Reactions like mineral dissolution and precipitation, related to biological processes may influence aquifer injectivity or permeability of faults. In subsurface reservoirs, a baseline characterization of pristine rock cores is required to monitor changes in the indigenous microbial communities and to study interactions with geotechnical installations. However, drilling procedures and technical fluids, particularly drill mud, are sources of core contamination. To measure the penetration of drill mud into the cores the tracer fluorescein was tested under laboratory as well as under field conditions. The actual penetration depths seem to be related to differences in geology, such as structural heterogeneities or microfractures. The application of fluorescein was successfully applied during a deep drilling campaign at the CO2 storage pilot site in Ketzin, Germany, in August 2011. During inner coring, crowns of 17.5 mm were removed from the outside. Fluorescein analysis showed that after an inner coring 45% (five samples out of eleven) were not influenced by drill mud. The results highlight that the use of tracers is indispensable to ensuring the quality of core samples for microbiological and biogeochemical analysis. Core samples of the Exter Formation (sandstone above the caprock, 400-440 m depth) were retrieved in order to investigate the indigenous microbial community and to investigate the interaction between CO2, fluid formation, rock substrate and microorganisms in long term experiments with geochemical and molecularbiological techniques. The microbial baseline characterization for rock cores of Exter Formation before CO2 exposure revealed a similar bacterial community composition in all samples. First results of

  11. Mechanism and elimination of bending effect in femtosecond laser deep-hole drilling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bo; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Yan, Xueliang; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-10-19

    In this work, a comprehensive study of the bending effect, which remains one of the most critical challenges during deep-hole drilling, was conducted. The experimental statistics indicate that polarization is not the main factor in bending, but the deviation of the hole tends to be perpendicular to the polarization direction. Also, the dynamic ablated material/plasma was studied. Straight microholes were obtained by extending the interval between laser pulses to avoid dynamic ablated material existing in the millisecond time domain. Therefore, we speculated that the disturbance of the laser beam at the dynamic ablated aerosol, which have not sufficiently dispersed in the millisecond domain, is the main mechanism of bending. However, to more efficiently reduce the disturbance factor, a rough vacuum environment was applied; and the bending effect was also eliminated. The critical pressure for eliminating bending was about 2 × 10(4) Pa that is about one order of magnitude lower than the atmosphere. The fabricated high-quality microhole arrays without bending show that the proposed drilling method is convenient and efficient with high repeatability and controllability.

  12. Reconnaissance and deep-drill site selection on Taylor Dome, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grootes, Pieter M.; Waddington, Edwin D.

    1993-01-01

    Taylor Dome is a small ice dome near the head of Taylor Valley, Southern Victoria Land. The location of the dome, just west of the Transantarctic Mountains, is expected to make the composition of the accumulating snow sensitive to changes in the extent of the Ross Ice Shelf. Thus, it is linked to the discharge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet but protected against direct influences of glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. The record of past climatic and environmental changes in the ice provides a valuable complement to the radiocarbon-dated proxy record of climate derived from perched deltas, strandlines, and moraines that have been obtained in the nearby Dry Valleys. We carried out a reconnaissance of the Taylor Dome area over the past two field seasons to determine the most favorable location to obtain a deep core to bedrock. A stake network has been established with an 80-km line roughly along the crest of Taylor Dome, and 40-km lines parallel to it and offset by 10 km. These lines have been surveyed 1990/91, and the positions of 9 grid points have been determined with geoceivers. A higher density stake network was placed and surveyed around the most likely drill area in the second year. Ground-based radar soundings in both years provided details on bedrock topography and internal layering of the ice in the drill area. An airborne radar survey in January 1992, completed the radar coverage of the Taylor Dome field area.

  13. Reconnaissance and deep-drill site selection on Taylor Dome, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grootes, Pieter M.; Waddington, Edwin D.

    1993-01-01

    Taylor Dome is a small ice dome near the head of Taylor Valley, Southern Victoria Land. The location of the dome, just west of the Transantarctic Mountains, is expected to make the composition of the accumulating snow sensitive to changes in the extent of the Ross Ice Shelf. Thus, it is linked to the discharge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet but protected against direct influences of glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. The record of past climatic and environmental changes in the ice provides a valuable complement to the radiocarbon-dated proxy record of climate derived from perched deltas, strandlines, and moraines that have been obtained in the nearby Dry Valleys. We carried out a reconnaissance of the Taylor Dome area over the past two field seasons to determine the most favorable location to obtain a deep core to bedrock. A stake network has been established with an 80-km line roughly along the crest of Taylor Dome, and 40-km lines parallel to it and offset by 10 km. These lines have been surveyed 1990/91, and the positions of 9 grid points have been determined with geoceivers. A higher density stake network was placed and surveyed around the most likely drill area in the second year. Ground-based radar soundings in both years provided details on bedrock topography and internal layering of the ice in the drill area. An airborne radar survey in January 1992, completed the radar coverage of the Taylor Dome field area.

  14. Petrology and geochemistry of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Nielsen, R. L.; Drake, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Petrological and geochemical analysis of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core showed these fragments to fall into the essentially the same range of rock types as observed in surface soil samples and large rock samples. Three particles are singled out as being of special interest. One sample is a mare basalt containing extremely evolved phases. The particle may represent small-scale imperfect crystal/liquid separation in a lava flow. A green glass particle is not the ultramafic emerald green glass described from the Apollo 15 site, but rather an ANT-like light green color, and has a quite different chemical composition from the ultramafic variety. One mare basalt displays a positive Eu anomaly and is enriched in plagioclase relative to olivine plus pyroxene.

  15. Carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores is a function of the surface exposure plus the chemical and mineralogical composition of the individual samples. The depth profiles of carbide and methane yields in the Apollo 15 core show a general decline with depth and correlate with the solar wind noble gas content, percentage agglutinates, track densities, and metallic iron. All horizons examined were exposed for a considerable time on the lunar surface. The Apollo 16 core samples show that chemical and mineralogical composition plays an important role in determining the nature of carbide-like material present in the fines. The higher aluminum and calcium contents and lower iron contents of highlands material result in carbide-like material yielding less CD4 and more C2D2 (deuteroacetylene) upon DF acid dissolution.

  16. Carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores is a function of the surface exposure plus the chemical and mineralogical composition of the individual samples. The depth profiles of carbide and methane yields in the Apollo 15 core show a general decline with depth and correlate with the solar wind noble gas content, percentage agglutinates, track densities, and metallic iron. All horizons examined were exposed for a considerable time on the lunar surface. The Apollo 16 core samples show that chemical and mineralogical composition plays an important role in determining the nature of carbide-like material present in the fines. The higher aluminum and calcium contents and lower iron contents of highlands material result in carbide-like material yielding less CD4 and more C2D2 (deuteroacetylene) upon DF acid dissolution.

  17. Present-day stress state in the Outokumpu deep drill hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Ask, Maria; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Kueck, Jochem

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the present-day stress field in the Outokumpu area, eastern Finland, using interpretation of borehole failure on acoustic image logs in a 2516 m deep hole. Two main objectives of this study are: i. to constrain the orientation of maximum horizontal stress by mapping the occurrence of stress-induced deformation features using two sets of borehole televiewer data, which were collected in 2006 and 2011; and ii. to investigate whether any time dependent deformation of the borehole wall has occurred (creep). The Outokumpu deep hole was drilled during 2004-2005 to study deep structures and seismic reflectors within the Outokumpu formation and conducted within the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The hole was continuously core-drilled into Paleoproterozoic formation of metasediments, ophiolite-derived altered ultrabasic rocks and pegmatitic granite. In 2006 and 2011 two downhole logging campaigns were performed by the Operational Support Group of ICDP to acquire a set of geophysical data. Here we focus on a specific downhole logging measurement, the acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV), to determine the present-day stress field in the Outokumpu area. We constrain the orientation and magnitude of in situ stress tensor based on borehole wall failures detected along a 2516 m deep hole. Horizontal stress orientation was determined by interpreting borehole breakouts (BBs) and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DIFs) from BHTV logs. BBs are stress-induced enlargements of the borehole cross section and occur in two opposite zones at angles around the borehole where the wellbore stress concentration (hoop stress) exceeds the value required to cause compressive failure of intact rock. DIFs are caused by tensile failure of the borehole wall and form at two opposite spots on the borehole where the stress concentration is lower than the tensile strength of the rock. This occurs at angles 90° apart from the center of the

  18. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  19. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  20. MSP Drilling through a complete Pliocene series : the case of the Gulf of Lion (GOLD-2 project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabineau, Marina; Popescu, Speranta; Lofi, Johanna; Participants, International

    2010-05-01

    global geological records preserved in marine sedimentary deposits. GOLD-1 main aim is to drill below the salt with the Chikyu, with major outcomes concerning pre-salt deposition, messinian event, margin formation and deep biosphere. We invite all interested scientists to join us in planning and promoting this drilling project. We are proposing an IODP Magellan workshop in Banyuls in October, 2010 to bring together all interested scientists and stake-holders around thess proposals and other drilling projects in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. ICDP). Please contat us at the earliest opportunity.

  1. ICDP Deep Drilling 2008/09 at Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia: Operational Success and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, Martin; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Minyuk, Pavel; Koeberl, Christian; Elgygytgyn Scientific Party, Lake

    2010-05-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn is located 100 km north of the Arctic Circle (67°30' N, 172°05' E) in a crater of 18 km diameter that was formed 3.6 Ma ago by a meteorite impact event. From Oct. 2008 until Mai 2009 an ICDP drilling campaign was conducted at Lake Elgygytgyn, achieving its three major objectives. First of all, drilling from the ice cover in the lake center penetrated the entire, 315 m thick lake sediment succession in 170 m water depth. The sediments show no indications for hiatuses due to glaciation or desiccation. Hence, their temporal length and geologic significance is absolutely unprecedented, for the first time providing deep and widely continuous insights into the climatic and environmental evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 m and uppermost 100 m of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100 % recovery and, taking the chronological information as yet available, likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ca. 2.0 Ma, respectively. In between, the quality of the record is restricted due to lower recovery in consequence of technical problems and/or sequences of coarse sand and gravel interbedded with lacustrine mud. Second, a ca. 200 m thick, almost complete section of impact breccias was recovered underneath the lake sediments, consisting of a 60 m thick suevite layer above broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks. Investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the Eĺgygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behaviour of the volcanic basement rocks. And third, a 142 m long sequence was recovered from the permafrost deposits in the western lake catchment, only a few hundred meters from the lake shore. The core consists of sandy and gravelly alluvial fan deposits, which are continuously frozen and rich in ground ice. The sediment and ice composition promises

  2. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  3. Scientific Deep Drilling to Study Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Sen, M.; Rao, P. N.; Dodla, S.; Kothamasu, M.; Roy, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Koyna region near the west coast of India is the premier site of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), where triggered earthquakes have been occurring in a restricted area of 20x30 km2 since the impoundment of Shivajisagar Lake in 1962. These include the largest triggered earthquake of M~6.3 on Dec 10 1967, 22 earthquakes of M≥5, about 200 earthquakes of M~4, and several thousand smaller earthquakes. The RTS was further enhanced by impoundment of the nearby located Warna reservoir in 1985. The seismic zone is quite isolated with no other source of activity within 50 km of the Koyna dam. The seismicity distribution during the past ~5 years defines two seismic zones in the area, each about 10 km long, relatively narrow (~2 km) and shallow (6-8 km). The earthquake activity is governed by the annual water cycle, increasing in response to the rapid filling of the reservoirs during the monsoon rains as well as the post-monsoon unloading cycle. We plan to carry out scientific deep drilling in the seismic zone. A borehole penetrating the Deccan Traps cover and reaching the focal depths (~7 km) in the granitic basement is envisaged. This will provide a unique opportunity to directly measure the physical and mechanical properties of rocks, pore fluid pressure, hydrology, temperature, and other parameters of an intra-plate active fault zone in the "near-field" of earthquakes, before during and after their occurrence. Down hole measurements complemented by observations on cores and cuttings, analyses of fluid and gas samples, geophysical and geological characterization studies including fault zone monitoring would help answer questions related to the genesis of RTS. Precursory parameters obtained from continuous monitoring of deep, in-situ measurements may help in formulating a comprehensive earthquake model for RTS sites in general and the Koyna region in particular. A preparatory phase of investigations including compilation of existing datasets, acquisition of new

  4. Applied technology in the solution of geothermal drilling problems of deep wells in La Primavera caldera (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoyo-Gutiérrez, S.; García, A.; Morales, M.; Perezyera, J.; Rosas, A.

    1991-07-01

    The drilling of deep wells in the La Primavera caldera has evidenced a highly complex and hazardous problematic situation due to considerable losses of drilling fluids. Such large losses have not occurred in any other geothermal field in the world. These losses are due mainly to the structural conditions of the geological formations which are penetrated. The technology employed in the construction of deep wells has played a very important role in the solution to these problems. Field case histories describe the effectiveness of the developments of drilling fluids and cement materials in cavernous formations with severe lost-circulation problems. A processed clay bentonite was developed whose high performance and rapid hydration characteristics allowed a reduction of up to 5 hours in the drilling fluid conditioning time. Also, useful results were obtained through the development of a granular plugging mixture which maintained sealing properties at 70 kg/cm 2 under cavernous simulated conditions. This granular plugging mixture kept losses of the volume of drilling fluid under 8% with respect to the total volume. Special cement plugs with thixotropic behavior allowed the handling and placement of this slurry in the problematic zone. The CaSO 4 addition to the cement slurry was optimized so that a placement time of 30 min could be obtained. Additionally, the mechanical compressive strength values of this special cement plug ranged from 50 to 100 kg/cm 2.

  5. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  6. Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project--initial report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shervais, J.W.; Nielson, D.; Lachmar, T.; Christiansen, E.H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Delahunty, C.; Schmitt, D.R.; Liberty, L.M.; Blackwell, D.D.; Glen, J.M.; Kessler, J.A.; Potter, K.E.; Jean, M.M.; Sant, C.J.; Freeman, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. The primary goal of this project is to evaluate geothermal potential in three distinct settings: (1) Kimama site: inferred high sub-aquifer geothermal gradient associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas, (2) Kimberly site: a valley-margin setting where surface heat flow may be driven by the up-flow of hot fluids along buried caldera ringfault complexes, and (3) Mountain Home site: a more traditional fault-bounded basin with thick sedimentary cover. The Kimama hole, on the axial volcanic zone, penetrated 1912 m of basalt with minor intercalated sediment; no rhyolite basement was encountered. Temperatures are isothermal through the aquifer (to 960 m), then rise steeply on a super-conductive gradient to an estimated bottom hole temperature of ~98°C. The Kimberly hole is on the inferred margin of a buried rhyolite eruptive center, penetrated rhyolite with intercalated basalt and sediment to a TD of 1958 m. Temperatures are isothermal at 55-60°C below 400 m, suggesting an immense passive geothermal resource. The Mountain Home hole is located above the margin of a buried gravity high in the western SRP. It penetrates a thick section of basalt and lacustrine sediment overlying altered basalt flows, hyaloclastites, and volcanic sediments, with a TD of 1821 m. Artesian flow of geothermal water from 1745 m depth documents a power-grade resource that is now being explored in more detail. In-depth studies continue at all three sites, complemented by high-resolution gravity, magnetic, and seismic surveys, and by downhole geophysical logging.

  7. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  8. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    PubMed

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  9. Overview of the extensive logging use in the scientific ocean drilling's most challenging project, Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyaw Thu, Moe; Sanada, Yoshinori; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi; Matsuda, Shigemi

    2010-05-01

    velocity information of the very deep mega-splay fault, ultimate target of this project. Four sites including two sites which were missed in the Stage 1 were drilled, cored and logged with some basement rocks from the subduction inputs. In addition to the common difficulties in drilling and logging planning, two major operational challenges, very strong Kuroshio Current covering the area and borehole conditions from the tectonically active faulting environment, obviously caused substantial loss of operational time, failure of equipments and loss of logging toolstring. Presentation will focus on wide range of lessons-learnt during these operations and results from thorough reviews made on those difficulties and failures as part of the preparations for more challenges in coming stages to drill 7-km deep mega-splay and setting long-term borehole monitoring instruments.

  10. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Peter; Watters, Robert J.; Thompson, Nick; Walton, Anthony W.

    2006-03-01

    Core samples recovered during the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) drilling project reveal that the upper 1 km of the submarine flank of Mauna Kea is comprised mainly of hyaloclastites. Progressive, very low-temperature alteration of these hyaloclastites has been accompanied by systematic transformations in physical properties of these deposits. Hyaloclastite deposits which directly underlie ca. 1 km of subaerially-emplaced lavas are very poorly consolidated. But over a depth interval of ca. 500 m, compaction and, especially, precipitation of zeolitic, pore-filling cements associated with palagonitization of sideromelane, have eliminated porosity as well as promoted the consolidation of these hyaloclastites. The latter is reflected in unconfined compressive strengths which increase from mean values, respectively, of 2.5 and 4.6 MPa in weakly consolidated, smectite-rich hyaloclastites from the incipient (1080 to 1335 mbsl) and smectitic (1405-1573 mbsl) alteration zones, to a mean value of 10.0 MPa in the more highly consolidated hyaloclastites of the palagonitic zone of alteration (from 1573 mbsl to the bottom of the drill hole). Conversely, overlying, intercalated, and underlying lava flows are generally much less altered, and have mean compressive strengths which are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater then hyaloclastites at equivalent depths. The shear strengths of the hyaloclastites also increase with depth and grade of alteration, but are uniformly and substantially lower in the lavas. Those hyaloclastites exhibiting the highest grade of alteration (i.e., palagonitic) also exhibit the highest measured strengths, and thus the alteration of hyaloclastites appears to strengthen as opposed to weaken the flanks of the edifice. However, the contrast in strength between hyaloclastites and lavas may be a primary factor in localizing destabilization, and the zones of weak and poorly consolidated hyaloclastites may facilitate slumping by servings as hosts for

  11. Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Bartlett, P. W.; Glaser, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments to, a target depth currently set at 2 m. Two drilling methods for lunar application have been investigated thus far. The first uses purely rotary drilling, and the second rotary-percussive drilling, similar to what was used by the Apollo astronauts. Both drilling methods utilize an auger for the removal of drilled cuttings. A breadboard drilling system able to function in rotary-drag and rotary-percussive modes was produced to develop and prove out the approach through testing. Spacecraft weight, power, soil properties, and environments are among the key design constraints. The drilling algorithm, rotation and penetration rates, drill bit designs, and auger designs are among the key design variables. The test results presented demonstrate the progress made in simulating the environment, designing an automated system to perform in it, and characterizing the performance of the system. During the initial phase of the research effort, drilling tests were performed in two different lunar soil simulants (FJS-1 and JSC-1, made in Japan and the USA respectively) that were prepared in the following manner. Each soil sample was first mixed with 10wt% distilled water, compacted to 2 g/cc using the Modified Proctor Test (ASTM D1557), and then frozen at 190K. Under these conditions, the soil became as hard as sandstone and served to simulate the water-rich soils that are theorized to exist in permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. The high bulk density, high water concentration, and binding nature of the water within the regolith were all chosen to serve as a worst case to

  12. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  13. Anthropogenic-enhanced erosion following the Neolithic Revolution in the Southern Levant: Records from the Dead Sea deep drilling core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Nadel, Dani; Marco, Shmuel

    2017-04-01

    In addition to tectonics and climatic changes, humans have exerted a significant impact on surface erosion over timescales ranging from years to centuries. However, such kind of impact over millennial timescales remains unsubstantiated. The Dead Sea drainage basin offers a rare combination of well-documented substantial climate change, intense tectonics and abundant archaeological evidence for past human activity in the Southern Levant. It serves as a natural laboratory for understanding how sedimentation rates in a deep basin are related to climate change, tectonics, and anthropogenic impacts on the landscape. Here we show how basin-wide erosion rates are recorded by thicknesses of rhythmic detritus laminae and clastic sediment accumulation rates in a long core retrieved by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project in the Dead Sea depocenter. During the last 11.5 kyr the average detrital accumulation rate is 3-4 times that during the last two glacial cycles (MIS 7c-2), and the average thickness of detritus laminae in the last 11.6 kyr is 4.5 times that between 21.7 and 11.6 ka, implying an increased erosion rate on the surrounding slopes during the Holocene. We estimate that this intensified erosion is incompatible with tectonic and climatic regimes during the corresponding time interval and further propose a close association with the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant (beginning at 11.5 ka). We thus suggest that human impact on the landscape was the primary driver causing the intensified erosion and that the Dead Sea sedimentary record serves as a reliable recorder of this impact since the Neolithic Revolution.

  14. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-10-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100~200 m, 600~850 m and 1450~1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole.

  15. Project Hotspot - The Snake River Scientific Drilling Project - Investigating the Interactions of Mantle Plumes and Continental Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time- transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Recently, a 100 km wide thermal anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography to depths of over 500 km beneath the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field consists largely of rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites, with few mantle-derived basalts. In contrast, the Snake River Plain (SRP), which represents the track of the Yellowstone hotspot, consists of rhyolite caldera complexes that herald the onset of plume-related volcanism and basalts that are compositionally similar to ocean island basalts like Hawaii. The SRP preserves a record of volcanic activity that spans over 16 Ma and is still active today, with basalts as young as 200 ka in the west and 2 ka in the east. The SRP is unique because it is young and relatively undisturbed tectonically, and because it contains a complete record of volcanic activity associated with passage of the hotspot. This complete volcanic record can only be sampled by drilling. In addition, the western SRP rift basin preserves an unparalleled deep-water lacustrine archive of paleoclimate evolution in western North America during the late Neogene. The central question addressed by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project is how do mantle hotspots interact with continental lithosphere, and how does this interaction affect the geochemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas and the continental lithosphere? Our hypothesis is that continental mantle lithosphere is constructed in part from the base up by the underplating of mantle plumes, which are compositionally distinct from cratonic lithosphere, and that plumes modify the impacted lithosphere by thermally and mechanically eroding cratonic mantle lithosphere, and by underplating depleted plume-source mantle. Addition of mafic magma to the crust represents a significant contribution to crustal growth, and densifies

  16. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  17. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  18. Geochronological potential of a dedicated southern Appalachian deep research drill hole

    SciTech Connect

    Dalimeyer, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    A Southern Appalachian Deep Research Drill Hole (SADRDH) would offer a unique opportunity to provide geochronological controls for regional tectonothermal events as well as serve as a natural laboratory for the investigation of a variety of diffusion-controlled, radiometric systems. Considerable uncertainty exists as to the relative extents and crustal levels of translations, and the temporal relations between thrusting and regional metamorphic events. SADRDH would provide unweathered, continuous sections across many of these allochthonous units and the intervening tectonic contacts. If sufficient 3'' core is recovered, collaborative U-Pb (zircon and monazite) and Sm-Nd (whole-rock and mineral) age determinations could be integrated with careful petrologic studies to provide reliable crystallization ages for the various igneous lithologies penetrated. These results together with a coordinated, systematic determination of /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar and fission track mineral ages could provide complete time-temperature profiles of the various allochthonous units and allow for recognition of contrasts across tectonic contacts. Integration of this record with results of fluid-inclusion and oxygen isotopic studies within ductile shear zones could help resolve the times and crustal conditions of thrusting. Geochronological evaluation of the thermal record within these sequences could provide control on the extent and times of basement involvement in the tectonothermal events recorded in the overlying allochthonous units.

  19. The accurate location of the injection-induced microearthquakes in German Continental Deep Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yun-Tai

    2002-11-01

    From August 21, 2000 to October 20, 2000 a fluid injection-induced seismicity experiment has been carried out in the KTB (German Continental Deep Drilling Program). The KTB seismic network recorded more than 2 700 events. Among them 237 events were of high signal-to-noise ratio, and were processed and accurately located. When the events were located, non KTB events were weeded out by Wadati’s method. The standard deviation, mean and median were obtained by Jackknife’s technique, and finally the events were accurately located by Geiger’s method so that the mean error is about 0.1 km. No earthquakes with focal depth greater than 9.3 km, which is nearly at the bottom of the hole, were detected. One of the explanation is that at such depths the stress levels may not close to the rock’s frictional strength so that failure could not be induced by the relatively small perturbation in pore pressure. Or at these depths there may be no permeable, well-oriented faults. This depth may be in close proximity to the bottom of the hole to the brittle-ductile transition, even in this relatively stable interior of the interaplate. This phenomenon is explained by the experimental results and geothermal data from the superdeep borehole.

  20. Imaging the Variscan suture and deformation at the KTB deep drilling site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    The upper crust of the KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm) area in Southeastern Germany is a focal point for the Earth Science community due to the huge amount of information collected throughout the last thirty years. In this study we explore the crustal structure of the KTB area through the application of the receiver function (RF) technique to a new data set recorded by 9 temporary seismic stations and 1 permanent station. We aim to unravel the seismic structure and compare our results with previous information from the reflection profiles collected during the initial site investigations. Vs-depth profiles for stations located on the same geological units, display common features and show shallow S-wave velocities typical of the outcropping geological units (i.e. sedimentary basin, granites, metamorphic rocks). At around 10 km depth we observe a strong velocity increase. For the stations located in the center of the area, this variation is weaker, which we assume to be the signature of the main tectonic suture in the area (i.e. the Saxothuringian-Moldanubian suture), along an West-to-East extended region, may be due to the presence of the allochthonous klippe trapped between the main crustal terrains that came in touch during the Variscan orogeny. We detect strong anisotropy within the upper crust, testifying the deformation recorded during the Variscan orogeny, and compare our results with direct information from the deep drill site.

  1. Mud to cement technology proven in offshore drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Javanmardi, K.; Flodberg, K.D. ); Nahm, J.J. )

    1993-02-15

    One problem with conventional cements is the incompatibility of Portland cement and the drilling mud. Expensive preflushes and spacer fluids have been used, often with limited success, to attempt to separate mud and Portland cement effectively. Under downhole conditions, most spacers are ineffective in preventing high viscosities and cement contamination problems which lead to poor primary cement jobs. One solution to this problem is to convert the drilling mud into a cementitious slurry, thereby eliminating the mud/Portland cement incompatibility. The existing mud solidification technologies have received limited acceptance because of high costs, complex design, and difficult field use. Shell Development Co.'s mud solidification technology (Slag-Mix) uses finely ground, granulated blast furnace slag as the cementitious agent. The slurry is activated with predetermined amounts of common alkaline chemicals (caustic or soda ash) and a thinner/retarder, such as lignosulfonate. Slag is only slightly reactive with water. Thus, the slag can be mixed in the mud through the mud hopper. At Auger, the slag was mixed and pumped with a conventional cementing unit. On two other operations (South Timbalier Blocks 295 and 300), the slurry was mixed in the mud pits and pumped down the well with the rig pump, thus eliminating the costs associated with conventional cementing units and services.

  2. Deep drilling and sampling via the wireline auto-gopher driven by piezoelectric percussive actuator and EM rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-04-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. The developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline drill that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism, which is driven by a piezoelectric stack, demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with the objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa formation.

  3. Deep Drilling Basic Research: Volume 4 - System Description. Final Report, November 1988--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.E.; Maurer, W.C.; Hood, M.; Cooper, G.; Cook, N.

    1990-06-01

    The first section of this Volume will discuss the ''Conventional Drilling System''. Today's complex arrangement of numerous interacting systems has slowly evolved from the very simple cable tool rigs used in the late 1800s. Improvements to the conventional drilling rig have varied in size and impact over the years, but the majority of them have been evolutionary modifications. Each individual change or improvement of this type does not have significant impact on drilling efficiency and economics. However, the change is almost certain to succeed, and over time--as the number of evolutionary changes to the system begin to add up--improvements in efficiency and economics can be seen. Some modifications, defined and described in this Volume as Advanced Modifications, have more than just an evolutionary effect on the conventional drilling system. Although the distinction is subtle, there are several examples of incorporated advancements that have had significantly more impact on drilling procedures than would a truly evolutionary improvement. An example of an advanced modification occurred in the late 1970s with the introduction of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) drill bits. PDC bits resulted in a fundamental advancement in drilling procedures that could not have been accomplished by an evolutionary improvement in materials metallurgy, for example. The last drilling techniques discussed in this Volume are the ''Novel Drilling Systems''. The extent to which some of these systems have been developed varies from actually being tested in the field, to being no more than a theoretical concept. However, they all have one thing in common--their methods of rock destruction are fundamentally different from conventional drilling techniques. When a novel drilling system is introduced, it is a revolutionary modification of accepted drilling procedures and will completely replace current techniques. The most prominent example of a revolutionary modification in recent history

  4. Some cases of machining large-scale parts: Characterization and modelling of heavy turning, deep drilling and broaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddag, B.; Nouari, M.; Moufki, A.

    2016-10-01

    Machining large-scale parts involves extreme loading at the cutting zone. This paper presents an overview of some cases of machining large-scale parts: heavy turning, deep drilling and broaching processes. It focuses on experimental characterization and modelling methods of these processes. Observed phenomena and/or measured cutting forces are reported. The paper also discusses the predictive ability of the proposed models to reproduce experimental data.

  5. Trace elements profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The possible thermal gradient near the surface during a lunation is considered together with the heat flow from the interior, the physical process of Hg migration, the results from core and trench samples from previous missions, and other temperature sensitive phenomena that may help understand the processes. U, Os, and Ru concentrations in the deep drill core samples are of potential interest and are summarized in a table. The Os tends to parallel the Hg profile with depth.

  6. Deep-UV microsphere projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Brown, Robert L; Fathipour, Vala; Dexheimer, Eric; Jang, Sung Jun; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we present a single-exposure deep-UV projection lithography at 254-nm wavelength that produces nanopatterns in a scalable area with a feature size of 80 nm. In this method, a macroscopic lens projects a pixelated optical mask on a monolayer of hexagonally arranged microspheres that reside on the Fourier plane and image the mask's pattern into a photoresist film. Our macroscopic lens shrinks the size of the mask by providing an imaging magnification of ∼1.86×10(4), while enhancing the exposure power. On the other hand, microsphere lens produces a sub-diffraction limit focal point-a so-called photonic nanojet-based on the near-surface focusing effect, which ensures an excellent patterning accuracy against the presence of surface roughness. Ray-optics simulation is utilized to design the bulk optics part of the lithography system, while a wave-optics simulation is implemented to simulate the optical properties of the exposed regions beneath the microspheres. We characterize the lithography performance in terms of the proximity effect, lens aberration, and interference effect due to refractive index mismatch between photoresist and substrate.

  7. 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Deep Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Wennrich, V.; Nowaczyk, N.; DeConto, R.; Anderson, P.; Andreev, A.; Haltia-Hovi, E.; Kukkonen, M.; Lozhkin, A.; Rosén, P.; Tarasov, P.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific deep drilling at Lake El'gygtygyn in Chukotka, northeastern Russia (67.5 °N, 172 °E) revealed the first high-resolution record of environmental history in the Arctic that spans the past 2.8 Ma continuously (Melles et al. 2012). In this presentation we focus on the end-member glacial and interglacial climatic conditions during this period as clearly reflected in the pelagic lake sediments recovered. Peak glacial conditions, when mean annual air temperatures at least 4 (± 0.5) °C lower than today led to perennial lake ice (Nolan 2012), first appeared at Lake El'gygytgyn 2.602 - 2.598 Ma ago, during marine isotope stage (MIS) 104. These pervasive glacial episodes gradually increase in frequency from ~2.3 to ~1.8 Ma, eventually concurring with all glacials and several stadials reflected globally in stacked marine isotope records. Particularly warm interglacials, in contrast, experienced a long ice-free season and enhanced nutrient supply from the catchment, which allowed for significantly higher primary production than today. These settings were most pronounced for MIS 11c, 31, 49, 55, 77, 87, 91, and 93. Their exceptional character becomes evident based upon pollen-based climate reconstructions in selected interglacials, showing that the mean temperature of the warmest month and the annual precipitation during the thermal maxima of MIS 11c and 31 ("super" interglacials) were 4-5 °C and ~300 mm higher than those of MIS 1 and 5e ("normal" interglacials), respectively. According to climate simulations, the exceptional warm and moist climates at least during MIS 11c cannot be explained by the natural variability in Earth's orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations alone. A remarkable coincidence of the super interglacials at Lake El'gygytgyn with diatomite layers in the Antarctic ANDRILL 1B, which reflect periods of a diminished West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) (Naish et al. 2009, Pollard and DeConto 2009), suggests intra-hemispheric climate

  8. Deep Space Network utilization for flight projects, calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, C. L.; Goto, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    A report on the utilization of the Deep Space Network during calendar year 1981 in support of all flight projects is presented. The network expended 63% of its total capability in support of Space Flight projects.

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 7: Site investigation: Deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The results of the deep drilling program performed on the Sunshine Site from January to August 1979 are presented. The work included continuous core drilling and sampling of the Sykesville to a vertical depth of 2556 ft, in hole geophysical logging, determination of rock permeability and stresses, and rock testing.

  10. Deep Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drill for Exploration of Europa and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Mellerowicz, B.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Ibarra, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since water is an important requisite for life as we know it, likely exobiologic exploration targets in our Solar System include Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, where water/ice is known to exist. Because of oxidizing nature of Mars atmosphere, as well as increased radiation at the surfaces of Mars, Europa and Enceladus, samples must be acquired from the subsurface at greater depths, presenting a great challenge to off-world drilling design. For the past 3 years, we have been developing a prototype wireline coring drill, called the Auto-Gopher, for the capability to acquire samples from hundreds of meters depth. The drill is capable of penetrating both rock and ice. However, because of large geological uncertainty on Mars and issues related to borehole collapse, we specifically target ice formations present on Europa and Enceladus. The main feature of the Auto-Gopher is its wireline operation. The drill is essentially suspended on a tether and the motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill (plus core) is retracted from the borehole by a pulley system (the pulley system can be either on the surface or integrated into a top part of the drill itself). Once on the surface, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole in order to drill the next segment. Each segment is typically 10 cm long. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections. With traditional continuous drill string systems (the major competition to the Autor-Gopher), new drill sections need to be added to the string as the drill gets deeper. This of course requires multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass of the system very quickly, and requires

  11. Pre-drill predictions versus post-drill results: use of sequence stratigraphic methods in reduction of exploration risk, Sarawak Deep-water Blocks, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansor, Md Yazid; Snedden, J. W.; Sarg, J. F.; Smith, B. S.; Kolich, T.; Carter, M.

    1999-04-01

    Limited well control, great distances from age-equivalent producing fields, and a largely unknown stratigraphy necessitated use of sequence stratigraphic methods to assess exploration risk associated with reservoir, source and seal distribution in the Mobil-operated Deep-water Blocks of Sarawak, Malaysia. These methods allowed predictions to be made and reservoir risks to be halved in each of the locations drilled in 1995. Predictions regarding reservoir and stratigraphy proved correct, as the Mulu-1 and Bako-1 wells penetrated numerous high-quality, thick sandstone reservoirs in the Middle to Lower Miocene section. Shallow marine sandstones dominate the vertical succession in both wells, with characteristic aggradational, upward-coarsening log motifs. Cores display classic wave-generated stratification and hummocky cross-bedding. Evidence, such as marginal-marine to neritic microfauna in cuttings of both wells, supports these interpretations. Lack of hydrocarbon charge in the two wells may be due to their position relative to coaly hydrocarbon source beds. These prospects have high trap and seal integrity, being well defined on seismics as high relief horst blocks covered by a very thick shale-prone section. The Mulu-1 well, for example, is located at least 20-30 km down stratigraphic dip from mapped coeval lower coastal-plain deposits. Amplitude anomalies on the flank of the Mulu horst are probably derived from transported organics buried in deep Plio-Pleistocene kitchens in the northwest portion of the Mobil blocks. Remaining potential of mapped prospects is high and efforts continue at characterizing the petroleum system of the Deep-water Blocks. Seismic attribute and interval velocity analyses provide new clues to the location of probable coaly source rocks, especially when viewed in their regional and sequence stratigraphic context. Future work is planned and will serve to reduce risk to acceptable levels and support further drilling in this prospective

  12. Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

    2014-05-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down

  13. Five Hundred and Seventy Three Holes in the Bottom of the Sea-Some Results From Seven Years of Deep-Sea Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Described are the background, operation, and findings of the work of the deep sea drilling vessel Glomar Challenger, which has taken 8,638 core samples from 573 holes at 392 sites on the floor of the Earth's oceans. (SL)

  14. Five Hundred and Seventy Three Holes in the Bottom of the Sea-Some Results From Seven Years of Deep-Sea Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Described are the background, operation, and findings of the work of the deep sea drilling vessel Glomar Challenger, which has taken 8,638 core samples from 573 holes at 392 sites on the floor of the Earth's oceans. (SL)

  15. Phase 2 Reese River Geothermal Project Slim Well 56-4 Drilling and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Henkle, William R.; Ronne, Joel

    2008-06-15

    This report covers the drilling and testing of the slim well 56-4 at the Reese River Geothermal Project in Lander County, Nevada. This well was partially funded through a GRED III Cooperative Funding Agreement # DE-FC36-04GO14344, from USDOE.

  16. A project management approach to design and construction of a new generation Arctic drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, J.K.S.

    1984-05-01

    A second generation drilling system for the Arctic offshore has been designed and constructed by Gulf Canada Resources Inc. This paper describes the decision process that resulted in the implementation of project management approach to the undertaking. A brief description of the organizational structure and control mechanisms used are presented.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of core catcher samples from the ICDP deep drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecke, Andreas; Wissel, Holger; Mayr*, Christoph; Oehlerich, Markus; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The ICDP project PASADO aims to develop a detailed paleoclimatic record for the southern part of the South American continent from sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W), situated in the Patagonian steppe east of the Andean cordillera and north of the Street of Magellan. The precursor project SALSA recovered the Holocene and Late Glacial sediment infill of Laguna Potrok Aike and developed the environmental history of the semi-arid Patagonian steppe by a consequent interdisciplinary multi-proxy approach (e.g. Haberzettl et al., 2007). From September to November 2008 the ICDP deep drilling took place and successfully recovered in total 510 m of sediments from two sites resulting in a composite depth of 106 m for the selected main study Site 2. A preliminary age model places the record within the last 50.000 years. During the drilling campaign, the core catcher content of each drilled core run (3 m) was taken as separate sample to be shared and distributed between involved laboratories long before the main sampling party. A total of 70 core catcher samples describe the sediments of Site 2 and will form the base for more detailed investigations on the palaeoclimatic history of Patagonia. We here report on the organic carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bulk sediment and plant debris of the core catcher samples. Similar investigations were performed for Holocene and Late Glacial sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike revealing insights into the organic matter dynamics of the lake and its catchment as well as into climatically induced hydrological variations with related lake level fluctuations (Mayr et al., 2009). The carbon and nitrogen content of the core catcher fine sediment fraction (<200 µm) is low to very low (around 1 % and 0.1 %, respectively) and requires particular attention in isotope analysis. The carbon isotope composition shows comparably little variation around a value of -26.0 per mil. The positive values of the Holocene and the Late

  18. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-12-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be `corrected' for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid-liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal drilling

  19. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be ‘corrected’ for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid–liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal

  20. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  1. Geothermal studies of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland: Vertical variation in heat flow and palaeoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Rath, Volker; Kivekäs, Liisa; Šafanda, Jan; Čermak, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    Detailed geothermal studies of deep drill holes provide insights to heat transfer processes in the crust, and allow separation of different factors involved, such as palaeoclimatic and structural conductive effects as well as advective fluid flow effects. We present high resolution geothermal results of the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole in eastern Finland drilled in 2004-2005 into a Palaeoproterozoic formation with metasedimentary rocks, ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks and pegmatitic granite. The down-hole temperatures have been logged five times after end of drilling and extend to day 948 after drilling. The hole is completely cored (79% core coverage) and thermal conductivity measurements were done at 1 m intervals. The geothermal results on temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flow density yield an exceptionally detailed data set and indicate a significant vertical variation in gradient and heat flow density. Heat flow density increases from about 28 - 32 mW m -2 in the uppermost 1000 m to 40-45 mW m -2 at depths exceeding 2000 m. The estimated undisturbed surface heat flow value is 42 mW m -2. We present results on forward and inverse transient conductive models which suggest that the vertical variation in heat flow can mostly be attributed to a palaeoclimatic effect due to ground surface temperature (GST) variations during the last 100,000 years. The modeling suggests that the average GST was about -3 to -4 °C during the Weichselian glaciation. Holocene GST values are within ±2° from the present average GST in Outokumpu (5 °C). The topographic hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity of crystalline rocks are low which suggests that advective heat transfer in the formation is not significant. The slow replacement of fresh flushing water by saline formation fluids is observed in the hole, but it does not generate significant thermal disturbances in the logs. On the other hand, free sluggish thermal convection is present in

  2. Geothermal Studies of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland: Vertical variation in heat flow and palaeoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Rath, V.; Kivekäs, L.; Šafanda, J.; Čermak, V.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed geothermal studies of deep drill holes provide insights to heat transfer processes in the crust, and allow separation of different factors involved, such as palaeoclimatic and structural conductive effects as well as advective fluid flow effects. We present high resolution geothermal results of the 2,516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole in eastern Finland drilled in 2004-2005 into a Palaeoproterozoic formation with metasedimentary rocks, ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks and pegmatitic granite. The down-hole temperatures have been logged five times after end of drilling and extend to day 948 after drilling. The hole is completely cored (79% core coverage) and thermal conductivity measurements were done at 1 m intervals. The geothermal results on temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flow density yield an exceptionally detailed data set and indicate a significant vertical variation in gradient and heat flow density. Heat flow density increases from about 28-32 mW m-2 in the uppermost 1000 m to 40-45 mW m-2 at depths exceeding 2000 m. The estimated undisturbed surface heat flow value is 42 mWm-2. We present results on forward and inverse transient conductive models which suggest that the vertical variation in heat flow can mostly be attributed to a palaeoclimatic effect due to ground surface temperature (GST) variations during the last 100,000 years. The modelling suggests that the average GST was about -3…-4°C during the Weichselian glaciation. Holocene GST values are within ±2 degree from the present average GST in Outokumpu (5°C). The topographic hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity of crystalline rocks are low which suggests that advective heat transfer in the formation is not significant. The slow replacement of fresh flushing water by saline formation fluids is observed in the hole, but it does not generate significant thermal disturbances in the logs. On the other hand, free sluggish thermal convection is present in

  3. Growth History Of Unzen Volcano, Kyushu, Japan _| Results of Two Flank Drillings of Unzen Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshizumi, H.; Uto, K.; Matsumoto, A.; Kurihara, A.

    2004-12-01

    Unzen volcano is an active volcano composed of lava domes, thick lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of hornblende andesite to dacite. Tectonically active Unzen graben dissects volcanic edifices of the volcano. During the phase I of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP), two drillings were conducted at the northeastern (USDP-1: 752 m depth) and eastern (USDP-2: 1463 m depth) flanks of the volcano, respectively, to fully recover accumulated deposits of the volcano hidden beneath the younger eruptives. Extensive K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations have also been conducted on both surface rocks and drilling cores. Unzen volcano starts to grow at 0.5 Ma above the Pre-Unzen pyroxene andesite (0.5-0.8 Ma). Unzen volcano has been divided into three volcanic stages, Early and Late stages of the Older Unzen and the Younger Unzen. The Early stage of the Older Unzen (0.3-0.5 Ma) products consist of pumice-rich pyroclastic flows, block and ash flows, associated volcaniclastic debris flows and thick lava flows. The north- and south-dipping fans spreading outside the graben are sharply cut by the faults. This suggests that Unzen volcano grew rapidly in the first 200,000 years of its history and formed a conical volcanic edifice. The Late stage of the Older Unzen (0.15-0.3 Ma) products mainly fill in the graben. In the western half of the deposits of this stage, thick lava flows cover widely inside the Unzen graben. On the other hand, thick alternated piles of pyroclastic deposits were recovered both from USDP-1 and -2 cores. In the USDP-2 core, phreatomagmatic deposits about 250 m thick with essentially abundant glass materials of ca. 0.3 Ma. These findings suggest that rapid subsidence of the Unzen graben at around 0.3-0.2 Ma led strong interaction between the magma and groundwater. Younger Unzen volcano (0-0.15Ma) is composed of four edifices, Nodake, Myokendake, Fugen-dake and Mayuyama volcanoes, all locate in the eastern half of Unzen volcano. Block-and-ash flow

  4. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  5. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  6. The development of and experiments on electromagnetic measurement while a drilling system is used for deep exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunhua; Jiang, Guosheng; Wang, Ziqi; Wang, Jiahao; Wang, Chenli

    2016-10-01

    An electromagnetic measurement while drilling system (EM-MWD) can transfer well track state parameters to the ground in real time, which makes it an indispensable technology for deep-hole drilling. This paper introduces the development of and experiments on an EM-MWD system used for deep exploration in the People’s Republic of China. The designed EM-MWD system is composed of a downhole instrument and a ground instrument, and we elaborate on the structural design of the downhole instrument, the design of the transmission and control circuits and the signal modulation. This work also covers the software and hardware design of the ground instrument and signal demodulation technologies. Finally, some indoor signal decoding experiments and some in-hole signal transmission experiments are performed. This study indicates that the designed EM-MWD system can measure information for downhole drilling parameters and send it to the ground effectively, while the ground receiver can decode the signal accurately and reliably, and the desired signal can be obtained. Furthermore, the strength of the received signal is not affected by the polar distance within a certain polar distance.

  7. Project DEEP STEAM. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Clay, R.G.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Johnson, D.R.; Lyle, W.D.; Mulac, A.J.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. Field testing of insulated strings for improved thermal efficiency of steam delivery to deep reservoirs has been set up in cooperation with Husky Oil Company in Lloydminster, Canada. The instrumentation system for this test was successfully tested this quarter. Efforts to develop the liquid fueled downhole generation system for testing in deep reservoirs have continued. Legal agreement between Sandia and the City of Long Beach for testing of the downhole generator has been achieved.

  8. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  9. MICRON-SCALE DEEP HOLE DRILLING FOR BERYLLIUM CAPSULE FILL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J P; Rubenchik, A M; Gunther, J; Stuart, B C

    2005-11-29

    A laser processing system has been developed to drill high aspect ratio holes through the impermeable beryllium capsules envisioned for ignition shots on NIF. The drilling system was designed to produce holes with an entrance and exit diameter of approximately 5 {micro}m through the full 175 {micro}m thickness of the capsule. To meet these requirements, a frequency doubled femtosecond-class Ti:Sapphire laser is directed through a high numerical aperture lens to provide the spot geometry needed to drill the hole. The laser pulse is confined by the metallic walls of the hole, thereby maintaining the diameter of the channel well beyond the Rayleigh range of the optical system. Presented is the current state of this work-in-progress, including descriptions of the device and the technique used to produce the holes. The various means of characterizing the laser-drilled channels are also discussed.

  10. Influence of ambient pressure on the hole formation process in ultrashort pulse laser deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Sven; Richter, Sören; Ullsperger, Tobias; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the influence of the ambient pressure on the hole formation process during percussion drilling of silicon by applying an in-situ imaging technique. In this study the pressure is varied from atmospheric conditions down to medium vacuum of 10 !bar. Drilling was performed using an ultrashort pulse system providing 8 ps pulses with up to 125 μJ at 1030 nm. At this wavelength, the ablation behavior of silicon is comparable to metals. At the beginning of the drilling process, we observe an increased drilling efficiency by 40% already for a moderate pressure decrease to 100 mbar. The formation of an ideally shaped hole lasts for approximately 200 pulses instead of only 100 as for atmospheric conditions and therefore leads to 3 times the depth at this point. The effect can be enhanced by increasing the pulse energy, but not by decreasing pressure further. However, the number of pulses till the end of the drilling process is extended by decreasing the pressure further. For a low ambient pressure of 10 μbar, this is accompanied by an increase of the maximum achievable depth of more than 100%. Simultaneously the hole shape changes from a few ends and bulges at atmospheric conditions to numerous branches over the complete lower part of the hole at low pressure. This drilling behavior can be attributed to a better removal of ablated particles from the hole capillary with decreasing pressure, which leads to lower scattering losses for the pulse propagation inside the hole.

  11. The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontier initiative - a key to link EC research and international scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontiers project, DS3F, represents the continuation of the DSF roadmap towards the sustainable management of oceanic resources on a European scale. It will develop strategies for sub-seafloor sampling to contribute to a better understanding of deep-sea and sub-seafloor processes by connecting marine research in life and geosciences, climate and environmental change, as well as socio-economic issues and policy building. We propose to establish a long-lived research approach that considers (i) the need for a sustainable management of the ocean, and particularly the deep sea with enhanced activity (fishery, hydrocarbon exploration), (ii) the necessity to unravel deep-seated geological processes that drive seafloor ecosystems, and (iii) the value of seabed archives for the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions and the improved prediction of future climate change. Sub-seafloor drilling and sampling can provide two key components in understanding how deep-sea ecosystems function at present, and how they will respond to global change: (a) an inventory of present subsurface processes and biospheres, and their links to surface ecosystems, including seafloor observation and baseline studies, and (b) a high resolution archive of past variations in environmental conditions and biodiversity. For both components, an international effort is needed to share knowledge, methods and technologies, including mission-specific platforms to increase the efficiency, coverage and accuracy of sub-seafloor sampling and exploration. The deep biosphere has been discovered only within the past two decades and comprises the last major frontier for biological exploration. We lack fundamental knowledge of composition, diversity, distribution and metabolism in sub-seafloor biological communities at Earth's extremes, and their repercussions on seafloor ecosystems and life in the deep sea. There is equally an emerging need to shed light on geodynamic processes

  12. Introduction to Special Section: Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, Edward M.; Depaolo, Donald J.; Thomas, Donald M.

    1996-05-01

    Intraplate or "hot spot" volcanic island chains, exemplified by Hawaii, play an important role in plate tectonic theory as reference points for absolute plate motions, but the origin of these volcanoes is not explained by the plate tectonic paradigm [Engebretson et al., 1985; Molnar and Stock, 1987; Morgan, 1971, 1981, 1983; Wilson, 1963]. The most widely held view is that these chains of volcanoes form from magma generated by decompression melting of localized, buoyant upwellings in the mantle [Ribe and Christensen, 1994; Richards et al., 1988; Sleep, 1990; Watson and McKenzie, 1991]. These upwellings, or "plumes," are believed to originate at boundary layers in the mantle (e.g., at the core-mantle boundary or near the boundary at ˜670 km between the upper and lower mantle), and the cause of the buoyancy may be both compositional and thermal [Campbell and Griffiths, 1990; Griffiths, 1986; Richards et al., 1988; Watson and McKenzie, 1991]. Mantle plumes are responsible for about 10% of the Earth's heat loss and constitute an important mechanism for cycling mass from the deep mantle to the Earth's surface.

  13. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  14. On the suction drill as an effective tool to get rid of bore debris in a narrow deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faßwald, J.; Kömle, N.; Bentley, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this experimental study a novel method for the removal of bore debris from narrow and deep boreholes is described. The idea is to use a constant flow of inert gas (e.g. N2) to transport the fine bore debris produced by a drill head to the surface and thereby clear the bore hole from the solid material. A theoretical study [1] has previously predicted that it should be possible to construct a system able to transport particles in the micrometer to millimeter range along the vertical direction over many meters - without consuming unreasonable amounts of gas.Such a system could be of great interest for drilling and sampling on the Moon, Mars and small bodies. In order to verify this statement experimentally, a series of laboratory tests was performed. The experimental setup consists of the following main components: (i) a gas regulation system allowing accurate measurement and control of the inlet gas flux and (ii) a device representing the suction drill. The "drill" consists of a 45 cm long Plexiglas sheath within which a central metal tube leads gas to the bottom of a (simulated) borehole, where it is diverted through thin outlet openings to flow back up the tube, driving out debris particles as it does so. Experiments with two particular sample materials were performed, namely (i) glass beads with a size range of 0.25 mm - 0.50 mm and (ii) the standardised lunar analog material JSC-1A, which is a milled basaltic lava with an average particle size of about 0.1 mm. In both cases the suction mechanism under vacuum worked very well and the theoretical predictions were largely confirmed. Similar results were obtained for JSC-1A samples and glass beads, although in case of the lunar analog material adhesive forces among the irregular particles might hinder the transport. The conclusion from our experiments is that suction of particles from deep bore holes is an effective method and needs rather moderate resources of gas supply. Thus it may be better suited for

  15. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... longitude in water depths entirely less than 400 meters deep. (b) The lease has not produced gas or oil from... Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.40 Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as... drilling either: (1) Before March 26, 2003, on a lease that is located partly or entirely in water less...

  16. Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, H.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Zoback, M.; Boness, N.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.-H.; Hickman, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 in, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (???N115??E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 in and 1310 in are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Fluid-rock interactions in the Rhine Graben: A thermodynamic model of the hydrothermal alteration observed in deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komninou, A.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    1997-02-01

    Deep drilling at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, on the western flanks of the Rhine Graben, has penetrated Hercynian granite underlying Mesozoic sediments. Veins are present throughout the drilled granite, and there are flows of warm water localized in fractures within the granite. Detailed mineralogical study of core material from the research drillhole EPS 1 has been carried out in order to assess the alteration history of the Soultz granite, part of the crystalline basement of the Rhine Graben. The results of the study have been used, in conjunction with analyses of present-day fluids from deep drilling in the Rhine Graben reported in the literature, to model thermodynamically the alteration process, and in particular to evaluate if it is likely to be continuing today. Reaction-path calculations show that if deep basinal brines, such as are known from sediments of the central Rhine Graben, react with Hercynian granite, they will form different alteration assemblages depending on both the path that the fluid follows (e.g., descending through sediments or through granite) and the extent of preexisting alteration of the granite. The calculations suggest that fluid now sampled from granite in EPS-1 achieved its peak temperature, c. 200°C, while within Permo-Triassic sandstone. The modeling also indicates that present-day fluids from the Rhine Graben system are capable of producing the vein quartz and possibly also the baryte veins, seen in the EPS 1 core. Much of the alteration present in the granite in the vicinity of veins and fractures may have been produced by a flow regime similar to that prevailing today.

  18. The snake geothermal drilling project. Innovative approaches to geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Liberty, Lee M.; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Blackwell, David D.

    2014-02-21

    The goal of our project was to test innovative technologies using existing and new data, and to ground-truth these technologies using slim-hole core technology. The slim-hole core allowed us to understand subsurface stratigraphy and alteration in detail, and to correlate lithologies observed in core with surface based geophysical studies. Compiled data included geologic maps, volcanic vent distribution, structural maps, existing well logs and temperature gradient logs, groundwater temperatures, and geophysical surveys (resistivity, magnetics, gravity). New data included high-resolution gravity and magnetic surveys, high-resolution seismic surveys, three slimhole test wells, borehole wireline logs, lithology logs, water chemistry, alteration mineralogy, fracture distribution, and new thermal gradient measurements.

  19. Project Performance Evaluation Using Deep Belief Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguvulu, Alick; Yamato, Shoso; Honma, Toshihisa

    A Project Assessment Indicator (PAI) Model has recently been applied to evaluate monthly project performance based on 15 project elements derived from the project management (PM) knowledge areas. While the PAI Model comprehensively evaluates project performance, it lacks objectivity and universality. It lacks objectivity because experts assign model weights intuitively based on their PM skills and experience. It lacks universality because the allocation of ceiling scores to project elements is done ad hoc based on the empirical rule without taking into account the interactions between the project elements. This study overcomes these limitations by applying a DBN approach where the model automatically assigns weights and allocates ceiling scores to the project elements based on the DBN weights which capture the interaction between the project elements. We train our DBN on 5 IT projects of 12 months duration and test it on 8 IT projects with less than 12 months duration. We completely eliminate the manual assigning of weights and compute ceiling scores of project elements based on DBN weights. Our trained DBN evaluates monthly project performance of the 8 test projects based on the 15 project elements to within a monthly relative error margin of between ±1.03 and ±3.30%.

  20. Post-Drilling Changes in Seabed Landscape and Megabenthos in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System, the Iheya North Field, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, ‘artificially’ creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area

  1. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  2. Ultra-short pulse laser deep drilling of C/SiC composites in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Litong; Liu, Yongsheng; Cheng, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Ke

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-short pulse laser machining is an important finishing technology for high hardness materials. In this study, it demonstrated that the ultra-short pulse laser can be used to drill the film cooling holes and square holes in aero-engine turbine blades made of C/SiC composites. Both the edges and bottoms of the drilling holes are covered with small particles. The following factors have a great effect on drilling holes according to this work: (1) circular holes can be processed only at a relative small helical lines spacing. (2) With the increase of laser scanning speed, the depth of holes reduces while the diameter rarely changes. (3) Through the holes of high aspect ratio can be obtained via high processing power.

  3. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  4. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    to at least 0.5 m depth. Using the same methodology to 1 m depth, we determined SCS in two wine grape vineyards on shallow, stony alluvial soils. We found a difference between vineyard and adjacent pasture SCS of nearly 16 t/ha. As the vines are 25 years old, this equates to carbon sequestration rates of 640kg/ha/year. Our results of the 'space-for-time' analysis also showed that all sequestration had occurred below 0.5 m. Therefore, we decided to deep-C drill further. In a 30-year old kiwifruit orchard and an adjacent pasture, SCSs were measured to 9 m depth. In the kiwifruit orchard, we found a sequestration rate of 6.3 tonnes C per hectare per year greater than in the adjacent pasture that was the antecedent land use. The carbon sequestered each year within the top 1 m of soil equates to about 4% of the emissions of kiwifruit grown in New Zealand and consumed in the United Kingdom. However, if the stock in the top 9 m of soil is included in this calculation, then the amount of SOC sequestered equates to about 42% of the respective emissions that would be calculated by life cycle assessment.

  5. Application of coiled-tubing-drilling technology on a deep underpressured gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Upper-Mississippian Elkton formation is a dolomitized shallow-water carbonate consisting of dense limestones and porous dolomites. The Elkton was deposited in an open-shelf environment as crinoid grainstones, coral packstones, and lime muds. Deposition of impermeable shales and siltstones of the Lower Cretaceous created the lateral and updip seals. Reservoir thickness can be up to 20 m, with porosities reaching 20% and averaging 10%. The reservoir gas contains approximately 0.5% hydrogen sulfide. Well 11-18 was to be completed in the Harmatten Elkton pool. The pool went on production in 1967 at an initial pressure of 23,500 kPa. At the current pressure of 16,800 kPa, the remaining reserves are underpressured at 6.5 kPa/m, and underbalanced horizontal drilling was selected as the most suitable technique for exploiting remaining reserves. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology was selected to ensure continuous underbalanced conditions and maintain proper well control while drilling. The paper describes the equipment, CT drilling summary, and drilling issues.

  6. Diversity of prokaryotes and methanogenesis in deep subsurface sediments from the Nankai Trough, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 190.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Carole J; Webster, Gordon; Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John; Weightman, Andrew J; Fry, John C

    2004-03-01

    Diversity of Bacteria and Archaea was studied in deep marine sediments by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes. Samples analysed were from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 190 deep subsurface sediments at three sites spanning the Nankai Trough in the Pacific Ocean off Shikoku Island, Japan. DNA was amplified, from three depths at site 1173 (4.15, 98.29 and 193.29 mbsf; metres below the sea floor), and phylogenetic analysis of clone libraries showed a wide variety of uncultured Bacteria and Archaea. Sequences of Bacteria were dominated by an uncultured and deeply branching 'deep sediment group' (53% of sequences). Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were mainly within the uncultured clades of the Crenarchaeota. There was good agreement between sequences obtained independently by cloning and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These sequences were similar to others retrieved from marine sediment and other anoxic habitats, and so probably represent important indigenous bacteria. The mcrA gene analysis suggested limited methanogen diversity with only three gene clusters identified within the Methanosarcinales and Methanobacteriales. The cultivated members of the Methanobacteriales and some of the Methanosarcinales can use CO2 and H2 for methanogenesis. These substrates also gave the highest rates in 14C-radiotracer estimates of methanogenic activity, with rates comparable to those from other deep marine sediments. Thus, this research demonstrates the importance of the 'deep sediment group' of uncultured Bacteria and links limited diversity of methanogens to the dominance of CO2/H2 based methanogenesis in deep sub-seafloor sediments.

  7. Indian Ocean proposed drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curray, Joseph R.

    1984-04-01

    Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the Indian Ocean and any important problems, including tectonics, nature of the lithosphere, paleoceanography, and sedimentary processes will be considered.Please send proposals, with appropriate charts and copies of pertinent data, in triplicate to the Office of Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES Office, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149) and, if possible, also send one copy to the chairman or to any other members of the panel. Proposals and letters received before September 1 will be reviewed at the panel meeting scheduled for the first week of September.

  8. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Deep Fluid Sampling in Fractured Quartz, Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, R. J.; Reed, M. H.; Grist, H. R.; Fridriksson, T.; Danielsen, P.; Thorhallsson, S.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2011-12-01

    In July of 2011 a fluid inclusion tool (FIT) was deployed in well RN-17b of the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland, with the goal of sampling fluids in situ at the deepest feed point in the well. The tool consists of a perforated stainless steel pipe containing eight stainless steel mesh canisters, each loaded with 10mm-scale blocks of thermally fractured quartz. Except for one control canister, in each canister the fractured quartz blocks were surrounded by a different grain size of SiO¬2 glass that ranged in size from 10μm-scale glass wool to cm-scale glass shards. The FIT was left in the well on a wireline at a depth of 2768m and retrieved after three weeks. The fluid at 2768m depth is known from November 2010 well logs to have a temperature of about 330°C and pressure of 170 bars, a pressure ~40 bar too high for boiling at that temperature. After retrieval, quartz in all of the canisters contained liquid-dominated fluid inclusions, but their quantity and size differed by canister. Groups of inclusions occur in healed fractures and both healed and open fracture surfaces are visible within single quartz blocks. Measurements on a heating and cooling stage yield approximant inclusion homogenization temperatures of 332°C and freezing points of -2.0°C. These measurements and a pressure of 170 bars yield trapping temperatures of 335°C and a NaCl weight percent of 3.4, both of which match known values, thus verifying that the device trapped fluids as intended. In upcoming studies, these fluids will be analyzed using bulk methods and LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions. The glass added to the quartz blocks in the canisters allowed the Reykjanes fluids to precipitate enough quartz to heal fractures and trap fluids despite the fluid undersaturation in quartz. Almost all of the glass that was added to the canisters, 27 to 66 grams in each (except glass wool), was consumed in the experiment. Remaining glass was in the non-mesh bottom caps of the canisters where fluid flux may have been minimal, indicating that most of the dissolved SiO2 was carried away with flowing fluid. This may explain why not all fractures were healed, as they were in our previous closed-system laboratory experiments. Upon recovery from the well, the FIT and the canister contents were covered in fine black particles, the greatest quantity by far occurring in canisters that had contained glass wool as the SiO2 source. Preliminary SEM-EDS analyses show that the particles contain silica, iron, magnesium, and small amounts of zinc sulfide. The precipitation of sulfides from the fluid sampled in the quartz fractures provides a valuable constraint on interpretation of the fluid inclusion compositions.

  9. Sedimentation processes and new age constraints on rifting stages in Lake Baikal: results of deep-water drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, M. I.; Karabanov, E. B.; Prokopenko, A. A.; Gelety, V. F.; Antipin, V. S.; Williams, D. F.; Gvozdkov, A. N.

    With this paper we present a first attempt to combine the direct results on lithology, composition and age dating in the boreholes BDP-93, BDP-96 and BDP-97 with geological and seismic data from the areas where those sections were drilled. The sedimentary environments represented by the BDP boreholes are markedly different and possess characteristic lithological features. The results of the deep drilling provide the essential means for testing numerous age models used in geological reconstructions of the Lake Baikal rifting dynamics. Neither the basin-wide unconformity interpreted from seismic data, nor the interpreted change from shallow-water to deep-water facies at the boundary of the seismic stratigraphic complexes were found in the BDP-96 boreholes on Academician Ridge. Also, lithology does not support the proposed reconstructions of intense lake level fluctuations and transgressions during the Pliocene at Academician Ridge. The continuous deep-water hemipelagic sedimentation at Academician Ridge has existed for the past 5Ma. The beginning of an intense rifting phase of the Neobaikalian sub-stage and related drastic changes in sedimentation processes were interpreted on seismic sections as the basin-wide unconformity B10. Different age estimates for this boundary ranged from Late Pliocene (3.5Ma) to Plio-Pleistocene boundary. As shown by BDP-96 borehole, B10 is associated with a lithological change from diatomaceous ooze to dense silty clay and not with an erosional contact. The new age for this boundary in BDP-96 is approximately 2.5Ma. This new age constraint suggests that the upper sedimentary strata of Northern Baikal (1.5-1.7km thick) have formed during the past 2.5Ma with average sedimentation rates of 60-70cm/ka. The BDP-93 boreholes at Buguldeika suggest that uplift in Primorsky Range took place prior to 1.07-1.31Ma, a date which exceeds the age of previous geological models.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Rock Mass Damage Evolution During Deep-Buried Tunnel Excavation by Drill and Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Hu, Yingguo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Presence of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) around a tunnel perimeter is of significant concern with regard to safety, stability, costs and overall performance of the tunnel. For deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast, it is generally accepted that a combination of effects of stress redistribution and blasting is mainly responsible for development of the EDZ. However, few open literatures can be found to use numerical methods to investigate the behavior of rock damage induced by the combined effects, and it is still far from full understanding how, when and to what degree the blasting affects the behavior of the EDZ during excavation. By implementing a statistical damage evolution law based on stress criterion into the commercial software LS-DYNA through its user-subroutines, this paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of the rock damage evolution of a deep-buried tunnel excavation, with a special emphasis on the combined effects of the stress redistribution of surrounding rock masses and the blasting-induced damage. Influence of repeated blast loadings on the damage extension for practical millisecond delay blasting is investigated in the present analysis. Accompanying explosive detonation and secession of rock fragments from their initial locations, in situ stress in the immediate vicinity of the excavation face is suddenly released. The transient characteristics of the in situ stress release and induced dynamic responses in the surrounding rock masses are also highlighted. From the simulation results, some instructive conclusions are drawn with respect to the rock damage mechanism and evolution during deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast.

  11. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manheim, F T; Sayles, F L

    1970-10-02

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur.

  12. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur.

  13. Deep drilling of silica glass by continuous-wave laser backside irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Saito, Namiko; Matsusaka, Souta; Chiba, Akira; Morita, Noboru

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for drilling of silica glass based on the continuous-wave laser backside irradiation (CW-LBI) phenomenon. The method allows drilling to be performed by single-shot irradiation using a CW laser. A spindle-shaped emission is generated in the bulk glass and is then guided to the glass surface, and at the instant that the beam reaches the surface, the glass material is ejected. The glass ejection process occurs for a time of ~250 μs. A hole that is similar in shape to that of the spindle-shaped emission is left. The hole length tended to increase linearly with increasing laser power. The laser power dependence of the spindle-shaped emission propagation velocity is also linear, and the velocity increases with increasing laser power. The hole diameters were smaller in the case where the laser focus position was set on the glass surface, and these diameters increased with increasing defocusing. The maximum hole depth reached more than 5 mm. Through-hole drilling was demonstrated using a 3-mm-thick glass substrate.

  14. 2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

    2004-12-01

    In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites

  15. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep... later, and specify the lease and block number. (c) Once you exercise the option under paragraph (a)...

  16. Fault-rock Magnetism from Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) Implies the Different Slip Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had caused great human and financial loss, and it had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. Fault-rocks magnetism is an effective method for the earthquake fault research, such as earthquake slip dynamics. In this study, the fault-rocks from the drilling-hole cores and close to the Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to do the rock-magnetism and discuss the earthquake slip dynamics. The measurement results of magnetic susceptibility (MS) show that the relative high or low MS values are corresponded to the fault-rocks from the Y-B F. and G-A F., respectively. Other rock-magnetism gives more evidence to the magnetic mineral assemblage of fault-rocks from the two earthquake fault zones. The relative high MS in the drilling-holes and trench along the Y-B F. was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals during the high temperature and rapid speed earthquake slip process, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The relative low MS in the trench along the G-A F. was possible caused by high content of Fe-sulfides, and the G-A F. had possibly experienced the low temperature and slow speed mechanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was possibly controlled by the deep structure of the two earthquake faults, such as the fault

  17. The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) Project: Investigating Exposed Middle Crust Through Geological Mapping, Drilling and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Lorenz, H.; Berthet, T.; Hedin, P.; Gee, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The COSC project aims to provide a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Scientific investigations include a range of topics, from understanding the ancient orogeny to the present-day hydrological cycle. Main objectives of the project, from a tectonic viewpoint, are to obtain (i) better understanding of the exhumation and emplacement of the hot middle allochthon, which may enable comparison with exhumation processes in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen, (ii) a broad understanding of orogeny and deformation in the middle to deep crust and upper mantle of mountain belts, and (iii) constraints on the abundant geophysical data that have been acquired in the area. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in central Scandinavia, near Åre (Sweden), where rocks from the mid to lower crust of the orogen are exposed. Rock units of interest include granulite facies migmatites (locally ultra-high pressure), gneisses and amphibolites in the middle allochthon (Seve nappe) that overlie greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks in the lower allochthons (Särv and Jämtlandian nappes). The base of the lower allochthon marks the contact with the autochthonous Precambrian basement. To investigate the high grade Seve nappe the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to 2496 m, with almost 100 % core recovery, during summer 2014. The top 1800 m consists mostly of sub-horizontal and shallowly dipping intermittent layers of gneiss and amphibolite, with lesser amounts of calc-silicates, metagabbro, marble and lenses of pegmatite. The first signs of increasing strain appear shortly below 1700 m in the form of narrow deformation bands and thin mylonites. Below c. 2100 m, mylonites dominate and garnets become common. A transition from gneiss into lower-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs between 2345 and 2360 m. The lower part of the drill core to TD is dominated by quartzites and metasandstones of unclear tectonostratigraphic position that are mylonitized

  18. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease... Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.49 May...

  19. Molecular monitoring of culturable bacteria from deep-sea sediment of the Nankai Trough, Leg 190 Ocean Drilling Program.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Webster, Gordon; Weightman, Andrew J; Fry, John C; Prieur, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Culturable bacteria were detected in deep-sea sediment samples collected from the Nankai Trough site 1173 (Ocean Drilling Program, ODP, Leg 190) at 4.15 m below the seafloor with 4791 m of overlying water. In this deep ocean near surface sediment, mainly fermentative heterotrophs, autotrophic acetogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched by using two different non-selective enrichment culture media. Culturable bacterial population shifts within the deep marine sediment enrichments were monitored by using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed a decrease in the number of 16S rRNA gene fragments from high to low carbon concentrations, and from low to high dilution of inoculum, suggesting that fast-growing bacteria were numerically dominant in enrichment culture samples. The dominant 16S rRNA fragments observed in DGGE gels were assigned to the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (gamma and delta subgroups) and Spirochaeta phyla. Continual sub-culture and purification resulted in two isolates which were phylogenetically identified as members of the genera Acetobacterium and Marinilactibacillus. Our results, which combine enrichment culturing with DGGE analysis, indicated that enrichment cultures derived from inoculum dilution and media with various concentrations of carbon could facilitate the detection and isolation of a greater number of environmentally relevant bacterial species than when using traditional enrichment techniques alone.

  20. Integrated core-log interpretation of Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project borehole 4 (WFSD-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Traoré, Alhouseiny

    2017-07-01

    Understanding slip behavior of active fault is a fundamental problem in earthquake investigations. Well logs and cores data provide direct information of physical properties of the fault zones at depth. The geological exploration of the Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Fault drilling project (WFSD) targeted the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Guanxian Anxian fault, respectively. Five boreholes (WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P WFSD-3 and WFSD-4) were drilled and logged with geophysical tools developed for the use in petroleum industry. WFSD-1, WFSD-2 and WFSD-3 in situ logging data have been reported and investigated by geoscientists. Here we present for the first time, the integrated core-log studies in the Northern segment of Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (WFSD-4) thereby characterizing the physical properties of the lithologies(original rocks), fault rocks and the presumed slip zone associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. We also present results from the comparison of WFSD-4 to those obtained from WFSD-1, WFSD-3 and other drilling hole in active faults. This study show that integrated core-log study would help in understanding the slip behavior of active fault.

  1. Physical properties of the Yaxcopoil-1 deep drill core, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-11-01

    The Chicxulub structure in Mexico, one of the largest impact structures on Earth, was formed 65 Ma by a hypervelocity impact that led to the large mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. The Chicxulub impact structure is well preserved, but is buried beneath a sequence of carbonate sediments and, thus, requires drilling to obtain subsurface information. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Program was carried out at Hacienda Yaxcopoil in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program in 2001-2002. The structure was cored from 404 m down to 1511 m, through three intervals: 794 m of postimpact Tertiary sediments, a 100 m thick impactite sequence, and 616 m of preimpact Cretaceous rocks thought to represent a suite of megablocks. Physical property investigations show that the various lithologies, including the impactite units and the K-Pg boundary layer, can be characterized by their physical properties, which depend on either changes in fabric or on mineralogical variations. The magnetic properties show mostly dia- or paramagnetic behavior, with the exception of the impactite units that indicate the presence of ferromagnetic, probably hydrothermally deposited magnetite and pyrrhotite. The magnetic fraction contributes mainly to enhanced magnetization in the impactite lithologies and, in this way, to the observed magnetic anomalies. The shape and orientation of the magnetic grains are varied and reflect inhomogeneous fabric development and the influence of impact-related redeposition and hydrothermal activity. The Chicxulub impact occurred at the time of the reverse polarity geomagnetic chron 29R, and this finding is consistent with the age of the K-Pg boundary.

  2. Deep water drilling and production Articulated Column - Water depth 350m

    SciTech Connect

    Baduel, F.; Figenschou, A.

    1985-01-01

    An Articulated Tower for drilling and production in the Norwegian Sea for 350m water depth is presented. Main features are: Christmas trees at the deck-level, 17,000 tonnes deck payload, limited motions, steel structure including main float and lattice, low stressed mechanical articulation with anti-torque device and controlled bending risers. The extensive study has considered in detail the behaviour in extreme conditions, the fatigue of main structural parts and risers, operating procedures, fabrication and installation. General results are given concerning behaviour, structural design, articulation, bending riser, fabrication and installation. A fabrication and installation schedule is also given.

  3. The "Deep Blue" Aerosol Project at NASA GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, Andrew; Hsu, N. C.; Lee, J.; Bettenhausen, C.; Carletta, N.; Chen, S.; Esmaili, R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols such as mineral dust, wildfire smoke, sea spray, and volcanic ash are of interest for a variety of reasons including public health, climate change, hazard avoidance, and more. Deep Blue is a project which uses satellite observations of the Earth from sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS, and VIIRS to monitor the global aerosol burden. This talk will cover some basics about aerosols and the principles of aerosol remote sensing, as well as discussing specific results and future directions for the Deep Blue project.

  4. Project DEEP STEAM quarterly report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Fox, R.L.; Clay, R.G.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Lyle, W.D.; Mulac, A.J.

    1981-03-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. A demonstration running test of a multi-string downhole generator was conducted this quarter. Tests and evaluation of various configurations of downhole generator systems were performed in preparation for the next field test. The site for the Phase II field test operation was identified as the Wilmington Field in the Los Angeles Basin; the test will be conducted in cooperation with the City of Long Beach.

  5. Hydro-mechanical modelling of induced seismicity during the deep geothermal project in St. Gallen, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbinden, Dominik; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Kraft, Toni; Diehl, Tobias; Wiemer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The St. Gallen deep geothermal project in 2013 was the second geothermal project in Switzerland with the objective of power production after the Enhanced Geothermal System in Basel in 2006. In St. Gallen, the seismic risk was expected to be smaller than in Basel, since the hydrothermal resource was an aquifer at a depth of about 4 km, not expected to require permeability enhancement and associated hydroshearing of the rock. However, after an injectivity test and two acid stimulations, unexpected gas release from an unidentified source forced the operators to inject drilling mud into the well to fight the gas kick. Subsequently, several seismic events were induced, the largest one having a local magnitude of 3.5, which was distinctly felt by the nearby living population. Even though the induced seismicity could not be handled properly, the community still strongly supported the geothermal project. The project was however halted because the target formation was not as permeable as required to deliver sufficient power. Still, controlling induced seismicity during deep geothermal projects is a key factor to successfully operate future geothermal projects. Hence, it is crucial to understand the physical relations of fluid injection, pressure and stress response at reservoir depth as well as associated induced seismicity. To date, these processes are yet not fully understood. In this study, we aim at developing a hydro-mechanical model reproducing the main features of the induced seismic sequence at the St. Gallen geothermal site. Here, we present the conceptual model and preliminary results accounting for hydraulic and mechanical parameters from the geothermal well, geological information from a seismic survey conducted in the St. Gallen region, and actual fluid injection rates from the injectivity tests. In a future step, we are going to use this model to simulate the physical interaction of injected fluid, gas release, hydraulic response of the rock, and induced

  6. The Toa Baja Drilling Project and current studies in Puerto Rican geology: Introduction and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    This volume concerns information learned by drilling the Toa Baja well on the north coast of Puerto Rico, and current studies of Puerto Rican geology and tectonics. The Toa Baja Drillsite is located in the North Coast basin of Puerto Rico about 10 km west of San Juan. The hole was spudded on August 23, 1989, and plugged and abandoned on November 7, 1989 at a total depth of 2,704m. Two lithologies were encountered during drilling: an upper series consisting of Oligocene-Miocene shallow-water limestone and sandstone facies, and a lower series consisting of Eocene deep-water volcaniclastic strata, including some lava flows or shallow intrusions, pelagic marls, and altered igneous rocks or coarse-grained sandstones. Principal findings made during drilling include: (1) the important unconformity separating the upper and lower series at about 579 m; (2) 8 faults defined clearly by dipmeter log; (3) changes in rock type probably associated with reflection events in seismic reflection profiles crossing the drillsite; (4) confirmation of overall low geothermal gradients and heat flow, but presence of a thermal anomaly near 2683 m; (5) documentation of high paleogeothermal gradients using petrographic, isotopic, X-Ray diffraction and electron microprobe studies; (6) presence of fractures indicating a current extensional tectonic setting. Current studies in the Puerto Rico region include: (1) paleomagnetic evidence for late Miocene counterclockwise rotation; (2) geochemical evolution of Cretaceous and Eocene igneous rocks; (3) evidence of transtension in the northeast Caribbean plate boundary zone; (4) results of studies of ancient fault zones on Puerto Rico; and (5) stratigraphic studies of the Tertiary of Puerto Rico.

  7. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  8. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Campisano, Christopher; Asrat, Asfawossen; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Deino, Alan; Feibel, Craig; Hill, Andrew; Kingston, John; Lamb, Henry; Lowenstein, Tim; Olago, Daniel; Bernhart Owen, R.; Renaut, Robin; Schabitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

  9. Freshening of the Dead Sea during the Last Glacial Revealed By Porewater Composition in ICDP Dead Sea Deep-Drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the brine lakes that filled the Dead Sea basin has been extensively studied on the sedimentary exposures and drill cores on the Sea marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea. These geological sections documented the history of the epilimnion (upper brine) of the hypersaline lake during its high stands periods. The cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m provided the first opportunity to study the history of the deepest part of the hypolimnion (deep brine) by measuring the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) sodium (Na+) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the pore brines revealed a substantial decrease in salinity of the hypolimnion during the high stand of the last glacial Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea), particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). Diffusion-deposition model indicated that Cl- concentration of the deep hypolimnetic brine decreased gradually to less than 2/3 of its present value. The δ18O at the same time increased to maximum of ~7‰ (3‰ higher than today). Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). The increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan was a result of evaporative fractionation of the less saline epilimnetic brine. The post-glacial δ18O decrease while salinity increased is attributed to the "reversed" δ18O fractionation during evaporation of very high salinity brine. Increase in the Na/Cl ratio due to dissolution of halite without reaching halite saturation was also observed during the freshening period.

  10. Chew Bahir: A Key Site within the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, towards a Half Million-Year Climate Record from Southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaebitz, F.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Trauth, M. H.; Foerster, V. E.; Junginger, A.; Raub, T. D.; Gromig, R.; Viehberg, F. A.; Roberts, H. M.; Cohen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Chew Bahir, a saline mudflat today, is one of the five sites in East Africa, drilled within the framework of HSPDP (Hominin Site and Paleolakes Drilling Project). It is also one of the key sites of the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC-806) "Our way to Europe" aiming at the reconstruction of environmental conditions in the source region of modern man (H. sapiens). It is suggested that a changing environment could have triggered the mobility and dispersal of modern man. The oldest known fossils of anatomical modern humans (~195 ka BP) were found in the Omo basin, not more than 90km westwards of our drill site. The deposits in the tectonic basin of Chew Bahir in southern Ethiopia were cored in Nov. 2014 in two boreholes down to 280 m and 260 m below surface respectively. The overlapping long cores (drilled ~20 m apart from each other), were opened, scanned, described and sampled in low resolution in April 2015. The recovered sediments mostly contain green-greyish to light coloured and brown to reddish clays and silty clays, interbedded with some laminated mica-rich sand layers and occurrences of carbonate concretions and nodules, which decrease upcore. Here we will present a first set of results on the composite core, comprising mainly lithology and magnetic susceptibility (MS). Based on known sedimentation rates from pre-studies performed on short cores across the basin, we anticipate the deep drilled cores to cover at least 500 ka BP. Moreover, new insights into the role of post-depositional alteration, especially of clay minerals and zeolites, will be presented as a contribution to an improved understanding of formation processes. The results support the identification of wet and dry climate periods in the past. Those pronounced variations of moisture availability, are thought to have influenced the evolution and mobility of Homo sapiens sapiens.

  11. Drilling into seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes in deep South African gold mines (DSeis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ito, Takatoshi; van Aswegen, Gerrie; Cichowicz, Artur; Onstott, Tullis; Kieft, Tom; Boettcher, Margaret; Wiemer, Stefan; Ziegler, Martin; Janssen, Christoph; Shapiro, Serge; Gupta, Harsh; Dight, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Several times a year, mining-induced earthquakes with magnitudes equal to or larger than 2 take place only a few tens of meters away from active workings in South African gold mines at depths of up to 3.4 km. The largest event recorded in mining regions, a M5.5 earthquake, took place near Orkney, South Africa on 5 August 2014, with the upper edge of the activated fault being only some hundred meters below the nearest mine workings (3.0 km depth). This is one of the rare events for which detailed seismological data are available, both from surface and underground seismometers and strainmeters, allowing for a detailed seismological analysis and comparison with in-situ observed data. Therefore, this earthquake calls for drilling to investigate the seismogenic zones before aftershocks diminish. Such a project will have a significantly better spatial coverage (including nuclei of ruptures, strong motion sources, asperities, and rupture edges) than drilling in seismogenic zones of natural large earthquakes and will be possible with a lower risk and at much smaller costs. In seismogenic zones in a critical state of stress, it is difficult to delineate reliably the local spatial variation in both directions and magnitudes of principal stresses (3D full stress tensor) reliably. However, we have overcome this problem. We are able to numerically model stress better than before, enabling us to orient boreholes so that the chance of stress-induced damage during stress measurement is minimized, and enabling us to measure the full 3D stress tensor successively in a hole within reasonable time even when stresses are as large as those expected in seismogenic zones. Better recovery of cores with less stress-induced damage during drilling is also feasible. These will allow us to address key scientific questions in earthquake science and associated deep biosphere activities which have remained elusive. We held a 4-day workshop sponsored by ICDP and Ritsumeikan University in October

  12. Thermal regime of the State 2-14 well, Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Priest, S.S.; Duda, L.E.; Carson, C.C.; Hendricks, J.D.; Robison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature logs were made repeatedly during breaks in drilling and both during and after flow tests in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well (State 2-14). The purpose of these logs was to assist in identifying zones of fluid loss or gain and to characterize reservoir temperatures. At the conclusion of the active phase of the project, a series of logs was begun in an attempt to establish the equilibrium temperature profile. Thermal gradients decrease from about 250 mK m-1 in the upper few hundred meters to just below 200 mK m-1 near the base of the conductive cap. Using one interpretation, thermal conductivities increase with depth (mainly because of decreasing porosity), resulting in component heat flows that agree reasonably well with the mean of about 450 mW m-2. This value agrees well with heat flow data from the shallow wells within the Salton Sea geothermal field. A second interpretation, in which measured temperature coefficients of quartz- and carbonate-rich rocks are used to correct thermal conductivity, results in lower mean conductivities that are roughly constant with depth and, consequently, systematically decreasing heat flux averaging about 350 mW m-2 below 300 m. This interpretation is consistent with the inference (from fluid inclusion studies) that the rocks in this part of the field were once several tens of degrees Celsius hotter than they are now. The age of this possible disturbance is estimated at a few thousand years. -from Authors

  13. Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1)?; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site?; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve?; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat? {hor_ellipsis}the, paleothermal regime?; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks?; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system? Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.

  14. Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1) ; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site ; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve ; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat [hor ellipsis]the, paleothermal regime ; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks ; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.

  15. Structural deformation at the Flynn Creek impact crater, Tennessee - A preliminary report on deep drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The geologic and core drilling studies described in the present paper show that the Flynn Creek crater has such distinctive morphological features as a broad flat hummocky floor; large central peak; locally terraced crater walls; uplifted, as well as flat-lying rim segments; and a surrounding ejecta blanket. The major structural features include a shallow depth of total brecciation and excavation as compared with apparent crater diameter; a thin breccia lens underlain by a thin zone of disrupted strata; concentric ring fault zones in inner rim, beneath crater wall, and outer crater floor regions; a large central uplift underlain by a narrow dipping zone of deeply disrupted strata; faulted, folded, brecciated, and fractured rim strata; and uplifted rim strata, which dip away from the crater, and flat-lying rim strata, which terminate as inward dipping rocks.

  16. Investigations of a deep drill hole in the Ouachita tend, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Borrego, P.M.; Moreno, F.; Keller, G.R.; Marsaglia, K.M.; Pingitore, N.E. )

    1994-03-01

    The Exxon 1 Gatlin well was recently drilled to a depth of over 25,000 ft in Terrell County, Texas, just north of the international boundary with Mexico. This well is deepest penetration of the interior zone of the Ouachita system to data. The well is near the apex of the interior zone gravity high, which elsewhere has been shown to approximately mark the Paleozoic continental margin. Gravity models constructed in this region, including one that was tied to this well, confirm that this well is proximal to the Paleozoic margin. The well was spudded in Lower Cretaceous rocks, and drilled through a 23,000-ft section of low-grade metamorphic rocks. Cuttings of this metamorphic section are composed predominantly of phyllite, fine-grained schist, metaquartzite, and impure marble. Based on their mineralogy and texture, the likely precursor for these rocks was a sedimentary sequence of marls and mudstones. However, no relict sedimentary structures or fauna was observed. Phyllite and schist fragments are graphitic and locally crenulated, and large fragments exhibit multiple phases of deformation. Minor coarse carbonate and quartz may represent vein fills. Downhole textural trends include a gradual change from phyllite to schist at approximately 7500 ft. and a gradual increase in schist fragments to 19,600 ft. X-ray diffraction of bulk samples indicates a downhole decrease in total carbonate content. This metamorphic sequence appears similar to Ouachita interior zone rocks encountered in wells in central Texas and in outcrops in Oklahoma and Arkansas. However, the large thickness encountered in the well and the even larger thickness suggested by the gravity modeling is indicative of proximity to the continental margin and is likely the result of thrust faulting.

  17. Vegetation history in southern Patagonia: first palynological results of the ICDP lake drilling project at Laguna Potrok Aike, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäbitz, Frank; Michael, Wille

    2010-05-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike located in southern Argentina is one of the very few locations that are suited to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and climatic history of southern Patagonia. In the framework of the multinational ICDP deep drilling project PASADO several long sediment cores to a composite depth of more than 100 m were obtained. Here we present first results of pollen analyses from sediment material of the core catcher. Absolute time control is not yet available. Pollen spectra with a spatial resolution of three meters show that Laguna Potrok Aike was always surrounded by Patagonian Steppe vegetation. However, the species composition underwent some marked proportional changes through time. The uppermost pollen spectra show a high contribution of Andean forest and charcoal particles as it can be expected for Holocene times and the ending last glacial. The middle part shows no forest and relatively high amounts of pollen from steppe plants indicating cold and dry full glacial conditions. The lowermost samples are characterized by a significantly different species composition as steppe plants like Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Ericaceae and Ephedra became more frequent. In combination with higher charcoal amounts and an algal species composition comparable to Holocene times we suggest that conditions during the formation of sediments at the base of the record were more humid and/or warmer causing a higher fuel availability for charcoal production compared to full glacial times.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  19. Research projects needed for expediting development of domestic oil and gas resources through arctic, offshore, and drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Canja, S.; Williams, C.R.

    1982-04-01

    This document contains the research projects which were identified at an industry-government workshop on Arctic, Offshore, and Drilling Technology (AODT) held at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, January 5-7, 1981. The purpose of the workshop was to identify those problem areas where government research could provide technology advancement that would assist industry in accelerating the discovery and development of US oil and gas resouces. The workshop results are to be used to guide an effective research program. The workshop identified and prioritized the tasks that need to be implemented. All of the projects listed in the Arctic and Offshore sections were selected as appropriate for a Department of Energy (DOE) research role. The drilling projects identified as appropriate only for industry research have been separated in the Drilling section of this report.

  20. Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

    2008-12-31

    This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

  1. Deep drilling at the Siljan Ring impact structure: oxygen-isotope geochemistry of granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.; Valley, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Siljan Ring is a 362-Ma-old impact structure formed in 1700-Ma-old I-type granites. A 6.8-km-deep borehole provides a vertical profile through granites and isolated horizontal diabase sills. Fluid-inclusion thermometry, and oxygen-isotope compositions of vein quartz, granite, diabase, impact melt, and pseudotachylite, reveal a complex history of fluid activity in the Siljan Ring, much of which can be related to the meteorite impact. In granites from the deep borehole, ??18O values of matrix quartz increase with depth from near 8.0 at the surface to 9.5??? at 5760 m depth. In contrast, feldspar ??18O values decrease with depth from near 10 at the surface to 7.1??? at 5760 m, forming a pattern opposite to the one defined by quartz isotopic compositions. Values of ??18O for surface granites outside the impact structure are distinct from those in near-surface samples from the deep borehole. In the deep borehole, feldspar coloration varies from brick-red at the surface to white at 5760 m, and the abundances of crack-healing calcite and other secondary minerals decrease over the same interval. Superimposed on the overall decrease in alteration intensity with depth are localized fracture zones at 4662, 5415, and 6044 m depth that contain altered granites, and which provided pathways for deep penetration of surface water. The antithetic variation of quartz and feldspar ??18O values, which can be correlated with mineralogical evidence of alteration, provides evidence for interaction between rocks and impact-heated fluids (100-300?? C) in the upper 2 km of the pluton. Penetration of water to depths below 2 km was restricted by a general decrease in impact-fracturing with depth, and by a 60-m-thick diabase sill at 1500 m depth that may have been an aquitard. At depths below 4 km in the pluton, where water/rock ratios were low, oxygen isotopic compositions preserve evidence for limited high-temperature (>500?? C) exchange between alkali feldspar and fluids. The high

  2. Test holes drilled in support of ground-water investigations, Project Gnome, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    Project Gnome is a proposed underground nuclear shot to be detonated within a massive salt bed in Eddy County, N. Mex. Potable and neat potable ground water is present in rocks above the salt and is being studied in relation to this nuclear event. This report presents details of two test holes which were drilled to determine ground-water conditions in the near vicinity of the shot point. A well-defined aquifer is present at the site of USGS test hole 1, about 1,000 feet south of the access shaft to the underground shot point. Water with 75 feet of artesian pressure head is contained in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. The dolomite aquifer is 32 feet thick and its top lies at a depth of 517 feet below land surface. The aquifer yielded 100 gpm (gallons per minute) with a drawdown of 40 feet during a pumping period of 24 hours. Water was not found in rocks above or below the Culebra dolomite. At the site of USGS test hole 2, about 2 miles southwest of the access shaft no distinctive aquifer exists. About one-half gpm was yielded to the well from the rocks between the Culebra dolomite and the top of the salt. Water could not be detected in the Culebra dolomite or overlying rocks. The report contains drawdown and recovery curves of yield tests, drilling-time charts, and electric logs. The data are given in tables; they include summaries of hole construction, sample description logs, water measurements, drilling-time logs, and water analyses.

  3. Groundmass crystallization in dacite dykes taken in Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Satoshi; Toramaru, Atsushi; Nakada, Setsuya

    2008-07-01

    Groundmass textural and compositional analyses of the drilled dacite dykes of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP-4) identify the feeder dyke of the 1990-1995 eruption and elucidate the crystallization process of dykes at depth. In the drilling depth range of 1582-1996 m ("conduit zone"), four dacite dykes were recognized. The groundmasses of all but one of these dykes have textures ranging from cryptocrystalline to microcrystalline aggregate of crystals < 10 µm across forming an equigranular mosaic of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, and pyrite. The samples include a small number of coarser-grained plagioclase microlites (20 µm to 0.3 mm long). The compositions of groundmass consisting only of grains < 10 µm plotted at the lower pressure (< 50 MPa) ternary minimum in the Qz'-Ab'-Or' system suggests that the crystallization of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, and quartz took place nearly simultaneously. The compositions of coarser plagioclase microlites and groundmass, the plagioclase microlite textures, and the phenocryst assemblages show significant differences from historical lavas exposed in the summit area. This implies the possibility that most of the dacite dykes are not feeder dykes for the lavas at the summit and remained beneath the surface, perhaps because of high viscosity associated with high SiO 2. One sample C14-1-1 collected 1977 m, has a texture, composition, and phenocryst assemblage nearly identical to that of the dome lava of the 1990-1995 eruption, differing only in the presence of hydrothermal alternation. At this time we cannot definitely conclude that C14-1-1 was the feeder dyke for the 1990-1995 eruption until we can elucidate the time scale and the conditions governing hydrothermal alternation.

  4. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  5. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  6. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Crowe, Sean; Fowle, David; Haffner, Douglas; King, John; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2013 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance variations in Lake Towuti during the past 60 kyr BP. In detail our datasets show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems in central Indonesia persisted during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene, and were interrupted by severe

  7. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

  8. High-resolution seismic-reflection images across the ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep drilling site, Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, D.S.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gohn, G.S.; Horton, J.W.; Edwards, L.E.; Rymer, M.J.; Gandhok, G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired two 1.4-km-long, high-resolution (??5 m vertical resolution) seismic-reflection lines in 2006 that cross near the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP)-USGS Eyreville deep drilling site located above the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia, USA. Five-meter spacing of seismic sources and geophones produced high-resolution images of the subsurface adjacent to the 1766-m-depth Eyreville core holes. Analysis of these lines, in the context of the core hole stratigraphy, shows that moderateamplitude, discontinuous, dipping reflections below ??527 m correlate with a variety of Chesapeake Bay impact structure sediment and rock breccias recovered in the cores. High-amplitude, continuous, subhorizontal reflections above ??527 m depth correlate with the uppermost part of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure crater-fi ll sediments and postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. Refl ections with ??20-30 m of relief in the uppermost part of the crater-fi ll and lowermost part of the postimpact section suggest differential compaction of the crater-fi ll materials during early postimpact time. The top of the crater-fi ll section also shows ??20 m of relief that appears to represent an original synimpact surface. Truncation surfaces, locally dipping reflections, and depth variations in reflection amplitudes generally correlate with the lithostratigraphic and sequence-stratigraphic units and contacts in the core. Seismic images show apparent postimpact paleochannels that include the fi rst possible Miocene paleochannels in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Broad downwarping in the postimpact section unrelated to structures in the crater fi ll indicates postimpact sediment compaction. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  9. High-resolution seismic-reflection images across the ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep drilling site, Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright; Edwards, Lucy E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Gandhok, Gini

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired two 1.4-km-long, high-resolution (~5 m vertical resolution) seismic-reflection lines in 2006 that cross near the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-USGS Eyreville deep drilling site located above the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia, USA. Five-meter spacing of seismic sources and geophones produced high-resolution images of the subsurface adjacent to the 1766-m-depth Eyreville core holes. Analysis of these lines, in the context of the core hole stratigraphy, shows that moderate-amplitude, discontinuous, dipping reflections below ~527 m correlate with a variety of Chesapeake Bay impact structure sediment and rock breccias recovered in the cores. High-amplitude, continuous, subhorizontal reflections above ~527 m depth correlate with the uppermost part of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure crater-fill sediments and postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. Reflections with ~20-30 m of relief in the uppermost part of the crater-fill and lowermost part of the postimpact section suggest differential compaction of the crater-fill materials during early postimpact time. The top of the crater-fill section also shows ~20 m of relief that appears to represent an original synimpact surface. Truncation surfaces, locally dipping reflections, and depth variations in reflection amplitudes generally correlate with the lithostrati-graphic and sequence-stratigraphic units and contacts in the core. Seismic images show apparent postimpact paleochannels that include the first possible Miocene paleochannels in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Broad downwarping in the postim-pact section unrelated to structures in the crater fill indicates postimpact sediment compaction.

  10. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  11. Summary geologic report on the Missoula/Bitterroot Drilling Project, Missoula/Bitterroot Basins, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Abramiuk, I.N.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of the drilling project was to obtain information to assess the favorability of the Tertiary sedimentary units in the Missoula and Bitterroot Valleys for uranium potential. The group of Montana Tertiary basins, including the Missoula and Bitterroot Basins, has been assigned a speculative uranium potential of 46,557 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at $100/lb by the 1980 National Uranium Resource Evaluation report. The seven drill holes, two in the Missoula Valley and five in the Bitterroot Valley, verified observations made during surface studies and provided additional information about the subsurface that was previously unknown. No uranium was found, although of the two localities the Bitterroot Valley is the more favorable. Three stratigraphic units were tentatively identified on the basis of lithology: pre-Renova clastic units, Renova Formation equivalents, and Sixmile Creek Formation equivalents. Of the three, the Renova Formation equivalents in the Bitterroot Valley appear to be the most favorable for possible uranium occurrences and the pre-Renova clastic units the least favorable.

  12. Fifteen years of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Yang, Jingsui; Wang, Chengshan; An, Zhisheng; Li, Haibing; Wang, Qin; Su, Dechen

    2017-05-01

    Continental scientific drilling can be regarded as a telescope into the Earth's interior because it provides process insight and uncompromised samples of rocks, fluids, and even sampled from the deep biosphere from the Earth's surface to great depths. As one of the three founding members of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), ICDP China has made great achievements in many scientific drilling-related research fields. Based on the ICDP participation it attracted global attention of scientists and set up not only the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Program in 2001 but also a growing number of ambitious drilling projects in the country. The 5158 m deep borehole of the CCSD project at Donghai County in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrain demonstrates that large amounts of crustal rocks of the South China Block have been subducted to at least 120 km, followed by rapid uplift. After successful completion of drilling at Donghai, several continental scientific drilling projects were conducted with funding of the Chinese government and partially with support of ICDP, resulting in a total drilling depth of more than 35 000 m. These projects encompass the Continental Environmental Scientific Drilling Program of China, the Scientific Drilling Project of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone, the Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Cretaceous Songliao Basin, and the Program of Selected Continental Scientific Drilling and Experiments. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the ICDP and the 15th anniversary of the CCSD Program, this paper reviews the history and major progress of the CCSD Program.

  13. Project evaluates POSC specifications for infill drilling. [Petrochemical Open Software Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Zahniser, D.L. ); Merritt, R.W. ); Chan, C.K. )

    1994-05-16

    A project is under way to build data-loading tools and create an integrated oil and gas production data base using specifications developed during the last 3 years by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corp. (POSC). The Industry Pilot Project (IPP) Phase 1 is a collaborative effort between seven oil companies. The participating oil companies have provided a large set of data from a producing North American oil and gas field and money, hardware, and personnel. Many companies have already streamlined their infill drilling processes and receive significant incremental benefits. But current information technology can often be a stumbling block. Cross-disciplinary use of information is the key goal of these streamlining efforts, but much time is lost in finding, reformatting, accessing, and determining the quality of data. This project sets out to prove how POSC specifications can help reduce the cost and time for developing a field, improved the quality of the decision-making process, minimize the number of communication barriers and, most importantly, change technology from a hurdle to a seamless step. The project demonstrates that POSC specifications are an enabling technology that can dramatically improve the way oil companies and suppliers operate.

  14. Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity

  15. Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

  16. 76 FR 78938 - Carpinteria Offshore Field Redevelopment Project-Developmental Drilling Into the Carpinteria...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Drilling Into the Carpinteria Offshore Field Oil and Gas Reserves, California State Waters, From Federal... includes Federal and state leases. As many as 25 new production or injection wells would be drilled into existing state oil and gas leases from Platform Hogan. The exact number of wells to be drilled is...

  17. Thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities of core samples obtained from the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.

  18. Project Deep Steam. Quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Clay, R.G.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Johnson, D.R.; Lyle, W.D.; Mulac, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The initial field testing of a downhole steam generator design which was operated on the surface has been completed this quarter. This field test was begun in January 1980 and completed in May. Design and fabrication of downhole generator systems for the next phase of testing are under development. Full scale simulation tests of thermally efficient delivery strings at the Tacoma, Washington, test facility have continued. A comparison of two designs for calcium silicate insulated strings has demonstrated significant reduction in casing temperature can be achieved by changes in joint design.

  19. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  20. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  1. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  2. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, M.C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  3. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  4. Drilling update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At its March 31 meeting the governing board of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), designated Texas A&M University to direct scientific operations for the new phase of scientific ocean drilling. William Merrell, associate dean of geosciences at Texas A&M, is leading an interim planning team in implementing the recommendations of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Crustal Studies (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). The ad hoc group, chaired by Charles Drake, recommended that scientific ocean drilling be pursued not with the Glomar Challenger or the Glomar Explorer, but with one of the roughly half-dozen commercial drilling ships that have become available with the slackening of the commercial drilling market.Foremost of the tasks facing the interim planning team is to write a request for proposals (RFP) for a drill ship and to define performance criteria for a commercial drilling platform. The RFP is expected to be issued by Texas A&M in 6-8 weeks, according to Philip Rabinowitz, acting project director and a professor in the university's oceanography department. Once those tasks are completed and a successful bidder is found, a formal proposal will be made to NSF through JOI. The proposal will be subject to the usual NSF peer review process. If the proposal is approved, Rabinowitz said that Texas A&M would expect actual drilling to begin in October 1984. In addition to Merrell and Rabinowitz, the interim planning team also includes acting chief scientist Stefan Gartner.

  5. Initial seismic observations from a deep borehole drilled into the Canadian Shield in northeast Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of a deep borehole in northeastern Alberta provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the in situ metamorphic craton rocks. This borehole reaches a depth of 2.4 km, with 1.8 km in the crystalline rocks, and is the only known borehole allowing access into the deeper rocks of the metamorphic Canadian Shield. In 2011, a zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired to assist in the interpretation of seismic reflection data and geophysical logs. Three sets of upgoing tube waves interpreted from the raw profile correspond to the small-scale fluctuations in the borehole diameters and fracture zone in the crystalline rocks. A comparison between sonic log velocities and VSP velocities reveals a zone with increased velocity that could be due to the change in rock composition and texture in the basement rocks. The final processed profile is used to generate corridor stacks for differentiating between primary reflections and multiples in the seismic reflection profile. Analysis of the zero-offset VSP verifies existing log interpretation on the presence of fractures and the possible lithological changes in the metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield.

  6. Rangitoto Volcano Drilling Project: Life of a Small 'Monogenetic' Basaltic Shield in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, P. A. R.; Linnell, T.; Lindsay, J. M.; Smith, I. E.; Augustinus, P. M.; Cronin, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rangitoto is a small basaltic shield volcano representing the most recent and most voluminous episode of volcanism in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. Auckland City is built on the field, and hence, Rangitoto's importance in hazard-risk modelling. The symmetrical edifice, ~6 km wide and 260 m high, has volume of 1.78 km3. It comprises summit scoria cones and a lava field. However, the lack of deep erosion dissection has prevented the development of an eruptive stratigraphy. Previous studies suggested construction in a relatively short interval at 550-500 yrs BP. However, microscopic tephra have been interpreted as evidence of intermittent activity from 1498 +/- 140 to 504 +/- 6 yrs BP, a longevity of 1000 years. A 150-m-deep hole was drilled through the edifice in February 2014 to obtain a continuous core record. The result is an unparalleled stratigraphy of the evolution of a small shield volcano. The upper 128 m of core comprises at least 27 lava flows with thicknesses in the range 0.3-15 m, representing the main shield-building phase. Underlying marine sediments are interbedded with 8 m of pyroclastic lapilli, and a thin lava flow, representing the explosive phreatomagmatic birth of the volcano. Preliminary geochemical analyses reveal suite of relatively uniform transitional basalts (MgO = 8.1 to 9.7 wt %). However, 4 compositional groups are distinguished that were erupted in sequential order. High-MgO magmas were erupted first, followed by a two more heterogeneous groups displaying differentiation trends with time. Finally, distinct low-MgO basalts were erupted. Each magma type appears to represent a new magma batch. The core places the magma types in a time series, which can be correlated to the surface lava field. Hence, allowing a geometrical reconstruction of the shield growth. Additional petrologic investigations are providing insight to magmatic ascent processes, while radiocarbon and paleomagnetic secular variation studies will reveal the

  7. Real-time drilling mud gas monitoring for qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon gas composition during deep sea drilling in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian B; Wiersberg, Thomas; Heuer, Verena B; Wendt, Jenny; Erzinger, Jörg; Kopf, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 338 was the second scientific expedition with D/V Chikyu during which riser drilling was conducted as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. Riser drilling enabled sampling and real-time monitoring of drilling mud gas with an onboard scientific drilling mud gas monitoring system ("SciGas"). A second, independent system was provided by Geoservices, a commercial mud logging service. Both systems allowed the determination of (non-) hydrocarbon gas, while the SciGas system also monitored the methane carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)CCH4). The hydrocarbon gas composition was predominated by methane (> 1%), while ethane and propane were up to two orders of magnitude lower. δ(13)CCH4 values suggested an onset of thermogenic gas not earlier than 1600 meter below seafloor. This study aims on evaluating the onboard data and subsequent geological interpretations by conducting shorebased analyses of drilling mud gas samples. During shipboard monitoring of drilling mud gas the SciGas and Geoservices systems recorded up to 8.64% and 16.4% methane, respectively. Ethane and propane concentrations reached up to 0.03 and 0.013%, respectively, in the SciGas system, but 0.09% and 0.23% in the Geoservices data. Shorebased analyses of discrete samples by gas chromatography showed a gas composition with ~0.01 to 1.04% methane, 2 - 18 ppmv ethane, and 2 - 4 ppmv propane. Quadruple mass spectrometry yielded similar results for methane (0.04 to 4.98%). With δD values between -171‰ and -164‰, the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of methane showed little downhole variability. Although the two independent mud gas monitoring systems and shorebased analysis of discrete gas sample yielded different absolute concentrations they all agree well with respect to downhole variations of hydrocarbon gases. The data point to predominantly biogenic methane sources but suggest some contribution from thermogenic sources at depth, probably due

  8. Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: A 500,000-year climate record from Chew Bahir, a key site in southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Verena E.; Asrat, Asfawossen; Chapot, Melissa S.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Dean, Jonathan R.; Deino, Alan; Günter, Christina; Junginger, Annett; Lamb, Henry F.; Leng, Melanie J.; Roberts, Helen M.; Schaebitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin H.

    2017-04-01

    What is the environmental context of human evolution and dispersal? In order to evaluate the impact that different timescales and magnitude of climatic shifts have had on the living conditions of anatomically modern humans, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has cored five predominantly-lacustrine sequences to investigate climate change in East Africa (Cohen et al., 2016). The five high-priority areas in Ethiopia and Kenya are located in close proximity to key paleoanthropological sites covering various steps in evolution. One of the five cores is from Chew Bahir. Chew Bahir is a deep tectonically-bound basin in the southern Ethiopian rift, close to the Lower Omo valley, site of the earliest known fossil of anatomically modern humans. As part of the deep drilling initiative between ICDP-HSPDP and the Collaborative Research Center (CRC806), the Chew Bahir sedimentary deposits were cored in late 2014, yielding in two parallel cores reaching 280 m depth and which cover the last 550 ka of environmental history. We present the initial results of on-going lithologic and stratigraphic investigation of the composite core, the results of high resolution MSCL and XRF scanning data, as well as the first results of detailed multi-proxy analysis of the Chew Bahir cores. These analyses are based on more than 14,000 discrete subsamples. An initial chronology, based on Ar/Ar and OSL dating, allows the first reconstructions of dry-wet cycles during the last 550 ka. Both geochemical and sedimentological results show that the Chew Bahir deposits are sensitive recorders of changes in moisture, sediment influx, provenance, transport and diagenetic processes. The core records will allow tests of the various hypotheses regarding the impact of climate variability -from climate flickers to orbital driven transitions- on the evolution and dispersal of anatomically modern humans. References: Cohen, A. et al., 2016. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project

  9. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  10. Heat flow along the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project drilling transect: Implications for hydrothermal and seismic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, Bridget; Harris, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Heat flow analysis of the Costa Rica convergent margin is carried out for seven sites drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 334 and 344 as part of the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP). These expeditions are designed to better understand erosional subduction zones. Heat flow measurements were made to improve estimates of the thermal structure of this erosive margin and are located on the incoming plate, toe, lower, middle, and upper slopes of the margin. Heat flow values corrected for the effects of seafloor bathymetry and sedimentation are on average 15% higher than uncorrected values and range from approximately 158-200 mW/m2 on the incoming plate to values of approximately 50 mW/m2 on the middle and upper slopes of the margin. These values are consistent with previous estimates of heat flow showing a landward decrease in heat flow consistent with subduction of the Cocos plate. Preferred thermal models of the shallow subduction zone successfully predicting observed values of heat flow incorporate fluid flow within the upper oceanic aquifer have an uppermost permeability of 10-9.5 m2 and a plate boundary effective coefficient of friction of 0.06. These models suggest that temperatures on the subduction thrust reach 100°C at distances between 30 and 35 km landward of the deformation front. The updip limit of seismicity, as defined by aftershocks events of ML 1-4 recorded following the Mw 6.9 Quepos earthquake, occurs at 25 km landward of the deformation front at temperatures cooler than the 100-150°C typically predicted.

  11. Siple Coast subglacial aquatic environments: The Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, Helen Amanda; Powell, Ross; Priscu, John; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Christner, Brent; Fisher, Andrew T.; Holland, David; Horgan, Huw; Jacobel, Robert; Mikucki, Jill; Mitchell, Andrew; Scherer, Reed; Severinghaus, Jeff

    The Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project is a 6-year (2009-2015) integrative study of ice sheet stability and subglacial geobiology in West Antarctica, funded by the Antarctic Integrated System Science Program of National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs, Antarctic Division. The overarching scientific objective of WISSARD is to assess the role of water beneath a West Antarctic Ice Stream in interlinked glaciological, geological, microbiological, geochemical, hydrological, and oceanographic systems. The WISSARD's important science questions relate to (1) the role that subglacial and ice shelf cavity waters and wet sediments play in ice stream dynamics and mass balance, with an eye on the possible future of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and (2) the microbial metabolic and phylogenetic diversity in these subglacial environments. The study area is the downstream part of the Whillans Ice Stream on the Siple Coast, specifically Subglacial Lake Whillans and the part of the grounding zone across which it drains. In this chapter, we provide background on the motivation for the WISSARD project, detail the key scientific goals, and describe the new measurement tools and strategies under development that will provide the framework for conducting an unprecedented range of scientific observations.

  12. Alternative diagenetic models for cretaceous talus deposits, Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 536, Gulf of Mexico: Chapter 8 in Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Pierson, B.J.; Schlager, Wolfgang

    1984-01-01

    Talus deposits recovered from Site 536 show evidence of aragonite dissolution, secondary porosity development, and calcite cementation. Although freshwater diagenesis could account for the petrographic features of the altered talus deposits, it does not uniquely account for isotopic or trace-element characteristics. Also, the hydrologic setting required for freshwater alteration is not easily demonstrated for the Campeche Bank. A mixing-zone model does not account for the available trace-element data, but does require somewhat less drastic assumptions about the size of the freshwater lens. Although a seawater (bottom-water) alteration model requires no hydrologic difficulties, unusual circumstances are required to account for the geochemical characteristics of the talus deposits using this model.

  13. Petrogenesis of High-CaO Lavas Recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mauna Kea tholeiitic lavas recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) can be divided into three groups based on their major element compositions: High-SiO2, Low-SiO2, and High-CaO groups. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the High- and Low-SiO2 group lavas, and High-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here we report trace element compositions determined on a suite of High-CaO glasses, and use these data to constrain the petrogenesis of High-CaO lavas. When normalized to Low-SiO2 lavas, High-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern. That is, High-CaO lavas are enriched in both the most (Nb, Th) and the least (Sc, V) incompatible elements. This trace element difference is best explained if High-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of low degree partial melt of the Low-SiO2 mantle source and a mafic cumulate component. This mafic cumulate must be clinopyroxene-rich, and it could be delaminated mafic cumulate formed under arcs during continent formation, lower continental crust, or lower oceanic crust.Mauna Kea tholeiitic lavas recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) can be divided into three groups based on their major element compositions: High-SiO2, Low-SiO2, and High-CaO groups. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the High- and Low-SiO2 group lavas, and High-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here we report trace element compositions determined on a suite of High-CaO glasses, and use these data to constrain the petrogenesis of High-CaO lavas. When normalized to Low-SiO2 lavas, High-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern. That is, High-CaO lavas are enriched in both the most (Nb, Th) and the least (Sc, V) incompatible elements. This trace element difference is best explained if High-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of

  14. CARIBENORTE Project: Studying the deep structure of the NE Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbo-Gorosabel, A.; Davila, J. M.; Cordoba Barba, D.; Granja, J. L.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Druet, M.; Gomez, M.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Payero, J.; Lopez, O.; Quijano, J.

    2009-12-01

    Despite the high number of studies carried out in the NE Caribbean there is still not a geodynamic model that is capable of integrating all of the local tectonic settings present in the area. The CaribeNorte Project aims to analyze the geodynamics of the area by studying the deep crustal structure of the North-eastern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone across the Dominican Republic (DR) and by analyzing the morphostructure of the southern insular slope because most works have focused on the northern side of the arc. The main objectives of the project are: 1) to define the deep structure from north to south across the island arc and to test whether the Caribbean Plate’s interior is subducting beneath the DR, as has been hypothesized, 2) to analyse the deep and shallow structure of the northern Beata Ridge and to assess its origin and evolution, 3) to study the morphostructure of the zone of collision between the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt and the aseismic Beata Ridge, and 4) to evaluate the seismic and tsunami risk in the area. The new data was acquired during a research cruise held in the spring of 2009 aboard the Spanish R/V Hesperides. Swath bathymetry was obtained covering an area of 34.460 km2 in the south of the DR, overlapping by the east with data from our previous cruise Geoprico-Do. Along the track lines we have continuously collected gravity and magnetic data and high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS system). The active seismic experiment consisted on 3 deep seismic soundings profiles with a total of 16 OBS, deployed from the DR’s ship Orion, and 340 seismic land stations. For the deep seismic experiment the R/V Hesperides was shooting every 90 s with airguns having a total power of 3.850 ci. In addition, the Dominican Republic’s DGM collaborated with 3 drill-hole explosions on-shore. The five seismic profiles have a total of 980 km offshore and 650 km onshore, running across the Bahamas Carbonate platform, the DR island along two transects, the

  15. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  16. Simulation technology used for risky assessment in deep exploration project in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jiao, J.; Huang, D.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep exploration has been carried out in China for five years in which various heavy duty instruments and equipments are employed for gravity, magnetic, seismic and electromagnetic data prospecting as well as ultra deep drilling rig established for obtaining deep samples, and so on. The deep exploration is a large and complex system engineering crossing multiple subjects with great investment. It is necessary to employ advanced technical means technology for verification, appraisal, and optimization of geographical prospecting equipment development. To reduce risk of the application and exploration, efficient and allegeable management concept and skills have to be enhanced in order to consolidate management measure and workflow to benefit the ambitious project. Therefore, evidence, prediction, evaluation and related decision strategies have to be taken into accouter simultaneously to meet practical scientific requests and technique limits and extendable attempts. Simulation technique is then proposed as a tool that can be used to carry out dynamic test on actual or imagined system. In practice, it is necessary to combine the simulation technique with the instruments and equipment to accomplish R&D tasks. In this paper, simulation technique is introduced into the R&D process of heavy-duty equipment and high-end engineering project technology. Based on the information provided by a drilling group recently, a digital model is constructed by combination of geographical data, 3d visualization, database management, and visual reality technologies together. It result in push ahead a R&D strategy, in which data processing , instrument application, expected result and uncertainty, and even operation workflow effect environment atmosphere are simulated systematically or simultaneously, in order to obtain an optimal consequence as well as equipment updating strategy. The simulation technology is able to adjust, verify, appraise and optimize the primary plan due to changing in

  17. Iceland research drilling project in relation to the geology of Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1982-08-10

    The lava pile penetrated by the Iceland Research Drilling Project (IRDP) hole formed in an axial rift zone that remained active for at least the last 13 m.y. The stratigraphic sequence is formed of subaerial volcanics, and it is likely that volcanism was subaerial for several million years or even tens of millions of years prior to the formation of the IRDP sequence. The volcanics in eastern Iceland are tholeiitic, like all Tertiary sequences investigated in Iceland to date, and the lava extrusion rates in eastern Iceland are reported to be similar to those of Tertiary in northern and western Iceland, respectively. The IRDP hole was sited in a dyke swarm extending from the Breiddalur central volcano in the south. The IRDP hole was sited in a regional thermal anomaly with a gradient of about 80/sup 0/C/km that was found by a series of 100-m thermal gradient wells in eastern Iceland. Aquifiers of 48/sup 0/C were encountered at about 600-m depth, which the thermal gradient lowered considerably. This suggests that the regional thermal anomaly is caused by the flow of warm water at relatively shallow depths.

  18. Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; Msaky, Emma; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2004-05-01

    Initial results of scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. A total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly clays and claystones deposited in a deep marine shelf environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology), magnetostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 1 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko airstrip (8°54.516 'S, 39°30.397 'E). It yielded 8.55 m of barren blue-grey clays that may be Miocene in age, followed by 1.2 m of greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay probably of the same age. The remainder of the hole cored 62.35 m of lower Oligocene sediments (nannofossil Zone NP23), which are predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clays. Total penetration was 74.10 m. The coring represents the first report of a thick Oligocene clay formation in the area. TDP Site 2 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko prison (8°55.277 'S, 39°30.219 'E). It yielded 92.78 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with occasional allochthonous limestone beds that consist mostly of redeposited larger foraminifers. The site encompasses lower to middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P8/9 to P11 and nannofossil Subzones NP14b to NP15c. It encompasses a rarely cored interval across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition. TDP Site 3 was drilled near Mpara in the Kilwa area (8°51.585 'S, 39°27.655 'E). It yielded 56.4 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clays and claystones. The site is assigned to lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P6 and nannofossil Zone NP11. TDP Site 4 was drilled near Ras Tipuli on the northwest side of Lindi creek (9°56.999 'S, 39°42.985 'E). It yielded 19.8 m of predominantly dark greenish

  19. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  20. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  1. The Towuti Drilling Project: A new, long Pleistocene record of Indo-Pacific Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M.; Vogel, Hendrik; Bijaksana, Satria; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Lake Towuti is the largest tectonic lake in Indonesia, and the longest known terrestrial sediment archive in Southeast Asia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides an important opportunity to reconstruct long-term changes in terrestrial climate in the Western Pacific warm pool, heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Lake Towuti has extremely high rates of floral and faunal endemism and is surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth making it a hotspot of Southeast Asian biodiversity. The ultramafic rocks and soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide high concentrations of metals to the lake and its sediments that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community. From May - July, 2015, the Towuti Drilling Project, consisting of more than 30 scientists from eight countries, recovered over 1,000 meters of new sediment core from 3 different drill sites in Lake Towuti, including cores through the entire sediment column to bedrock. These new sediment cores will allow us to investigate the history of rainfall and temperature in central Indonesia, long-term changes in the composition of the region's rainforests and diverse aquatic ecosystems, and the micro-organisms living in Towuti's exotic, metal-rich sediments. The Indo-Pacific region plays a pivotal role in the Earth's climate system, regulating critical atmospheric circulation systems and the global concentration of atmospheric water vapor- the Earth's most important greenhouse gas. Changes in seasonal insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, ice volume, and local sea level are each hypothesized to exert a dominant control on Indo-Pacific hydroclimate variations through the Pleistocene. Existing records from the region are short and exhibit fundamental differences and complexity in orbital-scale climate patterns that limit our understanding of the regional climate responses to climate boundary conditions. Our sediment cores, which span much of the past 1 million years, allow new tests of

  2. The Archaean-Paleoproterozoic transition: First results of detrital zircon U-Pb-geochronology and provenance from the FAR DEEP drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, C.; Bahlburg, H.; Melezhik, V. A.; Lepland, A.; Berndt, J.; Kooijman, E.; Far Deep Scientists, The

    2010-05-01

    The Archaean-Paleoproterozoic transition is marked by several events that were important for the evolution of the Earth system. We applied U-Pb-geochronology on detrital zircons by LA-ICP-MS to improve age constraints on the duration of three of these events: 1) the Huronian Glaciation, which is the first known worldwide glaciation, 2) the Lomagundi-Jatuli event, characterized by a large excursion of δ13C in carbonate sediments and 3) the Shunga event, the first deposition of very Corg-rich sediments, so-called 'shungites'. During the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project (FAR DEEP), which is part of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), volcano-sedimentary successions of early Paleoproterozoic age were drilled in the Pechenga and Imandra-Varzuga Greenstone belts, as well as in the Onega basin in Russian Fennoscandia. The first results of detrital zircon dating provided an age range from 1.85 up to 3.5 Ga having one prominent age-group of 2.5-2.9 Ga for each sample. The youngest ages in individual samples vary due to their stratigraphic position. The youngest zircons from the Seidorechka Sedimentary Formation below Huronian glacial deposits in the Imandra-Varzuga Greenstone Belt yielded ages around 2.42 Ga, which are interpreted as the age close to the onset of the Huronian Glaciation. Zircon ages from the Polisarka Sedimentary Formation above Huronian diamictites in the Imandra-Varzuga Greenstone Belt indicate that the glaciation had ended at 2.22 Ga. The youngest zircon ages from the sequence containing isotopically heavy carbonates of the Kuetsjärvi Sedimentary Formation in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt suggest that the Lomagundi-Jatuli event started around 2.32 Ga and that its end is younger than 2.06 Ga. Age constraints of ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga for the beginning of the Shunga Event were obtained by dating zircons from the Kolasjoki Sedimentary Formation in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt. Considering the error, these

  3. The DIS, the CODD, IGSNs and DOIs: Tools you need to succeed with your ocean and continental scientific drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgas, Thomas; Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Wilkens, Roy; Lyle, Mitchell; Westerhold, Thomas; Drury, Anna Joy; Tian, Jun; Hahn, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Scientific ocean drilling over the past >40 years and corresponding efforts on land (by now for more than >20 years) has led to the accumulation of an enormous amount of valuable petrophysical, geochemical, biological and geophysical data obtained through laboratory and field experiments across a multitude of scale-and time dimensions. Such data can be utilized comprehensively in a holistic fashion, and thereby provide base toward an enhanced "Core-Log-Integration", modeling small-scale basin processes to large-scale Earth phenomena, while also storing and managing all relevant information in an "Open Access" fashion. Since the early 1990's members of our team have acquired and measured a large dataset of physical and geochemical properties representing both terrestrial and marine geological environments. This dataset cover a variety of both macro-to-microscale dimensions, and thereby allowing this type of interdisciplinary data examination. Over time, data management and processing tools have been developed and were recently merged with modern data publishing methods, which allow identifying and tracking data and associated publications in a trackable and concise manner. Our current presentation summarizes an important part of the value chain in geosciences, comprising: 1) The state-of-the-art in data management for continental and lake drilling projects performed with and through ICDP's Drilling Information System (DIS). 2) The CODD (Code for Ocean Drilling Data) as numerical-based, programmable data processing toolbox and applicable for both continental and marine drilling projects. 3) The implementation of Persistent Identifiers, such as the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) to identify and track sample material as part of Digital-Object-Identifier (DOI)-tagged operation reports and research publications. 4) A list of contacts provided for scientists with an interest in learning and applying methods and techniques we offer in form of basic and advanced

  4. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino.

  5. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  6. Drilling a ';super-volcano': volcanology of the proximal rhyolitic volcanic succession in the HOTSPOT deep drill hole, Idaho, Yellowstone hot-spot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Christiansen, E. H.; Reichow, M. K.; McCurry, M. O.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Project HOTSPOT seeks to understand the bimodal volcanism in the Yellowstone-Snake River large igneous province, including the magma generation and eruption history. The 1.9 km-deep Kimberly well in southern Idaho, USA, reveals a proximal mid-Miocene rhyolitic and basaltic volcanic succession marginal to the postulated Twin Falls eruptive centre. Three rhyolitic eruption-units (each we interpret to record a single eruption, based on core descriptions) are separated by basaltic lavas, palaeosols and volcaniclastic sediments, and are being dated by 40Ar-39Ar on plagioclases. Whole-rock and mineral chemical data, from each unit, has been compiled to facilitate correlation with well-studied eruption-units at more distal outcrops, where we have detailed chemical, palaeomagnetic and radiometric characterisation. Results will contribute to frequency and volume calculations for some of the most catastrophic super-eruptions in Earth history. As the volcanism is of Snake River (SR)-type and lacks typical pumice fall deposits and low-moderate grade ignimbrites, interpreting the physical origin of the units can be difficult; many SR-type rheomorphic ignimbrites are flow-banded and resemble lavas, and the distinction between these and true lavas involves interpretation of critical evidence from lower contacts (e.g., distinguishing basal lava autobreccias from peperitic contacts, which can occur at the bases of SR-type lavas and ignimbrites). The lower most eruption-unit, ';Kimberly Rhyolite 1,' is >1323 m thick (base not seen) and suggests ponding in the margin of a caldera. Few vitroclastic textures are preserved, but a rheomorphic ignimbrite origin is inferred by folded fabrics and scattered obsidian chips (2-5 mm in size) within a thick lithoidal zone, which passes sharply upwards into a 39.6 m thick vitrophyre with an autobrecciated top and it is overlain by 18 m (caldera?) lake sediments. However, lithic mesobreccia, that characterise caldera fills elsewhere, are not seen

  7. Physical rock properties in and around a conduit zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma conduit. Conduit drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma conduit for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava conduit, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential conduits for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Lake Towuti Drilling Project: A New, 1-Million Year Record of Indo-Pacific Hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Vogel, H.; Melles, M.; Crowe, S.; Fajar, S. J.; Hasberg, A. K.; Ivory, S.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kelly, C. S.; Kirana, K. H.; Morlock, M.; Tamuntuan, G. H.; Wicaksono, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    ­The Indo-Pacific region plays an integral role in the Earth's climate system. Changes in local insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, ice volume, and local sea level are each hypothesized to exert a dominant control on Indo-Pacific hydroclimate variations through the Pleistocene, yet existing records from the region are generally short and exhibit fundamental differences in orbital-scale patterns that limit our understanding of the regional climate responses to these global forcings. New paleoclimate records spanning multiple glacial-interglacial cycles are therefore required to document the region's hydroclimatic response to the full range of global climate boundary conditions observed during the late Quaternary. Lake Towuti is located in central Indonesia and is the only known terrestrial sedimentary archive in the region that spans multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. From May - July, 2015, the Towuti Drilling Project, consisting of nearly 40 scientists from eight countries, recovered over 1,000 meters of new sediment core from Lake Towuti. This includes cores though the entire sediment column to bedrock, which likely provide a >1-million-year records of regional hydroclimate. On-site borehole and sediment core logging data document major shifts in sediment composition, including transitions from lake clays to peats, calcareous sediments, and gravels. These data show excellent agreement with major lithological transitions recorded in seismic reflection data, and indicate large changes in lake levels and hydroclimate through the late Quaternary. Prior work on Lake Towuti indicated a dominant control by global ice volume on regional hydroclimate, a hypothesis we aim to test through the analysis of these new cores. This presentation will review existing records from the region and show the first long geochemical and sedimentological records from Lake Towuti to understand orbital-scale hydrologic change during the last ~1 million years.

  9. Frictional Temperature of Chelungpu Seismic Faulting Estimated from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Kuo, L.; Chou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Two holes, named Hole-A and Hole-B with the depths of 2,003 m and 1,350 m, respectively, were raised by the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) which recovered continuous fresh core samples across the rupture zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6). To investigate the coseismic frictional temperature in seismogenic fault zones, we examine the characteristics of core materials including clay, carbonate and magnetic minerals and carbonaceous materials with optical, SEM, TEM and TXM for mineral identifications, and chemical analyses by ICP-MS for geochemical modeling in the Chelungpu-fault zones. The primary slip zone (PSZ), characterized by the isotropic layer in black gouge of those two holes can be recognized at the depth around 1,111 m and 1,136 m with ~20 mm and ~3 mm in thickness, respectively. For the Hole-A, the frictional temperature was calculated from the clay mineral assemblages of FZ1111, which show evidence of melting, and the temperature in a ~2 cm band within the black gouge zone is estimated to be from 900 °C to 1100 °C by comparing the SEM images of in situ natural samples with those of heated materials, and the finding of no recrystallization of kaolinite-amorphous aluminosilicates-spinel in the fault samples. For the Hole-B, the frictional temperature in the FZ1136 was calculated as 400 °C to 900 °C, based on the magnetic mineral variations, de-carbonation of calcite, clay mineral assemblages, and geochemical modeling on trace element variations.

  10. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  12. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  13. Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in kerosene-based drilling fluid from the deep ice borehole at Vostok, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Alekhina, Irina A; Marie, Dominique; Petit, Jean Robert; Lukin, Valery V; Zubkov, Vladimir M; Bulat, Sergey A

    2007-02-01

    Decontamination of ice cores is a critical issue in phylogenetic studies of glacial ice and subglacial lakes. At the Vostok drill site, a total of 3650 m of ice core have now been obtained from the East Antarctic ice sheet. The ice core surface is coated with a hard-to-remove film of impure drilling fluid comprising a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and foranes. In the present study we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze the bacterial content of the Vostok drilling fluid sampled from four depths in the borehole. Six phylotypes were identified in three of four samples studied. The two dominant phylotypes recovered from the deepest (3400 and 3600 m) and comparatively warm (-10 degrees C and -6 degrees C, respectively) borehole horizons were from within the genus Sphingomonas, a well-known degrader of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The remaining phylotypes encountered in all samples proved to be human- or soil-associated bacteria and were presumed to be drilling fluid contaminants of rare occurrence. The results obtained indicate the persistence of bacteria in extremely cold, hydrocarbon-rich environments. They show the potential for contamination of ice and subglacial water samples during lake exploration, and the need to develop a microbiological database of drilling fluid findings.

  14. Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinmoto, Y.; Wada, K.; Miyazaki, E.; Sanada, Y.; Sawada, I.; Yamao, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary Core Barrel (RCB) system was rather low as compared with other methods such as the Hydraulic Piston Coring System (HPCS) and Extended Shoe Coring System (ESCS). Drilling conditions such as hole collapse and sea conditions such as high ship-heave motions need to be analyzed along with differences in lithology, formation hardness, water depth and coring depth in order to develop coring tools, such as the core barrel or core bit, that will yield the highest core recovery and quality. The core bit is especially important in good recovery of high quality cores, however, the PDC cutters were severely damaged during the NanTroSEIZE Stages 1 & 2 expeditions due to severe drilling conditions. In the Stage 1 (riserless coring) the average core recovery was rather low at 38 % with the RCB and many difficulties such as borehole collapse, stick-slip and stuck pipe occurred, causing the damage of several of the PDC cutters. In Stage 2, a new design for the core bit was deployed and core recovery was improved at 67 % for the riserless system and 85 % with the riser. However, due to harsh drilling conditions, the PDC core bit and all of the PDC cutters were completely worn down. Another original core bit was also deployed, however, core recovery performance was low even for plate boundary core samples. This study aims to identify the influence of the RCB system specifically on the recovery rates at each of the holes drilled in the NanTroSEIZE coring expeditions. The drilling parameters such as weight-on-bit, torque, rotary speed and flow rate, etc., were analyzed

  15. Effects of fluid-rock interactions on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from fault rock samples retrieved from international drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Yabe, Y.; Sulem, J.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and mechanical effects of fluids influence the fault mechanical behavior. We analyzed fresh fault rocks from several scientific drilling projects to study the effects of fluids on fault strength. For example, in drill core samples on a rupture plane of an Mw 2.2 earthquake in a deep gold mine in South Africa the main shock occurred on a preexisting plane of weakness that was formed by fluid-rock interaction (magnesiohornblende was intensively altered to chlinochlore). The plane acted as conduit for hydrothermal fluids at some time in the past. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault core samples from SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes and healing were initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. Newly formed phyllosilicates growing into open pore spaces likely reduced the fluid permeability. The mechanical influence of fluids is indicated by TEM observations, which document open pores that formed in-situ in the gouge material during or after deformation. Pores were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting elevated fluid pressure preventing pore collapse. Fluid-driven healing of fractures in samples from SAFOD and the DGLab Gulf of Corinth project is visible in cementation. Cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) reveals different generations of calcite veins. Differences in CL-colors suggest repeated infiltration of fluids with different chemical composition from varying sources (formation and meteoric water).

  16. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  17. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  18. Managing drilling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, K.; Peden, J.; Kenworth, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling operations requires the management of a great variety of operations, equipment, people, finances, legal aspects and safety procedures. A thorough understanding of the drilling process and the technologies involved is required to complete a project successfully, on time and within budget. This book presents guidance on the whole sequence of this process from field evaluation and well planning to drilling and optimization for both on- and off-shore projects. There are step-by-step guidelines and checklist which the practitioner can use directly, or with their own modifications. The author has refined these guidelines from his nineteen years of experience managing drilling operations around the world. Graduates in petroleum engineering and economic geology, as well as drilling engineers and drilling operations managers will welcome this handbook for its comprehensive and clear treatment of all the management issue and technologies required for a safe, efficient and economic drilling operation.

  19. High-power slim-hole drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to implement new high-power slim-hole motors and bits into field gas well drilling applications. Development of improved motors and bits is critical because rotating time constitutes the major cost of drilling gas wells. Conventional motors drill most formations 2 to 3 times faster than rotary continuous coring systems due to greater power transfer to the drill bit. New high-power motors and large-cutter TSP bits being developed by Maurer Engineering, Inc. (MEI) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. These slim-hole high-power motors and bits, which are ready for field testing on this DOE project, should reduce drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent in many areas. The objective of Phase I is to design, manufacture and laboratory test improved high-power slim-hole motors and large-cutter TSP bits. This work will be done in preparation for Phase II field tests. The objective of Phase II will be to field test the high-power motors and bits in Amoco`s Catoosa shallow-test well near Tulsa, OK, and in deep gas wells. The goal will be to drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors and to reduce the drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent over the intervals drilled.

  20. Use of coiled tubing during the Wytch Farm extended-reach drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, T.; Larsen, H.A.; Redway, M.; Hill, G.

    1995-05-01

    The largest onshore oil field in western Europe is in an environmentally sensitive coastal area in southern England. Initial development of the field in the late 1970`s focused on accessing reserves underlying the onshore section of the reservoir. In 1989, various development options were screened to access the offshore section of the reservoir, containing {approx} 80 million bbl of recoverable oil. In 1991, the decision was made to access these reserves through extended-reach drilling (ERD) from an existing onshore wellsite. This development is currently under way, with 3 of 11 planned wells already drilled and producing. This paper describes the application of coiled tubing (CT) in the logging and completion phases of the ERD wells drilled to date. Conclusions are made as to the value of coiled tubing in ERD wells to minimize rig time and the current limits of technology.

  1. Flowing fluid electrical conductivity logging of a deep borehole during and following drilling: estimation of transmissivity, water salinity and hydraulic head of conductive zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Juhlin, Christopher; Dobson, Patrick F.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2016-11-01

    Flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging is a hydrogeologic testing method that is usually conducted in an existing borehole. However, for the 2,500-m deep COSC-1 borehole, drilled at Åre, central Sweden, it was done within the drilling period during a scheduled 1-day break, thus having a negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depths of hydraulically conductive zones and their transmissivities and salinities. This paper presents a reanalysis of this set of data together with a new FFEC logging data set obtained soon after drilling was completed, also over a period of 1 day, but with a different pumping rate and water-level drawdown. Their joint analysis not only results in better estimates of transmissivity and salinity in the conducting fractures intercepted by the borehole, but also yields the hydraulic head values of these fractures, an important piece of information for the understanding of hydraulic structure of the subsurface. Two additional FFEC logging tests were done about 1 year later, and are used to confirm and refine this analysis. Results show that from 250 to 2,000 m depths, there are seven distinct hydraulically conductive zones with different hydraulic heads and low transmissivity values. For the final test, conducted with a much smaller water-level drawdown, inflow ceased from some of the conductive zones, confirming that their hydraulic heads are below the hydraulic head measured in the wellbore under non-pumped conditions. The challenges accompanying 1-day FFEC logging are summarized, along with lessons learned in addressing them.

  2. Flowing fluid electrical conductivity logging of a deep borehole during and following drilling: estimation of transmissivity, water salinity and hydraulic head of conductive zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Juhlin, Christopher; Dobson, Patrick F.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2017-03-01

    Flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging is a hydrogeologic testing method that is usually conducted in an existing borehole. However, for the 2,500-m deep COSC-1 borehole, drilled at Åre, central Sweden, it was done within the drilling period during a scheduled 1-day break, thus having a negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depths of hydraulically conductive zones and their transmissivities and salinities. This paper presents a reanalysis of this set of data together with a new FFEC logging data set obtained soon after drilling was completed, also over a period of 1 day, but with a different pumping rate and water-level drawdown. Their joint analysis not only results in better estimates of transmissivity and salinity in the conducting fractures intercepted by the borehole, but also yields the hydraulic head values of these fractures, an important piece of information for the understanding of hydraulic structure of the subsurface. Two additional FFEC logging tests were done about 1 year later, and are used to confirm and refine this analysis. Results show that from 250 to 2,000 m depths, there are seven distinct hydraulically conductive zones with different hydraulic heads and low transmissivity values. For the final test, conducted with a much smaller water-level drawdown, inflow ceased from some of the conductive zones, confirming that their hydraulic heads are below the hydraulic head measured in the wellbore under non-pumped conditions. The challenges accompanying 1-day FFEC logging are summarized, along with lessons learned in addressing them.

  3. Footprint, weathering, and persistence of synthetic-base drilling mud olefins in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R

    2017-03-13

    Olefin-based synthetic-based drilling mud (SBM) was released into the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster in 2010. We studied the composition of neat SBM and, using conventional GC-FID, the extent, concentration, and chemical character of SBM-derived olefins in >3600 seafloor sediments collected in 2010/2011 and 2014. SBM-derived (C14-C20) olefins occurred (up to 10cm deep) within a 6.5km(2) "footprint" around the well. The olefin concentration in most sediments decreased an order of magnitude between 2010/2011 and 2014, at least in part due to biodegradation, evidenced by the preferential loss C16 and C18 linear (α- and internal) versus branched olefins. Based on their persistence for 4-years in sediments around the Macondo well, and 13-years near a former unrelated drill site (~62km away), weathered SBM-derived olefins released during the DWH disaster are anticipated to persist in deep-sea sediment for (at least) a comparable duration.

  4. Geological and paleontological results from the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, R. P.; Powell, R. D.; Coenen, J. J.; Hodson, T. O.; Puttkammer, R.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The WISSARD project recovered sediment cores and other geological materials from beneath the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica during two drilling seasons; Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) in 2013 and 100km downstream at the ice stream grounding-zone (WGZ) in 2015. SLW is characterized by 2 m of freshwater with a high suspended-sediment load, whereas WGZ has a 10 m column of clear, fully marine water with an active community of marine organisms. Three coring devices were deployed as part of WISSARD, including (1) a multicorer, which recovers 3 unaltered sediment-water interface cores, up to 0.5m, (2) a piston corer, also deployed as a gravity corer, with a 3m core barrel, and (3) a percussion coring system with a 5m core barrel. Sediments recovered from SLW are muddy diamicton with minimal stratification. The sediments are characteristic of active till, not water-column deposition. The till is weak and effective stresses very low, thus till flux from deformation must also be low. Water through flow is sufficient to carry suspended clays and silts, but not transfer large volumes of sediment in the current glaciological regime. Microfossils and geochemical tracers (e.g., biomarkers, 10Be and 14C) in SLW sediments indicate Pleistocene input from open water conditions, plus input and mixing of components derived from older Cenozoic strata. Diatoms and other sedimentary characteristics of SLW are entirely consistent with material previously recovered from upstream sites on the Whillans Ice Stream (UpB), but show evidence of further cumulative subglacial shear strain, suggesting downstream translation as deforming till. Sedimentary components from WGZ indicate significant input from sources other than from the Whillans Ice Stream. Sediment cores include distinct stratigraphic variability, with differing geochemical and sedimentary components indicative of input from changing source beds. Components indicate a mixture of Quaternary and older components. The lower ca

  5. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    , either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi

  6. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    , either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi

  7. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    , either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi

  8. The ICDP-Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): new data from the Chew Bahir site in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew; Foerster, Verena; Just, Janna; Klasen, Nicole; Lamb, Henry; Schäbitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin; Viehberg, Finn; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    There are currently few long, continuous, Pleistocene records from East Africa, meaning it has been difficult to establish the relative influence of low- versus high-latitude forcing on East African climate and climatic conditions at the time of anatomically modern human origin and subsequent dispersal. We have been attempting to address these gaps in our knowledge by analysing lake sediments taken from Chew Bahir, an area of playa mudflats in southern Ethiopia close to the site of the oldest-known anatomically modern human fossils at Omo-Kibish. In March 2014, Chew Bahir was cored to a depth of ~40 metres, and the resulting sediment sequence is estimated to cover the last ~115ka. In December 2014, a nearby site was drilled to a depth of ~280 metres as part of the International Continental scientific Drilling Programme - Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of endogenic calcite and other data from these cores will be presented. The data show some significant changes in water balance variability, the period prior to 70ka appears very unstable with some significant periods of drought and flood. Between 70-20ka the lake was stable and evaporative. The last 20ka years was wetter.

  9. Paleomagnetic records of core samples of the plate-boundary thrust drilled during the IODP Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, T.; Yang, T.; Ujiie, K.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Chester, F. M.; Moore, J. C.; Rowe, C. D.; Regalla, C.; Remitti, F.; Kameda, J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Bose, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Toy, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST), drilled across the plate-boundary décollement zone near the Japan Trench where large slip occurred during the March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We conducted paleomagnetic measurements of the core sample retrieved from the highly-deformed sediments comprising the plate-boundary décollement zone. Whole-round samples for structural analyses from five depth intervals of the core (0-12 cm, 12-30 cm, 43-48 cm, 48-58 cm, and 87.5-105 cm), were trimmed into oriented slabs with typical dimensions of 3x3x5 cm that are now being used to make petrographic sections for microstructural and chemical study. The remainder of the core sample was split into working and archive halves. We measured remanent magnetization of 16 trimmed slabs and the archive half of the core sample. The slabs were subjected to natural remanent magnetization (NRM) measurements in 0.5-1 cm intervals and progressive alternating field demagnetization (AFD) up to 80 mT with a 2G755 pass-through superconducting rock magnetometer at Kochi University. The archive half of the core sample was subjected to NRM measurement and AFD up to 20 mT with a 2G760 superconducting rock magnetometer installed on R/V Chikyu. Typically, two or three paleomagnetic components were isolated during the AFD of slab samples up to 80 mT. One ';soft' component was demagnetized below 20-30 mT, and another ';hard' component was not demagnetized even with AFD in 80 mT. A third component may be separated during AFD at the intermediate demagnetizing field, and may overlap the soft and hard components. The multiple slab samples cut from an identical whole-round sample have generally consistent paleomagnetic direction of the hard component. Contrastingly, the direction of the soft component is less consistent between adjacent slabs, and even varies within a single slab. The direction variation of the soft component possibly reflects the cm-scale strain and rotation of the

  10. Development of a risk-based environmental management tool for drilling discharges. Summary of a four-year project.

    PubMed

    Singsaas, Ivar; Rye, Henrik; Frost, Tone Karin; Smit, Mathijs G D; Garpestad, Eimund; Skare, Ingvild; Bakke, Knut; Veiga, Leticia Falcao; Buffagni, Melania; Follum, Odd-Arne; Johnsen, Ståle; Moltu, Ulf-Einar; Reed, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the ERMS project and presents the developed model by showing results from environmental fates and risk calculations of a discharge from offshore drilling operations. The developed model calculates environmental risks for the water column and sediments resulting from exposure to toxic stressors (e.g., chemicals) and nontoxic stressors (e.g., suspended particles, sediment burial). The approach is based on existing risk assessment techniques described in the European Union technical guidance document on risk assessment and species sensitivity distributions. The model calculates an environmental impact factor, which characterizes the overall potential impact on the marine environment in terms of potentially impacted water volume and sediment area. The ERMS project started in 2003 and was finalized in 2007. In total, 28 scientific reports and 9 scientific papers have been delivered from the ERMS project (http://www.sintef.no/erms).

  11. Microbial diversity in ultra-high-pressure rocks and fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-06-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of approximately 0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(4) cells/g and 3.5 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids.

  12. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China