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Sample records for deep phase profile

  1. Natural deep eutectic solvents: cytotoxic profile.

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Mbous, Yves Paul; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Hayyan, Adeeb; Salleh, Zulhaziman; Mohd-Ali, Ozair

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic profiles of different ternary natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) containing water. For this purpose, five different NADESs were prepared using choline chloride as a salt, alongside five hydrogen bond donors (HBD) namely glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycerol, and malonic acid. Water was added as a tertiary component during the eutectics preparation, except for the malonic acid-based mixture. Coincidentally, the latter was found to be more toxic than any of the water-based NADESs. A trend was observed between the cellular requirements of cancer cells, the viscosity of the NADESs, and their cytotoxicity. This study also highlights the first time application of the conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) software for the analysis of the cytotoxic mechanism of NADESs. COSMO-RS simulation of the interactions between NADESs and cellular membranes' phospholipids suggested that NADESs strongly interacted with cell surfaces and that their accumulation and aggregation possibly defined their cytotoxicity. This reinforced the idea that careful selection of NADESs components is necessary, as it becomes evident that organic acids as HBD highly contribute to the increasing toxicity of these neoteric mixtures. Nevertheless, NADESs in general seem to possess relatively less acute toxicity profiles than their DESs parents. This opens the door for future large scale utilization of these mixtures.

  2. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2016-09-27

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  3. Stochastic Phase Resetting: a Theory for Deep Brain Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, Peter A.

    2000-03-01

    A stochastic approach to phase resetting in clusters of interacting oscillators is presented. This theory explains how a stimulus, especially a single pulse, induces synchronization and desynchronization processes. The theory is used to design a new technique for deep brain stimulation in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease or essential tremor that do no longer respond to drug therapy. This stimulation mode is a feedback controlled single pulse stimulation. The feedback signal is registered with the deep brain electrode, and the desynchronizing pulses are administered via the same electrode. The stochastic phase resetting theory is used as a starting point of a model based design of intelligent and gentle deep brain stimulation techniques.

  4. Giddings Austin chalk enters deep lean-gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-25

    Deep lean gas is the latest phase in the growth of the Giddings field Austin chalk play. The first phase involved drilling vertical oil and gas wells. Next came the horizontal well boom in the shallower Austin chalk area, which is still continuing. And now this third phase places horizontal laterals in the Austen chalk at about 14,000--15,000 ft to produce lean gas. The article describes the producing wells and gas gathering.

  5. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  6. Marine deep seismic reflection profiles off central California

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, J. Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX ); Talwani, M. Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX )

    1991-04-10

    A strong reflection horizon at two-way travel time of approximately 6 s is observed in a deep seismic profile across the outer continental shelf of central California. It is interpreted as the seismic image of subducted oceanic crust emplaced prior to the change from principally convergent to principally transcurrent motion between the Pacific and North American plates during the late Paleogene. The reflector dips landward at a very shallow angle and is at a depth of 14-15 km under Santa Lucia Bank. The reflection is not observed, or at best is very discontinuous, under the inner shelf (Santa Maria Basin). This suggests that tectonic or other processes have produced significantly different structural styles or compositions on the two sides of the Santa Lucia Bank fault. Under the outer shelf a prominent, apparently deeper (later arrival time) horizon dips more steeply and diverges from the 6-s reflector. The deep horizon is at least partially composed of diffracted energy but is nearly linear after migration. Possible interpretations are that the horizon indicates crustal imbrication or out-of-plane diffractions. Alternatively, it is a relict feature imparted to the crust at the now inactive Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge. Reflective zones at intermediate depths are observed in apparently accreted sediments in parts of the Santa Lucia and Santa Maria basins. These features could represent tectonically induced fabrics within the accretionary complex, or they could be coherent depositional sequences.

  7. Stochastic Phase Resetting: A Theory for Deep Brain Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, P. A.

    The basic principles of a stochastic approach to phase resetting in populations of interacting phase oscillators are presented in this article. This theory explains how synchronization and desynchronization processes are caused by a pulsatile stimulus. It is a central goal of this approach to establish a theoretical basis for the design of efficient and intelligent new deep brain stimulation techniques. Accordingly, the theory is used to design a new deep brain stimulation technique with feedback control in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease or essential tremor.

  8. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.42 What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions...

  9. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  10. Deep Structure of the NE Tibetan Plateau: An Introduction to Project INDEPTH, Phase IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Brown, L.; Zhenhan, W.; Klemperer, S.; Shi, D.; Mechie, J.; Su, H.; Tilmann, F.; Guangqi, X.; Karplus, M.; Kind, R.; Makovsky, Y.; Meissner, R.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1992, INDEPTH has acquired active and passive seismic data in three major experiments from south of the High Himalaya to the Qiangtang terrane, north of the Banggong suture. Phase IV of Project INDEPTH is focussed on delineating deep crustal and mantle structure beneath the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, thought by many to represent the focus of active growth of the plateau into the Asian continent. Primary scientific objectives include: i) elucidating the crustal geometry of the thrust/strike slip fault system of the Kunlun that marks the edge of the high plateau, ii) testing the controversial suggestion that the Asian continental lithosphere is underthrusting southwestward beneath the Tibetan Plateau beneath the Kunlun, iii) assessing the role of partial melting in the tectonics of NE Tibet, and contraints on postulated crustal flow. The major technical components of this year's work include: 1) Active seismic imaging with near-vertical and wide-angle techniques; 2) Passive seismic profiling using dense seismometer spacing (ca 5 km) designed to produce high resolution receiver-function images of lithospheric structure; and 3) Geological surface investigations. Additional components scheduled for next year include: 1) a high resolution gravity survey along the seismic profile, and 2) wideband MT and long-period MT ( LIMS ) measurements to investigate deep electrical conductivity along the seismic profiles. The INDEPTH IV controlled source profile extends from Qarhan Salt Lake in the center of the Qaidam basin, across the Kunlun mountains of northern Tibet to Quemalai near the Chumaer River. The INDEPTH IV passive- source profiles are collocated with the controlled source profile across the Kunlun, but includes a second high resolution profile across the Jinsha Suture on the Tibetan Plateau. The INDEPTH IV geological studies are focussed on the timing of crustal shortening and uplift of the Kunlun and adjacent Plateau. Preliminary results will be

  11. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase I: Shallow and Deep Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    D. Parker; Sutherland, K.; Chasar, D.; Montemurno, J.; Amos, B.; Kono, J.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program, in collaboration with Florida Power and Light (FPL), conducted a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program. This research sought to establish impacts on annual energy and peak energy reductions from the technologies applied at two levels of retrofit - shallow and deep, with savings levels approaching the Building America program goals of reducing whole-house energy use by 40%. Under the Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, we have installed phased, energy-efficiency retrofits in a sample of 56 existing, all-electric homes. End-use savings and economic evaluation results from the phased measure packages and single measures are summarized in this report.

  12. Low-flow characteristics and profiles for the Deep River in the Cape Fear River basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Drainage area and low-flow discharge profiles are presented for the Deep River. The drainage-area profile shows downstream increases in basin size. At the mouth, the drainage area for the Deep River is 1,441 square miles. Low-flow discharge profiles for the Deep River include 7Q10, 30Q2, W7Q10, and 7Q2 discharges in a continuous profile with contributions from major tributaries included.

  13. Deep Space Habitat Team: HEFT Phase 2 Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry D.; Smitherman, David; Shyface, Hilary; Simon, Matt; Bobkill, Marianne; Komar, D. R.; Guirgis, Peggy; Bagdigian, Bob; Spexarth, Gary

    2011-01-01

    HEFT was a NASA-wide team that performed analyses of architectures for human exploration beyond LEO, evaluating technical, programmatic, and budgetary issues to support decisions at the highest level of the agency in HSF planning. HEFT Phase I (April - September, 2010) and Phase II (September - December, 2010) examined a broad set of Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) Design Reference Missions (DRMs), evaluating such factors as elements, performance, technologies, schedule, and cost. At end of HEFT Phase 1, an architecture concept known as DRM 4a represented the best available option for a full capability NEO mission. Within DRM4a, the habitation system was provided by Deep Space Habitat (DSH), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) pressurized elements. HEFT Phase 2 extended DRM4a, resulting in DRM4b. Scrubbed element-level functionality assumptions and mission Concepts of Operations. Habitation Team developed more detailed concepts of the DSH and the DSH/MMSEV/CTV Conops, including functionality and accommodations, mass & volume estimates, technology requirements, and DDT&E costs. DRM 5 represented an effort to reduce cost by scaling back on technologies and eliminating the need for the development of an MMSEV.

  14. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes In Florida Phase I: Shallow and Deep Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Sutherland, K.; Chasar, D.; Montemurno, J.; Amos, B.; Kono, J.

    2016-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program, in collaboration with Florida Power and Light (FPL), conducted a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program. This research sought to establish impacts on annual energy and peak energy reductions from the technologies applied at two levels of retrofit - shallow and deep, with savings levels approaching the Building America program goals of reducing whole-house energy use by 40%. Under the Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, we have installed phased, energy-efficiency retrofits in a sample of 56 existing, all-electric homes. End-use savings and economic evaluation results from the phased measure packages and single measures are summarized in this report. Project results will be of interest to utility program designers, weatherization evaluators, and the housing remodel industry. Shallow retrofits were conducted in all homes from March to June 2013. The measures for this phase were chosen based on ease of installation, targeting lighting (CFLs and LED lamps), domestic hot water (wraps and showerheads), refrigeration (cleaning of coils), pool pump (reduction of operating hours), and the home entertainment center (smart plugs). Deep retrofits were conducted on a subset of ten PDR homes from May 2013 through March 2014. Measures included new air source heat pumps, duct repair, ceiling insulation, heat pump water heaters, variable speed pool pumps and learning thermostats. Major appliances such as refrigerators and dishwashers were replaced where they were old and inefficient.

  15. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  16. Deep Transcriptomic Profiling of M1 Macrophages Lacking Trpc3

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Solanki, Sumeet; Atolagbe, Oluwatomisin T.; Joe, Bina; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies using mice with macrophage-specific loss of TRPC3 we found a significant, selective effect of TRPC3 on the biology of M1, or inflammatory macrophages. Whereas activation of some components of the unfolded protein response and the pro-apoptotic mediators CamkII and Stat1 was impaired in Trpc3-deficient M1 cells, gathering insight about other molecular signatures within macrophages that might be affected by Trpc3 expression requires an alternative approach. In the present study we conducted RNA-seq analysis to interrogate the transcriptome of M1 macrophages derived from mice with macrophage-specific loss of TRPC3 and their littermate controls. We identified 160 significantly differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 62 were upregulated and 98 downregulated in control vs. Trpc3-deficient M1 macrophages. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment in processes associated to cellular movement and lipid signaling, whereas the enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways included networks for calcium signaling and cell adhesion molecules, among others. This is the first deep transcriptomic analysis of macrophages in the context of Trpc3 deficiency and the data presented constitutes a unique resource to further explore functions of TRPC3 in macrophage biology. PMID:28051144

  17. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would that well earn for my lease? 203.31 Section 203.31... Royalty Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.31 If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

  18. The Effect of Borehole Flow on Salinity Profiles From Deep Monitor Wells in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, K.; Hunt, C. D.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water resource management in Hawaii is based partly on salinity profiles from deep wells that are used to monitor the thickness of freshwater lenses and the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater. Vertical borehole flow in these wells may confound understanding of the actual salinity-depth profiles in the basaltic aquifers and lead to misinterpretations that hamper effective water-resource management. Causes and effects of borehole flow on salinity profiles are being evaluated at 40 deep monitor wells in Hawaii. Step- like changes in fluid electrical conductivity with respect to depth are indicative of borehole flow and are evident in almost all available salinity profiles. A regional trend in borehole flow direction, expected from basin-wide ground-water flow dynamics, is evident as major downward flow components in inland recharge areas and major upward flow components in discharge areas near the coast. The midpoint of the transition zone in one deep monitor well showed inconsequential depth displacements in response to barometric pressure and tidal fluctuations and to pumping from nearby wellfields. Commonly, the 1 mS/cm conductivity value is used to indicate the top of the transition zone. Contrary to the more stable midpoint, the depth of the 1 mS/cm conductivity value may be displaced by as much as 200 m in deep monitor wells near pumping wellfields. The displacement is complemented with an increase in conductivity at a particular depth in the upper part of the profile. The observed increase in conductivity is linear with increase in nearby pumpage. The largest deviations from expected aquifer-salinity profiles occur in deep monitor wells located in the area extending from east Pearl Harbor to Kalihi on Oahu, which coincides with the most heavily pumped part of the aquifer.

  19. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-08-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  20. Afghanistan environmental profile. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Afghanistan's environment, already scarred by 12 years of conflict, is likely to undergo severe stress as external and internal refugees are resettled, according to this preliminary environmental profile. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 discusses the state of Afghanistan's environment in 1978 prior to the Soviet invasion, while Chapter 3 documents the environmental impacts of events since that time, including population relocation, deforestation, and locust and sunn-pest infestations. Chapter 4 examines major environmental areas (vegetation, wildlife, soil erosion, pesticides, public health, environmental infrastructure, energy, and air quality) with respect to both existing conditions and what is likely to occur when resettlement begins in earnest. Chapter 5 presents potential mitigation measures, including a set of environmental guidelines for the Government of Afghanistan. Chapter 6 discusses the Geographic Information System being developed under USAID's Agricultural Services Support Program; it discusses the extent to which GIS data can contribute to environmental studies, and vice versa.

  1. Temporal profile of improvement of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Mewes, Klaus; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Gross, Robert E.; Triche, Shirley D.; Jinnah, H.A.; Boulis, Nicholas; Willie, Jon T.; Freeman, Alan; Alexander, Garrett E.; Aia, Pratibha; Butefisch, Cathrine M.; Esper, Christine D.; Factor, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several case reports and small series have indicated that tardive dystonia is responsive to globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. Whether different subtypes or distributions of tardive dystonia are associated with different outcomes remains unknown. Methods We assessed the outcomes and temporal profile of improvement of eight tardive dystonia patients who underwent globus pallidus deep brain stimulation over the past six years through record review. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, it was not blinded or placebo controlled. Results: Consistent with previous studies, deep brain stimulation improved the overall the Burkee–Fahn–Marsden motor scores by 85.1 ± 13.5%. The distributions with best responses in descending order were upper face, lower face, larynx/pharynx, limbs, trunk, and neck. Patients with prominent cervical dystonia demonstrated improvement in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale but improvements took several months. In four patients the effects of deep brain stimulation on improvement in Burke Fahn Marsden score was rapid, while in four cases there was partial rapid response of neck and trunk dystonia followed by was gradual resolution of residual symptoms over 48 months. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis shows excellent resolution of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. We found instantaneous response, except with neck and trunk dystonia where partial recovery was followed by further resolution at slower rate. Such outcome is encouraging for using deep brain stimulation in treatment of tardive dystonia. PMID:25465373

  2. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events.

  3. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Kirby, S H; Durham, W B; Stern, L A

    1991-04-12

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events.

  4. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease or in my unit? 203.33 Section 203.33... Royalty Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.33 To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on...

  5. Structure of Precambrian crust in the U. S. from COCORP deep seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D. )

    1992-01-01

    COCORP and industry seismic reflection profiles probing beneath the thin veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the US mid-continent are mapping a complex, largely unknown three dimensional mosaic of major fault zones and sutures, a highly variable Moho, and extensive sequences of unexplored volcanic and/or sedimentary strata. Key features of the Precambrian suggested by COCORP and other deep profiling include: Pervasive, distributed reflectivity, often diffractive, dominating the middle and lower crust. Moho that is rarely reflective, usually evident as a downward transition of distributed crustal reflectivity into mantle transparency. Volcano-clastic filled graben of the late Proterozoic Keweenawan rift buried beneath Paleozoic strata in Kansas and Michigan. Extensive, subhorizontal Precambrian stratification in the upper crust beneath the east- central US and the Texas-Oklahoma border region, argued to be either an extensive volcano-clastic basin, a voluminous felsic volcanic outpouring or a major intrusive sill complex. Crustal penetrating, dipping reflection zones that mark known (Grenville front) or inferred (Cashocton zone, Trans-Hudson orogen) shear zones. Non-reflective ( ) basement beneath the Appalachian foreland suggesting transparent massifs'' that serve as collisional buttresses during terrane accretion. Deep structure is sometimes at odds with simple extrapolations of surface geology. Clearly deep seismic profiling has only begun to reveal the buried craton in the US. It is time for an integrated program for the systematic exploration of this special scientific frontier.

  6. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would my lease earn? 203.41 Section 203.41 Mineral... Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.41 If I...

  7. The design and characterization of an ultrasound phased array suitable for deep tissue hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Adam H; Mills, John A; Wilson, Adrian J

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we describe the design and evaluation of a planar phased-array ultrasound transducer suitable for producing localized hyperthermia in solid tumors deep within the body. Simulation using a customized version of Ultrasim has been used to determine the relationship between the size and position of the focus and parameters of the array. These parameters include the overall size of the array and the size, shape and distribution of the individual elements. A 15-element prototype array has been constructed using the results of the simulation. Beam profile measurements on this transducer made in an acoustic tank were compared with the beam profile predicted by simulation. The results showed good agreement in the shape of the focal region, but with the focus closer to the surface of the physical transducer when compared with the simulation and with small high-intensity areas between the surface of the transducer and the focus in the measured profile. A sensitivity analysis using a simulated factorial experiment indicated that the presence of a secondary vibrational mode within the elements of the array was the principal cause for both the shift in the position of the focus and for the unwanted maxima close to the surface of the array. The results also showed that the array was tolerant of a large variation in output intensity of the individual elements in the array in producing a focal region. Extrapolation of the results obtained in this study indicate that an array of 60 elements, based on the design described, driven by 550 V peak-to-peak pulses would be capable of producing a peak focal intensity of 50 Wcm(-2) at a depth of 60 mm in tissue, which would be appropriate for hyperthermia used as an adjunct to radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

  8. Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

  9. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  10. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Marina A; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labeling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  11. The ESCIN-3-1 deep seismic profile in the northwestern Galicia margin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Ayarza, P.; Torne, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESCIN-3.1 profile was acquired in 1993 offshore northwest Galicia (Spain), and recorded 20 s of near vertical reflection seismic data. This 140 km long profile was intended to provide an image of the crustal structure of this sector of the continental margin from near the coastline to the deep-sea area. The tectonic evolution of the northwest Galicia margin initiated by rifting during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times and progressed to sea floor spreading during Albian- Late Cretaceous times when the Bay of Biscay opened. Subsequently, the margin was active during the convergence of Eurasia and Iberia in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Here we present a new interpretation of the mentioned profile based on a newly reprocessed depth migrated image and corresponding gravity model. In the deep-sea areas, a free-air gravity low reach up to - 120 mGal and the sea bottom is at more than 5000 m deep. The 7 km thick flat lying undisturbed sedimentary cover appears above a 10 km thick, ~120 Ma old oceanic basement. This flat sediments onlap toward the ocean-continent transition on a folded and disturbed 20 km long wedge shaped sedimentary body. A major landward dipping structure reaches from the foot of the slope to beneath the sub horizontal Moho of the continental slope. The slope has a gentle dip of about 2° in this section, and include large mass flow deposits. Fault bound sediments are imaged in the upper continental margin that could correspond to preserved syn-rift Mesozoic structures. The structure of what correspond to the continental basement in the thicker part of the margin is not well resolved. Only in the landward side of the profile a layered lower crust is seen where the Moho reaches depths of 29 km. The ocean-continent transition in this profile may be interpreted as that of an active compressional boundary with some accretion of deep-sea sediments that are underthrust by a thinned continental margin with large submarine landslides and mass flow

  12. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral... Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.40 Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep...

  13. Semiconductor steady state defect effective Fermi level and deep level transient spectroscopy depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Ken K.; Cheng, Zimeng

    2016-09-01

    The widely used deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) theory and data analysis usually assume that the defect level distribution is uniform through the depth of the depletion region of the n—p junction. In this work we introduce the concept of effective Fermi level of the steady state of semiconductor, by using which deep level transient spectroscopy depth profiling (DLTSDP) is proposed. Based on the relationship of its transition free energy level (TFEL) and the effective Fermi level, the rules of detectivity of the defect levels are listed. Computer simulation of DLTSDP is presented and compared with experimental data. The experimental DLTS data are compared with what the DLTSDP selection rules predicted. The agreement is satisfactory.

  14. Deep seismic soundings on the 1-AP profile in the Barents Sea: Methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoulina, T. S.; Kashubin, S. N.; Pavlenkova, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Profile 1-AP with a length of 1300 km intersects the Barents Sea from The Kola Peninsula to Franz Josef Land. The combined Common Depth Point (CDP) and Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) seismic studies were carried out on this profile. The DSS measurements were conducted with the standalone bottom seismic stations with an interval of 5-20 km between them. The stations recorded the signals generated by the large air guns with a step of 250 m. Based on these data, the detailed P-velocity section of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle have been constructed for the entire profile and the S-velocity section for its southern part. The use of a variety of methods for constructing the velocity sections enabled us to assess the capabilities of each method from the standpoint of the highest reliability and informativity of the models. The ray tracing method yielded the best results. The 1-PR profile crosses two large basins—the South Barents and North Barents ones, with the thickness of the sediments increasing from 8 to 10 km in the south to 12-15 km in the north. The Earth's crust pertains to the continental type along the entire profile. Its thickness averages 32 to 36 km and only increases to 43 km at the boundary between the two basins. The distinct change in the wave field at this boundary suggests the presence of a large deep fault in this zone. The high-velocity blocks are revealed in the crust of the South Barents basin, whereas the North Barents crust is characterized by relatively low velocities.

  15. Laser nitriding of iron: Nitrogen profiles and phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illgner, C.; Schaaf, P.; Lieb, K. P.; Schubert, E.; Queitsch, R.; Bergmann, H.-W.

    1995-07-01

    Armco iron samples were surface nitrided by irradiating them with pulses of an excimer laser in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting nitrogen depth profiles measured by Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (RNRA) and the phase formation determined by Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) were investigated as functions of energy density and the number of pulses. The nitrogen content of the samples was found to be independent of the number of pulses in a layer of 50 nm from the surface and to increase in depths exceeding 150 nm. The phase composition did not change with the number of pulses. The nitrogen content can be related to an enhanced nitrogen solubility based on high temperatures and high pressures due to the laser-induced plasma above the sample. With increasing pulse energy density, the phase composition changes towards phases with higher nitrogen contents. Nitrogen diffusion seems to be the limiting factor for the nitriding process.

  16. Venus - On the phase variation of CO2 line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macy, W., Jr.; Trafton, L.; Barker, E.

    1977-01-01

    The shapes of Venus' CO2 profiles are found to vary with solar phase angle. High-resolution spectra of the P16 and P14 lines in the 8689- and 7820-A bands, respectively, are presented for phase angles ranging from 6 to 158 deg. The scattering mean free path at 80 mbar, approximately the effective pressure, is 1.7 km. Use of the van de Hulst (1974) similarity relations with simple parametric scattering models is inadequate to separate effects due to the scattering phase function from those due to inhomogeneities in depth when one attempts to determine the atmospheric structure by fitting a family of such models over a wide range of phase angles.

  17. Deep seismic structure of the Earth's crust along the Baltic Sea profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, A. A.; Flueh, E. R.; Luosto, U.

    1994-05-01

    In summer of 1989 the Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) for the first time used a new large volume airgun for deep seismic sounding (DSS) in the Baltic Sea. The experiment was carried out during the 23-rd cruise of R/V Professor Shtockman. The wave-field analysis showed clear P and S wave arrivals, including Moho reflections. The Moho reflections were distinctly observed at distances exceeding 100 km. The P waves can be followed to a maximum distance of 368 km. Two-dimensional raytracing modelling of the data revealed a pronounced topography of the Moho along the BALTIC SEA profile: a depression in the middle of the profile at a depth of 45 km is bounded by 2-3 km steps and uplifts on both sides. Reflections off a sub-Moho boundary at a depth of 60 km have also been recorded. The upper mantle velocities vary between 7.8 km/s under the depression to 8.1 km/s to the side of it. The crustal P waves velocities define three layers: 5.8-6.3, 6.3-6.7 and 6.9-7.1 km/s. All crustal velocity boundaries bend over the Moho depression and reach their deepest points in the central part of the profile. The velocities in the crust also change laterally, reaching their minimum within the central depression. The crustal thickness along the profile varies notably between 38 and 45 km. A comparison with the FENNOLORA and the BABEL B profiles indicates that the Moho depression found along the BALTIC SEA profile correlates with similar depressions on the other profiles.

  18. Deep Learning the Quantum Phase Transitions in Random Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2016-12-01

    Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed.

  19. Characterization of water extractable organic matter in a deep soil profile.

    PubMed

    Corvasce, Maddalena; Zsolnay, Adam; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lopez, Raffaele; Miano, Teodoro M

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify qualitative and quantitative differences of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) isolated from each horizon along a deep soil profile and to evaluate any relationship between the WEOC and the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The soil profile "Monte Pietroso" is located in the Murge area, Apulia region in Southern Italy. Samples from the eight horizons (Ap1, Ap2, Ab1, Ab2, Bt1, 2B, 2Bt2, and 2B/C) were collected in October 2002. The WEOM characterization was carried out by means of UV absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission and excitation/emission matrix (EEM) modes, and additional spectroscopic derived indexes. Soil organic carbon was shown to accumulate in the top horizons (Ap) and, in general, to decrease with depth, whereas, the WEOM/TOC ratio increases with increasing depth. The aromaticity and the humification index of the WEOM decrease dramatically downward the soil profile, whereas the fluorescence efficiency index tends to increase markedly. The WEOM fractions feature three main fluorophores with different wavelength and relative intensity. In general WEOM transport phenomena are suggested to occur downward the soil profile, depending on the nature of the organic material and on the chemical and mineral characteristics of the various horizons.

  20. Deep water current profile measurements for operational support and design statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A.N.; Stephens, R.V.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the use of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) to provide real-time current profile information for drilling vessels operating in deep water and also discusses the quality control and post-processing of associated recorded data to provide design current statistics. Experience gained from many such deployments over the last seven years is drawn upon to make specific recommendations for instrument system configuration and data management procedures. Practicalities and limitations of the use of ADCPs from drilling vessels are also discussed. Consideration is given to mooring design details specific to this type of deployment. Practical measurement difficulties are examined such as data contamination due to direct acoustic signal reflection from sub-sea drilling components and also the case of operating in an environment of high background acoustic noise associated with vessel dynamic positioning. Quality control procedures are discussed, both for the current profile data displayed in real-time for operational support and for subsequent post-analysis of recorded data. The paper is concluded with examples of specific details of current profile structure which have been identified using rigmounted ADCPs but would not have been possible to observe using any other measurement technology.

  1. Deep mantle structure and the postperovskite phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Helmberger, D.; Lay, T.; Ni, S.; Gurnis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Seismologists have known for many years that the lowermost mantle of the Earth is complex. Models based on observed seismic phases sampling this region include relatively sharp horizontal discontinuities with strong zones of anisotropy, nearly vertical contrasts in structure, and small pockets of ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs). This diversity of structures is beginning to be understood in terms of geodynamics and mineral physics, with dense partial melts causing the ULVZs and a postperovskite solid–solid phase transition producing regional layering, with the possibility of large-scale variations in chemistry. This strong heterogeneity has significant implications on heat transport out of core, the evolution of the magnetic field, and magnetic field polarity reversals. PMID:16217029

  2. Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.

    1994-01-01

    The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.

  3. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    A major sodium accumulation has been recognized for long and by numerous authors in the Permo-Triassic salt deposits (Hay et al., 2006). Beside these basinal deposits, important masses of sodium were stored on the continents within deep palaeoweathering profiles in form of albite. Indeed, wide surfaces and huge volumes of granito-gneissic basements of the Hercynian massifs are albitized from North-Africa up to Scandinavia. These albitized rocks have usually been considered as related to tardi-magmatic metasomatic processes (Cathelineau 1986; Petersson and Eliasson 1997). Geometrical arrangement and dating of these alterations point out that these albitizations, or at least a part of them, developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation with the Triassic palaeosurface (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009). Petrology The albitized igneous rocks show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, replacement of primary biotite by chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. Albitized rocks are characterized by their pink coloration due to the presence of minute haematite inclusions in the albite. The development and distribution of the albitization and related alterations above the unaltered basement occurs in three steps that define a vertical profile, up to 100-150 m depth. 1) In the lower part of the profile, albitization occurs within pink-colored patches in the unaltered rock, giving a pink-spotted aspect to the rock. 2) In the middle part of the profile, rocks have an overall pink coloration due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing igneous plagioclases. Usually, this facies develops in a pervasive manner, affecting the whole rock, but it may also be restricted to joints, giving a sharp-pink coloration to the fracture wall. 3) Finally, the top of the profile is defined by the same mineral paragenesis as in the

  4. Chloride as a signature indicator of soil textural and hydrologic stratigraphies in variable charge deep profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiah, V.; Armour, J. D.; Menzies, N. W.

    2005-06-01

    Soil properties that influence water movement through profiles are important for determining flow paths, reactions between soil and solute, and the ultimate destination of solutes. This is particularly important in high rainfall environments. For highly weathered deep profiles, we hypothesize that abrupt changes in the distribution of the quotient [QT = (silt + sand)/clay] reflect the boundaries between textural units or textural (TS) and hydrologic (HS) stratigraphies. As a result, QT can be used as a parameter to characterize TS and as a surrogate for HS. Secondly, we propose that if chloride distributions were correlated with QT, under non-limiting anion exchange, then chloride distributions can be used as a signature indicator of TS and HS. Soil cores to a depth of 12.5 m were taken from 16 locations in the wet tropical Johnstone River catchment of northeast Queensland, Australia. The cores belong to nine variable charge soil types and were under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum-S) production, which included the use of potassium chloride, for several decades. The cores were segmented at 1 m depth increments and subsamples were analysed for chloride, pH, soil water content (), clay, silt and sand contents. Selected bores were capped to serve as piezometers to monitor groundwater dynamics. Depth incremented QT, and chloride correlated, each individually, significantly with the corresponding profile depth increments, indicating the presence of textural, hydrologic and chloride gradients in profiles. However, rapid increases in QT down the profile indicated abrupt changes in TS, suggesting that QT can be used as a parameter to characterize TS and as a surrogate for HS. Abrupt changes in chloride distributions were similar to QT, suggesting that chloride distributions can be used as a signature indicator of QT (TS) and HS. Groundwater data indicated that chloride distributions depended, at least partially, on groundwater dynamics, providing further support to our

  5. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION...

  6. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would my lease earn? 203.41 Section 203.41 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF...

  7. Generation of Data-Rate Profiles of Ka-Band Deep-Space Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin

    2006-01-01

    A short report discusses a methodology for designing Ka-band Deep-Space-to- Earth radio-communication links. This methodology is oriented toward minimizing the effects of weather on the Ka-band telecommunication link by maximizing the expected data return subject to minimum link availability and a limited number of data rates. This methodology differs from the current standard practices in which a link is designed according to a margin policy for a given link availability at 10 elevation. In this methodology, one chooses a data-rate profile that will maximize the average data return over a pass while satisfying a minimum-availability requirement for the pass, subject to mission operational limitations expressed in terms of the number of data rates used during the pass. The methodology is implemented in an intelligent search algorithm that first finds the allowable data-rate profiles from the mission constraints, spacecraft-to-Earth distance, spacecraft EIRP (effective isotropic radiated power), and the applicable zenith atmospheric noise temperature distribution, and then selects the best data rate in terms of maximum average data return from the set of allowable data-rate profiles.

  8. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep wells on my lease? 203.43 Section 203.43... Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.43 To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

  9. Deep seismic reflection profiling of sedimentary basins offshore Brazil: Geological objectives and preliminary results in the Sergipe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Lira Rabelo, JoséHenrique; De Matos, Renato Darros; De Barros, Mozart C.

    1995-12-01

    The first deep seismic reflection profiles offshore Brazil were acquired in Campos Basin and processed to 10 s TWT in 1984. Starting in 1989, Petrobrás acquired an extensive data set of deep seismic profiles using special acquisition equipment capable of effectively penetrating through the sedimentary layers and imaging the whole crustal architecture. These deep (18 s TWT) seismic reflection profiles extend across the Atlantic-type marginal basins, from the platform to the deepwater province, presently considered frontier regions for petroleum exploration. This work addresses the geological objectives of a deep seismic profile in the Sergipe Basin and discusses the results obtained by integrating regional seismic, gravity and magnetic data. When combined, these data provide evidence that deep seismic reflectors observed in the Sergipe Basin are related to intracrustal-upper mantle structures rather than sedimentary features. The deep seismic reflection profile in the Sergipe Basin also suggests that, rather than a non-volcanic passive margin, the deepwater extension of this basin is marked by several magmatic structures, including thick wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors and volcanic plugs. These magmatic features are associated with basinforming processes resulting from lithospheric extension during the breakup of Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous and subsequent emplacement of oceanic crust. These results are compared to the crustal scale structures observed in the Campos Basin, in the southeastern margin of Brazil. The interpretation of the deep structure of these basins indicates that final separation between the South American and African plates formed passive margins characterized by different patterns of crustal attenuation underlying the rift blocks.

  10. Distance and velocity detection based on a deep sinusoidal phase-modulated interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chien, P Y; Chang, Y S; Chang, M W

    1995-10-01

    A deep phase-modulation signal with a sinusoidal waveform is employed on a Michelson interferometer for detecting distance and velocity signals simultaneously. This approach is simple to implement and has a wide-dynamic-range capability with a linear scale factor.

  11. Anatomy of the southern Cordilleran hingeline, Utah and Nevada, from deep electrical resistivity profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Stodt, J.A.; Johnston, J.M.; Booker, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    To address outstanding questions in Mesozoic-Cenozoic structure and present-day deep physicochemical state in the region of the southern Cordilleran hingeline, a detailed, east-west profile of magnetotelluric (MT) soundings 155 km in length was acquired. From these soundings, a resistivity interpretation was produced using an inversion algorithm based on a structural parameterization. In the upper ten kilometers of the transect, the interpretation shows two segments of low resistivity lying beneath allochthonous rocks of the Late Mesozoic, Sevier thrust sheet. Subsequent industry drilling motivated in part by this surveying confirms the existence and position of the eastern subthrust conductor and, more spectacularly, identifies the presence of yet deeper, autochthonous Mesozoic rocks. A simple structural interpretation is offered where one underthrust segment of low-resistivity sediments was created originally, but this segment was broken later into two major ones during higher-angle Tertiary extension. For the middle and lower crust, the MT data imply a nearly 1-D resistivity structure of remarkable uniformity across the entire transect. Pre-existing structural fabrics have had no measurable influence on localizing regions of high temperature fluids and melting in the lower crust, at least averaged over the scale of tens of kilometers. Given its uniformity over a distance of 155 km or more, the depth to the regional deep conductor does not appear related to the distribution of high-temperature geothermal resources.

  12. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT...-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.31 If I have a qualified phase 2...

  13. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  14. Gouy phase shift for annular beam profiles in attosecond experiments.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, F; Ludwig, A; Lucchini, M; Kasmi, L; Volkov, M; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2017-02-20

    Attosecond pump-probe measurements are typically performed by combining attosecond pulses with more intense femtosecond, phase-locked infrared (IR) pulses because of the low average photon flux of attosecond light sources based on high-harmonic generation (HHG). Furthermore, the strong absorption of materials at the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths of the attosecond pulses typically prevents the use of transmissive optics. As a result, pump and probe beams are typically recombined geometrically with a center-hole mirror that reflects the larger IR beam and transmits the smaller XUV, which leads to an annular beam profile of the IR. This modification of the IR beam can affect the pump-probe measurements because the propagation that follows the reflection on the center-hole mirror can strongly deviate from that of an ideal Gaussian beam. Here we present a detailed experimental study of the Gouy phase of an annular IR beam across the focus using a two-foci attosecond beamline and the RABBITT (reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions) technique. Our measurements show a Gouy phase shift of the truncated beam as large as 2π and a corresponding rate of 50 as/mm time delay change across the focus in a RABBITT measurement. These results are essential for attosecond pump-probe experiments that compare measurements of spatially separated targets.

  15. Direct phase-shift measurement with transmitted deep-UV illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunose, Haruhiko; Awamura, Naoki; Takizawa, Hideo; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ode, Takahiro; Awamura, Daikichi

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a direct phase-shift measurement system with transmitted deep-UV illumination for phase shifting mask (PSM) using a lateral shearing interferometer system. This interferometer has new structure developed for this purpose. The mirror mount of the interferometer is made of SiC ceramics that promote stability against vibration and ambient temperature drift. The illumination employs a xenon mercury arc lamp that has a spectrum close to the wavelength of KrF excimer laser. The repeatability of measurements is 0.5 degree in 3 sigma. The system can measure a small pattern down to 1 μm with an alternating type PSM with the objective of N.A.=0.4. Influence of incident angle of illumination on phase-shift measurement is investigated by experiment. The results show similar effects with simulation for circular illumination. The phase-shift measurement results on quartz step meet well with a calculation from step height and known refractive index including the effect of incident angle of illumination. The deep-UV measurement results also have good correlation with calculations from the results with another direct phase-shift measurement system that wavelength is 365nm. The simulation for focus latitude of alternating type PSMs agree with the experimental results of wafer exposure and the phase measurement. The accuracy of this system is sufficient for application to development of phase shift mask process.

  16. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-02-12

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  17. Review of recent results from continental deep seismic profiling in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goleby, Bruce R.; Drummond, Barry J.; Korsch, Russell J.; Willcox, J. Barry; O'Brien, Geoffrey W.; Wake-Dyster, Kevin D.

    1994-04-01

    The Australian Geological Survey Organisation regularly collects 450-500 km of onshore deep seismic reflection data and up to 4500 km offshore each year in Australia. These recordings are made in a wide range of tectonic provinces, including, in the last few years, late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic intracontinental and Palaeozoic-Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental margin extensional basins, moderately deformed Palaeozoic transtensional basins and compressional fold belts, and Archaean greenstone terranes. Several of these provinces are major petroleum exploration provinces, whereas others contain significant mineral deposits. The primary purpose of the deep seismic profiling program is to resolve the tectonic history of the Australian continent, and thereby to encourage exploration for hydrocarbons and mineral resources in Australia. On the northwest Australian continental margin, major basin systems including the Bonaparte Basin, formed as a result of complex interactions since the Carboniferous, involving episodes of extension followed by strike-slip movements and inversion, which reactivated both the primary extensional and ancient basement structures. Off southeastern Australia, basins such as the Gippsland Basin formed as part of a linked transtensional system related to movement on a common mid-crustal detachment complex. On continental Australia, the Bowen Basin, in the northeast, was deformed by thrust faults that root in a major E-dipping detachment that flattens in the middle crust. The Cobar Basin, in the southeast, is a case where the seismic data support a detachment model in which the upper plate displacement vector can be calculated by plate reconstructions linking the geometry of the detachment surface with that of the basin. The greenstone terranes within the Eastern Goldfields region of Western Australia show crustal-scale fault systems that are planar and steep dipping, more in keeping with those interpreted in data from other Precambrian provinces rather than

  18. Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1ω7 and 18:1ω9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  19. Metastable mantle phase transformations and deep earthquakes in subducting oceanic lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stein, S.; Okal, E.A.; Rubie, David C.

    1996-01-01

    Earth's deepest earthquakes occur as a population in subducting or previously subducted lithosphere at depths ranging from about 325 to 690 km. This depth interval closely brackets the mantle transition zone, characterized by rapid seismic velocity increases resulting from the transformation of upper mantle minerals to higher-pressure phases. Deep earthquakes thus provide the primary direct evidence for subduction of the lithosphere to these depths and allow us to investigate the deep thermal, thermodynamic, and mechanical ferment inside slabs. Numerical simulations of reaction rates show that the olivine ??? spinel transformation should be kinetically hindered in old, cold slabs descending into the transition zone. Thus wedge-shaped zones of metastable peridotite probably persist to depths of more than 600 km. Laboratory deformation experiments on some metastable minerals display a shear instability called transformational faulting. This instability involves sudden failure by localized superplasticity in thin shear zones where the metastable host mineral transforms to a denser, finer-grained phase. Hence in cold slabs, such faulting is expected for the polymorphic reactions in which olivine transforms to the spinel structure and clinoenstatite transforms to ilmenite. It is thus natural to hypothesize that deep earthquakes result from transformational faulting in metastable peridotite wedges within cold slabs. This consideration of the mineralogical states of slabs augments the traditional largely thermal view of slab processes and explains some previously enigmatic slab features. It explains why deep seismicity occurs only in the approximate depth range of the mantle transition zone, where minerals in downgoing slabs should transform to spinel and ilmenite structures. The onset of deep shocks at about 325 km is consistent with the onset of metastability near the equilibrium phase boundary in the slab. Even if a slab penetrates into the lower mantle, earthquakes

  20. Orogenic structure of the Eastern Alps, Europe, from TRANSALP deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüschen, Ewald; Lammerer, Bernd; Gebrande, Helmut; Millahn, Karl; Nicolich, Rinaldo; Transalp Working Group

    2004-09-01

    The TRANSALP Group, comprising of partner institutions from Italy, Austria and Germany, acquired data on a 340 km long deep seismic reflection line crossing the Eastern Alps between Munich and Venice. Although the field work was split into four campaigns, between fall 1998 and summer 2001, the project gathered for the first time a continuous profile across the Alps using consistent field acquisition and data processing parameters. These sections span the orogen itself, at its broadest width, as well as the editor Fred Davey and the two adjacent basins. Vibroseis and explosion data, complementary in their depth penetration and resolution characteristics, were obtained along with wide-angle and teleseismic data. The profile shows a bi-vergent asymmetric structure of the crust beneath the Alpine axis which reaches a maximum thickness of 55 km, and 80-100 km long transcrustal ramps, the southward dipping 'Sub-Tauern-Ramp' and the northward-dipping 'Sub-Dolomites-Ramp'. Strongly reflective patterns of these ramps can be traced towards the north to the Inn Valley and towards the south to the Valsugana thrust belt, both of which show enhanced seismicity in the brittle upper crust. The seismic sections do not reveal any direct evidence for the presence of the Periadriatic Fault system, the presumed equivalent to the Insubric Line in the Western Alps. According to our new evolutionary model, the Sub-Tauern-Ramp is linked at depth with remnants of the subducted Penninic Ocean. The 'crocodile'-type model describes an upper/lower crustal decoupling and wedging of both the European and the Adriatic-African continents.

  1. The Mechanics of Deep Earthquakes: An Experimental Investigation of Slab Phase Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangeli, J. R.; Dobson, D. P.; Hunt, S. A.; Meredith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanics of deep earthquakes have remained a puzzle for researchers since 1928 when they were first accurately identified by Kiyoo Wadati1 in Japan. Deep earthquakes show a split distribution, with peaks centered around ~370-420km and ~520-550km. As these events are limited to subducting slabs, it is accepted that they may be due to phase changes in metastable slab material. Indeed, conditions at ~350km depth are nominally appropriate for the olivine - wadsleyite transition, consistent with the anticrack mechanism previously observed in (Mg,Fe)2SiO42. The additional peak around 520km suggests that there is another siesmogenic phase change; candidates include Ca-garnet -> Ca-perovskite, wadsleyite -> ringwoodite and enstatite -> majorite or ilmenite. Importantly, for large scale seismogenesis to occur candidate phase changes must be susceptible to a runaway mechanism. Typically this involves the release of heat during exothermic reactions, which acts to increase reaction and nucleation rates. It is worth noting that the post-spinel reaction (sp -> pv + fp) marks the cessation of deep earthquakes; possibly as a result of being endothermic. This research aims to identify which of these candidates could be responsible for seismogenesis. We use high-pressure split cylinder multi-anvil experiments with acoustic emission detection. Low-pressure analogue materials have been used to allow greater cell sizes and thus sample volumes to enable accurate location of AE to within the sample. The candidate phase is annealed below its phase boundary, and then taken through the boundary by further compression. Acoustic emissions, if generated, are observed in real time and later processed to ensure they emanate from within the sample volume. Initial results indicate that the pryroxene -> ilmenite transition in MgGeO3 is seismogenic, with several orders of magnitude increase in the energy of AE concurrent with the phase boundary. References:1) Wadati, K. (1928) Shallow and deep

  2. Transcriptional profiling of CRP-regulated genes in deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    PubMed

    Jian, Huahua; Hu, Jing; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-09-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a conserved regulator in bacteria and involved in regulation of energy metabolism, such as glucose, galactose, and citrate (Green et al., 2014 [1]). As an important catabolite activator protein, it has been well characterized in model microorganism such as Escherichia coli. However, our understanding of the roles of CRP in deep-sea bacteria is rather limited. To indentify the function of CRP, we performed whole genome transcriptional profiling using a custom designed microarray which contains 95% open reading frames of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from West Pacific sediment at a depth of 1914 m (Xiao et al., 2007 [2]; Wang et al., 2008 [3]). Here we describe the experimental procedures and methods in detail to reproduce the results (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE67731 and GSE67732) and provide resource to be employed for comparative analyses of CRP regulon and the regulatory network of anaerobic respiration in microorganisms which inhabited in different environments, and thus broaden our understanding of mechanism of bacteria against various environment stresses.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of CRP-regulated genes in deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Huahua; Hu, Jing; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a conserved regulator in bacteria and involved in regulation of energy metabolism, such as glucose, galactose, and citrate (Green et al., 2014 [1]). As an important catabolite activator protein, it has been well characterized in model microorganism such as Escherichia coli. However, our understanding of the roles of CRP in deep-sea bacteria is rather limited. To indentify the function of CRP, we performed whole genome transcriptional profiling using a custom designed microarray which contains 95% open reading frames of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from West Pacific sediment at a depth of 1914 m (Xiao et al., 2007 [2]; Wang et al., 2008 [3]). Here we describe the experimental procedures and methods in detail to reproduce the results (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE67731 and GSE67732) and provide resource to be employed for comparative analyses of CRP regulon and the regulatory network of anaerobic respiration in microorganisms which inhabited in different environments, and thus broaden our understanding of mechanism of bacteria against various environment stresses. PMID:26484223

  4. Age-related decrease in TCR repertoire diversity measured with deep and normalized sequence profiling.

    PubMed

    Britanova, Olga V; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Shugay, Mikhail; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Turchaninova, Maria A; Staroverov, Dmitriy B; Bolotin, Dmitriy A; Lukyanov, Sergey; Bogdanova, Ekaterina A; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Lebedev, Yuriy B; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2014-03-15

    The decrease of TCR diversity with aging has never been studied by direct methods. In this study, we combined high-throughput Illumina sequencing with unique cDNA molecular identifier technology to achieve deep and precisely normalized profiling of TCR β repertoires in 39 healthy donors aged 6-90 y. We demonstrate that TCR β diversity per 10(6) T cells decreases roughly linearly with age, with significant reduction already apparent by age 40. The percentage of naive T cells showed a strong correlation with measured TCR diversity and decreased linearly up to age 70. Remarkably, the oldest group (average age 82 y) was characterized by a higher percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells, lower abundance of expanded clones, and increased TCR diversity compared with the previous age group (average age 62 y), suggesting the influence of age selection and association of these three related parameters with longevity. Interestingly, cross-analysis of individual TCR β repertoires revealed a set >10,000 of the most representative public TCR β clonotypes, whose abundance among the top 100,000 clones correlated with TCR diversity and decreased with aging.

  5. Integration of deep transcript and targeted metabolite profiles for eight cultivars of opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Farrow, Scott C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology and analytical mass spectrometry are providing unprecedented opportunities to develop the functional genomics resources required to investigate complex biological processes in non-model plants. Opium poppy produces a wide variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), including the pharmaceutical compounds codeine, morphine, noscapine and papaverine. A functional genomics platform to identify novel BIA biosynthetic and regulatory genes in opium poppy has been established based on the differential metabolite profile of eight selected cultivars. Stem cDNA libraries from each of the eight opium poppy cultivars were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and searchable expressed sequence tag databases were created from the assembled reads. These deep and integrated metabolite and transcript databases provide a nearly complete representation of the genetic and metabolic variances responsible for the differential occurrence of specific BIAs in each cultivar as demonstrated using the biochemically well characterized pathway from tyrosine to morphine. Similar correlations between the occurrence of specific transcripts and alkaloids effectively reveals candidate genes encoding uncharacterized biosynthetic enzymes as shown using cytochromes P450 potentially involved in the formation of papaverine and noscapine.

  6. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  7. Diffraction of a one-dimensional phase grating in the deep Fresnel field.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shuyun; Zhang, Ningyu; Dong, Qingrui; Cheng, Chuanfu

    2007-11-01

    We analyze theoretically the diffraction of phase gratings in the deep Fresnel field on the basis of the theory of scalar diffraction and Green's theorem and present the general formula for the diffraction intensity of a one-dimensional sinusoidal phase grating. The numerical calculations show that in the deep Fresnel region the diffraction distribution can be described by designating three characteristic regions that are influenced by the parameters of the grating. The microlensing effect of the interface of the phase grating provides the corresponding explanation. Moreover, according to the viewpoint that the diffraction intensity distribution is the result of the interference of the diffraction orders of the grating, we find that the diffraction patterns, depending on the carved depth of the phase grating, are determined by the contributing diffraction orders, their relative power, and the quasi-Talbot effect of the phase grating, which results from the second meeting of the diffraction orders carrying most of the power of the total field, as in the case of the amplitude grating.

  8. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C; Ostrem, Jill L; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S; San Luciano, Marta; Galifianakis, Nicholas B; Starr, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly applied for the treatment of brain disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we evaluate the effect of basal ganglia DBS on cortical function using invasive cortical recordings in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery. In the primary motor cortex of PD patients, neuronal population spiking is excessively synchronized to the phase of network oscillations. This manifests in brain surface recordings as exaggerated coupling between the phase of the beta rhythm and the amplitude of broadband activity. We show that acute therapeutic DBS reversibly reduces phase-amplitude interactions over a similar time course as that of the reduction in parkinsonian motor signs. We propose that DBS of the basal ganglia improves cortical function by alleviating excessive beta phase locking of motor cortex neurons.

  9. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole; Ostrem, Jill L.; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S.; Luciano, Marta San; Galifianakis, Nicholas; Starr, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly applied to the treatment of brain disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the effect of basal ganglia DBS on cortical function using invasive cortical recordings in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery. In the primary motor cortex of PD patients neuronal population spiking is excessively synchronized to the phase of network oscillations. This manifests in brain surface recordings as exaggerated coupling between the phase of the β rhythm and the amplitude of broadband activity. We show that acute therapeutic DBS reversibly reduces phase-amplitude interactions over a similar time course as reduction in parkinsonian motor signs. We propose that DBS of the basal ganglia improves cortical function by alleviating excessive β phase locking of motor cortex neurons. PMID:25867121

  10. Using ammonium pore water profiles to assess stoichiometry of deep remineralization processes in methanogenic continental margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdige, David J.; Komada, Tomoko

    2013-05-01

    many continental margin sediments, a deep reaction zone exists which is separated from remineralization processes near the sediment surface. Here, methane diffuses upward to a depth where it is oxidized by downwardly diffusing sulfate. However, the methane sources that drive this anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT) may vary among sites. In particular, these sources can be thought of as either (i) "internal" sources from in situ methanogenesis (regardless of where it occurs in the sediment column) that are ultimately coupled to organic matter deposition and burial, or (ii) "external" sources such as hydrocarbon reservoirs derived from ancient source rocks, or deeply buried gas hydrates, both of which are decoupled from contemporaneous organic carbon deposition at the sediment surface. Using a modeling approach, we examine the relationship between different methane sources and pore water sulfate, methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and ammonium profiles. We show that pore water ammonium profiles through the SMT represent an independent "tracer" of remineralization processes occurring in deep sediments that complement information obtained from profiles of solutes directly associated with AOM and carbonate precipitation, i.e., DIC, methane, and sulfate. Pore water DIC profiles also show an inflection point in the SMT based on the type of deep methane source and the presence/absence of accompanying upward DIC fluxes. With these results, we present a conceptual framework which illustrates how shallow pore water profiles from continental margin settings can be used to obtain important information about remineralization processes and methane sources in deep sediments.

  11. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} to (2–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ∼5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} versus 2.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  12. Multiscale deep drawing analysis of dual-phase steels using grain cluster-based RGC scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjanto, D. D.; Eisenlohr, P.; Roters, F.

    2015-06-01

    Multiscale modelling and simulation play an important role in sheet metal forming analysis, since the overall material responses at macroscopic engineering scales, e.g. formability and anisotropy, are strongly influenced by microstructural properties, such as grain size and crystal orientations (texture). In the present report, multiscale analysis on deep drawing of dual-phase steels is performed using an efficient grain cluster-based homogenization scheme. The homogenization scheme, called relaxed grain cluster (RGC), is based on a generalization of the grain cluster concept, where a (representative) volume element consists of p  ×  q  ×  r (hexahedral) grains. In this scheme, variation of the strain or deformation of individual grains is taken into account through the, so-called, interface relaxation, which is formulated within an energy minimization framework. An interfacial penalty term is introduced into the energy minimization framework in order to account for the effects of grain boundaries. The grain cluster-based homogenization scheme has been implemented and incorporated into the advanced material simulation platform DAMASK, which purposes to bridge the macroscale boundary value problems associated with deep drawing analysis to the micromechanical constitutive law, e.g. crystal plasticity model. Standard Lankford anisotropy tests are performed to validate the model parameters prior to the deep drawing analysis. Model predictions for the deep drawing simulations are analyzed and compared to the corresponding experimental data. The result shows that the predictions of the model are in a very good agreement with the experimental measurement.

  13. Constraints on dissipation in the deep interiors of Ganymede and Europa from tidal phase-lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, Hauke; Shoji, Daigo; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Stark, Alexander; Sohl, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Jupiter's satellites are subject to strong tidal forces which result in variations of the gravitational potential and deformations of the satellites' surfaces on the diurnal tidal cycle. Such variations are described by the Love numbers k_2 and h_2 for the tide-induced potential variation due to internal mass redistribution and the radial surface displacement, respectively. The phase-lags φ _{k_2} and φ _{h_2} of these complex numbers contain information about the rheological and dissipative states of the satellites. Starting from interior structure models and assuming a Maxwell rheology to compute the tidal deformation, we calculate the phase-lags in application to Ganymede and Europa. For both satellites we assume a decoupling of the outer ice-shell from the deep interior by a liquid subsurface water ocean. We show that, in this case, the phase-lag difference Δ φ = φ _{k_2}- φ _{h_2} can provide information on the rheological and thermal state of the deep interiors if the viscosities of the deeper layers are small. In case of Ganymede, phase-lag differences can reach values of a few degrees for high-pressure ice viscosities {<}10^{14} Pa s and would indicate a highly dissipative state of the deep interior. In this case Δ φ is dominated by dissipation in the high-pressure ice layer rather than dissipation within the ice-I shell. These phase lags would be detectable from spacecraft in orbit around the satellite. For Europa Δ φ could reach values exceeding 20° and phase-lag measurements could help distinguish between (1) a hot dissipative silicate mantle which would in thermal equilibrium correspond to a very thin outer ice-I shell and (2) a cold deep interior implying that dissipation would mainly occur in a thick (several tens of km) outer ice-I shell. These measurements are highly relevant for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) and NASA's Europa Multiple Flyby Mission, both targeted for the Jupiter system.

  14. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.31 If I... produced gas or oil from a deep well with a perforated interval the top of which is less than 18,000 feet... 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep wellthat is: Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of...

  15. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.31 If I... produced gas or oil from a deep well with a perforated interval the top of which is less than 18,000 feet... 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep wellthat is: Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of...

  16. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.31 If I... produced gas or oil from a deep well with a perforated interval the top of which is less than 18,000 feet... 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep wellthat is: Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of...

  17. Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharratt, Stephen Andrew

    Thin, low-profile phase change thermal spreaders can provide cooling solutions for some of today's most pressing heat flux dissipation issues. These thermal issues are only expected to increase as future electronic circuitry requirements lead to denser and potentially 3D chip packaging. Phase change based heat spreaders, such as heat pipes or vapor chambers, can provide a practical solution for effectively dissipating large heat fluxes. This thesis reports a comprehensive study of state-of-the-art capillary pumped wick structures using computational modeling, micro wick fabrication, and experimental analysis. Modeling efforts focus on predicting the shape of the liquid meniscus inside a complicated 3D wick structure. It is shown that this liquid shape can drastically affect the wick's thermal resistance. In addition, knowledge of the liquid meniscus shape allows for the computation of key parameters such as permeability and capillary pressure which are necessary for predicting the maximum heat flux. After the model is validated by comparison to experimental results, the wick structure is optimized so as to decrease overall wick thermal resistance and increase the maximum capillary limited heat flux before dryout. The optimized structures are then fabricated out of both silicon and copper using both traditional and novel micro-fabrication techniques. The wicks are made super-hydrophilic using chemical and thermal oxidation schemes. A sintered monolayer of Cu particles is fabricated and analyzed as well. The fabricated wick structures are experimentally tested for their heat transfer performance inside a well controlled copper vacuum chamber. Heat fluxes as high as 170 W/cm2 are realized for Cu wicks with structure heights of 100 μm. The structures optimized for both minimized thermal resistance and high liquid supply ability perform much better than their non-optimized counterparts. The super-hydrophilic oxidation scheme is found to drastically increase the maximum

  18. Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation Techniques Based on Stochastic Phase Resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, Peter A.

    2003-05-01

    Stimulation techniques are discussed here which make it possible to effectively desynchronize a synchronized cluster of globally coupled phase oscillators in the presence of noise. To this end composite stimuli are used which consist of a first, stronger stimulus followed by a second, weaker stimulus after a constant time delay. The first stimulus controls the dynamics of the cluster by resetting it, whereas the second stimulus desynchronizes the cluster by hitting it in a vulnerable state. The first, resetting stimulus can be a strong single pulse, a high-frequency pulse train or a low-frequency pulse train. The cluster's resynchronization can effectively be blocked by repeated administration of a composite stimulus. Demand controlled deep brain stimulation with these desynchronizing stimulation techniques is suggested for the therapy of patients suffering from tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease or essential tremor as a milder and more efficient therapy compared to the standard permanent high-frequency deep brain stimulation.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity Profiling of Ammonium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Hayyan, Maan; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hayyan, Adeeb; Wong, Won Fen; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic potential of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with four hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine (Gl), ethylene glycol (EG), triethylene glycol (TEG) and urea (U) were investigated. The toxicity of DESs was examined using In Vitro cell lines and In Vivo animal model. IC50 and selectivity index were determined for the DESs, their individual components and their combinations as aqueous solutions for comparison purposes. The cytotoxicity effect of DESs varied depending on cell lines. The IC50 for the GlDES, EGDES, UDES and TEGDES followed the sequence of TEGDES< GlDES< EGDES< UDES for OKF6, MCF-7, A375, HT29 and H413, respectively. GlDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375, EGDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, UDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, and TEGDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375. However, acute toxicity studies using ICR mice showed that these DESs were relatively toxic in comparison to their individual components. DES did not cause DNA damage, but it could enhance ROS production and induce apoptosis in treated cancer cells as evidenced by marked LDH release. Furthermore, the examined DESs showed less cytotoxicity compared with ionic liquids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that combined In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity profiles of DESs were being demonstrated, raising the toxicity issue of these neoteric mixtures and their potential applicability to be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25679975

  20. Carbon-bearing iron phases and the carbon isotope composition of the deep Earth

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Juske; Polyakov, Veniamin B.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon budget and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, including the core, are currently very poorly understood. Diamond-bearing, mantle-derived rocks show a very well defined peak at δ13C ≈ −5 ± 3‰ with a very broad distribution to lower values (∼−40‰). The processes that have produced the wide δ13C distributions to the observed low δ13C values in the deep Earth have been extensively debated, but few viable models have been proposed. Here, we present a model for understanding carbon isotope distributions within the deep Earth, involving Fe−C phases (Fe carbides and C dissolved in Fe−Ni metal). Our theoretical calculations show that Fe and Si carbides can be significantly depleted in 13C relative to other C-bearing materials even at mantle temperatures. Thus, the redox freezing and melting cycles of lithosphere via subduction upwelling in the deep Earth that involve the Fe−C phases can readily produce diamond with the observed low δ13C values. The sharp contrast in the δ13C distributions of peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds may reflect differences in their carbon cycles, controlled by the evolution of geodynamical processes around 2.5–3 Ga. Our model also predicts that the core contains C with low δ13C values and that an average δ13C value of the bulk Earth could be much lower than ∼−5‰, consistent with those of chondrites and other planetary body. The heterogeneous and depleted δ13C values of the deep Earth have implications, not only for its accretion−differentiation history but also for carbon isotope biosignatures for early life on the Earth. PMID:25512520

  1. Carbon-bearing iron phases and the carbon isotope composition of the deep Earth.

    PubMed

    Horita, Juske; Polyakov, Veniamin B

    2015-01-06

    The carbon budget and dynamics of the Earth's interior, including the core, are currently very poorly understood. Diamond-bearing, mantle-derived rocks show a very well defined peak at δ(13)C ≈ -5 ± 3‰ with a very broad distribution to lower values (∼-40‰). The processes that have produced the wide δ(13)C distributions to the observed low δ(13)C values in the deep Earth have been extensively debated, but few viable models have been proposed. Here, we present a model for understanding carbon isotope distributions within the deep Earth, involving Fe-C phases (Fe carbides and C dissolved in Fe-Ni metal). Our theoretical calculations show that Fe and Si carbides can be significantly depleted in (13)C relative to other C-bearing materials even at mantle temperatures. Thus, the redox freezing and melting cycles of lithosphere via subduction upwelling in the deep Earth that involve the Fe-C phases can readily produce diamond with the observed low δ(13)C values. The sharp contrast in the δ(13)C distributions of peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds may reflect differences in their carbon cycles, controlled by the evolution of geodynamical processes around 2.5-3 Ga. Our model also predicts that the core contains C with low δ(13)C values and that an average δ(13)C value of the bulk Earth could be much lower than ∼-5‰, consistent with those of chondrites and other planetary body. The heterogeneous and depleted δ(13)C values of the deep Earth have implications, not only for its accretion-differentiation history but also for carbon isotope biosignatures for early life on the Earth.

  2. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    ), an ash content ranging from 0.8 and 7.4%, an average gravimetric water content of 26.6±7.7 gwater gdrypeat-1, and a pH generally increasing with depth (from 4.1 to 7.2). The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±4%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 1.1% (avg., 0.5±0.1%). Main atomic ratios (C/N, H/C and O/C) and FT-IR spectra seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as "peat". In fact, the 14C age dating suggests that the first 110 cm of Sphagnum material accumulated in ca. 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of 2 cm yr-1. The remaining 300 cm (from 100 to 400 cm of depth), i.e., the submerged part of the island, consist of peat showing completely different botanical composition (reed-fen peat and silty peat rich in reeds) and physical and chemical properties. In particular, both bulk density (avg., 0.09±0.05 g cm-3) and ash content increase, reaching their maximum at 300-325 cm of depth (0.27 g cm-3 and 17%, respectively), whereas the average gravimetric water content significantly decreases (17.4±9.0 gwater gdrypeat-1). The pH ranges from 6.6 and 7.4. Both C and N along this section of the profile show higher average contents (44±3 and 1.3±0.6%, respectively) compared to those recorded in the upper 100 cm layer; furthermore, the decrease with depth of C/N, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, as well as main absorption bands of FT-IR spectra, clearly indicate the occurrence of an organic matter highly humified. The estimated accumulation rate for the bottom 300 cm of the island is 0.5 cm yr-1. At the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first characterization of a (4 m) deep floating mire profile. At Posta Fibreno, the deep water layer below the base of the island (7 m) and the movement on the water surface probably avoided the transition from floating island to firm land, thus allowing this island to float during the

  3. First autonomous bio-optical profiling float in the Gulf of Mexico reveals dynamic biogeochemistry in deep waters.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca E; Bower, Amy S; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters. This is the first study to employ an autonomous profiling (APEX) float in the Gulf of Mexico for measuring spatiotemporal variability in bio-optics and hydrography. During the 17-month deployment (July 2011 to December 2012), the float mission collected profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, particulate backscattering (bbp), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence from the ocean surface to a depth of 1,500 m. Biogeochemical variability was characterized by distinct depth trends and local "hot spots", including impacts from mesoscale processes associated with each of the water masses sampled, from ambient deep waters over the Florida Plain, into the Loop Current, up the Florida Canyon, and eventually into the Florida Straits. A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) occurred between 30 and 120 m, with the DCM depth significantly related to the unique density layer ρ = 1023.6 (R2 = 0.62). Particulate backscattering, bbp, demonstrated multiple peaks throughout the water column, including from phytoplankton, deep scattering layers, and resuspension. The bio-optical relationship developed between bbp and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.49) was compared to a global relationship and could significantly improve regional ocean-color algorithms. Photooxidation and autochthonous production contributed to CDOM distributions in the upper water column, whereas in deep water, CDOM behaved as a semi-conservative tracer of water masses, demonstrating a tight relationship with density (R2 = 0.87). In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this research lends support to the use of autonomous drifting profilers as a powerful tool for consideration in the design of an expanded and integrated observing network for

  4. Trace elements profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The possible thermal gradient near the surface during a lunation is considered together with the heat flow from the interior, the physical process of Hg migration, the results from core and trench samples from previous missions, and other temperature sensitive phenomena that may help understand the processes. U, Os, and Ru concentrations in the deep drill core samples are of potential interest and are summarized in a table. The Os tends to parallel the Hg profile with depth.

  5. First Autonomous Bio-Optical Profiling Float in the Gulf of Mexico Reveals Dynamic Biogeochemistry in Deep Waters

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rebecca E.; Bower, Amy S.; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters. This is the first study to employ an autonomous profiling (APEX) float in the Gulf of Mexico for measuring spatiotemporal variability in bio-optics and hydrography. During the 17-month deployment (July 2011 to December 2012), the float mission collected profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, particulate backscattering (bbp), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence from the ocean surface to a depth of 1,500 m. Biogeochemical variability was characterized by distinct depth trends and local “hot spots”, including impacts from mesoscale processes associated with each of the water masses sampled, from ambient deep waters over the Florida Plain, into the Loop Current, up the Florida Canyon, and eventually into the Florida Straits. A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) occurred between 30 and 120 m, with the DCM depth significantly related to the unique density layer ρ = 1023.6 (R2 = 0.62). Particulate backscattering, bbp, demonstrated multiple peaks throughout the water column, including from phytoplankton, deep scattering layers, and resuspension. The bio-optical relationship developed between bbp and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.49) was compared to a global relationship and could significantly improve regional ocean-color algorithms. Photooxidation and autochthonous production contributed to CDOM distributions in the upper water column, whereas in deep water, CDOM behaved as a semi-conservative tracer of water masses, demonstrating a tight relationship with density (R2 = 0.87). In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this research lends support to the use of autonomous drifting profilers as a powerful tool for consideration in the design of an expanded and integrated observing network

  6. MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

    1991-01-01

    The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.

  7. Is collisional breakup an important process within mixed-phase deep convective clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, A.; Khain, A.; Mayer, F.

    2003-04-01

    The microphysics of deep convective clouds determines their precipitation efficiency as well as the dynamical evolution of cloud systems and is therefore of great importance for numerical weather prediction, flood forecasting and regional climate modeling. Of all cloud systems mixed-phase deep convection is maybe the most complex and least understood. One reason is that the numerous microphysical processes taking place are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled with each other as well as with the hydrodynamics of the cloud. Collisional breakup of raindrops is one of these cloud microphysical processes, but is often neglected or not well represented in state-of-the-art cloud resolving models. The importance of collisional breakup is well known for tropical cloud systems, which are dominated by warm phase processes. In addition various studies using so-called rainshaft models showed that collisional breakup can alter the raindrop size distribution below cloud base. But what happens within the clouds and especially within strong convective updrafts? Can collisional breakup lead to a different cloud evolution by changing the drop size distribution? Using the Hebrew University Cloud Model (HUCM), which includes the most detailed spectral microphysics model available today, we performed a sensitivity study to answer these questions. Collisional breakup was therefore recently included in HUCM using Bleck's numerical method, which is standard for simulation of the breakup process. Our breakup scheme itself is mainly based on the parameterization of Low and List (1982, JAS), but includes also additional data for small raindrops by Beard and Ochs (1995, JAS). As a test case a deep convective mixed-phase cloud is simulated with initial conditions based on a sounding from 13 August 1999, Midland/Texas. We present a detailed analysis of the simulated cloud evolution with and without collisional breakup taken into account. The conclusion from our sensitivity study is that

  8. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Tselev, Alexander; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-07-07

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer from information misinterpretation due to low resolving power.

  9. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Belianinov, Alex; Tselev, Alexander; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer from information misinterpretation due to low resolving power. PMID:27384473

  10. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Tselev, Alexander; ...

    2016-07-07

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer frommore » information misinterpretation due to low resolving power.« less

  11. Lithosphere structure of the west Qinling orogenic belt revealed by deep seismic reflection profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    The west Qinling orogen located in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is transformation zone between the N-S-trending and E-W-trending tectonics in the Chinese continent. Further study of the fine crust structure of the west Qinling orogen and its relationships with surrounding basins have very important significance for understanding tectonic response of the northeastern margin of the plateau about collision convergence of the Indian block and Asian block and learning formation and evolution of the plateau. In 2009, we reprocessed the data of the Tangke-Hezuo deep seismic reflection profiles collected in 2004 across the west Qinling orogen and the northern Songpan block. The new results show the lithosphere fine structure of the west Qinling orogen. Reflection features indicate that an interface at 6.0-7.0s (TWT) divided the crust into the upper and lower crust, whose structural style and deformation are totally different. Integrating geological data, we deduce that the interface at 6.0-7.0s (depth with 18-21 km) was the basement detachment, which made deformation decoupled of the upper and lower crust. The multi-layered reflections in the upper crust reveal the sedimentary covers of the west Qinling orogen, disclose the thickness of the various structure layer and deformation degree, and provide a basis for the prospective evaluation of a multi-metallic mineral and energy exploration. The north dipping strong reflection characteristics of the lower crust in the west Qinling orogen constituted imbricate structure, such imbricate structural features provide seismology evidence for researching the west Qinling thrusting toward the northern Songpan block, and have great significance for studying formation and evolution of the Songpan-Garze structure. Moho reflections are observed around 17.0-17.2s, characterized by nearly horizontal reflections, which implies the west Qinling orogen underwent an intense extension post orogeny caused the lithosphere

  12. Deep arid system hydrodynamics 2. Application to paleohydrologic reconstruction using vadose zone profiles from the northern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, M.A.; Phillips, F.M.; Tyler, S.W.; Hartsough, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Site-specific numerical modeling of four sites in two arid alluvial basins within the Nevada Test Site employs a conceptual model of deep arid system hydrodynamics that includes vapor transport, the role of xeric vegetation, and long-term surface boundary transients. Surface boundary sequences, spanning 110 kyr, that best reproduce measured chloride concentration and matric potential profiles from four deep (230-460 m) boreholes concur with independent paleohydrologic and paleoecological records from the region. Simulations constrain a pluvial period associated with infiltration of 2-5 mm yr-1 at 14-13 ka and denote a shift linked to the establishment of desert vegetation at 13-9.5 ka. Retrodicted moisture flux histories inferred from modeling results differ significantly from those determined using the conventional chloride mass balance approach that assumes only downward advection. The modeling approach developed here represents a significant advance in the use of deep vadose zone profile data from arid regions to recover detailed paleohydrologic and current hydrologic information.

  13. The ribosome profiling strategy for monitoring translation in vivo by deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Brar, Gloria A.; Rouskin, Silvia; McGeachy, Anna M.; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5–7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Sequencing and data analysis requires a further 4 – 5 days. PMID:22836135

  14. Spectral phase transfer from near IR to deep UV by broadband phase-matched four-wave mixing in an argon-filled hollow core waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, J. P.; Mendonça, C. R.; Zilio, S. C.; Misoguti, L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the implementation of a spectral phase transfer scheme from near IR to deep UV, in which the frequency conversion step is based on the broadband phase-matched four-wave mixing in a gas-filled hollow core waveguide. Micro joule level femtosecond pulses at 260 nm were generated by nonlinear mixing of a Ti:sapphire laser and its second-harmonic. The transfer of a π-step phase in a controllable manner was proposed and confirmed by a modulation observed in the generated deep UV femtosecond pulse spectrum due to an interference process. Numerical simulations confirmed our results.

  15. Stimulating at the right time: phase-specific deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cagnan, Hayriye; Pedrosa, David; Little, Simon; Pogosyan, Alek; Cheeran, Binith; Aziz, Tipu; Green, Alexander; Fitzgerald, James; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Friston, Karl J; Denison, Timothy; Brown, Peter

    2017-01-01

    SEE MOLL AND ENGEL DOI101093/AWW308 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Brain regions dynamically engage and disengage with one another to execute everyday actions from movement to decision making. Pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and tremor emerge when brain regions controlling movement cannot readily decouple, compromising motor function. Here, we propose a novel stimulation strategy that selectively regulates neural synchrony through phase-specific stimulation. We demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic potential of such a stimulation strategy for the treatment of patients with pathological tremor. Symptom suppression is achieved by delivering stimulation to the ventrolateral thalamus, timed according to the patient's tremor rhythm. Sustained locking of deep brain stimulation to a particular phase of tremor afforded clinically significant tremor relief (up to 87% tremor suppression) in selected patients with essential tremor despite delivering less than half the energy of conventional high frequency stimulation. Phase-specific stimulation efficacy depended on the resonant characteristics of the underlying tremor network. Selective regulation of neural synchrony through phase-locked stimulation has the potential to both increase the efficiency of therapy and to minimize stimulation-induced side effects.

  16. Stimulating at the right time: phase-specific deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, David; Little, Simon; Pogosyan, Alek; Cheeran, Binith; Aziz, Tipu; Green, Alexander; Fitzgerald, James; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Friston, Karl J.; Denison, Timothy; Brown, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract See Moll and Engel (doi:10.1093/aww308) for a scientific commentary on this article. Brain regions dynamically engage and disengage with one another to execute everyday actions from movement to decision making. Pathologies such as Parkinson’s disease and tremor emerge when brain regions controlling movement cannot readily decouple, compromising motor function. Here, we propose a novel stimulation strategy that selectively regulates neural synchrony through phase-specific stimulation. We demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic potential of such a stimulation strategy for the treatment of patients with pathological tremor. Symptom suppression is achieved by delivering stimulation to the ventrolateral thalamus, timed according to the patient’s tremor rhythm. Sustained locking of deep brain stimulation to a particular phase of tremor afforded clinically significant tremor relief (up to 87% tremor suppression) in selected patients with essential tremor despite delivering less than half the energy of conventional high frequency stimulation. Phase-specific stimulation efficacy depended on the resonant characteristics of the underlying tremor network. Selective regulation of neural synchrony through phase-locked stimulation has the potential to both increase the efficiency of therapy and to minimize stimulation-induced side effects. PMID:28007997

  17. Digital image profilers for detecting faint sources which have bright companions, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Elena; Flint, Graham

    1991-01-01

    A breadboard image profiling system developed for the first phase of this project demonstrated the potential for detecting extremely faint optical sources in the presence of light companions. Experimental data derived from laboratory testing of the device supports the theory that image profilers of this type may approach the theoretical limit imposed by photon statistics. The objective of Phase 2 of this program is the development of a ground-based multichannel image profiling system capable of detecting faint stellar objects slightly displaced from brighter stars. We have finalized the multichannel image profiling system and attempted three field tests.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as

  19. The Pyrolytic Profile of Lyophilized and Deep-Frozen Compact Part of the Human Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lodowska, Jolanta; Wolny, Daniel; Kurkiewicz, Sławomir; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of the human bone. Methods. Samples of preserved bone tissue were subjected to thermolysis and tetrahydroammonium-hydroxide- (TMAH-) associated thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results. Derivatives of benzene, pyridine, pyrrole, phenol, sulfur compounds, nitriles, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids (C12–C20) were identified in the pyrolytic pattern. The pyrolyzates were the most abundant in derivatives of pyrrole and nitriles originated from proteins. The predominant product in pyrolytic pattern of the investigated bone was pyrrolo[1,2-α]piperazine-3,6-dione derived from collagen. The content of this compound significantly differentiated the lyophilized graft from the deep-frozen one. Oleic and palmitic acid were predominant among fatty acids of the investigated samples. The deep-frozen implants were characterized by higher percentage of long-chain fatty acids than lyophilized grafts. PMID:22619606

  20. Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometry system for 3D profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Bo; Fa-jie, Duan; Chang-rong, Lv; Fu-kai, Zhang; Fan, Feng

    2014-07-01

    We describe a fiber-optic sinusoidal phase modulating (SPM) interferometer for three-dimensional (3D) profilometry, which is insensitive to external disturbances such as mechanical vibration and temperature fluctuation. Sinusoidal phase modulation is created by modulating the drive voltage of the piezoelectric transducer (PZT) with a sinusoidal wave. The external disturbances that cause phase drift in the interference signal and decrease measuring accuracy are effectively eliminated by building a closed-loop feedback system. The phase stability can be measured with a precision of 2.75 mrad, and the external disturbances can be reduced to 53.43 mrad for the phase of fringe patterns. By measuring the dynamic deformation of the rubber membrane, the RMSE is about 0.018 mm, and a single measurement takes less than 250 ms. The feasibility for real-time application has been verified.

  1. Simultaneous gain and phase profile determination on an interferometric BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Vinuesa, X.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-López, A.; Cruz, J. L.; Andres, M. V.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2015-09-01

    Up to now, complex (phase and intensity) measurements in Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA) systems required complex phase modulation methods and high-bandwidth (multi-GHz) detection. In this work, we propose a novel technique that is able to retrieve simultaneously both gain/loss and phase characteristics of the Brillouin interaction by just introducing a Sagnac Interferometer (SI) on a standard BOTDA sensing scheme. The technique is described analytically and demonstrated experimentally. With this technique, a reliability increase is produced since redundant measurements can be performed.

  2. Potential for Microbial Stimulation in Deep Vadose Zone Sediments by Gas-Phase Nutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.W.; Plymale, A. E.; Brockman, F.J.

    2006-04-05

    Viable microbial populations are low, typically 10{sup 4} cells per gram, in deep vadose zones in arid climates. There is evidence that microbial distribution in these environments is patchy. In addition, infiltration or injection of nutrient-laden water has the potential to spread and drive contaminants downward to the saturated zone. For these reasons, there are uncertainties regarding the feasibility of bioremediation of recalcitrant contaminants in deep vadose zones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of denitrifying activity and gaseous carbon-utilizing activity in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments contaminated with, and/or affected by past exposure to, carbon tetrachloride (CT). These metabolisms are known to degrade CT and/or its breakdown product chloroform under anoxic conditions. A second objective was to determine if CT would be degraded in these sediments under unsaturated, bulk-phase aerobic incubation conditions. Both denitrifier population (determined by MPN) and microbial heterotrophic activity (measured by mineralization of 14-C labeled glucose and acetate) were relatively low and the sediments with greater in situ moisture (10-21% versus 2-7%) tended to have higher activities. When sediments were amended with gaseous nutrients (nitrous oxide and triethyl/tributyl phosphate) and gaseous C sources (a mixture of methane, ethane, propylene, propane, and butane) and incubated for 6 months, approximately 50% of the samples showed removal of one or more gaseous C sources, with butane most commonly used (44% of samples), followed by propylene (42%), propane (31%), ethane (22%), and methane (4%). Gaseous N and gaseous P did not stimulate removal of gaseous C substrates compared to no addition of N and P. CT and gaseous C sources were spiked into the sediments that removed gaseous C sources to determine if hydrocarbon-degraders have the potential to degrade CT under unsaturated conditions. In summary, gaseous C sources

  3. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Part 1. Evaluation of Phase 2 CO2 Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2. Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, Richard; Hickman, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2012-12-20

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.

  4. Fabrication of deep-profile Al-doped ZnO one- and two-dimensional lattices as plasmonic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Flemming; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Takayama, Osamu; Larsen, Pernille V.; Mar, Mikkel D.; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we report on fabrication of deep-profile one- and two-dimensional lattices made from Al-doped ZnO (AZO). AZO is considered as an alternative plasmonic material having the real part of the permittivity negative in the near infrared range. The exact position of the plasma frequency of AZO is doping concentration dependent, allowing for tuning possibilities. In addition, the thickness of the AZO film also affects its material properties. Physical vapor deposition techniques typically applied for AZO coating do not enable deep profiling of a plasmonic structure. Using the atomic layer deposition technique, a highly conformal deposition method, allows us to fabricate high-aspect ratio structures such as one-dimensional lattices with a period of 400 nm and size of the lamina of 200 nm in width and 3 μm in depth. Thus, our structures have an aspect ratio of 1:15 and are homogeneous on areas of 2×2 cm2 and more. We also produce two-dimensional arrays of circular nanopillars with similar dimensions. Instead of nanopillars hollow tubes with a wall thickness on demand from 20 nm up to a complete fill can be fabricated.

  5. Electron bunch profile reconstruction based on phase-constrained iterative algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali Taheri, F.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Baddoo, P.; Bartolini, R.; Cowley, J.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The phase retrieval problem occurs in a number of areas in physics and is the subject of continuing investigation. The one-dimensional case, e.g., the reconstruction of the temporal profile of a charged particle bunch, is particularly challenging and important for particle accelerators. Accurate knowledge of the longitudinal (time) profile of the bunch is important in the context of linear colliders, wakefield accelerators and for the next generation of light sources, including x-ray SASE FELs. Frequently applied methods, e.g., minimal phase retrieval or other iterative algorithms, are reliable if the Blaschke phase contribution is negligible. This, however, is neither known a priori nor can it be assumed to apply to an arbitrary bunch profile. We present a novel approach which gives reproducible, most-probable and stable reconstructions for bunch profiles (both artificial and experimental) that would otherwise remain unresolved by the existing techniques.

  6. Kinoform phase plates for focal plane irradiance profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.N.; Lawson, J.K.; Manes, K.R.; Powell, H.T. ); Nugent, K.A. )

    1994-03-15

    A versatile, rapidly convergent, iterative algorithm is presented for the construction of kinoform phase plates for tailoring the far-field intensity distribution of laser beams. The method consists of repeated Fourier transforming between the near-field and the far-field planes with constraints imposed in each plane. For application to inertial confinement fusion, the converged far-field pattern contains more than 95% of the incident energy inside a desired region and is relatively insensitive to beam aberrations.

  7. Torque-bias profile for improved tracking of the Deep Space Network antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawronski, W.; Beech-Brandt, J. J.; Ahlstrom, H. G.; Maneri, E.

    2000-12-01

    Measurements at the drives of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas indicated that the small gap between gear teeth was causing backlash at the gearboxes and elevation bullgear. Left uncorrected, backlash will deteriorate the antenna's pointing precision. At DSN, the backlash was eliminated by implementing two identical drives that impose two nonidentical torques (a.k.a. torque bias, or counter-torque). The difference between these two torques depends on the antenna load, and is shaped by the drive's electronic circuits. The paper explains the shaping principles of the circuit, and shows how the circuits can be modified to improve the antenna dynamics under external disturbances.

  8. TRANSALP—deep crustal Vibroseis and explosive seismic profiling in the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Transalp Working Group; Lüschen, Ewald; Borrini, Daniela; Gebrande, Helmut; Lammerer, Bernd; Millahn, Karl; Neubauer, Franz; Nicolich, Rinaldo; TRANSALP Working Groupghijklmnop

    2006-02-01

    The TRANSALP consortium, comprising institutions from Italy, Austria and Germany, carried out deep seismic reflection measurements in the Eastern Alps between Munich and Venice in 1998, 1999 and 2001. In order to complement each other in resolution and depth range, the Vibroseis technique was combined with simultaneous explosive source measurements. Additionally, passive cross-line recording provided three-dimensional control and alternative north-south sections. Profits were obtained by the combination of the three methods in sectors or depths where one method alone was less successful. The TRANSALP sections clearly image a thin-skinned wedge of tectonic nappes at the northern Alpine front zone, unexpected graben or half-graben structures within the European basement, and, thick-skinned back-thrusting in the southern frontal zone beneath the Dolomite Mountains. A bi-vergent structure at crustal scale is directed from the Alpine axis to the external parts. The Tauern Window obviously forms the hanging wall ramp anticline above a southward dipping, deep reaching reflection pattern interpreted as a tectonic ramp along which the Penninic units of the Tauern Window have been up-thrusted. The upper crystalline crust appears generally transparent. The lower crust in the European domain is characterized by a 6-7 km thick laminated structure. On the Adriatic side the lower crust displays a much thicker or twofold reflective pattern. The crustal root at about 55 km depth is shifted around 50 km to the south with respect to the main Alpine crest.

  9. Iron line profiles and BH spin in deep Suzaku observations of Seyfert 1 AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, A. R.; Reeves, J. N.; Lobban, A. P.; Porquet, D.; Markowitz, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    We present a broad-band analysis of deep Suzaku observations of nearby Seyfert 1 AGN: Fairall 9, MCG-6-30-15, NGC 3516, NGC 3783 and NGC 4051. The use of deep observations (exposures > 200 ks) with high S/N allows the complex spectra of these objects to be examined in full, taking into account features such as the soft excess, reflection continuum and complex absorption components. After a self-consistent modelling of the broad-band data (0.6-100.0 keV, also making use of BAT data from Swift), the subtle curvature which may be introduced as a consequence of warm absorbers has a measured affect upon the spectrum at energies > 3 keV and the FeK region. Forming a model (including absorption) of these AGN allows the true extent to which broadened diskline emission is present to be examined and as a result the measurement of accretion disc and black hole parameters which are consistent over the full 0.6-100.0 keV energy range.

  10. Effects of turbulence on mixed-phase deep convective clouds under different basic-state winds and aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunho; Baik, Jong-Jin; Han, Ji-Young

    2014-12-01

    The effects of turbulence-induced collision enhancement (TICE) on mixed-phase deep convective clouds are numerically investigated using a 2-D cloud model with bin microphysics for uniform and sheared basic-state wind profiles and different aerosol concentrations. Graupel particles account for the most of the cloud mass in all simulation cases. In the uniform basic-state wind cases, graupel particles with moderate sizes account for some of the total graupel mass in the cases with TICE, whereas graupel particles with large sizes account for almost all the total graupel mass in the cases without TICE. This is because the growth of ice crystals into small graupel particles is enhanced due to TICE. The changes in the size distributions of graupel particles due to TICE result in a decrease in the mass-averaged mean terminal velocity of graupel particles. Therefore, the downward flux of graupel mass, and thus the melting of graupel particles, is reduced due to TICE, leading to a decrease in the amount of surface precipitation. Moreover, under the low aerosol concentration, TICE increases the sublimation of ice particles, consequently playing a partial role in reducing the amount of surface precipitation. The effects of TICE are less pronounced in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases because the number of ice crystals is much smaller in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases. Thus, the size distributions of graupel particles in the cases with and without TICE show little difference.

  11. Power of deep sequencing and agilent microarray for gene expression profiling study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Liu, Hang; Liu, Yu; Lu, Zhike; Guo, Guangwu; Guo, Suping; Zheng, Hongwei; Gao, Yanning; Cheng, Shujun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Kaitai; Zhang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing-based Digital Gene Expression tag profiling (DGE) has been used to study the changes in gene expression profiling. To compare the quality of the data generated by microarray and DGE, we examined the gene expression profiles of an in vitro cell model with these platforms. In this study, 17,362 and 15,938 genes were detected by microarray and DGE, respectively, with 13,221 overlapping genes. The correlation coefficients between the technical replicates were >0.99 and the detection variance was <9% for both platforms. The dynamic range of microarray was fixed with four orders of magnitude, whereas that of DGE was extendable. The consistency of the two platforms was high, especially for those abundant genes. It was more difficult for the microarray to distinguish the expression variation of less abundant genes. Although microarrays might be eventually replaced by DGE or transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) in the near future, microarrays are still stable, practical, and feasible, which may be useful for most biological researchers.

  12. Phases and Interfaces from Real Space Atomically Resolved Data: Physics-Based Deep Data Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-09-14

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ∼1-10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. This method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure-property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  13. Phases and interfaces from real space atomically resolved data: Physics-based deep data image analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2016-08-12

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ~1–10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysismore » is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. Furthermore, this method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure–property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.« less

  14. Phases and interfaces from real space atomically resolved data: Physics-based deep data image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-08-12

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ~1–10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. Furthermore, this method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure–property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  15. Deep structure and structural inversion along the central California continental margin from EDGE seismic profile RU-3

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, K.D.; Reed, D.L.; Silver, E.A. ); Meltzer, A.S. )

    1991-04-10

    Deep-penetration seismic reflection profile RU-3 reveals a subducted oceanic plate, a modified accretionary prism, and complex structures of the overlying sedimentary basins. This structural framework was established by subduction processes during Paleogene and earlier time and subsequently was modified by Neogene transform motion combined with apparent components of extension and compression. Subducted rocks are indicated by deep, gently dipping reflectors that extend beneath the continental margin for at least 38 km at a depth of about 15 km. The authors interpret the subducted crust as either a part of the Pacific plate or, more likely, a subducted fragment derived from the Farallon plate. A set of more steeply dipping, deep events may indicate faulting within the subducted plate or its boundary with a no-slab zone. The overlying, largely nonreflective layer of accreted material rapidly reaches 10 km in thickness landward of the paleotrench and increases to 15 km in thickness near the coast. The Santa Lucia Basin, landward of the steep continental slope, originated as a slope basin during Paleogene subduction. The lower strata of this basin were deposited onto and partially incorporated into the accretionary complex. The offshore Santa Maria Basin exhibits a variety of compressional structures that formed in the last 3.5 m.y. and whose locations correspond to an earlier framework of extensional faults. Structural inversion has occurred in Miocene depocenters adjacent to the Santa Lucia Bank fault and at the Queenie structure. Miocene and lower Pliocene strata also thicken toward the Hosgri fault zone where subsequent compression is characterized by low-angle thrusts and folding.

  16. Early origins of the Caribbean plate from deep seismic profiles across the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the maritime zones of Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Colombia covers a combined area of 500,000 km2, and is one of the least known equatorial Cretaceous-Cenozoic carbonate regions remaining on Earth. The purpose of this study is to describe the Cretaceous to Recent tectonic and stratigraphic history of the deep water Nicaraguan Rise, and to better understand how various types of crustal blocks underlying the Eocene to Recent carbonate cover fused into a single, larger Caribbean plate known today from GPS studies. We interpreted 8700 km of modern, deep-penetration 2D seismic data kindly provided by the oil industry, tied to five wells that penetrated Cretaceous igneous basement. Based on these data, and integration with gravity, magnetic and existing crustal refraction data, we define four crustal provinces for the offshore Nicaraguan Rise: 1) Thicker (15-18 km) Late Cretaceous Caribbean ocean plateau (COP) with rough, top basement surface; 2) normal (6-8 km) Late Cretaceous COP with smooth top basement surface (B") and correlative outcrops in southern Haiti and Jamaica; 3) Precambrian-Paleozoic continental crust (20-22 km thick) with correlative outcrops in northern Central America; and 4) Cretaceous arc crust (>18 km thick) with correlative outcrops in Jamaica. These strongly contrasting basement belts strike northeastward to eastward, and were juxtaposed by latest Cretaceous-Paleogene northward and northwestward thrusting of Caribbean arc over continental crust in Central America, and the western Nicaraguan Rise (84 to 85 degrees west). A large Paleogene to recent, CCW rotation of the Caribbean plate along the Cayman trough faults and into its present day location explains why terranes in Central America and beneath the Nicaraguan Rise have their present, anomalous north-east strike. Continuing, present-day activity on some of these crustal block boundaries is a likely result of intraplate stresses imposed by the surrounding

  17. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey: 10 000 Galaxies to Study the Early Phases of Galaxy Assembly at 2 < z < 6+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Capak, P.; Cassara, L.; Cassata, P.; Castellano, M.; Charlot, S.; Cimatti, A.; Contini, T.; Cuby, J.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; de la Torre, S.; Fontana, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Garilli, B.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N.; Ilbert, O.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Maccagni, D.; Mellier, Y.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Pentericci, L.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Thomas, R.; Tresse, L.; Vanzella, E.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2014-03-01

    The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) aims to study the early phases of galaxy assembly from a large, well-defined sample of ~ 10 000 galaxies with spectra obtained from very deep VIMOS observations. This sample is by far the largest to date, with spectroscopic redshifts covering a redshift range 2

  18. Speedup properties of phases in the execution profile of distributed parallel programs

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.M.; Wagner, T.D.; Dowdy, L.W.; Worley, P.H.

    1992-08-01

    The execution profile of a distributed-memory parallel program specifies the number of busy processors as a function of time. Periods of homogeneous processor utilization are manifested in many execution profiles. These periods can usually be correlated with the algorithms implemented in the underlying parallel code. Three families of methods for smoothing execution profile data are presented. These approaches simplify the problem of detecting end points of periods of homogeneous utilization. These periods, called phases, are then examined in isolation, and their speedup characteristics are explored. A specific workload executed on an Intel iPSC/860 is used for validation of the techniques described.

  19. Reconstructing conjugate margins of the Canada-Amerasian basin: New tectonic constraints from deep seismic data and gravity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwig, J.; Ady, B.; Kumar, N.; Granath, J. W.; Dinkelman, M. G.; Bird, D. E.; Emmet, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, decreasing sea ice and increasing scientific and economic interest in the Arctic have prompted new geological and geophysical studies that advance knowledge of the northern continental margins of North America. We report here on ArcticSPAN™ 40-km deep, PSDM (Pre-Stack Depth Migrated) marine seismic reflection profiles and gravity data from the Beaufort Sea of Canada and the US Chukchi Sea that constrain the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the relict spreading center of the Canada Basin, displaying significant variations in the orientation, geometry and deep crustal structure of the passive margin facing the Arctic Ocean. In the Canadian Beaufort Sea three distinct segments of the margin correspond to contrasts of pre-rift foundations: 1. the rifted, rotated Arctic Alaska Terrane west of the Mackenzie Delta (Beaufort segment); 2. the transform-faulted Laurentian crust of the Tuktoyaktuk margin (Tuk segment); and, 3. the rifted Laurentian crust of the Banks Island segment. The thick late Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic prism of the continental margin was centered in the Mackenzie delta area by Mesozoic rifting of the Canada Basin. The northerly Paleocene-Miocene sweep of Cordilleran deformation modified the passive margin, overprinting the offshore Mackenzie Delta. The interpreted tectonic architecture of the three segments of the Beaufort passive margin demonstrates their distinct roles in opening of the Canada Basin. Two conjugate rifted margin segments (Beaufort and Banks Island) and a linking transform fault margin (Tuk) formed during the separation of the Arctic Alaska Terrane from northwestern Laurentia, in accord with a Jurassic-Aptian rotational model of Canada Basin opening. But the orientation of the Tuk transform segment indicates that a single pole of rotation cannot describe the opening of the basin. Additional seismic profiles from investigations of the Chukchi Sea margin display passive margin structures and rift to pre

  20. Improved optical profiling using the spectral phase in spectrally resolved white-light interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, Sanjit Kumar; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2006-09-20

    In spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI), the white-light interferogram is decomposed into its monochromatic constituent. The phase of the monochromatic constituents can be determined using a phase-shifting technique over a range of wavelengths. These phase value shave fringe order ambiguity. However, the variation of the phase with respect to the wavenumber is linear and its slope gives the absolute value of the optical-path difference. Since the path difference is related to the height of the test object at a point, a line profile can be determined without ambiguity. The slope value, though less precise helps us determine the fringe order. The fringe order combined with the monochromatic phase value gives the absolute profile, which has the precision of phase-shifting interferometry. The presence of noise in the phase may lead to the misidentification of fringe order, which in turn gives unnecessary jumps in the precise profile. The experimental details of measurement on standard samples with SRWLI are discussed in this paper.

  1. Development of surface profile measurement method for ellipsoidal x-ray mirrors using phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Takahiro; Takei, Yoshinori; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2012-09-01

    An ellipsoidal mirror is a promising type of X-ray mirror, because it can focus X-rays to nanometer size with a very large aperture and no chromatic aberration. However, ideal ellipsoidal mirrors have not yet been realized by any manufacturing method. This is partly because there is no evaluation method for its surface figure profile. In this paper, we propose and develop a method for measuring surface figure profile of ellipsoidal mirrors using phase retrieval. An optical design for soft X-ray focusing, the employed phase retrieval method and an experimental optical system specialized for wavefront measurement using a He-Ne laser are reported.

  2. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-02-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the ``slender'' and ``stocky'' forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the ``slender'' morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the ``stocky'' morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the ``slender'' morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link.

  3. Cocorp Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, K. D.; Zhu, T. F.; Gibbs, A.; Harris, R.; Oliver, J. E.; Kaufman, S.; Brown, L.; Schweickert, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    A COCORP seismic reflection profile across the northern Sierra Nevada in California shows several east-dipping zones of discontinuous reflections. Correlation with surface geology suggests that these zones probably originate from faults of the Foothills fault system. In particular, the Melones fault, which coincides with the "Mother Lode" of the central and southern Sierra foothills, appears to be marked by prominent reflections in the midcrust. Migration of the COCORP data suggests that these faults are approximately planar, have moderately steep east dips (35°-47°), and penetrate at least to midcrustal depths (>20 km). At present it is unclear whether these faults are primary Nevadan thrusts, "late" Nevadan backthrusts (retrocharriage), or younger Cretaceous or Cenozoic faults, also known to occur in the region. Other more problematic features imaged on the profile include a prominent west-dipping zone of reflections in the midcrust beneath the Eastern belt, and subhorizontal reflections at 22- to 26-km depth beneath the Tahoe graben. The former might represent a west-dipping thrust analogous to the Taylorsville thrust cropping out to the north of the survey route. The latter might represent the base of the Sierra Nevada batholith, the westward extension of any one of several thrust systems cropping out in Nevada, a low-angle extensional detachment, or Moho.

  4. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  5. Ultra-Deep Seismic Reflection Profiles of the Western U.S. from Autocorrelation of USArray Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabolova, A.; Brown, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    A core tenet of the emerging field of seismic interferometry is that autocorrelation of the transmission response recorded at a given seismic station is equivalent to its reflection response. This relation holds true for both specific (earthquake) and distributed (ambient noise) sources. In principle therefore one should be able to reconstruct the equivalent of a zero-offset, surface source-receiver reflection profile from simply autocorrelating the recordings of "natural" sources along a line of seismograph stations. In practice summation of a number of sources from an adequate spatial distribution of quasi random sources is needed to suppress artifacts and enhance the desired reflection response. Recently Ruigrok and Wapennar (2012) reported a lithospheric P-wave reflectivity profile by applying this technique to PKP, PKiKP and PKIKP phases of arthquakes recorded on Hi-CLIMB receivers crossing the Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau. Here we show the results of applying similar autocorrelation techniques to both ambient noise and earthquake suites recorded by USArray stations in New Mexico and Arizona to produce P and S wave reflection profiles of lithospheric structure. Our results demonstrate that while this novel approach can provide new (albeit low resolution compared to controlled source surveys) , reflection profiles of lithospheric structure, care must be used to discriminate true reflectivity from artifacts generate by the limited distribution of source regions. However, since the quality of the image is related to stacking fold, results from permanent or long term stations can only improve in clarity and resolution with time.

  6. Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: engineering the phase profile of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer and shape the phase profile of optical beams is in the heart of any optical element. Be it a simple lens or a sophisticated holographic element, the functionality of such components is dictated by their spatial phase response. In contrast to conventional optical components which rely on thickness variation to induce a phase profile, metasurfaces facilitate the realization of arbitrary phase distributions using large arrays with sub-wavelength and ultrathin (tens of nanometers) features. Such components can be easily realized using a single lithographic step and is highly suited for patterning a variety of substrates, including nonplanar and soft surfaces. In this article, we review the recent developments, potential, and opportunities of metasurfaces applications. We focus primarily on flat optical devices, holography, and beam-shaping applications as these are the key ingredients needed for the development of a new generation of optical devices which could find widespread applications in photonics.

  7. Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: engineering the phase profile of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The ability to engineer and shape the phase profile of optical beams is in the heart of any optical element. Be it a simple lens or a sophisticated holographic element, the functionality of such components is dictated by their spatial phase response. In contrast to conventional optical components which rely on thickness variation to induce a phase profile, metasurfaces facilitate the realization of arbitrary phase distributions using large arrays with sub-wavelength and ultrathin (tens of nanometers) features. Such components can be easily realized using a single lithographic step and is highly suited for patterning a variety of substrates, including nonplanar and soft surfaces. In this article, we review the recent developments, potential, and opportunities of metasurfaces applications. We focus primarily on flat optical devices, holography, and beam-shaping applications as these are the key ingredients needed for the development of a new generation of optical devices which could find widespread applications in photonics.

  8. Deep seismic studies of conjugate profiles from the Nova Scotia - Moroccan and the Liguro-Provencal margin pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Schnabel, M.; Moulin, M.; Louden, K. E.; Funck, T.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, opening of an ocean and formation of it's associated sedimentary basins. In order to distinguish between tectonic inheritance and structures directly related to rifting of passive margins conjugate profiles have to be acquired on margins on diverse locations and different ages. In this study we use new and existing reflection and wide-angle seismic data from two margin pairs, the 200 Ma year old Nova-Scotia - Morocco margin pair and the only 20 Ma Gulf of Lions - Sardinia margin pair. On both margin pairs wide-angle seismic data combined with reflection seismic data were acquired on conjugate profiles on sea and extended on land. Forward modelling of the deep crustal structure along the four transects indicates that a high velocity zone (HVZ) (> 7.2 km/s) is present at the base of the lower crust on all four margins along the ocean-continental transition zone (OCT). This may represent either exhumed upper mantle material or injection of upper mantle material into proto-oceanic crust at the onset of sea-floor spreading. However the width of the HVZ might strongly differ between conjugates, which may be the result of tectonic inheritance, for example the presence of ancient subduction zones or orogens. Both margin pairs show a similar unthinned continental crustal thickness. Crustal thinning and upper-to-lower crustal thickness vary between margin pairs, but remain nearly symmetric on conjugate profiles and might therefore depend on the structure and mechanical properties of the original continental crust. For the Mediterranean margin pair, the oceanic crust is similar on both sides, with a thickness of only 4-5 km. For the Atlantic margin pair, oceanic crustal thickness is higher on the Moroccan Margin, a fact that can be explained by either asymmetric spreading or by the volcanic underplating, possibly originating from the Canary Hot Spot.

  9. Reproducibility of trace element profiles in a specimen of the deep-water bamboo coral Keratoisis sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Daniel J.; Williams, B.; Allard, G.; Ghaleb, B.; Fallon, S.; Ross, S. W.; Risk, M.

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo corals (Order Gorgonacea, Family Isididae) are attractive prospects for deep-sea paleoceanographic reconstruction, capturing trace elements in their calcitic skeletons that may serve as environmental proxies with subdecadal resolution over multi-century timescales. We study the reproducibility and fidelity of trace-element profiles (Ba, Mg, Sr, Mn, U, Pb) in a 420-year-old specimen of the bamboo coral Keratoisis sp. from the SE USA. Using laser-ablation ICP-MS to obtain multiple replicate profiles, we use spectral techniques to distinguish noise and irreproducible variations from fully reproducible geochemical fluctuations that are candidates for environmental signals. By quantifying variability between profiles, we assess the fidelity with which the corals potentially record environmental information. Barium is the most reproducible element in the skeleton, with large fluctuations along different growth radii reproducing to within 4%. Both Mg and Sr have very uniform levels within the coral, but display low-amplitude irreproducible variations that might represent an internal biological process. In the case of Mg, which has been proposed as a paleotemperature proxy, this irreproducibility would represent an intrinsic uncertainty of ˜±0.1 to 0.4 °C. Both Mn and Pb contain some irreproducibility superimposed upon broad reproducible profiles that may be environmental signals. Some of the irreproducible Pb fluctuations correlate with cracks and dark bands in the sample suggesting detrital or surface contamination. Uranium displays large amplitude variations which are not reproducible along different radii. This suggests that uranium cannot be used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, and may show signs of early diagenesis - a possibility that could complicate attempts to date young Keratoisis sp. samples by U-series geochemistry. The highly reproducible Ba signal allows precise alignment of profiles and thus we can show that growth rate along one radius can

  10. SHARAKU: an algorithm for aligning and clustering read mapping profiles of deep sequencing in non-coding RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Mariko; Amano, Kojiro; Abe, Masaya; Seki, Misato; Hase, Sumitaka; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Deep sequencing of the transcripts of regulatory non-coding RNA generates footprints of post-transcriptional processes. After obtaining sequence reads, the short reads are mapped to a reference genome, and specific mapping patterns can be detected called read mapping profiles, which are distinct from random non-functional degradation patterns. These patterns reflect the maturation processes that lead to the production of shorter RNA sequences. Recent next-generation sequencing studies have revealed not only the typical maturation process of miRNAs but also the various processing mechanisms of small RNAs derived from tRNAs and snoRNAs. Results: We developed an algorithm termed SHARAKU to align two read mapping profiles of next-generation sequencing outputs for non-coding RNAs. In contrast with previous work, SHARAKU incorporates the primary and secondary sequence structures into an alignment of read mapping profiles to allow for the detection of common processing patterns. Using a benchmark simulated dataset, SHARAKU exhibited superior performance to previous methods for correctly clustering the read mapping profiles with respect to 5′-end processing and 3′-end processing from degradation patterns and in detecting similar processing patterns in deriving the shorter RNAs. Further, using experimental data of small RNA sequencing for the common marmoset brain, SHARAKU succeeded in identifying the significant clusters of read mapping profiles for similar processing patterns of small derived RNA families expressed in the brain. Availability and Implementation: The source code of our program SHARAKU is available at http://www.dna.bio.keio.ac.jp/sharaku/, and the simulated dataset used in this work is available at the same link. Accession code: The sequence data from the whole RNA transcripts in the hippocampus of the left brain used in this work is available from the DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ) Sequence Read Archive (DRA) under the accession number DRA

  11. On polarimetric radar signatures of deep convection for model evaluation: columns of specific differential phase observed during MC3E

    SciTech Connect

    van Lier-Walqui, Marcus; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew S; Collis, Scott; Helmus, Jonathan; MacGorman, Donald R; North, Kirk; Kollias, Pavlos; Posselt, Derek J

    2016-02-01

    The representation of deep convection in general circulation models is in part informed by cloud-resolving models (CRMs) that function at higher spatial and temporal resolution; however, recent studies have shown that CRMs often fail at capturing the details of deep convection updrafts. With the goal of providing constraint on CRM simulation of deep convection updrafts, ground-based remote sensing observations are analyzed and statistically correlated for four deep convection events observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Since positive values of specific differential phase observed above the melting level are associated with deep convection updraft cells, so-called columns are analyzed using two scanning polarimetric radars in Oklahoma: the National Weather Service Vance WSR-88D (KVNX) and the Department of Energy C-band Scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR). KVNX and C-SAPR volumes and columns are then statistically correlated with vertical winds retrieved via multi-Doppler wind analysis, lightning flash activity derived from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, and KVNX differential reflectivity . Results indicate strong correlations of volume above the melting level with updraft mass flux, lightning flash activity, and intense rainfall. Analysis of columns reveals signatures of changing updraft properties from one storm event to another as well as during event evolution. Comparison of to shows commonalities in information content of each, as well as potential problems with associated with observational artifacts.

  12. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    The material presented in this booklet represents a condensation of materials developed under the Post-Secondary Education Profile phase of the National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment. The final report of the study consisted of 16 volumes which are summarized. The following topics are covered: air, energy, noise, pesticides, potable…

  13. Surface energy from order parameter profile: At the QCD phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Z.; Patkos, A.

    1989-01-01

    The order parameter profile between coexisting confined and plasma regions at the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) phase transition is constructed. The dimensionless combination of the surface energy (Sigma) and the correlation length (Zeta) is estimated to be Sigma Zeta 3 approximately equals 0.8.

  14. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  15. Uncovering a Salt Giant. Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messinian Events (DREAM) multi-phase drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Aoisi, Vanni; Lofi, Johanna; Hübscher, Christian; deLange, Gert; Flecker, Rachel; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Gvirtzman, Zohar; Krijgsman, Wout; Lugli, Stefano; Makowsky, Yizhaq; Manzi, Vinicio; McGenity, Terry; Panieri, Giuliana; Rabineau, Marina; Roveri, Marco; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Waldmann, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, the DREAM MagellanPlus Workshop was held in Brisighella (Italy). The initiative builds from recent activities by various research groups to identify potential sites to perform deep-sea scientific drilling in the Mediterranean Sea across the deep Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) sedimentary record. In this workshop three generations of scientists were gathered: those who participated in formulation of the deep desiccated model, through DSDP Leg 13 drilling in 1973; those who are actively involved in present-day MSC research; and the next generation (PhD students and young post-docs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify locations for multiple-site drilling (including riser-drilling) in the Mediterranean Sea that would contribute to solve the several open questions still existing about the causes, processes, timing and consequences at local and planetary scale of an outstanding case of natural environmental change in the recent Earth history: the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. The product of the workshop is the identification of the structure of an experimental design of site characterization, riser-less and riser drilling, sampling, measurements, and down-hole analyses that will be the core for at least one compelling and feasible multiple phase drilling proposal. Particular focus has been given to reviewing seismic site survey data available from different research groups at pan-Mediterranean basin scale, to the assessment of additional site survey activity including 3D seismics, and to ways of establishing firm links with oil and gas industry. The scientific community behind the DREAM initiative is willing to proceed with the submission to IODP of a Multi-phase Drilling Project including several drilling proposals addressing specific drilling objectives, all linked to the driving objectives of the MSC drilling and understanding . A series of critical drilling targets were identified to address the still open questions

  16. High-accuracy surface profile measuring system using a BSO phase conjugating mirror.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, O; Suzuki, T; Sato, T

    1982-12-15

    A highly accurate real-time surface profile measuring system has been constructed by combining a Bi(12)SiO(20) (BSO) phase conjugating mirror (PCM) with a Twyman-Green interferometer. In this new interferometer the convex lens collects and focuses the scattering object waves in the BSO crystal, and the PCM reconstructs the object field through the same lens. The method of deriving surface profile is similar to conventional ones but differs in that it does not require exact phase modulation of the interferograms. This system features a quite high measurement accuracy free of aberrations of the lens and of hysteresis or aging of the piston actuator used to change the phase of the reference field. The principle and basic experimental results are presented.

  17. Creating Diversified Response Profiles from a Single Quenchometric Sensor Element by Using Phase-Resolved Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Tehan, Elizabeth C.; Bukowski, Rachel M.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Titus, Albert H.; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Bright, Frank V.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new strategy for generating a continuum of response profiles from a single luminescence-based sensor element by using phase-resolved detection. This strategy yields reliable responses that depend in a predictable manner on changes in the luminescent reporter lifetime in the presence of the target analyte, the excitation modulation frequency, and the detector (lock-in amplifier) phase angle. In the traditional steady-state mode, the sensor that we evaluate exhibits a linear, positive going response to changes in the target analyte concentration. Under phase-resolved conditions the analyte-dependent response profiles: (i) can become highly non-linear; (ii) yield negative going responses; (iii) can be biphasic; and (iv) can exhibit super sensitivity (e.g., sensitivities up to 300 fold greater in comparison to steady-state conditions). PMID:25569752

  18. Creating diversified response profiles from a single quenchometric sensor element by using phase-resolved luminescence.

    PubMed

    Tehan, Elizabeth C; Bukowski, Rachel M; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Titus, Albert H; Cartwright, Alexander N; Bright, Frank V

    2015-01-05

    We report a new strategy for generating a continuum of response profiles from a single luminescence-based sensor element by using phase-resolved detection. This strategy yields reliable responses that depend in a predictable manner on changes in the luminescent reporter lifetime in the presence of the target analyte, the excitation modulation frequency, and the detector (lock-in amplifier) phase angle. In the traditional steady-state mode, the sensor that we evaluate exhibits a linear, positive going response to changes in the target analyte concentration. Under phase-resolved conditions the analyte-dependent response profiles: (i) can become highly non-linear; (ii) yield negative going responses; (iii) can be biphasic; and (iv) can exhibit super sensitivity (e.g., sensitivities up to 300 fold greater in comparison to steady-state conditions).

  19. Deep sequencing of transcriptome profiling of GSTM2 knock-down in swine testis cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuqi; Jin, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Jin, Jianjun; Ma, Zhenfa; Ren, Zhuqing

    2016-12-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases mu 2 (GSTM2), a kind of important Phase II antioxidant enzyme of eukaryotes, is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay due to a C27T substitution in the fifth exon of pigs. As a reproductive performance-related gene, GSTM2 is involved in embryo implantation, whereas, functional deficiency of GSTM2 induces pre- or post-natal death in piglets potentially. To have some insight into the role of GSTM2 in embryo development, high throughput RNA sequencing is performed using the swine testis cells (ST) with the deletion of GSTM2. Some embryo development-related genes are observed from a total of 242 differentially expressed genes, including STAT1, SRC, IL-8, DUSP family, CCL family and integrin family. GSTM2 affects expression of SRC, OPN, and SLCs. GSTM2 suppresses phosphorylation of STAT1 by binding to STAT1. In addition, as an important transcription factor, STAT1 regulates expression of uterus receptive-related genes including CCLs, IRF9, IFITs, MXs, and OAS. The present study provides evidence to molecular mechanism of GSTM2 modulating embryo development.

  20. Deep sequencing of transcriptome profiling of GSTM2 knock-down in swine testis cells

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yuqi; Jin, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Jin, Jianjun; Ma, Zhenfa; Ren, Zhuqing

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases mu 2 (GSTM2), a kind of important Phase II antioxidant enzyme of eukaryotes, is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay due to a C27T substitution in the fifth exon of pigs. As a reproductive performance-related gene, GSTM2 is involved in embryo implantation, whereas, functional deficiency of GSTM2 induces pre- or post-natal death in piglets potentially. To have some insight into the role of GSTM2 in embryo development, high throughput RNA sequencing is performed using the swine testis cells (ST) with the deletion of GSTM2. Some embryo development-related genes are observed from a total of 242 differentially expressed genes, including STAT1, SRC, IL-8, DUSP family, CCL family and integrin family. GSTM2 affects expression of SRC, OPN, and SLCs. GSTM2 suppresses phosphorylation of STAT1 by binding to STAT1. In addition, as an important transcription factor, STAT1 regulates expression of uterus receptive-related genes including CCLs, IRF9, IFITs, MXs, and OAS. The present study provides evidence to molecular mechanism of GSTM2 modulating embryo development. PMID:27905550

  1. Evidence for Gently Sloping Plasma Density Profiles in the Deep Corona: Type III Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Gorgutsa, R. V.; Fomichev, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency fp and near its harmonic 2fp by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration being about 1-3 s. In the present paper, 37 well-defined coronal type III radio bursts (25-450 MHz) are analyzed. The results obtained substantiate an earlier statement that the dependence of the central frequency of the emission on time can be fitted to a power-law model, f(t) vprop (t - t 0)-α, where α can be as low as 1. In the case of negligible plasma acceleration and conical flow, it means that the electron number density within about 1 solar radius above the photosphere will decrease as r -2, like in the solar wind. For the data set chosen, the index α varies in the range from 0.2 to 7 or bigger, with mean and median values of 1.2 and 0.5, respectively. A surprisingly large fraction of events, 84%, have α <= 1.2. These results provide strong evidence that in the type III source regions the electron number density scales as n(r) vprop (r - r 0)-β, with minimum, mean, and median β = 2α of 0.4, 2.4, and 1.0, respectively. Hence, the typical density profiles are more gently sloping than those given by existing empirical coronal models. Several events are found with a wind-like dependence of burst frequency on time. Smaller power-law indices could result from the effects of non-conical geometry of the plasma flow tubes, deceleration of coronal plasma, and/or the curvature of the magnetic field lines. The last effect is shown to be too weak to explain such low power-law indices. A strong tendency is found for bursts from the same group to have similar power-law indices, thereby favoring the hypothesis that they are usually produced by the same source region.

  2. Evidence for Gently Sloping Plasma Density Profiles in the Deep Corona: Type III Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Lobzin, V.; Robinson, P. A.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G. J.; Gorgutsa, R.; Fomichev, V.

    2010-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency fp and near its harmonic 2fp by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration of the coronal burst being about 1--3 seconds. In the present paper, 37 well-defined coronal type III radio bursts (25--450 MHz) are analyzed. It is found that the dependence of the central frequency of the emission on time can be fitted to a power-law model, f(t) ∝ (t-t0)-α . The index α varies in the range 0.2 to ∞ , with mean and median values of 1.2 and 0.5, respectively. A surprisingly large fraction of events, 84%, has α ≤1.2. Assuming a constant speed of the electron beam, these results provide strong evidence that in the type III source regions within about 1 solar radius above the photosphere the electron number density scales as n(r) ∝ (r-r0)-β , with minimum, mean, and median β =2α of 0.4, 2.4, and 1.0, respectively. Hence, the typical density profiles are more gently sloping than could be expected from the existing empirical coronal models. In the case of negligible plasma acceleration and conical flow, from conservation of the number of electrons it follows that the electron number density will decrease as r-2 with α =1, like in the solar wind. Several events are found with such a wind-like dependence of burst frequency on time. Smaller power-law indices could result from the effects of non-conical geometry of the plasma flow tubes, deceleration of coronal plasma, and/or the curvature of the magnetic field lines. The effects of curvature of the magnetic field lines are shown to be too weak to explain such low power-law indices. A strong tendency is found for bursts from the same group to have similar power-law indices, thereby favoring the hypothesis that they are usually produced by the same source region.

  3. Mass, velocity anisotropy, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of Abell 2142

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, E.; Biviano, A.; Mamon, G. A.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We aim to compute the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of Abell 2142 and, from there, the pseudo phase-space density profile Q(r) and the density slope - velocity anisotropy β - γ relation, and then to compare them with theoretical expectations. Methods: The mass profiles were obtained by using three techniques based on member galaxy kinematics, namely the caustic method, the method of dispersion-kurtosis, and MAMPOSSt. Through the inversion of the Jeans equation, it was possible to compute the velocity anisotropy profiles. Results: The mass profiles, as well as the virial values of mass and radius, computed with the different techniques agree with one another and with the estimates coming from X-ray and weak lensing studies. A combined mass profile is obtained by averaging the lensing, X-ray, and kinematics determinations. The cluster mass profile is well fitted by an NFW profile with c = 4.0 ± 0.5. The population of red and blue galaxies appear to have a different velocity anisotropy configuration, since red galaxies are almost isotropic, while blue galaxies are radially anisotropic, with a weak dependence on radius. The Q(r) profile for the red galaxy population agrees with the theoretical results found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that any bias, relative to the dark matter particles, in velocity dispersion of the red component is independent of radius. The β - γ relation for red galaxies matches the theoretical relation only in the inner region. The deviations might be due to the use of galaxies as tracers of the gravitational potential, unlike the non-collisional tracer used in the theoretical relation.

  4. High-intensity focused ultrasound with large scale spherical phased array for the ablation of deep tumors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Bai, Jing-feng; Shen, Guo-feng; Chen, Ya-zhu

    2009-09-01

    Under some circumstances surgical resection is feasible in a low percentage for the treatment of deep tumors. Nevertheless, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is beginning to offer a potential noninvasive alternative to conventional therapies for the treatment of deep tumors. In our previous study, a large scale spherical HIFU-phased array was developed to ablate deep tumors. In the current study, taking into account the required focal depth and maximum acoustic power output, 90 identical circular PZT-8 elements (diameter =1.4 cm and frequency=1 MHz) were mounted on a spherical shell with a radius of curvature of 18 cm and a diameter of 21 cm. With the developed array, computer simulations and ex vivo experiments were carried out. The simulation results theoretically demonstrate the ability of the array to focus and steer in the specified volume (a 2 cmx2 cmx3 cm volume) at the focal depth of 15 to 18 cm. Ex vivo experiment results also verify the capability of the developed array to ablate deep target tissue by either moving single focal point or generating multiple foci simultaneously.

  5. Pressure Profiles in Two-Phase Geothermal Wells: Comparison of Field Data and Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ambastha, A.K.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1986-01-21

    Increased confidence in the predictive power of two-phase correlations is a vital part of wellbore deliverability and deposition studies for geothermal wells. Previously, the Orkiszewski (1967) set of correlations has been recommended by many investigators to analyze geothermal wellbore performance. In this study, we use measured flowing pressure profile data from ten geothermal wells around the world, covering a wide range of flowrate, fluid enthalpy, wellhead pressure and well depth. We compare measured and calculated pressure profiles using the Orkiszewski (1967) correlations.

  6. Directivity of a Sparse Array in the Presence of Atmospheric-Induced Phase Fluctuations for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Widely distributed (sparse) ground-based arrays have been utilized for decades in the radio science community for imaging celestial objects, but have only recently become an option for deep space communications applications with the advent of the proposed Next Generation Deep Space Network (DSN) array. But whereas in astronomical imaging, observations (receive-mode only) are made on the order of minutes to hours and atmospheric-induced aberrations can be mostly corrected for in post-processing, communications applications require transmit capabilities and real-time corrections over time scales as short as fractions of a second. This presents an unavoidable problem with the use of sparse arrays for deep space communications at Ka-band which has yet to be successfully resolved, particularly for uplink arraying. In this paper, an analysis of the performance of a sparse antenna array, in terms of its directivity, is performed to derive a closed form solution to the expected array loss in the presence of atmospheric-induced phase fluctuations. The theoretical derivation for array directivity degradation is validated with interferometric measurements for a two-element array taken at Goldstone, California. With the validity of the model established, an arbitrary 27-element array geometry is defined at Goldstone, California, to ascertain its performance in the presence of phase fluctuations. It is concluded that a combination of compact array geometry and atmospheric compensation is necessary to ensure high levels of availability.

  7. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF...

  8. Deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of Ni- and Zn-diffused vapor-phase-epitaxy n-GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partin, D. L.; Chen, J. W.; Milnes, A. G.; Vassamillet, L. F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of Ni- and Zn-diffused vapor-phase epitaxy n-GaAs. Nickel diffused into VPE n-GaAs reduces the hole diffusion length L sub p from 4.3 to 1.1 microns. Deep-level transient spectroscopy was used to identify energy levels in Ni-diffused GaAs; the as-grown VPE GaAs contains traces of these levels and an electron trap. Ni diffusion reduces the concentration of this level by an amount that matches the increase in concentration of each of the two Ni-related levels. A technique for measuring minority-carrier capture cross sections was developed, which indicates that L sub p in Ni-diffused VPE n-GaAs is controlled by the E sub c - 0.39 eV defect level.

  9. A parametric study of ultrasonic beam profiles for a linear phased array transducer.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Choi, S W

    2000-01-01

    A numerical simulation model is presented to investigate the influences of design parameters of linear phased array transducers on beam focusing and steering performance. The characteristic of ultrasonic beam profiles has been simulated on the basis of the Huygen's superposition principle. For the simulation, a linear phased array is considered as the composition of finite number of elements separated by equidistance. Individual elements are considered as two-dimensional point sources. The waves generated from piezoelectric elements are considered as simplified transient ultrasonic waves that are constructed with the cosine function enveloped with a Hanning window. The characteristic of ultrasonic wave propagation into a medium from the phased array transducer is described. The effects of the number, the interelement spacing, steering angle, the focal length, and frequency bandwidth of the piezoelectric elements on beam directivity and ultrasonic pressure field in a linear phased array transducer are systematically discussed.

  10. Cytokine Expression Profile of Dengue Patients at Different Phases of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Hu, Yongli; Khan, Asif M.; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Lum, Lucy Chai See; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an important medical problem, with symptoms ranging from mild dengue fever to severe forms of the disease, where vascular leakage leads to hypovolemic shock. Cytokines have been implicated to play a role in the progression of severe dengue disease; however, their profile in dengue patients and the synergy that leads to continued plasma leakage is not clearly understood. Herein, we investigated the cytokine kinetics and profiles of dengue patients at different phases of illness to further understand the role of cytokines in dengue disease. Methods and Findings Circulating levels of 29 different types of cytokines were assessed by bead-based ELISA method in dengue patients at the 3 different phases of illness. The association between significant changes in the levels of cytokines and clinical parameters were analyzed. At the febrile phase, IP-10 was significant in dengue patients with and without warning signs. However, MIP-1β was found to be significant in only patients with warning signs at this phase. IP-10 was also significant in both with and without warning signs patients during defervescence. At this phase, MIP-1β and G-CSF were significant in patients without warning signs, whereas MCP-1 was noted to be elevated significantly in patients with warning signs. Significant correlations between the levels of VEGF, RANTES, IL-7, IL-12, PDGF and IL-5 with platelets; VEGF with lymphocytes and neutrophils; G-CSF and IP-10 with atypical lymphocytes and various other cytokines with the liver enzymes were observed in this study. Conclusions The cytokine profile patterns discovered between the different phases of illness indicate an essential role in dengue pathogenesis and with further studies may serve as predictive markers for progression to dengue with warning signs. PMID:23284941

  11. Identification and profiling of novel microRNAs in the Brassica rapa genome based on small RNA deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the functional non-coding small RNAs involved in the epigenetic control of the plant genome. Although plants contain both evolutionary conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs within their genomes, computational methods often only identify evolutionary conserved miRNAs. The recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enables us to identify miRNAs and their putative target genes. In this study, we sought to provide a more comprehensive prediction of B. rapa miRNAs based on high throughput small RNA deep sequencing. Results We sequenced small RNAs from five types of tissue: seedlings, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers. By analyzing 2.75 million unique reads that mapped to the B. rapa genome, we identified 216 novel and 196 conserved miRNAs that were predicted to target approximately 20% of the genome’s protein coding genes. Quantitative analysis of miRNAs from the five types of tissue revealed that novel miRNAs were expressed in diverse tissues but their expression levels were lower than those of the conserved miRNAs. Comparative analysis of the miRNAs between the B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes demonstrated that redundant copies of conserved miRNAs in the B. rapa genome may have been deleted after whole genome triplication. Novel miRNA members seemed to have spontaneously arisen from the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, suggesting the species-specific expansion of miRNAs. We have made this data publicly available in a miRNA database of B. rapa called BraMRs. The database allows the user to retrieve miRNA sequences, their expression profiles, and a description of their target genes from the five tissue types investigated here. Conclusions This is the first report to identify novel miRNAs from Brassica crops using genome-wide high throughput techniques. The combination of computational methods and small RNA deep sequencing provides robust predictions of miRNAs in the genome. The finding of numerous novel mi

  12. Seismic Reflection Image of Lithospheric Structure Beneath Shidara, Using Explosive Sources from the 2001 Deep Seismic Profiling in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Ito, T.; Miller, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Hirata, N.; Ohishi, M.; Kaip, G.; Kato, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Kwiatkowski, A.; Kurashimo, E.; Kawamura, T.

    2001-12-01

    Central Honshu lies above an active subduction zone where the Philippine Sea plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. A better understanding of the lithospheric structure of this region is important for assessing the risk of large mega-thrust earthquakes and also for understanding processes of continental growth. In order to define the deep geometry of major structures within the crust as well as the down-going slab, a deep seismic reflection profile was collected in the central part of Honshu, Japan. This experiment was performed as a piggy-back on a larger scale seismic experiment conducted by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center and Joint Japanese University teams in late August, 2001. In the Shidara area, a 27-km seismic line was deployed perpendicular to the trench axis and major geologic boundaries. In the central part of the seismic line, 10-Hz vertical geophones, connected by a digital telemetry cables, were deployed over 15 km at a 50 m spacing. In addition, 100 TEXAN (Reftek 125) recorders with 4.5 Hz geophones were deployed at ca. 120 m-intervals for 12 km. A total of six shots with a maximum offset of 210 km, were clearly recorded by this dense receiver array. Near-vertical incidence data were obtained with recordings of a 500 kg shot at the northern end of this receiver array and a 100 kg shot at the southern end. The shots were recorded for 60 to 64 s at a 4 ms sampling rate. Records from these shots exhibit strong, layered reflections from 6 to 9.5 s, which we interpret as being derived from the lower crust. North-dipping reflections at 10.5 to 11.5 s can be interpreted as reflections from the down-going slab. Some north-dipping events from the middle and upper crust probably correspond to the deeper extension of the Median Tectonic Line and Butsuzo Tectonic Line, both of which extend for more than 1000 km along western Honshu and Kyushu Islands.

  13. CosmoTransitions: Computing cosmological phase transition temperatures and bubble profiles with multiple fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2012-09-01

    I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot

  14. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-09-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN.

  15. Development of a High Performance, Low Profile Translation Table with Wire Feedthrough for a Deep Space CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NEAScout, a 6U cubesat and secondary payload on NASA's EM-1, will use an 85 sq m solar sail to travel to a near-earth asteroid at about 1 Astronomical Unit (about 1.5 x 10(exp 8) km) for observation and reconnaissance1. A combination of reaction wheels, reaction control system, and a slow rotisserie roll about the solar sail's normal axis were expected to handle attitude control and adjust for imperfections in the deployed sail during the 2.5-year mission. As the design for NEAScout matured, one of the critical design parameters, the offset in the center of mass and center of pressure (CP/CM offset), proved to be sub-optimal. After significant mission and control analysis, the CP/CM offset was accommodated by the addition of a new subsystem to NEAScout. This system, called the Active Mass Translator (AMT), would reside near the geometric center of NEAScout and adjust the CM by moving one portion of the flight system relative to the other. The AMT was given limited design space - 17 mm of the vehicle's assembly height-and was required to generate +/-8 cm by +/-2 cm translation to sub-millimeter accuracy. Furthermore, the design must accommodate a large wire bundle of small gage, single strand wire and coax cables fed through the center of the mechanism. The bend radius, bend resistance, and the exposure to deep space environment complicates the AMT design and operation and necessitated a unique design to mitigate risks of wire bundle damage, binding, and cold-welding during operation. This paper will outline the design constraints for the AMT, discuss the methods and reasoning for design, and identify the lessons learned through the designing, breadboarding and testing for the low-profile translation stages with wire feedthrough capability.

  16. Deep proteomic profiling of vasopressin-sensitive collecting duct cells. I. Virtual Western blots and molecular weight distributions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chin-Rang; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Emamian, Milad; Sandoval, Pablo C; Raghuram, Viswanathan; Knepper, Mark A

    2015-12-15

    The mouse mpkCCD cell line is a continuous cultured epithelial cell line with characteristics of renal collecting duct principal cells. This line is widely used to study epithelial transport and its regulation. To provide a data resource useful for experimental design and interpretation in studies using mpkCCD cells, we have carried out "deep" proteomic profiling of these cells using three levels of fractionation (differential centrifugation, SDS-PAGE, and HPLC) followed by tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify proteins. The analysis of all resulting samples generated 34.6 gigabytes of spectral data. As a result, we identified 6,766 proteins in mpkCCD cells at a high level of stringency. These proteins are expressed over eight orders of magnitude of protein abundance. The data are provided to users as a public data base (https://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/mpkFractions/). The mass spectrometry data were mapped back to their gel slices to generate "virtual Western blots" for each protein. For most of the 6,766 proteins, the apparent molecular weight from SDS-PAGE agreed closely with the calculated molecular weight. However, a substantial fraction (>15%) of proteins was found to run aberrantly, with much higher or much lower mobilities than predicted. These proteins were analyzed to identify mechanisms responsible for altered mobility on SDS-PAGE, including high or low isoelectric point, high or low hydrophobicity, physiological cleavage, residence in the lysosome, posttranslational modifications, and expression of alternative isoforms due to alternative exon usage. Additionally, this analysis identified a previously unrecognized isoform of aquaporin-2 with apparent molecular mass <20 kDa.

  17. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  18. Utilization of deep eutectic solvents as novel mobile phase additives for improving the separation of bioactive quaternary alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Zhang, Mingliang; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as novel mobile phase additives to improve chromatographic separation of four quaternary alkaloids including coptisine chloride, sanguinarine, berberine chloride and chelerythrine on a C18 column. DESs as a new class of ionic liquids are renewably sourced, environmentally benign, low cost and easy to prepare. Seven DESs were obtained by mixing different hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. The effects of organic solvents, the concentration of DESs, the types of DESs and the pH values of the buffer solution on the separation of the analytes were investigated. The composition of acetonitrile and 1.0% deep eutectic solvents aqueous solution (pH 3.3, adjusted with hydrochloric acid) in a 32:68 (v/v) ratio was used as optimized mobile phase, with which four quaternary alkaloids were well separated. When a small amount of DESs was added in the mobile phase for the separation of alkaloids on the C18 column, noticeable improvements were distinctly observed such as decreasing peak tailing and improving resolution. The separation mechanism mediated by DESs as mobile phase additives can be attributed to combined effect of both hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. For example, choline chloride can effectively cover the residual silanols on silica surface and ethylene glycol can reduce the retention time of analytes. The proposed method has been applied to determine BerbC in Lanqin Chinese herbal oral solution and BerbC tablet. Utilization of DESs in mobile phase can efficiently improve separation and selectivity of analytes from complex samples.

  19. Altered Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic Gene Profile in Rats Subjected to Advanced Light Phase Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Laura; Valcarcel, Lorea; da Silva, Crhistiane Andressa; Albert, Nerea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat; Serra, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level. PMID:25837425

  20. Online, efficient and precision laser profiling of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels based on a single-layer deep-cutting intermittent feeding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui; Chen, Genyu; He, Jie; Zhou, Cong; Du, Han; Wang, Yanyi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an online, efficient and precision laser profiling approach that is based on a single-layer deep-cutting intermittent feeding method is described. The effects of the laser cutting depth and the track-overlap ratio of the laser cutting on the efficiency, precision and quality of laser profiling were investigated. Experiments on the online profiling of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels were performed using a pulsed fiber laser. The results demonstrate that an increase in the laser cutting depth caused an increase in the material removal efficiency during the laser profiling process. However, the maximum laser profiling efficiency was only achieved when the laser cutting depth was equivalent to the initial surface contour error of the grinding wheel. In addition, the selection of relatively high track-overlap ratios of laser cutting for the profiling of grinding wheels was beneficial with respect to the increase in the precision of laser profiling, whereas the efficiency and quality of the laser profiling were not affected by the change in the track-overlap ratio. After optimized process parameters were employed for online laser profiling, the circular run-out error and the parallelism error of the grinding wheel surface decreased from 83.1 μm and 324.6 μm to 11.3 μm and 3.5 μm, respectively. The surface contour precision of the grinding wheel significantly improved. The highest surface contour precision for grinding wheels of the same type that can be theoretically achieved after laser profiling is completely dependent on the peak power density of the laser. The higher the laser peak power density is, the higher the surface contour precision of the grinding wheel after profiling.

  1. A surface profile reconstruction system using sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometry and fiber-optic fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Bo; Fa-jie, Duan; Chang-rong, Lv; Fan, Feng; Xiao, Fu

    2014-06-01

    A fiber-optic sinusoidal phase modulating (SPM) interferometer for surface profile reconstruction is presented. Sinusoidal phase modulation is created by modulating the drive voltage of the piezoelectric transducer. The surface profile is constructed basing on fringe projection. Fringe patterns are vulnerable to external disturbances such as temperature fluctuation and mechanical vibration, which cause phase drift and decrease measuring accuracy. We build a closed-loop feedback phase compensation system, the bias value of external disturbances superimposed on fringe patterns can be reduced to about 50 mrad, and the phase stability for interference fringes is less than 5.76 mrad. By measuring the surface profile of a paper plate for two times, the repeatability is estimated to be about 11 nm, and is equivalent to be about λ/69. For a plane with 100 × 100 points, a single measurement takes less than 140 ms, and the feasibility for real-time profile measurement with high accuracy has been verified.

  2. Advances in Scanning Reflectarray Antennas Based on Ferroelectric Thin Film Phase Shifters for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Though there are a few examples of scanning phased array antennas that have flown successfully in space, the quest for low-cost, high-efficiency, large aperture microwave phased arrays continues. Fixed and mobile applications that may be part of a heterogeneous exploration communication architecture will benefit from the agile (rapid) beam steering and graceful degradation afforded by phased array antennas. The reflectarray promises greater efficiency and economy compared to directly-radiating varieties. Implementing a practical scanning version has proven elusive. The ferroelectric reflectarray, under development and described herein, involves phase shifters based on coupled microstrip patterned on Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films, that were laser ablated onto LaAlO3 substrates. These devices outperform their semiconductor counterparts from X- through and K-band frequencies. There are special issues associated with the implementation of a scanning reflectarray antenna, especially one realized with thin film ferroelectric phase shifters. This paper will discuss these issues which include: relevance of phase shifter loss; modulo 2(pi) effects and phase shifter transient effects on bit error rate; scattering from the ground plane; presentation of a novel hybrid ferroelectric-semiconductor phase shifter; and the effect of mild radiation exposure on phase shifter performance.

  3. Profiling of Burkholderia cepacia Secretome at Mid-Logarithmic and Early-Stationary Phases of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Vanitha; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Hashim, Onn Haji; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2011-01-01

    Background Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes serious respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. This bacterium is known to release extracellular proteins that may be involved in virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, B. cepacia grown to mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases were investigated on their ability to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 lung epithelial cells in order to discern the fate of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia lung infections in in vitro condition. The early-stationary phase B. cepacia was demonstrated to be more invasive than mid-logarithmic phase. In addition, culture supernatants of B. cepacia obtained from these phases of growth were also demonstrated to cause different cytotoxic potency on the A549 human lung epithelial cells. Profiling of the supernatants using the gel-based proteomics approach identified 43 proteins that were commonly released in both the growth phases and 40 proteins newly-released at the early-stationary phase. The latter proteins may account for the higher cytotoxic activity of the early-stationary culture supernatant compared to that obtained at the mid-logarithmic phase. Among the newly-released proteins in the early-stationary phase supernatant were flagellar hook-associated domain protein (FliD), flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK), TonB-dependent siderophore (Fiu), Elongation factor G (FusA), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) and sulfatase (AslA) which are known for their virulence. Conclusion/Significance Differences in the ability of B. cepacia to invade and survive intracellularly inside the epithelial cells at different phases of growth may improve our understanding of the varied disease progressions associated with B. cepacia infections. In addition, the identified culture supernatant proteins may be used as targets for the development of new strategies to control B. cepacia

  4. [Global expression profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: metabolic remodeling in post-log phase].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanrui; Tang, Yuqian; Chen, Hongyun; Zheng, Suiping; Pan, Li; Lin, Ying

    2008-06-01

    For the purpose of revealing the mechanism of the reduction of yeasts ethanol production rate after entrance of post-log phase, we used microarray to study expression profiles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the transition from mid-log growth phase to post-log growth. The results demonstrate that the global pattern of gene expression is very stable during the mid-log phase. However, a dramatic metabolic remodeling was found when the yeast entries post-log phase, during which many of amino acid synthesis and metabolism related genes are up-regulated, moreover, ion transport, energy generation and storage related genes are also up regulated during this phase, while a large number of genes involved in transposition and DNA recombination are repressed. Central metabolic pathways also engage in metabolic remodeling, within which the genes involved in succinate and a-ketoglutarate synthesis pathways are up regulated, accordance with those of amino acid synthesis and metabolism. These results demonstrate that the increasing demand for amino acids in post-log phase lead to a metabolic transition into TCA cycle and glyoxylate cycle, which subsequently reduce the ethanol production rate. This suggests a global insight into the process of yeast ethanol fermentation.

  5. Deep Learning the Quantum Phase Transitions in Random Electron Systems: Applications to Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Tomi; Ohtsuki, Tomoki

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional random electron systems undergo quantum phase transitions and show rich phase diagrams. Examples of the phases are the band gap insulator, Anderson insulator, strong and weak topological insulators, Weyl semimetal, and diffusive metal. As in the previous paper on two-dimensional quantum phase transitions [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016)], we use an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network to identify which phase the eigenfunction belongs to. The Anderson model for localization-delocalization transition, the Wilson-Dirac model for topological insulators, and the layered Chern insulator model for Weyl semimetal are studied. The situation where the standard transfer matrix approach is not applicable is also treated by this method.

  6. Phase Synchronization of Hemodynamic Variables at Rest and after Deep Breathing Measured during the Course of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Papousek, Ilona; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Lang, Uwe; Kolovetsiou-Kreiner, Vassiliki

    2013-01-01

    Background The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in the functioning of systems critical for the homeostasis maintenance. However, its role in the cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy-related demands is poorly understood. We explored the maternal cardiovascular systems throughout pregnancy to quantify pregnancy-related autonomic nervous system adaptations. Methodology Continuous monitoring of heart rate (R-R interval; derived from the 3-lead electrocardiography), blood pressure, and thoracic impedance was carried out in thirty-six women at six time-points throughout pregnancy. In order to quantify in addition to the longitudinal effects on baseline levels throughout gestation the immediate adaptive heart rate and blood pressure changes at each time point, a simple reflex test, deep breathing, was applied. Consequently, heart rate variability and blood pressure variability in the low (LF) and high (HF) frequency range, respiration and baroreceptor sensitivity were analyzed in resting conditions and after deep breathing. The adjustment of the rhythms of the R-R interval, blood pressure and respiration partitioned for the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system were quantified by the phase synchronization index γ, which has been adopted from the analysis of weakly coupled chaotic oscillators. Results Heart rate and LF/HF ratio increased throughout pregnancy and these effects were accompanied by a continuous loss of baroreceptor sensitivity. The increases in heart rate and LF/HF ratio levels were associated with an increasing decline in the ability to flexibly respond to additional demands (i.e., diminished adaptive responses to deep breathing). The phase synchronization index γ showed that the observed effects could be explained by a decreased coupling of respiration and the cardiovascular system (HF components of heart rate and blood pressure). Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that during the course of

  7. Differential-phase reflectometry for edge profile measurements on Tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Collazo, I.; England, A.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Wilson, J.R. )

    1995-01-01

    Edge electron density profile measurements, including the scrape-off layer, have been made during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating with the two-frequency differential-phase reflectometer installed on an ICRF antenna on the Tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). This system probes the plasma using the extraordinary mode with two signals swept from 90 to 118 GHz, while maintaining a fixed-difference frequency of 125 MHz. The extraordinary mode is used to obtain density profiles in the range of 1[times]10[sup 11]--3[times]10[sup 13] cm[sup [minus]3] in high-field (4.5--4.9 T) full-size ([ital R][sub 0]=2.62 m, [ital a]=0.96 m) TFTR plasmas. The reflectometer launcher is located in an ICRF antenna and views the plasma through a small penetration in the center of the Faraday shield. A 26-m-long overmoded waveguide run connects the launcher to the reflectometer microwave electronics. Profile measurements made with this reflectometer system will be presented along with a discussion of the characteristics of this differential phase reflectometer and data analysis.

  8. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kimes, Nikole E; Callaghan, Amy V; Aktas, Deniz F; Smith, Whitney L; Sunner, Jan; Golding, Bernardt; Drozdowska, Marta; Hazen, Terry C; Suflita, Joseph M; Morris, Pamela J

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsurface environments such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10) could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Experimental confirmation of calculated phases and electron density profile for wet native collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, R H; Bartlett, M W; Kurg, T; Sweeny, P R; Hendricks, R W

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure is developed to phase the reflections obtained in x-ray diffraction investigations of collagen in native wet tendons. Phosphotungstic acid was used for isomorphous addition in phase determination and was located by electron microscopy. Structure factors (with phases) were obtained from the electron microscopy data for the heavy metal. Structure-factor magnitudes for collagen with and without the heavy metal were obtained from the x-ray diffraction data. The first 10 orders were investigated. Standard Argand diagrams provided two solutions for each of these, except the weak sixth order. In each case, one of the two possible solutions agrees well with the phases proposed on theoretical grounds by Hulmes et al. The present results suggest that their other proposed phases are probably correct. An electron density profile along the unit cell of the fibril is presented that shows a distinct step, as expected on the basis of the hole-overlap model. The overlap region is 48% of the length of the unit cell. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:262416

  10. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.41 If I have a... later . . . Then your lease . . . (1) produced gas or oil from any deep well or ultra-deep well, Has a... section. (2) produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval whose top is 18,000 feet TVD SS...

  11. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.41 If I have a... later . . . Then your lease . . . (1) produced gas or oil from any deep well or ultra-deep well, Has a... section. (2) produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval whose top is 18,000 feet TVD SS...

  12. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.41 If I have a... later . . . Then your lease . . . (1) produced gas or oil from any deep well or ultra-deep well, Has a... section. (2) produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval whose top is 18,000 feet TVD SS...

  13. Deep proteome profiling of circulating granulocytes reveals bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein as a biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bleijerveld, Onno B; Wijten, Patrick; Cappadona, Salvatore; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Polat, Ayse N; Raijmakers, Reinout; Sels, Jan-Willem; Colle, Loes; Grasso, Simona; van den Toorn, Henk W; van Breukelen, Bas; Stubbs, Andrew; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Heck, Albert J R; Hoefer, Imo E; Scholten, Arjen

    2012-11-02

    Coronary atherosclerosis represents the major cause of death in Western societies. As atherosclerosis typically progresses over years without giving rise to clinical symptoms, biomarkers are urgently needed to identify patients at risk. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting cross-talk between the diseased vasculature and cells of the innate immune system. We therefore employed proteomics to search for biomarkers associated with severe atherosclerotic coronary lumen stenosis in circulating leukocytes. In a two-phase approach, we first performed in-depth quantitative profiling of the granulocyte proteome on a small pooled cohort of patients suffering from chronic (sub)total coronary occlusion and matched control patients using stable isotope peptide labeling, two-dimensional LC-MS/MS and data-dependent decision tree fragmentation. Over 3000 proteins were quantified, among which 57 candidate biomarker proteins remained after stringent filtering. The most promising biomarker candidates were subsequently verified in the individual samples of the discovery cohort using label-free, single-run LC-MS/MS analysis, as well as in an independent verification cohort of 25 patients with total coronary occlusion (CTO) and 19 matched controls. Our data reveal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) as a promising biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis, being down-regulated in circulating granulocytes of CTO patients.

  14. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi indicated by metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi. PMID:24463735

  15. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-27

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected] . at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected].

  16. Deep soil carbon dynamics are driven more by soil type than by climate: a worldwide meta-analysis of radiocarbon profiles.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Jordane A; Hatté, Christine; Balesdent, Jérôme; Parent, Éric

    2015-11-01

    The response of soil carbon dynamics to climate and land-use change will affect both the future climate and the quality of ecosystems. Deep soil carbon (>20 cm) is the primary component of the soil carbon pool, but the dynamics of deep soil carbon remain poorly understood. Therefore, radiocarbon activity (Δ14C), which is a function of the age of carbon, may help to understand the rates of soil carbon biodegradation and stabilization. We analyzed the published 14C contents in 122 profiles of mineral soil that were well distributed in most of the large world biomes, except for the boreal zone. With a multivariate extension of a linear mixed-effects model whose inference was based on the parallel combination of two algorithms, the expectation-maximization (EM) and the Metropolis-Hasting algorithms, we expressed soil Δ14C profiles as a four-parameter function of depth. The four-parameter model produced insightful predictions of soil Δ14C as dependent on depth, soil type, climate, vegetation, land-use and date of sampling (R2=0.68). Further analysis with the model showed that the age of topsoil carbon was primarily affected by climate and cultivation. By contrast, the age of deep soil carbon was affected more by soil taxa than by climate and thus illustrated the strong dependence of soil carbon dynamics on other pedologic traits such as clay content and mineralogy.

  17. Shear wave anisotropy in textured phase D and constraints on deep water recycling in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Angelika D.; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Nisr, Carole; Evans, Shaun R.; Debord, Regis; Merkel, Sébastien

    2013-09-01

    Regions of low seismic velocity and high shear anisotropies in cold subducted slabs have often been related to anisotropic fabrics in hydrous phases mainly induced by slab deformation. The interpretation of these seismic anomalies in terms of hydration thus relies on a better knowledge of the elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms of candidate hydrous phases. Here we investigate the development of lattice preferred orientations (LPO) in phase D [MgSi2H2O6, 10-18 wt% H2O], the ultimate water carrier in hydrous subducted peridotite. The samples were deformed non-hydrostatically up to 48 GPa in a diamond anvil cell and the texture and strength were obtained from analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns collected in radial diffraction geometry. We find that at low strains the layered structure of phase D displays strong 0001 texture, where the stacking fault axis (c-axis) preferentially align parallel to the compression axis. A subsidiary 101¯0 texture develops at higher strains. Plasticity simulations in polycrystalline aggregates using a viscoplastic self-consistent model suggest that these LPO patterns are consistent with shape preferred orientation mechanism during the first compaction steps and, with dominant easy glide on basal planes and harder first order pyramidal slip, respectively, upon further compression. We find that phase D displays the lowest strength and the highest anisotropy among phases in hydrous peridotite in the uppermost lower mantle and might thus control the shear wave anisotropy generated in subducted slabs below the transition zone. We further evaluate the effect of textured phase D on the seismic velocity structure and shear wave anisotropy of deformed hydrous peridotite and compare the results to seismic observations in Tonga subduction. We show that 16 vol% of phase D in hydrous subducted peridotite is required to explain the negative velocity anomalies of 3%, the extent of shear wave splitting (0.9±0.3%) and the shear wave ray

  18. Altered protein profile in chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase identified by a comparative proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Pizzatti, Luciana; Sá, Lílian Ayres; de Souza, Jamison Menezes; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2006-05-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is a hematological disorder in which the Ph chromosome is a marker of the disease, detected virtually in all cases. The chimeric transcripts encode a 210-kDa chimeric protein with altered tyrosine kinase activity, responsible for the disease phenotype. In this work, we tried to identify which are the molecular changes common to chronic phase patients, those that represent the chronic phase molecular phenotype. To address this problem we analyzed through a comparative proteomic approach, several CML bone marrow cells protein profile from patients in chronic phase and healthy bone marrow donors. From these results, we identified 31 differentially expressed proteins. Among these proteins, we pointed out c-Myc binding protein 1, 53BP1, Mdm4, OSBP-related protein 3 and Mortalin as putative candidates to BCR-ABL targets in chronic phase. Moreover, we describe for the first time the cytoplasmic protein map from bone marrow cells that helped in the elucidation of the changes we were looking for.

  19. Non-Invasive NIR Sensor for Quantification of Deep Tissue Oxygenation. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    be determined by differential absorption spectroscopy using two wavelengths, 0/oSat- ga(, l)/p[a(X2)I [ Hielscher , et al., 1993; Haida and Chance...Biol 345:829-35, 1994. Hielscher AH, Tittel FK, and Jacques SL: Non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation by phase resolved transmission spectroscopy

  20. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  1. Characterization and comparative profiling of the small RNA transcriptomes in two phases of locust

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Pengcheng; Ma, Zongyuan; Kang, Le

    2009-01-01

    Background All the reports on insect small RNAs come from holometabolous insects whose genome sequence data are available. Therefore, study of hemimetabolous insect small RNAs could provide more insights into evolution and function of small RNAs in insects. The locust is an important, economically harmful hemimetabolous insect. Its phase changes, as a phenotypic plasticity, result from differential gene expression potentially regulated at both the post-transcriptional level, mediated by small RNAs, and the transcriptional level. Results Here, using high-throughput sequencing, we characterize the small RNA transcriptome in the locust. We identified 50 conserved microRNA families by similarity searching against miRBase, and a maximum of 185 potential locust-specific microRNA family candidates were identified using our newly developed method independent of locust genome sequence. We also demonstrate conservation of microRNA*, and evolutionary analysis of locust microRNAs indicates that the generation of miRNAs in locusts is concentrated along three phylogenetic tree branches: bilaterians, coelomates, and insects. Our study identified thousands of endogenous small interfering RNAs, some of which were of transposon origin, and also detected many Piwi-interacting RNA-like small RNAs. Comparison of small RNA expression patterns of the two phases showed that longer small RNAs were expressed more abundantly in the solitary phase and that each category of small RNAs exhibited different expression profiles between the two phases. Conclusions The abundance of small RNAs in the locust might indicate a long evolutionary history of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and differential expression of small RNAs between the two phases might further disclose the molecular mechanism of phase changes. PMID:19146710

  2. Standardized sample preparation phases for a quantitative measurement of plasma peptidome profiling by MALDI-TOF.

    PubMed

    D'Imperio, Marco; Della Corte, Anna; Facchiano, Angelo; Di Michele, Michela; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Donati, Maria B; Rotilio, Domenico

    2010-05-07

    A growing body of literature defines MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for studying plasma and serum, thus enabling the detection of proteins, and the generation of reproducible protein profile mass spectra, potentially able to discriminate correctly different biological systems. In this work, the different steps of the pre-analytical phase that may affect the reproducibility of plasma proteome analysis have been carefully considered. The results showed that the method is highly accurate (9.1%) and precise (8.9%) and the calibration curve for the ACTH (18-39), in human plasma, gave a good correlation coefficient (r>0.99 and r(2)>0.98). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ), relative intensity, were of 0.5 x 10(-)(9)M and 1.0 x 10(-)(9)M respectively. Thus, an assay has been developed for the detection of low-abundant and low molecular weight proteins, from human plasma, aiming at the identification of new potential biomarkers. The method was tested on plasma from patients with a first diagnosis of pelvic mass. Statistical analysis of plasma profile generated a sub-profile of 17 peptides with their relative abundance able to discriminate patients bearing malignant or benign tumors. The sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 80.0% respectively.

  3. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins.

  4. Accurate Ultrasonic Measurement of Surface Profile Using Phase Shift of Echo and Inverse Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arihara, Chihiro; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of circulatory diseases such as myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction, and it is very important to diagnose atherosclerosis in its early stage. In the early stage of atherosclerosis, the luminal surface of an arterial wall becomes rough because of the injury of the endothelium [R. Ross: New Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. Conventional ultrasonic diagnostic equipments cannot detect such roughness on the order of micrometer because of their low resolution of approximately 0.1 mm. In this study, for the accurate detection of surface roughness, an ultrasonic beam was scanned in the direction that is parallel to the surface of an object. When there is a gap on the surface, the phase of the echo from the surface changes because the distance between the probe and the surface changes during the scanning. Therefore, surface roughness can be assessed by estimating the phase shift of echoes obtained during the beam scanning. Furthermore, lateral resolution, which is deteriorated by a finite diameter of the ultrasound beam, was improved by an inverse filter. By using the proposed method, the surface profile of a phantom, which had surface roughness on the micrometer order, was detected, and the estimated surface profiles became more precise by applying the inverse filter.

  5. An acoustic system for providing the two-phase liquid profile in oil field storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Meribout, Mahmoud; Al Naamany, Ahmed; Al Busaidi, Khamis

    2009-10-01

    The continuing need for in situ measurements of the emulsion layer between crude oil and water within oil field tanks has initiated experimental and theoretical investigations of candidate measurement methods. This paper describes a new low-cost and nonradioactive industrial field prototype device that provides, continuously and in real time, the vertical profile of the 2-phase liquid within oil field tank separators (i.e., percentage of water in oil at different heights of the tank, as well as the emulsion layer interfaces) using ultrasonic waves. The device, which has been installed in a vessel through an 8-in. flange, consists of a 1-D array of tens of ultrasonic transducers (28 transducers in this paper) that are activated in a time-multiplexed manner by an embedded transmitter fixed on the top of the tank. This latest version implements a feedforward neural network with back-propagation learning to determine the vertical water-cut distribution along the vessel. It also implements an expert-system-based algorithm to determine the lower and higher positions of the emulsion layer. The results obtained from the extensive experiments, which have been conducted under various conditions of temperature, indicate that the device can determine the profile of the 2-phase liquid within a relative error of +/- 3%.

  6. GANSEKI: JAMSTEC Deep Seafloor Rock Sample Database Emerging to the New Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Ichiyama, Y.; Horikawa, H.; Sato, Y.; Soma, S.; Hanafusa, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) collects a lot of substantial samples as well as various geophysical data using its research vessels and submersibles. These samples and data, which are obtained by spending large amounts of human and physical resources, are precious wealth of the world scientific community. For the better use of these samples and data, it is important that they are utilized not only for initial purpose of each cruse but also for other general scientific and educational purposes of second-hand users. Based on the JAMSTEC data and sample handling policies [1], JAMSTEC has systematically stored samples and data obtained during research cruises, and provided them to domestic/foreign activities on research, education, and public relation. Being highly valued for second-hand usability, deep seafloor rock samples are one of the most important types of samples obtained by JAMSTEC, as oceanic biological samples and sediment core samples are. Rock samples can be utilized for natural history sciences and other various purposes; some of these purposes are connected to socially important issues such as earthquake mechanisms and mineral resource developments. Researchers and educators can access to JAMSTEC rock samples and associated data through 'GANSEKI [2]', the JAMSTEC Deep Seafloor Rock Sample Database. GANSEKI was established on the Internet in 2006 and its contents and functions have been continuously enriched and upgraded since then. GANSEKI currently provides 19 thousands of sample metadata, 9 thousands of collection inventory data and 18 thousands of geochemical data. Most of these samples are recovered from the North-western Pacific Ocean, although samples from other area are also included. The major update of GANSEKI held in May 2013 involved a replacement of database core system and a redesign of user interface. In the new GANSEKI, users can select samples easily and precisely using multi-index search, numerical

  7. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  8. Possible Effects of Collisional Breakup on Mixed-Phase Deep Convection Simulated by a Spectral (Bin) Cloud Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Axel; Khain, Alexander; Blahak, Ulrich; Beheng, Klaus D.

    2005-06-01

    The effects of the collisional breakup of raindrops are investigated using the Hebrew University Cloud Model (HUCM). The parameterizations, which are combined in the new breakup scheme, are those of Low and List, Beard and Ochs, as well as Brown. A sensitivity study reveals strong effects of collisional breakup on the precipitation formation in mixed-phase deep convective clouds for strong as well as for weak precipitation events. Collisional breakup reduces the number of large raindrops, increases the number of small raindrops, and, as a consequence, decreases surface rain rates and considerably reduces the speed of rain formation. In addition, it was found that including breakup can lead to a more intense triggering of secondary convective cells. But a statistical comparison with observed raindrop size distributions shows that the parameterizations might systematically overestimate collisional breakup.

  9. Two-phase orthodontic treatment in a patient with turner syndrome: an unusual case of deep bite.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Juan Fernando; Smit, Rosana Martínez

    2015-05-01

    Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. These patients usually have a delay in growth and altered body proportions, causing sexual infantilism, short stature, delayed bone maturation, and variations in craniofacial morphology, among other systemic complications. The skeletal features associated with this syndrome include maxillary growth reduction with midface hypoplasia; mandibular micrognathia; high, narrow palate; V-shaped maxillary arch; and open bite. This case report shows a two-phase orthodontic treatment in a patient with Turner syndrome with a Class II malocclusion and severe deep bite, which is an unusual feature in patients with this disease. A conventional orthodontic treatment was performed, and after 20 months in retention the patient remains stable.

  10. Negative refraction of elastic waves at the deep-subwavelength scale in a single-phase metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R; Liu, X N; Hu, G K; Sun, C T; Huang, G L

    2014-11-24

    Negative refraction of elastic waves has been studied and experimentally demonstrated in three- and two-dimensional phononic crystals, but Bragg scattering is impractical for low-frequency wave control because of the need to scale the structures to manageable sizes. Here we present an elastic metamaterial with chiral microstructure made of a single-phase solid material that aims to achieve subwavelength negative refraction of elastic waves. Both negative effective mass density and modulus are observed owing to simultaneous translational and rotational resonances. We experimentally demonstrate negative refraction of the longitudinal elastic wave at the deep-subwavelength scale in the metamaterial fabricated in a stainless steel plate. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, wave mode conversion related with negative refraction is revealed and discussed. The proposed elastic metamaterial may thus be used as a flat lens for elastic wave focusing.

  11. Crustal structure and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 300 km deep seismic reflection profile across the middle and lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (YRMB) and its adjacent areas established the architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the deep complicated geometry of the Tan-Lu fault and Zhangbaling uplift, appears as a subvertical thrust fault with its deep portion dip toward the southeast, and along which the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out; complex upper crust deformation structure beneath Chuquan depression, within which there are both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, i.e., the upper crust reflection thrust upward, and the lower crust reflection thrust downward and offsetting the Moho discontinuity, which reflects the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust, and is interpreted as an intracontinental subduction. Further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline. The entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the YRMB is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for an intracontinental orogeny and imposes constraints on the deep geodynamic model applied to study region. Our interpretation of seismic profile supports the view that the Yanshanian orogeny, due to the northwest subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Middle-Late Jurassic, is the major event that shaped the tectonic framework of the region. A geodynamic model is proposed for the

  12. A Phase II Study of Fornix Deep Brain Stimulation in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Andres M.; Fosdick, Lisa; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Munro, Cynthia; Oh, Esther; Drake, Kristen E.; Lyman, Christopher H.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Anderson, William S.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Pendergrass, Jo Cara; Salloway, Stephen; Asaad, Wael F.; Ponce, Francisco A.; Burke, Anna; Sabbagh, Marwan; Wolk, David A.; Baltuch, Gordon; Okun, Michael S.; Foote, Kelly D.; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Giacobbe, Peter; Targum, Steven D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to modulate the activity of dysfunctional brain circuits. The safety and efficacy of DBS in dementia is unknown. Objective: To assess DBS of memory circuits as a treatment for patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods: We evaluated active “on” versus sham “off” bilateral DBS directed at the fornix-a major fiber bundle in the brain’s memory circuit-in a randomized, double-blind trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01608061) in 42 patients with mild AD. We measured cognitive function and cerebral glucose metabolism up to 12 months post-implantation. Results: Surgery and electrical stimulation were safe and well tolerated. There were no significant differences in the primary cognitive outcomes (ADAS-Cog 13, CDR-SB) in the “on” versus “off” stimulation group at 12 months for the whole cohort. Patients receiving stimulation showed increased metabolism at 6 months but this was not significant at 12 months. On post-hoc analysis, there was a significant interaction between age and treatment outcome: in contrast to patients <65 years old (n = 12) whose results trended toward being worse with DBS ON versus OFF, in patients≥65 (n = 30) DBS-f ON treatment was associated with a trend toward both benefit on clinical outcomes and a greater increase in cerebral glucose metabolism. Conclusion: DBS for AD was safe and associated with increased cerebral glucose metabolism. There were no differences in cognitive outcomes for participants as a whole, but participants aged≥65 years may have derived benefit while there was possible worsening in patients below age 65 years with stimulation. PMID:27567810

  13. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  14. An ultrasound cylindrical phased array for deep heating in the breast: theoretical design using heterogeneous models.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Obdeijn, I M; van Rhoon, G C; van Dongen, K W A

    2009-05-21

    The objective of this theoretical study is to design an ultrasound (US) cylindrical phased array that can be used for hyperthermia (40-44 degrees C) treatment of tumours in the intact breast. Simultaneously, we characterize the influence of acoustic and thermal heterogeneities on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature patterns to determine the necessity of using heterogeneous models for a US applicator design and treatment planning. Cylindrical configurations of monopole transducers are studied on their ability to generate interference patterns that can be steered electronically to the location of the target region. Hereto, design parameters such as frequency, number of transducers per ring, ring distance and number of rings are optimized to obtain a small primary focus, while suppressing secondary foci. The models account for local heterogeneities in both acoustic (wave velocity and absorption) and thermal (blood perfusion rate, heat capacity and conductivity) tissue properties. We used breast models with a central tumour (30x20x38 mm3) and an artificial thorax tumour (sphere with a radius of 25 mm) to test the design. Simulations predict that a US cylindrical phased array, consisting of six rings with 32 transducers per ring, a radius of 75 mm and 66 mm distance between the first and sixth transducer ring, operating at a frequency of 100 kHz, can be used to obtain 44 degrees C in the centre of tumours located anywhere in the intact breast. The dimensions of the volumes enclosed by the 41 degrees C iso-temperature are 19x19x21 mm3 and 21x21x32 mm3 for the central and the thorax tumours, respectively. It is demonstrated that acoustic and thermal heterogeneities do not disturb the SAR and temperature patterns.

  15. Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation and simultaneous profiling of steroidal glycoalkaloids and their aglycones.

    PubMed

    Kuronen, P; Väänänen, T; Pehu, E

    1999-11-19

    Improved and simplified reversed-phase liquid chromatographic conditions for the separation and simultaneous profiling of both steroidal glycoalkaloids and their aglycones, having solanidane- or spirosolane-type structures, are described. The most reproducible retention behavior for these ionizable compounds on C18 columns was achieved under isocratic and gradient elution conditions using acetonitrile in combination with triethylammonium phosphate buffer at pH 3.0, when basic functional groups of solutes and silanol groups on the silica are fully protonated minimizing ionic interactions. Gradient elution was the only feasible approach for the simultaneous separation of steroidal glycoalkaloids and their aglycones. A Zorbax SB C18 column, specially designed for low-pH separations, showed good performance in critical separations. The impurities of the commercial tomatine and tomatidine standards were studied and confirmed using mass spectrometric, liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic methods.

  16. Improvements in the vapor-time profile analysis of explosive odorants using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Young, Mimy; Schantz, Michele; MacCrehan, William

    2016-07-15

    A modified approach for characterization of the vapor-time profile of the headspace odors of explosives was developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) incorporating introduction of an externally-sampled internal standard (ESIS) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. With this new method, reproducibility of the measurements of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone were improved compared to previous work (Hoffman et al., 2009; Arthur and Pawliszyn, 1990) through the use of stable-isotope-labeled internal standards. Exposing the SPME fiber to the ESIS after sampling the target analyte proved to be advantageous, while still correcting for fiber variability and detector drift. For the analysis of high volatility compounds, incorporation of the ESIS using the SPME fiber in the retracted position minimized the subsequent competitive loss of the target analyte, allowing for much longer sampling times.

  17. Shear banding in a lyotropic lamellar phase. I. Time-averaged velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Manneville, Sébastien; Colin, Annie

    2003-11-01

    Using velocity profile measurements based on dynamic light scattering and coupled to structural and rheological measurements in a Couette cell, we present evidences for a shear banding scenario in the shear flow of the onion texture of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Time-averaged measurements clearly show the presence of structural shear banding in the vicinity of a shear-induced transition, associated with the nucleation and growth of a highly sheared band in the flow. Our experiments also reveal the presence of slip at the walls of the Couette cell. Using a simple mechanical approach, we demonstrate that our data confirm the classical assumption of the shear banding picture, in which the interface between bands lies at a given stress σ*. We also outline the presence of large temporal fluctuations of the flow field, which are the subject of the second part of this paper [Salmon et al., Phys. Rev. E 68, 051504 (2003)].

  18. Nocturnal Melatonin Profiles in Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder and Control Sleepers.

    PubMed

    Micic, Gorica; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Burgess, Helen J; Ferguson, Sally A; Kennaway, David J; Lack, Leon

    2015-10-01

    A significant delay in the timing of endogenous circadian rhythms has been associated with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). More recently, other mechanisms have also been proposed to account for this disorder. To further explore the etiology of DSPD, the present study compared nocturnal melatonin profiles of 26 DSPD patients (18 males, 8 females; age, 21.73 ± 4.98 years) and 17 normally timed good sleepers (10 males, 7 females; age, 23.82 ± 5.23 years) in a time-free, dim-light (<10 lux) laboratory environment. A 30-h modified constant routine with alternating 20-min sleep opportunities and 40 min of enforced wakefulness was used to measure the endogenous melatonin circadian rhythm. Salivary melatonin was sampled half-hourly from 1820 h to 0020 h and then hourly from 0120 h to 1620 h. DSPD patients had significantly later timed melatonin profiles that were delayed by approximately 3 h compared to normal sleepers, and there were no notable differences in the relative duration of secretion between groups. However, melatonin secretion between dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) and acrophase was less prominent in DSPD patients compared to good sleepers, who showed a more acute initial surge of melatonin following the DLMO. Although the regulatory role of melatonin is unknown, abnormal melatonin profiles have been linked to psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., major depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, Parkinson disease). These results therefore suggest that in addition to a delayed endogenous circadian rhythm, a diminished initial surge of melatonin secretion following DLMO may contribute to the etiology of DSPD.

  19. Evaluation of mobile phase gradient supercritical fluid chromatography for impurity profiling of pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Alexander, A J; Hooker, T F; Tomasella, F P

    2012-11-01

    The use of gradient supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) for the impurity profiling of pharmaceutical products is not widely practiced. Historically, the limited advancement in SFC instrumentation and the lag in column development have resulted in marginal sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility when compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using a recently developed commercial module, which allows an ordinary HPLC to be converted to a SFC system, a significant improvement in sensitivity (up to ~12-fold) has been obtained over previous studies. This has allowed for the first time a "real-world" head-to-head comparison of SFC to HPLC for impurity profiling of pharmaceutical products in a regulated environment. Retention time reproducibility and low level impurity detection were found to be comparable to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), that is, single digit %relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained for impurities present at less than 0.1 area%. Furthermore, these results were obtained with drug loading levels (≤2 mg/mL) that are not only comparable to those employed with HPLC, but are dictated by the limited solubility of many drug candidates. The elution of impurities was generally found to be orthogonal to that obtained with RPLC, but it was still challenging to find SFC conditions that would separate all of the components in the mixtures studied. In terms of enhancing selectivity, small amounts of mobile phase additives (0.1-1%) and temperature optimization were found to have a greater impact in SFC method development versus RPLC. However, unlike gradient RPLC, the relative changes in baseline noise and slope were found to be a complex function of the experimental conditions, with the largest differences in noise levels being generally observed for the widest and steepest gradients. It is likely that this gradient related noise is more apparent now because other sources of noise in SFC have been reduced

  20. Approaches to model the retention and peak profile in linear gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C

    2013-04-05

    The optimisation of the experimental conditions in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography requires reliable algorithms for the description of the retention and peak profile. As in isocratic elution, the linear relationship between the logarithm of the retention factor and the solvent contents is only acceptable in relatively small concentration ranges of modifier. However, more complex models may not allow an analytical integration of the general equation for gradient elution. Alternative approaches for modelling the retention in linear gradient elution are here proposed. Those based on the quadratic logarithmic model and a model proposed for normal liquid chromatography yielded accurate predictions of the retention time for a wide range of initial concentrations of organic modifier and gradient slopes, with errors usually below 1-2%. Based on the half-width changes of chromatographic peaks along one or more gradients, an approach is also reported to predict the peak profile with low errors (usually below 2-3%). The proposed approaches were applied to two sets of probe compounds (diuretics and flavonoids), eluted with acetonitrile-water gradients. The changes in retention and peak shape in isocratic and gradient elution are illustrated through diagrams that define triangular regions including all possible values of retention factors or peak half-widths (or widths) inside the selected working ranges.

  1. Isotopic systematics of the early Mauna Kea shield phase and insight into the deep mantle beneath the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre Silva, Inês G.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.

    2013-03-01

    The 3500 m deep Hawai'i Scientific Drilling Project core provides a ~680 kyr record of the magmatic history and source components of Mauna Kea volcano. We report high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of 40 basalts from the last 408 m of the final drilling phase (HSDP2-B and HSDP2-C) and show that these lowermost basalts represent the early shield stage of Mauna Kea's growth history. Two sample groups are distinguished based on their isotopic variability compared to the rest of the core. Over a depth interval of 210 m (3098.2-3308.2 mbsl), the basalts show very restricted isotopic variation and represent sampling of a relatively homogeneous source. Samples from the bottom 192 m record the largest range of 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb in the core, reflecting the greater isotopic variability of the earlier stages of volcanism compared to subsequent stages. The heterogeneity of Mauna Kea lavas is explained by mixing variable proportions of four distinct components intrinsic to the Hawaiian mantle plume. One of these components, Kea, is a prevalent and long-lived composition within the Hawaiian plume, whereas the other three components are involved at different stages of the volcano's history and contribute to the short-term isotopic variability of Mauna Kea. The compositional similarity of the Kea component to "C" and to the super-chondritic bulk-silicate Earth suggests that Kea may be part of the primitive mantle of a non-chondritic Earth. Other Pacific oceanic island basalts share Kea-like compositions, indicating that the Kea component is a common, widespread composition within the Pacific deep mantle.

  2. Growth factor and protease expression during different phases of healing after rabbit deep flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Berglund, M E; Hart, D A; Reno, C; Wiig, M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to contribute to the mapping of molecular events during flexor tendon healing, in particular the growth factors insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3 and MMP-13) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, and the protease cathepsin K. In a rabbit model of flexor tendon injury, the mRNA expression for the growth factors, MMPs and TIMPs were measured in tendon and tendon sheath tissue at several time points (3, 6, 21, and 42 days) representing different phases of the healing process. We found that MMP-13 remained increased during the study period, whereas MMP-3 returned to normal levels within the first week after injury. TIMP-3 was down-regulated in the tendon sheaths. Cathepsin K was up-regulated in tendons and sheaths after injury. NGF was present in both tendons and sheaths, but unaltered. IGF-1 exhibited a late increase in the tendons, while VEGF was down-regulated at the later time points. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of NGF in flexor tendons. MMP-13 expression appears to play a more protracted role in flexor tendon healing than MMP-3. The relatively low levels of endogenous IGF-1 and VEGF mRNA following injury support their potential beneficial role as exogenous modulators to optimize tendon healing and strength without increasing adhesion formation.

  3. Defect inspection and printability of deep-UV halftone phase-shifting mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungjoon; Hong, Jin; Kye, Jongwook; Cha, DongHo; Kang, Hoyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae

    1997-02-01

    As feature size goes down to a quarter micron, halftone phase- shifting mask (HT PSM) has been studied to extend photo lithography capabilities especially in contact hole patterns. However, defect problem of HT PSM is more serous than that of conventional chrome mask because of added reticle fabrication process steps in which unexpected defects can be generated. In this paper, test HT PSMs which have different transmittance at 488 nm and same background contact patterns with programmed defects having various types are investigated for 250 nm contact hole patterns. The programmed defect are used for the sensitivity evaluation of reticle inspection systems, i.e. detectability and exposed by 4X reduction DUV exposure tool to determine printability and water defect detectability. Direct reticle inspection results show that the detectability depends on transmittance at the inspection wavelength 488 nm. The printability from the wafer exposure results is proportional to defect area strongly. Indirect reticle inspection results using an imaged wafer and wafer inspection tool of SEMSpec show that direct reticle inspection is better than indirect inspection.

  4. Observation of a first-order phase transition deep within the vortex-solid region of YBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibelt, M.; Weyeneth, S.; Erb, A.; Schilling, A.

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the magnetic phase diagram of a fully oxygenated detwinned YBa2Cu3O7 single crystal by means of magneto-caloric and magnetization measurements, and found thermodynamic evidence for a temperature dependent first-order phase-transition line deep within the vortex-solid region. The associated discontinuities in the entropy are apparently proportional to the magnetic flux density, which may hint at a structural transition of the vortex lattice.

  5. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods.

    PubMed

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjærke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A; Tiselius, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates. Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms.

  6. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    PubMed Central

    Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjærke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A.; Tiselius, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates. Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms. PMID:26788422

  7. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-08-09

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  8. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  9. Thromboelastographic profile for a dog with hypocoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic phase of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Saavedra, P; Hosoya, K

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to report the use of thromboelastography as a diagnostic tool for the hyperfibrinolytic phase of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in a dog with metastatic haemangiosarcoma. We established a cytological (i.e. fine needle aspirate) and histopathological (i.e. excisional surgical biopsy) diagnosis of haemangiosarcoma in a 10-year-old male castrated Bichon Frise with multiple dark purple dermoepidermal nodules on the ventral abdomen and medial stifle areas, multiple small pulmonary nodules and a solitary liver mass. The dog was treated with chemotherapy (AC protocol). Forty-nine days after completion of four treatment cycles, the dog was presented for recheck. Complete blood count revealed anaemia and mild thrombocytopenia. Chemistry profile showed no significant abnormalities. Analysis of haemostasis consisted of prolonged clotting times (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time), mild hypofibrinogenaemia and increased D-dimers. A presumptive diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was made. A re-calcified thromboelastography was simultaneously done to confirm the coagulopathy. Thromboelastographic tracings correlated with the plasma-based test results showing hypocoagulability (prolonged clotting times and prolonged thromboelastography clot kinetics; weaker clot with decreased fibrinogen levels, platelet count and lower thromboelastography tracing amplitude) and hyperfibrinolysis (increased D-dimers and increased D-dimers and increased thromboelastography lysis parameters). Based on these results, the dog was considered to be in the hyperfibrinolytic phase of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Results of the conventional haemostasis tests supported those obtained on thromboelastography. Humane euthanasia was performed because of poor prognosis and progressive disease, making further follow-up unavailable. As demonstrated in this case report, thromboelastography was found to be a helpful

  10. Pipette-tip solid-phase extraction based on deep-eutectic-solvent-modified graphene for the determination of sulfamerazine in river water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Tang, Weiyang; Tang, Baokun; Han, Dandan; Row, Kyung Ho; Zhu, Tao

    2017-03-07

    A green and novel deep-eutectic-solvent-modified graphene was prepared and worked as a neutral adsorbent for the rapid determination of sulfamerazine in a river water sample by pipette-tip solid-phase extraction. Compared with conventional graphene, deep-eutectic-solvent-modified graphene can change the surface of graphene with wrinkled structure and higher selective extraction ability. The properties of deep-eutectic-solvent-modified graphene and graphene were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Static adsorption showed deep eutectic solvent-modified graphene had the higher adsorption ability (18.62 mg g(-1) ) than graphene. Under the optimum conditions, factors such as kinds of washing solvents and elution solvents and volume of elution solvent were evaluated. The limit of detection and quantification was 0.01 and 0.03 μg mL(-1) , respectively. The method recoveries of sulfamerazine were in the range of 91.01-96.82% with associated intra-day relative standard deviations ranging from 1.63 to 3.46% and inter-day relative standard deviations ranging from 0.68 to 3.84%. Deep-eutectic-solvent-modified graphene showed satisfactory results (recovery was 95.38%) and potential for rapidly purification of sulfamerazine in river water sample in combination with the pipette-tip solid-phase extraction method. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct measurement of the refractive index profile of phase gratings, recorded in silver halide holographic materials by phase-contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.

    2003-11-01

    Plane-wave phase holograms recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD emulsions and processed by the combination of AAC developer and the R-9 bleaching agent were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using high-power immersion (100×) objective. Thus the modulation of the refractive index as a function of the bias exposure and the visibility of the recording interference pattern can also be determined. Measured diffraction efficiencies were compared to those predicted by coupled wave theory, using the measured refractive index modulations. Direct measurement of the phase profile of the gratings can be used for optimizing processing.

  12. Study of cosmic-ray modulation during the recent deep solar minimum, mini maximum and intervening ascending phase of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, B.; Aslam, O. P. M.

    After a prolonged and deep solar minimum at the end of cycle 23, current solar cycle 24 is one of the very low active cycles, weakest cycle in more than 50 years. These two periods of deep minima and mini maxima are separated by a period of increasing solar activity as measured by sunspot numbers. We study the cosmic ray relationship with the solar activity, heliospheric plasma and field parameters including the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), during these three periods (phases) of different level and nature of solar activity; (a) a deep minimum, (b) an increasing period and (c) a ‘mini’ maximum. We utilize the neutron monitor data from stations located around the globe to study the rigidity dependence of modulation during the two extremes, i.e., minima and maxima. We also study the time lag between the GCR intensity and various solar/interplanetary parameters separately during the three activity phases. Using the cosmic ray data of neutron monitors with different cutoff rigidities, we study the rigidity dependence of time lag during individual phases. The role/effectiveness of various parameters, including the HCS tilt, in modulating the GCR intensity during the three different phases has also been studied by correlation analysis. The relative importance of various physical processes during different phases and the implication of these results for modulation models are also discussed.

  13. Design and analysis of low-loss linear analog phase modulator for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder (DST) application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design concepts, analyses, and the development of an X-band transponder low-loss linear phase modulator for deep space spacecraft applications. A single section breadboard circulator-coupled reflection phase modulator has been analyzed, fabricated, and evaluated. Two- and three-cascaded sections have been modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation to accommodate down-link signal modulation with composite telemetry data and ranging with a deviation linearity tolerance +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 10 +/- 0.5 dB. A two-section phase modulator using constant gamma hyperabrupt varactors and an efficient modulator driver circuit was breadboarded. The measured results satisfy the DST phase modulator requirements, and excellent agreement with the predicted results.

  14. Gene expression profiling of microbial activities and interactions in sediments under haloclines of E. Mediterranean deep hypersaline anoxic basins.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Mara, Paraskevi; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Leadbetter, Edward R; Bernhard, Joan M

    2016-11-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are considered some of the most polyextreme habitats on Earth. In comparison to microbial activities occurring within the haloclines and brines of these unusual water column habitats near the Mediterranean seafloor, relatively little is known about microbial metabolic activities in the underlying sediments. In addition, it is not known whether activities are shaped by the unique chemistries of the different DHAB brines and whether evidence exists for active microbial eukaryotes in those sediments. Metatranscriptome analysis was applied to sediment samples collected using ROV Jason from underneath the haloclines of Urania, Discovery and L'Atalante DHABs and a control site. We report on expression of genes associated with sulfur and nitrogen cycling, putative osmolyte biosynthetic pathways and ion transporters, trace metal detoxification, selected eukaryotic activities (particularly of fungi), microbe-microbe interactions, and motility in sediments underlying the haloclines of three DHABs. Relative to our control sediment sample collected outside of Urania Basin, microbial communities (including eukaryotes) in the Urania and Discovery DHAB sediments showed upregulation of expressed genes associated with nitrogen transformations, osmolyte biosynthesis, heavy metals resistance and metabolism, eukaryotic organelle functions, and cell-cell interactions. Sediments underlying DHAB haloclines that have cumulative physico-chemical stressors within the limits of tolerance for microoorganisms can therefore be hotspots of activity in the deep Mediterranean Sea.

  15. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  16. Remote Sensing the Vertical Profile of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius, Thermodynamic Phase, and Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martins, J. V.; Marshak, A.; Remer, L. A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Koren, I.; Correia, A. L.; Zubko, V.; Artaxo, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument) that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

  17. Design and analysis of a low-loss linear analog phase modulator for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, N. R.; Mueller, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the design concepts, analyses, and development of an X-band (8145 MHz) transponder low-loss linear phase modulator for deep space spacecraft applications. A single-section breadboard circulator-coupled reflection phase modulator has been analyzed, fabricated, and evaluated. A linear phase deviation of 92 deg with a linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent was measured for this modulator from 8257 MHz to 8634 MHz over the temperature range -20 to 75 C. The measured insertion loss and the static delay variation with temperature were 2 +/- 0.3 dB and 0.16 psec/ C, respectively. Based on this design, cascaded sections have been modeled, and simulations were performed to provide an X-band deep space transponder (DST) phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians (+/- 143 deg) of peak phase deviation to accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry data and ranging, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 10 +/- 0.5 dB. A two-section phase modulator using constant gamma hyperabrupt varactors and an efficient modulator driver circuit was breadboarded. The measured results satisfy the DST phase-modulator requirements and show excellent agreement with the predicted results.

  18. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  19. Into the Deep: Variability in Soil Microbial Communities and Carbon Turnover Along a Tropical Forest Soil Depth Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; McFarlane, K. J.; Heckman, K. A.; Reed, S.; Wood, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store more carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem and exchange vast amounts of CO2, water, and energy with the atmosphere. Much of this C is leached and stored within deeper soil layers, but we know exceedingly little about the fate of this C or the microbial communities that drive deep soil biogeochemistry. From the data that do exist, most organic matter (OM) in tropical soils appears associated with mineral particles, suggesting deep soils may provide greater C stabilization due to organo-metal co-precipitation and mineral-surface interactions. However, few studies have evaluated sub-surface soils in tropical ecosystems, the turnover times of deep soil C, and sensitivity of this C to global environmental change. To address this critical research need, we quantified C pools, microbial communities and soil radiocarbon turnover times in bulk soils and soil fractions [free light (unprotected), dense (mineral-associated)] from 0-140 cm in replicate soil pits in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Unsurprisingly, we found soil C, nitrogen, and root and microbial biomass all declined exponentially with depth; total C stocks dropped from 5.5 % at the surface to <0.5% at 140cm depth. Soil OM 14C and mean turnover times were variable across replicate horizons, ranging from 3-1500 years at the surface (0-20 cm), to 5000-40,000 years at 140 cm depth. Soil C in the mineral associated fraction was much older than the free light fraction C, which reflected modern 14C at all depths. In comparison to temperate deciduous forests, these 14C values reflect far older soil C, and OM decomposition that highly favors free light C pools, even at depth. While previous work suggests these low C tropical subsoils contain small but metabolically active microbial communities at depths of ~100cm, these organisms appear highly OM limited, and preferentially degrade recent inputs. In the coming half century, tropical forests are predicted to see a 2 - 5

  20. Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, K.; MacMillan, M. B.; Ouriadov, A. V.; Mastikhin, I. V.; Young, J. J.; Glover, P. M.; Ziegler, G. R.; Balcom, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    A new centric scan imaging methodology for density profiling of materials with short transverse relaxation times is presented. This method is shown to be more robust than our previously reported centric scan pure phase encode methodologies. The method is particularly well suited to density imaging of low gyro-magnetic ratio non-proton nuclei through the use of a novel dedicated one-dimensional magnetic field gradient coil. The design and construction of this multi-layer, water cooled, gradient coil is presented. Although of large diameter (7.62 cm) to maximize sample cross section, the gradient coil has an efficiency of several times that offered by conventional designs (6 mT/m/A). The application of these ideas is illustrated with high resolution density-weighted proton ( 1H) images of hazelnut oil penetration into chocolate, and lithium ion ( 7Li) penetration into cement paste. The methods described in this paper provide a straightforward and reliable means for imaging a class of samples that, until now, have been very difficult to image.

  1. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  2. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  3. Changes in Carbon Chemistry and Stability Along Deep Tropical Soil Profiles at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M.; Hockaday, W. C.; Plante, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests are the largest terrestrial carbon (C) sink, and tropical forest soils contribute disproportionately to the poorly-characterized deep soil C pool. The goal of this study was to evaluate how carbon chemistry and stability change with depth in tropical forest soils formed on two contrasting parent materials. We used soils from pits excavated to 140 cm depth that were stratified across two soil types (Oxisols and Inceptisols) at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in northeast Puerto Rico. We used 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize soil C chemistry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) coupled with evolved gas analysis (CO2-EGA) to evaluate the thermal stability of soil C during ramped combustion. Thirty-four samples with an initial C concentration ≥1% were chosen from discrete depth intervals (0, 30, 60, 90 & 140 cm) for 13C NMR analysis, while DSC was performed on 122 samples that included the NMR sample set and additional samples at 20, 50, 80 and 110 cm depth. Preliminary 13C NMR results indicate higher alkyl : O-alkyl ratios and an enrichment of aliphatic and proteinaceous C with depth, compared with greater aromatic and carbohydrate signals in surface soils. The energy density of soil C (J mg-1 C) also declined significantly with depth. In Oxisols, most CO2 evolution from combustion occurred around 300ºC, while most CO2 evolution occurred at higher temperatures (400-500ºC) in Inceptisols. Our findings suggest soil C is derived primarily of plant biomolecules in surface soils and becomes increasingly microbial with depth. Soil matrix-mediated differences in C transport and preservation may result in differences in C chemistry between the two soil types and a more thermally labile C pool in the Oxisols. We suggest that energy-poor substrates, combined with potentially stronger organo-mineral interactions in subsoils, may explain the long-term stability of deep C in highly weathered tropical soils.

  4. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which production do I apply the RSV earned... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT...-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.33 To which production do I...

  5. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.34 To...

  6. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanhua; Wang, Yuzhi; Pan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Ding, Xueqin; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-06-02

    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4@GO) to form Fe3O4@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe3O4@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4@GO-DES. The UV-vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe3O4@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe3O4@GO and Fe3O4@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe3O4@GO-DES performs better than Fe3O4@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L(-1) Na2HPO4 contained 1 mol L(-1) NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled.

  7. Structure of northeastern New Mexico from deep seismic reflection profiles: Implications for the Proterozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshete, Tefera Gashu

    2001-09-01

    Previous geologic, geochronologic, structural, isotope, and xenolith studies have shown that the Precambrian rocks of northern New Mexico belong to the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces. The boundary between the provinces is a wide zone defined on its northern edge by the northern extent of 1.65 Ga deformation and southern edge by the southern most extent of Yavapai crust (pre-1.7 Ga). However, the nature of the Precambrian province boundary at depth, its evolution through time, and the tectonic processes that affected the interior of these provinces, are not well understood. In order to obtain new information concerning these problems, processing and interpretation of reflection seismic data was conducted on data collected during the 1999 Continental Dynamics-Rocky Mountain (CD-ROM) project and data obtained from industry. In this study I present new information on the crustal structure of northern New Mexico provided by processing and interpretation of three seismic reflection profiles (NM-1, TB-1 and TB-2).The seismic data present evidence for Precambrian crustal growth and amalgamation, followed by subsequent reactivation of Precambrian structures. A seismic profile and gravity modeling across the NM-1 show a strongly reflective high-density (2850 kg-m-3) dome-shaped body in the middle to lower crust. On the basis of the absence of a hanging-wall antiform, the occurrence of normal sense of deflection of reflectors in the footwall, possibly Moho pullup, and geological information such as an exposed Proterozoic extensional shear zone in the Sandia Mountains, this feature is interpreted to represent a 1.4 Ga? extensional shear zone which resulted in rotation of ˜1.65 Ga imbricate thrust zones. Layered reflectivity directly below the top of Precambrian basement on profiles TB-1 and the eastern part of TB-2, based on geophysical and geological information from nearby areas is interpreted as a sequence of ˜1.4 Ga volcanic and sedimentary rocks within the Proterozoic

  8. Analysis and Optimization of the Performance of a Convolutionally Encoded Deep-Space Link in the Presence of Spacecraft Oscillator Phase Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambayati, S.

    1999-10-01

    In order to reduce the cost of deep-space missions, NASA is exploring the possibility of using new, cheaper technologies. Among these is the possibility of replacing ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) onboard the spacecraft with oscillators with measurable phase noise. In addition, it is proposed that these spacecraft use higher 32-GHz (Ka-band) radio frequencies in order to save mass. In this article, the performance of a convolutionally encoded deep-space link using non-USO-type oscillators onboard the spacecraft at Ka-band is analyzed. It is shown that the ground-receiver tracking-loop bandwidth settings need to be optimized and that, by selecting an oscillator with good phase-noise characteristics, the minimum required power onboard the spacecraft could be reduced by as much as 10 dB.

  9. Superdeep vertical seismic profiling at the KTB deep drill hole (Germany): Seismic close-up view of a major thrust zone down to 8.5 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbel, W.; Beilecke, T.; Bohlen, T.; Fischer, D.; Frank, A.; Hasenclever, J.; Borm, G.; Kück, J.; Bram, K.; Druivenga, G.; Lüschen, E.; Gebrande, H.; Pujol, J.; Smithson, S.

    2004-09-01

    The lowermost section of the continental superdeep drill hole German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (south Germany) has been investigated for the first time by vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The new VSP samples the still accessible range of 6-8.5 km depth. Between 7 and 8.5 km depth, the drill hole intersects a major cataclastic fault zone which can be traced back to the Earth's surface where it forms a lineament of regional importance, the Franconian line. To determine the seismic properties of the crust in situ, in particular within and around this deep fault zone, was one of the major goals of the VSP. For the measurements a newly developed high-pressure/high-temperature borehole geophone was used that was capable of withstanding temperatures and pressures up to 260°C and 140 MPa, respectively. The velocity-depth profiles and reflection images resulting from the VSP are of high spatial resolution due to a small geophone spacing of 12.5 m and a broad seismic signal spectrum. Compared to the upper part of the borehole, we found more than 10% decrease of the P wave velocity in the deep, fractured metamorphic rock formations. P wave velocity is ˜5.5 km/s at 8.5 km depth compared to 6.0-6.5 km/s at more shallow levels above 7 km. In addition, seismic anisotropy was observed to increase significantly within the deep fracture zone showing more than 10% shear wave splitting and azimuthal variation of S wave polarization. In order to quantify the effect of fractures on the seismic velocity in situ we compared lithologically identical rock units at shallow and large depths: Combining seismic velocity and structural logs, we could determine the elastic tensors for three gneiss sections. The analysis of these tensors showed that we need fracture porosity in the percent range in order to explain seismic velocity and anisotropy observed within the fault zone. The opening of significant pore space around 8 km depth can only be maintained by differential tectonic

  10. Chronic toxicological effects of β-diketone antibiotics on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) using transcriptome profiling of deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Yin, Xiaohan; Li, Fanghui; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Yuna; Zhang, Hongqin; Wang, Xuedong

    2016-11-01

    Transcriptome analysis is important for interpreting the functional elements of the genome and revealing the molecular constituents of cells and tissues. Herein, differentially transcribed genes were identified by deep sequencing after zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to β-diketone antibiotics (DKAs); 23,129 and 23,550 mapped genes were detected in control and treatment groups, a total of 3238 genes were differentially expressed between control and treatment groups. Of these genes, 328 genes (213 up- and 115 down-regulation) had significant differential expression (p < 0.05) and an expression ratio (control/treatment) of >2 or <0.5. Additionally, we performed Gene Ontology (GO) category and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses, and found 266 genes in the treatment group with annotation terms linked to the GO category. A total of 77 differentially expressed transcriptional genes were associated with 132 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways. Serious liver tissue damage was reflected and consistent with the differences in genetic classification and function from the transcriptome analysis. These results enhance our understanding of zebrafish developmental processes under exposure to DKA stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1357-1371, 2016.

  11. Proteomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum core metabolism: relative protein expression profiles and growth phase-dependent changes in protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium thermocellum produces H2 and ethanol, as well as CO2, acetate, formate, and lactate, directly from cellulosic biomass. It is therefore an attractive model for biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Optimization of end-product yields and titres is crucial for making biofuel production economically feasible. Relative protein expression profiles may provide targets for metabolic engineering, while understanding changes in protein expression and metabolism in response to carbon limitation, pH, and growth phase may aid in reactor optimization. We performed shotgun 2D-HPLC-MS/MS on closed-batch cellobiose-grown exponential phase C. thermocellum cell-free extracts to determine relative protein expression profiles of core metabolic proteins involved carbohydrate utilization, energy conservation, and end-product synthesis. iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based protein quantitation was used to determine changes in core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase. Results Relative abundance profiles revealed differential levels of putative enzymes capable of catalyzing parallel pathways. The majority of proteins involved in pyruvate catabolism and end-product synthesis were detected with high abundance, with the exception of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-dependent Ech-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase, and RNF-type NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Using 4-plex 2D-HPLC-MS/MS, 24% of the 144 core metabolism proteins detected demonstrated moderate changes in expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Notably, proteins involved in pyruvate synthesis decreased in stationary phase, whereas proteins involved in glycogen metabolism, pyruvate catabolism, and end-product synthesis increased in stationary phase. Several proteins that may directly dictate end-product synthesis patterns, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and a putative bifurcating hydrogenase

  12. A crustal model of the ultrahigh-pressure Dabie Shan orogenic belt, China, derived from deep seismic refraction profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Zeng, Rong-Sheng; Mooney, W.D.; Hacker, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new crustal cross section through the east-west trending ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Dabie Shan orogenic belt, east central China, based on a 400-km-long seismic refraction profile. Data from our profile reveal that the cratonal blocks north and south of the orogen are composed of 35-km-thick crust consisting of three layers (upper, middle, and lower crust) with average seismic velocities of 6.0±0.2 km/s, 6.5±0.1 km/s, and 6.8±0.1 km/s. The crust reaches a maximum thickness of 41.5 km beneath the northern margin of the orogen, and thus the present-day root beneath the orogen is only 6.5 km thick. The upper mantle velocity is 8.0±0.1 km/s. Modeling of shear wave data indicate that Poisson's ratio increases from 0.24±0.02 in the upper crust to 0.27±0.03 in the lower crust. This result is consistent with a dominantly felsic upper crustal composition and a mafic lower crustal composition within the amphibolite or granulite metamorphic facies. Our seismic model indicates that eclogite, which is abundant in surface exposures within the orogen, is not a volumetrically significant component in the middle or lower crust. Much of the Triassic structure associated with the formation of the UHP rocks of the Dabie Shan has been obscured by post-Triassic igneous activity, extension and large-offset strike-slip faulting. Nevertheless, we can identify a high-velocity (6.3 km/s) zone in the upper (<5 km depth) crustal core of the orogen which we interpret as a zone of ultrahigh-pressure rocks, a north dipping suture, and an apparent Moho offset that marks a likely active strike-slip fault.

  13. Communication: spin-boson model with diagonal and off-diagonal coupling to two independent baths: ground-state phase transition in the deep sub-Ohmic regime.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Yao, Yao; Chernyak, Vladimir; Zhao, Yang

    2014-04-28

    We investigate a spin-boson model with two boson baths that are coupled to two perpendicular components of the spin by employing the density matrix renormalization group method with an optimized boson basis. It is revealed that in the deep sub-Ohmic regime there exists a novel second-order phase transition between two types of doubly degenerate states, which is reduced to one of the usual types for nonzero tunneling. In addition, it is found that expectation values of the spin components display jumps at the phase boundary in the absence of bias and tunneling.

  14. Comparison of phase velocities from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and results calculated from borehole shear-wave velocity profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Boore, David M.; Joyner, William B.; Oppenheimer, David H.; Warrick, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenbo; Hamilton, John C.; Brown, Leo T.

    2000-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities (VS) are widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. VS data are now largely obtained using borehole methods. Drilling holes, however, is expensive. Nonintrusive surface methods are inexpensive for obtaining VS information, but not many comparisons with direct borehole measurements have been published. Because different assumptions are used in data interpretation of each surface method and public safety is involved in site characterization for engineering structures, it is important to validate the surface methods by additional comparisons with borehole measurements. We compare results obtained from a particular surface method (array measurement of surface waves associated with microtremor) with results obtained from borehole methods. Using a 10-element nested-triangular array of 100-m aperture, we measured surface-wave phase velocities at two California sites, Garner Valley near Hemet and Hollister Municipal Airport. The Garner Valley site is located at an ancient lake bed where water-saturated sediment overlies decomposed granite on top of granite bedrock. Our array was deployed at a location where seismic velocities had been determined to a depth of 500 m by borehole methods. At Hollister, where the near-surface sediment consists of clay, sand, and gravel, we determined phase velocities using an array located close to a 60-m deep borehole where downhole velocity logs already exist. Because we want to assess the measurements uncomplicated by uncertainties introduced by the inversion process, we compare our phase-velocity results with the borehole VS depth profile by calculating fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from an earth model constructed from the borehole data. For wavelengths less than ~2 times of the array aperture at Garner Valley, phase-velocity results from array measurements agree with the calculated Rayleigh-wave velocities to better than 11%. Measurement errors become larger for wavelengths 2

  15. Pharmacokinetic profile of ABELCET (amphotericin B lipid complex injection): combined experience from phase I and phase II studies.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A; Bernardo, J F; Swenson, C E; Bolsack, L E; Horwith, G; DeWit, S; Kelly, E; Klasterksy, J; Sculier, J P; DeValeriola, D; Anaissie, E; Lopez-Berestein, G; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Boyle, A; Branch, R A

    1997-10-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) has been the most effective systemic antifungal agent, but its use is limited by the dose-limiting toxicity of the conventional micellar dispersion formulation (Fungizone). New formulations with better and improved safety profiles are being developed and include ABELCET (formerly ABLC), but their dispositions have not been well characterized; hence, the reason for their improved profiles remains unclear. This report details the pharmacokinetics of ABELCET examined in various pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies by using whole-blood measurements of AmB concentration performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The data indicated that the disposition of AmB after administration of ABELCET is different from that after administration of Fungizone, with a faster clearance and a larger volume of distribution. It exhibits complex and nonlinear pharmacokinetics with wide interindividual variability, extensive distribution, and low clearance. The pharmacokinetics were unusual. Clearance and volume of distribution were increased with dose, peak and trough concentrations after multiple dosings increased less than proportionately with dose, steady state appeared to have been attained in 2 to 3 days, despite an estimated half-life of up to 5 days, and there was no evidence of significant accumulation in the blood. The data are internally consistent, even though they were gathered under different conditions and circumstances. The pharmacokinetics of ABELCET suggest that lower concentrations in blood due to higher clearance and greater distribution may be responsible for its improved toxicity profile compared to those of conventional formulations.

  16. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression by deep sequencing in early somatic embryogenesis of endangered medicinal Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Zhao, Yue; Wu, Ying; Wang, Qiuyu; Yuan, Hongmei; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Wendong; You, Xiangling

    2016-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been studied as a model system to understand molecular events in physiology, biochemistry, and cytology during plant embryo development. In particular, it is exceedingly difficult to access the morphological and early regulatory events in zygotic embryos. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating early SE in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., we used high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to investigate its transcriptome. We obtained 58,327,688 reads, which were assembled into 75,803 unique unigenes. To better understand their functions, the unigenes were annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Digital gene expression libraries revealed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (embryogenic callus, yellow embryogenic callus, global embryo). We obtained a sequencing depth of >5.6 million tags per sample and identified many differentially expressed genes at various stages of SE. The initiation of SE affected gene expression in many KEGG pathways, but predominantly that in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction. This information on the changes in the multiple pathways related to SE induction in E. senticosus Maxim. embryogenic tissue will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in early SE. Additionally, the differentially expressed genes may act as molecular markers and could play very important roles in the early stage of SE. The results are a comprehensive molecular biology resource for investigating SE of E. senticosus Maxim.

  17. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Baxamusa, S. Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J.

    2014-03-28

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  18. Prototype results of a phase-shifting interferometer capable of measuring the complex index and profile of a test surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogala, Eric W.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2002-09-01

    Results are presented from a prototype phase-shifting interferometer capable of measuring both the real and the imaginary part of the complex index of refraction and the surface profile of a test surface. The three parameters of interest are extracted from the measured data by maximum-likelihood estimation theory. The performance of the system is quantitatively assessed with Cramer-Rao lower bounds. The results are shown to be strongly dependent on the quantization of the interferograms from the 8-bit CCD camera, the incident electric field amplitude, and the relative amplitude and phase difference of each polarized component through each arm of the interferometer.

  19. Crustal structure and Moho geometry of the northeastern Tibetan plateau as revealed by SinoProbe-02 deep seismic-reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Gao, Rui; Zeng, Lingsen; Kuang, Zhaoyang; Xue, Aimin; Li, Wenhui; Xiong, Xiaosong; Huang, Weiyi

    2014-12-01

    Underthrusting of India below Eurasia has resulted in the formation of the Himalayan and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Distributed deformation coupled with block translation and rotation has generated the Qilian Shan thrust belt and a series of east- and northwest-striking strike-slip faults across northeastern Tibet. Because these structures lie in a transition zone between the high plateau region to the south and the lowlands of the North China craton in the north, determining their deep-crustal and upper-mantle structures has important implications for unraveling the mechanism of Tibetan plateau formation. In this paper, we present new results from the SinoProbe-02 deep seismic reflection project across the eastern part of the Qilian Shan and the southern margin of the Alxa block. Interpretation of the reflection profile obtained from this study is based on constraints from surface geology and detailed geometric analysis of structural relationships among key reflectors in the crust and the upper mantle. Our results indicate that the upper crust of the eastern Qilian Shan is characterized by fault-bend folds and duplex systems involving Phanerozoic strata that may have resulted from early Paleozoic collisional tectonics and Cenozoic intra-continental deformation. Locally, half-graben structures hosting Cretaceous strata are also present. The active structures in the region are dominated by left-slip Haiyuan and Tianjian fault systems marking the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The strike-slip structures have variable dips and dip directions and sole into a common décollement with a depth of 40-45 km. Because the two faults do not cut and offset the Moho below, the active crustal and mantle deformation in the northeastern Tibet must be decoupled.

  20. Deep immune profiling by mass cytometry links human T and NK cell differentiation and cytotoxic molecule expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Bengsch, Bertram; Ohtani, Takuya; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Bovenschen, Niels; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Wherry, E John

    2017-03-19

    stages. Such comprehensive cytotoxic profiling may identify distinct patterns of cytotoxic potential relevant for specific infections, autoimmunity or tumor settings.

  1. Soil Organic Matter Characterization by 13C-NMR and Thermal Analysis in Deep Tropical Soil Profiles from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, A. F.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store large quantities of carbon (C) as soil organic matter (SOM), a substantial proportion of which is stored deep (> 30 cm) in the soil profile. Characterization of tropical SOM remains difficult, in part due to the analytical challenges associated high iron and low C concentrations. In this study, we combined solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with analytical thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; evolved CO2 gas analysis, CO2-EGA) to explore patterns in SOM composition in deep soil profiles from two contrasting soil types at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) in northeast Puerto Rico. Prior to 13C NMR, soils were repeatedly demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to remove paramagnetic compounds and concentrate organic matter. Given the scant information on tropical subsoil OM, we also sought to evaluate the effect of HF acid treatments on tropical subsoil SOM. HF treatments effectively enriched sample C and removed paramagnetic compounds, allowing us to obtain high-quality NMR spectra for low-C subsoils. C:N ratios before and after HF treatment were nearly identical (mean = 16.6 ± 0.8), suggesting that the SOM pool was not substantially fractionated, though C recoveries were low and variable. Thermal analyses confirmed the loss of a substantial fraction of the soil mineral matrix, however, retention of several endothermic regions in post-HF Inceptisol soils indicated that not all minerals were completely solubilized. In addition, important differences in the DSC and CO2-EGA thermograms were observed in comparing samples before versus after HF treatments. These results suggest that the organo-mineral associations were substantially altered, though it is not immediately clear the degree to which alterations in chemical composition versus binding association have changed. In addition to these qualitative changes, quantitative interpretations of 13C-NMR results from low-C and high

  2. Joint pre-stack depth migration and travel-time tomography applied to a deep seismic profile across the northern Barents Sea igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, Alexander; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sakulina, Tamara; Krupnova, Natalia; Dergunov, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    The mainly Permo-Triassic North Barents Sea Basin is considered as a superdeep intracratonic basin containing over 20 km of sedimentary material. This basin was strongly affected by magmatism attributed to the formation of the Early Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province. Dolerite dikes, sills, and lava flows are observed in the northern Barents Sea and on the islands of Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Some dike swarms can be traced over hundreds of kilometers using high-resolution airborne magnetic data. In the North Barents Sea Basin, the dikes fed giant sill complex emplaced into organic-rich Triassic siliciclastic rocks. The sill complex creates a major challenge for seismic imaging masking the underlying strata. In this contribution, we first perform refraction and reflection travel-time tomography using wide-angle ocean-bottom seismometer data (with receivers deployed every 10 km) along the 4-AR profile (Sakulina et al. 2007, Ivanova et al. 2011). The resulting tomographic model is then used to construct a background velocity model for the pre-stack depth migration. We show that the use of a combined velocity model for the time and depth imaging based on travel-time tomography and RMS velocities constitutes a substantial improvement with respect to a standard processing workflow providing a more coherent seismic structure of this volcanic province. The interpretation of multichannel seismic and high-resolution magnetic data together with P-wave velocity and density anomalies allow to create a model for the system of magmatic feeders in the crystalline basement of the northern Barents Sea region. Sakulina, T.S., Verba, M.L., Ivanova, N.M., Krupnova, N.A., Belyaev I.V., 2007. Deep structure of the north Barents-Kara Region along 4AR transect (Taimyr Peninsula - Franz Joseph Land). In: Models of the Earth's crust and upper mantle after deep seismic profiling. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical seminar. Rosnedra, VSEGEI. St

  3. On the radial profile of gas-phase Fe/α ratio around distant galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Gauthier, Jean-René; Rauch, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the chemical compositions in cool gas around a sample of 27 intermediate-redshift galaxies. The sample comprises 13 massive quiescent galaxies at z = 0.40-0.73 probed by QSO sightlines at projected distances d = 3-400 kpc, and 14 star-forming galaxies at z = 0.10-1.24 probed by QSO sightlines at d = 8-163 kpc. The main goal of this study is to examine the radial profiles of the gas-phase Fe/α ratio in galaxy haloes based on the observed Fe II to Mg II column density ratios. Because Mg+ and Fe+ share similar ionization potentials, the relative ionization correction is small in moderately ionized gas and the observed ionic abundance ratio N(Fe II)/N(Mg II) places a lower limit to the underlying (Fe/Mg) elemental abundance ratio. For quiescent galaxies, a median and dispersion of log < N(Fe II)/N(Mg II)> _med= -0.06± 0.15 is found at d ≲ 60 kpc, which declines to log < N(Fe II)/N(Mg II)> _med<-0.3 at d ≳ 100 kpc. On the other hand, star-forming galaxies exhibit log < N(Fe II)/N(Mg II)> = -0.25± 0.21 at d ≲ 60 kpc and log < N(Fe II)/N(Mg II)> = -0.9± 0.4 at larger distances. Including possible differential dust depletion or ionization correction would only increase the inferred (Fe/Mg) ratio. The observed N(Fe II)/N(Mg II) implies supersolar Fe/α ratios in the inner halo of quiescent galaxies. An enhanced Fe abundance indicates a substantial contribution by Type Ia supernovae in the chemical enrichment, which is at least comparable to what is observed in the solar neighbourhood or in intracluster media but differs from young star-forming regions. In the outer haloes of quiescent galaxies and in haloes around star-forming galaxy, however, the observed N(Fe II)/N(Mg II) is consistent with an α-element enhanced enrichment pattern, suggesting a core-collapse supernovae dominated enrichment history.

  4. Discovery and profiling of novel and conserved microRNAs during flower development in Carya cathayensis via deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng Jia; Huang, Jian Qin; Huang, You Jun; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bing Song

    2012-08-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is an economically important woody plant in China, but its long juvenile phase delays yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of genes and important for normal plant development and physiology, including flower development. We used Solexa technology to sequence two small RNA libraries from two floral differentiation stages in hickory to identify miRNAs related to flower development. We identified 39 conserved miRNA sequences from 114 loci belonging to 23 families as well as two novel and ten potential novel miRNAs belonging to nine families. Moreover, 35 conserved miRNA*s and two novel miRNA*s were detected. Twenty miRNA sequences from 49 loci belonging to 11 families were differentially expressed; all were up-regulated at the later stage of flower development in hickory. Quantitative real-time PCR of 12 conserved miRNA sequences, five novel miRNA families, and two novel miRNA*s validated that all were expressed during hickory flower development, and the expression patterns were similar to those detected with Solexa sequencing. Finally, a total of 146 targets of the novel and conserved miRNAs were predicted. This study identified a diverse set of miRNAs that were closely related to hickory flower development and that could help in plant floral induction.

  5. Modeling and Observations of Phase-Mask Trapezoidal Profiles with Grating-Fiber Image Reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Lindesay, James V.; Lee, Hyung R.; Ndlela, Zolili U.; Thompso, Erica J.

    2000-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the trapezoidal design and fabrication defects in phase masks used to produce Bragg reflection gratings in optical fibers. We used a direct visualization technique to examine the nonuniformity of the interference patterns generated by several phase masks. Fringe patterns from the phase masks are compared with the analogous patterns resulting from two-beam interference. Atomic force microscope imaging of the actual phase gratings that give rise to anomalous fringe patterns is used to determine input parameters for a general theoretical model. Phase masks with pitches of 0.566 and 1.059 microns are modeled and investigated.

  6. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations.

  7. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR... Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.34 To which production may an RSV earned by... the qualified well is re-perforated in the same reservoir previously perforated deeper than...

  8. Genome-wide copy number profiling of single cells in S-phase reveals DNA-replication domains.

    PubMed

    Van der Aa, Niels; Cheng, Jiqiu; Mateiu, Ligia; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Kumar, Parveen; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Vanneste, Evelyne; Moreau, Yves; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry

    2013-04-01

    Single-cell genomics is revolutionizing basic genome research and clinical genetic diagnosis. However, none of the current research or clinical methods for single-cell analysis distinguishes between the analysis of a cell in G1-, S- or G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate by means of array comparative genomic hybridization that charting the DNA copy number landscape of a cell in S-phase requires conceptually different approaches to that of a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Remarkably, despite single-cell whole-genome amplification artifacts, the log2 intensity ratios of single S-phase cells oscillate according to early and late replication domains, which in turn leads to the detection of significantly more DNA imbalances when compared with a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Although these DNA imbalances may, on the one hand, be falsely interpreted as genuine structural aberrations in the S-phase cell's copy number profile and hence lead to misdiagnosis, on the other hand, the ability to detect replication domains genome wide in one cell has important applications in DNA-replication research. Genome-wide cell-type-specific early and late replicating domains have been identified by analyses of DNA from populations of cells, but cell-to-cell differences in DNA replication may be important in genome stability, disease aetiology and various other cellular processes.

  9. High Pressure and high temperature phase transition in FeTiO3: implications for the deep interior of giant planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamane, D.; Zhang, M.; Yagi, T.; Yanming, M.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of the structural phase transition of perovskite into a CaIrO3-type phase at high pressures invites the investigation of further phase transitions in order to understand the deep interior of giant planet. Recent experimental studies for FeTiO3 have detected a new dissociation to a dense compound assemblage rather than the CaIrO3-type phase at high pressures. Since the phase relation of FeTiO3 is expected to be significant for estimating the ultrahigh-pressure behavior of ABX3 compounds such as MgSiO3, we investigated the phase transition in FeTiO3 up to 80 GPa and 2600K by synchrotron X-ray diffraction using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and analytical transmission electron microscopy observations. We conclude that FeTiO3 ilmenite transforms into the following phase(s) with increasing pressure: FeTiO3 (perovskite) at 18-30 GPa, 1/2 Fe2TiO4 (Ca2TiO4-type) + TiO2 (OI-type) at 30-45 GPa and high temperature, FeO (wüstite) + TiO2 (OI) at 30-45 GPa and low temperature, and 2/3 FeO (wüstite) + 1/3 FeTi3O7 (orthorhombic phase) above 45 GPa. We also estimates the structural model of FeTi3O7 phase by using the particle swarm optimization simulation, and Rietveld refinement based on this model structure gave an excellent fit with the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction pattern. This new high-density FeTi3O7 structure consists of the polyhedra for monocapped prisms FeO7, bicapped prisms TiO8, and tricapped prisms TiO9 with Imm2 symmetry. The dense compound assemblage found in FeTiO3 is promising for investigating the behavior of ABX3 compounds under ultrahigh pressures, and our experimental results suggest that the AB3X7 type oxide instead of cotunnite SiO2 may produce the denser assemblage even in the silicate system at ultra high pressure. This new model has not yet been proposed as a candidate, but our suggestion will be important for predicting the mineral assemblage in the deep interiors of giant planets.

  10. Well logging interpretation of production profile in horizontal oil-water two phase flow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Jin, Ning-De; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zheng, Xi-Ke

    2012-03-01

    Due to the complicated distribution of local velocity and local phase hold up along the radial direction of pipe in horizontal oil-water two phase flow, it is difficult to measure the total flow rate and phase volume fraction. In this study, we carried out dynamic experiment in horizontal oil-water two phases flow simulation well by using combination measurement system including turbine flowmeter with petal type concentrating diverter, conductance sensor and flowpassing capacitance sensor. According to the response resolution ability of the conductance and capacitance sensor in different range of total flow rate and water-cut, we use drift flux model and statistical model to predict the partial phase flow rate, respectively. The results indicate that the variable coefficient drift flux model can self-adaptively tone the model parameter according to the oil-water two phase flow characteristic, and the prediction result of partial phase flow rate of oil-water two phase flow is of high accuracy.

  11. Estimating production and consumption of solid reactive Fe phases in marine sediments from concentration profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    1D diffusion models may be used to estimate rates of production and consumption of dissolved metabolites in marine sediments, but are applied less often to the solid phase. Here we used a numerical inverse method to estimate solid phase Fe(III) and Fe(II) consumption and product...

  12. Geophysical constraints on the crustal structure of the East European Platform margin and its foreland based on the POLCRUST-01 deep reflection seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.; Guterch, A.; Narkiewicz, M.; Petecki, Z.; Janik, T.; Środa, P.; Maksym, A.; Probulski, J.; Grad, M.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Majdański, M.; Jankowski, L.

    2015-06-01

    A new 240-km long, deep seismic reflection profile (POLCRUST-01) was recently acquired in SE Poland crossing the East European Platform (EEP) margin south-east of the North-German-Polish Caledonides (NGPC). Here we document geophysical field work and subsequent data processing and modeling. Results obtained from reflection seismic data are augmented by results of the first-arrival tomography applied to co-located extended-offset refraction data, as well as potential field modeling and comparison with the available wide-angle reflection/refraction data. Our preferred model of the crustal structure, derived by integrating seismic, potential field and geological data, is composed of crustal blocks (terranes) separated by nearly-vertical faults. These are: (I) intact part of the EEP; (II) Łysogóry Terrane; (III) Małopolska Terrane; and (IV) Carpathian Mts. with their basement. Reflective lower crust of the EEP can be an inherited feature of crustal extension (rifting) or compressional tectonics acting at the cratonic margin. The Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) is depicted as a Caledonian transcurrent accretion zone corresponding with the near-vertical Tomaszów Fault, bounding the Łysogóry Terrane to the east. The crust of the Łysogóry Terrane suggests EEP affinity, although its middle/lower crust thickness is highly reduced. The Małopolska Terrane seems to be internally subdivided into blocks of different magnetic properties of the lower crust. The Carpathian frontal thrust is associated with a change in the rock properties in the deep basement (an unknown crustal block?) which is not visible in seismic data alone. The interpreted structure of the Caledonian terranes and their tectonic boundaries favors a transcurrent style of a crustal accretion along the central and SE Polish segments of the TTZ, implying a very complex nature of the Caledonian accretionary belt of Central Europe: from an array of terranes displaced along the TTZ to an accretionary wedge of

  13. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Noise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    Noise-related training programs were reviewed in nine degree-granting institutions in seven states. These programs represent a sample, only, of the various programs available nationwide. The enrollment profile and average number of graduates by degree level for the past three years are given, as well as the apparent enrollment trends by degree…

  14. Comparison of chromatographic band profiles obtained under microwave irradiated and non-irradiated reversed-phase liquid chromatography column

    SciTech Connect

    Galinada, Wilmer; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-08-01

    The possible influence of the application of microwave energy to a reversed-phase liquid chromatography column on the mass transfer kinetics and the thermodynamics of equilibrium between mobile and stationary phases was examined. Chromatograms of propylbenzene and phenol were recorded under the same experimental conditions, on the same column, successively irradiated and not. The effect of microwave irradiation on the mass transfer kinetics was determined by measuring the second moment of small pulses of propylbenzene in a 70:30 (v/v) solution of methanol in water and microwave outputs of 15 and 30 W. The effect of microwave irradiation on the equilibrium thermodynamics was determined by measuring the elution time of breakthrough curves of phenol at high concentrations in a 20:80 (v/v) solution of methanol and water and microwave outputs of 15, 50, and 150 W. A qualitative comparison of the profiles of the propylbenzene peaks obtained with and without irradiation suggests that this irradiation affects significantly the peak shapes. However, a qualitative comparison of the profiles of the breakthrough curves of phenol obtained with and without irradiation suggests that this irradiation has no significant effect on their shapes. The peak sharpening observed may be due to an increase in the diffusivity, resulting from the dielectric polarization under microwave irradiation. This effect is directly related to an increase of the rate of mass transfers in the column. In contrast, the similarity of the overloaded band profiles at high concentrations suggests that the equilibrium thermodynamics is unaffected by microwave irradiation. This may be explained by the transparence of the stationary phase to microwaves at 2.45 GHz. The column temperature was measured at the column outlet under irradiation powers of 15, 30, 50, and 150 W. It increases with increasing power, the corresponding effluent temperatures being 25 {+-} 1, 30 {+-} 1, 35 {+-} 1, and 45 {+-} 1 C, respectively.

  15. Production of mineral surface area within deep weathering profiles at eroding vs. depositional hillslope locations: Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Nater, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geomorphic and biogeochemical processes and hillslope morphology are partly controlled by the extent and degree of chemical weathering between soil and bedrock. The production of mineral specific surface area (SSA) via chemical weathering is a critical variable for mechanistic understanding of weathering and provides an interface between minerals and the soil carbon cycle. We examined two 21-meter deep drill cores in the Laurels Schist at 141 MASL (summit) and 130 MASL (interfluve) in a 900 ha first order watershed in the Laurels Preserve, a forested land use end member in the Christina River Basin CZO. In addition to mineral SSA, we report elemental and mineralogical changes through both weathering profiles. Despite highly variable bedrock composition, mobile elements (Ca & Na) are depleted within 3-5 m below the ground surface, which is consistent with the removal of Ca-Na-plagioclase ((Na,Ca)Al(Si,Al)3O8) at this interval; we consider this depth as a weathering front. The water table in both boreholes was ~123 MASL (5/2014), which is well below the weathering front, suggesting that weathering processes are not coupled with groundwater interactions in this system. Clay XRD reveals the presence of secondary phyllosilicates including vermiculite, illite, and kaolinite in the upper 3 m of the summit weathering profile, which are weathering products of primary plagioclase, muscovite, and chlorite. The currently available clay mineralogy results are consistent with the decrease in total SSA from up to 20 m2g-1 at the surface to <5 m2g-1 below 3 m depth. Within the first 3 m from the surface, citrate-dithionate extractable iron contributed 30-60% of the total surface area. Therefore transformation of primary minerals to secondary phyllosilicate minerals, involving leaching loss of cations, was partly responsible for SSA production, but iron oxides play a significant role in production of SSA above the weathering front. This observation did not differ between

  16. The Middle AsiaN Active Source (MANAS) Profile: Preliminary Results From A Deep Seismic Transect in the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, J. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Schelochkov, G.; He, R.

    2007-12-01

    New near-vertical deep seismic reflection data, acquired during the summer of 2007, constitute an ~350 km lithospheric transect from the northwestern Tarim Basin in China to the central Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Recognized as one of the highest, youngest, and most active orogenic systems on Earth, the Tien Shan are situated internal to the Eurasian continent, removed up to 3000 km from the former plate boundary with the Indian subcontinent. Existing geologic constraints imply that up to 200 km of shortening may have occurred in Late Tertiary to Recent time. Additionally, geologic, topographic, and gravimetric data suggest that continental lithosphere of the Tarim basin may presently be subducting beneath the southern margin of the Tien Shan, in the absence of an oceanic slab. While geodetic measurements document that the Tien Shan currently record about half of the shortening between India and Eurasia, geologic data dictate that active faults are restricted to only several of the individual ranges that make up the mountain belt. Passive-source seismological studies have shown the surprising result that the orogenic crust is thickest (65-70 km) at both the southern and northern margins of the Tien Shan, and thins dramatically to ~35 km within the internal part of the orogen. Key targets of the MANAS (Middle AsiaN Active Source) Profile include (1) the top of the Tarim crust as it descends beneath the southern Tien Shan, (2) an inferred crustal-scale frontal ramp, representing where the continental plate may have broken and is now descending into the upper mantle, (3) the geometry of demonstrably active faults below the shallow depths to which they can be inferred from surface geologic constraints, (4) the topography and seismic reflection signature of the Moho, especially given the unexpected variations in crustal thickness across the orogen, and (5) the significance of both crustal and upper mantle conductivity anomalies previously identified through magnetotelluric

  17. Development of a High-Performance, Low-Profile Translation Table with Wire Feedthrough for a Deep Space CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NEAScout, a 6U cubesat and secondary payload on NASA's EM-1, will use an 85 sq m solar sail to travel to a near-earth asteroid at about 1 Astronomical Unit (about 1.5 x 10(exp 8) km) for observation and reconnaissance1. A combination of reaction wheels, reaction control system, and a slow rotisserie roll about the solar sail's normal axis were expected to handle attitude control and adjust for imperfections in the deployed sail during the 2.5-year mission. As the design for NEAScout matured, one of the critical design parameters, the offset in the center of mass and center of pressure (CP/CM offset), proved to be sub-optimal. After significant mission and control analysis, the CP/CM offset was accommodated by the addition of a new subsystem to NEAScout. This system, called the Active Mass Translator (AMT), would reside near the geometric center of NEAScout and adjust the CM by moving one portion of the flight system relative to the other. The AMT was given limited design space - 17 mm of the vehicle's assembly height-and was required to generate +/-8 cm by +/-2 cm translation to sub-millimeter accuracy. Furthermore, the design must accommodate a large wire bundle of small gage, single strand wire and coax cables fed through the center of the mechanism. The bend radius, bend resistance, and the exposure to deep space environment complicates the AMT design and operation and necessitated a unique design to mitigate risks of wire bundle damage, binding, and cold-welding during operation. This paper will outline the design constraints for the AMT, discuss the methods and reasoning for design, and identify the lessons learned through the designing, breadboarding and testing for the low-profile translation stages with wire feedthrough capability.

  18. The influences of ambiguity phase aberration profiles on focusing quality in the very near field--part I: single range focusing on transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue

    2002-01-01

    Most phase aberration measurement algorithms have an ambiguity for constant and tilted phase aberration profiles. Based on the Fresnel (near field) approximation with single range focusing and the Fraunhofer (far field) approximation, constant and tilted phase aberration profiles change the position of the focal point only and do not influence the image focusing quality. Therefore, ambiguity phase aberration profiles are generally considered to be harmless and ignored in those algorithms and related theoretical analyses. However, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations may become invalid under many medical ultrasound imaging situations, e.g., when the imaging field is in the very near field (f-number approximately 1). In the very near field, although it is known that constant and tilted phase aberration profiles may degrade the focusing quality, it seems that there is a lack of quantitative analysis results in the literature about their influences, and this is the purpose of the current paper. In this paper, a quantitative analysis with a very near field approximation is performed for single range focusing on transmission, which is a commonly used transmission focusing method in medical ultrasound imaging. The tolerable levels of constant and tilted phase aberration profiles are derived as a function of the imaging system's f-number and wavelength. Because some phase aberration measurement algorithms may also have an ambiguity for quadratic phase aberration profiles, they are also included in the analysis. The theoretical results are compared with numerical and simulation results. These results have shown that the influences of tilted and quadratic phase-aberration profiles can be ignored only under certain conditions in the very near field.

  19. Tradeoffs in Chemical and Thermal Variations in the Post-perovskite Phase Transition: Mixed phase regions in the Deep Lower Mantle?

    SciTech Connect

    Frank J Spera; David A. Yuen; Grace Giles

    2007-04-01

    The discovery of a phase-transition in Mg-rich perovskite (Pv) to a post-perovskite (pPv) phase at lower mantle depths and its relationship to D", lower mantle heterogeneity and iron content prompted an investigation of the relative importance of lower mantle compositional and temperature fluctuations in creating topographic undulations on mixed phase regions. Above the transition, Mg-rich Pv makes up ~ 70 per cent by mass of the lower mantle. Using results from experimental phase equilibria, first-principles computations and empirical scaling relations for Fe2+-Mg mixing in silicates, a preliminary thermodynamic model for the Pv to pPv phase transition in the divariant system MgSiO3-FeSiO3 is developed. Complexities associated with components Fe2O3 and Al2O3 and other phases (Ca-Pv, magnesiowustite) are neglected. The model predicts phase transition pressures are sensitive to the FeSiO3 content of perovskite (~ -1.5 GPa per one mole percent FeSiO3). This leads to considerable topography along the top boundary of the mixed phase region. The Clapeyron slope for the Pv→pPv transition at XFeSiO3= 0.1 is +11 MPa/K about 20% higher than for pure Mg-Pv. Increasing bulk concentration of iron elevates the mixed (two-phase) layer above the core–mantle boundary (CMB); increasing temperature acts to push the mixed layer deeper in the lower mantle perhaps into the D” thermal-compositional boundary layer resting upon the CMB. For various lower mantle geotherms and CMB temperatures, a single mixed layer of thickness ~300 km lies within the bottom 40% of the lower mantle. For low iron contents (XFeSiO3 ~ 5 mole percent or less), two (perched) mixed phase layers are found. This is the divariant analog to the univariant double-crosser of Hernlund, et al., 2005. The hotter the mantle, the deeper the mixed phase layer; the more iron-rich the lower mantle, the shallower the mixed phase layer. In a younger and hotter Hadean Earth with interior temperatures everywhere 200-500 K

  20. Phase-correlated P Cygni profile variations of the C III multiplet in UW Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drechsel, H.; Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1981-01-01

    The interacting close binary system UW CMa has been observed, in the wavelength range from 1161 to 1188 A, continuously during a complete orbital cycle in 1979 with the Copernicus (OAO-3) U2 spectrometer. The C III multiplet at 1175 A, observed as a P Cygni feature, exhbits a clear dependence on the orbital phase of the binary; the radial velocity variation of this feature lags behind that of the O7 primary component by 0.1 orbital phase, which agrees with the anticipations in an earlier study by the same authors. The radiation-driven matter, flowing out of the binary, originates in the primary component.

  1. Investigation of Aging Effects from High Voltage Profiles in Ceramic Phase Shifter Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    for the BSTO-Alumina composites. REFERENCES [1] R.W. Babbitt, T. E. Koscica, and W.E. Drach , "Planar Microwave Electro-optic Phase Shifters...Sources Director»,., For, Monroes, 1 ATTN: AMSRL-EP-M, W. C. Drach 1 AMSRL-EP-M, T. E. Koscica 1 AMSRL-EP-M, R. W. Babbit 25 Authors 11

  2. Détermination du profil de modulation des réseaux holographiques de phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechahougui, S.; Harthong, J.; Medjahed, A.

    1993-12-01

    The complete knowledge of the geometrical and physic-chemical parameters of a periodically modulated volume material, permits the determination of the diffraction picture. Such a purely mathematical and numerical determination is of great scientific and technological interest. The modulation profile (given by its Fourier coefficients) is one of these parameters. It can be determinated a posteriori only by the measurement of the different diffracted intensities at different orders. Starting from this idea, we can achieve a new method (theoritically exact) which permits the study of the diffraction of an electromagnetic plane wave by a dielectric grating. This method leads to the numerical treatment of ordinary differential equation with variable by periodic coefficients. The method is presented here for the classical case of a wave with electric polarization parallel to the grating. For the analysis of the modulation profile, we have considered realistic models of profiles, contrary to the current models, which have only a numerical existence. In order to achieve our experimental work, we have developed two experimental set-up: the first for the recording and the second for the analysis of diffractive elements. The whole set-up can be directed with the aid of a software from a personal computer. The validity of results are discussed. La connaissance parfaite des paramètres géométriques et physico-chimiques d'un matériau de volume modulé périodiquement, donne une bonne connaissance de la figure de diffraction. Celle-ci a une grande importance scientifique et technologique. Le profil de modulation (donné par ses coefficients de Fourier) est l'un de ces paramètres qui ne peut être déterminé a posteriori qu'à partir de la répartition d'intensité entre les différents ordres. A partir de cette idée, nous avons établi une méthode exacte permettant l'étude de la diffraction d'une onde plane électromagnétique par un réseau diélectrique, qui conduit au

  3. B1 mapping with a pure phase encode approach: Quantitative density profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Newling, B.; MacMillan, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2013-07-01

    In MRI, it is frequently observed that naturally uniform samples do not have uniform image intensities. In many cases this non-uniform image intensity is due to an inhomogeneous B1 field. The ‘principle of reciprocity' states that the received signal is proportional to the local magnitude of the applied B1 field per unit current. Inhomogeneity in the B1 field results in signal intensity variations that limit the ability of MRI to yield quantitative information. In this paper a novel method is described for mapping B1 inhomogeneities based on measurement of the B1 field employing centric-scan pure phase encode MRI measurements. The resultant B1 map may be employed to correct related non-uniformities in MR images. The new method is based on acquiring successive images with systematically incremented low flip angle excitation pulses. The local image intensity variation is proportional to B12, which ensures high sensitivity to B1 field variations. Pure phase encoding ensures the resultant B1 field maps are free from distortions caused by susceptibility variation, chemical shift and paramagnetic impurities. Hence, the method works well in regions of space that are not accessible to other methods such as in the vicinity of conductive metallic structures, such as the RF probe itself. Quantitative density images result when the centric scan pure phase encode measurement is corrected with a relative or absolute B1 field map. The new technique is simple, reliable and robust.

  4. A specific profile of luteal phase progesterone is associated with the development of premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Thelma A; Guapo, Vinicius G; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Loureiro, Camila M; Faleiros, Maria Clara M; Del Ben, Cristina M; Brandão, Marcus L

    2017-01-01

    There is a consensus that the development of premenstrual dysphoric states is related to cyclical change in gonadal hormone secretion during the menstrual cycle. However, results from studies seeking to link symptom severity to luteal phase progesterone concentration have been equivocal. In the present study we evaluated not only the absolute concentrations of progesterone but also the kinetics of the change in progesterone concentration in relation to development of premenstrual symptoms during the last 10days of the luteal phase in a population of 46 healthy young adult Brazilian women aged 18-39 years, mean 26.5±6.7years. In participants who developed symptoms of premenstrual distress, daily saliva progesterone concentration remained stable during most of the mid-late luteal phase, before declining sharply during the last 3days prior to onset of menstruation. In contrast, progesterone concentration in asymptomatic women underwent a gradual decline over the last 8days prior to menstruation. Neither maximum nor minimum concentrations of progesterone in the two groups were related to the appearance or severity of premenstrual symptoms. We propose that individual differences in the kinetics of progesterone secretion and/or metabolism may confer differential susceptibility to the development of premenstrual syndrome.

  5. Serial profile of vitamins and trace elements during the acute phase of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nannya, Yasuhito; Shinohara, Akihito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-03-01

    Currently, we utilize vitamins and trace elements formulations that are not prepared specifically for patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and adequacy of this strategy has not been evaluated. We prospectively measured blood level of vitamins and trace elements in 15 patients once per week at 6 time points around the acute phase of allogeneic HSCT. We provided standard nutrition support, including administration of parenteral nutrition with vitamin and trace elements formulation in case of impairment of oral intake. Most patients had vitamin B1 deficiency from the start of preparative regimens. Vitamin C deficiency was prominent throughout the acute phase of HSCT and this was significantly associated with high inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Remarkable vitamin K overload associated with administration of parenteral supplementation and ferritin overload caused by repeated transfusions was observed. Moderate deficiency of zinc was at least partially linked to gastrointestinal loss by diarrhea. We revealed several features of vitamin and trace element status in the acute phase of HSCT and provided a basis for attempts to improve the nutritional condition in HSCT recipients.

  6. Changes in the chemical profile of cephalic salivary glands of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) workers are phase related.

    PubMed

    Poiani, Silvana B; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2015-09-01

    Most advanced eusocial bees recruit their nest mates to food resources. Recent studies in Meliponini species have revealed that the cephalic salivary (labial) glands (CSGs) are responsible for the production of scent trail pheromones. Studies on CSGs have shown that changes occur in worker glandular cell morphology from emergence from brood combs until forager phase, which may be correlated to changes in the composition of the CSG secretion. However, the composition of the CSG secretion and the chemical changes that occur in it according to the worker's life phase or tasks performed are unknown for many species, including Scaptotrigona postica. In this study, the chemical profile of CSG secretion in S. postica workers was studied. Glands were taken from specimens that were newly emerged (NE), working in the brood comb area (CA) and foraging (FO), and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the glandular secretion consists of oxygenated compounds of middle volatility (acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and ether), and their quantity varies among the different life phases, increasing as the individual moves from intra- to extra-colonial activities. The NE phase contained the smallest variety and quantity of compounds. Because of the variability of compounds, the CA workers were separated into three subgroups according to the chemical constitution of their secretion. Forager workers showed the largest quantity and variety of chemical compounds. The major compounds in forager gland secretion were 7-hexadecen-1-yl acetate and 5-tetradecen-1-yl acetate. Statistical analysis indicates that the chemical composition of glandular secretion is phase related.

  7. Aroma Profile of Rubus ulmifolius Flowers and Fruits During Different Ontogenetic Phases.

    PubMed

    Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Melai, Bernardo; Cioni, Pierluigi; Flamini, Guido; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of spontaneous volatile emission from Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different stages of development was evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In total, 155 chemical compounds were identified accounting 84.6 - 99.4% of whole aroma profile of flowers samples and 92.4 - 96.6% for fruit samples. The main constituents were α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, 1,7-octadien-3-one,2-methyl-6-methylene, tridecane, (E)-2-hexenol acetate, (E)-3-hexenol acetate and cyperene. The results give a chemotaxonomic contribution to the characterization of the VOCs emitted from flowers and fruits during their ontogenic development.

  8. Comparison of fibrin sealant and staples for attaching split-thickness autologous sheet grafts in patients with deep partial- or full-thickness burn wounds: a phase 1/2 clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gibran, Nicole; Luterman, Arnold; Herndon, David; Lozano, Daniel; Greenhalgh, David G; Grubbs, Lisa; Schofield, Neil; Hantak, Edith; Callahan, Janice D; Schiestl, Nina; Riina, Louis H

    2007-01-01

    We undertook a multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical study to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fibrin sealant containing 4 IU/ml thrombin (FS 4IU) for the attachment of autologous sheet grafts in patients with deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. Fibrin sealant (FS 4IU) was compared with staples for adherence of sheet grafts in 40 patients. Patients had to have burn wounds measuring 40% TBSA or less with two comparable test sites measuring between 1% and 4% TBSA each. Wound beds were prepared before treatment assignment, which was randomized. Percent area of hematoma/seroma at Day 1 (P = .0138) and questionable viability at Day 5 (P = .0182) were significantly less for FS 4IU-treated sites. Median percent area of graft survival on Day 14 was 100% for both treatments (P = .3525). The percentage of completely closed sites generally was greater for FS 4IU-sites on Days 5 to 91; the maximum difference occurred at Day 28 (79.5% vs 59%; P = .0215). The safety profile of FS 4IU was excellent as indicated by the lack of any related serious adverse experiences. These findings indicate that FS 4IU is safe and effective for fixation of skin grafts, with outcomes similar to or better than staple fixation. The data suggest that FS 4IU is a promising candidate for further clinical studies focusing on skin graft adhesion and burn wound healing.

  9. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N.; Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Takizuka, T.; Okamoto, M.

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  10. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  11. Study on seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and its potential use for freshness evaluation by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke; Luo, Lin; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-05

    Seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases are various and can be used for freshness evaluation during storage. It is imperative to obtain the full volatile information prior to the further study of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage. Also, the efficient data-processing method is another important factor for the interpretation of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and related potential volatile markers. In this work, a new analytical strategy, including the efficient sampling technique, sensitive detection and suitable data-processing method, for seafood freshness evaluation was developed based on the volatile profile characteristics during storage. First, the study of volatiles of seafood samples including razor clam, redspot swimming crab and prawn at different storage phases were conducted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Then, seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases were statistically interpreted by a combination data-processing method including normalization, principle component analysis (PCA) and common model strategy. The different seafood volatile profile characteristics and potential volatile markers were attempted to be distilled. The results tentatively suggested that the different seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage could reflect the transitional changing seafood freshness and provide more precise warning information for seafood spoilage during storage than any single chemical markers. This work developed an analytical method for study of seafood volatile profile characteristics and tentatively proposed a new idea of using seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage for the freshness evaluation from the point of view of analytical chemistry.

  12. Remedy performance monitoring at contaminated sediment sites using profiling solid phase microextraction (SPME) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Courtney; Lampert, David; Reible, Danny

    2014-03-01

    Passive sampling using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) profilers was evaluated as a tool to assess the performance of in situ sediment remedies at three locations, Chattanooga Creek (Chattanooga, TN), Eagle Harbor (Bainbridge Island, WA) and Hunter's Point (San Francisco, CA). The remedy at the first two locations was capping over PAH contaminated sediments while at Hunter's Point, the assessment was part of an in situ treatment demonstration led by R. G. Luthy (Stanford University) using activated carbon mixed into PCB contaminated sediments. The implementation and results at these contaminated sediment sites were used to illustrate the utility and usefulness of the passive sampling approach. Two different approaches were employed to evaluate kinetics of uptake onto the sorbent fibers. At the capping sites, the passive sampling approach was employed to measure intermixing during cap placement, contamination migration into the cap post-placement and recontamination over time. At the in situ treatment demonstration site, reductions in porewater concentrations in treated versus untreated sediments were compared to measurements of bioaccumulation of PCBs in Neanthes arenaceodentata.

  13. Changes in chemical profile of cephalic salivary glands of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) workers are phase-related.

    PubMed

    Poiani, Silvana B; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2015-07-10

    Most advanced eusocial bees recruit their nestmates to food resources. Recently, studies in Meliponini species showed that the cephalic salivary (labial) glands (CSGs) are responsible for the production of scent-trail pheromones. Studies on CSGs have shown changes in glandular cell morphology since the worker emerges from brood combs (newly emerged) till forager phase, which may be correlated to changes in the composition of secretion produced. However, no study has been made till now regarding to the composition of CSGs secretion of Scaptotrigona postica and the chemical changes that occur in this secretion according to the worker's life phase or tasks performed. In this study, the chemical profile of CSG secretion in S. postica workers was studied. Glands were taken from specimens newly emerged (NE), working in the brood combs area (CA) and forager (FO) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that glandular secretion consists of oxygenated compounds of middle volatility (acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and ether), and their quantity varies among the different phases of life, increasing as the individual undergoes from intra- to extra-colonial activities. The NE phase contained the smallest variety and quantity of compounds. Due to the variability of compounds, the CA workers were separated into 3 groups according to the chemical constitution of their secretion. Forager workers showed the largest quantity and variety of chemical compounds. The major compounds in forager gland secretion are 7-hexadecen-1-yl acetate and 5-tetradecen-1-yl acetate. Statistical analysis indicates that the chemical composition of glandular secretion is task-related.

  14. Simultaneous control on the intensity and phase profile of laser beam with Monge-Ampère equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Rengmao; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Laser beam shaping requires controlling the intensity and phase profile of the input laser beam simultaneously. In this paper, a method for designing double freeform surfaces is presented to solve the laser beam shaping problem. Based on Snell's law and conservation law of energy, a mathematical model is established to convert the double surfaces design problem into an elliptic Monge-Ampère equation with a nonlinear boundary problem by imposing a constraint on the optical path length between the input and output wavefronts. Two different configurations of the beam shaping system are discussed and the good results show clearly the Monge-Ampère equation method provides an effective tool in solving the challenging problem of laser beam shaping.

  15. Profiling flavor compounds of potato crisps during storage using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, A; Lopez-Hernández, J; Paseiro-Losada, P

    2005-02-04

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was studied as a solvent free alternative method for the extraction and characterisation of volatile compounds in stored potato crisps by capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass detection. Better results were obtained when extraction was carried out at 70 degrees C using a divinylbenzene (DVB)-carboxen (CAR)-polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The fiber was exposed for 20 min (extraction time) to the sample headspace, immediately after an equilibrium time of 5 min (time needed to reach the equilibrium between sample and above headspace). A total of 31 compounds were identified in oxidised potato crisps and resulted mainly from the degradation/rearrangement of lipids and carbohydrates.

  16. Mass transfer model liquid phase catalytic exchange column simulation applicable to any column composition profile

    SciTech Connect

    Busigin, A.

    2015-03-15

    Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) is a key technology used in water detritiation systems. Rigorous simulation of LPCE is complicated when a column may have both hydrogen and deuterium present in significant concentrations in different sections of the column. This paper presents a general mass transfer model for a homogenous packed bed LPCE column as a set of differential equations describing composition change, and equilibrium equations to define the mass transfer driving force within the column. The model is used to show the effect of deuterium buildup in the bottom of an LPCE column from non-negligible D atom fraction in the bottom feed gas to the column. These types of calculations are important in the design of CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) water detritiation systems.

  17. Method to predict the bandwidth of elution profile under the linear gradient elution in reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Weon; Row, Kyung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Solute migration in a chromatographic column is an important consideration when designing batch or continuous chromatographic separation processes. Most design methods for the chromatographic processes are based on the equilibrium theory which concerns only the migration velocity of the solute. However, in real cases, it is important to predict the zone spreading which occurs by axial dispersion and mass transfer resistance. To predict the actual solute profiles in the column or effluent stream, numerical methods to solve nonlinear partial differential equations have been used. However, these methods involve much time and expense. In this work, two different rate factors are considered to predict the characteristics of the solute profiles. The first is solute migration velocity and the second is the zone spreading rate. The zone spreading rate can be estimated by the apparent axial dispersion coefficient which is obtained from the height of the equivalent theoretical plate in particular. Four benzene derivatives (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and acetophenone) were used as model solutes, and two mobile phase systems, water/methanol and water/ACN, were used in RP-HPLC. The bandwidths and retention times of the solutes were predicted under several linear gradient conditions. The predicted and experimental bandwidths and retention times showed good agreement.

  18. Profiling and characterizing skin ceramides using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    t'Kindt, Ruben; Jorge, Lucie; Dumont, Emmie; Couturon, Pauline; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2012-01-03

    An LC-MS based method for the profiling and characterization of ceramide species in the upper layer of human skin is described. Ceramide samples, collected by tape stripping of human skin, were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry operated in both positive and negative electrospray ionization mode. All known classes of ceramides could be measured in a repeatable manner. Furthermore, the data set showed several undiscovered ceramides, including a class with four hydroxyl functionalities in its sphingoid base. High-resolution MS/MS fragmentation spectra revealed that each identified ceramide species is composed of several skeletal isomers due to variation in carbon length of the respective sphingoid bases and fatty acyl building blocks. The resulting variety in skeletal isomers has not been previously demonstrated. It is estimated that over 1000 unique ceramide structures could be elucidated in human stratum corneum. Ceramide species with an even and odd number of carbon atoms in both chains were detected in all ceramide classes. Acid hydrolysis of the ceramides, followed by LC-MS analysis of the end-products, confirmed the observed distribution of both sphingoid bases and fatty acyl groups in skin ceramides. The study resulted in an accurate mass retention time library for targeted profiling of skin ceramides. It is furthermore demonstrated that targeted data processing results in an improved repeatability versus untargeted data processing (72.92% versus 62.12% of species display an RSD < 15%).

  19. Spectrally resolved phase-shifting interference microscopy: technique based on optical coherence tomography for profiling a transparent film on a patterned substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, Sanjit K.; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kothiyal, Mahendra P.; Hariharan, Parameswaran

    2010-12-01

    Spectrally resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy has been used for measurements of the thickness profile of a transparent thin-film layer deposited upon a patterned structure exhibiting steps and discontinuities. We describe a simple technique, using an approach based on spectrally resolved optical coherence tomography, that makes it possible to obtain directly a thickness profile along a line by inverse Fourier transformation of the complex spectral interference function.

  20. Spectrally resolved phase-shifting interference microscopy: technique based on optical coherence tomography for profiling a transparent film on a patterned substrate.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sanjit K; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kothiyal, Mahendra P; Hariharan, Parameswaran

    2010-12-01

    Spectrally resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy has been used for measurements of the thickness profile of a transparent thin-film layer deposited upon a patterned structure exhibiting steps and discontinuities. We describe a simple technique, using an approach based on spectrally resolved optical coherence tomography, that makes it possible to obtain directly a thickness profile along a line by inverse Fourier transformation of the complex spectral interference function.

  1. Upgraded two-dimensional phase contrast imaging system for fluctuation profile measurement on LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Vyacheslavov, L.; Sanin, A.; Kawahata, K.; Okajima, S.

    2006-10-15

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast imaging system on LHD can measure the k spectrum of line-integrated density fluctuations (k{approx}0.2-3 mm{sup -1} and k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub i}{approx}0.1-1.5) with modest spatial resolution ({delta}{rho}{approx}0.1) along a line of sight passing close to the magnetic axis, sensitive to radial fluctuations in the core and poloidal fluctuations in the edge. The spatial resolution is attained using a 6x8 2D detector array taking advantage of the strong magnetic shear in LHD. The system can be configured with different magnification factors to investigate different ranges of k (in 'overview' mode from 0.2 to 0.6 mm{sup -1}, characteristic of ITG/TEM scale turbulence; and 'zoom' mode from 1 to 3 mm{sup -1}, which may access to the lower limit of the ETG range). Zoom mode additionally employs cylindrical optics to stretch the image by a factor of 4 in order to provide better spatial resolution for high k fluctuations within a narrow spatial region. The highest detected value of k in zoom mode, for which the signal-to-noise ratio is better than 1, is 2.5 mm{sup -1} (at around 1.5 MHz)

  2. Genome-Wide Transcription Profiling of the Early Phase of Biofilm Formation by Candida albicans†

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Luis A.; Newport, George; Lan, Chung-Yu; Habelitz, Stefan; Dungan, Jan; Agabian, Nina M.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adhere to surfaces and develop as a multicellular community is an adaptation used by most microorganisms to survive in changing environments. Biofilm formation proceeds through distinct developmental phases and impacts not only medicine but also industry and evolution. In organisms such as the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans, the ability to grow as biofilms is also an important mechanism for persistence, facilitating its growth on different tissues and a broad range of abiotic surfaces used in medical devices. The early stage of C. albicans biofilm is characterized by the adhesion of single cells to the substratum, followed by the formation of an intricate network of hyphae and the beginning of a dense structure. Changes in the transcriptome begin within 30 min of contact with the substrate and include expression of genes related to sulfur metabolism, in particular MET3, and the equivalent gene homologues of the Ribi regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of these changes are initiated early and maintained throughout the process; others are restricted to the earliest stages of biofilm formation. We identify here a potential alternative pathway for cysteine metabolism and the biofilm-associated expression of genes involved in glutathione production in C. albicans. PMID:16151249

  3. A UNIVERSAL POWER-LAW PROFILE OF PSEUDO-PHASE-SPACE DENSITY-LIKE QUANTITIES IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun

    2014-06-10

    We study profiles of mass density, velocity dispersion (VD), and a combination of both using ∼2000 nearly spherical and rotation-free Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. For observational stellar mass density ρ{sub *}(r), we consider a range of dark matter (DM) distribution ρ{sub DM}(r) and VD anisotropy β(r) to investigate radial stellar VD σ{sub *r}(r) using the spherical Jeans equation. While mass and VD profiles vary appreciably depending on DM distribution and anisotropy, the pseudo-phase-space density-like combination ρ(r)/σ{sub ⋆r}{sup 3}(r) with total density ρ(r) = ρ{sub *}(r) + ρ{sub DM}(r) is nearly universal. In the optical region, the negative logarithmic slope has a mean value of (χ) ≈ 1.86-1.90 with a galaxy-to-galaxy rms scatter of ≈0.04-0.06, which is a few times smaller than that of ρ(r) profiles. The scatter of χ can be increased by invoking wildly varying anisotropies that are, however, less likely because they would produce too large a scatter of line of sight VD profiles. As an independent check of this universality, we analyze stellar orbit-based dynamical models of 15 early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the Coma cluster provided by J. Thomas. Coma ETGs, with σ{sub *r}(r) replaced by the rms velocity of stars v {sub *rms}(r) including net rotation, exhibit a similar universality with a slope of χ = 1.93 ± 0.06. Remarkably, the inferred values of χ for ETGs match well the slope ≈1.9 predicted by N-body simulations of DM halos. We argue that the inferred universal nature of ρ(r)/σ{sub ⋆r}{sup 3}(r) cannot be fully explained by equilibrium alone, implying that some astrophysical factors conspire and/or it reflects a fundamental principle in collisionless formation processes.

  4. Measurement of the surface profile of an axicon lens with a polarization phase-shifting shearing interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y Pavan

    2011-11-10

    We present a Twyman-Green interferometer (TGI)-based polarization phase-shifting shearing interferometric technique for testing the conical surface of an axicon (AX) lens. In this technique, the annular beam generated due to the passing of an expanded collimated laser beam traveling along the axis of revolution of the transparent glass AX element is split up into its reflected and transmitted components, having the plane of polarization in the orthogonal planes, by the polarization beam splitter (PBS) cube of the TGI-based optical setup. The split-up components are made to travel unequal paths along the two arms of the TGI and are recombined by the PBS. Because of the difference in path lengths traveled by the annular conical beams, a linear shear is introduced along the radial direction between the interfering components. Thus, the resulting interference pattern gives a map of the optical path difference (OPD) between two successive close points along a radial direction on the conical surface of the AX lens. The OPD map along radial directions, and hence the slopes/profiles of the conical surface, are obtained by applying polarization phase-shifting interferometry. Results obtained for an AX lens are presented.

  5. Measurement of the surface profile of an axicon lens with a polarization phase-shifting shearing interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y. Pavan

    2011-11-10

    We present a Twyman-Green interferometer (TGI)-based polarization phase-shifting shearing interferometric technique for testing the conical surface of an axicon (AX) lens. In this technique, the annular beam generated due to the passing of an expanded collimated laser beam traveling along the axis of revolution of the transparent glass AX element is split up into its reflected and transmitted components, having the plane of polarization in the orthogonal planes, by the polarization beam splitter (PBS) cube of the TGI-based optical setup. The split-up components are made to travel unequal paths along the two arms of the TGI and are recombined by the PBS. Because of the difference in path lengths traveled by the annular conical beams, a linear shear is introduced along the radial direction between the interfering components. Thus, the resulting interference pattern gives a map of the optical path difference (OPD) between two successive close points along a radial direction on the conical surface of the AX lens. The OPD map along radial directions, and hence the slopes/profiles of the conical surface, are obtained by applying polarization phase-shifting interferometry. Results obtained for an AX lens are presented.

  6. Effects of coformers on phase transformation and release profiles of carbamazepine cocrystals in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose based matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shi; Li, Mingzhong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coformers on phase transformation and release profiles of carbamazepine (CBZ) cocrystals in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based matrix tablets. It has been found that selection of different coformers of saccharin (SAC) and cinnamic acid (CIN) can affect the stability of CBZ cocrystals in solution, resulting in significant differences in the apparent solubility of CBZ. The dissolution advantage of CBZ-SAC cocrystals can only be shown for a short period during dissolution because of the fast conversion to its dihydrate form (DH). HPMC can partially inhibit the crystallisation of CBZ DH during dissolution of CBZ-SAC cocrystal. However, the increased viscosity of HPMC dissolution medium reduced the dissolution rate of CBZ-SAC cocrystals. Therefore the CBZ-SAC cocrystal formulation did not show any significant advantage in CBZ release rate. In contrast the improved CBZ dissolution rate of CBZ-CIN cocrystal can be realised in both solution and formulation due to its high stability. In conclusion, exploring and understanding the mechanisms of the phase transformation of pharmaceutical cocrystals in aqueous medium for selection of lead cocrystals is the key for success of product development.

  7. Design, methods and demographics from phase I of Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort: a prospective cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Paula J.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Whelan, Heather K.; Vena, Jennifer E.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Rosner, William K.; Brenner, Darren R.; Cook, Linda S.; Csizmadi, Ilona; Kopciuk, Karen A.; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. Methods: Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling. Participants were enrolled if they returned a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Past year diet and physical activity questionnaires were mailed 3 months after enrolment. Consent was sought for active follow-up and linkage with administrative databases. Depending on enrolment date, participants were invited to complete up to 2 follow-up questionnaires (2004 and 2008). Results: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 (39% men) participants (mean age 50.2 [± 9.2] yr) were enrolled and 99% consented to linkage with administrative databases. Participants reported a wide range of educational attainment and household income. Compared with provincial surveillance data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants had higher body mass index, lower prevalence of smoking and similar distribution of chronic health conditions. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 83% and 72% of participants in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Robust quality control measures resulted in low frequencies of missing data. Interpretation: Alberta's Tomorrow Project provides a robust platform, based on a prospective cohort design, to support research into risk factors for cancer and chronic disease. PMID:27730115

  8. Petrology, phase equilibria and monazite geochronology of granulite-facies metapelites from deep drill cores in the Ordos Block of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Fang; Santosh, M.; Bockmann, Kiara; Kelsey, David E.; Hand, Martin; Hu, Jianmin; Wan, Yusheng

    2016-10-01

    Among the various Precambrian crustal blocks in the North China Craton (NCC), the geology and evolution of the Ordos Block remain largely enigmatic due to paucity of outcrop. Here we investigate granulite-facies metapelites obtained from deep-penetrating drill holes in the Ordos Block and report petrology, calculated phase equilibria and in-situ monazite LA-ICP-MS geochronology. The rocks we studied are two samples of cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite metapelitic gneisses and one graphite-bearing, two-mica granitic gneiss. The peak metamorphic age from LA-ICP-MS dating of monazite in all three samples is in the range of 1930-1940 Ma. The (U + Pb)-Th chemical ages through EPMA dating reveals that monazite occurring as inclusions in garnet are older than those in the matrix. Calculated metamorphic phase diagrams for the cordierite-bearing metapelite suggest peak P-T conditions ca. 7-9 kbar and 775-825 °C, followed by decompression and evolution along a clockwise P-T path. Our petrologic and age data are consistent with those reported from the Khondalite Belt in the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone in the northern part of the Ordos Block, suggesting that these granulite-facies metasediments represent the largest Paleoproterozoic accretionary belt in the NCC.

  9. Experimental multi-phase CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term CO2 saturated brine-rock experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations when CO2-saturated brines were reacted with limestone rocks. The CO2-saturated brine-limestone reactions were characterized by compositional and mineralogical-changes in the aquifer fluid and formation rocks that were dependent on initial brine composition as were the changes in formation porosity, especially dissolved sulfate. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone rocks relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions occured on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  10. Experimental multi-phase H2O-CO2 brine interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuel and other anthropogenic activities have caused a continuous and dramatic 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 150 yr. CO2 sequestration is increasingly being viewed as a tool for managing these anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. CO2-saturated brine-rock experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration in mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were generally consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions were occurring on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  11. Phase-Amplitude Coupling Is Elevated in Deep Sleep and in the Onset Zone of Focal Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mina; Frauscher, Birgit; Gotman, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between different EEG frequency bands have been widely investigated in normal and pathologic brain activity. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is one of the important forms of this interaction where the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations is modulated by the phase of lower frequency activity. Here, we studied the dynamic variations of PAC of high (gamma and ripple) and low (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) frequency bands in patients with focal epilepsy in different sleep stages during the interictal period, in an attempt to see if coupling is different in more or less epileptogenic regions. Sharp activities were excluded to avoid their effect on the PAC. The results revealed that the coupling intensity was generally the highest in stage N3 of sleep and the lowest in rapid eye movement sleep. We also compared the coupling strength in different regions [seizure onset zone (SOZ), exclusively irritative zone, and normal zone]. PAC between high and low frequency rhythms was found to be significantly stronger in the SOZ compared to normal regions. Also, the coupling was generally more elevated in spiking channels outside the SOZ than in normal regions. We also examined how the power in the delta band correlates to the PAC, and found a mild but statistically significant correlation between slower background activity in epileptic channels and the elevated coupling in these channels. The results suggest that an elevated PAC may reflect some fundamental abnormality, even after exclusion of sharp activities and even in the interictal period. PAC may therefore contribute to understanding the underlying dynamics of epileptogenic brain regions. PMID:27536227

  12. Marine Seismic System(MSS) Deployment. Phase IV. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Tri-Axial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    Demonstrate the baseline BIP drill string deployment techniques in deep water o Measure seismic signal and noise within a deep sea borehole o Record 5 days... deep ocean. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION PREPARED BY: ROBERT L. WALLERSTEDT PROJECT ENGINEER GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC 2302 MARTIN...borehole in the deep ocean. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION PREPARED BY: ROBERT L. WALLERSTEDT PROJECT ENGINEER GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC

  13. X-ray scattering study of pike olfactory nerve: intensity of the axonal membrane, solution of the phase problem and electron density profile.

    PubMed

    Luzzati, Vittorio; Vachette, Patrice; Benoit, Evelyne; Charpentier, Gilles

    2004-10-08

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering experiments were performed on unmyelinated pike olfactory nerves. The difference between the meridional and the equatorial traces of the 2-D spectra yielded the 1-D equatorial intensity of the macromolecular components oriented with respect to the nerve: axonal membranes, microtubules and other cytoskeletal filaments. These 1-D spectra display a diffuse band typical of bilayer membranes and, at small s, a few sharper bands reminiscent of microtubules. All the spectra merge at large s. The intensity of the axonal membrane was determined via a noise analysis of the nerve-dependent spectra, involving also the notion that the thickness of the membrane is finite. The shape of the intensity function indicated that the electron density profile is not centrosymmetric. The knowledge of intensity and thickness paved the way to the electron density profile via an ab initio solution of the phase problem. An iterative procedure was adopted: (i) choose the lattice D of a 1-D pseudo crystal, interpolate the intensity at the points sh = h/D, adopt an arbitrary set of initial phases and compute the profile; (ii) determine the phases corresponding to this profile truncated by the thickness D/2; (iii) repeat the operation with the updated phases until a stable result is obtained. This iterative procedure was carried out for different D-values, starting in each case from randomly generated phases: stable results were obtained in less than 10,000 iterations. Most importantly, for D in the vicinity of 200 A, the overwhelming majority of the profiles were congruent with each other. These profiles were strongly asymmetric and otherwise typical of biological membranes.

  14. Transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange: a versatile tool for shaping the current and energy profiles of relativistic electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Over the recent years, the emergence of accelerator beamlines capable of exchanging the phase space coordinates between two degrees of freedom have opened the path toward the precise control of phase space distribution and in particular to the production of relativistic electron beams with shaped current profiles. After briefly reviewing the technique, we present its application to produce a train of sub-picosecond microbunches and report on its experimental implementation at the Fermilab's A0 photoinjector facility.

  15. Integrated safety profile of single-agent carfilzomib: experience from 526 patients enrolled in 4 phase II clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Martin, Thomas; Nooka, Ajay; Harvey, R Donald; Vij, Ravi; Niesvizky, Ruben; Badros, Ashraf Z; Jagannath, Sundar; McCulloch, Leanne; Rajangam, Kanya; Lonial, Sagar

    2013-11-01

    Carfilzomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, was approved in 2012 for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Safety data for single-agent carfilzomib have been analyzed for 526 patients with advanced multiple myeloma who took part in one of 4 phase II studies (PX-171-003-A0, PX-171-003-A1, PX-171-004, and PX-171-005). Overall analyses of adverse events and treatment modifications are presented, as well as specific analyses of adverse events by organ system. Overall, the most common adverse events of any grade included fatigue (55.5%), anemia (46.8%), and nausea (44.9%). In the grouped analyses, any grade adverse events were reported in 22.1% for any cardiac (7.2% cardiac failure), 69.0% for any respiratory (42.2% dyspnea), and 33.1% for any grouped renal impairment adverse event (24.1% increased serum creatinine). The most common non-hematologic adverse events were generally Grade 1 or 2 in severity, while Grade 3/4 adverse events were primarily hematologic and mostly reversible. There was no evidence of cumulative bone marrow suppression, either neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia occurred infrequently (1.1%). Notably, the incidence of peripheral neuropathy was low overall (13.9%), including patients with baseline peripheral neuropathy (12.7%). Additionally, the incidence of discontinuations or dose reductions attributable to adverse events was low. These data demonstrate that single-agent carfilzomib has an acceptable safety profile in heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. The tolerable safety profile allows for administration of full-dose carfilzomib, both for extended periods and in a wide spectrum of patients with advanced multiple myeloma, including those with pre-existing comorbidities.

  16. Fragment profiling of low molecular weight heparins using reversed phase ion pair liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Li, Daoyuan; Chi, Lequan; Du, Xuzhao; Bai, Xue; Chi, Lianli

    2015-04-30

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are linear and highly charged carbohydrate polymers prepared by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of heparin. Compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH), LMWHs are prevalently used as clinical anticoagulant drugs due to their lower side effects and better bioavailability. The work presented herein provides a rapid and powerful fragment mapping method for structural characterization of LMWHs. The chain fragments of two types of LMWHs, enoxaparin and nadroparin, were generated by controlled enzymatic digestion with each of heparinase I (Hep I, Enzyme Commission (EC) # 4.2.2.7), heparinase II (Hep II, no EC # assigned) and heparinase III (Hep III, EC # 4.2.2.8). Reversed phase ion pair high performance liquid chromatography (RPIP-HPLC) coupled with electrospray ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) was used to profile the oligosaccharide chains ranging from disaccharides to decasaccharides. A database containing all theoretical structural compositions was established to assist the mass spectra interpretation. The six digests derived by three enzymes from two types of LMWHs exhibited distinguishable fingerprinting patterns. And a total of 94 enoxaparin fragments and 109 nadroparin fragments were detected and identified. Besides the common LMWH oligosaccharides, many components containing characteristic LMWH structures such as saturated L-idopyranosuronic acid, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol, 1,6-anhydro-D-aminopyranose, as well as odd number oligosaccharides were also revealed. Quantitative comparison of major components derived from innovator and generic nadroparin products was presented. This approach to profile LMWHs' fragments offers a highly reproducible, high resolution and information-rich tool for evaluating the quality of this category of anticoagulant drugs or comparing structural similarities among samples from various sources.

  17. Organohalogen compounds in deep-sea fishes from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan: Contamination status and bioaccumulation profiles.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shin; Oshihoi, Tomoko; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ohmori, Koji; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    Twelve species of deep-sea fishes collected in 2005 from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan were analyzed for organohalogen compounds. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of DDTs and PCBs (up to 23,000 and 12,400 ng/g lipid wt, respectively) were the highest. The present study is the foremost to report the occurrence of brominated flame retardants such as PBDEs and HBCDs in deep-sea organisms from the North Pacific region. Significant positive correlations found between delta(15)N ( per thousand) and PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs suggest the high biomagnification potential of these contaminants in food web. The large variation in delta(13)C (per thousand) values observed between the species indicate multiple sources of carbon in the food web and specific accumulation of hydrophobic organohalogen compounds in benthic dwelling carnivore species like snubnosed eel. The results obtained in this study highlight the usefulness of deep-sea fishes as sentinel species to monitor the deep-sea environment.

  18. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study

  19. Phase relations and melting of carbonated peridotite between 10 and 20 GPa: a proxy for alkali- and CO2-rich silicate melts in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Litasov, Konstantin; Ohtani, Eiji

    2014-02-01

    We determined the melting phase relations, melt compositions, and melting reactions of carbonated peridotite on two carbonate-bearing peridotite compositions (ACP: alkali-rich peridotite + 5.0 wt % CO2 and PERC: fertile peridotite + 2.5 wt % CO2) at 10-20 GPa and 1,500-2,100 °C and constrain isopleths of the CO2 contents in the silicate melts in the deep mantle. At 10-20 GPa, near-solidus (ACP: 1,400-1,630 °C) carbonatitic melts with < 10 wt % SiO2 and > 40 wt % CO2 gradually change to carbonated silicate melts with > 25 wt % SiO2 and < 25 wt % CO2 between 1,480 and 1,670 °C in the presence of residual majorite garnet, olivine/wadsleyite, and clinoenstatite/clinopyroxene. With increasing degrees of melting, the melt composition changes to an alkali- and CO2-rich silicate melt (Mg# = 83.7-91.6; ~ 26-36 wt % MgO; ~ 24-43 wt % SiO2; ~ 4-13 wt % CaO; ~ 0.6-3.1 wt % Na2O; and ~ 0.5-3.2 wt % K2O; ~ 6.4-38.4 wt % CO2). The temperature of the first appearance of CO2-rich silicate melt at 10-20 GPa is ~ 440-470 °C lower than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite. Garnet + wadsleyite + clinoenstatite + carbonatitic melt controls initial carbonated silicate melting at a pressure < 15 GPa, whereas garnet + wadsleyite/ringwoodite + carbonatitic melt dominates at pressure > 15 GPa. Similar to hydrous peridotite, majorite garnet is a liquidus phase in carbonated peridotites (ACP and PERC) at 10-20 GPa. The liquidus is likely to be at ~ 2,050 °C or higher at pressures of the present study, which gives a melting interval of more than 670 °C in carbonated peridotite systems. Alkali-rich carbonated silicate melts may thus be produced through partial melting of carbonated peridotite to 20 GPa at near mantle adiabat or even at plume temperature. These alkali- and CO2-rich silicate melts can percolate upward and may react with volatile-rich materials accumulate at the top of transition zone near 410-km depth. If these refertilized domains migrate upward and convect out of the

  20. Morphology and Tectonic Evolution of Endeavor Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Larson, R. L.; Popham, C. T.; Natland, J. H.; Abrams, L. J.; Sonder, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    Endeavor Deep is located on the Nazca/Juan Fernandez plate boundary near the triple junction of the Pacific, Nazca and Antarctic plates. The deep is the tip of the northward propagating East Ridge, which defines the eastern side of the microplate and is presently exposing ~3 Myr old oceanic crust created at the ultra-fast spreading (~150 km/myr) East Pacific Rise. Recently collected high-resolution EM300 bathymetry, deep-tow DSL120 sidescan, surface-towed magnetics, and near-bottom JASON II observations provide important details about the tectonic character and origin of Endeavor Deep. These data define a 70 km-long, 40 km-wide, and 3 km-deep rift which shoals and narrows toward the rift tip to the NW and is deeper and wider away from the rift tip toward the SE. The southern wall of the rift is uplifted and has a characteristic flexural profile. The northern wall is also uplifted, however, the classic flexural profile is complicated by the presence of a large EW-trending massif, which appears to be a rift-truncated compressional ridge emplaced during a phase of NS-oriented compression. Along both rift walls, a series of terraces suggest a series of down-dropped blocks associated with ongoing extension. Along the rift floor, a relatively flat, featureless bottom in the NW evolves into hummocky terrane in the central part of the basin that is characterized by volcanic features reminiscent of 1-2 km diameter pancakes in plan-view. Farther to the SE, tectonic lineations and pillow ridges oriented parallel to the trend of the rift valley dominate the basin floor. Magnetic profiles across this portion of the survey area indicate a well-formed central magnetic anomaly with a width equivalent to a spreading rate of 20 km/Myr, which is predicted by tectonic reconstructions of the plate boundary. Overall, these observations define a four-phase evolution of Endeavor Deep: 1) initial crustal formation at the ultra-fast spreading East Pacific Rise ~3 Ma, 2) regional compression

  1. Evidence of an imbricate crustal thrust belt in the southern British Variscides: Contributions of southwestern approaches traverse (SWAT) deep seismic reflection profiling recorded through the English Channel and the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Bernard

    1990-04-01

    The Southwestern Approaches Traverse (SWAT) seismic reflection profiles recorded through the Celtic Sea and the English Channel provide unexpected data concerning, notably, the deep structure of the Irish and south British Variscan crust. One of the most significant results is the recognition of prominent deep southerly dipping reflectors, regarded as large-scale foreland directed Variscan thrusts which constitute, in the southern innermost zones, a crustal stacking wedge. The resulting overthickened crust may have induced the petrogenesis of the Cornubian granitic batholith by an anatectic melting process. The roots of this crustal duplex are not imaged on the SWAT lines because of their subsequent assimilation by the more recent layering of the present-day lower crust. Upward, the deep crustal ramps are assumed to flatten out and to join a roof thrust which acts as a major midcrustal decoupling zone, not revealed by the SWAT profiles, and which underlies the thick Devonian allochthonous high-strained units of Cornwall. Northward, this shallow northerly verging shear zone is overstepped by the Tintagel antithetic back thrusts which are closely related to deeper northward dipping basement faults considered as Caledonian features. Southward, the imbricate crustal thrust unit is overridden by the Lizard ophiolitic suture, which appears as a 8-km-thick gently southerly dipping sheared zone, crosscuttting the entire crust and rooting deep beneath the present-day Moho. Its hanging wall is constituted by the Channel Cadomian block, characterized by an almost seismically featureless upper crust which is not involved in the main Variscan thrust stacking. Northward, the imbricate thrust unit is delineated by a moderately southerly dipping ramp which penetrates straight down into the upper crust without any evidence of an intervening flat-lying decollement level. This frontal ramp emerges along a broadly 110°N trending discontinuous thrust front, located above the northern

  2. Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007-2013 Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, L.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Testor, P.; Bosse, A.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Bouin, M. N.; Dausse, D.; Le Goff, H.; Kunesch, S.; Labaste, M.; Coppola, L.; Mortier, L.; Raimbault, P.

    2016-11-01

    We present here a unique oceanographic and meteorological data set focus on the deep convection processes. Our results are essentially based on in situ data (mooring, research vessel, glider, and profiling float) collected from a multiplatform and integrated monitoring system (MOOSE: Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment), which monitored continuously the northwestern Mediterranean Sea since 2007, and in particular high-frequency potential temperature, salinity, and current measurements from the mooring LION located within the convection region. From 2009 to 2013, the mixed layer depth reaches the seabed, at a depth of 2330m, in February. Then, the violent vertical mixing of the whole water column lasts between 9 and 12 days setting up the characteristics of the newly formed deep water. Each deep convection winter formed a new warmer and saltier "vintage" of deep water. These sudden inputs of salt and heat in the deep ocean are responsible for trends in salinity (3.3 ± 0.2 × 10-3/yr) and potential temperature (3.2 ± 0.5 × 10-3 C/yr) observed from 2009 to 2013 for the 600-2300 m layer. For the first time, the overlapping of the three "phases" of deep convection can be observed, with secondary vertical mixing events (2-4 days) after the beginning of the restratification phase, and the restratification/spreading phase still active at the beginning of the following deep convection event.

  3. The spatial extent of the Deep Western Boundary Current into the Bounty Trough: new evidence from parasound sub-bottom profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Michael; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Deep currents such as the Pacific Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) are strengthened periodically in Milankovitch cycles. We studied periodic fluctuations in seismic reflection pattern and reflection amplitude in order to detect cycles in the sedimentary layers of Bounty Trough and bounty fan, east of New Zealand. There, the occurrence of the obliquity frequency is caused only by the DWBC. Therefore, it provides direct evidence for the spatial extent of the DWBC. We can confirm the extent of the DWBC west of the outer sill, previously only inferred via erosional features at the outer sill. Further, our data allow an estimation of the extent of the DWBC into the Bounty Trough, limiting the DWBC presence to east of 178.15°E. Using the presented method a larger dataset will allow a chronological and areal mapping of sedimentation processes and hence provide information on glacial/interglacial cycles.

  4. Bacterial processes in the intermediate and deep layers of the Ionian Sea in winter 1999: Vertical profiles and their relationship to the different water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, R.; Monticelli, L. S.; Seritti, A.; Santinelli, C.; Azzaro, M.; Boldrin, A.; La Ferla, R.; Ribera D'Alcalã, M.

    2003-09-01

    Dissolved and particulate organic carbon, bacterial biomass, microbial enzymatic activities (EEA: leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, and alkaline phosphatase), bacterial production, respiration rates, and bacterial growth efficiency were determined in 10 stations of the Ionian Sea (winter 1998-1999) with the aim of characterizing the recycling of biogenic carbon and phosphorus in the different water masses, previously identified on the basis of their hydrographical properties. All microbial activities decreased markedly with depth, with a sharp increase in the benthic boundary layer, where potential remineralization rates of phosphorus up to 1.03 μg P·dm-3d-1 and bacterial carbon production of 0.078 μg C·dm-3 d-1 were recorded. Those rates were close to the surface ones; the bacterial growth efficiency was also around 20%, similar to the surface value, sustaining the microbial food chain at the bottom. The daily hydrolysis of the organic carbon pool estimated by EEA varied from 0.67% (Ionian Surface Water) to 0.02% (Deep Water). Alkaline phosphatase activity was generally low in the intermediate and deep layers, in relation to the higher inorganic P content. The last facts support the hypothesis that deep waters of Ionian Sea, and in general of the entire Mediterranean basin, because of their young age, carry a larger amount of labile dissolved organic carbon, which reduces the need for a high recycling activity by bacterial community. As a matter of fact, a relatively higher activity per cell in carbon production rates was found in the deep layer where a large volume of the very recently formed Cretan Sea Outflow Water was present.

  5. Underthrusting of Tarim beneath the Tien Shan and deep structure of their junction zone: Main results of seismic experiment along MANAS Profile Kashgar-Song-Köl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. I.; Alekseev, D. V.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Bataleva, E. A.; Belyaev, I. V.; Bragin, V. D.; Dergunov, N. T.; Efimova, N. N.; Leonov, M. G.; Munirova, L. M.; Pavlenkin, A. D.; Roecker, S.; Roslov, Yu. V.; Rybin, A. K.; Shchelochkov, G. G.

    2010-03-01

    The results of reflection CMP seismic profiling of the Central Tien Shan in the meridional tract 75-76° E from Lake Song-Köl in Kyrgyzstan to the town of Kashgar in China are considered. The seismic section demonstrating complex heterogeneous structure of the Earth’s crust and reflecting its near-horizontal delamination with vertical and inclined zones of compositional and structural differentiation was constructed from processing of initial data of reflection CMP seismic profiling, earthquake converted-wave method (ECWM), and seismic tomography. The most important is the large zone of underthrusting of the Tarim Massif beneath the Tien Shan.

  6. Hydroxyurea Treatment and Development of the Rat Cerebellum: Effects on the Neurogenetic Profiles and Settled Patterns of Purkinje Cells and Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, M C; Serra, Roger; Hervás, José P

    2016-11-01

    The current paper analyzes the development of the male and female rat cerebellum exposed to hydroxyurea (HU) (300 or 600 mg/kg) as embryo and collected at postnatal day 90. Our study reveals that the administration of this drug compromises neither the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellar cortex nor deep nuclei (DCN). However, in comparison with the saline group, we observed that several cerebellar parameters were lower in the HU injected groups. These parameters included area of the cerebellum, cerebellar cortex length, molecular layer area, Purkinje cell number, granule cell counts, internal granular layer, white matter and cerebellar nuclei areas, and number of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons. These features were larger in the rats injected with saline, smaller in those exposed to 300 mg/kg of HU and smallest in the group receiving 600 mg/kg of this agent. No sex differences in the effect of the HU were observed. In addition, we infer the neurogenetic timetables and the neurogenetic gradients of PCs and DCN neurons in rats exposed to either saline or HU as embryos. For this purpose, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected into pregnant rats previously administered with saline or HU. This thymidine analog was administered following a progressively delayed cumulative labeling method. The data presented here show that systematic differences exist in the pattern of neurogenesis and in the spatial location of cerebellar neurons between rats injected with saline or HU. No sex differences in the effect of the HU were observed. These findings have implications for the administration of this compound to women in gestation as the effects of HU on the development of the cerebellum might persist throughout their offsprings' life.

  7. Spectrally resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy for thickness-profile measurements of transparent thin film layers on patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sanjit K; Kothiyal, Mahendra P; Schmit, Joanna; Hariharan, Parameswaran

    2006-05-29

    We describe how spectrally-resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy with a windowed 8-step algorithm can be used for rapid and accurate measurements of the thickness profile of transparent thin film layers with a wide range of thicknesses deposited upon patterned structures exhibiting steps and discontinuities. An advantage of this technique is that it can be implemented with readily available hardware.

  8. Deep eutectic liquid organic salt as a new solvent for liquid-phase microextraction and its application in ligandless extraction and preconcentraion of lead and cadmium in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehdi; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Tamaddon, Fatemeh; Azadi, Davood

    2015-11-01

    Deep eutectic liquid organic salt was used as the solvent and a liquid phase microextraction (DES-LPME) combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for separation, preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium in edible oils. A 4:1 mixture of deep eutectic solvent and 2% nitric acid (200 µL) was added to an oil sample. The mixture was vortexed and transferred into a water bath at 50 °C and stirred for 5 minutes. After the extraction was completed, the phases were separated by centrifugation, and the enriched analytes in the deep eutectic solvent phase were determined by ETAAS. Under optimized extraction conditions and for an oil sample of 28 g, enhancement factors of 198 and 195 and limits of detection (defined as 3 Sb/m) of 8 and 0. 2 ng kg(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in various edible oils.

  9. Simulation of elution profiles in liquid chromatography-I: Gradient elution conditions, and with mismatched injection and mobile phase solvents.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Lena N; Sajulga, Ray; Forte, Steven G; Stoll, Dwight R; Rutan, Sarah C

    2016-07-29

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) simulators are effective method development tools. The goal of the present work was to design and implement a simple algorithm for simulation of liquid chromatographic separations that allows for characterization of the effect of injection solvent mismatch and injection solvent volume overload. The simulations yield full analyte profiles during solute migration and at elution, which enable a thorough physical understanding of the effects of method variables on chromatographic performance. The Craig counter-current distribution model (the plate model) is used as the basis for simulation, where a local retention factor is assigned for each spatial and temporal element within the simulation. The algorithm, which is an adaptation of an approach originally described by Czok and Guiochon (Ref. [10]), is sufficiently flexible to allow the use of either linear (e.g., Linear Solvent Strength Theory) or non-linear models of solute retention (e.g., Neue-Kuss (Ref. [36])). In this study, both types of models were used, one for simulating separations of a homologous series of alkylbenzenes, and the other for separations of selected amphetamines. The simulation program was validated first by comparison of simulated retention times and peak widths for five amphetamines to predictions obtained using linear solvent strength (LSS) theory, and to results from experimental separations of these compounds. The simulated retention times for the amphetamines agreed within 0.02% and 2.5% compared to theory and experiment, respectively. Secondly, the program was evaluated for simulating the case where there is a compositional mismatch between the mobile phase at the column inlet and the injection solvent (i.e., the sample matrix). This work involved alkylbenzenes, and retention time and peak width predictions from simulations were within 1.5 and 6.0% of experimental values, respectively, even without correction for extra-column dispersion. The

  10. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  11. Solid and Dissolved Barium Profiles in Gas Hydrate Systems at Blake Ridge (ODP 164) and Peru Margin (ODP 201): Implications for Long-Term Carbon-Cycling in the Deep Biosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Dickens, G. R.; Castellini, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    maximum of only 44 μ M at 250 m depth, followed by a steady decrease to 10 μ M at 750 mbsf. Although many pore water profiles are similar at the Blake Ridge and Peru Margin, the contrasting Ba profiles indicate some fundamental difference between the two locations. Below 250 m depth at the Blake Ridge, dissolved sulfate slowly rises and barium concentrations are at saturation with respect to barite. The decrease in barium concentrations along this interval may thus result from systematic seawater contamination during drilling, in which case the widely discussed profiles of other species in the Blake Ridge boreholes need to be corrected. Alternatively, unidentified processes in the deep biosphere (e.g., oxidation of sulfide-bearing minerals) release sulfate to pore waters, accounting for the depletion in dissolved barium concentrations. If this is the case, certain biotic processes at great depth are different at Blake Ridge and the Peru Margin.

  12. Interpretations from multichannel seismic-reflection profiles of the deep crust crossing South Carolina and Georgia from the Appalachian Mountains to the Atlantic Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1985-01-01

    The Appalachian décollement does not appear continuous from the Appalachian Mountains to the coast but rather appears to extend southeastward only to the Carolina slate belt. A series of reflections on lines S4, S6, and S8 and on the COCORP line is interpreted as evidence of southeastward-dipping imbricate faults, from the Brevard fault on the northwest to beyond the Augusta fault, which marks the southeastern extent of the Eastern Piedmont fault zone. The Carolina slate belt is characterized on the four seismic profiles by a complex series of diffractions and reflections extending from less than 1 s to 8 s. These arrivals are possibly the result of layering in the metasedimentary rocks complexly disrupted by the imbricate faults. A number of Triassic (?) basins are apparent in the reflection data for the rifted Charleston terrane identified from low-gradient magnetic anomalies.

  13. Extremely deep profiling analysis of the atomic composition of thick (>100 μm) GaAs layers within power PIN diodes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Folomin, P. I.; Gritsenko, A. B.; Kryukov, V. L.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new opportunity to analyze the atomic composition of thick (>100 μm) epitaxial GaAs layers by SIMS with lateral imaging of the cross section of a structure is demonstrated. The standard geometry of ldepth analysis turns out to be less informative owing to material redeposition from the walls of a crater to its floor occurring when the crater depth reaches several micrometers. The profiles of concentration of doping impurities Te and Zn and concentrations of Al and major impurities in PIN diode layers are determined down to a depth of 130 μm. The element sensitivity is at the level of 1016 at/cm3 (typical for depth analysis at a TOF.SIMS-5 setup), and the resolution is twice the diameter of the probing beam of Bi ions. The possibility of enhancing the depth resolution and the element sensitivity of the proposed analysis method is discussed.

  14. Syngenetic inclusions in diamond from the Birim field (Ghana) - a deep peridotitic profile with a history of depletion and re-enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    Diamonds and their syngenetic mineral inclusions from placer deposits (Akwatia mine) along the Birim River, Ghana were studied, thus providing the first detailed data collection for the West African Craton. Inclusion contents indicate an almost exclusively peridotitic diamond suite, with the vast majority being part of the harzburgitic paragenesis. Chemically the Akwatian diamond inclusions differ from those in our 1100 sample world-wide data base mainly by shifts towards lower Mg/Fe ratios for harzburgitic olivines and orthopyroxenes, extremely high Ni contents in both harzburgitic and lherzolitic olivines, and a higher mean Cr content in chromites. The inconsistency between the low Mg/Fe ratios and the highly refractory compatible trace element signature seems best to be explained by re-fertilisation of a previously depleted source, similar to the metasomatic re-enrichment of deformed, Fe-Ti-rich and hot peridotites discussed by Harte (1983). Geothermometry shows Akwatian inclusions to be 140-190°C hotter than the peridotitic average (1050°C) given by Harris (1992). Since garnet-opx equilibria (1100°C/50kbar to 1370°C/67 kbar) indicate a typical shield geotherm (40-42 mW/m2), these elevated temperatures imply an origin of the Akwatian diamonds unusually deep for a peridotitic suite. This is consistent with the presence of extraordinary amounts of silicate spinel component in chromite inclusions, indicative of crystallisation under higher pressures than recorded for most peridotitic suites. In addition, one garnet showed the highest knorringite component (66.4 mol%) so far observed in an inclusion in diamond. The same garnet also contained a minor enstatite solid-solution component, which indicates crystallisation at pressures just below 80 kbar. Akwatian diamond inclusions, therefore, represent the most complete cross-section through peridotitic subcontinental lithospheric upper mantle so far observed, down to a maximum depth between 200-240km.

  15. Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Patients Infected with CRF07_BC Using Phenotypic Assay and Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Li, Wei-You; Wang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chih-Hung; Chen, Marcelo; Huang, Hsien-Da; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Oka, Shinichi; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) for the diagnosis of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) remains to be determined. Previously, we reported an explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan in 2004. The goal of this study was to characterize the DR of CRF07_BC strains using different assays including UDPS. Seven CRF07_BC isolates including 4 from early epidemic (collected in 2004–2005) and 3 from late epidemic (collected in 2008) were obtained from treatment-naïve patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viral RNA was extracted directly from patient’s plasma or from cultural supernatant and the pol sequences were determined using RT-PCR sequencing or UDPS. For comparison, phenotypic drug susceptibility assay using MAGIC-5 cells (in-house phenotypic assay) and Antivirogram were performed. In-house phenotypic assay showed that all the early epidemic and none of the late epidemic CRF07_BC isolates were resistant to most protease inhibitors (PIs) (4.4–47.3 fold). Neither genotypic assay nor Antivirogram detected any DR mutations. UDPS showed that early epidemic isolates contained 0.01–0.08% of PI DR major mutations. Furthermore, the combinations of major and accessory PI DR mutations significantly correlated with the phenotypic DR. The in-house phenotypic assay is superior to other conventional phenotypic assays in the detection of DR variants with a frequency as low as 0.01%. PMID:28107423

  16. Identification and comparative analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) microRNA expression profile during hypoxia using a deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Fu, Hongtuo; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Gu, Zhimin; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia refers to a state of oxygen deficiency, which is observed frequently in aquaculture ponds. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important effectors in regulating gene expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms. They are key elements in the response to hypoxia. The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important commercial aquaculture species, and is sensitive to hypoxia. To date, there are no reports describing M. nipponense miRNAs. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing technology was used for high-throughput analysis of miRNAs in a small RNA library isolated from four M. nipponense tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocytes). In total, 9,227,356 reads were obtained, 4,293,155 of which were related to 267 unique miRNAs, including 203 conserved and 64 prawn-specific miRNAs. Furthermore, miRNA features including length distribution and end variations were characterized. Annotation of targets revealed a broad range of biological processes and signal transduction pathways regulated by M. nipponense miRNAs. In addition, 880 co-expressed and 39 specific (25 normoxia-specific and 14 hypoxia-specific) miRNAs that may be involved in the response to hypoxia were confirmed using miRNA microarray analysis from the four prawn tissues combined. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of eight miRNAs in the normoxia and hypoxia groups showed good concordance between the sequencing and qPCR data. This study provides the first large-scale identification and characterization of M. nipponense miRNAs and their potential targets, and represents a foundation for further characterization of their roles in the regulation of the diversity of hypoxia processes.

  17. Deciphering the Molecular Profile of Plaques, Memory Decline and Neuron Loss in Two Mouse Models for Alzheimer’s Disease by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bouter, Yvonne; Kacprowski, Tim; Weissmann, Robert; Dietrich, Katharina; Borgers, Henning; Brauß, Andreas; Sperling, Christian; Wirths, Oliver; Albrecht, Mario; Jensen, Lars R.; Kuss, Andreas W.; Bayer, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the central research questions on the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the elucidation of the molecular signatures triggered by the amyloid cascade of pathological events. Next-generation sequencing allows the identification of genes involved in disease processes in an unbiased manner. We have combined this technique with the analysis of two AD mouse models: (1) The 5XFAD model develops early plaque formation, intraneuronal Aβ aggregation, neuron loss, and behavioral deficits. (2) The Tg4–42 model expresses N-truncated Aβ4–42 and develops neuron loss and behavioral deficits albeit without plaque formation. Our results show that learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and fear conditioning tasks in Tg4–42 mice at 12 months of age are similar to the deficits in 5XFAD animals. This suggested that comparative gene expression analysis between the models would allow the dissection of plaque-related and -unrelated disease relevant factors. Using deep sequencing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and subsequently verified by quantitative PCR. Nineteen DEGs were identified in pre-symptomatic young 5XFAD mice, and none in young Tg4–42 mice. In the aged cohort, 131 DEGs were found in 5XFAD and 56 DEGs in Tg4–42 mice. Many of the DEGs specific to the 5XFAD model belong to neuroinflammatory processes typically associated with plaques. Interestingly, 36 DEGs were identified in both mouse models indicating common disease pathways associated with behavioral deficits and neuron loss. PMID:24795628

  18. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry profiling of transgenic and non-transgenic maize for cultivar characterization.

    PubMed

    López, Ma Concepción García; Garcia-Cañas, Virginia; Alegre, Ma Luisa Marina

    2009-10-23

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-MS (ion trap)) method is developed, for the first time, for profiling transgenic and non-transgenic maize with the aim of cultivar characterization. To optimize chromatographic conditions the following parameters were studied: column, gradient, and ion-pairing reagent. Moreover, the influence in the MS signal of the variation of the capillary voltage and the accumulated ions in the trap was also studied. The developed method was applied to the profiling of different protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin) isolated from Bt transgenic and non-transgenic maize cultivars. Moreover, different maize samples, namely, maize cultivars from different geographical origins (USA, Canada, France, and Spain), transgenic maize samples with certified GMO content, and three transgenic Bt maize cultivars with their isogenic non-transgenic counterparts (Aristis Bt vs. Aristis, PR33P67 vs. PR33P66, and DKC6575 vs. Tietar) were profiled by the developed method. Mass spectra obtained for certain peaks in the maize cultivars studied resulted, in some occasions, useful for cultivar characterization and differentiation. The comparison of UV and MS profiles and mass spectra corresponding to the protein fractions with those of the whole seeds enabled the assignment of some peaks.

  19. Proteomics and deep sequencing comparison of seasonally active venom glands in the platypus reveals novel venom peptides and distinct expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Morgenstern, David; Mofiz, Ehtesham; Gombert, Sara; Morris, Katrina M; Temple-Smith, Peter; Renfree, Marilyn B; Whittington, Camilla M; King, Glenn F; Warren, Wesley C; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2012-11-01

    The platypus is a venomous monotreme. Male platypuses possess a spur on their hind legs that is connected to glands in the pelvic region. They produce venom only during the breeding season, presumably to fight off conspecifics. We have taken advantage of this unique seasonal production of venom to compare the transcriptomes of in- and out-of-season venom glands, in conjunction with proteomic analysis, to identify previously undiscovered venom genes. Comparison of the venom glands revealed distinct gene expression profiles that are consistent with changes in venom gland morphology and venom volumes in and out of the breeding season. Venom proteins were identified through shot-gun sequenced venom proteomes of three animals using RNA-seq-derived transcripts for peptide-spectral matching. 5,157 genes were expressed in the venom glands, 1,821 genes were up-regulated in the in-season gland, and 10 proteins were identified in the venom. New classes of platypus-venom proteins identified included antimicrobials, amide oxidase, serpin protease inhibitor, proteins associated with the mammalian stress response pathway, cytokines, and other immune molecules. Five putative toxins have only been identified in platypus venom: growth differentiation factor 15, nucleobindin-2, CD55, a CXC-chemokine, and corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein. These novel venom proteins have potential biomedical and therapeutic applications and provide insights into venom evolution.

  20. Deep learning.

    PubMed

    LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-28

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  1. Deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  2. Deep earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

  3. Sampled sinusoidal stimulation profile and multichannel fuzzy logic classification for monitor-based phase-coded SSVEP brain-computer interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyakov, Nikolay V.; Chumerin, Nikolay; Robben, Arne; Combaz, Adrien; van Vliet, Marijn; Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. The performance and usability of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be improved by new paradigms, stimulation methods, decoding strategies, sensor technology etc. In this study we introduce new stimulation and decoding methods for electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs that have targets flickering at the same frequency but with different phases. Approach. The phase information is estimated from the EEG data, and used for target command decoding. All visual stimulation is done on a conventional (60-Hz) LCD screen. Instead of the ‘on/off’ visual stimulation, commonly used in phase-coded BCI, we propose one based on a sampled sinusoidal intensity profile. In order to fully exploit the circular nature of the evoked phase response, we introduce a filter feature selection procedure based on circular statistics and propose a fuzzy logic classifier designed to cope with circular information from multiple channels jointly. Main results. We show that the proposed visual stimulation enables us not only to encode more commands under the same conditions, but also to obtain EEG responses with a more stable phase. We also demonstrate that the proposed decoding approach outperforms existing ones, especially for the short time windows used. Significance. The work presented here shows how to overcome some of the limitations of screen-based visual stimulation. The superiority of the proposed decoding approach demonstrates the importance of preserving the circularity of the data during the decoding stage.

  4. Identification and Comparative Profiling of miRNAs in an Early Flowering Mutant of Trifoliate Orange and Its Wild Type by Genome-Wide Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Yang; Guo, Wen-Wu; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a regulatory role in various biological and metabolic processes by negatively affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. While the number of known Arabidopsis and rice miRNAs is continuously increasing, information regarding miRNAs from woody plants such as citrus remains limited. Solexa sequencing was performed at different developmental stages on both an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and its wild-type in this study, resulting in the obtainment of 141 known miRNAs belonging to 99 families and 75 novel miRNAs in four libraries. A total of 317 potential target genes were predicted based on the 51 novel miRNAs families, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that high ranked miRNA-target genes are those implicated in diverse cellular processes in plants, including development, transcription, protein degradation and cross adaptation. To characterize those miRNAs expressed at the juvenile and adult development stages of the mutant and its wild-type, further analysis on the expression profiles of several miRNAs through real-time PCR was performed. The results revealed that most miRNAs were down-regulated at adult stage compared with juvenile stage for both the mutant and its wild-type. These results indicate that both conserved and novel miRNAs may play important roles in citrus growth and development, stress responses and other physiological processes. PMID:22952759

  5. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which production do I apply the RSV earned... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT... Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.43 To which production do I...

  6. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.40 Which leases are... lease has not produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval the top of which is 18,000 feet... 1, 2004, and, in cases where the original lease terms provided for an RSV for deep gas...

  7. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.40 Which leases are... lease has not produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval the top of which is 18,000 feet... 1, 2004, and, in cases where the original lease terms provided for an RSV for deep gas...

  8. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.40 Which leases are... lease has not produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval the top of which is 18,000 feet... 1, 2004, and, in cases where the original lease terms provided for an RSV for deep gas...

  9. Deep Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popke, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the safety-related ruling by the National Federation of State High School Associations to eliminate the option of using 18-inch starting platforms in pools less than 4 feet deep may affect operators of swimming pools and the swim teams who use them. (EV)

  10. Deep Fish.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  11. Deep Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-01

    A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.

  12. Metabolite profiling on apple volatile content based on solid phase microextraction and gas-chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Eugenio; Gika, Helen; Carlin, Silvia; Theodoridis, Georgios; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2011-07-15

    A headspace SPME GC-TOF-MS method was developed for the acquisition of metabolite profiles of apple volatiles. As a first step, an experimental design was applied to find out the most appropriate conditions for the extraction of apple volatile compounds by SPME. The selected SPME method was applied in profiling of four different apple varieties by GC-EI-TOF-MS. Full scan GC-MS data were processed by MarkerLynx software for peak picking, normalisation, alignment and feature extraction. Advanced chemometric/statistical techniques (PCA and PLS-DA) were used to explore data and extract useful information. Characteristic markers of each variety were successively identified using the NIST library thus providing useful information for variety classification. The developed HS-SPME sampling method is fully automated and proved useful in obtaining the fingerprint of the volatile content of the fruit. The described analytical protocol can aid in further studies of the apple metabolome.

  13. Metabolic profile of mephedrone: Identification of nor-mephedrone conjugates with dicarboxylic acids as a new type of xenobiotic phase II metabolites.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Igor; Himl, Michal; Židková, Monika; Balíková, Marie; Lhotková, Eva; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2016-01-05

    Metabolic profile of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a frequently abused recreational drug, was determined in rats in vivo. The urine of rats dosed with a subcutaneous bolus dose of 20mg 4-MMC/kg was analysed by LC/MS. Ten phase I and five phase II metabolites were identified by comparison of their retention times and MS(2) spectra with those of authentic reference standards and/or with the MS(2) spectra of previously identified metabolites. The main metabolic pathway was N-demethylation leading to normephedrone (4-methylcathinone, 4-MC) which was further conjugated with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid. Other phase I metabolic pathways included oxidation of the 4-methyl group, carbonyl reduction leading to dihydro-metabolites and ω-oxidation at the position 3'. Five of the metabolites detected, namely, 4-carboxynormephedrone (4-carboxycathinone, 4-CC), 4-carboxydihydronormephedrone (4-carboxynorephedrine, 4-CNE), hydroxytolyldihydro-normephedrone (4-hydroxymethylnorephedrine, 4-OH-MNE) and conjugates of 4-MC with glutaric and adipic acid, have not been reported as yet. The last two conjugates represent a novel, hitherto unexploited, type of phase II metabolites in mammals together with an analogous succinic acid conjugate of 4-MC identified by Pozo et al. (2015). These conjugates might be potentially of great importance in the metabolism of other psychoactive amines.

  14. Menstrual cycle phase at the time of rape does not affect recovery of semen or amplification of STR profiles of a suspect in vaginal swabs.

    PubMed

    Cerdas, Loreley; Herrera, Fabiola; Arrieta, Glenn; Morelli, Concepción; Álvarez, Karla; Gómez, Aarón

    2016-02-01

    The effect of women menstrual cycle on the forensic analysis of rapes was studied in a random group of 170 victims aged among 10 and 51 years. Participants were grouped according to the day of the menstrual cycle in which they were at the moment of the assault. From each participant, samples of vaginal fluid were taken and analyzed for sperm cells, p30 protein, total human DNA and human male DNA. Moreover, amplification of suspect's autosomal STR and Y-STR was attempted. Suspects' autosomal STR profiles were obtained from 92 of the 101 samples in which spermatozoa were found; and Y-STR haplotype was obtained in 1 of the 9 samples where autosomal STR profiles of a male were not obtained. On the other hand, Y-STR haplotypes were obtained in 2 of the 21 samples negative for sperm cells but positive for p30 protein. Y-STR haplotypes were also obtained in 11 of the 48 samples negative for sperm cells and p30 protein. It was found that groups of participants did not differ on the recovery of sperm cells from the vaginal swabs, quantification of suspect's DNA or amplification of their STR profiles. It is concluded that the menstrual cycle phase at the moment of the sexual assault does not affect the main outcomes of the forensic investigation of rapes.

  15. Development of a headspace-solid phase micro extraction method to monitor changes in volatile profile of rose (Rosa hybrida, cv David Austin) petals during processing.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Giulia; Nuzzi, Monica; Avitabile Leva, Alexa; Rizzolo, Anna

    2007-05-25

    In the present study, headspace solid phase microextraction combined to capillary gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) has been applied for the determination of changes in the volatile profile of rose petals (Rosa hybrida, cvs David Austin) following processing (heat treatment and addition as an ingredient to a food product--for example yoghurt). Four SPME fibres at two sampling temperatures (40 and 60 degrees C) with a sampling time of 30 min were examined. Volatile profiles were detected either by FID or/and by olfactometry (ODP-II, Gerstel). Fibre testing was performed using raw rose petals for sampling temperature selection and an 18 characteristic rose volatile standard mixture in water was used to compare fibre performances at the sampling temperature of 60 degrees C. Polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) fibre at the sampling temperature of 60 degrees C was the most suitable to sample the rose alcohols phenyl ethanol, citronellol, nerol, geraniol and eugenol, as assessed by GC-olfactometry, not only from raw petals, but also from processed rose petals and the food product. PDMS-DVB fibre also showed a desired low affinity to volatiles from yoghurt, which reduces the influence of food matrix on the volatile profile. The method was linear over two orders of magnitude and had satisfactory repeatability, with limits of detection for the rose alcohols ranging from <1 to 10 ng/ml concentration levels.

  16. Health-Related Intensity Profiles of Physical Education Classes at Different Phases of the Teaching/Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Kantanista, Adam; Ciekot, Monika; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Szwed, Szymon

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the intensities of three types of physical education (PE) classes corresponding to the phases of the teaching/learning process: Type 1--acquiring and developing skills, Type 2--selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional principles and Type 3--evaluating and improving performance skills. Material and methods: A…

  17. Evaluation of Free To Grow, Phase II: Detailed Profile of the Free To Grow Project in California. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Mary

    The Free to Grow pilot project, developed by the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and its Head Start project, operated between 1994 and 1999. Following a 2-year planning and development stage, 5 project sites went on to complete the 3-year implementation phase in California, Colorado, Kentucky, New York, and Puerto Rico; the…

  18. Biological profiling of the ToxCast Phase II Chemical Library in Primary Human Cell Co-Culture Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s ToxCast research project was developed to address the need for high-throughput testing of chemicals and a pathway-based approach to hazard screening. Phase I of ToxCast tested over 300 unique compounds (mostly pesticides and antimicrobials). With the addition of Ph...

  19. Anthropometrical, physiological, and tracked power profiles of elite taekwondo athletes 9 weeks before the Olympic competition phase.

    PubMed

    Ball, Nick; Nolan, Emily; Wheeler, Keane

    2011-10-01

    Physiological, anthropometric, and power profiling data were retrospectively analyzed from 4 elite taekwondo athletes from the Australian National Olympic team 9 weeks from Olympic departure. Power profiling data were collected weekly throughout the 9-week period. Anthropometric skinfolds generated a lean mass index (LMI). Physiological tests included a squat jump and bench throw power profile, bleep test, 20-m sprint test, running VO2max test, and bench press and squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength tests. After this, the athletes power, velocity, and acceleration profile during unweighted squat jumps and single-leg jumps were tracked using a linear position transducer. Increases in power, velocity, and acceleration between weeks and bilateral comparisons were analyzed. Athletes had an LMI of 37.1 ± 0.4 and were 173.9 ± 0.2 m and 67 ± 1.1 kg. Relatively weaker upper body (56 ± 11.97 kg 3RM bench press) compared to lower body strength (88 ± 2.89 kg 3RM squat) was shown alongside a VO2max of 53.29 ml(-1)·min(-1)·kg, and a 20-m sprint time of 3.37 seconds. Increases in all power variables for single-leg squat and squat jumps were found from the first session to the last. Absolute peak power in single-leg squat jumps increased by 13.4-16% for the left and right legs with a 12.9% increase in squat jump peak power. Allometrically scaled peak power showed greater increases for single-leg (right leg: 18.55%; left: 23.49%) and squat jump (14.49%). The athlete's weight did not change significantly throughout the 9-week mesocycle. Progressions in power increases throughout the weeks were undulating and can be related to the intensity of the prior week's training and athlete injury. This analysis has shown that a 9-week mesocycle before Olympic departure that focuses on core lifts has the ability to improve power considerably.

  20. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  1. Effectiveness of bacterial infection-related cytokine profile (BIRCP) determination for monitoring pathogen infections in children with hemopathy in the bone marrow inhibition phase.

    PubMed

    Chen, X D; Chen, B; Tang, Y M; Song, H; Shi, S W; Yang, S L; Xu, W Q; Pan, B H; Zhao, F Y; Zhao, N; Zhang, L Y; Mao, J Q

    2014-12-18

    Serum cytokine profiles were analyzed before and after infection in children with hemopathy in the bone marrow inhibition phase to explore the utility of cytokine variations for detecting infections. Serum Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon, were quantitatively determined by cytometric bead array technology in 480 cases (230 children) of children with hemopathy in the bone marrow inhibition phase with signs of infection, such as fever, and without, to establish baseline and affected levels for comparison with healthy control children. We used the cytokine profile of infected, blood culture-positive children to establish a bacterial infection-related cytokine profile (BIRCP) for predicting infections by pathogens in blood culture-negative children. Overall, 82.9% of children with Gram-negative bacterial infections were accompanied by marked increases of IL-6 and IL-10 levels [>10 times (means ± SD)], whereas only a mild increase of IL-6 levels occurred in Gram-positive bacteria-infected children [>2 times (means ± SD)] and only a mild increase of IFN-γ levels occurred in fungal culture-positive children [>2 times (means ± SD)]. Gram-positive bacterial and fungal infections did not cause a marked increase in IL-6 or IL- 10 levels. The effective rate (86.05%, N = 43) of infectious cases predicted by BIRCP was significantly higher than that obtained using traditional methods for selecting antibiotics based on clinical indications (65.45%, N = 55, P < 0.05). In summary, BIRCP can be used to predict the infections by pathogens in children with hemopathy and to select appropriate antibiotics.

  2. HST Multicolor (255-1042 nm) Photometry of Saturn's Main Rings. 1; Radial Profiles, Phase and Opening Angle Variations, and Regional Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; French, Richard G.; Dones, Luke; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The main rings of Saturn were observed with the Planetary Camera of the WFPC2 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) from September 1996 to August 2000 as the'ring opening angle to Earth and Sun increased from 4 deg to 24 deg, with a spread of phase angles between 0.3 deg and 6 deg at each opening angle. The rings were routinely observed in the five HST wideband UBVRI filters (F336W, F439W, F555W, F675W, and F814W) and occasionally in the F255W, F785LP, and F1042M filters. The emphasis in this series of papers will be on radial color (implying compositional) variations. In this first paper we describe the analysis technique and calibration procedure, note revisions in a previously published Voyager ring color data analysis, and present new results based on over 100 HST images. In the 300-600 nm spectral range where the rings are red, the 555nm/336nm ratio increases by about 14% as the phase angle increases from 0.3 deg to 6 deg. This effect, never reported previously for the rings, is significantly larger than the phase reddening which characterizes other icy objects, primarily because of the redness of the rings. However, there is no discernible tendency for color to vary with ring opening angle at a given phase angle, and there is no phase variation of color where the spectrum is flat. We infer from this combination of facts that multiple intraparticle scattering, either in a regolith or between facets of an unusually rough surface, is important in these geometries, but that multiple interparticle scattering in a vertically extended layer is not. Voyager color ratios at a phase angle of 14 deg are compatible with this trend, but calibration uncertainties prevent their use in quantitative modeling. Overall ring-average spectra are compatible with those of earlier work within calibration uncertainties, but ring spectra vary noticeably with region. We refine and subdivide the regions previously defined by others. The variation seen between radial profiles of

  3. Modeling of power spectral density of modified von Karman atmospheric phase turbulence and acousto-optic chaos using scattered intensity profiles over discrete time intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Mohamed, Fathi H. A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent research, propagation of plane electromagnetic (EM) waves through a turbulent medium with modified von Karman phase characteristics was modeled and numerically simulated using transverse planar apertures representing narrow phase turbulence along the propagation path. The case for extended turbulence was also studied by repeating the planar phase screens multiple times over the propagation path and incorporating diffractive effects via a split-step algorithm. The goal of the research reported here is to examine two random phenomena: (a) atmospheric turbulence due to von Karman-type phase fluctuations, and (b) chaos generated in an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell under hybrid feedback. The latter problem has been thoroughly examined for its nonlinear dynamics and applications in secure communications. However, the statistical characteristics (such as the power spectral density (PSD)) of the chaos have not been estimated in recent work. To that end, treating the chaos phenomena as a random process, the time waveforms of the chaos intensity and their spectra are numerically evaluated over a (large) number of time iterations. These spectra are then averaged to derive the equivalent PSD of the A-O chaos. For the turbulence problem, an optical beam passing through an input pinhole is propagated through a random phase screen (placed at different locations) to a desired distance (typically near-field) under different levels of turbulence strength. The resulting spatial intensity profile is then averaged and the process repeated over a (large) number of pre-specified time intervals. From this data, once again, the turbulence PSD is calculated via the Fourier spectra of the average intensity snapshots. The results for the two systems are compared.

  4. Impact of phase of the estrous cycle and season on LH surge profile and fertility in dairy cows treated with different GnRH analogs (gonadorelin vs. buserelin).

    PubMed

    Armengol-Gelonch, R; Mallo, J M; Ponté, D; Jimenez, A; Valenza, A; Souza, A H

    2017-03-15

    Our aim was to assess the GnRH-induced LH surge profile in dairy cows receiving two GnRH products (gonadorelin vs buserelin) given at proestrus or diestrus phase and to investigate whether season could alter LH surge profile in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, dairy cows at 108.2 ± 2.3 DIM, producing 41.5 ± 0.3 kg/day were randomized to receive, during proestrus and diestrus: Ovarelin(®) i.m. (OVA; n = 56; 100 mg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate; Ceva Animal Health, France) or Receptal(®) i.m. (REC; n = 52; 10 mcg of buserelin diacetate; MSD, Germany). In Experiment 1, blood samples were collected at hour 0 (just before GnRH treatment) at 30min, 1 h and then hourly until 5 h post-GnRH. In Experiment 2, cows were synchronized with a modified G-6-G protocol and randomized to receive either OVA or REC throughout the synchronization program. In Experiment 1, peak LH concentrations (ng/mL) were not affected by type of GnRH (OVA = 6.2 ± 0.4 vs REC = 6.7 ± 0.4; P = 0.37) or season (Cool = 6.8 ± 0.4 vs Warm = 6.1 ± 0.4; P = 0.22), and there were no interactions between GnRH type and phase of the estrous cycle or season. Interestingly, the area under the curve (AUC) of LH release (ng/ml*time) was significantly lower during warmer months (Cool = 20.3 ± 1.2 vs Warm = 16.9 ± 1.1; P = 0.04). As expected, LH peak was affected by phase of the cycle (proestrus = 8.2 ± 0.4 vs diestrus = 4.7 ± 0.4; P < 0.01). Ovarelin caused LH concentrations to increase faster, reaching highest concentration sooner (h) than REC (1.5 ± 0.1 vs 2.3 ± 0.1; P < 0.01). As a result, cows receiving OVA had greater circulating LH concentrations (ng/mL) at 1 h after GnRH treatment than cows receiving REC (P < 0.01). In contrast, cows treated with REC had longer (P = 0.01) intervals from peak until return to nadir. In Experiment 2, pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was similar for cows receiving either GnRH product during the synchronization

  5. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  6. Deep smarts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  7. CLASH-VLT: The mass, velocity-anisotropy, and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of the z = 0.44 galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biviano, A.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Mercurio, A.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Grillo, C.; Scodeggio, M.; Lemze, D.; Kelson, D.; Umetsu, K.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Czoske, O.; Ettori, S.; Fritz, A.; Lombardi, M.; Maier, C.; Medezinski, E.; Mei, S.; Presotto, V.; Strazzullo, V.; Tozzi, P.; Ziegler, B.; Annunziatella, M.; Bartelmann, M.; Benitez, N.; Bradley, L.; Brescia, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Demarco, R.; Donahue, M.; Ford, H.; Gobat, R.; Graves, G.; Koekemoer, A.; Kuchner, U.; Melchior, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.; Moustakas, L.; Munari, E.; Regős, E.; Sartoris, B.; Seitz, S.; Zheng, W.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: We constrain the mass, velocity-anisotropy, and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of the z = 0.44 CLASH cluster MACS J1206.2-0847, using the projected phase-space distribution of cluster galaxies in combination with gravitational lensing. Methods: We use an unprecedented data-set of ≃600 redshifts for cluster members, obtained as part of a VLT/VIMOS large program, to constrain the cluster mass profile over the radial range ~0-5 Mpc (0-2.5 virial radii) using the MAMPOSSt and Caustic methods. We then add external constraints from our previous gravitational lensing analysis. We invert the Jeans equation to obtain the velocity-anisotropy profiles of cluster members. With the mass-density and velocity-anisotropy profiles we then obtain the first determination of a cluster pseudo-phase-space density profile. Results: The kinematics and lensing determinations of the cluster mass profile are in excellent agreement. This is very well fitted by a NFW model with mass M200 = (1.4 ± 0.2) × 1015 M⊙ and concentration c200 = 6 ± 1, only slightly higher than theoretical expectations. Other mass profile models also provide acceptable fits to our data, of (slightly) lower (Burkert, Hernquist, and Softened Isothermal Sphere) or comparable (Einasto) quality than NFW. The velocity anisotropy profiles of the passive and star-forming cluster members are similar, close to isotropic near the center and increasingly radial outside. Passive cluster members follow extremely well the theoretical expectations for the pseudo-phase-space density profile and the relation between the slope of the mass-density profile and the velocity anisotropy. Star-forming cluster members show marginal deviations from theoretical expectations. Conclusions: This is the most accurate determination of a cluster mass profile out to a radius of 5 Mpc, and the only determination of the velocity-anisotropy and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of both passive and star-forming galaxies for an individual

  8. Identification of Signaling Systems in Proliferating and Involuting Phase Infantile Hemangiomas by Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Calicchio, Monica L.; Collins, Tucker; Kozakewich, Harry P.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are characterized by rapid capillary growth during the first year of life followed by involution during early childhood. The natural history of these lesions creates a unique opportunity to study the changes in gene expression that occur in the vessels of these tumors as they proliferate and regress. Here we use laser capture microdissection and genome-wide transcriptional profiling of vessels from proliferating and involuting hemangiomas to identify differentially expressed genes. Relative to normal placental vessels, proliferating hemangiomas were characterized by increased expression of genes involved in endothelial-pericyte interactions, such as angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), jagged-1 (JAG1), and notch-4 (NOTCH4), as well as genes involved in neural and vascular patterning, such as neuropilin-2 (NETO2), a plexin domain containing receptor (plexinC1), and an ephrin receptor (EPHB3). Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) was down-regulated in proliferating hemangiomas. Involuting hemangiomas were characterized by the expression of chronic inflammatory mediators, such as the chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and factors that may attenuate the angiogenic response, such as a member of the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) family. The identification of genes differentially expressed in proliferating and involuting hemangiomas in vivo will contribute to our understanding of this vascular lesion, which remains a leading cause of morbidity in newborn children. PMID:19349369

  9. Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS) and Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as Sample Preparation Procedures for the Metabolomic Profiling of Urine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Catarina; Cavaco, Carina; Perestrelo, Rosa; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S.

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, sample preparation was unrecognized as a critical issue in the analytical methodology, thus limiting the performance that could be achieved. However, the improvement of microextraction techniques, particularly microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), completely modified this scenario by introducing unprecedented control over this process. Urine is a biological fluid that is very interesting for metabolomics studies, allowing human health and disease characterization in a minimally invasive form. In this manuscript, we will critically review the most relevant and promising works in this field, highlighting how the metabolomic profiling of urine can be an extremely valuable tool for the early diagnosis of highly prevalent diseases, such as cardiovascular, oncologic and neurodegenerative ones. PMID:24958388

  10. Non-separative headspace solid phase microextraction-mass spectrometry profile as a marker to monitor coffee roasting degree.

    PubMed

    Liberto, Erica; Ruosi, Manuela R; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2013-02-27

    This study describes a non-separative headspace solid phase microextraction-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-MS) approach, in view of its application to online monitoring of a roasting process. The system can quickly provide representative and diagnostic fingerprints of the volatile fraction of samples and, in combination with appropriate chemometric pattern recognition and regression techniques, can successfully be applied to characterize, discriminate, and/or correlate patterns with the roasting process. Eighty coffee samples of different varieties, geographical origins, and blends were analyzed. The experimental HS-SPME-MS results show that the TIC fingerprint can be used to discriminate the degree of roasting; diagnostic ion abundance(s) or ratios were closely correlated with the roasting process; both could successfully be used as markers or analytical decision makers, to monitor roasting processes online, and to define quality and safety of roasted coffee.

  11. Deposition profile of Ti film inside a trench and its correlation with gas-phase ionization in high-pressure magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Takada, N.; Nakamura, K.; Sago, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    2006-11-15

    This article reports the relationship between the degree of ionization of Ti in the gas phase and the thickness profile of Ti film inside a trench in magnetron sputtering deposition. A conventional magnetron sputtering plasma source was used for depositing Ti films inside trenches formed on rf-biased SiO{sub 2} substrates. It was found that a high bottom coverage was obtained when a high gas pressure and a long distance between the target and the substrate were employed for the deposition. On the other hand, at a short distance between the target and the substrate, the bottom coverage was small and was almost independent of the gas pressure. The deposition profile was compared with the spatial distributions of Ti and Ti{sup +} densities measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging spectroscopy. The LIF results revealed that the density ratio of Ti{sup +} to Ti in the downstream region increased with the gas pressure up to 0.3, while in the upstream region, it was small (<0.05) and was roughly constant with the gas pressure. In the case with the enhanced density ratio of 0.3, the flux ratio of Ti{sup +} to Ti was estimated to be 4.4. Hence, it was concluded that, with a high gas pressure and a long distance between the target and substrate, the deposition profile with a high bottom coverage was obtained by accelerating Ti{sup +} toward the bottom of the trench. The high-pressure magnetron sputtering discharge is useful for enhancing the degree of ionization and the bottom coverage.

  12. Characterization by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography of the volatile profile of protected designation of origin Montasio cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Munari, M; Biasutti, M

    2013-01-01

    Montasio is a typical protected designation of origin (PDO) Italian semi-hard and semi-cooked cheese produced in northeast Italy from raw or thermized cow's milk. The PDO label implies that the product has distinctive characteristics that are connected to traditional production methods. The aim of this work was to precisely characterize the volatile fraction of this Italian cheese. The volatile profile can be considered a fingerprint because the flavor of a cheese variety is the result of a specific balance between the volatile compounds produced during the ripening process. Analysis of the volatile profile of Montasio cheese was performed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Six cheesemaking trials were performed, each in a different dairy located within the Montasio cheese production area. Cheeses were analyzed at 5 stages of ripening (60, 90, 170, 300, and 365 d). Only 11 compounds were identified and measured: 5 fatty acids, 3 alcohols, 2 ketones, and 1 ester. The limited number of volatile compounds measured in the headspace of the Montasio cheese is probably due to the specific making process of this cheese, which affects evolution of the microflora and the biochemical processes of ripening. The total volatile fraction profile progressively increased from 60 to 170 d, after which time it remained almost steady. The most important contributors were found to be ethanol, short-chain fatty acids (C(2) to C(6)), diacetyl, and ethyl hexanoate. Ethanol and short-chain fatty acids increased up to 170 d, diacetyl increased up to 300 d and then declined, and ethyl hexanoate increased until the final stage.

  13. Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for High-Throughput Molecular Profiling of Sea Cucumber Cerebrosides.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zicai; Cong, Peixu; Zhang, Hongwei; Song, Yu; Li, Zhaojie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2015-07-01

    Usually, the chemical structures of cerebrosides in sea creatures are more complicated than those from terrestrial plants and animals. Very little is known about the method for high-throughput molecular profiling of cerebrosides in sea cucumbers. In this study, cerebrosides from four species of edible sea cucumbers, specifically, Apostichopus japonicas, Thelenota ananas, Acaudina molpadioides and Bohadschia marmorata, were rapidly identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RPLC-QToF-MS). [M + H](+) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode were used to obtain the product ion spectra. The cerebroside molecules were selected according to the neutral loss fragments of 180 Da and then identified according to pairs of specific products of long-chain bases (LCB) and their precursor ions. A typical predominant LCB was 2-amino-1,3-dihydroxy-4-heptadecene (d17:1), which was acylated to form saturated and monounsaturated non-hydroxy and monohydroxy fatty acids with 17-25 carbon atoms. Simultaneously, the occurrence of 2-hydroxy-tricosenoic acid (C23:1h) was characteristic of sea cucumber cerebrosides, whereas this molecule was rarely discovered in plants, mammals, or fungi. The profiles of LCB and fatty acids (FA) distribution might be related to the genera of sea cucumber. These data will be useful for identification of cerebrosides using RPLC-QToF-MS.

  14. Determination of the solvent density profiles across mesopores of silica-C18 bonded phases in contact with acetonitrile/water mixtures: A semi-empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice

    2015-09-04

    The local volume fractions of water, acetonitrile, and C18-bonded chains across the 96Åmesopores of 5μm Symmetry particles were determined semi-empirically. The semi-empirical approach was based on previous molecular dynamics studies, which provided relevant mathematical expressions for the density profiles of C18 chains and water molecules, and on minor disturbance experiments, which measured the excess amount of acetonitrile adsorbed in the pores of Symmetry-C18 particles. The pore walls of the Symmetry-C18 material were in thermodynamic equilibrium with a series of binary mixtures of water and acetonitrile. The results show that C18 chains are mostly solvated by acetonitrile molecules, water is excluded from the C18-bonded layer, and acetonitrile concentrates across a 15-25Åthick interface region between the C18 layer and the bulk phase. These actual density profiles are expected to have a direct impact on the retention behaviour of charged, polar, and neutral analytes in RPLC. They also provide clues to predict the local mobility of analytes inside the pores and a sound physico-chemical description of the phenomenon of surface diffusion observed in RPLC.

  15. An experimental validation of the influence of flow profiles and stratified two-phase flow to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team

    2016-11-01

    We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.

  16. Melting of phase D in the lower mantle and implications for recycling and storage of H2O in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Schmidt, Max W.

    2014-11-01

    We determined the melting phase relations and conditions of the dense hydrous magnesium silicate phase D (nominally MgSi2O4(OH)2) on composition in MgO-SiO2-H2O (MSH), MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (MASH), and FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (FMASH), and on a mixture of phase D + olivine + enstatite (MSH) at 22-32 GPa and 1000-1800 °C. Contrasting to previous studies, we performed H2O-undersaturated experiments. Bulk compositions were synthetic mixtures of brucite + silica or brucite + olivine + enstatite on the silica-rich side of the tie-line perovskite-H2O. At 22-24 GPa, the maximum thermal stability of phase D is between 1350 and 1400 °C in MSH and FMASH, but 1600 °C at 24 GPa in the Fe-free, Al-bearing bulk composition (MASH). Apparently, addition of Al2O3 increases the stability field of phase D by 200 °C, an effect that is counter balanced by addition of FeO. At 32 GPa, the stability of phase D (MSH and FMASH) is between 1350 and 1400 °C. At 22 GPa, phase D melts to a Mg-rich melt coexisting with MgSi-ilmenite + stishovite, whereas at 24-32 GPa melt coexists with perovskite and stishovite. Even melts from bulk compositions in the silica-rich part of the MSH system (molar bulk Mg/Si < 0.5) are magnesian-rich (Mg/Si molar ratio of 2-5) and are distinct from aqueous fluids and hydrous melts at lower pressures. The temperature stabilities determined in this study indicate that slabs that thermally relax when stagnating on top of the 660-km discontinuity or penetrating into the lower mantle will have their last dense hydrous magnesium silicate phase, i.e., phase D, melting and producing a magnesian and hydrous melt that will rise through the transition zone. Such a melt could be responsible for observed low velocity zones, and may be neutrally buoyant at the 410-km discontinuity and will affect the structure and dynamics of the mantle.

  17. Efficacy profile of a bivalent Staphylococcus aureus glycoconjugated vaccine in adults on hemodialysis: Phase III randomized study.

    PubMed

    Fattom, Ali; Matalon, Albert; Buerkert, John; Taylor, Kimberly; Damaso, Silvia; Boutriau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) hemodialysis patients, a single dose of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides (T5/T8) conjugated to nontoxic recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A investigational vaccine showed no efficacy against S. aureus bacteremia 1 year post-vaccination, but a trend for efficacy was observed over the first 40 weeks post-vaccination. Vaccine efficacy (VE) of 2 vaccine doses was therefore evaluated. In a double-blind trial 3359 ESRD patients were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at week 0 and 35. VE in preventing S. aureus bacteremia was assessed between 3-35 weeks and 3-60 weeks post-dose-1. Anti-T5 and anti-T8 antibodies were measured. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded for 42 days post-vaccination and deaths until study end. No significant difference in the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia was observed between vaccine and placebo groups between weeks 3-35 weeks post-dose 1 (VE -23%, 95%CI: -98;23, p = 0.39) or at 3-60 weeks post-dose-1 (VE -8%, 95%CI: -57;26, p = 0.70). Day 42 geometric mean antibody concentrations were 272.4 μg/ml and 242.0 μg/ml (T5 and T8, respectively) in vaccinees. SAEs were reported by 24%/25.3% of vaccinees/placebo recipients. These data do not show a protective effect of either 1 or 2 vaccine doses against S. aureus bacteremia in ESRD patients. The vaccine induced a robust immune response and had an acceptable safety profile. Further investigation suggested possible suboptimal vaccine quality (manufacturing) and a need to expand the antigen composition of the vaccine. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00071214.

  18. Deep blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  19. Proteome profiling of the growth phases of Leishmania pifanoi promastigotes in axenic culture reveals differential abundance of immunostimulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Alcolea, Pedro J; Alonso, Ana; García-Tabares, Francisco; Mena, María del Carmen; Ciordia, Sergio; Larraga, Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a term that encompasses a compendium of neglected tropical diseases caused by dimorphic and digenetic protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The clinical manifestations of neotropical cutaneous leishmaniasis (NCL) caused by Leishmania pifanoi and other species of the "Leishmania mexicana complex" mainly correspond to anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL), which is the origin of considerable morbidity. Despite the outstanding advances in the characterization of the trypanosomatid genomes and proteomes, the biology of this species has been scarcely explored. However, the close relation of L. pifanoi to the sequenced species L. mexicana and others included in the "L. mexicana complex" allowed us to perform a two-dimension electrophoresis (2DE) approach to the promastigote proteome at the differential expression level. Protein identifications were performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). This insight has revealed similarities and differences between L. pifanoi and other species responsible for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Interestingly, certain proteins that were previously described as immunostimulatory (elongation factor 1β, trypanothione peroxidase, heat shock protein 70, enolase, GDP-forming succinyl-CoA and aldehyde dehydrogenase) are more abundant in the final growth stages of promastigotes (late-logarithmic and/or stationary phase) in the case of L. pifanoi.

  20. Controlling the Al-doping profile and accompanying electrical properties of rutile-phased TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woojin; Rha, Sang Ho; Lee, Woongkyu; Yoo, Yeon Woo; An, Cheol Hyun; Jung, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-05-28

    The role of Al dopant in rutile-phased TiO2 films in the evaluation of the mechanism of leakage current reduction in Al-doped TiO2 (ATO) was studied in detail. The leakage current of the ATO film was strongly affected by the Al concentration at the interface between the ATO film and the RuO2 electrode. The conduction band offset of the interface increased with the increase in the Al dopant concentration in the rutile TiO2, which reduced the leakage current in the voltage region pertinent to the next-generation dynamic random access memory application. However, the Al doping in the anatase TiO2 did not notably increase the conduction band offset even with a higher Al concentration. The detailed analyses of the leakage conduction mechanism based on the quantum mechanical transfer-matrix method showed that Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling was the dominant leakage conduction mechanism in the lower and higher voltage regions, respectively. The chemical analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy corroborated the electrical test results.

  1. Comparison of the effect of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs from different groups on the phase profile of liposomal membrane-a fluorescence anisotropy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandary, Suman; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2010-07-01

    The study compares the effect of incorporation of three different groups of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs, namely niacin, simvastatin, and fenofibrate on the phase profile of liposomal membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The fluorescence anisotropy studies, using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as fluorescent probe, have shown that the lipophilic molecule fenofibrate changes phase behavior of DPPC liposomal membrane to a greater extent compared to the changes produced by amphiphilic simvastatin and hydrophilic niacin. This variation in effect can be attributed to the nature of the drug molecules and hence their location in different parts of the liposomal membrane. We have also calculated the changes in van't Hoff enthalpy values in all these three cases and observed that these values decreased with increase in drug concentrations in the case of simvastatin but for fenofibrate and niacin the effect is completely the reverse. In order to get a better insight, the fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecules has been calculated.

  2. Design of strategies to study the metabolic profile of highly polar compounds in plasma by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Elena; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, María Luisa

    2017-03-24

    Amino acids and related compounds are paramount analytes which are involved in numerous metabolic pathways. Most of these compounds are unable to be retained on Liquid Chromatography with Reversed-Phase stationary phases due to their high hydrophilic character. An interesting strategy is to reduce their polarity through their derivatization with a labelling reagent, such as the commercially available 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) which forms stable complexes with primary and secondary amine moieties rapidly. Although some derivatization reagents have been employed in the study of metabolic profiles, as far as we know, FMOC has never been employed for this purpose. In this work, it is demonstrated that the use of RP-LCMS(TOF) using a C18 column and FMOC as labelling agent enables the determination of a larger number of hydrophilic compounds (proteinogenic amino acids, non-proteinogenic amino acids, and biogenic amines) when compared to the use of a fully-wettable pentafluorophenyl column in fully-aqueous conditions (gradient starting in 0% of organic solvent) and HILIC column, both without using compound derivatization. Different strategies for plasma protein elimination were also carefully evaluated. Results revealed that ultrafiltration (UF) offered a lower variability from sample to sample when compared to the protein precipitation (PP) method (from 2 to 12 times lower variability found in UF). Additionally, UF preserved a larger number of possible compounds when compared to the PP approach: 4631 unique molecular features with UF, 666 unique molecular features with PP.

  3. Magnetic characterization of a hydrogen phase trapped inside deep dislocation cores in a hydrogen-cycled PdH{sub x} (x {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup -4}) single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, A. G. Heuser, B. J.; Castano, C. H.; Lyakhov, B. F.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

    2006-09-15

    The magnetic characterization of Pd single crystals deformed by cycling in a hydrogen atmosphere has been performed. Based on evidence obtained from thermal desorption analysis, it is shown that the condensed hydrogen phase formed inside deep dislocation cores in PdH{sub x} (x = H/Pd {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup -4}) is tightly bound with a Pd matrix. The activation energy of hydrogen desorption from these cores was found to be as high as e = 1.6eV/H-atom, suggesting the occurrence of a strong band overlapping between Pd and H atoms. SQUID measurements carried out in a weak magnetic field (H < 5.0 Oe) showed an anomalous diamagnetic contribution to the DC and AC magnetic susceptibilities of the PdH{sub x} sample at T < 30 K resulting in the presence of the hydrogen phase. It is suggested that the anomalous diamagnetic response in PdH{sub x} is caused by the presence of a hydrogen dominant phase, tightly bound with a Pd matrix inside the dislocation cores (nanotubes)

  4. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers.

  5. Acute Toxicity Profile and Compliance to Accelerated Radiotherapy Plus Carbogen and Nicotinamide for Clinical Stage T2-4 Laryngeal Cancer: Results of a Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, Geert O.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Doornaert, Patricia A.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Ende, Piet van den; Chin, Alim; Pop, Lucas A.; Kaanders, Johannes H.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report the acute toxicity profile and compliance from a randomized Phase III trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR) with accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 2001 to February 2008, 345 patients with cT2-4 squamous cell laryngeal cancer were randomized to AR (n = 174) and ARCON (n = 171). Acute toxicity was scored weekly until Week 8 and every 2-4 weeks thereafter. Compliance to carbogen and nicotinamide was reported. Results: Between both treatment arms (AR vs. ARCON) no statistically significant difference was observed for incidence of acute skin reactions (moist desquamation: 56% vs. 58%, p = 0.80), acute mucosal reactions (confluent mucositis: 79% vs. 85%, p = 0.14), and symptoms related to acute mucositis (severe pain on swallowing: 53% vs. 58%, p = 0.37; nasogastric tube feeding: 28% vs. 28%, p = 0.98; narcotic medicines required: 58% vs. 58%, p = 0.97). There was a statistically significant difference in median duration of confluent mucositis in favor of AR (2.0 vs 3.0 weeks, p = 0.01). There was full compliance with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in 86% and 80% of the patients, with discontinuation in 6% and 12%, respectively. Adjustment of antiemesis prophylaxis was needed in 42% of patients. Conclusion: With the exception of a slight increase in median duration of acute confluent mucositis, the present data reveal a similar acute toxicity profile between both regimens and a good compliance with ARCON for clinical stage T2-4 laryngeal cancers. Treatment outcome and late morbidity will determine the real therapeutic benefit.

  6. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  7. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs Preventing ... Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep vein ...

  8. Overloaded elution band profiles of ionizable compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography: Influence of the competition between the neutral and the ionic species

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2008-01-01

    The parameters that affect the shape of the band profiles of acido-basic compounds under moderately overloaded conditions (sample size less than 500 nmol for a conventional column) in RPLC are discussed. Only analytes that have a single pK{sub a} are considered. In the buffer mobile phase used for their elution, their dissociation may, under certain conditions, cause a significant pH perturbation during the passage of the band. Two consecutive injections (3.3 and 10 {micro}L) of each one of three sample solutions (0.5, 5, and 50 mM) of ten compounds were injected on five C{sub 18}-bonded packing materials, including the 5 {micro}m Xterra-C{sub 18} (121 {angstrom}), 5 {micro}m Gemini-C{sub 18} (110 {angstrom}), 5 {micro}m Luna-C{sub 18}(2) (93 {angstrom}), 3.5 {micro}m Extend-C{sub 18} (80 {angstrom}), and 2.7 {micro}m Halo-C{sub 18} (90 {angstrom}). The mobile phase was an aqueous solution of methanol buffered at a constant {sub W}{sup W}pH of 6, with a phosphate buffer. The total concentration of the phosphate groups was constant at 50 mM. The methanol concentration was adjusted to keep all the retention factors between 1 and 10. The compounds injected were phenol, caffeine, 3-phenyl 1-propanol, 2-phenyl butyric acid, amphetamine, aniline, benzylamine, p-toluidine, procainamidium chloride, and propranololium chloride. Depending on the relative values of the analyte pK{sub a} and the buffer solution pH, these analytes elute as the neutral, the cationic, or the anionic species. The influence of structural parameters such as the charge, the size, and the hydrophobicity of the analytes on the shape of its overloaded band profile is discussed. Simple but general rules predict these shapes. An original adsorption model is proposed that accounts for the unusual peak shapes observed when the analyte is partially dissociated in the buffer solution during its elution.

  9. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results: AEROSOL PROFILES IN AEROCOM II GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Bréon, François-Marie; Dentener, Frank; Steensen, Birthe Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, Ulrike; Myhre, Gunnar; Rasch, Phil; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, Philip; Tackett, Jason; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella; Yoon, Jinho; Zhang, Kai

    2016-06-27

    The ability of eleven models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model inter-comparison initiative (AeroCom II) is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded dataset of aerosol extinction profiles built on purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 sub-continental regions show that five models improved whereas three degraded in reproducing the Zα 0-6 km mean extinction height diagnostic, which is computed over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models’ performance remains highly variable, it has generally improved in terms of inter-regional diversity and seasonality. The biases in Zα 0-6 km have notably decreased in the U.S. and European industrial and downwind maritime regions, whereas the timing of the Zα 0-6 km peak season has improved for all but two models. However, most of the models now show a Zα 0-6 km underestimation over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα 0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the (changes in the) the performance of the individual models and for the inter-model diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties that can contribute to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  10. [Dynamic expression profile of HBsAg according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at different liver fibrosis stages in the immune clearance phase].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe-bin; Cao, Hong; Liu, Ting; Wu, Ze-qian; Ke, Wei-min; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dynamic expression profile of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at different stages of liver fibrosis during the immune clearance phase. Eighty-nine patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the immune clearance stage were recruited for study. Each patient's serum HBsAg levels were detected by electrochemiluminescence. The serum HBsAg levels were apportioned according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at liver fibrosis stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 and compared by ANOVA. The unapportioned serum HBsAg levels (IU/mL) at liver fibrosis stages 1 (227.2+/-237.7), 2 (211.0+/-131.4), 3(300.1+/-144.6), and 4 (278.7+/-148.8) were not significantly different (all comparisons, P range: 0.061 to 0.759). However, when the serum HBsAg levels were apportioned by the same hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at liver fibrosis stages 1 (343.9+/-359.8), 2 (336.4+/-209.5), 3 (508.7+/-245.1), and 4 (525.2+/-274.8), the levels were significantly different (all comparisons, F = 3.045 and P = 0.033; stage 1 vs. 3, P = 0.041; stage 1 vs. 4, P = 0.046; stage 2 vs. 3, P = 0.028; stage 2 vs. 4, P = 0.034). During the immune clearance phase of chronic hepatitis B, increased HBsAg expression is associated with increased hepatic parenchyma cells' volume and progressive liver fibrosis stage.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Medicago truncatula during the Early Phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Luqin; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. Principal Findings Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. PMID:25226164

  12. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-15

    for author profiling techniques, many of which give rise to deep ethical considerations. A company or organisation could use an author profiling tool...fourth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining - WSDM ’11, pages 365–374, 2011. [19] F Pedregosa, G Varoquaux, A Gramfort, V Michel

  13. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  14. Drug-drug interaction and doping, part 1: an in vitro study on the effect of non-prohibited drugs on the phase I metabolic profile of toremifene.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Fiacco, Ilaria; Palermo, Amelia; Botrè, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to provide preliminary information on the potential impact of metabolic drug-drug interaction on the effectiveness of doping control strategies currently followed by the anti-doping laboratories to detect the intake of banned agents. In vitro assays based on the use of human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms were designed and performed to characterize the phase I metabolic profile of the prohibited agent toremifene, selected as a prototype drug of the class of selective oestrogen receptor modulators, both in the absence and in the presence of medicaments (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, cimetidine, ranitidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, nefazodone) not included in the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances and methods and frequently administered to athletes. The results show that the in vitro model developed in this study was adequate to simulate the in vivo metabolism of toremifene, confirming the results obtained in previous studies. Furthermore, our data also show that ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nefazodone cause a marked modification in the production of the metabolic products (i.e. hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites) normally selected by the anti-doping laboratories as target analytes to detect toremifene intake; moderate variations were registered in the presence of fluconazole, paroxetine and fluoxetine; while no significant modifications were measured in the presence of ranitidine and cimetidine. This evidence imposes that the potential effect of drug-drug interactions is duly taken into account in anti-doping analysis, also for a broader significance of the analytical results.

  15. Metabolic profiling for the identification of Huntington biomarkers by on-line solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry combined with advanced data analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Pont, Laura; Benavente, Fernando; Jaumot, Joaquim; Tauler, Romà; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    In this work, an untargeted metabolomic approach based on sensitive analysis by on-line solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (SPE-CE-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis is proposed as an efficient method for the identification of biomarkers of Huntington's disease (HD) progression in plasma. For this purpose, plasma samples from wild-type (wt) and HD (R6/1) mice of different ages (8, 12, and 30 weeks), were analyzed by C18 -SPE-CE-MS in order to obtain the characteristic electrophoretic profiles of low molecular mass compounds. Then, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the multiple full scan MS datasets. This strategy permitted the resolution of a large number of metabolites being characterized by their electrophoretic peaks and their corresponding mass spectra. A total number of 29 compounds were relevant to discriminate between wt and HD plasma samples, as well as to follow-up the HD progression. The intracellular signaling was found to be the most affected metabolic pathway in HD mice after 12 weeks of birth, when mice already showed motor coordination deficiencies and cognitive decline. This fact agreed with the atrophy and dysfunction of specific neurons, loss of several types of receptors, and changed expression of neurotransmitters.

  16. Photoelectric and luminescence properties of GaSb-Based nanoheterostructures with a deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb quantum well grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Andreev, I. A. Ivanov, E. V.; Konovalov, G. G.; Grebentshikova, E. A.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.; Hulicius, E.; Hospodkova, A.; Pangrac, Y.

    2013-08-15

    The luminescence and photoelectric properties of heterostructures with a deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb quantum well grown on n-GaSb substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy are investigated. Intense superlinear luminescence and increased optical power as a function of the pump current in the photon energy range of 0.6-0.8 eV are observed at temperatures of T = 77 and 300 K. The photoelectric, current-voltage, and capacitance characteristics of these heterostructures are studied in detail. The photosensitivity is examined with photodetectors operating in the photovoltaic mode in the spectral range of 0.9-2.0 {mu}m. The sensitivity maximum at room temperature is observed at a wavelength of 1.55 {mu}m. The quantum efficiency, detectivity, and response time of the photodetectors were estimated. The quantum efficiency and detectivity at the peak of the photosensitivity spectrum are as high as {eta} = 0.6-0.7 and D{sub {lambda}max}{sup *} = (5-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2} W{sup -1}, respectively. The photodiode response time determined as the rise time of the photoresponse pulse from 0.1 to the level 0.9 is 100-200 ps. The photodiode transmission bandwidth is 2-3 GHz. Photodetectors with a deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb quantum well grown on n-GaSb substrates are promising foruse in heterodyne detection systems and in information technologies.

  17. A Study of Characteristics of Seismic Wave Propagation in the Lithosphere of Northern Eurasia Using GEON and Other Long Range Profiles and to Develop Methods of Dynamic Imaging of the Deep Seismic Sounding 2-D Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    time and their interpretation in form of the mantle models were made only for some profiles: "Craton", " Kimberlite " (Yegorkin @ Pavlenkova,1981...chemical explosions as well. They were associated with the kimberlite fields in Western Yakutia (Uarov, 1981, Suvorov at.al., 1985). Such velocities are...with several reversed and overlapping profiles. They are (Fig. 1): "Rift", "Meteorite", "Craton" and " Kimberlite " profiles crossing the Siberian Craton

  18. Monitoring of Intense Events of Deep Water Formations in the Northwestern Mediterranean over the last five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, Loïc; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Mortier, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    A multi-platforms and integrated monitoring system in the framework of the Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE) enables to monitor the deep water formation processes. Since 2007, it provides high frequency in-situ temperature, salinity vertical profiles, derived from CTD measurements on moorings, ships, and gliders, as well as horizontal and vertical currents from moorings. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal scales associated to the deep convection phases. We also studied the interannual variability of the deep convection and its implication in the evolution of deep water thermohaline characteristics. Recent measurements from the mooring lines reveal the temporal evolution of the physical processes interfering in the phases of deep convection. Horizontal currents were strongly equivalent barotropic during each deployment and strong currents were also recorded during the different events of deep ocean convection: high frequencies vertical velocities exceeded 10 cm.s-1 during the violent vertical mixing phase and strong mesoscale horizontal currents reached 40cm.s-1 during the spreading/restratification phase. Using a eddy-detection method based on a kinematic model, more than 34 eddies crossing the mooring line were detected between November 2009 and July 2012, 19 cyclones and 15 anticyclones. The radii (resp. velocities) ranging from 1.9 km to 20.0 km (resp. 2.5 cm.s-1 to 25.1 cm.s-1 ). The main mode of the distribution of eddies radii is centered at 4km for the cyclones and 5km for the anticyclones. The apparition of newly-formed deep waters was detected in winter 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. In winter 2010, two newly-formed deep waters were detected after the deep convection event, both present a different potential temperature but a similar salinity, suggesting that both might be formed in the cyclonic gyre, but in different locations. In 2012, two new deep waters were detected at the mooring location, one was identified as

  19. Syneruptive deep magma transfer and shallow magma remobilization during the 2011 eruption of Shinmoe-dake, Japan—Constraints from melt inclusions and phase equilibria experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Yasuda, Atsushi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Kaneko, Takayuki; Nakada, Setsuya; Fujii, Toshitsugu

    2013-05-01

    model is consistent with a geophysical model that explains whole crustal deformation as being due to a single source located 7-8 km northwest of the Shinmoe-dake summit. However, even the shallowest estimated source of this deformation (7.5-6.2 km) is deeper than the SA reservoir, which thus requires a contribution of deeper BA magmas to the observed deformation. Remobilization of mush-like SA magma occurred in two stages before the early sub-Plinian event. Firstly, precursor mixing with BA magma and associated heating occurred (925-871 °C; stage-1 of ≥ 350 h), followed by final mixing with BA magma (stage-2). MgO profiles of magnetite phenocrysts define timescales of 0.7-15.2 h from this final mixing to eruption. The mixed and heated magmas, and stagnant mush that existed in the SA reservoir in the precursor stage, were finally erupted together. Magnetite phenocrysts in the Feb 18 ash reveal the occurrence of continuous erosion of the stagnant mush during the course of the 2011 eruptive activity.

  20. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-02

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  1. On-chip multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-07-25

    A microfluidic based solid-phase assay for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using quantum dot (QD) mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described herein. The glass surface of hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels was chemically modified to assemble the biorecognition interface. Multiplexing was demonstrated using a detection system that was comprised of two colors of immobilized semi-conductor QDs and two different oligonucleotide probe sequences. Green-emitting and red-emitting QDs were paired with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) labeled oligonucleotides, respectively. The QDs served as energy donors for the transduction of dye labeled oligonucleotide targets. The in-channel assembly of the biorecognition interface and the subsequent introduction of oligonucleotide targets was accomplished within minutes using a combination of electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic force. The concurrent quantification of femtomole quantities of two target sequences was possible by measuring the spatial coverage of FRET sensitized emission along the length of the channel. In previous reports, multiplexed QD-FRET hybridization assays that employed a ratiometric method for quantification had challenges associated with lower analytical sensitivity arising from both donor and acceptor dilution that resulted in reduced energy transfer pathways as compared to single-color hybridization assays. Herein, a spatial method for quantification that is based on in-channel QD-FRET profiles provided higher analytical sensitivity in the multiplexed assay format as compared to single-color hybridization assays. The selectivity of the multiplexed hybridization assays was demonstrated by discrimination between a fully-complementary sequence and a 3 base pair sequence at a contrast ratio of 8 to 1.

  2. 30 CFR 203.30 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a phase 2 or phase 3 ultra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? 203.30 Section 203.30 Mineral Resources... for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.30 Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well?...

  3. Deep learning for computational biology.

    PubMed

    Angermueller, Christof; Pärnamaa, Tanel; Parts, Leopold; Stegle, Oliver

    2016-07-29

    Technological advances in genomics and imaging have led to an explosion of molecular and cellular profiling data from large numbers of samples. This rapid increase in biological data dimension and acquisition rate is challenging conventional analysis strategies. Modern machine learning methods, such as deep learning, promise to leverage very large data sets for finding hidden structure within them, and for making accurate predictions. In this review, we discuss applications of this new breed of analysis approaches in regulatory genomics and cellular imaging. We provide background of what deep learning is, and the settings in which it can be successfully applied to derive biological insights. In addition to presenting specific applications and providing tips for practical use, we also highlight possible pitfalls and limitations to guide computational biologists when and how to make the most use of this new technology.

  4. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response.A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6-115).Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABL value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABL(IS) ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABL(IS) > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABL(IS) at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to

  5. New Seismic Approaches to Persistent and New Problems in Deep Crustal Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. D.

    2009-05-01

    Over 30 years of deep seismic reflection profiling has demonstrated that lower crustal complexity is manifest in diverse ways. Reflection profiling has been critical to relating such complexity to regional tectonic processes, often resolving specific structural questions involving the deep crust. Yet a number of important observations remain as cryptic now as they were when first observed decades ago, even when reflection methods are combined with other seismic and geophysical techniques. Some illustrative examples of persistent problems and future potential: a) The nature of deep crustal fluids: Seismic bright spots have been key features of numerous deep reflection and receiver function studies. Commonly interpreted as magma, the actually identity of the fluids involved remains to be confirmed. Deep brines and supercritical gas are respectable alternatives. Resolving the identity of these unusual reflectors is essential to assessing tectonic processes in the deep crust. Appropriate wide aperture, three component experiments are still lacking to address this problem. b)The 'other' mantle reflectors: Dipping seismic reflectors in the mantle lithosphere that appear to sole into the lower crust are widely interpreted as fossil subduction zones. However, subhorizontal reflectors (and corresponding convertors on receiver functions) are more problematic to the tectonic analyst. Subhorizontal mantle events have been interpreted as the base of the lithosphere (which begs the question as to the nature of this key interface), detachment surfaces, or phase change boundaries. What kind of experiment is needed to identify the nature of such interfaces? c) The layered lower crust: intrusion complexes or strain fabrics? There is evidence to support both common interpretations, and they are far from mutually exclusive. The point raised here is that the utility of such reflectivity as strain indicators has not yet been exploited. S wave reflection methods widely used in resource

  6. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000027.htm Deep vein thrombosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. You were treated for deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ). This is a condition in ...

  7. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  8. Toxicity Profile and Pharmacokinetic Study of A Phase I Low-Dose Schedule-Dependent Radiosensitizing Paclitaxel Chemoradiation Regimen for Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuhchyau Pandya, Kishan J.; Feins, Richard; Johnstone, David W.; Watson, Thomas; Smudzin, Therese; Keng, Peter C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: We report the toxicity profile and pharmacokinetic data of a schedule-dependent chemoradiation regimen using pulsed low-dose paclitaxel for radiosensitization in a Phase I study for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Paclitaxel at escalating doses of 15 mg/m{sup 2}, 20 mg/m{sup 2}, and 25 mg/m{sup 2} were infused on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday with daily chest radiation in cohorts of 6 patients. Daily radiation was delayed for maximal G2/M arrest and apoptotic effect, an observation from preclinical investigations. Plasma paclitaxel concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Dose-limiting toxicities included 3 of 18 patients with Grade 3 pneumonitis and 3 of 18 patients with Grade 3 esophagitis. There was no Grade 4 or 5 pneumonitis or esophagitis. There was also no Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia or neuropathy. For Dose Levels I (15 mg/m{sup 2}), II (20 mg/m{sup 2}), and III (25 mg/m{sup 2}), the mean peak plasma level was 0.23 {+-} 0.06 {mu}mol/l, 0.32 {+-} 0.05 {mu}mol/l, and 0.52 {+-} 0.14 {mu}mol/l, respectively; AUC was 0.44 {+-} 0.09 {mu}mol/l, 0.61 {+-} 0.1 {mu}mol/l, and 0.96 {+-} 0.23 {mu}mol/l, respectively; and duration of drug concentration >0.05 {mu}mol/l (t > 0.05 {mu}mol/l) was 1.6 {+-} 0.3 h, 1.9 {+-} 0.2 h, and 3.0 {+-} 0.9 h, respectively. Conclusion: Pulsed low-dose paclitaxel chemoradiation is associated with low toxicity. Pharmacokinetic data showed that plasma paclitaxel concentration >0.05 {mu}mol/l for a minimum of 1.6 h was sufficient for effective radiosensitization.

  9. Deep atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H.; Drake, B.; Randall, C.; Hansma, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) possesses several desirable imaging features including the ability to produce height profiles as well as two-dimensional images, in fluid or air, at high resolution. AFM has been used to study a vast selection of samples on the scale of angstroms to micrometers. However, current AFMs cannot access samples with vertical topography of the order of 100 μm or greater. Research efforts have produced AFM scanners capable of vertical motion greater than 100 μm, but commercially available probe tip lengths are still typically less than 10 μm high. Even the longest probe tips are below 100 μm and even at this range are problematic. In this paper, we present a method to hand-fabricate “Deep AFM” probes with tips of the order of 100 μm and longer so that AFM can be used to image samples with large scale vertical topography, such as fractured bone samples.

  10. Deep Space Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  11. Deep Web video

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2009-06-01

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  12. Deep Web video

    ScienceCinema

    None Available

    2016-07-12

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  13. Modeling ocean deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A.; Hogan, P.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.; Montenegro, L. M.

    The goal of this study is to assess models for Deep Convection with special emphasis on their use in coarse resolution ocean general circulation models. A model for deep convection must contain both vertical transport and lateral advection by mesoscale eddies generated by baroclinic instabilities. The first process operates mostly in the initial phases while the second dominates the final stages. Here, the emphasis is on models for vertical mixing. When mesoscales are not resolved, they are treated with the Gent and McWilliams parameterization. The model results are tested against the measurements of Lavender, Davis and Owens, 2002 (LDO) in the Labrador Sea. Specifically, we shall inquire whether the models are able to reproduce the region of " deepest convection," which we shall refer to as DC (mixed layer depths 800-1300 m). The region where it was measured by Lavender et al. (2002) will be referred to as the LDO region. The main results of this study can be summarized as follows. 3° × 3° resolution. A GFDL-type OGCM with the GISS vertical mixing model predicts DC in the LDO region where the vertical heat diffusivity is found to be 10 m 2 s -1, a value that is quite close to the one suggested by heuristic studies. No parameter was changed from the original GISS model. However, the GISS model also predicts some DC in a region to the east of the LDO region. 3° × 3° resolution. A GFDL-type OGCM with the KPP model (everything else being the same) does not predict DC in the LDO region where the vertical heat diffusivity is found to be 0.5 × 10 -4 m 2 s -1 which is the background value. The KPP model yields DC only to the east of the LDO region. 1° × 1° resolution. In this case, a MY2.5 mixing scheme predicts DC in the LDO region. However, it also predicts DC to the west, north and south of it, where it is not observed. The behavior of the KPP and MY models are somewhat anti-symmetric. The MY models yield too low a mixing in stably stratified flows since they

  14. Cassini-VIMS observations of Saturn's main rings: I. Spectral properties and temperature radial profiles variability with phase angle and elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, G.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M. M.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Brown, R. H.; Cerroni, P.; Altobelli, N.; Spilker, L. J.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral properties and thermal behavior of Saturn's rings are determined from a dataset of ten radial mosaics acquired by Cassini-VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) between October 29th 2004 and January 27th 2010 with phase angle ranging between 5.7° and 132.4° and elevation angles between -23.5° and 2.6°. These observations, after reduction to spectrograms, e.g. 2D arrays containing the VIS-IR (0.35-5.1 μm) spectral information versus radial distance from Saturn (from 73.500 to 141.375 km, 400 km/bin), allow us to compare the derived spectral and thermal properties of the ring particles on a common reference. Spectral properties: rings spectra are characterized by an intense reddening at visible wavelengths while they maintain a strong similarity with water ice in the infrared domain. Significant changes in VIS reddening, water ice abundance and grain sizes are observed across different radial regions resulting in correlation with optical depth and local structures. The availability of observations taken at very different phase angles allows us to examine spectrophotometric properties of the ring's particles. When observed at high phase angles, a remarkable increase of visible reddening and water ice band depths is found, probably as a consequence of the presence of a red-colored contaminant intimately mixed within water ice grains and of multiple scattering. At low phases the analysis of the 3.2-3.6 μm range shows faint spectral signatures at 3.42-3.52 μm which are compatible with the CH2 aliphatic stretch. The 3.29 μm PAH aromatic stretch absorption is not clearly detectable on this dataset. VIMS results indicate that ring particles contain about 90-95% water ice while the remaining 5-10% is consistent with different contaminants like amorphous carbon or tholins. However, we cannot exclude the presence of nanophase iron or hematite produced by iron oxidation in the rings tenuous oxygen atmosphere, intimately mixed with the ice grains

  15. Optimization of the Current Ramp-up Phase in DIII-D via Physics-model-based Control of Plasma Safety Factor Profile Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, J. E.; Wehner, W. P.; Schuster, E.; Luce, T. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Ferron, J. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.

    2014-10-01

    Simulations and experimental results in DIII-D are presented to demonstrate the potential of physics-model-based control of the q profile to improve the reproducibility of plasma startup conditions by achieving a specified target q profile at the end of the current ramp-up. Three different q profiles (qmin of 1.3, 1.65, 2.1 and q95 of 4.4, 5.0, 6.2, respectively) were specified as targets. A feedforward + feedback scheme is utilized to control the q profile and is constructed by embedding a nonlinear, physics-based model of the q profile dynamics into the control design process. A unique characteristic of the feedforward trajectories obtained by solving the optimization problem is the regulation of the plasma current ramp-up rate to achieve the target q profiles. The feedback controller is employed to add robustness to the control scheme and account for drifts due to external plasma disturbances. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0001334, DE-SC0010661 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  16. Evaluation of mobile phase characteristics on three zwitterionic columns in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode for liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry based untargeted metabolite profiling of Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Watson, David G; Wang, Lijie; Westrop, Gareth D; Coombs, Graham H; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-03

    It has been reported that HILIC column chemistry has a great effect on the number of detected metabolites in LC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolite profiling studies. However, no systematic investigation has been carried out with regard to the optimisation of mobile phase characteristics. In this study using 223 metabolite standards, we explored the retention mechanisms on three zwitterionic columns with varied mobile phase composition, demonstrated the interference from poor chromatographic peak shapes on the output of data extraction, and assessed the quality of chromatographic signals and the separation of isomers under each LC condition. As expected, on the ZIC-cHILIC column the acidic metabolites showed improved chromatographic performance at low pH which can be attributed to the opposite arrangement of the permanently charged groups on this column in comparison with the ZIC-HILIC column. Using extracts from the protozoan parasite Leishmania, we compared the numbers of repeatedly detected LC-HRMS features under different LC conditions with putative identification of metabolites not amongst the standards being based on accurate mass (±3ppm). Besides column chemistry, the pH of the mobile phase plays a key role in not only determining the retention mechanisms of solutes but also the output of the LC-HRMS data processing. Fast evaporation of ammonium carbonate produced less ion suppression in ESI source and consequently improved the detectability of the metabolites in low abundance in comparison with other ammonium salts. Our results show that the combination of a ZIC-pHILIC column with an ammonium carbonate mobile phase, pH 9.2, at 20mM in the aqueous phase or 10mM in both aqueous and organic mobile phase components, provided the most suitable LC conditions for LC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolite profiling of Leishmania parasite extracts. The signal reliability of the mass spectrometer used in this study (Exactive Orbitrap) was also investigated.

  17. Experimental Profiling of a Non-truncated Focused Gaussian Beam and Fine-tuning of the Quadratic Phase in the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant

    SciTech Connect

    S., Juan Manuel Franco; Cywiak, Moises; Cywiak, David; Mourad, Idir

    2015-06-24

    A homodyne profiler is used for recording the intensity distribution of focused non-truncated Gaussian beams. The spatial distributions are obtained at planes in the vicinity of the back-focal plane of a focusing lens placed at different distances from a He–Ne laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. Comparisons of the experimental data with those obtained from the analytical equations for an ideal focusing lens allow us to propose formulae to fine-tune the quadratic term in the Fresnel Gaussian shape invariant at each interface of the propagated field. Furthermore, we give analytical expressions to calculate adequately the propagation of the field through an optical system.

  18. Comment on: "The spatial extent of the Deep Western Boundary Current into the Bounty Trough: new evidence from parasound sub-bottom profiling" by Horn and Uenzelmann-Neben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Neil C.

    2016-12-01

    Horn and Uenzelmann-Neben (2016) have described computing power spectra from sediment profiler data collected over the Bounty Trough from which they inferred Milankovic cycles. Sediment profiler records are routinely acquired on research vessels, so the method presented is interesting if it can help to resolve different influences on sediment deposits from such data. A significant concern, however, is that attenuation dominates the amplitude variation in profiler data, distorting power spectra computed over the sediment age intervals of interest. In the case of the Bounty Trough data shown, attenuation appears to have strongly varied amplitudes over the depth range commensurate with the first 41 ky Milankovic cycle, so the article's result is less certain than claimed. Attenuation rates can vary spatially (both along track and with depth) so evaluating cycles will not be straightforward without ground truth from boreholes, which potentially diminishes the utility of remote-sensing data. Nevertheless, while not separating attenuation and reflectivity unequivocally, alternative displays of such data as explained below can help to suggest the relative importance of attenuation and reflectivity on amplitude variations.

  19. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcner, J.; Jedelsky, J.; Lizal, F.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  20. Unexpected bismuth concentration profiles in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy-grown Ga(As{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x})/GaAs superlattices revealed by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Guan, Y.; Forghani, K.; Anand, A.; Kuech, T. F.

    2015-03-01

    A set of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs multilayer quantum-well structures was deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at 390 °C and 420 °C. The precursor fluxes were introduced with the intent of growing discrete and compositionally uniform GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} well and GaAs barrier layers in the epitaxial films. High-resolution high-angle annular-dark-field (or “Z-contrast”) scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed concentration profiles that were periodic in the growth direction, but far more complicated in shape than the intended square wave. The observed composition profiles could explain various reports of physical properties measurements that suggest compositional inhomogeneity in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys as they currently are grown.

  1. Ce 5d magnetic profile in Fe/Ce multilayers for the α and γ-like Ce phases by x-ray resonant magnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouen, N.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Raoux, D.; Bontempi, E.; Ortega, L.; Müenzenberg, M.; Felsch, W.; Rogalev, A.; Dürr, H. A.; Dudzik, E.; van der Laan, G.; Maruyama, H.; Suzuki, M.

    2002-10-01

    The in-depth distribution of the induced 5d magnetic moments across the Ce layers in Fe/Ce/La/Ce, Fe/La/Ce/La and Fe/CeH2-δ multilayers has been investigated by x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) at the Ce L2 edge. The determination of the composition profile across the period of the multilayer is required for a quantitative analysis of XRMS and has been derived from x-ray resonant reflectivity measurements. In Fe/Ce/La/Ce and Fe/La/Ce/La multilayers, Ce adopts an α-like electronic configuration and the local magnetization, across the Ce layer, is found to be highly nonuniform. The Ce 5d magnetic profile shows an oscillating behavior with an amplitude decreasing from the Fe interface in Fe/Ce/La/Ce. Conversely, in Fe/La/Ce/La, where the Ce atoms are not in direct contact with Fe atoms, it presents an oscillatory profile with, however, a nearly constant amplitude. In Fe/CeH2-δ multilayers, where hydrogen leads to a strain relaxation and to a 4f relocalization (Ce γ-like configuration), a nonoscillating decreasing profile has been observed. These experiments allow one to evidence an antiferromagnetic component in a α Ce ultrathin layer and a sharply decreasing induced magnetization due to 5d-3d hybridization at the interface.

  2. Identification of Deep Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    develop a ground truth dataset of earthquakes at both normal crustal depths and earthquakes from subduction zones , below the overlying crust. Many...deep earthquakes (depths between about 50 and 300 km). These deep earthquakes are known to occur in the Asia-India continental collision zone ...and/or NIL, as these stations are within a few hundred km of the zone where deep earthquakes are known to occur. To date we have selected about 300

  3. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-043016 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to...improve our understanding. During the past few years, the physics effects studied have been three-dimensional propagation on global scales, deep water

  4. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-19

    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-093015 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 30-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to develop

  5. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  6. Deep Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manshadi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    ITU defines deep space as the volume of Space at distances from the Earth equal to, or greater than, 2 106 km. Deep Space Spacecraft have to travel tens of millions of km from Earth to reach the nearest object in deep space. Spacecraft mass and power are precious. Large ground-based antennas and very high power transmitters are needed to overcome large space loss and spacecraft's small antennas and low power transmitters. Navigation is complex and highly dependent on measurements from the Earth. Every deep space mission is unique and therefore very costly to develop.

  7. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  8. A deep reef in deep trouble

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menza, Charles; Kendall, M.; Rogers, C.; Miller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The well-documented degradation of shallower reefs which are often closer to land and more vulnerable to pollution, sewage and other human-related stressors has led to the suggestion that deeper, more remote offshore reefs could possibly serve as sources of coral and fish larvae to replenish the shallower reefs. Yet, the distribution, status, and ecological roles of deep (>30 m) Caribbean reefs are not well known. In this report, an observation of a deep reef which has undergone a recent extensive loss of coral cover is presented. In stark contrast to the typical pattern of coral loss in shallow reefs, the deeper corals were most affected. This report is the first description of such a pattern of coral loss on a deep reef.

  9. Characterization of Deep Sea Fish Gut Bacteria with Antagonistic Potential, from Centroscyllium fabricii (Deep Sea Shark).

    PubMed

    Bindiya, E S; Tina, K J; Raghul, Subin S; Bhat, Sarita G

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial isolates from Centroscyllium fabricii (deep sea shark) gut were screened for antagonistic activity by cross-streak method and disc diffusion assay. This study focuses on strain BTSS-3, which showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus pumilus. BTSS3 was subjected to phenotypic characterization using biochemical tests, SEM imaging, exoenzyme profiling and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Bacillus, with high (98%) similarity to 16S rDNA sequences of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The chemical nature of the antibacterial substance was identified by treatment with proteolytic enzymes. The antibacterial activity was reduced by the action of these enzymes pointing out its peptide nature. It was observed from the growth and production kinetics that the bacteriocin was produced in the eighth hour of incubation, i.e., during the mid-log growth phase of the bacteria.

  10. Complex Variability of the Hα Emission Line Profile of the T Tauri Binary System KH 15D: The Influence of Orbital Phase, Occultation by the Circumbinary Disk, and Accretion Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N.

    2012-06-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e ~ 0.6, MA = 0.6 M ⊙, MB = 0.7 M ⊙). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The Hα line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to "edge effects" and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the Hα emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz & Lubow, Günther & Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  11. COMPLEX VARIABILITY OF THE H{alpha} EMISSION LINE PROFILE OF THE T TAURI BINARY SYSTEM KH 15D: THE INFLUENCE OF ORBITAL PHASE, OCCULTATION BY THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK, AND ACCRETION PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu E-mail: wherbst@wesleyan.edu

    2012-06-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e {approx} 0.6, M{sub A} = 0.6 M{sub Sun }, M{sub B} = 0.7 M{sub Sun }). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The H{alpha} line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to 'edge effects' and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the H{alpha} emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz and Lubow, Guenther and Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  12. Dining in the Deep: The Feeding Ecology of Deep-Sea Fishes.

    PubMed

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Sutton, Tracey T

    2017-01-03

    Deep-sea fishes inhabit ∼75% of the biosphere and are a critical part of deep-sea food webs. Diet analysis and more recent trophic biomarker approaches, such as stable isotopes and fatty-acid profiles, have enabled the description of feeding guilds and an increased recognition of the vertical connectivity in food webs in a whole-water-column sense, including benthic-pelagic coupling. Ecosystem modeling requires data on feeding rates; the available estimates indicate that deep-sea fishes have lower per-individual feeding rates than coastal and epipelagic fishes, but the overall predation impact may be high. A limited number of studies have measured the vertical flux of carbon by mesopelagic fishes, which appears to be substantial. Anthropogenic activities are altering deep-sea ecosystems and their services, which are mediated by trophic interactions. We also summarize outstanding data gaps.

  13. Dining in the Deep: The Feeding Ecology of Deep-Sea Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea fishes inhabit ˜75% of the biosphere and are a critical part of deep-sea food webs. Diet analysis and more recent trophic biomarker approaches, such as stable isotopes and fatty-acid profiles, have enabled the description of feeding guilds and an increased recognition of the vertical connectivity in food webs in a whole-water-column sense, including benthic-pelagic coupling. Ecosystem modeling requires data on feeding rates; the available estimates indicate that deep-sea fishes have lower per-individual feeding rates than coastal and epipelagic fishes, but the overall predation impact may be high. A limited number of studies have measured the vertical flux of carbon by mesopelagic fishes, which appears to be substantial. Anthropogenic activities are altering deep-sea ecosystems and their services, which are mediated by trophic interactions. We also summarize outstanding data gaps.

  14. Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Haddadi, Azita; Amin, Gholamreza; Nikan, Marjan; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME – GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and α- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays. PMID:24761118

  15. Hubble Deep Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Deep Fields are two small areas of the sky that were carefully selected for deep observations by the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST). They represent the deepest optical observations to date and reveal galaxies as faint as V=30, 4 billion times fainter than can be seen with the unaided eye....

  16. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  17. Deep-diving dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, John

    2012-08-01

    Dysbaric bone necrosis demonstrated in ichthyosaurs may be the result of prolonged deep diving rather than rapid ascent to escape predators. The bone lesions show structural and anatomical similarity to those that may occur in human divers and in the deep diving sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus.

  18. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition, research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is cited. Topics covered include: tracking and ground based navigation; spacecraft/ground communication; station control and operations technology; ground communications; and deep space stations.

  19. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The progress is reported of Deep Space Network (DSN) research in the following areas: (1) flight project support, (2) spacecraft/ground communications, (3) station control and operations technology, (4) network control and processing, and (5) deep space stations. A description of the DSN functions and facilities is included.

  20. Deep Impact Spots Quarry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine days before it gets up-close-and-personal with a comet, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft successfully photographed its quarry, comet Tempel 1, at a distance of 39.7 million miles. The image, taken on April 25, 2005, is the first of many comet portraits Deep Impact will take leading up to its historic comet encounter on July 4.

  1. Deep venous thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315257 . Kline JA. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 88. ... Instructions Deep vein thrombosis - discharge ...

  2. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  3. Development of an achiral supercritical fluid chromatography method with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection for impurity profiling of drug candidates. Part II. Selection of an orthogonal set of stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Lemasson, Elise; Bertin, Sophie; Hennig, Philippe; Boiteux, Hélène; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    Impurity profiling of organic products that are synthesized as possible drug candidates requires complementary analytical methods to ensure that all impurities are identified. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a very useful tool to achieve this objective, as an adequate selection of stationary phases can provide orthogonal separations so as to maximize the chances to see all impurities. In this series of papers, we have developed a method for achiral SFC-MS profiling of drug candidates, based on a selection of 160 analytes issued from Servier Research Laboratories. In the first part of this study, focusing on mobile phase selection, a gradient elution with carbon dioxide and methanol comprising 2% water and 20mM ammonium acetate proved to be the best in terms of chromatographic performance, while also providing good MS response [1]. The objective of this second part was the selection of an orthogonal set of ultra-high performance stationary phases, that was carried out in two steps. Firstly, a reduced set of analytes (20) was used to screen 23 columns. The columns selected were all 1.7-2.5μm fully porous or 2.6-2.7μm superficially porous particles, with a variety of stationary phase chemistries. Derringer desirability functions were used to rank the columns according to retention window, column efficiency evaluated with peak width of selected analytes, and the proportion of analytes successfully eluted with good peak shapes. The columns providing the worst performances were thus eliminated and a shorter selection of columns (11) was obtained. Secondly, based on 160 tested analytes, the 11 columns were ranked again. The retention data obtained on these columns were then compared to define a reduced set of the best columns providing the greatest orthogonality, to maximize the chances to see all impurities within a limited number of runs. Two high-performance columns were thus selected: ACQUITY UPC(2) HSS C18 SB and Nucleoshell HILIC.

  4. Differential expression profiles of Streptococcus mutans ftf, gtf and vicR genes in the presence of dietary carbohydrates at early and late exponential growth phases.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Moshe; Tam, Avshalom; Feldman, Mark; Steinberg, Doron

    2006-09-04

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases that affects humans. Streptococcus mutans, the main pathogenic bacterium associated with dental caries, produces a number of extracellular sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, such as glucosyltransferases (GTFB, GTFC and GTFD) and fructosyltransferase (FTF). The cooperative action of these enzymes is essential for sucrose-dependent cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. A global response regulator (vicR) plays important roles in S. mutans ftf and gtf expression in response to a variety of stimuli. A real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction was used to quantify the relative levels of ftf, gtfB, gtfC, gtfD and vicR transcription of S. mutans in the presence of various dietary carbohydrates: sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucitol (D-sorbitol), D-mannitol and xylitol. Ftf was highly expressed at late exponential phase in the presence of sorbitol and mannitol. GtfB was highly expressed in the presence of all the above carbohydrates except for xylitol at early exponential growth phase and glucose and fructose at late exponential growth phase. Similar to gtfB, the expression of gtfC was also induced with the presence of all the tested carbohydrates except for xylitol at early growth and glucose and fructose at late exponential phase. In addition, no effect of mannitol on gtfC expression at early exponential phase was observed. GtfD was less influenced compared to the gtfB and gtfC, demonstrating enhanced expression especially in the presence of sorbitol, glucose, mannitol and xylitol at early exponential phase and mannitol at late exponential phase. VicR expression was induced only at the presence of xylitol at late exponential phase, and a decrease in expression was recorded at early exponential phase. Our findings show that dietary carbohydrates have a major influence on the transcription of ftf, gtfB, gtfC and gtfD, but less on vicR. Sorbitol and mannitol, which are considered as noncariogenic

  5. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  6. Analysis of grating profiles of phase holograms recorded in silver halide emulsions and processed with combinations of various developers and bleaching agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyasz, Istvan

    2004-09-01

    A large number of plane-wave holograms were recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD holographic plates, at a wide range of bias exposures and fringe visibilities. The plates were processed by various combinations of developers (AAC, Pyrogallol and Catechol) and bleaching agents (R-9 and EDTA). The phase gratings were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using a high-power immersion (100 X) objective. The phase contrast photomicrographs were Fourier-analyzed. Thus first- second- and third-order modulation of the refractive index as a function of the bias exposure and the visibility of the recording interference pattern could be determined. The ratio of the amplitudes of the higher-order modulations to that of the first-order one can serve as a measure of the nonlinearity of the holographic recording.

  7. MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate pattern recognition analysis for the rapid biomarker profiling of Escherichia coli in different growth phases.

    PubMed

    Momo, Remi A; Povey, Jane F; Smales, C Mark; O'Malley, Christopher J; Montague, Gary A; Martin, Elaine B

    2013-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) has been exploited extensively in the field of microbiology for the characterisation of bacterial species, the detection of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and bacterial identification. Here, the multivariate data analysis technique of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to 'intact cell' MALDI-ToF MS data obtained from Escherichia coli cell samples to determine if such an approach could be used to distinguish between, and characterise, different growth phases. PLS-DA is a technique that has the potential to extract systematic variation from large and noisy data sets by identifying a lower-dimensional subspace that contains latent information. The application of PLS-DA to the MALDI-ToF data obtained from cells at different stages of growth resulted in the successful classification of the samples according to the growth phase of the bacteria cultures. A further outcome of the analysis was that it was possible to identify the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio peaks or ion signals that contributed to the classification of the samples. The Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL database and primary literature were then used to provisionally assign a small number of these m/z ion signals to proteins, and these tentative assignments revealed that the major contributors from the exponential phase were ribosomal proteins. Additional assignments were possible for the stationary phase and the decline phase cultures where the proteins identified were consistent with previously observed biological interpretation. In summary, the results show that MALDI-ToF MS, PLS-DA and a protein database search can be used in combination to discriminate between 'intact cell' E. coli cell samples in different growth phases and thus could potentially be used as a tool in process development in the bioprocessing industry to enhance cell growth and cell engineering strategies.

  8. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  9. State Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State-Federal Information Clearinghouse for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    State-by-state public policy profiles are provided by the Council for Exceptional Children's State-Federal Information Clearinghouse. These profiles summarize the present legal base for the delivery of educational services to handicapped children in the United States. Included in each profile is information from various avenues used to establish…

  10. Seafloor bathymetry in deep and shallow water marine CSEM responses of Nigerian Niger Delta oil field: Effects and corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folorunso, Adetayo Femi; Li, Yuguo

    2015-12-01

    Topography distortions in bathymetrically acquired marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) responses are capable of misleading interpretation to the presence or absence of the target if not corrected for. For this reason, the effects and correction of bathymetry distortions on the deep and shallow seafloor mCSEM responses of the Niger Delta Oil province were examined in this paper. Marine CSEM response of the Niger Delta geological structure was modelled by using a 2.5D adaptive finite element forward modelling code. In both the deep water and shallow water cases, the bathymetry distortions in the electric field amplitude and phase were found to get smaller with increasing Tx-Rx offsets and contain short-wavelength components in the amplitude curves which persist at all Tx-Rx offsets. In the deep water, topographic effects on the reservoir signatures are not significant, but as water depth reduces, bathymetric distortions become more significant as a result of the airwave effects, masking the target signatures. The correction technique produces a good agreement between the flat-seafloor reservoir model and its equivalent bathymetric model in deep water at 0.25 Hz, while in shallow water, the corrected response only shows good agreement at shorter offsets but becomes complicated at longer offsets due to airwave effects. Transmission frequency was extended above and below 0.25 Hz in the frequency spectrum and the correction method applied. The bathymetry correction at higher frequency (1.75 Hz) is not effective in removing the topographic effects in either deep or shallow water. At 0.05 Hz for both seafloor scenarios, we obtained the best corrected amplitude profiles, removing completely the distortions from both topographic undulation and airwave effects in the shallow water model. Overall, the work shows that the correction technique is effective in reducing bathymetric effects in deep water at medium frequency and in both deep and shallow waters at a low

  11. Dispersion retrieval from multi-level ultra-deep reactive-ion-etched microstructures for terahertz slow-wave circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Baik, Chan-Wook Young Ahn, Ho; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Hee Choi, Jun; Kim, Sunil; Hun Lee, Sang; Min Kim, Jong; Hwang, Sungwoo; Yeon Jun, So; Yu, SeGi; Lawrence Ives, R.

    2014-01-13

    A multi-level microstructure is proposed for terahertz slow-wave circuits, with dispersion relation retrieved by scattering parameter measurements. The measured return loss shows strong resonances above the cutoff with negligible phase shifts compared with finite element analysis. Splitting the circuit into multi levels enables a low aspect ratio configuration that alleviates the loading effect of deep-reactive-ion etching on silicon wafers. This makes it easier to achieve flat-etched bottom and smooth sidewall profiles. The dispersion retrieved from the measurement, therefore, corresponds well to the theoretical estimation. The result provides a straightforward way to the precise determination of dispersions in terahertz vacuum electronics.

  12. Adaptive Estimation of Personalized Maximum Tolerated Dose in Cancer Phase I Clinical Trials Based on All Toxicities and Individual Genomic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengjia; Li, Zheng; Zhuang, Run; Yuan, Ying; Kutner, Michael; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Curran, Walter J.; Kowalski, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Many biomarkers have been shown to be associated with the efficacy of cancer therapy. Estimation of personalized maximum tolerated doses (pMTDs) is a critical step toward personalized medicine, which aims to maximize the therapeutic effect of a treatment for individual patients. In this study, we have established a Bayesian adaptive Phase I design which can estimate pMTDs by utilizing patient biomarkers that can predict susceptibility to specific adverse events and response as covariates. Methods Based on a cutting-edge cancer Phase I clinical trial design called escalation with overdose control using normalized equivalent toxicity score (EWOC-NETS), which fully utilizes all toxicities, we propose new models to incorporate patient biomarker information in the estimation of pMTDs for novel cancer therapeutic agents. The methodology is fully elaborated and the design operating characteristics are evaluated with extensive simulations. Results Simulation studies demonstrate that the utilization of biomarkers in EWOC-NETS can estimate pMTDs while maintaining the original merits of this Phase I trial design, such as ethical constraint of overdose control and full utilization of all toxicity information, to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the pMTD estimation. Conclusions Our novel cancer Phase I designs with inclusion of covariate(s) in the EWOC-NETS model are useful to estimate a personalized MTD and have substantial potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drug treatment. PMID:28125617

  13. Solid phase microextraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for high-resolution metabolite profiling in apples: implementation of structured separations for optimization of sample preparation procedure in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Risticevic, Sanja; DeEll, Jennifer R; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-08-17

    Metabolomics currently represents one of the fastest growing high-throughput molecular analysis platforms that refer to the simultaneous and unbiased analysis of metabolite pools constituting a particular biological system under investigation. In response to the ever increasing interest in development of reliable methods competent with obtaining a complete and accurate metabolomic snapshot for subsequent identification, quantification and profiling studies, the purpose of the current investigation is to test the feasibility of solid phase microextraction for advanced fingerprinting of volatile and semivolatile metabolites in complex samples. In particular, the current study is focussed on the development and optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) - comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS) methodology for metabolite profiling of apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.). For the first time, GC × GC attributes in terms of molecular structure-retention relationships and utilization of two-dimensional separation space on orthogonal GC × GC setup were exploited in the field of SPME method optimization for complex sample analysis. Analytical performance data were assessed in terms of method precision when commercial coatings are employed in spiked metabolite aqueous sample analysis. The optimized method consisted of the implementation of direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) extraction mode and its application to metabolite profiling of apples, and resulted in a tentative identification of 399 metabolites and the composition of a metabolite database far more comprehensive than those obtainable with classical one-dimensional GC approaches. Considering that specific metabolome constituents were for the first time reported in the current study, a valuable approach for future advanced fingerprinting studies in the field of fruit biology is proposed. The current study also intensifies the understanding of SPME

  14. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-07-29

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies.

  15. 30 CFR 203.32 - What other requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? 203.32 Section 203.32 Mineral... Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.32 What other requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3...

  16. 30 CFR 203.32 - What other requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? 203.32 Section 203.32 Mineral... requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? (a) If a qualified ultra-deep well on your lease is within a unitized portion of your lease, the RSV...

  17. 30 CFR 203.32 - What other requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? 203.32 Section 203.32 Mineral... requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? (a) If a qualified ultra-deep well on your lease is within a unitized portion of your lease, the RSV...

  18. 30 CFR 203.32 - What other requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? 203.32 Section 203.32 Mineral... requirements or restrictions apply to royalty relief for a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? (a) If a qualified ultra-deep well on your lease is within a unitized portion of your lease, the RSV...

  19. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  20. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  1. Deep Space 1 Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The completely assembled Deep Space 1 (DS-1) technology demonstrator spacecraft. The DS-1 spacecraft incorporates a number of advanced technology concepts in its mission, but none so 'high profile' as its Ion propulsion system. The name itself evokes visions of Star Trek and science fiction fantasy, although the idea actually dates from the 1950s. However, unlike the 'Warp Drive' propulsion system that zings the fictional starship Enterprise across the cosmos in minutes, the almost imperceptible thrust from the ion propulsion system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs. Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.

  2. Comparing the sugar profiles and primary structures of alkali-extracted water-soluble polysaccharides in cell wall between the yeast and mycelial phases from Tremella fuciformis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanyu; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Liesheng; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    To gain insights into dimorphism, cell wall polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis strains were obtained from alkali-extracted water-soluble fractions PTF-M38 (from the mycelial form), PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 (from the yeast form) of T. fuciformis strains were used to gain some insights into dimorphism study. Their chemical properties and structural features were investigated using gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography, UV and IR spectrophotometry and Congo red binding reactions. The results indicated that the backbones of PTF-M38, PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 were configured with α-linkages with average molecular weights of 1.24, 1.08, and 1.19 kDa, respectively. PTF-M38 was mainly composed of xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a ratio of 1:1.47:0.48:0.34, while PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 were mainly composed of xylose, mannose and glucose in a ratio of 1:1.65:4.06 and 1:1.21:0.44, respectively. The sugar profiles of PTF-M38, PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 were also established for further comparison. These profiles showed that all three polysaccharides contained the same sugars but in different ratios, and the carbon sources (xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose) affected the sugar ratios within the polysaccharides.

  3. Informatic interrogation of CSF proteomic profiles from HIV-infected subjects implicates acute phase and complement systems in shifting cognitive status.

    PubMed

    Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena; Lamberty, Benjamin; Dickens, Alex M; Mielke, Michelle M; Marcotte, Thomas; Sacktor, Ned; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, D; Cibrowski, Pawel; Tharakan, Ravi; McArthur, Justin C; Fox, Howard; Haughey, Norman J

    2017-04-10

    The prevalence of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) has not changed considerably in the last two decades. Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shifted the severity of HAND to milder phenotypes, but excess morbidity and mortality continue to be associated with HAND. Changes in numerous markers of immune function, inflammation and cellular stress have been repeatedly associated with HAND but the underlying systems that drive these changes have not been identified. In this study we used systems informatics to interrogate the CSF proteomic content of longitudinal samples obtained from HIV-infected adults with stably unimpaired, stably impaired, worsening, or improving neurocognitive (NC) performance. The patterns of change in CSF protein content implicated the induction of acute phase and complement systems as important regulators of NC status. Worsening NC performance was preceded by induction of acute phase and complement systems, while improving NC performance was preceded by a downregulation of these systems.

  4. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  5. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  6. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP.

  7. Artemisinin mimics calorie restriction to extend yeast lifespan via a dual-phase mode: a conclusion drawn from global transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Wang, DaTing; Wu, Ming; Li, SiMing; Gao, Qian; Zeng, QingPing

    2015-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) promotes longevity among distinct organisms from yeast to mammals. Although CR-prolonged lifespan is believed to associate with enhanced respiratory activity, it is apparently controversial for accelerated energy consumption regardless of insufficient nutrient intake. In reconciling the contradiction of less food supply versus much metabolite dispense, we revealed a CR-based mode of dual-phase responses that encompass a phase of mitochondrial enhancement (ME) and a phase of post-mitochondrial enhancement (PME), which can be distinguished by the expression patterns and activity dynamics of mitochondrial signatures. ME is characterized by global antioxidative activation, and PME is denoted by systemic metabolic modulation. CR-mediated aging-delaying effects are replicated by artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of the antimalarial artemisinin that can alkylate heme-containing proteins, suggesting artesunate-heme conjugation functionally resembles nitric oxide-heme interaction. A correlation of artesunate-heme conjugation with cytochrome c oxidase activation has been established from adduct formation and activity alteration. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide also mimics CR to trigger antioxidant responses, affect signaling cascades, and alter respiratory rhythms, implying hydrogen peroxide is engaged in lifespan extension. Conclusively, artesunate mimics CR-triggered nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide to induce antioxidative networks for scavenging reactive oxygen species and mitigating oxidative stress, thereby directing metabolic conversion from anabolism to catabolism, maintaining essential metabolic functionality, and extending life expectancy in yeast.

  8. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are emphasized.

  9. Nurturing Deep Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Rachael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the missing ingredient in school reform is soul, that is, deep connections among students, teachers, and administrators. Discusses five principles of leadership with soul: Personalize, pacing, permission, protection, and paradox. (PKP)

  10. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are considered. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported.

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism. Sitting still for a long time can make ...

  12. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The facilities, programming system, and monitor and control system for the deep space network are described. Ongoing planetary and interplanetary flight projects are reviewed, along with tracking and ground-based navigation, communications, and network and facility engineering.

  13. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps reduce the chances that your blood will pool and clot. You should wear these stockings during ... Make lifestyle changes. Lose weight and quit smoking. Obesity and smoking increase your risk of deep vein ...

  14. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology, advanced development, engineering and implementation, and DSN operations is presented. The functions and facilities of the DSN are described.

  15. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of the Deep Space Networks progress in (1) flight project support, (2) tracking and data acquisition research and technology, (3) network engineering, (4) hardware and software implementation, and (5) operations.

  16. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The various systems and subsystems are discussed for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A description of the DSN is presented along with mission support, program planning, facility engineering, implementation and operations.

  17. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Deep Space Network progress report is presented dealing with in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  18. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized along with deep space station, ground communication, and network operations control capabilities. Mission support of ongoing planetary/interplanetary flight projects is discussed with emphasis on Viking orbiter radio frequency compatibility tests, the Pioneer Venus orbiter mission, and Helios-1 mission status and operations. Progress is also reported in tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  19. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  20. Diagnosing Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, D. Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Patients often present with unexplained lower limb pain and swelling. It is important to exclude deep venous thrombosis in the diagnosis because of the threat of sudden death. Simple clinical diagnosis is unacceptable, and noninvasive tests should be used initially. Serial testing detects proximal extension of isolated calf thrombi. Multiple diagnostic modalities are employed to diagnose a new deep venous thrombosis in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. PMID:21221369

  1. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization, of the Deep Space Network are summarized. Deep Space stations, ground communications, and network operations control capabilities are described. The network is designed for two-way communications with unmanned spacecraft traveling approximately 1600 km from earth to the farthest planets in the solar system. It has provided tracking and data acquisition support for the following projects: Ranger, Surveyor, Mariner, Pioneer, Apollo, Helios, Viking, and the Lunar Orbiter.

  2. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  3. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  4. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  5. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  6. Transcriptome-Wide Comparative Analysis of microRNA Profiles in the Telogen Skins of Liaoning Cashmere Goats (Capra hircus) and Fine-Wool Sheep (Ovis aries) by Solexa Deep Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Qu, HaiE; Jiang, Huaizhi; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhang, Qiaoling

    2016-11-01

    Compare the microRNA (miRNA) trancriptomes of goat and sheep skin using Solexa sequencing to understand the development of skin and hair follicles (HFs). miRNA expression patterns vary in the two small RNA libraries from goat (G library) and sheep (S library) telogen skin samples. Analysis of the size distribution of 25.32 million clean reads revealed that most are 21-23 nucleotides. A total of 1910 known miRNAs and 2261 novel mature miRNAs were identified in this study. Among them, 107 novel miRNAs and 1246 known miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two libraries; 10 of the known miRNAs were identified using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, GO and KEGG pathway analysis of predicted miRNA targets illustrated the roles of these differentially expressed miRNAs in telogen HF development and growth. This study provides important information about the role of miRNAs in the regulation of HF development and their function in the telogen phase. This observation may help future investigations of the regulation of miRNAs during wool quality improvement.

  7. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  8. Vertical velocities associated with deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea as indirectly observed by gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Legland, Guillaume; Mortier, Laurent; Houpert, Loïc; Prieur, Louis

    2014-05-01

    During winter 2012-2013, deep open-ocean convection occurred in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) and has been thoroughly documented thanks to the deployment of several gliders at the same time, Argo profiling floats, dedicated ship cruises, and a mooring located within the mixed patch. The data collected represent an unprecedented density of profiles during a event of open-ocean deep convection. We applied a method able to infer the vertical velocity signal from the glider navigation data. During active phase of mixing, the gliders faced significant vertical velocities (upward and downward displacement stronger than 10cm/s). Moving along a saw-tooth trajectory between the surface and 1000m, they could cross small scale convective plumes (L~1km) over a dive or ascent (2km and 2h between the surface and maximum depth), while recording temperature and salinity, as well as biogeochemical properties (dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity, ...). Our study provides a comprehensive dataset to get a characterization of convective plumes and a deeper understanding of their role in deep open-ocean convection.

  9. Modeling of the corrected D st * index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.

    2015-03-01

    A modeling of the corrected (taking into account the magnetopause currents [9]) D st * index during the main phase of magnetic storms generated by four types of the solar wind (SW), namely MC (10 storms), CIR (28 storms), Sheath (21 storms), and Ejecta (31 storms), is performed similarly to our previous work on the simple D st index [8]. The "Catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena during 1976-2000" ([1], ftp://ftp.iki.rssi.ru/pub/omni/) prepared on the basis of the OMNI database, was used for the identification of SW types. The time behavior of D st * is approximated by a linear dependence on the integral electric field (sum E y ), dynamic pressure ( P d ), and fluctuation level (s B) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Three types of D st * modeling are performed: (1) by individual values of the approximation coefficients; (2) by approximation coefficients averaged over SW type, and (3) in the same way as in (2) but with allowance for the D st *-index values preceding the beginning of the main phase of the magnetic storm. The results of modeling the corrected D st * index are compared to modeling of the usual D st index. In the conditions of a strong statistical scatter of the approximation coefficients, the use of D st instead of D st * insignificantly influences the accuracy of the modeling and correlation coefficient.

  10. Time Course Exo-Metabolomic Profiling in the Green Marine Macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) for Identification of Growth Phase-Dependent Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Alsufyani, Taghreed; Weiss, Anne; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The marine green macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) lives in a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria that influence growth, development, and morphogenesis. We surveyed changes in Ulva’s chemosphere, which was defined as a space where organisms interact with each other via compounds, such as infochemicals, nutrients, morphogens, and defense compounds. Thereby, Ulva mutabilis cooperates with bacteria, in particular, Roseovarius sp. strain MS2 and Maribacter sp. strain MS6 (formerly identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6). Without this accompanying microbial flora, U. mutabilis forms only callus-like colonies. However, upon addition of the two bacteria species, in effect forming a tripartite community, morphogenesis can be completely restored. Under this strictly standardized condition, bioactive and eco-physiologically-relevant marine natural products can be discovered. Solid phase extracted waterborne metabolites were analyzed using a metabolomics platform, facilitating gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, combined with the necessary acquisition of biological metadata. Multivariate statistics of the GC-MS and LC-MS data revealed strong differences between Ulva’s growth phases, as well as between the axenic Ulva cultures and the tripartite community. Waterborne biomarkers, including glycerol, were identified as potential indicators for algal carbon source and bacterial-algal interactions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that U. mutabilis releases glycerol that can be utilized for growth by Roseovarius sp. MS2. PMID:28075408

  11. Stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David C.; Akylas, T. R.

    2002-02-01

    The stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water is numerically investigated using the full nonlinear water-wave equations with surface tension. Out of the two solution branches that bifurcate at the minimum gravity capillary phase speed, solitary waves of depression are found to be stable both in the small-amplitude limit when they are in the form of wavepackets and at finite steepness when they consist of a single trough, consistent with observations. The elevation-wave solution branch, on the other hand, is unstable close to the bifurcation point but becomes stable at finite steepness as a limit point is passed and the wave profile features two well-separated troughs. Motivated by the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), we also consider the forced problem of a localized pressure distribution applied to the free surface of a stream with speed below the minimum gravity capillary phase speed. We find that the finite-amplitude forced solitary-wave solution branch computed by Vanden-Broeck & Dias (1992) is unstable but the branch corresponding to Rayleigh’s linearized solution is stable, in agreement also with a weakly nonlinear analysis based on a forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The significance of viscous effects is assessed using the approach proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1997): while for free elevation waves the instability predicted on the basis of potential-flow theory is relatively weak compared with viscous damping, the opposite turns out to be the case in the forced problem when the forcing is strong. In this régime, which is relevant to the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), the effects of instability can easily dominate viscous effects, and the results of the stability analysis are used to propose a theoretical explanation for the persistent unsteadiness of the forced wave profiles observed in the experiments.

  12. Approaching marine bioprospecting in hexacorals by RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Steinar D; Emblem, Ase; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Okkenhaug, Siri; Hansen, Hilde; Moum, Truls; Coucheron, Dag H; Seternes, Ole Morten

    2010-07-31

    RNA deep sequencing represents a new complementary approach in marine bioprospecting. Next-generation sequencing platforms have recently been developed for de novo whole transcriptome analysis, small RNA discovery and gene expression profiling. Deep sequencing transcriptomics (sequencing the complete set of cellular transcripts at a specific stage or condition) leads to sequential identification of all expressed genes in a sample. When combined to high-throughput bioinformatics and protein synthesis, RNA deep sequencing represents a new powerful approach in gene product discovery and bioprospecting. Here we summarize recent progress in the analyses of hexacoral transcriptomes with the focus on cold-water sea anemones and related organisms.

  13. Seismic and gravimetric monitoring of deep creep in rock slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, E.; Pregesbauer, M.; Ullrich, C.

    2003-04-01

    geophysical monitoring methods. We decided to observe gravity changes which can be related to the change of the total water content in the fractured rock mass. From synthetic models we may expect gravity changes up to 1 gu. On the site of Gradenbach a gravity network for relative gravity measurements has been installed comprising 14 stations, 5 thereof on the mass movement. From August 2000 to October 2002 seven gravity campaigns were carried out in this network with an accuracy of +/- 0.03 gu. The gravity changes due to mass changes in the subsurface are up to 0.2 gu. From the seismic exploration of Gradenbach we have estimates of the porosity-depth profile. Implementing this data the gravity changes are modeled by variations of the ground water table. Up to now, the seismic and the gravimetric monitoring programs had the character of pilot studies. The extension of these pilot studies to a continuous, long time monitoring including phases of accelerating movements is an essential task for the future. References: Brückl, E., 2001, Cause-effect models of large landslides. Natural Hazards, 23, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 291-314. Brunner, F. K., Hartinger, H. and Richter, B., 2000, Continuous monitoring of landslides using GPS: a progress report. in Geophysical Aspects of Mass Movements, Bauer, S. J. and Weber, F. (Eds.), Austrian Academy of Sciences, 51-60. Rott, H., Mayer, C. and Siegel, A., 2000, Monitoring slope motion and surface deformation by means of radar interferometry. in Geophysical Aspects of Mass Movements, Bauer, S. J. and Weber, F. (Eds.), Austrian Academy of Sciences, 75-88.

  14. Cinnamaldehyde Characterization as an Antibacterial Agent toward E. coli Metabolic Profile Using 96-Blade Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Bojko, Barbara; Bessonneau, Vincent; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-03-04

    Sampling and sample preparation plays an important role in untargeted analysis as it influences final composition of the analyzed extract and consequently reflection of the metabolome. In the current work, mechanism of bactericidal action of cinnamaldehyde (CA) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) during bacteria growth applying high-throughput solid-phase microextraction in direct immersion mode coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was investigated. Numerous discriminant metabolites due to CA addition to the bacteria culture were mapped in the E. coli metabolic pathways. We propose new metabolic pathways confirming that CA acts as an oxidative stress agent against E. coli. The results of the current research have successfully demonstrated that CA changes the bacterial metabolism through interactions with different biochemical families such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, which needs further validation by proteomics and transcriptomics studies. The results presented here show the great potential of the novel approach in drug discovery and food safety.

  15. Dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a powerful tool to differentiate banana cultivars based on their volatile metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Marisela; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2012-10-15

    In this study the effect of the cultivar on the volatile profile of five different banana varieties was evaluated and determined by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (dHS-SPME) combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (1D-GC-qMS). This approach allowed the definition of a volatile metabolite profile to each banana variety and can be used as pertinent criteria of differentiation. The investigated banana varieties (Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Maçã, Ouro and Platano) have certified botanical origin and belong to the Musaceae family, the most common genomic group cultivated in Madeira Island (Portugal). The influence of dHS-SPME experimental factors, namely, fibre coating, extraction time and extraction temperature, on the equilibrium headspace analysis was investigated and optimised using univariate optimisation design. A total of 68 volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) were tentatively identified and used to profile the volatile composition in different banana cultivars, thus emphasising the sensitivity and applicability of SPME for establishment of the volatile metabolomic pattern of plant secondary metabolites. Ethyl esters were found to comprise the largest chemical class accounting 80.9%, 86.5%, 51.2%, 90.1% and 6.1% of total peak area for Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Ouro, Maçã and Platano volatile fraction, respectively. Gas chromatographic peak areas were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and stepwise linear discriminant analysis) in order to visualise clusters within samples and to detect the volatile metabolites able to differentiate banana cultivars. The application of the multivariate analysis on the VOMs data set resulted in predictive abilities of 90% as evaluated by the cross-validation procedure.

  16. Development of a lipid profiling system using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry with rapid polarity switching and an automated lipid identification software.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takayuki; Uchikata, Takato; Sakamoto, Shigeru; Yokoi, Yasuto; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2013-05-31

    Lipidomics requires accurate lipid profiling, which until recently has been challenging at best. In the present study, we developed a practical workflow for high-throughput and exhaustive lipid profiling by combining reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry, with an automated lipid identification software. This validated method enables highly sensitive and simultaneous analysis of lipids with varying polarities such as glycerophospholipids and sphingophospholipids, by switching the acquisition polarities in mass spectrometry. In addition, it facilitates data-dependent MS(2) analysis targeting the lipid molecular species without any influence from other ions by setting the inclusion list, the target m/z list for the product ion scanning. The m/z values of the target lipid molecular species, stored in the database of Lipid Search software, are added to the inclusion list. Moreover, optimizing the identification conditions of the software for the LC/MS system enables high-throughput and accurate identification of lipid molecular species existing in biological samples. Specifically, LC separation is essential for accurate identification of lipid molecular species that possess some fatty acid chains, because it can be difficult to determine fatty acid chain composition of detected molecular species especially in triacylglycerol compounds in direct infusion mass spectrometry. This method has high reproducibility and can be used for structural analysis even for low-abundance compounds. Using this method, over 400 lipid compounds targeted in this research were detected and identified from a sample of mouse plasma. This result indicates that the LC/MS method in the present study enables efficient lipid profiling.

  17. Deep pulverization along active faults ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pulverization is a intensive damage observed along some active faults. Rarely found in the field, it has been associated with dynamic damage produced by large earthquakes. Pulverization has been so far only described at the ground surface, consistent with the high frequency tensile loading expected for earthquake occurring along bimaterial faults. However, we discuss here a series of hints suggesting that pulverization is expected also several hundred of meters deep. In the deep well drilled within Nojima fault after the 1995 Kobe earthquake, thin sections reveal non localized damage, with microfractured pervading a sample, but with little shear disturbing the initial microstructure. In the SAFOD borehole drilled near Parkfield, Wiersberg and Erzinger (2008) made gas monitoring while drilling found large amount of H2 gas in the sandstone west to the fault. They attribute this high H2 concentration to mechanochemical origin, in accordance with some example of diffuse microfracturing found in thin sections from cores of SAFOD phase 3 and from geophysical data from logs. High strain rate experiments in both dry (Yuan et al, 2011) and wet samples (Forquin et al, 2010) show that even under confining pressures of several tens of megapascals, diffuse damage similar to pulverization is possible. This could explain the occurrence of pulverization at depth.

  18. Targeting high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with high-resolution radical scavenging profiles-Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii.

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Kajula, Marena; Mattila, Sampo; Staerk, Dan

    2013-08-09

    The high-resolution radical scavenging profile of an extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii was used to target analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, for identification of anti-oxidative secondary metabolites. This revealed the two chromatographic peaks with the highest relative response in the radical scavenging profile to be griseophenone C and peniprequinolone. The HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis was performed in the tube-transfer mode using a cryogenically cooled NMR probe designed for 1.7mm NMR tubes. To further explore the potential of the above HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform for analysis of endophytic extracts, six peaks displaying no radical scavenging activity were also analyzed. This allowed unambiguous identification of six metabolites, i.e., dechlorogriseofulvin, dechlorodehydrogriseofulvin, griseofulvin, dehydrogriseofulvin, mevastatin acid, and mevastatin. The high mass sensitivity of the 1.7mm cryogenically cooled NMR probe allowed for the first time acquisition of direct detected (13)C NMR spectra of fungal metabolites, i.e., dechlorogriseofulvin and griseofulvin, directly from crude extract via HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Dechlorodehydrogriseofulvin was reported for the first time from nature.

  19. Phase analysis method for burst onset prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellino, Flavio; Mazzoni, Alberto; Storace, Marco

    2017-02-01

    The response of bursting neurons to fluctuating inputs is usually hard to predict, due to their strong nonlinearity. For the same reason, decoding the injected stimulus from the activity of a bursting neuron is generally difficult. In this paper we propose a method describing (for neuron models) a mechanism of phase coding relating the burst onsets with the phase profile of the input current. This relation suggests that burst onset may provide a way for postsynaptic neurons to track the input phase. Moreover, we define a method of phase decoding to solve the inverse problem and estimate the likelihood of burst onset given the input state. Both methods are presented here in a unified framework, describing a complete coding-decoding procedure. This procedure is tested by using different neuron models, stimulated with different inputs (stochastic, sinusoidal, up, and down states). The results obtained show the efficacy and broad range of application of the proposed methods. Possible applications range from the study of sensory information processing, in which phase-of-firing codes are known to play a crucial role, to clinical applications such as deep brain stimulation, helping to design stimuli in order to trigger or prevent neural bursting.

  20. The Deep Space Network stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1995-01-01

    A stability analyzer for testing NASA Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments is described. The stability analyzer provides realtime measurements of signal properties of general experimental interest: power, phase, and amplitude spectra; Allan deviation; and time series of amplitude, phase shift, and differential phase shift. Input ports are provided for up to four 100 MHz frequency standards and eight baseband analog (greater than 100 kHz bandwidth) signals. Test results indicate the following upper bounds to noise floors when operating on 100 MHz signals: -145 dBc/Hz for phase noise spectrum further than 200 Hz from carrier, 2.5 x 10(exp -15) (tau =1 second) and 1.5 x 10(exp -17) (tau =1000 seconds) for Allan deviation, and 1 x 10(exp -4) degrees for 1-second averages of phase deviation. Four copies of the stability analyzer have been produced, plus one transportable unit for use at non-NASA observatories.

  1. Solid-phase extraction approach for phospholipids profiling by titania-coated silica microspheres prior to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Juan; Xue, Yun; Yao, Kai; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao; Wang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A novel strategy for selectively adsorbing phospholipids (PLs) on titania-coated silica core-shell microspheres (TiO2/SiO2) was developed. The TiO2/SiO2 microspheres were prepared through water-vapor-induced internal hydrolysis and then characterized by SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. Analyses showed that the titania layer was uniformly distributed onto the surface of silica particles. The TiO2/SiO2 microspheres were employed as sorbent in solid-phase extraction (SPE), and their absorptive ability was investigated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (RPLC-ELSD). Important factors that affect the extraction, such as loading buffer, eluting buffer, and elution volume, were investigated in detail and optimized by using standard samples. Results reveal that the developed SPE approach had higher recoveries for PLs than that based on pure TiO2 particles. The proposed SPE method was used for extraction of PLs from serum and showed great potential for identifying more kinds of endogenous PL metabolites by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS). The proposed SPE method with the composite sorbent was used to screen PLs from a biological matrix with high selectivity and efficiency. This approach is a promising method for selective extraction of PLs in lipidomics or phospholipidomics.

  2. Doppler wind profile experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The data collection phase of a Doppler wind measurement experiment supported by high-resolution Jimsphere/FPS-16 wind data and Windsonde data was carried out at the Kennedy Space Center in February, March and early April of 1985. The Doppler wind measurements were made using a hybrid doppler profiler put in place by the Johnson Space Center and a SOUSY profiler operated by Radian Corporation. Both systems operated at 50 Mhz. Although the doppler profiler systems were located 10 km apart to enable concurrent operation of the systems for data comparison, little concurrent data were obtained due to set-up delays with the SOUSY system, and system problems with the WPL system during the last month of the test. During the test period, special serial Jimsphere soundings were taken at two-hour intervals on six days in March and April in addition to balloon soundings taken in support of the Shuttle launch operations. In addition, there is temperature, moisture and wind information available from the daily morning Radiosonde sounding taken at the Kennedy site. The balloon release point was at the same location as the SOUSY profiler. Vertical resolution of the SOUSY profiler was 150 M to approximately 20 km. The vertical resolution of the WPL profiler was 290 M to 10 km and 870 M to 17 km. Winds determined form the Jimsphere balloon have a vertical resolution of 30 M.

  3. 30 CFR 203.35 - What administrative steps must I take to use the RSV earned by a qualified phase 2 or phase 3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the RSV earned by a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? 203.35 Section 203.35 Mineral... Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.35 What administrative steps must I take to use the RSV earned by a qualified phase 2 or phase 3 ultra-deep well? To...

  4. Deep space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Srinivasan, Meera; Shaw, Matthew; Piazzolla, Sabino; Wright, Malcolm W.; Farr, William H.

    2016-03-01

    A number of laser communication link demonstrations from near Earth distances extending out to lunar ranges have been remarkably successful, demonstrating the augmented channel capacity that is accessible with the use of lasers for communications. The next hurdle on the path to extending laser communication and its benefits throughout the solar system and beyond is to demonstrate deep-space laser communication links. In this paper, concepts and technology development being advanced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in order to enable deep-space link demonstrations to ranges of approximately 3 AU in the next decade, will be discussed.

  5. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  6. The deep penetrating nevus.

    PubMed

    Strazzula, Lauren; Senna, Maryanne Makredes; Yasuda, Mariko; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-12-01

    The deep penetrating nevus (DPN), also known as the plexiform spindle cell nevus, is a pigmented lesion that commonly arises on the head and neck in the first few decades of life. Histopathologically, the DPN is wedge-shaped and contains melanocytes that exhibit deep infiltration into the dermis. Given these features, DPN may clinically and histopathologically mimic malignant melanoma, sparking confusion about the appropriate evaluation and management of these lesions. The goal of this review is to summarize the clinical and histopathological features of DPN and to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for dermatologists.

  7. 234U /238U and 230Th /234U activity ratios in mineral phases of a lateritic weathered zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowson, Richard T.; Short, Stephen A.; Davey, Brian G.; Gray, David J.

    1986-08-01

    A selective phase extraction procedure was developed for the identification of the significant phases of a typical deep soil profile sampled in the vicinity of the Ranger No. 1 uranium ore body, Alligator Rivers region, N.T., Australia. The significant phases were identified as amorphous iron oxide, crystalline iron oxide and a clay/quartz resistate. The distribution of 238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra between the phases was measured. The results indicated that the amorphous iron oxide phase is in adsorption/desorption equilibrium with the ground water. The crystalline iron oxide phase contains a chemical control, the kinetics of which are commensurate with or less than the half-life of 230Th (7.52 × 10 4 y). The clay/quartz resistate is enriched in 238U descendants in such a way that they are not readily accessible to the ground water.

  8. Phase I Study Assessing the Pharmacokinetic Profile, Safety, and Tolerability of a Single Dose of Ceftazidime-Avibactam in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jon; Arrieta, Antonio; Bishai, Raafat; Das, Shampa; Delair, Shirley; Edeki, Timi; Holmes, William C.; Li, Jianguo; Moffett, Kathryn S.; Mukundan, Deepa; Perez, Norma; Romero, José R.; Speicher, David; Sullivan, Janice E.; Zhou, Diansong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of a single dose of ceftazidime-avibactam in pediatric patients. A phase I, multicenter, open-label PK study was conducted in pediatric patients hospitalized with an infection and receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. Patients were enrolled into four age cohorts (cohort 1, ≥12 to <18 years; cohort 2, ≥6 to <12 years; cohort 3, ≥2 to <6 years; cohort 4, ≥3 months to <2 years). Patients received a single 2-h intravenous infusion of ceftazidime-avibactam (cohort 1, 2,000 to 500 mg; cohort 2, 2,000 to 500 mg [≥40 kg] or 50 to 12.5 mg/kg [<40 kg]; cohorts 3 and 4, 50 to 12.5 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected to describe individual PK characteristics for ceftazidime and avibactam. Population PK modeling was used to describe characteristics of ceftazidime and avibactam PK across all age groups. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Thirty-two patients received study drug. Mean plasma concentration-time curves, geometric mean maximum concentration (Cmax), and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞) were similar across all cohorts for both drugs. Six patients (18.8%) reported an adverse event, all mild or moderate in intensity. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred. The single-dose PK of ceftazidime and avibactam were comparable between each of the 4 age cohorts investigated and were broadly similar to those previously observed in adults. No new safety concerns were identified. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01893346.) PMID:27503642

  9. Leadership Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teach, Beverly; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents profiles of two leaders in the field of educational media and technology: Carolyn Guss and Mendel Sherman, both retired professors from Indiana University's program in Information Systems Technology. (KRN)

  10. Leadership Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents profiles of three leaders in the field of educational media and technology: Robert Mills Gagne, Florida State University; Robert Heinich, Indiana University; and Charles Francis Schuller, University of Georgia. (SLW)

  11. Biophysical Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Rh positive Worrisome results from other prenatal tests Your health care provider might also recommend a biophysical profile if ... the test and at regular intervals during the test. Your health care provider or a member of your health care ...

  12. Reading Knee-Deep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading…

  13. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Work accomplished on the Deep Space Network (DSN) was described, including the following topics: supporting research and technology, advanced development and engineering, system implementation, and DSN operations pertaining to mission-independent or multiple-mission development as well as to support of flight projects.

  14. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  15. Teaching for Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tracy Wilson; Colby, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research focused on students' depth of learning as well as teachers' efforts to foster deep learning. Findings from a study examining the teaching practices and student learning outcomes of sixty-four teachers in seventeen different states (Smith et al. 2005) indicated that most of the learning in these classrooms…

  16. Development of a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled to GC-qMSD for evaluation the chemical profile in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F; Caldeira, M; Câmara, J S

    2008-02-18

    In the present study, a simple and sensitive methodology based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography with quadrupole mass detection (GC-qMSD), was developed and optimized for the determination of volatile (VOCs) and semi-volatile (SVOCs) compounds from different alcoholic beverages: wine, beer and whisky. Key experimental factors influencing the equilibrium of the VOCs and SVOCs between the sample and the SPME fibre, as the type of fibre coating, extraction time and temperature, sample stirring and ionic strength, were optimized. The performance of five commercially available SPME fibres was evaluated and compared, namely polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 microm); polyacrylate (PA, 85 microm); polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB, 65 microm); carboxentrade mark/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS, 75 microm) and the divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS, 50/30 microm) (StableFlex). An objective comparison among different alcoholic beverages has been established in terms of qualitative and semi-quantitative differences on volatile and semi-volatile compounds. These compounds belong to several chemical families, including higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters, carbonyl compounds, furanic compounds, terpenoids, C13-norisoprenoids and volatile phenols. The optimized extraction conditions and GC-qMSD, lead to the successful identification of 44 compounds in white wines, 64 in beers and 104 in whiskys. Some of these compounds were found in all of the examined beverage samples. The main components of the HS-SPME found in white wines were ethyl octanoate (46.9%), ethyl decanoate (30.3%), ethyl 9-decenoate (10.7%), ethyl hexanoate (3.1%), and isoamyl octanoate (2.7%). As for beers, the major compounds were isoamyl alcohol (11.5%), ethyl octanoate (9.1%), isoamyl acetate (8.2%), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (5.9%), and octanoic acid (5

  17. Transcriptomic Profile of Whole Blood Cells from Elderly Subjects Fed Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) in a Phase I Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Molokin, Aleksey; Botelho, Christine; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Vinyard, Bryan; Li, Robert; Chen, Celine; Urban, Joseph; Dawson, Harry; Andreyeva, Irina; Haverkamp, Miriam; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC) from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG)) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Elderly patients (65–80 yrs) completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn for cellular RNA extraction at study admission (Baseline), after 28 days of daily LGG treatment (Day 28) and at the end of the study (Day 56) after LGG treatment had been suspended for 28 days. Treatment compliance was verified by measuring LGG-DNA copy levels detected in host fecal samples. Normalized gene expression levels in WBC RNA were analyzed using a paired design built within three analysis platforms (edgeR, DESeq2 and TSPM) commonly used for gene count data analysis. From the 25,990 transcripts detected, 95 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in common by all analysis platforms with a nominal significant difference in gene expression at Day 28 following LGG treatment (FDR<0.1; 77 decreased and 18 increased). With a more stringent significance threshold (FDR<0.05), only two genes (FCER2 and LY86), were down-regulated more than 1.5 fold and met the criteria for differential expression across two analysis platforms. The remaining 93 genes were only detected at this threshold level with DESeq2 platform. Data analysis for biological interpretation of DEGs with an absolute fold change of 1.5 revealed down-regulation of overlapping genes involved with Cellular movement, Cell to cell signaling interactions, Immune cell trafficking and Inflammatory response. These data provide evidence for LGG-induced transcriptional modulation in healthy elderly volunteers because pre-treatment transcription levels were restored at 28 days after LGG treatment was stopped. To gain insight into the signaling pathways affected in response to LGG treatment, DEG were mapped using biological pathways and genomic data mining

  18. DeepBase: annotation and discovery of microRNAs and other noncoding RNAs from deep-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput deep-sequencing technology have produced large numbers of short and long RNA sequences and enabled the detection and profiling of known and novel microRNAs (miRNAs) and other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) at unprecedented sensitivity and depth. In this chapter, we describe the use of deepBase, a database that we have developed to integrate all public deep-sequencing data and to facilitate the comprehensive annotation and discovery of miRNAs and other ncRNAs from these data. deepBase provides an integrative, interactive, and versatile web graphical interface to evaluate miRBase-annotated miRNA genes and other known ncRNAs, explores the expression patterns of miRNAs and other ncRNAs, and discovers novel miRNAs and other ncRNAs from deep-sequencing data. deepBase also provides a deepView genome browser to comparatively analyze these data at multiple levels. deepBase is available at http://deepbase.sysu.edu.cn/.

  19. Compact, low profile antennas for MSAT and mini-M and Std-M land mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    CAL Corporation has developed a new class of low profile radiating elements for use in planar phased array antennas. These new elements have been used in the design of a low cost, compact, low profile antenna unit for MSAT and INMARSAT Mini-M land mobile satellite communications. The antenna unit which measures roughly 32 cm in diameter by 5 cm deep incorporates a compact LNA and diplexer unit as well as a complete, low cost, beam steering system. CAL has also developed a low profile antenna unit for INMARSAT-M land mobile satellite communications. A number of these units, which utilize a microstrip patch array design, were put into service in 1994.

  20. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    PubMed

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses.