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Sample records for deep sea multi-locus

  1. Speciation in the Deep Sea: Multi-Locus Analysis of Divergence and Gene Flow between Two Hybridizing Species of Hydrothermal Vent Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Baptiste; Jollivet, Didier; Tanguy, Arnaud; Bonhomme, François; Bierne, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Background Reconstructing the history of divergence and gene flow between closely-related organisms has long been a difficult task of evolutionary genetics. Recently, new approaches based on the coalescence theory have been developed to test the existence of gene flow during the process of divergence. The deep sea is a motivating place to apply these new approaches. Differentiation by adaptation can be driven by the heterogeneity of the hydrothermal environment while populations should not have been strongly perturbed by climatic oscillations, the main cause of geographic isolation at the surface. Methodology/Principal Finding Samples of DNA sequences were obtained for seven nuclear loci and a mitochondrial locus in order to conduct a multi-locus analysis of divergence and gene flow between two closely related and hybridizing species of hydrothermal vent mussels, Bathymodiolus azoricus and B. puteoserpentis. The analysis revealed that (i) the two species have started to diverge approximately 0.760 million years ago, (ii) the B. azoricus population size was 2 to 5 time greater than the B. puteoserpentis and the ancestral population and (iii) gene flow between the two species occurred over the complete species range and was mainly asymmetric, at least for the chromosomal regions studied. Conclusions/Significance A long history of gene flow has been detected between the two Bathymodiolus species. However, it proved very difficult to conclusively distinguish secondary introgression from ongoing parapatric differentiation. As powerful as coalescence approaches could be, we are left by the fact that natural populations often deviates from standard assumptions of the underlying model. A more direct observation of the history of recombination at one of the seven loci studied suggests an initial period of allopatric differentiation during which recombination was blocked between lineages. Even in the deep sea, geographic isolation may well be a crucial promoter of speciation

  2. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  3. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  4. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  5. Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mino, Sayaka; Makita, Hiroko; Toki, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Kato, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiromi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-O; Nunoura, Takuro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 Persephonella hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough (SNT). Although the strains share >98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types (ST), indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.

  6. Vision in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the

  7. Advanced deep sea diving equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danesi, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

  8. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-11-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea.

  9. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. PMID:25523624

  10. Temperature Impacts on Deep-Sea Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, M.; Danovaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes.

  11. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes.

  12. Population structure of deep-sea chemolithoautotrophs: identification of phenotypic and genotypic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mino, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Sawabe, T.; Miyazaki, J.; Makita, H.; Nunoura, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields are areas on the seafloor of high biological productivity fueled primarily by microbial chemosynthesis. Chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria and Persephonella with an ability to utilize inorganic substrates such as elemental sulfur and hydrogen are important members in wide range of temperature conditions in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, little is known about their population genetic structure such as intraspecific genetic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic characteristics. Previously, using genetic approach based on multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA), we clarified that Epsilonproteobacteria Group A, B, F, and Persephonella populations were geographically separated, and Epsilonproteobacteria appeared to diverge by mutation rather than recombination. Contrary to genetic evidence for allopatric segregation in deep-sea chemoautotrophs, however, phenotypic evidence has never been found. In addition, analyzing such a phenotypic characteristic may lead to a better understanding of the interactions microbes have with their environment. In this study, we present a metabolomic approach based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to reveal phenotypic biogeographical discrimination. We demonstrated the whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS method on Epsilonproteobacteria and Persephonella populations. These chemoautotrophic strains used in this study were isolated from chimney structures, vent fluids, and hydrothermal sediments. These hydrothermal samples were collected from geographically separated hydrothermal areas of the South Mariana Trough, Okinawa Trough and Central Indian Ridge. Based on mass peaks (signal/noise >10) within the m/z range of 2000-14000, phenotypic analysis was carried out by cluster analysis. The result of phenotypic analysis was compared with the genotypic clusters. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS revealed that Persephonella population was identified to

  13. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  14. Measurement of light scattering in deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, N.; Balasi, K.; Domvoglou, T.; Kiskiras, I.; Lenis, D.; Maniatis, M.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2016-04-01

    The deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, being prepared by the KM3NET collaboration, will contain thousands of optical sensors to readout. The accurate knowledge of the optical properties of deep-sea water is of great importance for the neutrino event reconstruction process. In this study we describe our progress in designing an experimental setup and studying a method to measure the parameters describing the absorption and scattering characteristics of deep-sea water. Three PMTs will be used to measure in situ the scattered light emitted from six laser diodes in three different wavelengths covering the Cherenkov radiation spectrum. The technique for the evaluation of the parameters is based on Monte Carlo simulations and our results show that we are able to determine these parameters with satisfying precision.

  15. Colonization of the deep sea by fishes.

    PubMed

    Priede, I G; Froese, R

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of maximum depth of occurrence of 11 952 marine fish species shows a global decrease in species number (N) with depth (x; m): log10 N = -0·000422x + 3·610000 (r(2)  = 0·948). The rate of decrease is close to global estimates for change in pelagic and benthic biomass with depth (-0·000430), indicating that species richness of fishes may be limited by food energy availability in the deep sea. The slopes for the Classes Myxini (-0·000488) and Actinopterygii (-0·000413) follow this trend but Chondrichthyes decrease more rapidly (-0·000731) implying deficiency in ability to colonize the deep sea. Maximum depths attained are 2743, 4156 and 8370 m for Myxini, Chondrichthyes and Actinopterygii, respectively. Endemic species occur in abundance at 7-7800 m depth in hadal trenches but appear to be absent from the deepest parts of the oceans, >9000 m deep. There have been six global oceanic anoxic events (OAE) since the origin of the major fish taxa in the Devonian c. 400 million years ago (mya). Colonization of the deep sea has taken place largely since the most recent OAE in the Cretaceous 94 mya when the Atlantic Ocean opened up. Patterns of global oceanic circulation oxygenating the deep ocean basins became established coinciding with a period of teleost diversification and appearance of the Acanthopterygii. Within the Actinopterygii, there is a trend for greater invasion of the deep sea by the lower taxa in accordance with the Andriashev paradigm. Here, 31 deep-sea families of Actinopterygii were identified with mean maximum depth >1000 m and with >10 species. Those with most of their constituent species living shallower than 1000 m are proposed as invasive, with extinctions in the deep being continuously balanced by export of species from shallow seas. Specialized families with most species deeper than 1000 m are termed deep-sea endemics in this study; these appear to persist in the deep by virtue of global distribution enabling recovery

  16. Colonization of the deep sea by fishes

    PubMed Central

    Priede, I G; Froese, R

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of maximum depth of occurrence of 11 952 marine fish species shows a global decrease in species number (N) with depth (x; m): log10N = −0·000422x + 3·610000 (r2 = 0·948). The rate of decrease is close to global estimates for change in pelagic and benthic biomass with depth (−0·000430), indicating that species richness of fishes may be limited by food energy availability in the deep sea. The slopes for the Classes Myxini (−0·000488) and Actinopterygii (−0·000413) follow this trend but Chondrichthyes decrease more rapidly (−0·000731) implying deficiency in ability to colonize the deep sea. Maximum depths attained are 2743, 4156 and 8370 m for Myxini, Chondrichthyes and Actinopterygii, respectively. Endemic species occur in abundance at 7–7800 m depth in hadal trenches but appear to be absent from the deepest parts of the oceans, >9000 m deep. There have been six global oceanic anoxic events (OAE) since the origin of the major fish taxa in the Devonian c. 400 million years ago (mya). Colonization of the deep sea has taken place largely since the most recent OAE in the Cretaceous 94 mya when the Atlantic Ocean opened up. Patterns of global oceanic circulation oxygenating the deep ocean basins became established coinciding with a period of teleost diversification and appearance of the Acanthopterygii. Within the Actinopterygii, there is a trend for greater invasion of the deep sea by the lower taxa in accordance with the Andriashev paradigm. Here, 31 deep-sea families of Actinopterygii were identified with mean maximum depth >1000 m and with >10 species. Those with most of their constituent species living shallower than 1000 m are proposed as invasive, with extinctions in the deep being continuously balanced by export of species from shallow seas. Specialized families with most species deeper than 1000 m are termed deep-sea endemics in this study; these appear to persist in the deep by virtue of global distribution enabling

  17. Colonization of the deep sea by fishes.

    PubMed

    Priede, I G; Froese, R

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of maximum depth of occurrence of 11 952 marine fish species shows a global decrease in species number (N) with depth (x; m): log10 N = -0·000422x + 3·610000 (r(2)  = 0·948). The rate of decrease is close to global estimates for change in pelagic and benthic biomass with depth (-0·000430), indicating that species richness of fishes may be limited by food energy availability in the deep sea. The slopes for the Classes Myxini (-0·000488) and Actinopterygii (-0·000413) follow this trend but Chondrichthyes decrease more rapidly (-0·000731) implying deficiency in ability to colonize the deep sea. Maximum depths attained are 2743, 4156 and 8370 m for Myxini, Chondrichthyes and Actinopterygii, respectively. Endemic species occur in abundance at 7-7800 m depth in hadal trenches but appear to be absent from the deepest parts of the oceans, >9000 m deep. There have been six global oceanic anoxic events (OAE) since the origin of the major fish taxa in the Devonian c. 400 million years ago (mya). Colonization of the deep sea has taken place largely since the most recent OAE in the Cretaceous 94 mya when the Atlantic Ocean opened up. Patterns of global oceanic circulation oxygenating the deep ocean basins became established coinciding with a period of teleost diversification and appearance of the Acanthopterygii. Within the Actinopterygii, there is a trend for greater invasion of the deep sea by the lower taxa in accordance with the Andriashev paradigm. Here, 31 deep-sea families of Actinopterygii were identified with mean maximum depth >1000 m and with >10 species. Those with most of their constituent species living shallower than 1000 m are proposed as invasive, with extinctions in the deep being continuously balanced by export of species from shallow seas. Specialized families with most species deeper than 1000 m are termed deep-sea endemics in this study; these appear to persist in the deep by virtue of global distribution enabling recovery

  18. Climate influence on deep sea populations.

    PubMed

    Company, Joan B; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate

    2008-01-16

    Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-sea floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-sea ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-sea living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-sea ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought.

  19. Climate Influence on Deep Sea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Company, Joan B.; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-sea floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-sea ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-sea living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-sea ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought. PMID:18197243

  20. Deep Circulation in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Xiaobiao; Tian, Jiwei; Zhou, Chun

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea of the northwest Pacific. The deep circulation in the SCS is investigated on the basis of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). All the experiments show reasonable agreement with observation from mooring arrays. Analysis of these results provides a detailed spatial structure and temporal variability of the deep circulation in the SCS. The major features of the SCS deep circulation are basin-scale cyclonic gyre and concentrated deep western boundary current (DWBC). The transport of the DWBC is ~2 Sv at 16.5°N with a width of ~53 km. As flowing southwestward, the DWBC becomes weaker with a wider range. Deep upwelling in the SCS is estimated of 0.19 to 1.15 m d-1 with the strongest area around the DWBC. The model results reveal the existence of 80 to 120 days oscillation in the deep northeastern circulation and the DWBC, which are also the areas with large eddy kinetic energy. This seasonal oscillation is northwestward with a velocity amplitude of ~1.0~1.5 cm s-1. The distribution of mixing parameters in the deep SCS plays a role in both spatial structure and volume transport of the deep circulation. Compared with the north shelf of the SCS with the Luzon Strait, deep circulation in the SCS is more sensitive to the large vertical mixing parameters of the Zhongsha Island Chain area.

  1. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  2. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  3. Autonomous, Retrievable, Deep Sea Microbial Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) work by providing bacteria in anaerobic sediments with an electron acceptor (anode) that stimulates metabolism of organic matter. The buried anode is connected via control circuitry to a cathode exposed to oxygen in the overlying water. During metabolism, bacteria release hydrogen ions into the sediment and transfer electrons extra-cellularly to the anode, which eventually reduce dissolved oxygen at the cathode, forming water. The open circuit voltage is approximately 0.8 v. The voltage between electrodes is operationally kept at 0.4 v with a potentiastat. The current is chiefly limited by the rate of microbial metabolism at the anode. The Office of Naval Research has encouraged development of microbial fuel cells in the marine environment at a number of academic and naval institutions. Earlier work in shallow sediments of San Diego Bay showed that the most important environmental parameters that control fuel cell power output in San Diego Bay were total organic carbon in the sediment and seasonal water temperature. Current MFC work at SPAWAR includes extension of microbial fuel cell tests to the deep sea environment (>1000 m) and, in parallel, testing microbial fuel cells in the laboratory under deep sea conditions. One question we are asking is whether MFC power output from deep water sediments repressurized and chilled in the laboratory comparable to those measured in situ. If yes, mapping the power potential of deep sea sediments may be made much easier, requiring sediment grabs and lab tests rather than deployment and retrieval of fuel cells. Another question we are asking is whether in situ temperature and total organic carbon in the deep sea sediment can predict MFC power. If yes, then we can make use of the large collection of publicly available, deep sea oceanographic measurements to make these predictions, foregoing expensive work at sea. These regressions will be compared to those derived from shallow water measurements.

  4. The study of deep-sea cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Perez, Jose Angel A; Bolstad, Kathrin S R; Braid, Heather E; Evans, Aaron B; Fuchs, Dirk; Judkins, Heather; Kelly, Jesse T; Marian, José E A R; Nakajima, Ryuta; Piatkowski, Uwe; Reid, Amanda; Vecchione, Michael; Xavier, José C C

    2014-01-01

    "Deep-sea" cephalopods are here defined as cephalopods that spend a significant part of their life cycles outside the euphotic zone. In this chapter, the state of knowledge in several aspects of deep-sea cephalopod research are summarized, including information sources for these animals, diversity and general biogeography and life cycles, including reproduction. Recommendations are made for addressing some of the remaining knowledge deficiencies using a variety of traditional and more recently developed methods. The types of oceanic gear that are suitable for collecting cephalopod specimens and images are reviewed. Many groups of deep-sea cephalopods require taxonomic reviews, ideally based on both morphological and molecular characters. Museum collections play a vital role in these revisions, and novel (molecular) techniques may facilitate new use of old museum specimens. Fundamental life-cycle parameters remain unknown for many species; techniques developed for neritic species that could potentially be applied to deep-sea cephalopods are discussed. Reproductive tactics and strategies in deep-sea cephalopods are very diverse and call for comparative evolutionary and experimental studies, but even in the twenty-first century, mature individuals are still unknown for many species. New insights into diet and trophic position have begun to reveal a more diverse range of feeding strategies than the typically voracious predatory lifestyle known for many cephalopods. Regular standardized deep-sea cephalopod surveys are necessary to provide insight into temporal changes in oceanic cephalopod populations and to forecast, verify and monitor the impacts of global marine changes and human impacts on these populations.

  5. Mass extinctions in the deep sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E.

    1988-01-01

    The character of mass extinctions can be assessed by studying extinction patterns of organisms, the fabric of the extinction, and assessing the environmental niche and mode of life of survivors. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have been listed as little affected by the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction, but very few quantitative data are available. New data on deep-sea Late Maestrichtian-Eocene benthic foraminifera from Maud Rise (Antractica) indicate that about 10 percent of the species living at depths of 2000 to 2500 m had last appearances within 1 my of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, versus about 25 percent of species at 1000 to 1500 m. Many survivors from the Cretaceous became extinct in a period of global deep-sea benthic foraminiferal extinction at the end of the Paleocene, a time otherwise marked by very few extinctions. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the deep oceanic environment is essentially decoupled from the shallow marine and terrestrial environment, and that even major disturbances of one of these will not greatly affect the other. This gives deep-sea benthic faunas a good opportunity to recolonize shallow environments from greater depths and vice versa after massive extinctions. The decoupling means that data on deep-sea benthic boundary was caused by the environmental effects of asteriod impact or excessive volcanism. The benthic foraminiferal data strongly suggest, however, that the environmental results were strongest at the Earth's surface, and that there was no major disturbance of the deep ocean; this pattern might result both from excessive volcanism and from an impact on land.

  6. Experimental investigation of deep sea riser interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, E.

    1996-12-31

    In future deep sea field developments the drag force and corresponding static deflections of the risers due to current can become quite large. The prevention of mechanical contact (collision) between the risers will need more careful evaluation than in moderate water depths. The paper describes a series of model experiments in a Norwegian fjord to determine criteria for on-set of collisions between the risers of a deep sea TLP. The current was modeled using the natural tidal current in the fjord. Results from the tests are summarized and used for verification of numerical calculations of collision criteria.

  7. Deep sea tides determination from GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.; Yanaway, A.

    1978-01-01

    GEOS 3 altimeter data in a 5 degree X 5 degree square centered at 30 deg N, 70 deg W were analyzed to evaluate deep sea tide determination from a spacecraft. The signal to noise ratio of known tidal variability to altimeter measurement of sea level above the ellipsoid was 0.1. A sample was obtained in a 5 deg x 5 deg area approximately once every four days. The randomly spaced time series was analyzed using two independent least squares techniques.

  8. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process. PMID:25089558

  9. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process.

  10. Extreme Longevity in Proteinaceous Deep-Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Fallon, S J; Mucciarone, D A

    2009-02-09

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins world-wide at depths of 300 to {approx}3000 meters. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age date from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes glaberrima show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 {micro}m yr{sup -1} and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The management and conservation of deep sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea ecosystems.

  11. Total nitrogen content of deep sea basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, T. L.; Schaeffer, O. A.

    1982-01-01

    An estimate of the total nitrogen content of the earth's mantle, aimed at furnishing a further constraint for earth atmosphere origin and evolution models, was attempted through thermal neutron activation analysis via N-14(n,p)C-14 for the case of deep sea basalt glasses from the East Pacific Rise, the Mid-Atlantic Rift, and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The increased nitrogen abundance of matrix material from the same samples as the glasses may be due to the incorporation of chemically-bound nitrogen from sea water, rather than dissolved molecular nitrogen. A discussion is presented of factors affecting observed basalt nitrogen content and its interpretation in terms of mantle nitrogen abundance. A 2 ppm N lower limit is estimated for the mantle.

  12. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  13. Deep-Sea Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The deep-sea submarine 'Ben Franklin' is being docked in the harbor. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life. It also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effect of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  14. Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is an aerial view of the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin' at dock. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  15. Platinum group nuggets in deep sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Bates, B. A.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of iron meteor oblation spheres in deep sea sediments was known for over a century. These spheres generally were believed to be composed of either pure magnetite and wustite or an oxide shell surrounding a NiFe metal core. A large number of 300 micron to 600 micron spheres found were pure oxide spheres, usually containing a solitary 10 micron platinum group nugget (pgn) composed almost entirely of group VIII metals. Twelve PGN's were analyzed and most had chondritic abundances with some depletions that correlate with element volatility. PGN formation by oxidation of a molten metal sphere entering the atmosphere cannot occur if the oxygen abundance in the atmosphere is less than half of its present value. The first appearance of PGN's in the geological record should mark when, in the Earth's history, oxygen rose to this level.

  16. Adapting to the Deep Sea: A Fun Activity with Bioluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Gwynne

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, much has been learned about the ocean's secrets and especially about the creatures of the deep sea. The deepest parts of the oceans are currently the focus of many new discoveries in both the physical and biological sciences. Middle school students find the deep sea fascinating and especially seem to enjoy its mysterious and…

  17. The dynamics of biogeographic ranges in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Hardy, Sarah Mincks

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, mining, oil drilling, bioprospecting, warming, and acidification in the deep sea are increasing, yet generalities about deep-sea biogeography remain elusive. Owing to the lack of perceived environmental variability and geographical barriers, ranges of deep-sea species were traditionally assumed to be exceedingly large. In contrast, seamount and chemosynthetic habitats with reported high endemicity challenge the broad applicability of a single biogeographic paradigm for the deep sea. New research benefiting from higher resolution sampling, molecular methods and public databases can now more rigorously examine dispersal distances and species ranges on the vast ocean floor. Here, we explore the major outstanding questions in deep-sea biogeography. Based on current evidence, many taxa appear broadly distributed across the deep sea, a pattern replicated in both the abyssal plains and specialized environments such as hydrothermal vents. Cold waters may slow larval metabolism and development augmenting the great intrinsic ability for dispersal among many deep-sea species. Currents, environmental shifts, and topography can prove to be dispersal barriers but are often semipermeable. Evidence of historical events such as points of faunal origin and climatic fluctuations are also evident in contemporary biogeographic ranges. Continued synthetic analysis, database construction, theoretical advancement and field sampling will be required to further refine hypotheses regarding deep-sea biogeography.

  18. The dynamics of biogeographic ranges in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Hardy, Sarah Mincks

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, mining, oil drilling, bioprospecting, warming, and acidification in the deep sea are increasing, yet generalities about deep-sea biogeography remain elusive. Owing to the lack of perceived environmental variability and geographical barriers, ranges of deep-sea species were traditionally assumed to be exceedingly large. In contrast, seamount and chemosynthetic habitats with reported high endemicity challenge the broad applicability of a single biogeographic paradigm for the deep sea. New research benefiting from higher resolution sampling, molecular methods and public databases can now more rigorously examine dispersal distances and species ranges on the vast ocean floor. Here, we explore the major outstanding questions in deep-sea biogeography. Based on current evidence, many taxa appear broadly distributed across the deep sea, a pattern replicated in both the abyssal plains and specialized environments such as hydrothermal vents. Cold waters may slow larval metabolism and development augmenting the great intrinsic ability for dispersal among many deep-sea species. Currents, environmental shifts, and topography can prove to be dispersal barriers but are often semipermeable. Evidence of historical events such as points of faunal origin and climatic fluctuations are also evident in contemporary biogeographic ranges. Continued synthetic analysis, database construction, theoretical advancement and field sampling will be required to further refine hypotheses regarding deep-sea biogeography. PMID:20667884

  19. Prediction of multi-locus inbreeding coefficients and relation to linkage disequilibrium in random mating populations.

    PubMed

    Hill, William G; Weir, Bruce S

    2007-09-01

    An algorithm to predict the level of identity by descent simultaneously at multiple loci is presented, which can in principle be extended to any number of loci. The model assumes a random mating population, with random association of haplotypes. The relationship is shown between coefficients of multi-locus identity or non-identity by descent and moments of multi-locus linkage disequilibrium. Thus, these moments can be computed from the multilocus identity or, using algorithms derived previously to predict the disequilibria moments, vice-versa. The results can be applied to predict multi-locus identity in, for example, gene mapping.

  20. Biodiversity Science In The Deep Sea: The ESF EuroDEEP Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2007-12-01

    What little we know of deep-sea ecosystems indicates that they host one of the highest biodiversities on the planet as well as important mineral and biological resources, which are increasingly being exploited. Understanding deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, from viruses to megafauna, is essential to assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors and provide management options. The aim of the multidisciplinary ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroDEEP, Ecosystem Functioning and Biodiversity in Deep Sea, is to further explore and identify the different deep-sea habitats, assessing both the abiotic and biotic processes that sustain and maintain deep-sea communities. The scope is to interpret variations of biodiversity within and between deep-sea habitats, and the interactions of the biota with the ecosystems in which they live. The resulting scientific data are a prerequisite for the sustainable use and the development of management and conservation options aiming at the sustainable use of marine resources that will benefit society as a whole. The Programme aims at providing the necessary framework and funding for the development of top-quality deep- sea research at the European level in a global context (Census of Marine Life and SCOR/IGBP). In particular, it builds on sharing of national large-scale resources, which are essential for deep-sea research (i.e. ships, ROVs, submersibles, AUVs, deep-towed vehicles, deep-sea sampling equipment, new sensors, etc.) as well as the coordination of efforts amongst scientists and laboratories from the countries involved and links with ongoing projects. EuroDEEP will participate in the development of new technologies as well as data management, analysis and modelling. Most of all, EuroDEEP will catalyse excellent research on what biodiversity exists in the deep sea, how it is generated and maintained by abiotic and biotic processes, and what the role of the deep-sea is in the biogeochemical processes affecting the

  1. Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becheler, Ronan; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Noel, Philippe; Mouchel, Olivier; Morrison, Cheryl; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6–7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.

  2. Fisheries: deep-sea fishes qualify as endangered.

    PubMed

    Devine, Jennifer A; Baker, Krista D; Haedrich, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    Criteria from the World Conservation Union (IUCN) have been used to classify marine fish species as endangered since 1996, but deep-sea fish have not so far been evaluated--despite their vulnerability to aggressive deepwater fishing as a result of certain life-history traits. Here we use research-survey data to show that five species of deep-sea fish have declined over a 17-year period in the Canadian waters of the northwest Atlantic to such an extent that they meet the IUCN criteria for being critically endangered. Our results indicate that urgent action is needed for the sustainable management of deep-sea fisheries.

  3. Oxygen isotopes in deep sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the genetic relationships between the dust and small particles in the solar system, and the meteorites and larger bodies are examined. Oxygen isotopes proved useful in the identification of such relationships between one meteorite group and another. Of the various samples of submillimeter extraterrestrial particles available for laboratory study, only the deep sea spherules are abundant enough for precise oxygen isotope analysis using existing techniques. Complications arise in interpretation of the isotopic data, since these particles were melted during passage through the Earth's atmosphere, and have been in contact with seawater for prolonged periods. Spherules that were originally silicates are considered with the originally metallic ones to deduce their preterrestrial isotopic compositions. The type 1 spherules which enter the atmosphere as metallic particles, contain only atmospheric oxygen. The type S spherules contain a mixture of atmospheric oxygen and their original extraterrestrial oxygen. It is suggested that the Earth's mesosphere is strongly enriched in heavy isotopes of oxygen at altitudes near 90 km at which the iron particles are oxidized. Fractionation due to the combined diffusion of O atoms and O2 molecules may be responsible.

  4. Geomicrobiology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannasch, Holger W.; Mottl, Michael J.

    1985-08-01

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the midocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (<= 25 degrees C) and hot (~ 350 degrees C) submarine vents at depths of 2000 to 3000 meters. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use these reduced chemical species as sources of energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide (assimilation) to organic carbon. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the vents. Such highly prolific, although narrowly localized, deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits.

  5. Geomicrobiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Jannasch, H W; Mottl, M J

    1985-08-23

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the mid-ocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits.

  6. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation.

  7. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  8. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  9. Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals.

    PubMed

    Roark, E Brendan; Guilderson, Thomas P; Dunbar, Robert B; Fallon, Stewart J; Mucciarone, David A

    2009-03-31

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins worldwide at depths of 300 to approximately 3,000 m. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age dates from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes sp. show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 mum year(-1) and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The longest-lived Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes sp. specimens were 2,742 years and 4,265 years, respectively. The management and conservation of deep-sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep-water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep-sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea habitat-forming species. PMID:19307564

  10. Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals.

    PubMed

    Roark, E Brendan; Guilderson, Thomas P; Dunbar, Robert B; Fallon, Stewart J; Mucciarone, David A

    2009-03-31

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins worldwide at depths of 300 to approximately 3,000 m. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age dates from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes sp. show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 mum year(-1) and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The longest-lived Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes sp. specimens were 2,742 years and 4,265 years, respectively. The management and conservation of deep-sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep-water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep-sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea habitat-forming species.

  11. Role of macroscopic particles in deep-sea oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; van Aken, Hendrik M; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2010-05-01

    Macroscopic particles (>500 mum), including marine snow, large migrating zooplankton, and their fast-sinking fecal pellets, represent primary vehicles of organic carbon flux from the surface to the deep sea. In contrast, freely suspended microscopic particles such as bacteria and protists do not sink, and they contribute the largest portion of metabolism in the upper ocean. In bathy- and abyssopelagic layers of the ocean (2,000-6,000 m), however, microscopic particles may not dominate oxygen consumption. In a section across the tropical Atlantic, we show that macroscopic particle peaks occurred frequently in the deep sea, whereas microscopic particles were barely detectable. In 10 of 17 deep-sea profiles (>2,000 m depth), macroscopic particle abundances were more strongly cross-correlated with oxygen deficits than microscopic particles, suggesting that biomass bound to large particles dominates overall deep-sea metabolism.

  12. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamare, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies) is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  13. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthur; Matthews, Jaret B.

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus is being developed for sampling water for signs of microbial life in an ocean hydrothermal vent at a depth of as much as 6.5 km. Heretofore, evidence of microbial life in deep-sea hydrothermal vents has been elusive and difficult to validate. Because of the extreme conditions in these environments (high pressures and temperatures often in excess of 300 C), deep-sea hydrothermal- vent samplers must be robust. Because of the presumed low density of biomass of these environments, samplers must be capable of collecting water samples of significant volume. It is also essential to prevent contamination of samples by microbes entrained from surrounding waters. Prior to the development of the present apparatus, no sampling device was capable of satisfying these requirements. The apparatus (see figure) includes an intake equipped with a temperature probe, plus several other temperature probes located away from the intake. The readings from the temperature probes are utilized in conjunction with readings from flowmeters to determine the position of the intake relative to the hydrothermal plume and, thereby, to position the intake to sample directly from the plume. Because it is necessary to collect large samples of water in order to obtain sufficient microbial biomass but it is not practical to retain all the water from the samples, four filter arrays are used to concentrate the microbial biomass (which is assumed to consist of particles larger than 0.2 m) into smaller volumes. The apparatus can collect multiple samples per dive and is designed to process a total volume of 10 L of vent fluid, of which most passes through the filters, leaving a total possibly-microbe-containing sample volume of 200 mL remaining in filters. A rigid titanium nose at the intake is used for cooling the sample water before it enters a flexible inlet hose connected to a pump. As the water passes through the titanium nose, it must be cooled to a temperature that is above a mineral

  14. A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reysenbach, A.-L.; Liu, Yajing; Banta, A.B.; Beveridge, T.J.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Schouten, S.; Tivey, M.K.; Von Damm, K. L.; Voytek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide-sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively venting sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from vent deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea hydrothermal deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotic 2). Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75??C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea vents. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic deep-sea... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section...

  16. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic deep-sea... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section...

  17. Evolution: Ocean Models Reveal Life in Deep Seas.

    PubMed

    Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2016-09-26

    Even though the deep sea represents the largest area in the world, evolution of species from those environments remains largely unstudied. A series of recent papers indicate that combining molecular tools with biophysical models can help us resolve some of these deep mysteries.

  18. Evolution: Ocean Models Reveal Life in Deep Seas.

    PubMed

    Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2016-09-26

    Even though the deep sea represents the largest area in the world, evolution of species from those environments remains largely unstudied. A series of recent papers indicate that combining molecular tools with biophysical models can help us resolve some of these deep mysteries. PMID:27676306

  19. Deep-sea channel/submarine-yazoo system of the Labrador Sea: A new deep-water facies model

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, R.; Rakofsky, A. )

    1992-05-01

    The deep-sea channel/submarine-yazoo system is a newly recognized deep-water depositional environment that is significantly different from previously documented turbidite environments. The new system is in many ways the antithesis of classical deep-sea fans. The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics and elements of the system, develop a facies model for it, establish the system variables, and discuss its possible significance in the geologic record and in subsurface exploration. Previous investigators of deepwater turbidite sediments often faced difficulties in trying to fit their sequences into traditional single-source, deep-sea fan models. The present model fills part of an obvious gap in interpretation schemes for deep-water clastic sediments.

  20. INDEX SATAL Expedition 2010, a discovery of deep sea potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirasantosa, S.; Hammond, S. R.; Pandoe, W.; Holden, J. F.; Djamaluddin, R.; Permana, H.; Nganro, N.; Abidin, H.; Shank, T. M.; Priadi, B.; Fryer, P.; Makarim, S.; Sulistiyo, B.; Triarso, E.; Troa, R.; Iswinardi, I.; Potter, J.; Anantasena, Y.; Triyono, T.; Surachman, Y.

    2010-12-01

    A joint Indonesia - U.S. Expedition to Sangihe Talaud waters (INDEX SATAL) in the north area of the North Sulawesi Province has been conducted by the Okeanos Explorer of NOAA and the Baruna Jaya IV of Indonesia during July - August, 2010. The joint expedition was the first of its kind that covered multi aspects of science which aimed at discoveries of deep sea potential resources and processes in the sea of Sangihe Talaud. Considering the advantage of both ship capabilities, the Okeanos Explorer covered the area of larger depths of 2000 metres to 6000 metres, while the Baruna Jaya IV worked the area of less than 2000 metres. Using multibeam equipment, the Okeanos Explorer discovered deep sea features of seamounts and bathymetric pattern of the western Sangihe ridge, Talaud ridge and the northeastern part of the exploration area. Deep sea morphology and bathymetric features of the area show newly discovery of seamounts and other deep sea features. The largest seamount in the explored area, the Kawio Barat seamount, has been discovered as an active submarine volcano showing hydrothermal activities. CTD casts in selected locations indicated the occurence of hydrothermal activities, which were later confirmed by ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicles) equipped with high definition cameras. Chimneys and smokers in the Kawio Barat and their associated deep sea biotas were recorded. Variety of seabed rocks in the dive areas were also recorded. Baruna Jaya IV explored the Sangihe ridge with multibeam and supported by CTD casts and sampling devices. Bathymetric features of less than 2000 metres were recorded and various deep sea biotas were discovered and sampled. Discoveries by INDEX SATAL 2010 has provided an insight into deep sea resources, specific features, volcanic and hydrothermal processes and potentials for further identifications.

  1. Factors governing the deep ventilation of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Zhan, Peng; Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Qurban, Mohammed; Abualnaja, Yasser; Bower, Amy; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Asharaf, T. T. Mohamed; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    A variety of data based on hydrographic measurements, satellite observations, reanalysis databases, and meteorological observations are used to explore the interannual variability and factors governing the deep water formation in the northern Red Sea. Historical and recent hydrographic data consistently indicate that the ventilation of the near-bottom layer in the Red Sea is a robust feature of the thermohaline circulation. Dense water capable to reach the bottom layers of the Red Sea can be regularly produced mostly inside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Occasionally, during colder than usual winters, deep water formation may also take place over coastal areas in the northernmost end of the open Red Sea just outside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. However, the origin as well as the amount of deep waters exhibit considerable interannual variability depending not only on atmospheric forcing but also on the water circulation over the northern Red Sea. Analysis of several recent winters shows that the strength of the cyclonic gyre prevailing in the northernmost part of the basin can effectively influence the sea surface temperature (SST) and intensify or moderate the winter surface cooling. Upwelling associated with periods of persistent gyre circulation lowers the SST over the northernmost part of the Red Sea and can produce colder than normal winter SST even without extreme heat loss by the sea surface. In addition, the occasional persistence of the cyclonic gyre feeds the surface layers of the northern Red Sea with nutrients, considerably increasing the phytoplankton biomass.

  2. [Four cases of pulmonary tuberculosis among deep-sea fishermen].

    PubMed

    Ono, Hidemaro; Murakami, Reiko; Tsuruwaka, Mia; Suzuki, Yoshihiko

    2003-06-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis among deep-sea fishermen was reported. Four pulmonary tuberculosis cases among fishing boat members engaged in deep-sea fishing were registered at the Kesennuma Health Center during three years period from 2000 to 2002. Crew engaging in deep-sea fishing live together in a narrow cabin with inadequate airconditioning for a long period of time, about 1 year. It is difficult to consult with a medical institution in an open sea. If a tuberculosis patient breaks out in a boat, the risk of transmission of tuberculosis to other members is high. In boats of all four cases in this report, about 30 to 70 percent of crew were Indonesian. Indonesia is one of the high burden countries of tuberculosis in the world. The Japanese fishing boat members have received the medical checkup every year. Indonesians have also received the pre-employment medical checkup, however, the improvement in the quality of this medical checkup is required.

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY: Lessons Learned from Deep-Sea Mining.

    PubMed

    Glasby, G P

    2000-07-28

    The first attempt to exploit deep-sea manganese nodules ended in failure as a result of the collapse of world metal prices, the onerous provisions imposed by the U. N. Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the overoptimistic assumptions about the viability of nodule mining. Attention then focused on cobalt-rich manganese crusts from seamounts. Since the mid-1980s, a number of new players have committed themselves to long-term programs to establish the viability of mining deep-sea manganese nodules. These programs require heavy subsidy by host governments. Gold-rich submarine hydrothermal deposits located at convergent plate margins are now emerging as a more promising prospect for mining than deep-sea manganese deposits.

  4. Evolutionary Process of Deep-Sea Bathymodiolus Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. Methodology/Principal Finding We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. Conclusions/Significance The phylogenetic relationships support the “Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis,” in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that

  5. Fungi and macroaggregation in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Raghukumar, Chandralata

    2008-07-01

    Whereas fungi in terrestrial soils have been well studied, little is known of them in deep-sea sediments. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of fungal hyphae in such sediments but in low abundance. We present evidence in this study that one of the apparent reasons for the poor detection of fungi in deep-sea sediments is their cryptic presence in macroaggregates. Fungal biomass carbon from different core sections of deep-sea sediments from approximately 5000 m depth in the Central Indian Ocean was estimated based on direct microscopic detection of fungal mycelia. Treatment of sediment samples with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) enabled more frequent detection and significantly higher biomass than in samples without such treatment. Treatment with EDTA resulted in detecting various stages of breakdown of aggregates in the sediments, gradually revealing the presence of fungal hyphae within them. Experimental studies of a deep-sea, as well as three terrestrial isolates of fungi, showed that all could grow at 200 bar and 5 degrees C in a nutrient medium and in deep-sea sediment extract. Hyphae of fungi grown in sediment extract under the above conditions showed various stages of accretion of particles around them, leading to the formation of aggregates. Such aggregates showed the presence of humic material, carbohydrate, and proteins. We suggest that fungi in deep-sea sediments may be involved in humic aggregate formation by processes very similar to those in terrestrial sediments. The importance of such a process in carbon sequestration and food web in the deep sea needs to be examined.

  6. Review of Deep-Sea Ecology and Monitoring as They Relate to Deep-Sea Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, Roy K.

    2004-01-30

    This review summarizes available information concerning deep-sea benthic ecology and how that information might be used to monitor and eventually reduce the potential impacts resulting from oil and gas production activities. The paper provides a brief overview of deep-sea ecology and benthic faunal groups and summarizes some of the physical and biological features that may be important in evaluating potential impacts. In addition, presented is a synopsis of issues related to the design of a sampling program and a discussion of analytical considerations related to the uncertain knowledge of deep faunas. Also included is an overview of some of the variety of sampling techniques and equipment available to study the deep sea. The review concludes with management considerations and recommendations.

  7. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: II. Vision in deep-sea crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke; Cronin, Thomas W

    2012-10-01

    Using new collecting techniques with the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, eight species of deep-sea benthic crustaceans were collected with intact visual systems. Their spectral sensitivities and temporal resolutions were determined shipboard using electroretinography. Useable spectral sensitivity data were obtained from seven species, and in the dark-adapted eyes, the spectral sensitivity peaks were in the blue region of the visible spectrum, ranging from 470 to 497 nm. Under blue chromatic adaptation, a secondary sensitivity peak in the UV portion of the spectrum appeared for two species of anomuran crabs: Eumunida picta (λ(max)363 nm) and Gastroptychus spinifer (λ(max)383 nm). Wavelength-specific differences in response waveforms under blue chromatic adaptation in these two species suggest that two populations of photoreceptor cells are present. Temporal resolution was determined in all eight species using the maximum critical flicker frequency (CFF(max)). The CFF(max) for the isopod Booralana tricarinata of 4 Hz proved to be the lowest ever measured using this technique, and suggests that this species is not able to track even slow-moving prey. Both the putative dual visual pigment system in the crabs and the extremely slow eye of the isopod may be adaptations for seeing bioluminescence in the benthic environment.

  8. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: II. Vision in deep-sea crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke; Cronin, Thomas W

    2012-10-01

    Using new collecting techniques with the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, eight species of deep-sea benthic crustaceans were collected with intact visual systems. Their spectral sensitivities and temporal resolutions were determined shipboard using electroretinography. Useable spectral sensitivity data were obtained from seven species, and in the dark-adapted eyes, the spectral sensitivity peaks were in the blue region of the visible spectrum, ranging from 470 to 497 nm. Under blue chromatic adaptation, a secondary sensitivity peak in the UV portion of the spectrum appeared for two species of anomuran crabs: Eumunida picta (λ(max)363 nm) and Gastroptychus spinifer (λ(max)383 nm). Wavelength-specific differences in response waveforms under blue chromatic adaptation in these two species suggest that two populations of photoreceptor cells are present. Temporal resolution was determined in all eight species using the maximum critical flicker frequency (CFF(max)). The CFF(max) for the isopod Booralana tricarinata of 4 Hz proved to be the lowest ever measured using this technique, and suggests that this species is not able to track even slow-moving prey. Both the putative dual visual pigment system in the crabs and the extremely slow eye of the isopod may be adaptations for seeing bioluminescence in the benthic environment. PMID:22956247

  9. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, Skipton N. C.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan A.; Worm, Boris; O’Hara, Timothy D.

    2016-05-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000–6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0–20 m), continental shelf (20–200 m), and upper-slope (200–2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0–30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30–50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species–energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.

  10. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Skipton N C; Tittensor, Derek P; Dunstan, Piers K; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan A; Worm, Boris; O'Hara, Timothy D

    2016-05-11

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000-6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0-20 m), continental shelf (20-200 m), and upper-slope (200-2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0-30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30-50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species-energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.

  11. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Skipton N C; Tittensor, Derek P; Dunstan, Piers K; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan A; Worm, Boris; O'Hara, Timothy D

    2016-05-19

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000-6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0-20 m), continental shelf (20-200 m), and upper-slope (200-2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0-30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30-50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species-energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats. PMID:27193685

  12. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, Skipton N. C.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan A.; Worm, Boris; O'Hara, Timothy D.

    2016-05-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000-6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0-20 m), continental shelf (20-200 m), and upper-slope (200-2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0-30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30-50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species-energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.

  13. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Lucy C; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Paterson, Gordon L J; Coppock, Rachel; Sleight, Victoria; Calafat, Antonio; Rogers, Alex D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    Marine debris, mostly consisting of plastic, is a global problem, negatively impacting wildlife, tourism and shipping. However, despite the durability of plastic, and the exponential increase in its production, monitoring data show limited evidence of concomitant increasing concentrations in marine habitats. There appears to be a considerable proportion of the manufactured plastic that is unaccounted for in surveys tracking the fate of environmental plastics. Even the discovery of widespread accumulation of microscopic fragments (microplastics) in oceanic gyres and shallow water sediments is unable to explain the missing fraction. Here, we show that deep-sea sediments are a likely sink for microplastics. Microplastic, in the form of fibres, was up to four orders of magnitude more abundant (per unit volume) in deep-sea sediments from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean than in contaminated sea-surface waters. Our results show evidence for a large and hitherto unknown repository of microplastics. The dominance of microfibres points to a previously underreported and unsampled plastic fraction. Given the vastness of the deep sea and the prevalence of microplastics at all sites we investigated, the deep-sea floor appears to provide an answer to the question-where is all the plastic? PMID:26064573

  14. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Lucy C; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Paterson, Gordon L J; Coppock, Rachel; Sleight, Victoria; Calafat, Antonio; Rogers, Alex D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    Marine debris, mostly consisting of plastic, is a global problem, negatively impacting wildlife, tourism and shipping. However, despite the durability of plastic, and the exponential increase in its production, monitoring data show limited evidence of concomitant increasing concentrations in marine habitats. There appears to be a considerable proportion of the manufactured plastic that is unaccounted for in surveys tracking the fate of environmental plastics. Even the discovery of widespread accumulation of microscopic fragments (microplastics) in oceanic gyres and shallow water sediments is unable to explain the missing fraction. Here, we show that deep-sea sediments are a likely sink for microplastics. Microplastic, in the form of fibres, was up to four orders of magnitude more abundant (per unit volume) in deep-sea sediments from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean than in contaminated sea-surface waters. Our results show evidence for a large and hitherto unknown repository of microplastics. The dominance of microfibres points to a previously underreported and unsampled plastic fraction. Given the vastness of the deep sea and the prevalence of microplastics at all sites we investigated, the deep-sea floor appears to provide an answer to the question-where is all the plastic?

  15. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, Lucy C.; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Paterson, Gordon L.J.; Coppock, Rachel; Sleight, Victoria; Calafat, Antonio; Rogers, Alex D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris, mostly consisting of plastic, is a global problem, negatively impacting wildlife, tourism and shipping. However, despite the durability of plastic, and the exponential increase in its production, monitoring data show limited evidence of concomitant increasing concentrations in marine habitats. There appears to be a considerable proportion of the manufactured plastic that is unaccounted for in surveys tracking the fate of environmental plastics. Even the discovery of widespread accumulation of microscopic fragments (microplastics) in oceanic gyres and shallow water sediments is unable to explain the missing fraction. Here, we show that deep-sea sediments are a likely sink for microplastics. Microplastic, in the form of fibres, was up to four orders of magnitude more abundant (per unit volume) in deep-sea sediments from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean than in contaminated sea-surface waters. Our results show evidence for a large and hitherto unknown repository of microplastics. The dominance of microfibres points to a previously underreported and unsampled plastic fraction. Given the vastness of the deep sea and the prevalence of microplastics at all sites we investigated, the deep-sea floor appears to provide an answer to the question—where is all the plastic? PMID:26064573

  16. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, Roberto; Company, Joan Batista; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Galil, Bella; Gambi, Cristina; Gooday, Andrew J; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Luna, Gian Marco; Morigi, Caterina; Olu, Karine; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sabbatini, Anna; Sardà, Francesc; Sibuet, Myriam; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna) in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth), including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes) reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components investigated

  17. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, Roberto; Company, Joan Batista; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Galil, Bella; Gambi, Cristina; Gooday, Andrew J; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Luna, Gian Marco; Morigi, Caterina; Olu, Karine; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sabbatini, Anna; Sardà, Francesc; Sibuet, Myriam; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2010-08-02

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna) in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth), including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes) reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components investigated

  18. Deep-Sea Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable

    PubMed Central

    Danovaro, Roberto; Company, Joan Batista; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Galil, Bella; Gambi, Cristina; Gooday, Andrew J.; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Luna, Gian Marco; Morigi, Caterina; Olu, Karine; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sabbatini, Anna; Sardà, Francesc; Sibuet, Myriam; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna) in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth), including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes) reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components investigated

  19. Ichnology of pelagic carbonate in New Zealand and Denmark: Shelf Sea or Deep Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdale, A.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Today, pelagic carbonate ooze is an exclusive feature of deep-sea environments 1 km or more in depth. In contrast, the extensive epicratonic seas that characterized the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary received great thicknesses of pelagic carbonate sediment in environments only a few hundred meters deep. Distinguishing between deep-sea and shelf-sea carbonate is not an easy task, but ichnologic investigation helps. Biogenic sedimentary structures, ichnofacies, and ichnofabrics in Cretaceous-Tertiary epicratonic pelagic deposits display many similarities to those in deep-sea sediment. Ichnologic features in shelf-sea chalk and limestone in both New Zealand and northern Europe reveal some interesting paleobathymetric trends. These trends include a general decrease in crustacean traces (Thalassinoides, etc.) and bioerosion traces (Trypanites, etc.) with increasing water depth, accompanied by a concomitant increase in worm burrows (Zoophycos, etc.). Maastrichtian-Oligocene pelaic limestone in New Zealand and Maastrichtian-Paleocene chalk in Denmark neither of which represent a truly deep-sea setting, exhibit similar ichnofacies and ichnofabrics. Some notable differences exist because the New Zealand platform was less extensive and more tectonically active than the northern European shelf. Pelagic strata in New Zealand are associated with shallow-water quartzose sandstone beneath and fossiliferous calcarenite above, as well as deep-water bedded chert within, the pelagic carbonate sequence. In New Zealand strata Zoophycos-rich facies dominate Thalassinoides-rich facies, and bored hardgrounds are uncommon; in Danish chalk sequences the opposite is true in both cases.

  20. Conrad Deep, Northern Red Sea: Development of an early stage ocean deep within the axial depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Hübscher, C.; Gajewski, D.

    2005-12-01

    The northern Red Sea represents a continental rift in its final stage and close to the following stage of seafloor spreading. Ocean deeps within the evaporites of the northern Red Sea seem to accompany this process and are thought to be surface expressions of first seafloor spreading cells. In 1999 during R/V Meteor cruise M44/3 a dense multichannel seismic and hydroacoustic survey was conducted in order to investigate the initial formation process of the Conrad Deep, a young northern Red Sea deep. Three seismic units were differentiated in the uppermost part of the Miocene evaporites and the Plio-Quaternary sediments. A weakness zone within the evaporites, oblique to the main extension direction of the Red Sea, led to a transtension process within the evaporites that opened the deep. Its formation is directly related to the emplacement of magmatic bodies in its vicinity and the focusing of the Red Sea extension to the axial depression. The Conrad Deep is an intra-evaporite basin that cannot be regarded as surficial expression of a basement structure as the low shear strength of the evaporites decouple the sediments from the basement. However, its position and shape in combination with the accompanying geophysical anomalies point to a strong correlation with the Red Sea rifting process.

  1. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J; Nicol, Simon J; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  2. Orbital forcing of deep-sea benthic species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Raymo, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Explanations for the temporal and spatial patterns of species biodiversity focus on stability-time, disturbance-mosaic (biogenic microhabitat heterogeneity) and competition-predation (biotic interactions) hypotheses. The stability-time hypothesis holds that high species diversity in the deep sea and in the tropics reflects long-term climatic stability. But the influence of climate change on deep-sea diversity has not been studied and recent evidence suggests that deep-sea environments undergo changes in climatically driven temperature and flux of nutrients and organic-carbon during glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we show that Pliocene (2.85-2.40 Myr) deep-sea North Atlantic benthic ostracod (Crustacea) species diversity is related to solar insolation changes caused by 41,000-yr cycles of Earth's obliquity (tilt). Temporal changes in diversity, as measured by the Shannon- Weiner index, H(S), correlate with independent climate indicators of benthic foraminiferal oxygen-isotope ratios (mainly ice volume) and ostracod Mg:Ca ratios (bottomwater temperature). During glacial periods, H(S) = 0.2-0.6, whereas during interglacials, H(S) = 1.2-1.6, which is three to four times as high. The control of deep-sea benthic diversity by cyclic climate change at timescales of 103-104 yr does not support the stability-time hypothesis because it shows that the deep sea is a temporally dynamic environment. Diversity oscillations reflect large-scale response of the benthic community to climatically driven changes in either thermohaline circulation, bottom temperature (or temperature-related factors) and food, and a coupling of benthic diversity to surface productivity.

  3. Species Distribution Models of Tropical Deep-Sea Snappers

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J.; Nicol, Simon J.; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  4. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J; Nicol, Simon J; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  5. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural services becomes apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses that are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary for fueling surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a wealth of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown that has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and timescales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, which covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a variety of ways; however, the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society. In

  6. Graphoglyptid burrows in modern deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ekdale, A A

    1980-01-18

    The complex, highly patterned, invertebrate burrow systems known as "graphoglyptids" in ancient sedimentary rocks have now been recovered in box cores of modern deep-sea sediment. Spiroraphe, Cosmoraphe, and Paleodictyon occur as grooves in the tops of washed cores, and they apparently were produced and maintained as horizontal tunnel systems just a few millimeters below the sediment surface. These burrows, which are important as indicators of deepwater sedimentary environments in ancient strata, have been predicted in the modern deep sea but have not been found there until now.

  7. Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Demenocal, P.B.; Okahashi, H.; Linsley, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Aller??d Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until ???8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  8. OCEANOGRAPHY: Missing Mixing Found in the Deep Sea.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-06-16

    In their simulations of how the sea's ponderous flows of water and heat affect climate, including future greenhouse warming, climate modelers assumed that something evenly stirred the world ocean from top to bottom around the globe. But oceanographers gauging the tides of the world's seas from a satellite perch have found intense patches of tidally driven mixing deep within the open ocean. Once modelers include these patches, they should see some changes in model predictions of global warming. PMID:17835102

  9. Multi-locus DNA sequencing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from Brazilian pigs identifies genetically divergent strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Toxoplasma gondii isolates (TgPgBr1-5) were isolated from hearts and brains of pigs freshly purchased at the market of Campos dos Goytacazes, Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four of the five isolates were highly pathogenic in mice. Four genotypes were identified. Multi-locus DNA sequenci...

  10. Phylogenetic Relationships among Deep-Sea and Chemosynthetic Sea Anemones: Actinoscyphiidae and Actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Daly, Marymegan

    2010-01-01

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa. PMID:20532040

  11. Characterization of Deep Sea Fish Gut Bacteria with Antagonistic Potential, from Centroscyllium fabricii (Deep Sea Shark).

    PubMed

    Bindiya, E S; Tina, K J; Raghul, Subin S; Bhat, Sarita G

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial isolates from Centroscyllium fabricii (deep sea shark) gut were screened for antagonistic activity by cross-streak method and disc diffusion assay. This study focuses on strain BTSS-3, which showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus pumilus. BTSS3 was subjected to phenotypic characterization using biochemical tests, SEM imaging, exoenzyme profiling and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Bacillus, with high (98%) similarity to 16S rDNA sequences of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The chemical nature of the antibacterial substance was identified by treatment with proteolytic enzymes. The antibacterial activity was reduced by the action of these enzymes pointing out its peptide nature. It was observed from the growth and production kinetics that the bacteriocin was produced in the eighth hour of incubation, i.e., during the mid-log growth phase of the bacteria. PMID:25740801

  12. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  13. Using near infrared light for deep sea mining observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Li, Xin; Yang, Jianmin; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we design a novel deep-sea near infrared light based imaging equipment for deep-sea mining observation systems. The spectral sensitivity peaks are in the red region of the invisible spectrum, ranging from 750nm to 900nm. In addition, we propose a novel underwater imaging model that compensates for the attenuation discrepancy along the propagation path. The proposed model fully considered the effects of absorption, scattering and refraction. We also develop a locally adaptive Laplacian filtering for enhancing underwater transmission map after underwater dark channel prior estimation. Furthermore, we propose a spectral characteristic-based color correction algorithm to recover the distorted color. In water tank experiments, we made a linear scale of eight turbidity steps ranging from clean to heavily scattered by adding deep sea soil to the seawater (from 500 to 2000 mg/L). We compared the results of different turbidity underwater scene, illuminated alternately with near infrared light vs. white light. Experiments demonstrate that the enhanced NIR images have a reasonable noise level after the illumination compensation in the dark regions and demonstrates an improved global contrast by which the finest details and edges are significantly enhanced. We also demonstrate that the effective distance of the designed imaging system is about 1.5 meters, which can meet the requirement of micro-terrain observation around the deep-sea mining systems. Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle (ROV)-based experiments also certified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Antarctic marine biodiversity and deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining.

  15. Deep-sea primary production at the Galapagos hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, D.M.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1980-03-21

    Dense animal populations surrounding recently discovered hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift sea-floor spreading center, 2550 meters deep, are probably sustained by microbial primary production. Energy in the form of geothermically reduced sulfur compounds emitted from the vents is liberated during oxidation and used for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic matter by chemosynthetic bacteria.

  16. Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the

  17. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics. PMID:27687574

  18. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  19. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported.

  20. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported. PMID:24871201

  1. Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  2. Controls on the distribution of deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, A.; O'Callaghan, S.; Müller, R. D.

    2016-08-01

    Deep-sea sediments represent the largest geological deposit on Earth and provide a record of our planet's response to conditions at the sea surface from where the bulk of material originates. We use a machine learning method to analyze how the distribution of 14,400 deep-sea sediment sample lithologies is connected to bathymetry and surface oceanographic parameters. Our probabilistic Gaussian process classifier shows that the geographic occurrence of five major lithologies in the world's ocean can be predicted using just three parameters. Sea-surface salinity and temperature provide a major control for the growth and composition of plankton and specific ranges are also associated with the influx of non-aerosol terrigenous material into the ocean, while bathymetry is an important parameter for discriminating the occurrence of calcareous sediment, clay and coarse lithogenous sediment from each other. We find that calcareous and siliceous oozes are not linked to high surface productivity. Diatom and radiolarian oozes are associated with low salinities at the surface but with discrete ranges of temperatures, reflecting the diversity of planktonic species in different climatic zones. Biosiliceous sediments cannot be used to infer paleodepth, but are good indicators of paleotemperature and paleosalinity. Our analysis provides a new framework for constraining paleosurface ocean environments from the geological record of deep-sea sediments. It shows that small shifts in salinity and temperature significantly affect the lithology of seafloor sediment. As deep-sea sediments represent the largest carbon sink on Earth these shifts need to be considered in the context of global ocean warming.

  3. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  4. 77 FR 35850 - Safety Zone; F/V Deep Sea, Penn Cove, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... the Fishing Vessel (F/V) Deep Sea, located in Penn Cove, WA. This action is necessary to ensure the... Fishing Vessel Deep Sea located at approximately 48 13'18'' N, 122 47'42'' W, Penn Cove, WA. (b... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; F/V Deep Sea, Penn Cove, WA AGENCY:...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  6. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  7. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  8. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section 167.40-20... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic...

  9. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  10. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section 167.40-20... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic...

  11. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section 167.40-20... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic...

  12. Species-energy relationships in deep-sea molluscs.

    PubMed

    Tittensor, Derek P; Rex, Michael A; Stuart, Carol T; McClain, Craig R; Smith, Craig R

    2011-10-23

    Consensus is growing among ecologists that energy and the factors influencing its utilization can play overarching roles in regulating large-scale patterns of biodiversity. The deep sea--the world's largest ecosystem--has simplified energetic inputs and thus provides an excellent opportunity to study how these processes structure spatial diversity patterns. Two factors influencing energy availability and use are chemical (productive) and thermal energy, here represented as seafloor particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and temperature. We related regional patterns of benthic molluscan diversity in the North Atlantic to these factors, to conduct an explicit test of species-energy relationships in the modern day fauna of the deep ocean. Spatial regression analyses in a model-averaging framework indicated that POC flux had a substantially higher relative importance than temperature for both gastropods and protobranch bivalves, although high correlations between variables prevented definitive interpretation. This contrasts with recent research on temporal variation in fossil diversity from deep-sea cores, where temperature is generally a more significant predictor. These differences may reflect the scales of time and space at which productivity and temperature operate, or differences in body size; but both lines of evidence implicate processes influencing energy utilization as major determinants of deep-sea species diversity.

  13. Pleistocene Deep Sea ostracods from the Bering Sea (IODP expedition 323)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2016-03-01

    The study presents the first Pleistocene (0-1.9 Ma) record of Deep Sea ostracods from the Bering Sea, derived primarily from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 323, Site U1344 (59°3.0‧N, 179°12.2‧W, 3171 m of water depth). Deep Sea ostracod abundances in the Bering Sea sediments are some of the lowest that have been recorded in bathyal and abyssal marine environments (<1 specimen per sediment gram). In comparison, benthic foraminifera are several orders of magnitude more abundant in the same samples. The humble ostracod assemblage at Site U1344 is predominantly composed of deep water species Krithe sawanensis, Fallacihowella sp. A, Cytheropteron spp., Eucytherura sp., Argilloecia toyamaensis, and Bradleya mesembrina. Less abundant taxa include Munseyella melzeri, Munseyella ristveti, Cluthia sp., Robertsonites hanaii, and Microcythere mediostriata. Some of these taxa (e.g. Fallacihowella sp. A, Bradleya mesembrina, Microcythere mediostriata) are reported for the first time in the North Pacific. The predominance of the genera Krithe, Fallacihowella, Cytheropteron and Argilloecia indicates cold, ventilated bottom waters. The deep Bering Sea ostracod assemblage shares many common and closely related species with continental slope faunas from the Gulf of Alaska, the Okhotsk Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and even the subpolar North Atlantic. A few continental shelf ostracods, such as species of Munseyella and Robertsonites, are present at Sites U1344 and U1343, in the northern slope of the Aleutian Basin. The presence of shallow water ostracods at the Bering Sea slope sites is possibly explained by sea ice rafting. Exceptionally low ostracod abundance in the U1344 record did not permit evaluating links between ostracod faunas and paleoceanographic conditions; however, an increase in ostracod occurrences throughout the middle Pleistocene at Site U1344 appears to correlate with general sea ice expansion in the Bering Sea. High primary surface productivity, high

  14. Risk assessment of a deep sea pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, G.R.; Zebroski, E.L.; Kaplan, S.

    1996-12-31

    A unique design of subsea gas pipeline has been under consideration for several years. It would traverse the Arabian Sea for 1,100 kilometers with a large part of it at depths over 3,000 meters and temperatures near 2 C. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis has been performed with special attention to the novel technical features of the design, construction and operating environments. The factors considered to date have included: pipe and materials design for internal pressures to 500 bar and external pressures to 430 bar, laydown processes, materials quality and QA/QC, piping stress and strain levels in laydown and spans, route selection, and other factors. The methods used to screen, rank, and quantify the risks are described. The scenarios involving the principal hazards are described and the risks are quantified. Options for further risk control and reduction measures are also identified. The results at this stage show relatively low expected values for the principal risks. Assuming effective implementation of the available control measures, the proposed design is calculated to have risk levels lower than the historical average for similar mega-projects.

  15. Undecompressed microbial populations from the deep sea.

    PubMed Central

    Jannasch, H J; Wirsen, C O; Taylor, C D

    1976-01-01

    Metabolic transformations of glutamate and Casamino Acids by natural microbial populations collected from deep waters (1,600 to 3,100 m) were studied in decompressed and undecompressed samples. Pressure-retaining sampling/incubation vessels and appropriate subsampling/incubation vessels and appropriate subsampling techniques permitted time course experiments. In all cases the metabolic activity in undecompressed samples was lower than it was when incubated at 1 atm. Surface water controls showed a reduced activity upon compression. The processes involving substrate incorporation into cell material were more pressure sensitive than was respiration. The low utilization of substrates, previously found by in situ incubations for up to 12 months, was confirmed and demonstrated to consist of an initial phase of activity, in the range of 5 to 60 times lower than the controls, followed by a stationary phase of virtually no substrate utilization. No barophilic growth response (higher rates at elevated pressure than at 1 atm) was recorded; all populations observed exhibition various degrees of barotolerance. Images PMID:791117

  16. Sediment reworking rates in deep sediments of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, M; Delbono, I; Schirone, A; Langone, L; Miserocchi, S; Salvi, S; Delfanti, R

    2011-07-01

    Different pelagic areas of the Mediterranean Sea have been investigated in order to quantify physical and biological mixing processes in deep sea sediments. Herein, results of eleven sediment cores sampled at different deep areas (> 2000 m) of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. ²¹⁰Pb(xs) and ¹³⁷Cs vertical profiles, together with ¹⁴C dating, are used to identify the main processes characterising the different areas and, finally, controlling mixing depths (SML) and bioturbation coefficients (D(b)). Radionuclide vertical profiles and inventories indicate that bioturbation processes are the dominant processes responsible for sediment reworking in deep sea environments. Results show significant differences in sediment mixing depths and bioturbation coefficients among areas of the Mediterranean Sea characterised by different trophic regimes. In particular, in the Oran Rise area, where the Almeria-Oran Front induces frequent phytoplankton blooms, we calculate the highest values of sediment mixing layers (13 cm) and bioturbation coefficients (0.187 cm² yr⁻¹), and the highest values of ²¹⁰Pb(xs) and ¹³⁷Cs inventories. Intermediate values of SML and D(b) (~6 cm and ~0.040 cm² yr⁻¹, respectively) characterise the mesothrophic Algero-Balearic basin, while in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea mixing parameters (SML of 3 cm and D(b) of 0.011 cm² yr⁻¹ are similar to those calculated for the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean (SML of 2 cm and D(b) of ~0.005 cm² yr⁻¹). PMID:21561644

  17. The discovery of ancient history in the deep sea using advanced deep submergence technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, R. D.; McCann, A. M.; Yoerger, D.; Whitcomb, L.; Mindell, D.; Oleson, J.; Singh, H.; Foley, B.; Adams, J.; Piechota, D.; Giangrande, C.

    2000-09-01

    The Skerki Bank Project was the first interdisciplinary effort to determine the importance of the deep sea to the field of archaeology. Over a nine year period from 1988 to 1997, its various field programs resulted in the discovery of the largest concentration of ancient ships ever found in the deep sea. In all, eight ships were located in an area of 210 km 2, including five of the Roman era spanning a period of time from 100 B.C. to 400 A.D., documenting the existence of a major trading route in the central Mediterranean Sea between ancient Carthage, Rome, Sicily, and Sardinia. The project involved the use of highly sophisticated deep submergence technologies including towed acoustic and visual search vehicles, a nuclear research submarine, and an advanced remotely operated vehicle. Precision navigation and control permitted rapid yet careful mapping, both visual and acoustic, of each site with a degree of precision never attained before. Advanced robotics permitted the recovery of selected objects for subsequent analysis without intrusive excavation. This multi-disciplinary effort of archaeologists, oceanographers, and ocean engineers demonstrated that deep water archaeology has great promise and can be done without the exploitation of ancient sites for private gains. The Project also demonstrated that in the absence of evolving laws of the sea, a great deal of human history may be at peril.

  18. Biofilm transplantation in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-05-01

    A gold rush is currently going on in microbial ecology, which is powered by the possibility to determine the full complexity of microbial communities through next-generation sequencing. Accordingly, enormous efforts are underway to describe microbiomes worldwide, in humans, animals, plants, soil, air and the ocean. While much can be learned from these studies, only experiments will finally unravel mechanisms. One of the key questions is how a microbial community is assembled from a pool of bacteria in the environment, and how it responds to change - be it the increase in CO2 concentration in the ocean, or antibiotic treatment of the gut microbiome. The study by Zhang et al. () in this issue is one of the very few that approaches this problem experimentally in the natural environment. The authors selected a habitat which is both extremely interesting and difficult to access. They studied the Thuwal Seep in the Red Sea at 850 m depth and used a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to place a steel frame carrying substrata for biofilm growth into the brine pool and into the adjacent normal bottom water (NBW). Biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days, and then those that had been growing in the brine pool were transported to normal bottom water and stayed there for another 3 days, and vice versa. The 'switched' biofilms were then compared with their source communities by metagenome sequencing. Strikingly, both 'switched' biofilms were now dominated by the same two species. These species were able to cope with conditions in both source ecosystems, as shown by assembly of their genomes and detection of expression of key genes. The biofilms had adapted to environmental change, rather than to brine pools or NBW. The study shows both the resilience and adaptability of biofilm communities and has implications for microbial ecology in general and even for therapeutic approaches such as transplantation of faecal microbiomes.

  19. Biofilm transplantation in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-05-01

    A gold rush is currently going on in microbial ecology, which is powered by the possibility to determine the full complexity of microbial communities through next-generation sequencing. Accordingly, enormous efforts are underway to describe microbiomes worldwide, in humans, animals, plants, soil, air and the ocean. While much can be learned from these studies, only experiments will finally unravel mechanisms. One of the key questions is how a microbial community is assembled from a pool of bacteria in the environment, and how it responds to change - be it the increase in CO2 concentration in the ocean, or antibiotic treatment of the gut microbiome. The study by Zhang et al. () in this issue is one of the very few that approaches this problem experimentally in the natural environment. The authors selected a habitat which is both extremely interesting and difficult to access. They studied the Thuwal Seep in the Red Sea at 850 m depth and used a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to place a steel frame carrying substrata for biofilm growth into the brine pool and into the adjacent normal bottom water (NBW). Biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days, and then those that had been growing in the brine pool were transported to normal bottom water and stayed there for another 3 days, and vice versa. The 'switched' biofilms were then compared with their source communities by metagenome sequencing. Strikingly, both 'switched' biofilms were now dominated by the same two species. These species were able to cope with conditions in both source ecosystems, as shown by assembly of their genomes and detection of expression of key genes. The biofilms had adapted to environmental change, rather than to brine pools or NBW. The study shows both the resilience and adaptability of biofilm communities and has implications for microbial ecology in general and even for therapeutic approaches such as transplantation of faecal microbiomes. PMID:27169388

  20. Food web structure and vulnerability of a deep-sea ecosystem in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Company, Joan B.; Ramírez-Llodra, Eva; Sardà, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing fishing pressure on the continental margins of the oceans, and this raises concerns about the vulnerability of the ecosystems thriving there. The current knowledge of the biology of deep-water fish species identifies potential reduced resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. However, there are extreme difficulties in sampling the deep sea, resulting in poorly resolved and indirectly obtained food-web relationships. Here, we modelled the flows and biomasses of a Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystem, the Catalan Sea continental slope at depths of 1000-1400 m. This is the first model of a deep-water ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea. The objectives were to (a) quantitatively describe the food web structure of the ecosystem, (b) examine the role of key species in the ecosystem, and (c) explore the vulnerability of this deep-sea ecosystem to potential future fishing exploitation. We used the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modelling approach and software to model the ecosystem. The trophic model included 18 consumers, a marine snow group, and a sediment detritus group. Trophic network analysis identified low levels of consumer biomass cycling and low system omnivory index when compared with expected values of marine ecosystems, and higher cycling and omnivory when compared with available EwE models of shallower areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The majority of flows in the ecosystem were concentrated at the trophic level of first-order consumers (TL 2). Benthic invertebrates and demersal sharks were identified to have key ecological roles in the ecosystem. We used the dynamic temporal model Ecosim to simulate expansion of the red-shrimp benthic trawl fishery that currently operates at shallower depths, down to 800 m depth. The simulations showed reductions in fish biomass and that the state of the deep continental slope ecosystem in the western Mediterranean seems to be the result of a long-term succession process, which has reached ecological stability, and is

  1. Movement of deep-sea coral populations on climatic timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Gerlach, Dana; Roberts, Mark L.; Burke, Andrea; McNichol, Ann; Jenkins, William J.; Subhas, Adam V.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Adkins, Jess F.

    2013-06-01

    During the past 40,000 years, global climate has moved into and out of a full glacial period, with the deglaciation marked by several millennial-scale rapid climate change events. Here we investigate the ecological response of deep-sea coral communities to both glaciation and these rapid climate change events. We find that the deep-sea coral populations of Desmophyllum dianthus in both the North Atlantic and the Tasmanian seamounts expand at times of rapid climate change. However, during the more stable Last Glacial Maximum, the coral population globally retreats to a more restricted depth range. Holocene populations show regional patterns that provide some insight into what causes these dramatic changes in population structure. The most important factors are likely responses to climatically driven changes in productivity, [O2] and [CO32-].

  2. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  3. Antarctic Marine Biodiversity and Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining. PMID:22235192

  4. Life support maintenance for deep-sea diving

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    A treatise on life support maintenance in diving for the retrieval of radioactively contaminated, submerged materials should include discussions of gas supply requirements, carbon dioxide removal techniques, thermal protection, humidity control, and power sources. For the sake of brevity, this paper highlight only those areas peculiar to deep-sea diving and introduce a design aid being used in the development of new diving life support systems.

  5. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2013-11-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services and provisions that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of provisioning, regulating and cultural services become apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses which are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary to fuel surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a diversity of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown which has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and time scales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, that covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a diversity of ways, however the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society.

  6. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions. PMID:11538298

  7. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    PubMed Central

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  8. Viability of Carbon Dioxide Storage in Deep Sea Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Despite the public's general aversion to using the ocean to dispose of captured carbon dioxide (CO2), recent revisions of the London Protocol have removed a hurdle to subsea injection of CO2. This paper constructs a map of the worldwide "prospectivity" of CO2 storage in deep sea sediment, i.e. amenable locations are determined and storage capacities estimated. CO2 injected into deep sea sediment is expected to be gravitationally trapped and secondarily capped by CO2 hydrate formation. Capture, transport, and storage costs are estimated and a mixed-integer linear programming model that generates spatially optimized infrastructure networks is applied. The model captures CO2 from fixed point sources, uses minimum cost routing paths, aggregates CO2 flow into trunk distribution pipelines where appropriate, and injects the CO2 in potential deep sea injection sites. Economies of scale for this climate change mitigation intervention in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone are discussed, including provisions for destabilizing and/or harvesting methane from in situ gas hydrates.

  9. Russian deep-sea investigations of Antarctic fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutina, Marina

    2004-07-01

    A review of the Russian deep-sea investigation of Antarctic fauna beginning from the first scientific collection of Soviet whaling fleet expeditions 1946-1952 is presented. The paper deals with the following expeditions, their main tasks and results. These expeditions include three cruises of research vessel (R.V.) Ob in the Indian sector of the Antarctic and in the Southern Pacific (1955-1958); 11 cruises of the R.V. Akademik Kurchatov in the southern Atlantic (November-December 1971); 16 cruises of the R.V. Dmitriy Mendeleev in the Australia-New Zealand area and adjacent water of the Antarctic (December 1975-March 1976); 43 cruises of the R.V. Akademik Kurchatov in the southern Atlantic (October 1985-February 1986); and 43 cruises of the R.V. Dmitriy Mendeleev in the Atlantic sector of the South Ocean (January-May 1989). A list of the main publications on the benthic taxa collected during these expeditions with data of their distribution is presented. The results of Russian explorations of the Antarctic fauna are presented as theoretical conclusions in the following topics: (1) Vertical zonation in the distribution of the Antarctic deep-sea fauna; (2) Biogeographic division of the abyssal and hadal zones; (3) Origin of the Antarctic deep-sea fauna; (4) Distributional pathways of the Antarctic abyssal fauna through the World Ocean.

  10. Chemosynthesis in the deep-sea: life without the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    Chemosynthetic communities in the deep-sea can be found at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale falls and wood falls. While these communities have been suggested to exist in isolation from solar energy, much of the life associated with them relies either directly or indirectly on photosynthesis in the surface waters of the oceans. The sun indirectly provides oxygen, a byproduct of photosynthesis, which aerobic chemosynthetic microorganisms require to synthesize organic carbon from CO2. Planktonic life stages of many vent and cold seep invertebrates also directly feed on photosynthetically produced organic matter as they disperse to new vent and seep systems. While a large portion of the life at deep-sea chemosynthetic habitats can be linked to the sun and so could not survive without it, a small portion of anaerobically chemosynthetic microorganisms can persist in its absence. These small and exotic organisms have developed a way of life in the deep-sea which involves the use of resources originating in their entirety from terrestrial sources.

  11. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  12. Rhone deep-sea fan: morphostructure and growth pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Droz, L.; Bellaiche, G.

    1985-03-01

    A detailed bathymetric survey of the Rhone deep-sea fan and its feeder canyon using Sea-Beam, reveals morphologic features such as very tight meanders of the canyon and channel courses, cutoff meanders, and downslope narrowing of the inner channel floor. Striking similarities exist between these deep-sea features and some continental landforms, especially in alluvial plain areas or desert environments. Sea-Beam also reveals evidence of huge slump scars affecting the slope and fan. The superficial structure of the Rhone Fan results from the stacking of numerous lenticular acoustic units displaying specific seismic characters in which the authors recognized channel and levee facies. Except in the upper fan area, these units have not been constant; they have generally migrated, owing to shifting of the channel throughout fan evolution. Construction of the fan probably began as early as the early Pliocene and continued to the close of the Wurmian (late Wisconsinian). The fan's growth pattern could be associated with climatic fluctuations. The principal sedimentary mechanism responsible for the growth of the fan appears to be turbidity currents, but mass gravity flows have also been an important factor in building the fan by occasionally blocking the main channel and forcing it to migrate.

  13. Deep-sea pennatulaceans (sea pens) - recent discoveries, morphological adaptations, and responses to benthic oceanographic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Pennatulaceans are sessile, benthic marine organisms that are bathymetrically wide-ranging, from the intertidal to approximately 6300 m in depth, and are conspicuous constituents of deep-sea environments. The vast majority of species are adapted for anchoring in soft sediments by the cylindrical peduncle - a muscular hydrostatic skeleton. However, in the past decade a few species ("Rockpens") have been discovered and described that can attach to hard substratum such as exposed rocky outcrops at depths between 669 and 1969 m, by a plunger-like adaptation of the base of the peduncle. Of the thirty-six known genera, eleven (or 30%) have been recorded from depths greater than 1000 m. The pennatulacean depth record holders are an unidentified species of Umbellula from 6260 m in the Peru-Chile Trench and a recently-discovered and described genus and species, Porcupinella profunda, from 5300 m the Porcupine Abyssal Plain of the northeastern Atlantic. A morphologically-differentiated type of polyp (acrozooid) have recently been discovered and described in two genera of shallow-water coral reef sea pens. Acrozooids apparently represent asexual buds and presumably can detach from the adult to start clonal colonies through asexual budding. Acrozooids are to be expected in deep-sea pennatulaceans, but so far have not been observed below 24 m in depth. Morphological responses at depths greater than 1000 m in deep-sea pennatulaceas include: fewer polyps, larger polyps, elongated stalks, and clustering of polyps along the rachis. Responses to deep-ocean physical parameters and anthropogenic changes that could affect the abundance and distribution of deep-sea pennatulaceans include changes in bottom current flow and food availability, changes in seawater temperature and pH, habitat destruction by fish trawling, and sunken refuse pollution. No evidence of the effects of ocean acidification or other effects of anthropogenic climate change in sea pens of the deep-sea has been

  14. Assessment of polymorphic genetic markers for multi-locus typing of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Guy; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2012-10-01

    The use of high resolution molecular tools to study Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis intra-species variation is becoming common practice, but there is currently no consensus in the methods used. The most commonly applied tool is partial gp60 gene sequence analysis. However, multi-locus schemes are acknowledged to improve resolution over analysis of a single locus, which neglects potential re-assortment of genes during the sexual phase of the Cryptosporidium life-cycle. Multi-locus markers have been investigated in isolates from a variety of sampling frames, in varying combinations and using different assays and methods of analysis. To identify the most informative markers as candidates for the development of a standardised multi-locus fragment size-based typing (MLFT) scheme to integrate with epidemiological analyses, we examined the published literature. A total of 31 MLFT studies were found, employing 55 markers of which 45 were applied to both C. parvum and C. hominis. Of the studies, 11 had sufficient raw data, from three or more markers, and a sampling frame containing at least 50 samples, for meaningful in-depth analysis using assessment criteria based on the sampling frame, study size, number of markers investigated in each study, marker characteristics (>2 nucleotide repeats) and the combinations of markers generating all possible multi-locus genotypes. Markers investigated differed between C. hominis and C. parvum. When each scheme was analysed for the fewest markers required to identify 95% of all MLFTs, some redundancy was identified in all schemes; an average redundancy of 40% for C. hominis and 27% for C. parvum. Ranking markers, based on the most productive combinations, identified two different sets of potentially most informative candidate markers, one for each species. These will be subjected to technical evaluation including typability (percentage of samples generating a complete multi-locus type) and discriminatory power by

  15. First glimpse into Lower Jurassic deep-sea biodiversity: in situ diversification and resilience against extinction.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Ben; Kiel, Steffen; Dulai, Alfréd; Gale, Andy S; Kroh, Andreas; Lord, Alan R; Numberger-Thuy, Lea D; Stöhr, Sabine; Wisshak, Max

    2014-07-01

    Owing to the assumed lack of deep-sea macrofossils older than the Late Cretaceous, very little is known about the geological history of deep-sea communities, and most inference-based hypotheses argue for repeated recolonizations of the deep sea from shelf habitats following major palaeoceanographic perturbations. We present a fossil deep-sea assemblage of echinoderms, gastropods, brachiopods and ostracods, from the Early Jurassic of the Glasenbach Gorge, Austria, which includes the oldest known representatives of a number of extant deep-sea groups, and thus implies that in situ diversification, in contrast to immigration from shelf habitats, played a much greater role in shaping modern deep-sea biodiversity than previously thought. A comparison with coeval shelf assemblages reveals that, at least in some of the analysed groups, significantly more extant families/superfamilies have endured in the deep sea since the Early Jurassic than in the shelf seas, which suggests that deep-sea biota are more resilient against extinction than shallow-water ones. In addition, a number of extant deep-sea families/superfamilies found in the Glasenbach assemblage lack post-Jurassic shelf occurrences, implying that if there was a complete extinction of the deep-sea fauna followed by replacement from the shelf, it must have happened before the Late Jurassic.

  16. Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

    PubMed

    Rohling, E J; Foster, G L; Grant, K M; Marino, G; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-04-24

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. Here we present a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. We find that deep-sea temperature and sea level generally decreased through time, but distinctly out of synchrony, which is remarkable given the importance of ice-albedo feedbacks on the radiative forcing of climate. In particular, we observe a large temporal offset during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. Last, we tentatively infer that ice sheets may have grown largest during glacials with more modest reductions in deep-sea temperature.

  17. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation.

  18. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation. PMID:27386293

  19. Antifouling potentials of eight deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Peng, Jiang; Ma, Chun-Feng; Nong, Xu-Hua; Bao, Jie; Zhang, Guang-Zhao; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Marine-derived microbial secondary metabolites are promising potential sources of nontoxic antifouling agents. The search for environmentally friendly and low-toxic antifouling components guided us to investigate the antifouling potentials of eight novel fungal isolates from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sixteen crude ethyl acetate extracts of the eight fungal isolates showed distinct antibacterial activity against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009, Micrococcus luteus UST950701-006 and Pseudoalteromonas piscida UST010620-005), or significant antilarval activity against larval settlement of bryozoan Bugula neritina. Furthermore, the extract of Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 displayed strong antifouling activity in a field trial lasting 4 months. By further bioassay-guided isolation, five antifouling alkaloids including brevianamide F, circumdatin F and L, notoamide C, and 5-chlorosclerotiamide were isolated from the extract of A. westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. This is the first report about the antifouling potentials of metabolites of the deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea, and the first stage towards the development of non- or low-toxic antifouling agents from deep-sea-derived fungi.

  20. Sea-surface and deep-magnetic data at Vavilov Seamount, Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccini, Filippo; Cocchi, Luca; Locritani, Marina; Carmisciano, Cosmo

    2016-04-01

    Sea surface and deep magnetic data were acquired at Vavilov seamount, in the Tyrrhenian sea. Vavilov seamount is located in the central portion of the homonymous Vavilov basin. The seamount stands about 2800 meters above the seafloor at 3600 meters depth, with the top at about 800 meters below the sea level. Oceanization of the basin occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. The magnetic data were collected in 2011 on board the Nave Ammiraglio Magnaghi by using a Marine Magnetics Seaspy magnetometer. The sea surface magnetic survey was realized with two different grids: the first regional one, with 13 parallel lines about 43 Km long, 3 Km spaced (104° N oriented) and 6 tie control lines about 40 Km long, 5 Km spaced (014° N oriented). The second one was realized to better define the volcanic structure of the seamount, and was achieved by acquiring 12 magnetic parallel lines (104° N), 18 Km long and 1 Km spaced. The deep magnetic data were collected by towing a magnetic sensor coupled with a L3 sidescan sonar Klein 3000. A set of 5 parallel lines were acquired in correspondence of the bathymetric top of the seamount with the sensor flying at about constant depth of 700 meters. These data represents the first near-bottom magnetic data collected for Vavilov seamount and it allows comparison between sea-surface and deep magnetic data.

  1. Seismic stratigraphy of the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel system, northwest South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shengqiang; Lü, Fuliang; Wu, Shiguo; Yao, Genshun; Ma, Yubo; Fu, Yanhui

    2009-05-01

    Based on more than 4000 km 2D seismic data and seismic stratigraphic analysis, we discussed the extent and formation mechanism of the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel. The Qiongdongnan deep sea channel is a large incised channel which extends from the east boundary of the Yinggehai Basin, through the whole Qiongdongnan and the Xisha trough, and terminates in the western part of the northwest subbasin of South China Sea. It is more than 570 km long and 4-8 km wide. The chaotic (or continuous) middle (or high) amplitude, middle (or high) continuity seismic facies of the channel reflect the different lithological distribution of the channel. The channel formed as a complex result of global sea level drop during early Pliocene, large scale of sediment supply to the Yinggehai Basin, inversion event of the Red River strike-slip fault, and tilted direction of the Qiongdongnan Basin. The large scale of sediment supply from Red River caused the shelf break of the Yinggehai Basin to move torwards the S and SE direction and developed large scale of prograding wedge from the Miocene, and the inversion of the Red River strike-slip fault induced the sediment slump which formed the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel.

  2. Antifouling potentials of eight deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Peng, Jiang; Ma, Chun-Feng; Nong, Xu-Hua; Bao, Jie; Zhang, Guang-Zhao; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Marine-derived microbial secondary metabolites are promising potential sources of nontoxic antifouling agents. The search for environmentally friendly and low-toxic antifouling components guided us to investigate the antifouling potentials of eight novel fungal isolates from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sixteen crude ethyl acetate extracts of the eight fungal isolates showed distinct antibacterial activity against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009, Micrococcus luteus UST950701-006 and Pseudoalteromonas piscida UST010620-005), or significant antilarval activity against larval settlement of bryozoan Bugula neritina. Furthermore, the extract of Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 displayed strong antifouling activity in a field trial lasting 4 months. By further bioassay-guided isolation, five antifouling alkaloids including brevianamide F, circumdatin F and L, notoamide C, and 5-chlorosclerotiamide were isolated from the extract of A. westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. This is the first report about the antifouling potentials of metabolites of the deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea, and the first stage towards the development of non- or low-toxic antifouling agents from deep-sea-derived fungi. PMID:24532297

  3. Fungal communities from methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments in South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xintian; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Fang, Shu; Huang, Yali; Zhou, Shining

    2007-12-01

    To elucidate fungal diversity in methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments in the South China Sea, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from five different sediment DNA samples were amplified and phylogenetically analyzed. Total five ITS libraries were constructed and 413 clones selected randomly were grouped into 24 restriction patterns by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). ITS sequences of 44 representative clones were determined and compared with the GenBank database using gapped-BLAST. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the ITS sequences (71-97% similarity) were similar to those of Phoma, Lodderomyces, Malassezia, Cryptococcus, Cylindrocarpon, Hortaea, Pichia, Aspergillus and Candida. The remaining sequences were not associated to any known fungi or fungal sequences in the public database. The results suggested that methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments harbor diverse fungi. This is the first report on fungal communities from methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments in South China Sea.

  4. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  5. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene.

  6. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Michela; di Lorenzo, Bianca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons. PMID:25604749

  7. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Michela; di Lorenzo, Bianca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons.

  8. Exploitation of deep-sea resources: the urgent need to understand the role of high pressure in the toxicity of chemical pollutants to deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Nélia C; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-02-01

    The advent of industrial activities in the deep sea will inevitably expose deep-sea organisms to potentially toxic compounds. Although international regulations require environmental risk assessment prior to exploitation activities, toxicity tests remain focused on shallow-water model species. Moreover, current tests overlook potential synergies that may arise from the interaction of chemicals with natural stressors, such as the high pressures prevailing in the deep sea. As pressure affects chemical reactions and the physiology of marine organisms, it will certainly affect the toxicity of pollutants arising from the exploitation of deep-sea resources. We emphasize the need for environmental risk assessments based on information generated from ecotoxicological trials that mimic, as close as possible, the deep-sea environment, with emphasis to a key environmental factor - high hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Exploitation of deep-sea resources: the urgent need to understand the role of high pressure in the toxicity of chemical pollutants to deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Nélia C; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-02-01

    The advent of industrial activities in the deep sea will inevitably expose deep-sea organisms to potentially toxic compounds. Although international regulations require environmental risk assessment prior to exploitation activities, toxicity tests remain focused on shallow-water model species. Moreover, current tests overlook potential synergies that may arise from the interaction of chemicals with natural stressors, such as the high pressures prevailing in the deep sea. As pressure affects chemical reactions and the physiology of marine organisms, it will certainly affect the toxicity of pollutants arising from the exploitation of deep-sea resources. We emphasize the need for environmental risk assessments based on information generated from ecotoxicological trials that mimic, as close as possible, the deep-sea environment, with emphasis to a key environmental factor - high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24230462

  10. Age, growth rates, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E. Brendan; Andrews, Allen; Robinson, Laura; Hill, Tessa; Sherwood, Owen; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Fallon, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Deep-water corals are some of the slowest growing, longest-lived skeletal accreting marine organisms. These habitat-forming species support diverse faunal assemblages that include commercially and ecologically important organisms. Therefore, effective management and conservation strategies for deep-sea corals can be informed by precise and accurate age, growth rate, and lifespan characteristics for proper assessment of vulnerability and recovery from perturbations. This is especially true for the small number of commercially valuable, and potentially endangered, species that are part of the black and precious coral fisheries (Tsounis et al. 2010). In addition to evaluating time scales of recovery from disturbance or exploitation, accurate age and growth estimates are essential for understanding the life history and ecology of these habitat-forming corals. Given that longevity is a key factor for population maintenance and fishery sustainability, partly due to limited and complex genetic flow among coral populations separated by great distances, accurate age structure for these deep-sea coral communities is essential for proper, long-term resource management.

  11. Deep sea mega-geomorphology: Progress and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, marine geologists have always worked with mega-scale morphology. This is a consequence both of the scale of the ocean basins and of the low resolution of the observational remote sensing tools available until very recently. In fact, studies of deep sea morphology have suffered from a serious gap in observational scale. Traditional wide-beam echo sounding gave images on a scale of miles, while deep sea photography has been limited to scales of a few tens of meters. Recent development of modern narrow-beam echo sounding coupled with computer-controlled swath mapping systems, and development of high-resolution deep-towed side-scan sonar, are rapidly filling in the scale gap. These technologies also can resolve morphologic detail on a scale of a few meters or less. As has also been true in planetary imaging projects, the ability to observe phenomena over a range of scales has proved very effective in both defining processes and in placing them in proper context.

  12. Characterization of plutonium in deep-sea sediments of the Sulu and South China Seas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Yamada, Masatoshi; Pan, Shaoming

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic Pu isotopes are important geochemical tracers for sediment studies. Their distributions and sources in the water columns as well as the sediments of the North Pacific have been intensively studied; however, information about Pu in the Southeast Asian seas is limited. To study the isotopic composition of Pu, and thus to identify its sources, we collected sediment core samples in the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea during the KH-96-5 Cruise of the R/V Hakuho Maru. We analysed the activities of (239+240)Pu and the atom ratios of (240)Pu/(239)Pu using isotope dilution sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediments of both areas (inventory weighted mean: 0.251 for the South China Sea and 0.280 for the Sulu Sea) were higher than the global fallout value (0.178+/-0.019), suggesting the existence of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the North Pacific. Low inventories of (239+240)Pu in sediments were observed in the South China Sea (3.75 Bq/m(2)) and the Sulu Sea (1.38 Bq/m(2)). Most of the Pu input is still present in the water column. Scavenging and benthic mixing processes were considered to be the main processes controlling the distribution of Pu in the deep-sea sediments of both study areas.

  13. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Kalke, Richard D; Kracker, Laura M; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C E

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2). Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2). Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  14. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Kalke, Richard D; Kracker, Laura M; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C E

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2). Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2). Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  15. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  16. Deep-sea Lebensspuren of the Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Dundas, Kate; Radke, Lynda; Anderson, Tara J.

    Much of the deep sea comprises soft-sediment habitats dominated by comparatively low abundances of species-rich macrofauna and meiofauna. Although often not observed, these animals bioturbate the sediment during feeding and burrowing, leaving signs of their activities called Lebensspuren ('life traces'). In this study, we use still images to quantify Lebensspuren from the eastern (1921 images, 13 stations, 1300-2200 m depth) and western (1008 images, 11 stations, 1500-4400 m depth) Australian margins using a univariate measure of trace richness and a multivariate measure of Lebensspuren assemblages. A total of 46 Lebensspuren types were identified, including those matching named trace fossils and modern Lebensspuren found elsewhere in the world. Most traces could be associated with waste, crawling, dwellings, organism tests, feeding, or resting, but the origin of 15% of trace types remains unknown. Assemblages were significantly different between the two regions and depth profiles, with five Lebensspuren types accounting for over 95% of the differentiation (ovoid pinnate trace, crater row, spider trace, matchstick trace, mesh trace). Lebensspuren richness showed no strong relationships with depth, total organic carbon, or mud, although there was a positive correlation to chlorin index (i.e., organic freshness) in the eastern margin, with richness increasing with organic freshness. Lebensspuren richness was not related to epifauna either, indicating that epifauna may not be the primary source of Lebensspuren. Despite the abundance and distinctiveness of several traces both in the current and previous studies (e.g., ovoid pinnate, mesh, spider), their origin and distribution remains a mystery. We discuss this and several other considerations in the identification and quantification of Lebensspuren. This study represents the first comprehensive catalogue of deep-sea Lebensspuren in Australian waters and highlights the potential of Lebensspuren as valuable and often

  17. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit. PMID:17777883

  18. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen diagenesis in deep sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waples, Douglas W.; Sloan, Jon R.

    1980-10-01

    The sections penetrated on Leg 58 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project represent periods of geologic time during which depositional conditions apparently remained quite constant, thus offering an unusual opportunity to study the effects of diagenesis on organic material. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents decrease monotonically with increasing depth of burial before levelling off at minimum values of about 0.05-0.10 and 0.01%, respectively. The depths at which minima are reached vary from site to site, but the ages of the sediments at the minima are all about 2-5 Myr. These data indicate that diagenetic transformations are responsible for the gradual depletion of organic carbon and nitrogen. If diagenesis is at least partly the result of microbial activity, then the role of bacterial ecosystems in deep water sediments is much greater than has previously been thought.

  20. Deep sea AUV navigation using multiple acoustic beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Da-xiong; Song, Wei; Zhao, Hong-yu; Liu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Navigation is a critical requirement for the operation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). To estimate the vehicle position, we present an algorithm using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to integrate dead-reckoning position with acoustic ranges from multiple beacons pre-deployed in the operating environment. Owing to high latency, variable sound speed multipath transmissions and unreliability in acoustic measurements, outlier recognition techniques are proposed as well. The navigation algorithm has been tested by the recorded data of deep sea AUV during field operations in a variety of environments. Our results show the improved performance over prior techniques based on position computation.

  1. A deep-sea diver with cement pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Roya; Tashtoush, Basheer; Nasim, Faria; Grobman, Daniel; Upadhyay, Bharat K; Rahaghi, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Cement pulmonary embolism is a rare complication of cement kyphoplasty. These emboli are often asymptomatic and commonly detected many years after the procedure as incidental findings on radiographic imaging. We herein report a case of a 32-year-old professional diver who was diagnosed with asymptomatic cement pulmonary emboli during his annual diving physical exam. After two years of follow-up the patient remained asymptomatic and resumed his career in professional diving, which included deep sea diving activities with no evidence of respiratory limitations or long-term complications. PMID:27416693

  2. Space Suit Technologies Protect Deep-Sea Divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth. Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.

  3. A deep-sea diver with cement pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Roya; Tashtoush, Basheer; Nasim, Faria; Grobman, Daniel; Upadhyay, Bharat K; Rahaghi, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Cement pulmonary embolism is a rare complication of cement kyphoplasty. These emboli are often asymptomatic and commonly detected many years after the procedure as incidental findings on radiographic imaging. We herein report a case of a 32-year-old professional diver who was diagnosed with asymptomatic cement pulmonary emboli during his annual diving physical exam. After two years of follow-up the patient remained asymptomatic and resumed his career in professional diving, which included deep sea diving activities with no evidence of respiratory limitations or long-term complications.

  4. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirms deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustí, Susana; González-Gordillo, Jose I.; Vaqué, Dolors; Estrada, Marta; Cerezo, Maria I.; Salazar, Guillem; Gasol, Josep M.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean awaits confirmation. Photosynthetic plankton, directly responsible for trapping CO2 in organic form in the surface layer, are a key constituent of the flux of sinking particles and are assumed to die and become detritus upon leaving the photic layer. Research in the 1960-70's reported the occasional presence of well-preserved phytoplankton cells in the deep ocean, but these observations, which could signal at rapid sinking rates, were considered anecdotal. Using new developments we tested the presence of healthy phytoplankton cells in the deep sea (2000 to 4000 m depth) along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition, a global expedition sampling the bathypelagic zone of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. In particular, we used a new microplankton sampling device, the Bottle-Net, 16S rDNA sequences, flow cytometric counts, vital stains and experiments to explore the abundance and health status of photosynthetic plankton cells between 2,000 and 4,000 m depth along the Circumnavigation track. We described the community of microplankton (> 20μm) found at the deep ocean (2000-4000 m depth), surprisingly dominated by phytoplankton, and within this, by diatoms. Moreover, we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark sea. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from few days to few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates of 124 to 732 m d-1, comparable to those of fast sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the

  5. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  6. Ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Richard A.; Kennish, Michael J.

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the many active and inactive hydrothermal vents found during the past 15 years have radically altered views of biological and geological processes in the deep sea. The biological communities occupying the vast and relatively stable soft bottom habitats of the deep sea are characterized by low population densities, high species diversity, and low biomass. In contrast, those inhabiting the generally unstable conditions of hydrothermal vent environments exhibit high densities and biomass, low species diversity, rapid growth rates, and high metabolic rates. Biological processes, such as rates of metabolism and growth, in vent organisms are comparable to those observed in organisms from shallow-water ecosystems. An abundant energy source is provided by chemosynthetic bacteria that constitute the primary producers sustaining the lush communities at the hydrothermal sites. Fluxes in vent flow and fluid chemistry cause changes in growth rates, reproduction, mortality, and/or colonization of vent fauna, leading to temporal and spatial variation of the vent communities. Vent populations that cannot adapt to modified flow rates are adversely affected, as is evidenced by high mortality or lower rates of colonization, growth, or reproduction. Substantial changes in biota have been witnessed at several vents, and successional cycles have been proposed for the Galapagos vent fields. Dramatic temporal and spatial variations in vent community structure may also relate to variations in larval dispersal and chance recruitment, as well as biotic interactions.

  7. [Some peculiarities of brain phospholipids in deep sea fishes].

    PubMed

    Pomazanskaia, L F; Pravdina, N I; Chirkovskaia, E V

    1975-01-01

    Total phospholipids (PL) as well as the content of various phospholipid classes and their fatty acid composition have been investigated in the brain of mesopelagic and abyssal marine teleosts. These species were compared to shallow water ones. The brain of deep sea fishes was found to be very poor in PL as compared to the brain of mesopelagic ans surface water species. No differences concerning the brain PL content were revealed between the two last mentioned groups. The relative content of separate PL classes was very similar in all the species studied irrespectively of the depth of their habitat. Peculiarities were found in fatty acid composition of individual PL from deep sea species as compared to surface ones. The deeper the habitat, the lower the content of saturated fatty acids, especially of the stearic acid. The lowest content of saturated fatty acids, maximum level of polyenoic fatty acids as well as some peculiarities in the relative content of particular fatty acids were found in the brain of ultraabyssal (6, 000 m) Leucicorus sp. PMID:1217333

  8. Activity rhythms in the deep-sea: a chronobiological approach.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan Batista; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Bahamon, Nixon; Puig, Pere; Sarda, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waters deeper than 200 m cover 70% of the Earth's surface. Light intensity gets progressively weaker with increasing depth and internal tides or inertial currents may be the only remaining zeitgebers regulating biorhythms in deep-sea decapods. Benthopelagic coupling, exemplified by vertically moving shrimps within the water column, may also act as a source of indirect synchronisation to the day-night cycle for species living in permanently dark areas. At the same time, seasonal rhythms in growth and reproduction may be an exogenous response to spring-summer changes in upper layer productivity (via phytoplankton) or, alternatively, may be provoked by the synchronisation mediated by an endogenous controlling mechanism (via melatonin). In our review, we will focus on the behavioural rhythms of crustacean decapods inhabiting depths where the sun light is absent. Potential scenarios for future research on deep-sea decapod behaviour are suggested by new in situ observation technologies. Permanent video observatories are, to date, one of the most important tools for marine chronobiology in terms of species recognition and animals' movement tracking.

  9. Activity rhythms in the deep-sea: a chronobiological approach.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan Batista; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Bahamon, Nixon; Puig, Pere; Sarda, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waters deeper than 200 m cover 70% of the Earth's surface. Light intensity gets progressively weaker with increasing depth and internal tides or inertial currents may be the only remaining zeitgebers regulating biorhythms in deep-sea decapods. Benthopelagic coupling, exemplified by vertically moving shrimps within the water column, may also act as a source of indirect synchronisation to the day-night cycle for species living in permanently dark areas. At the same time, seasonal rhythms in growth and reproduction may be an exogenous response to spring-summer changes in upper layer productivity (via phytoplankton) or, alternatively, may be provoked by the synchronisation mediated by an endogenous controlling mechanism (via melatonin). In our review, we will focus on the behavioural rhythms of crustacean decapods inhabiting depths where the sun light is absent. Potential scenarios for future research on deep-sea decapod behaviour are suggested by new in situ observation technologies. Permanent video observatories are, to date, one of the most important tools for marine chronobiology in terms of species recognition and animals' movement tracking. PMID:21196163

  10. Distribution of Mg and Li in Deep-Sea Scleractinian Corals: Implications for "Vital Effects" and Deep-Sea Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, D. H.; Robinson, L. F.; Auro, M. E.; Gagnon, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    The deep ocean is an important component of the climate system, but high resolution records of its behavior are difficult to obtain. Deep-sea corals that form carbonate skeletons have the potential to provide decadal resolution records of the deep ocean. Unfortunately, paleoceanographic approaches to reconstructing temperature in other marine carbonates, including Mg/Ca and ∂18O, are inconsistent with inorganic predictions due to biological mediation, or so called “vital effects." Inspired by a strong Mg/Li to temperature correlation observed in aragonitic and calcitic foraminifera, this study investigated Mg/Li ratios in deep-sea corals as a possible paleothermometer. Two approaches were applied: laser ablation and solution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For solution analyses Mg/Li was measured to an uncertainty of ~1%, and for laser analyses this uncertainty increased to ~5%. In situ laser analyses across septae and thecae show that Li fractionates similarly to Mg in deep-sea corals relative to Ca, such that the Li/Ca vs. Mg/Ca ratio within a single coral lies on a line with a slope of 3.9 for Balanophyllia and 2.8 for D. dianthus. For D. dianthus, Mg/Ca varies by a factor of nearly three across coral density bands, with high Mg at centers of calcification. Mg/Li varies by only 1.6 times across the same regions. Biomineralization models including a Rayleigh model and a simple open system model are invoked in an attempt to explain these behaviors. As a test of Mg/Li temperature sensitivity twenty-one scleractinian corals, representing five species with a temperature range of 1.8 to 17°C were thoroughly cleaned before dissolution and analysis. Mg/Li correlates to temperature in these corals with R2 values of 0.47 and 0.99 obtained for D. dianthus and Caryophyllia respectively, a significant improvement compared to Mg/Ca. This finding is promising for use of Mg/Li in paleoclimate reconstructions, but further work is required to understand the

  11. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Agusti, S.; González-Gordillo, J. I.; Vaqué, D.; Estrada, M.; Cerezo, M. I.; Salazar, G.; Gasol, J. M.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean requires confirmation. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark ocean. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from a few days to a few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates (124–732 m d−1) comparable to those of fast-sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean. PMID:26158221

  12. Adaptation to deep-sea methane seeps from Cretaceous shallow-water black shale environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Wiese, Frank; Titus, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Sulfide-enriched environments in shallow water were considered as sites where animals acquire pre-adaptations enabling them to colonize deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps or where they survived extinction events in their deep-sea habitats. Here we present upper Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) shallow-water seep communities from the Tropic Shale in the Western Interior Seaway, USA, that lived during a time of extremely warm deep-water temperatures, which supposedly facilitates adaptations to the deep sea, and time-equivalent with a period of widespread oceanic and photic zone anoxia (OAE 2) that supposedly extinguished deep-water vent and seep faunas. Contrary to the expectation, the taxa inhabiting the Tropic Shale seeps were not found at any coeval or younger deep-water seep or vent deposit. This suggests that (i) pre-adaptations for living at deep-sea vents and seeps do not evolve at shallow-water methane seeps, and probably also not in sulfide-rich shallow-water environments in general; (ii) a low temperature gradient from shallow to deep water does not facilitate onshore-offshore adaptations to deep-sea vents and seeps; and (iii) shallow-water seeps did not act as refuges for deep-sea vent and seep animals. We hypothesize that the vast majority of adaptations to successfully colonize deep-sea vents and seeps are acquired below the photic zone.

  13. Multi-locus sequence data reveal a new species of coral reef goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota), and evidence of Pliocene vicariance across the Coral Triangle.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, L; Valdez, S; Erdmann, M V; Pezold, F L

    2016-05-01

    Here, multi-locus sequence data are coupled with observations of live colouration to recognize a new species, Eviota punyit from the Coral Triangle, Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimation indicates a Pliocene origin for the new species, and the current distribution of the new species and its sister species Eviota sebreei supports a scenario of vicariance across the Indo-Pacific Barrier, followed by subsequent range expansion and overlap in the Coral Triangle. These results are consistent with the 'centre of overlap' hypothesis, which states that the increased diversity in the Coral Triangle is due in part to the overlapping ranges of Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas. These findings are discussed in the context of other geminate pairs of coral reef fishes separated by the Indo-Pacific Barrier. PMID:27021219

  14. Resource quality affects carbon cycling in deep-sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J; Thornton, Barry; Hay, Steve; Zuur, Alain F; Nicol, Graeme W; McWilliam, Jenna M; Witte, Ursula F M

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea sediments cover ∼70% of Earth's surface and represent the largest interface between the biological and geological cycles of carbon. Diatoms and zooplankton faecal pellets naturally transport organic material from the upper ocean down to the deep seabed, but how these qualitatively different substrates affect the fate of carbon in this permanently cold environment remains unknown. We added equal quantities of 13C-labelled diatoms and faecal pellets to a cold water (−0.7 °C) sediment community retrieved from 1080 m in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Northeast Atlantic, and quantified carbon mineralization and uptake by the resident bacteria and macrofauna over a 6-day period. High-quality, diatom-derived carbon was mineralized >300% faster than that from low-quality faecal pellets, demonstrating that qualitative differences in organic matter drive major changes in the residence time of carbon at the deep seabed. Benthic bacteria dominated biological carbon processing in our experiments, yet showed no evidence of resource quality-limited growth; they displayed lower growth efficiencies when respiring diatoms. These effects were consistent in contrasting months. We contend that respiration and growth in the resident sediment microbial communities were substrate and temperature limited, respectively. Our study has important implications for how future changes in the biochemical makeup of exported organic matter will affect the balance between mineralization and sequestration of organic carbon in the largest ecosystem on Earth. PMID:22378534

  15. Resource quality affects carbon cycling in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Thornton, Barry; Hay, Steve; Zuur, Alain F; Nicol, Graeme W; McWilliam, Jenna M; Witte, Ursula F M

    2012-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments cover ~70% of Earth's surface and represent the largest interface between the biological and geological cycles of carbon. Diatoms and zooplankton faecal pellets naturally transport organic material from the upper ocean down to the deep seabed, but how these qualitatively different substrates affect the fate of carbon in this permanently cold environment remains unknown. We added equal quantities of (13)C-labelled diatoms and faecal pellets to a cold water (-0.7 °C) sediment community retrieved from 1080 m in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Northeast Atlantic, and quantified carbon mineralization and uptake by the resident bacteria and macrofauna over a 6-day period. High-quality, diatom-derived carbon was mineralized >300% faster than that from low-quality faecal pellets, demonstrating that qualitative differences in organic matter drive major changes in the residence time of carbon at the deep seabed. Benthic bacteria dominated biological carbon processing in our experiments, yet showed no evidence of resource quality-limited growth; they displayed lower growth efficiencies when respiring diatoms. These effects were consistent in contrasting months. We contend that respiration and growth in the resident sediment microbial communities were substrate and temperature limited, respectively. Our study has important implications for how future changes in the biochemical makeup of exported organic matter will affect the balance between mineralization and sequestration of organic carbon in the largest ecosystem on Earth. PMID:22378534

  16. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  17. Significant anaerobic production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the deep East Sea (Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) was examined by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Humic-like FDOM (FDOMH) increased with depth and was significantly correlated with Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), indicating that FDOMH in the deep water is mainly produced by oxidation of organic matter. In addition, a surprisingly large excess of FDOMH relative to that expected from the observed AOU was found from 1000 m to the bottom (up to 3500 m). Based on the high-resolution geographical distribution and characteristics of FDOM in the East Sea, we conclude that this excess likely originates from anaerobic FDOMH production in subsurface bottom sediments. This FDOMH flux accounts for 8-15% of the total FDOM production in the water column. Our results suggest that anaerobic activities in subsurface sediments are an important hidden source of FDOM in the ocean.

  18. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with deep sea ferromanganese nodules from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Deep sea ferromanganese (FeMn) nodules contain metallic mineral resources and have great economic potential. In this study, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent (16S rRNA genes clone library and pyrosequencing) methods was used to investigate the bacterial diversity in FeMn nodules from Jiaolong Seamount, the South China Sea. Eleven bacterial strains including some moderate thermophiles were isolated. The majority of strains belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria; one isolate belonged to the phylum Firmicutes. A total of 259 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in a clone library and 67,079 valid reads obtained using pyrosequencing indicated that members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated, with the most abundant bacterial genera being Pseudomonas and Alteromonas. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of many organisms whose closest relatives are known manganese oxidizers, iron reducers, hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria and methylotrophs. This is the first reported investigation of bacterial diversity associated with deep sea FeMn nodules from the South China Sea.

  19. Ultra-deep sequencing of foraminiferal microbarcodes unveils hidden richness of early monothalamous lineages in deep-sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Esling, Philippe; Baerlocher, Loïc; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Pawlowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Deep-sea floors represent one of the largest and most complex ecosystems on Earth but remain essentially unexplored. The vastness and remoteness of this ecosystem make deep-sea sampling difficult, hampering traditional taxonomic observations and diversity assessment. This problem is particularly true in the case of the deep-sea meiofauna, which largely comprises small-sized, fragile, and difficult-to-identify metazoans and protists. Here, we introduce an ultra-deep sequencing-based metagenetic approach to examine the richness of benthic foraminifera, a principal component of deep-sea meiofauna. We used Illumina sequencing technology to assess foraminiferal richness in 31 unsieved deep-sea sediment samples from five distinct oceanic regions. We sequenced an extremely short fragment (36 bases) of the small subunit ribosomal DNA hypervariable region 37f, which has been shown to accurately distinguish foraminiferal species. In total, we obtained 495,978 unique sequences that were grouped into 1,643 operational taxonomic units, of which about half (841) could be reliably assigned to foraminifera. The vast majority of the operational taxonomic units (nearly 90%) were either assigned to early (ancient) lineages of soft-walled, single-chambered (monothalamous) foraminifera or remained undetermined and yet possibly belong to unknown early lineages. Contrasting with the classical view of multichambered taxa dominating foraminiferal assemblages, our work reflects an unexpected diversity of monothalamous lineages that are as yet unknown using conventional micropaleontological observations. Although we can only speculate about their morphology, the immense richness of deep-sea phylotypes revealed by this study suggests that ultra-deep sequencing can improve understanding of deep-sea benthic diversity considered until now as unknowable based on a traditional taxonomic approach. PMID:21788523

  20. Ultra-deep sequencing of foraminiferal microbarcodes unveils hidden richness of early monothalamous lineages in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Lecroq, Béatrice; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Esling, Philippe; Baerlocher, Loïc; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Pawlowski, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Deep-sea floors represent one of the largest and most complex ecosystems on Earth but remain essentially unexplored. The vastness and remoteness of this ecosystem make deep-sea sampling difficult, hampering traditional taxonomic observations and diversity assessment. This problem is particularly true in the case of the deep-sea meiofauna, which largely comprises small-sized, fragile, and difficult-to-identify metazoans and protists. Here, we introduce an ultra-deep sequencing-based metagenetic approach to examine the richness of benthic foraminifera, a principal component of deep-sea meiofauna. We used Illumina sequencing technology to assess foraminiferal richness in 31 unsieved deep-sea sediment samples from five distinct oceanic regions. We sequenced an extremely short fragment (36 bases) of the small subunit ribosomal DNA hypervariable region 37f, which has been shown to accurately distinguish foraminiferal species. In total, we obtained 495,978 unique sequences that were grouped into 1,643 operational taxonomic units, of which about half (841) could be reliably assigned to foraminifera. The vast majority of the operational taxonomic units (nearly 90%) were either assigned to early (ancient) lineages of soft-walled, single-chambered (monothalamous) foraminifera or remained undetermined and yet possibly belong to unknown early lineages. Contrasting with the classical view of multichambered taxa dominating foraminiferal assemblages, our work reflects an unexpected diversity of monothalamous lineages that are as yet unknown using conventional micropaleontological observations. Although we can only speculate about their morphology, the immense richness of deep-sea phylotypes revealed by this study suggests that ultra-deep sequencing can improve understanding of deep-sea benthic diversity considered until now as unknowable based on a traditional taxonomic approach.

  1. Microbial Evolution at High Pressure: Deep Sea and Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated hydrostatic pressures are present in deep-sea and deep-Earth environments where this physical parameter has influenced the evolution and characteristics of life. Piezophilic (high-pressure-adapted) microbes have been isolated from diverse deep-sea settings, and would appear likely to occur in deep-subsurface habitats as well. In order to discern the factors enabling life at high pressure my research group has explored these adaptations at various levels, most recently including molecular analyses of deep-sea trench communities, and through the selective evolution of the model microbe Escherichia coli in the laboratory to progressively higher pressures. Much of the field work has focused on the microbes present in the deeper portions of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT)and in the Peru-Chile Trench (PCT), from 6-8.5 km below the sea surface (~60-85 megapascals pressure). Culture-independent phylogenetic data on the Bacteria and Archaea present on particles or free-living, along with data on the microeukarya present was complemented with genomic analyses and the isolation and characterization of microbes in culture. Metagenomic analyses of the PRT revealed increased genome sizes and an overrepresentation at depth of sulfatases for the breakdown of sulfated polysaccharides and specific categories of transporters, including those associated with the transport of diverse cations or carboxylate ions, or associated with heavy metal resistance. Single-cell genomic studies revealed several linneages which recruited to the PRT metagenome far better than existing marine microbial genome sequences. analyses. Novel high pressure culture approaches have yielded new piezophiles including species preferring very low nutrient levels, those living off of hydrocarbons, and those adapted to various electron donor/electron acceptor combinations. In order to more specifically focus on functions enabling life at increased pressure selective evolution experiments were performed with

  2. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating

  3. Deep oceanic currents and sea floor interactions offshore SE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raisson, François; Cazzola, Carlo; Ferry, Jean-Noel

    2016-04-01

    The Pamela Research program, which involves Total and Ifremer and their associated partners (French Universities, CNRS, IFPEN), is currently working to acquire new multidisciplinary data in the Mozambique Channel, in order to improve our knowledge and use this area as "laboratory" for comprehension of sedimentary/stratigraphical/geodynamical/structural and biological processes. The area comprised between the austral ocean and the southern tip of the African continent is a major place for Atlantic and Indian waters exchange, with high impact on the global climate (de Rujiter et al., 1999, Beal et al., 2011). Its prolongation toward the Mozambique Channel is a great playground to study effects of bottom currents on the sea floor. In this synthesis, we compile information about the major oceanic currents that occur at different water depth in the area, and we started listing the main published or ongoing studies, some of them in the scope of the Pamela project, related to sea floor interactions with bottom currents. These interactions are characterized by erosional features: submarine erosions, truncations, stratigraphic hiatuses, associated to depositional features: various types of contouritic drifts, sediment waves, asymmetric turbiditic levees etc. (Simpson et al., 1974, Uenzelmann-Neben et al., 2007, Uenzelmann-Neben & Huhn, 2009, Palermo et al., 2014). Movements of the main water masses in the Mozambique basin are strongly driven by thermohaline circulation but also sea floor topography and coast configuration: the Mozambique Current is not a persistent current but composed by southward moving anticyclonic eddies (De Rujiter et al., 2002, Ridderinkhof & de Rujiter, 2003, Swart et al., 2010, Halo et al., 2014). Deep currents flow northward along the western edge of the Mozambique basin: the North Atlantic Deep Waters (NADW) and the Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) flow along the Mozambican continental slope and form the Mozambique Undercurrent. A portion of

  4. New Deep Sea Photometer And Its Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, H. S. J.

    1982-02-01

    A recently developed deep-sea photometer is described. The photometer uses a silicon photodiode as a light sensor and is interfaced with the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences' acoustically telemetering net monitor system. Using the photometer in conjunction with the I.O.S. midwater trawls it is possible to simultaneously measure irradiance at the depth of the net and collect biological samples. The relationship between light and the distribution of mesopelagic animal communities can thereby be studied directly. The photometer has measured light to a depth of 700m in the northeast Atlantic. It records at least seven decades of irradiance and its response is independent of temperature between -3 and +30°C. Some observations on the subsurface light regime in the northeast Atlantic and Southern Oceans are presented and a biological sampling programme using the photometer is described. Preliminary analysis suggests that the association of oarticular species with specific light levels is not especially close.

  5. Microbial hydrolytic enzyme activities in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, A.

    1995-03-01

    The potential hydrolysis rates of five different hydrolytic enzymes were determined in deep-sea sediments from the northeast Atlantic (BIOTRANS area) in March 1992. Fluorogenic substrates were used to assay extracellular α- and β-glucosidase, chitobiase, lipase and aminopeptidase. The potential activity of most of the enzymes investigated decreased to a minimum within the upper two centimetre range, whereas aminopeptidase was high over the upper five centimetre range. Exceptions were found when macrofaunal burrows occurred in the cores, always increasing the activities of some hydrolases, and therefore indicating the impact of bioturbation on degradation rates. The most striking feature of the investigated enzyme spectrum was the 50 2000 times higher specific activity of the aminopeptidase, compared with the other hydrolases. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes most likely reflects the availability of their respective substrates and is not a function of bacterial biomass.

  6. Microbiology to 10,500 meters in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Yayanos, A A

    1995-01-01

    Microorganisms in the deep sea live at high pressures, low and high temperatures, and in darkness. These parameters and their food supply govern their lives. The study of these creatures gives us an opportunity to see how life processes work at some of the highest temperatures and pressures of the biosphere. Cultured bacterial isolates can grow to over 100 MPa at 2 degrees C and to over 40 MPa at over 100 degrees C. These cultures comprise the foundation for the study of the molecular biology and biotechnology of these isolates. The PTk diagram shows how temperature and pressure affect the growth rate of a bacterium and helps in the search for relationships among bacteria from habitats differing in temperature and pressure.

  7. 'Deep-sea spiders' that walk through the water

    PubMed

    Marshall; Diebel

    1995-01-01

    Deep-sea isopods of the family Munnopsidae exhibit four modes of swimming: forward striding, slow backward pedalling, fast backward pedalling and escape, the first two of which use asymmetric phases of leg movement. Instead of moving the left and right limbs (pereopods, P2­P7) of a segment in-phase (e.g. RP2LP2, RP3LP3, RP4LP4), as do most aquatic insects, leg movement is more like that of fast-walking insects, where closest synchrony occurs between diagonal limbs (e.g. RP2LP3, RP3LP4, RP4LP2). This is similar to the alternating tripod gait used by many animals on land to prevent them from toppling over. It therefore seems likely that this group of isopods learned to walk before they could swim.

  8. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  9. Abyssal and deep circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artale, Vincenzo; Bensi, Manuel; Falcini, Federico; Marullo, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In the mid-1990s, experimental evidences on the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) were presented and it was shown that the Mediterranean abyssal circulation is not in a steady state but can be subjected to episodic sudden changes (Roether et al., 1996). In the last 10 years the Ionian Sea, the central and deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea, was subjected to relevant scientific interests from a theoretical and experimental point of view. Among these, there is the discovery of the BiOS (Bimodal Oscillating System), one new mechanism that drives a periodic (almost decadal) redistribution of surface and subsurface waters in the Eastern Mediterranean, with considerable feedbacks in the variability of the deep-water formation both in the southern Adriatic and in the Levantine and Aegean sub-basins (Gačić et al., 2010). In the Ionian Sea, numerous recent observational campaigns have been conducted to investigate the behaviour of deep and abyssal waters, at depths between 2000-4000m that are comparable to the mean global ocean depth (Rubino and Hainbucher, 2007; Bensi et al., 2013). There, advection, diffusion and vertical stability of the water masses can assume an important role on the internal quasi-periodical variability, creating the preconditions for catastrophic events such as the EMT or reversals of the Ionian circulation (Pisacane et al., 2006). Since there are no significant deep heat sources in the world ocean, waters that fill the deep ocean can only return to the sea surface as a result of downward mixing of heat from the sea surface to the bottom and vice versa and this occurs through eddy diffusion. Along our presentation, mainly through the analysis of the deepest CTD casts taken from 2009 to 2011 in the eastern basins and in particular in the Ionian Sea, we will show a significant change in the deep thermohaline structure (including its biogeochemical and hydrological characteristics), giving an indication on the time scale of the renewal of deep

  10. A multi-locus approach to barcoding in the Anopheles strodei subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to successfully identify and incriminate pathogen vectors is fundamental to effective pathogen control and management. This task is confounded by the existence of cryptic species complexes. Molecular markers can offer a highly effective means of species identification in such complexes and are routinely employed in the study of medical entomology. Here we evaluate a multi-locus system for the identification of potential malaria vectors in the Anopheles strodei subgroup. Methods Larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes (n = 61) from the An. strodei subgroup were collected from 21 localities in nine Brazilian states and sequenced for the COI, ITS2 and white gene. A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to describe the relationships in the Strodei Subgroup and the utility of COI and ITS2 barcodes was assessed using the neighbor joining tree and “best close match” approaches. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the COI, ITS2 and white gene found support for seven clades in the An. strodei subgroup. The COI and ITS2 barcodes were individually unsuccessful at resolving and identifying some species in the Subgroup. The COI barcode failed to resolve An. albertoi and An. strodei but successfully identified approximately 92% of all species queries, while the ITS2 barcode failed to resolve An. arthuri and successfully identified approximately 60% of all species queries. A multi-locus COI-ITS2 barcode, however, resolved all species in a neighbor joining tree and successfully identified all species queries using the “best close match” approach. Conclusions Our study corroborates the existence of An. albertoi, An. CP Form and An. strodei in the An. strodei subgroup and identifies four species under An. arthuri informally named A-D herein. The use of a multi-locus barcode is proposed for species identification, which has potentially important utility for vector incrimination. Individuals previously found naturally infected with Plasmodium

  11. Virtual Investigations of an Active Deep Sea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, L.; Taylor, M. M.; Fundis, A.; Kelley, D. S.; Elend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Axial Seamount, located on the Juan de Fuca spreading ridge 300 miles off the Oregon coast, is an active volcano whose summit caldera lies 1500 m beneath the sea surface. Ongoing construction of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) cabled observatory by the University of Washington (funded by the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative) has allowed for exploration of recent lava flows and active hydrothermal vents using HD video mounted on the ROVs, ROPOS and JASON II. College level oceanography/marine geology online laboratory exercises referred to as Online Concept Modules (OCMs) have been created using video and video frame-captured mosaics to promote skill development for characterizing and quantifying deep sea environments. Students proceed at their own pace through a sequence of short movies with which they (a) gain background knowledge, (b) learn skills to identify and classify features or biota within a targeted environment, (c) practice these skills, and (d) use their knowledge and skills to make interpretations regarding the environment. Part (d) serves as the necessary assessment component of the laboratory exercise. Two Axial Seamount-focused OCMs will be presented: 1) Lava Flow Characterization: Identifying a Suitable Cable Route, and 2) Assessing Hydrothermal Vent Communities: Comparisons Among Multiple Sulfide Chimneys.

  12. Devosia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yu; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Huo, Ying-Yi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2014-08-01

    A novel bacterial strain, NH131(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediment of South China Sea. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped and motile with a single lateral flagellum. Strain NH131(T) grew optimally at pH 6.5-7.0 and 25-30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NH131(T) belonged to the genus Devosia, sharing the highest sequence similarity with the type strain, Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2%). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c, 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(18 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant ubiquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipid, three glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain NH131(T) was 63.0 mol%. On the basis of the results of polyphasic identification, it is suggested that strain NH131(T) represents a novel species of the genus Devosia for which the name Devosia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH131(T) ( = JCM 19305(T) = KCTC 32437(T)).

  13. Deep structure and isostasy of the central Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterin, D. E.; Dubinin, E. P.; Udintsev, G. B.

    2015-07-01

    About 30 Ma ago in the Early Oligocene, the Drake Passage started to open and the Scotia lithospheric plate started to form. Although extensively studied during the past decade, the tectonic structure and evolution of the plate are still largely unclear. According to present-day notions, three large blocks—western, central, and eastern—are distinguished within the plate by the morphological features of undersea topography and anomalous geophysical fields in different reductions. From the standpoint of the origin and evolution, the central block is most interesting. In this work, we have studied the peculiar features of the deep structure and mechanism of isostatic equilibration for the central part of this plate using density modeling and cross-spectral analyzing. The density model has been constructed along the free-air gravity profile that intersects the central part of the Scotia Sea from the southeast to the northwest. The model estimates of crustal density are slightly lower than the average density of the oceanic crust and vary within 2.65 to 2.75 g/cm3. The transfer functions between the bathymetry and free-air gravity anomalies (gravitational admittance) have been calculated. By comparing the predicted and empirical transfer functions, we determined the mechanism of isostatic compensation and estimated the depths of the compensating boundaries. Together with the results of morphological analysis on undersea topography and geophysical fields (Teterin et al., 2015), these estimates suggest that the central Scotia Sea probably followed a different evolution scenario than the commonly accepted spreading model. This part of the Scotia Sea is probably a large fragment of the continental bridge that connected the South America with Antarctic and sank due to the heating and extension of the continental lithosphere.

  14. Simply actuated closure for a pressure vessel - Design for use to trap deep-sea animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yayanos, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    A pressure vessel is described that can be closed by a single translational motion within 1 sec. The vessel is a key component of a trap for small marine animals and operates automatically on the sea floor. As the vessel descends to the sea floor, it is subjected both internally and externally to the high pressures of the deep sea. The mechanism for closing the pressure vessel on the sea floor is activated by the timed release of the ballast which was used to sink the trap. As it rises to the sea surface, the internal pressure of the vessel remains near the value present on the sea floor. The pressure vessel has been used in simulated ocean deployments and in the deep ocean (9500 m) with a 75%-85% retention of the deep-sea pressure. Nearly 100% retention of pressure can be achieved by using an accumulator filled with a gas.

  15. Multi-locus Genotypes Underlying Temperature Sensitivity in a Mutationally Induced Trait

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonathan T.; Taylor, Matthew B.; Shen, Amy; Ehrenreich, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Determining how genetic variation alters the expression of heritable phenotypes across conditions is important for agriculture, evolution, and medicine. Central to this problem is the concept of genotype-by-environment interaction (or ‘GxE’), which occurs when segregating genetic variation causes individuals to show different phenotypic responses to the environment. While many studies have sought to identify individual loci that contribute to GxE, obtaining a deeper understanding of this phenomenon may require defining how sets of loci collectively alter the relationship between genotype, environment, and phenotype. Here, we identify combinations of alleles at seven loci that control how a mutationally induced colony phenotype is expressed across a range of temperatures (21, 30, and 37°C) in a panel of yeast recombinants. We show that five predominant multi-locus genotypes involving the detected loci result in trait expression with varying degrees of temperature sensitivity. By comparing these genotypes and their patterns of trait expression across temperatures, we demonstrate that the involved alleles contribute to temperature sensitivity in different ways. While alleles of the transcription factor MSS11 specify the potential temperatures at which the trait can occur, alleles at the other loci modify temperature sensitivity within the range established by MSS11 in a genetic background- and/or temperature-dependent manner. Our results not only represent one of the first characterizations of GxE at the resolution of multi-locus genotypes, but also provide an example of the different roles that genetic variants can play in altering trait expression across conditions. PMID:26990313

  16. Community structure of archaea from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Li, Tao; Hu, Anyi; Wei, Yuli; Guo, Wenting; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2010-11-01

    Using the archaeal 16S rRNA gene, we determined the community structures of archaea of subseafloor sediments (∼9-11 m below seafloor) from two geographically distant cores (MD05-2896, south, water depth 1,657 m; MD05-2902, north, water depth 3,697 m) in the South China Sea. Euryarchaeota accounted for 61.4% of total archaeal clone libraries at MD05-2896 and 56.2% at MD05-2902. At both locations, the Euryarchaeota-related sequences were dominated by Marine Benthic Group D, Terrestrial Miscellaneous Eryarchaeotal Group, and South African GoldMine Euryarchaeotal Group; the Crenarchaeota-related sequences were dominated by Marine Benthic Group B, Marine Group I, pSL12, and C3. The community structure showed no significant difference with depth at each location, suggesting the lack of stratification of archaeal populations in the deep-sea marine sediments in the South China Sea. On the other hand, the community structure is significantly different between the two sites, which may be related to geographical difference in the South China Sea.

  17. Radiocarbon in the Weddell Sea as observed in a deep-sea coral and in krill

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.L.; Druffel, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Radiocarbon mesurements were performed on krill and coral samples collected from the Weddell Sea during IWSOE '80. These are the first radiocarbon measurements available from this area since 1973. These data reveal carbon-14 levels for Weddell surface water and southern Weddell Shelf water. These data indicate that the radiocarbon levels in surface waters in 1980 were the same or slightly lower than those present in 1973. In addition, an unusually low ..delta../sup 14/C value for shelf water (from coral) at 500 m is evidence that Warm Deep Water (WDW) may penetrate much further and more frequently onto the shelf region than had previously been expected.

  18. Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia).

    PubMed

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D'Elia, Marisa; D'Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

  19. Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia).

    PubMed

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D'Elia, Marisa; D'Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection.

  20. Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia)

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D’Elia, Marisa; D’Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

  1. Increasing presence of Arctic Ocean deep waters in the Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Schauer, Ursula; Budeus, Gedeon

    2013-04-01

    Deep convection has been known to provide the coldest and freshest waters to the deep Greenland Sea, whose properties are balanced with the advection of warmer and saltier waters from the deep Arctic Ocean. However, during the last three decades, deep convection has come to a halt in the Greenland Sea. As previously reported and updated in this work through the analysis of the free available hydrographic data in the central Greenland Sea and in the Arctic Ocean from 1950 to 2010 (Pangaea and ICES data bases), as a consequence of this, two major hydrographic changes are observed: (1) the appearance and deepening of an intermediate temperature maximum and (2) a continuous warming and saltening of the deep Greenland Sea. The origin of both findings is found in the advection of Arctic Ocean deep waters from the Amerasian and Eurasian basins, respectively, into the central Greenland Sea. Associated to the first, a temperature increase of 0.35° C from 1993 to 2009 is observed at 1700 m. Below 2000 m, the temperature and salinity have increased at a mean rate of 0.136° C/decade and 0.01decade-1 in the last three decades. Overall, the stop of deep convection and the advection of Arctic Ocean deep waters result among the highest deep warming and saltening trends of the World Ocean in the Greenland Sea. In addition to the described update of the state of these changes, two new accomplishments are fulfilled in this study. First, in absence of deep convection, the continuous changing of the thermohaline properties of the deep Greenland Sea requires exchanges with adjacent ocean basins. This scenario enables us the estimation of the necessary transports from the deep Arctic to explain the observed changes. A transport of Eurasian Basin Deep Water of 0.31±0.04 Sv is obtained. Secondly, the warming and saltening of the deep Greenland Sea contributes, as any other ocean basin, to the World Ocean heat content and sea level rise. The estimation of these contributions shows larger

  2. Improving power and accuracy of genome-wide association studies via a multi-locus mixed linear model methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Feng, Jian-Ying; Ren, Wen-Long; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Ling; Wen, Yang-Jun; Zhang, Jin; Dunwell, Jim M.; Xu, Shizhong; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used in genetic dissection of complex traits. However, common methods are all based on a fixed-SNP-effect mixed linear model (MLM) and single marker analysis, such as efficient mixed model analysis (EMMA). These methods require Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, which often is too conservative when the number of markers is extremely large. To address this concern, we proposed a random-SNP-effect MLM (RMLM) and a multi-locus RMLM (MRMLM) for GWAS. The RMLM simply treats the SNP-effect as random, but it allows a modified Bonferroni correction to be used to calculate the threshold p value for significance tests. The MRMLM is a multi-locus model including markers selected from the RMLM method with a less stringent selection criterion. Due to the multi-locus nature, no multiple test correction is needed. Simulation studies show that the MRMLM is more powerful in QTN detection and more accurate in QTN effect estimation than the RMLM, which in turn is more powerful and accurate than the EMMA. To demonstrate the new methods, we analyzed six flowering time related traits in Arabidopsis thaliana and detected more genes than previous reported using the EMMA. Therefore, the MRMLM provides an alternative for multi-locus GWAS. PMID:26787347

  3. Improving power and accuracy of genome-wide association studies via a multi-locus mixed linear model methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Feng, Jian-Ying; Ren, Wen-Long; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Ling; Wen, Yang-Jun; Zhang, Jin; Dunwell, Jim M; Xu, Shizhong; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used in genetic dissection of complex traits. However, common methods are all based on a fixed-SNP-effect mixed linear model (MLM) and single marker analysis, such as efficient mixed model analysis (EMMA). These methods require Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, which often is too conservative when the number of markers is extremely large. To address this concern, we proposed a random-SNP-effect MLM (RMLM) and a multi-locus RMLM (MRMLM) for GWAS. The RMLM simply treats the SNP-effect as random, but it allows a modified Bonferroni correction to be used to calculate the threshold p value for significance tests. The MRMLM is a multi-locus model including markers selected from the RMLM method with a less stringent selection criterion. Due to the multi-locus nature, no multiple test correction is needed. Simulation studies show that the MRMLM is more powerful in QTN detection and more accurate in QTN effect estimation than the RMLM, which in turn is more powerful and accurate than the EMMA. To demonstrate the new methods, we analyzed six flowering time related traits in Arabidopsis thaliana and detected more genes than previous reported using the EMMA. Therefore, the MRMLM provides an alternative for multi-locus GWAS. PMID:26787347

  4. A Brief Review of Bioactive Metabolites Derived from Deep-Sea Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Xue, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fungi, the fungi that inhabit the sea and the sediment at depths of over 1000 m below the surface, have become an important source of industrial, agricultural, and nutraceutical compounds based on their diversities in both structure and function. Since the first study of deep-sea fungi in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 4450 m was conducted approximately 50 years ago, hundreds of isolates of deep-sea fungi have been reported based on culture-dependent methods. To date more than 180 bioactive secondary metabolites derived from deep-sea fungi have been documented in the literature. These include compounds with anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we summarize the structures and bioactivities of these metabolites to provide help for novel drug development. PMID:26213949

  5. A Brief Review of Bioactive Metabolites Derived from Deep-Sea Fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Xue, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chang-Hong

    2015-07-23

    Deep-sea fungi, the fungi that inhabit the sea and the sediment at depths of over 1000 m below the surface, have become an important source of industrial, agricultural, and nutraceutical compounds based on their diversities in both structure and function. Since the first study of deep-sea fungi in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 4450 m was conducted approximately 50 years ago, hundreds of isolates of deep-sea fungi have been reported based on culture-dependent methods. To date more than 180 bioactive secondary metabolites derived from deep-sea fungi have been documented in the literature. These include compounds with anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we summarize the structures and bioactivities of these metabolites to provide help for novel drug development.

  6. Novel use of burrow casting as a research tool in deep-sea ecology

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Koji; Jenkins, Robert G.; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Sato, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Although the deep sea is the largest ecosystem on Earth, its infaunal ecology remains poorly understood because of the logistical challenges. Here we report the morphology of relatively large burrows obtained by in situ burrow casting at a hydrocarbon-seep site and a non-seep site at water depths of 1173 and 1455 m, respectively. Deep and complex burrows are abundant at both sites, indicating that the burrows introduce oxygen-rich sea water into the deep reducing substrate, thereby influencing benthic metabolism and nutrient fluxes, and providing an oxic microhabitat for small organisms. Burrow castings reveal that the solemyid bivalve Acharax johnsoni mines sulphide from the sediment, as documented for related shallow-water species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine in situ burrow morphology in the deep sea by means of burrow casting, providing detailed information on burrow structure which will aid the interpretation of seabed processes in the deep sea. PMID:22298806

  7. Deep-Sea, Deep-Sequencing: Metabarcoding Extracellular DNA from Sediments of Marine Canyons

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola, Magdalena; Uriz, María Jesús; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Wangensteen, Owen Simon; Turon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine canyons in the western Mediterranean using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp). We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from replicated sediment corers. With this strategy we captured information from DNA (local or deposited from the water column) that persists adsorbed to inorganic particles and buffered short-term spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We analysed replicated samples from 20 localities including 2 deep-sea canyons, 1 shallower canal, and two open slopes (depth range 100–2,250 m). We identified 1,629 MOTUs, among which the dominant groups were Metazoa (with representatives of 19 phyla), Alveolata, Stramenopiles, and Rhizaria. There was a marked small-scale heterogeneity as shown by differences in replicates within corers and within localities. The spatial variability between canyons was significant, as was the depth component in one of the canyons where it was tested. Likewise, the composition of the first layer (1 cm) of sediment was significantly different from deeper layers. We found that qualitative (presence-absence) and quantitative (relative number of reads) data showed consistent trends of differentiation between samples and geographic areas. The subset of exclusively benthic MOTUs showed similar patterns of β-diversity and community structure as the whole dataset. Separate analyses of the main metazoan phyla (in number of MOTUs) showed some differences in distribution attributable to different lifestyles. Our results highlight the differentiation that can be found even between geographically close assemblages, and sets the ground for future monitoring and conservation efforts on

  8. Deep-Sea, Deep-Sequencing: Metabarcoding Extracellular DNA from Sediments of Marine Canyons.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Magdalena; Uriz, María Jesús; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Wangensteen, Owen Simon; Turon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine canyons in the western Mediterranean using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp). We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from replicated sediment corers. With this strategy we captured information from DNA (local or deposited from the water column) that persists adsorbed to inorganic particles and buffered short-term spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We analysed replicated samples from 20 localities including 2 deep-sea canyons, 1 shallower canal, and two open slopes (depth range 100-2,250 m). We identified 1,629 MOTUs, among which the dominant groups were Metazoa (with representatives of 19 phyla), Alveolata, Stramenopiles, and Rhizaria. There was a marked small-scale heterogeneity as shown by differences in replicates within corers and within localities. The spatial variability between canyons was significant, as was the depth component in one of the canyons where it was tested. Likewise, the composition of the first layer (1 cm) of sediment was significantly different from deeper layers. We found that qualitative (presence-absence) and quantitative (relative number of reads) data showed consistent trends of differentiation between samples and geographic areas. The subset of exclusively benthic MOTUs showed similar patterns of β-diversity and community structure as the whole dataset. Separate analyses of the main metazoan phyla (in number of MOTUs) showed some differences in distribution attributable to different lifestyles. Our results highlight the differentiation that can be found even between geographically close assemblages, and sets the ground for future monitoring and conservation efforts on

  9. Deep-Sea, Deep-Sequencing: Metabarcoding Extracellular DNA from Sediments of Marine Canyons.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Magdalena; Uriz, María Jesús; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Wangensteen, Owen Simon; Turon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine canyons in the western Mediterranean using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp). We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from replicated sediment corers. With this strategy we captured information from DNA (local or deposited from the water column) that persists adsorbed to inorganic particles and buffered short-term spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We analysed replicated samples from 20 localities including 2 deep-sea canyons, 1 shallower canal, and two open slopes (depth range 100-2,250 m). We identified 1,629 MOTUs, among which the dominant groups were Metazoa (with representatives of 19 phyla), Alveolata, Stramenopiles, and Rhizaria. There was a marked small-scale heterogeneity as shown by differences in replicates within corers and within localities. The spatial variability between canyons was significant, as was the depth component in one of the canyons where it was tested. Likewise, the composition of the first layer (1 cm) of sediment was significantly different from deeper layers. We found that qualitative (presence-absence) and quantitative (relative number of reads) data showed consistent trends of differentiation between samples and geographic areas. The subset of exclusively benthic MOTUs showed similar patterns of β-diversity and community structure as the whole dataset. Separate analyses of the main metazoan phyla (in number of MOTUs) showed some differences in distribution attributable to different lifestyles. Our results highlight the differentiation that can be found even between geographically close assemblages, and sets the ground for future monitoring and conservation efforts on

  10. A climate-related oxidizing event in deep-sea sediment from the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Klise, D.H.; Baldauf, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Many cores from the deep basins of the Bering Sea have a thin oxidized zone within otherwise reduced sediment. This oxidized zone began to form about 6000 yr ago and represents an interval of about 3200 yr. Mineralogically, the oxidized and reduced sediments are similar, but chemically they differ. Concentrations of Fe and C are lower, and concentrations of Mn, Ba, Co, Mo, and Ni are higher in the oxidized than in the reduced sediment. Mn is enriched about 10-fold in the oxidized zone relative to its concentration in the reduced sediment, Mo about threefold, and Ba, Co, and Ni about twofold. These data suggest that the oxidized zone developed diagenetically as the result of the balance between the flux of organic matter and the available dissolved oxygen in bottom and interstitial waters. We propose that the Bering Sea was substantially ice covered when global glacial conditions prevailed. during the transition to global interglacial conditions, seasonal meltwater from thawing sea ice formed a lens of fresh water that decreased organic productivity. During the winter seasons, however, sea ice reformed and caused downwelling of dense, oxygen-rich waters to recharge bottom waters. The combination of lower organic productivity and more oxygen-rich bottom water allowed oxidized sediment to accumulate. Once full interglacial conditions were established, the volume of sea ice produced was insufficient to affect either productivity or the supply of dissolved oxygen and so bottom conditions again became reducing. Similar events probably occurred during the onset of global glacial conditions, and similar oxidized layers probably formed at these times. Such oxidized zones are highly unstable, however, in a reducing environment and, once buried beyond the influence of bacterial and infaunal activities, are depleted of their available oxygen and converted to reduced sediment. ?? 1982.

  11. The geological history of deep-sea colonization by echinoids: roles of surface productivity and deep-water ventilation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B; Stockley, Bruce

    2005-04-22

    The origins and geological history of the modern fauna of deep-sea echinoids is explored using a combination of palaeontological and molecular data. We demonstrate that, whereas generalist omnivores have migrated into the deep sea in low numbers over the past 200 Myr, there was a short time-interval between approximately 75 and 55 Myr when the majority of specialist detritivore clades independently migrated off-shelf. This coincides with a marked increase in seasonality, continental run-off and surface water productivity, and suggests that increasing organic carbon delivery into ocean basins was an important controlling factor. Oceanic anoxic events, by contrast, appear to have played a subsidiary role in controlling deep-sea diversity.

  12. Marine culturable yeasts in deep-sea hydrothermal vents: species richness and association with fauna.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Arzur, Danielle; Durand, Lucile; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Barbier, Georges

    2010-07-01

    Investigations of the diversity of culturable yeasts at deep-sea hydrothermal sites have suggested possible interactions with endemic fauna. Samples were collected during various oceanographic cruises at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, South Pacific Basins and East Pacific Rise. Cultures of 32 isolates, mostly associated with animals, were collected. Phylogenetic analyses of 26S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the yeasts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, with the identification of several genera: Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Candida, Debaryomyces and Cryptococcus. Those genera are usually isolated from deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of yeasts associated with deep-sea hydrothermal animals.

  13. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. PMID:25911507

  14. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

  15. Modern Tasman Sea surface reservoir ages from deep-sea black corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komugabe, Aimée F.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine reservoir ages are a key element in calculating and constraining uncertainty in radiocarbon age estimates and are also essential to better understand regional ocean circulation. In this study, we present a new method to reconstruct long-term, high-resolution sea surface reservoir ages based on analysis of the organic skeleton of deep-sea (560 m) black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia). Our results confirm that antipatharians are extremely slow growing (typical radial growth rate for a South Pacific specimen around 0.03 mm/yr). Coupled uranium series and radiocarbon measurements were made on black coral collected live from the Norfolk Ridge (north Tasman Sea) to provide the first modern reservoir ages for this region. At the Norfolk Ridge, the average reservoir age between 1790 AD and 1900 AD was ∼330 years. This was followed by a steep decrease over time of about 70 years to 1950 AD (our most modern value). This indicates an increase in surface ocean ventilation of water masses in this region. These results are consistent with observational studies for the early twentieth century, which suggest significant changes in regional circulation of the southwest pacific.

  16. Sperm whale assessment in the Western Ionian Sea using acoustic data from deep sea observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellia, Giorgio; Beranzoli, Laura; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Scandura, Danila; Sciacca, Virginia; Viola, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) operates two deep sea infrastructures: Capo Passero, Western Ionian Sea 3,600 meters of depth, and Catania Wester Ionian Sea 2,100 m depth. At the two sites, several research observatories have been run: OnDE, NEMO-SN1, SMO, KM3NeT-Italia most of them jointly operated between INFN and INGV. In all these observatories, passive acoustic sensors (hydrophones) have been installed. Passive Acoustics Monitoring (PAM) is nowadays the main tool of the bioacoustics to study marine mammals. In particular, receiving the sounds emitted by cetaceans from a multi-hydrophones array installed in a cabled seafloor observatory, a research about the ecological dynamics of the species may be performed. Data acquired with the hydrophones installed aboard the OnDE, SMO and KM3NeT-Italia observatories will be reported. Thanks to acquired data, the acoustic presence of the sperm whales was assessed and studied for several years (2005:2013). An "ad hoc" algorithm was also developed to allow the automatic identification of the "clicks" emitted by the sperm whales and measure the size of detected animals. According to the results obtained, the sperm whale population in the area is well-distributed in size, sex and sexual maturity. Although specimens more than 14 meters of length (old males) seem to be absent.

  17. Cellulomonas marina sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Xi, Lijun; Qiu, Danheng; Song, Lei; Dai, Xin; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2013-08-01

    A bacterial strain FXJ8.089(T) was isolated from deep-sea water collected from the southwest Indian Ocean (49° 39' E 37° 47' S) at a depth of 2800 m, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FXJ8.089(T) belonged to the genus Cellulomonas and had the highest similarities with Cellulomonas oligotrophica (96.9 %) and Cellulomonas aerilata (96.6 %). It contained MK-9(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4β with an interpeptide bridge L-Orn-D-Glu. The cell-wall sugars were glucose, mannose and ribose. The DNA G+C content was 70.3 mol%. The strain also showed a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics that were distinct from the closely related species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic data, strain FXJ8.089(T) (= CGMCC 4.6945(T) = DSM 24960(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas marina sp. nov. is proposed.

  18. Deep sea hydrothermal plumes and their interaction with oscillatory flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangyu; di Iorio, Daniela

    2012-09-01

    The acoustic scintillation method is applied to the investigation and monitoring of a vigorous hydrothermal plume from Dante within the Main Endeavour vent field (MEF) in the Endeavour Ridge segment. A 40 day time series of the plume's vertical velocity and temperature fluctuations provides a unique opportunity to study deep sea plume dynamics in a tidally varying horizontal cross flow. An integral plume model that takes into account ambient stratification and horizontal cross flows is established from the conservation equations of mass, momentum and density deficit. Using a linear additive entrainment velocity in the model (E = αUm + βU⊥) that is a function of both the plume relative axial velocity (Um) and the relative ambient flow perpendicular to the plume (U⊥) gives consistent results to the experimental data, suggesting entrainment coefficients α = 0.1 and β = 0.6. Also from the integral model, the plume height in a horizontal cross flow (Ua) is shown to scale as 1.8B1/3Ua-1/3N-2/3 for 0.01 ≤ Ua ≤ 0.1 m/s where B is the initial buoyancy transport and N is the ambient stratification, both of which are assumed constant.

  19. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L

    2008-07-22

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+))CO(3) infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future.

  20. Geologic evolution of the Bering Sea Komandorksy deep basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, N.A.

    1986-07-01

    The deep-water Komandorsky basin is located in the southwestern part of the Bering Sea. On the east, it is separated from the Aleutian basin by the submerged Shirshov Ridge; on the west, it is bordered by structures of the north Kamchatka accretionary prism. The Komandorsky basin is characterized by strongly dissected relief of it acoustic basement, which is overlain by a 1.5 to 2.0-km thick sedimentary cover. The western part of the basin is occupied by a rift zone, which is characterized by modern seismicity and high heat flow. It is considered to be the axial zone of Miocene-Pleistocene spreading. On the north terrace of the Komandorsky island arc, traced active volcanos provide evidence that subduction is occurring under the arc from the north. The spreading rift zone is reflected on the continent in Miocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks, characterized by typical oceanic tholeiitic composition. The Komandorsky basin formed as a result of spreading during the Maestrichtian. Spreading within the basin occurred during the early and middle Oligocene and the late Miocene. East and west of the spreading axis, accretionary prisms formed. The latter are observed along the western flank of the Shirshov Ridge and on the eastern sides of the Kamchatka Peninsula and Koraginsky Island.

  1. Luteimonas abyssi sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoyang; Yu, Tong; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Three Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped with single polar flagellum, yellow-pigmented bacteria, designated strains XH031(T), XH038-3 and XH80-1, were isolated from deep-sea sediment of the South Pacific Gyre (41° 51' S 153° 6' W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Luteimonas and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Luteimonas aestuarii B9(T) (96.95%), Luteimonas huabeiensis HB2(T) (96.93%) and Xanthomonas cucurbitae LMG 690(T) (96.92 %). The DNA G+C contents of the three isolates were 70.2-73.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(11 : 0) and C16 : 010-methyl and/or iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and one unknown phospholipid. On the basis of data from polyphasic analysis, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XH031(T) ( = DSM 25880(T) = CGMCC 1.12611(T)). PMID:24170776

  2. Adaptive radiation of chemosymbiotic deep-sea mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lorion, Julien; Kiel, Steffen; Faure, Baptiste; Kawato, Masaru; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Marshall, Bruce; Tsuchida, Shinji; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive radiations present fascinating opportunities for studying the evolutionary process. Most cases come from isolated lakes or islands, where unoccupied ecological space is filled through novel adaptations. Here, we describe an unusual example of an adaptive radiation: symbiotic mussels that colonized island-like chemosynthetic environments such as hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sunken organic substrates on the vast deep-sea floor. Our time-calibrated molecular phylogeny suggests that the group originated and acquired sulfur-oxidizing symbionts in the Late Cretaceous, possibly while inhabiting organic substrates and long before its major radiation in the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene. The first appearance of intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts was detected only after this major radiation. Thus, contrary to expectations, the major radiation may have not been triggered by the evolution of novel types of symbioses. We hypothesize that environmental factors, such as increased habitat availability and/or increased dispersal capabilities, sparked the radiation. Intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts were acquired in several independent lineages and marked the onset of a second wave of diversification at vents and seeps. Changes in habitat type resulted in adaptive trends in shell lengths (related to the availability of space and energy, and physiological trade-offs) and in the successive colonization of greater water depths. PMID:24048154

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+)CO3 infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future. PMID:18626013

  4. Luteimonas abyssi sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoyang; Yu, Tong; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Three Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped with single polar flagellum, yellow-pigmented bacteria, designated strains XH031(T), XH038-3 and XH80-1, were isolated from deep-sea sediment of the South Pacific Gyre (41° 51' S 153° 6' W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Luteimonas and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Luteimonas aestuarii B9(T) (96.95%), Luteimonas huabeiensis HB2(T) (96.93%) and Xanthomonas cucurbitae LMG 690(T) (96.92 %). The DNA G+C contents of the three isolates were 70.2-73.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(11 : 0) and C16 : 010-methyl and/or iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and one unknown phospholipid. On the basis of data from polyphasic analysis, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XH031(T) ( = DSM 25880(T) = CGMCC 1.12611(T)).

  5. Deep-sea macrourid fishes scavenge on plant material: Evidence from in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, Rachel M.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Witbaard, Rob; Linley, Thom

    2010-04-01

    Deep-sea benthic communities primarily rely on an allochthonous food source. This may be in the form of phytodetritus or as food falls e.g. sinking carcasses of nekton or debris of marine macrophyte algae. Deep-sea macrourids are the most abundant demersal fish in the deep ocean. Macrourids are generally considered to be the apex predators/scavengers in deep-sea communities. Baited camera experiments and stable isotope analyses have demonstrated that animal carrion derived from the surface waters is an important component in the diets of macrourids; some macrourid stomachs also contained vegetable/plant material e.g. onion peels, oranges, algae. The latter observations led us to the question: is plant material an attractive food source for deep-sea scavenging fish? We simulated a plant food fall using in situ benthic lander systems equipped with a baited time-lapse camera. Abyssal macrourids and cusk-eels were attracted to the bait, both feeding vigorously on the bait, and the majority of the bait was consumed in <30 h. These observations indicate (1) plant material can produce an odour plume similar to that of animal carrion and attracts deep-sea fish, and (2) deep-sea fish readily eat plant material. This represents to our knowledge the first in situ documentation of deep-sea fish ingesting plant material and highlights the variability in the scavenging nature of deep-sea fishes. This may have implications for food webs in areas where macrophyte/seagrass detritus is abundant at the seafloor e.g. canyon systems and continental shelves close to seagrass meadows (Bahamas and Mediterranean).

  6. [Microbial diversity of deep-sea extremophiles--Piezophiles, Hyperthermophiles, and subsurface microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Kato, C; Takai, K

    2000-12-01

    Knowledge of our Planet's biosphere has increased tremendously during the last 10 to 20 years. In the field of Microbiology in particular, scientists have discovered novel "extremophiles", microorganisms capable of living in extreme environments such as highly acidic or alkaline conditions, at high salt concentration, with no oxygen, extreme temperatures (as low as -20 degrees C and as high as 300 degrees C), at high concentrations of heavy metals and in high pressure environments such as the deep-sea. It is apparent that microorganisms can exist in any extreme environment of the Earth, yet already scientists have started to look for life on other planets; the so-called "Exobiology" project. But as yet we have little knowledge of the deep-sea and subsurface biosphere of our own planet. We believe that we should elucidate the Biodiversity of Earth more thoroughly before exploring life on other planets, and these attempts would provide deeper insight into clarifying the existence of extraterrestrial life. We focused on two deep-sea extremophiles in this article; one is "Piezophiles", and another is "Hyperthermophiles". Piezophiles are typical microorganisms adapted to high-pressure and cold temperature environments, and located in deep-sea bottom. Otherwise, hyperthermophiles are living in high temperature environment, and located at around the hydrothermal vent systems in deep-sea. They are not typical deep-sea microorganisms, but they can grow well at high-pressure condition, just like piezophiles. Deming and Baross mentioned that most of the hyperthermophilic archaea isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents are able to grow under conditions of high temperature and pressure, and in most cases their optimal pressure for growth was greater than the environmental pressure they were isolated from. It is possible that originally their native environment may have been deeper than the sea floor and that there had to be a deeper biosphere. This implication suggests that

  7. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C.; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J.; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E.; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G.; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J. M.; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G. F.; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as “open-sea convection”. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts. PMID:23874425

  8. Iron sequestration in young deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldermann, Andre; Warr, Laurence; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Böttcher, Michael

    2014-05-01

    average) within the upper 25 m of sediment. Within the first 3 meters of the sedimentary pile, iron sequestration related to green clay formation is ~11 times higher than that of pyritization. Even at greater depths ≥ 3 mbsf, where the pyritization reaction becomes progressively more important and 29 to 66% of the initial detrital ferrihydrite input is almost dissolved, ~50% of iron sequestration can be attributed to glauconitization. Initial mass balance calculations of the sediment's iron budget indicate that iron sequestration at ODP Site 959 is mainly controlled by the competing rates of pyritization and glauconitization. Iron sequestration associated with early diagenetic green clay formation could significantly impact the bioavailability of reactive iron in marine aqueous systems and thus influence both the marine iron cycle and deep biosphere environment. The role of deep-water glauconitization on iron availability and sequestration should be considered in future ocean-atmospheric models of the iron biogeochemical cycle. Baldermann, A., Warr, L.N., Grathoff, G.H. & Dietzel, M. (2013) The rate and mechanism of deep-sea glauconite formation at the Ivory Coast-Ghana Marginal Ridge. Clays and Clay Minerals, 61, 258-276.

  9. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.

    2013-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea) were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g-1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  10. Reviews and syntheses: the first records of deep-sea fauna - a correction and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, W.; Hess, H.

    2015-11-01

    The soundings in deep waters of Baffin Bay, together with the recovery of a basket star by John Ross in 1818, was a milestone in the history of deep-sea research. Although the alleged water depths of up to 1950 m were by far not reached, these were nevertheless the first soundings in deep bathyal (to perhaps uppermost abyssal) depths. Furthermore, the recovery of a benthic animal proved that animal life existed at great depths. Yet this was not the first published record of deep-sea fauna as it is often portrayed. This merit goes to accidental catches of the stalked crinoid Cenocrinus asterius that were recovered with fishing lines from upper bathyal environments near Antillean islands. In addition, the description of several deep-sea fishes considerably predated the John Ross episode.

  11. Deep-sea coral aragonite as a recorder for the neodymium isotopic composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Flierdt, Tina; Robinson, Laura F.; Adkins, Jess F.

    2010-11-01

    Deep-sea corals have been shown to be useful archives of rapid changes in ocean chemistry during the last glacial cycle. Their aragonitic skeleton can be absolutely dated by U-Th data, freeing radiocarbon to be used as a water-mass proxy. For certain species of deep-sea corals, the growth rate allows time resolution that is comparable to ice cores. An additional proxy is needed to exploit this opportunity and turn radiocarbon data into rates of ocean overturning in the past. Neodymium isotopes in seawater can serve as a quasi-conservative water-mass tracer and initial results indicate that deep-sea corals may be reliable archives of seawater Nd isotopes. Here we present a systematic study exploring Nd isotopes as a water-mass proxy in deep-sea coral aragonite. We investigated five different genera of modern deep-sea corals ( Caryophyllia, Desmophyllum, Enallopsamia, Flabellum, Lophelia), from global locations covering a large potential range of Nd isotopic compositions. Comparison with ambient seawater measurements yields excellent agreement and suggests that deep-sea corals are reliable archives for seawater Nd isotopes. A parallel study of Nd concentrations in these corals yields distribution coefficients for Nd between seawater and coral aragonite of 1-10, omitting one particular genus ( Enallopsamia). The corals and seawater did however not come from exactly the same location, and further investigations are needed to reach robust conclusions on the incorporation of Nd into deep-sea coral aragonite. Lastly, we studied the viability of extracting the Nd isotope signal from fossil deep-sea corals by carrying out stepwise cleaning experiments. Our results show that physical removal of the ferromanganese coating and chemical pre-cleaning have the highest impact on Nd concentrations, but that oxidative/reductive cleaning is also needed to acquire a seawater Nd isotope signal.

  12. Genomic and population genetic analysis of deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Shimamura, S.; Takaki, Y.; Mino, S.; Makita, H.; Sawabe, T.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea vents are the light-independent, highly productive ecosystems driven primarily by chemoautotrophs. Most of the invertebrates thrive there through their relationship with symbiotic chemoautotrophs. Chemoautotrophs are microorganisms that are able to fix inorganic carbon using a chemical energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced compounds. Following the discovery of deep-sea vent ecosystems in 1977, there has been an increasing knowledge that deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs display remarkable physiological and phylogenetic diversity. Recent microbiological studies have led to an emerging view that the majority of deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs have the ability to derive energy from multiple redox couples other than the conventional sulfur-oxygen couple. Genomic, metagenomic and postgenomic studies have considerably accelerated the comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms of deep-sea vent chemoautotrophy, even in unculturable endosymbionts of vent fauna. For example, genomic analysis suggested that there were previously unrecognized evolutionary links between deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs and important human/animal pathogens. However, relatively little is known about the genome of horizontally transmitted endosymbionts. In this study, we sequenced whole genomes of the probably horizontally transmitted endosymbionts of two different gastropod species from a deep-sea hydrothermal field, as an effort to address questions about 1) the genome evolution of horizontally transmitted, facultative endosymbionts, 2) their genomic variability, and 3) genetic differences among symbionts of various deep-sea vent invertebrates. Both endosymbiont genomes display features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and transposable elements. The genomes encode multiple functions for chemoautotrophic respirations, probably reflecting their adaptation to their niches with continuous changes in environmental conditions. When

  13. Nd isotopes in deep-sea corals in the Northeastern Atantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copard, K.; Colin, C.; Freiwald, A.; Douville, E.; Gudmundsson, G.; de Mol, B.; Frank, N.

    2009-12-01

    Nd, Mn and Ca concentrations and ɛNd have been investigated on living and fossil L. pertusa, D. dianthus and M. oculata deep-sea corals located between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Norwegian Sea. ɛNd has been also analysed on seawater collected at similar location and water depth than living deep-sea corals in the Bay of Biscay. A rigorous cleaning technique has been developed to remove Nd contamination of the deep-sea corals from manganese-oxide and iron hydroxide coatings. Nd isotopic compositions have been analysed using mass spectrometric Nd-oxide measurements. Mn and Nd concentrations have been systematically analysed to control the efficiency of the applied cleaning protocol. Nd concentration of living deep-sea corals incorporated in the aragonite skeleton varies between 6 and 90 ppb. A slight increasing trend of Nd/Ca ratios is observed along with water depth, qualitatively in agreement with Nd behaviour in seawater. Nd isotopic compositions of living deep-sea corals located from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Norwegian Sea vary from -9.8 to -14.1 and match Nd of seawater bathing the corals. These observed Nd isotopic gradients demonstrate the capability of various corals species to record the Atlantic mid depth Nd isotopic gradients influenced by ocean circulation pattern and Nd fluxes. Consequently, solitary and constructional deep-water corals species can serve as archive of past seawater Nd isotopic compositions. In addition, we demonstrate that ɛNd of fossils deep-sea corals, dated by 230Th/U method, indicate strong hydrological changes at ~700m in the NE Atlantic during the last 2000 yrs that may be linked to changes of the inflow into the Nordic Seas.

  14. Trophodynamics of a deep-sea demersal fish assemblage from the bathyal eastern Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Cartes, J. E.

    2005-11-01

    Daily food consumption of the eight dominant demersal fish species of the bathyal eastern Ionian Sea were determined from field data on four seasonal cruises (April 1999, July August 1999, November 1999 and February 2000). Daily ration (DR) estimates ranged from 0.198 to 4.273% WW/WW. Overall, DR estimates were independent of the model used, and they were comparable to the daily consumption of other deep-sea fauna (e.g. fish and crustaceans). Both sharks studied ( Galeus melastomus and Etmopterus spinax) exhibited the highest values of DRs, together with the macrourid Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus in August. Among osteichthyes, DR estimates were related (in a multi-linear regression model) to the nature of their diet (i.e. their trophic level deduced from δ15N isotopic composition, the mean number of prey and trophic diversity). Thus, species feeding at a lower trophic level, ingesting a large number of prey items and with a very diversified diet had higher DR than species from higher trophic level and feeding fewer prey items. By season, the DR of species feeding mainly on mesopelagic prey ( Hoplostethus mediterraneus and Helicolenus dactylopterus) were higher in summer, while DR for benthos/suprabenthos feeders (i.e. C. coelorhynchus and Nezumia sclerorhynchus) were higher in spring. Higher food consumption coincides with maximum food availability, both among mesopelagic feeders (higher availability of euphausiids, Pasiphaea sivado and Sergestes arcticus in summer) and among Macrouridae (higher suprabenthos densities in spring). In a tentative estimate the energy intake deduced from diet (i.e. mean energy value of food ingested) was constant in all seasons for each species studied. Results for the energy intake also indicate higher energy intake in the diet of mesopelagic feeders than in the diet of benthic feeders. Overall results are discussed in relation to the deep-sea ecosystem structure and functioning.

  15. Between land and sea: divergent data stewardship practices in deep-sea biosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, R.; Darch, P.

    2013-12-01

    Data in deep-sea biosphere research often live a double life. While the original data generated on IODP expeditions are highly structured, professionally curated, and widely shared, the downstream data practices of deep-sea biosphere laboratories are far more localized and ad hoc. These divergent data practices make it difficult to track the provenance of datasets from the cruise ships to the laboratory or to integrate IODP data with laboratory data. An in-depth study of the divergent data practices in deep-sea biosphere research allows us to: - Better understand the social and technical forces that shape data stewardship throughout the data lifecycle; - Develop policy, infrastructure, and best practices to improve data stewardship in small labs; - Track provenance of datasets from IODP cruises to labs and publications; - Create linkages between laboratory findings, cruise data, and IODP samples. In this paper, we present findings from the first year of a case study of the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), an NSF Science and Technology Center that studies life beneath the seafloor. Our methods include observation in laboratories, interviews, document analysis, and participation in scientific meetings. Our research uncovers the data stewardship norms of geologists, biologists, chemists, and hydrologists conducting multi-disciplinary research. Our research team found that data stewardship on cruises is a clearly defined task performed by an IODP curator, while downstream it is a distributed task that develops in response to local need and to the extent necessary for the immediate research team. IODP data are expensive to collect and challenging to obtain, often costing $50,000/day and requiring researchers to work twelve hours a day onboard the ships. To maximize this research investment, a highly trained IODP data curator controls data stewardship on the cruise and applies best practices such as standardized formats, proper labeling, and

  16. Microbial community structure in three deep-sea carbonate crusts.

    PubMed

    Heijs, S K; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, I; Pancost, R D; Pierre, C; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; Gottschal, J C; van Elsas, J D; Forney, L J

    2006-10-01

    Carbonate crusts in marine environments can act as sinks for carbon dioxide. Therefore, understanding carbonate crust formation could be important for understanding global warming. In the present study, the microbial communities of three carbonate crust samples from deep-sea mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean were characterized by sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes amplified from DNA directly retrieved from the samples. In combination with the mineralogical composition of the crusts and lipid analyses, sequence data were used to assess the possible role of prokaryotes in crust formation. Collectively, the obtained data showed the presence of highly diverse communities, which were distinct in each of the carbonate crusts studied. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were found in all crusts and the majority was classified as alpha-, gamma-, and delta- Proteobacteria. Interestingly, sequences of Proteobacteria related to Halomonas and Halovibrio sp., which can play an active role in carbonate mineral formation, were present in all crusts. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from two of the crusts studied. Several of those were closely related to archaeal sequences of organisms that have previously been linked to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). However, the majority of archaeal sequences were not related to sequences of organisms known to be involved in AOM. In combination with the strongly negative delta 13C values of archaeal lipids, these results open the possibility that organisms with a role in AOM may be more diverse within the Archaea than previously suggested. Different communities found in the crusts could carry out similar processes that might play a role in carbonate crust formation.

  17. Horizontal distribution patterns in Arctic deep-sea macrobenthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaeva, Nataliya E.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.; Soltwedel, Thomas; Gebruk, Andrey V.

    2008-09-01

    Horizontal distribution patterns of macrobenthos were studied based on the material collected at the deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN in Fram Strait, west of Spitsbergen (79°N), during the R.V. Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3c in July-August 2003. Macrofauna was obtained with a giant box corer at water depths of about 2500-2600 m. Samples were arranged using a hierarchical approach to analyze benthic fauna distribution at different scales. Three stations were distributed along the 26 km transect. Three cores (0.25 m 2) were taken at each station. Five subcores (156.25 cm 2) were taken from each core. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of statistical analysis showed that all samples belong to one benthic community dominated by three species, Tetractinomorpha gen.sp. A, Myriochele heeri, and Galathowenia fragilis. Total biomasses varied from 2.31 to 6.41 g ww m -2 and densities ranged from 1976 to 3254 ind. m -2. Multivariate analysis showed the division of all samples into two distinct groups (species assemblages) on the core and subcore levels. These assemblages occupied an area several kilometers across, and differed from each other. The second level of heterogeneity occurs between cores and subcores of assemblage B and reflects variations in the abundance of sponge species Tetractinomorpha gen. sp. A. The size of these small patches appears to be about 150 cm 2. The hierarchical organization of benthic macrofauna on the continental slope off Spitsbergen includes at least three levels: communities, which replace each other along the depth gradient, species assemblages, which make up the orthogonal inner mosaics in each vertical zone, and patches of certain species, which form the lowest level of the hierarchy.

  18. Altererythrobacter aurantiacus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Yang, Yanliu; Wang, Lina

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacterium, strain O30(T), was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected from the west Pacific. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this strain is affiliated with the family Erythrobacteraceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and is closely related to the members of the genera Erythromicrobium (96.6 %), Porphyrobacter (95.5-96.3 %), Altererythrobacter (94.1-96.2 %) and Erythrobacter (94.2-96.2 %). Phylogenetic analysis including all described species of the family Erythrobacteraceae revealed that the isolate forms a clade in the cluster of the genus Altererythrobacter. Strain O30(T) was found to grow at 4-40 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and in the presence of 0.5-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed ubiquinones Q-8, Q-9 and Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinones, summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), C17:1 ω6c and C16:0 as major fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid as the major polar lipids. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 56.9 mol %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data presented in this study, strain O30(T) represents a novel species within the genus Altererythrobacter, for which the name Altererythrobacter aurantiacus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is O30(T) (= CGMCC 1.12762(T) = JCM 19853(T) = LMG 28110(T) = MCCC 1A09962(T)). PMID:27371378

  19. Heterotrophic Activity of Deep-Sea Sediment Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, J. R.; Colwell, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples, containing mixed microbial populations that were decompressed during retrieval from 7,750 and 8,130 m in the Puerto Rican Trench, were recompressed and incubated at the approximate in situ temperature (3 C) and pressure (775 or 815 atm) in the presence of 14C-labeled amino acids. Heterotrophic activity (total uptake, CO2 respiration, and cellular assimilation) and cellular-associated “pool” concentrations were measured. Compared with atmospheric controls held at 3 C, the total uptake at elevated pressure at 3 C was reduced, on an average, 55 times, CO2 respiration was reduced 45 times, and cellular assimilation was reduced 69 times. Rate of total uptake at elevated pressure was found to range from 4.0 × 10-11 μg/cell per h for leucine to 2.61 × 10-10 μg/cell per h for an amino acid mixture. Also, the percentage of total uptake at elevated pressures, respired as CO2, increased at the expense of cellular assimilation (ca. 22% increase). Two cellular-associated amino acid pools were detected, a large, loosely bound, outer pool and a small, tightly bound internal pool. The loosely bound outer pool was removed by a change in the pH of the incubation medium. Even though heterotrophic uptake and the outer, cellular-associated pool were markedly reduced at an elevated pressure, the percentage of total uptake calculated for the unincorporated, tightly bound, intracellular pool was 2 to 19 times that obtained for cultures held at 1 atm. The results were interpreted as indicating that bacterial metabolism and biosynthesis in the deep sea are markedly reduced, with a greater proportion of metabolic activity devoted to cellular maintenance. PMID:1190762

  20. Altererythrobacter aurantiacus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Yang, Yanliu; Wang, Lina

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacterium, strain O30(T), was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected from the west Pacific. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this strain is affiliated with the family Erythrobacteraceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and is closely related to the members of the genera Erythromicrobium (96.6 %), Porphyrobacter (95.5-96.3 %), Altererythrobacter (94.1-96.2 %) and Erythrobacter (94.2-96.2 %). Phylogenetic analysis including all described species of the family Erythrobacteraceae revealed that the isolate forms a clade in the cluster of the genus Altererythrobacter. Strain O30(T) was found to grow at 4-40 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and in the presence of 0.5-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed ubiquinones Q-8, Q-9 and Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinones, summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), C17:1 ω6c and C16:0 as major fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid as the major polar lipids. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 56.9 mol %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data presented in this study, strain O30(T) represents a novel species within the genus Altererythrobacter, for which the name Altererythrobacter aurantiacus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is O30(T) (= CGMCC 1.12762(T) = JCM 19853(T) = LMG 28110(T) = MCCC 1A09962(T)).

  1. Microbacterium marinum sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Xi, Lijun; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2012-03-01

    Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterial strains, H101(T) and H207, were isolated from deep sea water collected from South-West Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were closely related to one another (100% similarity), and had the closest relationship with Microbacterium hominis NBRC 15708(T) and Microbacterium insulae KCTC 19247(T) (98.2-98.3% similarities). DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains H101(T) and H207 was 87.2 ± 3.7%, and the values between the two strains and the closely related type strains were well below 70%. The two strains also shared a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics that were distinct from the closely related species, and grew at 2-37 ° C, pH 5-11 and 0-8% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains contained MK-12, MK-13 and MK-11 as the detected menaquinones. The peptidoglycan was of type B1γ with an interpeptide bridge D-Glu(Hyg)→ Gly(2)→ l-Lys. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), and iso-C(16:0). Based on the genetic and phenotypic properties, it is proposed that strains H101(T) and H207 be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Microbacterium, with the name Microbacterium marinum sp. nov. The type strain is H101(T) (= CGMCC 4.6941(T) = DSM 24947(T)).

  2. Citreicella marina sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Fu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianning; Chen, Shuangxi; Zhong, Huanzi; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2011-04-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel strain, designated CK-I3-6(T), which was isolated from deep-sea sediment of the south-west Indian Ocean Ridge. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth was observed at 4-38 °C and in 1-12 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were able to degrade gelatin and oxidize thiosulfate but did not reduce nitrate. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CK-I3-6(T) belonged to the genus Citreicella with a sequence similarity of 97.3 % to Citreicella thiooxidans CHLG 1(T), while similarities with other taxa were <95.7 %. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain CK-I3-6(T) and C. thiooxidans CHLG 1(T) showed a low DNA-DNA relatedness (48±3 %). The principal fatty acids were C(16 : 0) (7.8 %), C(18 : 1)ω7c (66.6 %), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c; 6.3 %) and C(19 : 0)ω8c cyclo (10.0 %). The chromosomal DNA G+C content was 67.5 mol%. On the basis of the combined genotypic and phenotypic data, strain CK-I3-6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Citreicella, for which the name Citreicella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CK-I3-6(T) ( = CCTCC AB 209064(T)  = LMG 25230(T)  = MCCC 1A03060(T)).

  3. Kangiella profundi sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-di; Li, Xue-gong; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    A taxonomic study employing a polyphasic approach was carried out on strain FT102(T), which was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected in the south-west Indian Ocean at a depth of 2784 m. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming. It grew optimally at 37-42 °C, pH 6.5-8.5 and in the presence of 1-4% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the separation of the novel strain from recognized members of the genus Kangiella that are available in public databases. Strain FT102(T) exhibited 95.5-98.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the eight recognized species of the genus Kangiella. The chemotaxonomically characteristic fatty acid iso-C15:0 and ubiquinone Q-8 were also detected. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The DNA G + C content of strain FT102(T) was 45.0 mol%. The mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain FT102(T) and the type strains of Kangiella aquimarina and Kangiella koreensis were 47.3% and 13.7%, respectively. The combined results of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that strain FT102(T) was affiliated with the genus Kangiella but differed from the recognized species of the genus Kangiella. Therefore, strain FT102T represents a novel species of the genus Kangiella, for which the name Kangiella profundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FT102(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12959(T) = KCTC 42297(T) = JCM 30232(T)).

  4. Peptide synthesis in simulated deep sea hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, K. H.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    The synthesis of oligomeric biomolecules such as peptides is the key step marking the evolution from prebiotic chemistry to biochemistry[1]. While monomer synthesis has been demonstrated to proceed in high-energy impact shock, lightning, cavitation or UV-radiation^dominated environments,[2] monomer oligomerization requires lower energy yields,[3] typically found in geological settings such as deep-sea hydrothermal environments (DSHE). In particular, increasing temperatures are predicted to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium between amino acids and product peptide as well as between precursor and successor peptide toward the product oligopeptide,[4,5] however, this hypothesis has not been tested experimentally. Using hydrothermal gold cells we demonstrate the formation of short peptides from the amino acid glycine in the temperature range 160°C to 260°C and 200 bar, conditions typical of DSHE. We show that glycine and product peptides enter into equilibrium and demonstrate a lowering of the Gibbs energies of diglycine and diketopiperazine formation from glycine with increasing temperature. Our results confirm that the thermodynamic stability of the peptide bond in diglycine and diketopiperazine increases relative to the free amino acid with increasing temperature.[4] They support a high temperature origin of life and the early emergence of peptides during chemical evolution. [1] Imai, E., Honda, H., Hatori, K., Brack, A. & Matsuno, K., (1999) Science, 283, 831. [2] Chyba, C.F. and Sagan, C. (1992) Nature 355, 125. [3] Kawamura K. and Yukioka M. (2001) Thermochim. Acta, 375, 9 [4] Shock, E.L. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 3481 [5] Amend J.P. and Helgeson H.C. (2000) Biophy. Chem., 84, 105.

  5. Virus decomposition provides an important contribution to benthic deep-sea ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-04-21

    Viruses are key biological agents of prokaryotic mortality in the world oceans, particularly in deep-sea ecosystems where nearly all of the prokaryotic C production is transformed into organic detritus. However, the extent to which the decomposition of viral particles (i.e., organic material of viral origin) influences the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems remains completely unknown. Here, using various independent approaches, we show that in deep-sea sediments an important fraction of viruses, once they are released by cell lysis, undergo fast decomposition. Virus decomposition rates in deep-sea sediments are high even at abyssal depths and are controlled primarily by the extracellular enzymatic activities that hydrolyze the proteins of the viral capsids. We estimate that on a global scale the decomposition of benthic viruses releases ∼37-50 megatons of C per year and thus represents an important source of labile organic compounds in deep-sea ecosystems. Organic material released from decomposed viruses is equivalent to 3 ± 1%, 6 ± 2%, and 12 ± 3% of the input of photosynthetically produced C, N, and P supplied through particles sinking to bathyal/abyssal sediments. Our data indicate that the decomposition of viruses provides an important, previously ignored contribution to deep-sea ecosystem functioning and has an important role in nutrient cycling within the largest ecosystem of the biosphere.

  6. Trophic dynamics of deep-sea megabenthos are mediated by surface productivity.

    PubMed

    Tecchio, Samuele; van Oevelen, Dick; Soetaert, Karline; Navarro, Joan; Ramírez-Llodra, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Most deep-sea benthic ecosystems are food limited and, in the majority of cases, are driven by the organic matter falling from the surface or advected downslope. Species may adapt to this scarceness by applying a wide variety of responses, such as feeding specialisation, niche width variation, and reduction in metabolic rates. The Mediterranean Sea hosts a gradient of food availability at the deep seafloor over its wide longitudinal transect. In the Mediterranean, broad regional studies on trophic habits are almost absent, and the response of deep-sea benthos to different trophic conditions is still speculative. Here, we show that both primary and secondary production processes taking place at surface layers are key drivers of deep-sea food web structuring. By employing an innovative statistical tool, we interpreted bulk-tissue δ(13)C and δ(15)N isotope ratios in benthic megafauna, and associated surface and mesopelagic components from the 3 basins of the Mediterranean Sea at 3 different depths (1200, 2000, and 3000 m). The trophic niche width and the amplitude of primary carbon sources were positively correlated with both primary and secondary surface production indicators. Moreover, mesopelagic organic matter utilization processes showed an intermediate position between surface and deep benthic components. These results shed light on the understanding of deep-sea ecosystems functioning and, at the same time, they demand further investigation.

  7. Evidence for Permo-Triassic colonization of the deep sea by isopods.

    PubMed

    Lins, Luana S F; Ho, Simon Y W; Wilson, George D F; Lo, Nathan

    2012-12-23

    The deep sea is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth and is home to a highly diverse fauna, with polychaetes, molluscs and peracarid crustaceans as dominant groups. A number of studies have proposed that this fauna did not survive the anoxic events that occurred during the Mesozoic Era. Accordingly, the modern fauna is thought to be relatively young, perhaps having colonized the deep sea after the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. To test this hypothesis, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 16S sequences from isopod crustaceans. Using a molecular clock calibrated with multiple isopod fossils, we estimated the timing of deep-sea colonization events by isopods. Our results show that some groups have an ancient origin in the deep sea, with the earliest estimated dates spanning 232-314 Myr ago. Therefore, anoxic events at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Mesozoic did not cause the extinction of all the deep-sea fauna; some species may have gone extinct while others survived and proliferated. The monophyly of the 'munnopsid radiation' within the isopods suggests that the ancestors of this group evolved in the deep sea and did not move to shallow-water refugia during anoxic events.

  8. Species-energy relationship in the deep sea: A test using the Quaternary fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Roy, K.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the processes regulating species richness in deep-sea communities. Here we take advantage of natural experiments involving climate change to test whether predictions of the species-energy hypothesis hold in the deep sea. In addition, we test for the relationship between temperature and species richness predicted by a recent model based on biochemical kinetics of metabolism. Using the deep-sea fossil record of benthic foraminifera and statistical meta-analyses of temperature-richness and productivity-richness relationships in 10 deep-sea cores, we show that temperature but not productivity is a significant predictor of species richness over the past c. 130 000 years. Our results not only show that the temperature-richness relationship in the deep-sea is remarkably similar to that found in terrestrial and shallow marine habitats, but also that species richness tracks temperature change over geological time, at least on scales of c. 100 000 years. Thus, predicting biotic response to global climate change in the deep sea would require better understanding of how temperature regulates the occurrences and geographical ranges of species. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Virus decomposition provides an important contribution to benthic deep-sea ecosystem functioning

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are key biological agents of prokaryotic mortality in the world oceans, particularly in deep-sea ecosystems where nearly all of the prokaryotic C production is transformed into organic detritus. However, the extent to which the decomposition of viral particles (i.e., organic material of viral origin) influences the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems remains completely unknown. Here, using various independent approaches, we show that in deep-sea sediments an important fraction of viruses, once they are released by cell lysis, undergo fast decomposition. Virus decomposition rates in deep-sea sediments are high even at abyssal depths and are controlled primarily by the extracellular enzymatic activities that hydrolyze the proteins of the viral capsids. We estimate that on a global scale the decomposition of benthic viruses releases ∼37–50 megatons of C per year and thus represents an important source of labile organic compounds in deep-sea ecosystems. Organic material released from decomposed viruses is equivalent to 3 ± 1%, 6 ± 2%, and 12 ± 3% of the input of photosynthetically produced C, N, and P supplied through particles sinking to bathyal/abyssal sediments. Our data indicate that the decomposition of viruses provides an important, previously ignored contribution to deep-sea ecosystem functioning and has an important role in nutrient cycling within the largest ecosystem of the biosphere. PMID:25848024

  10. Demography and natural selection have shaped genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster: a multi-locus approach.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Sascha; Ometto, Lino; Mousset, Sylvain; Stephan, Wolfgang; De Lorenzo, David

    2003-11-01

    Demography and selection have been recognized for their important roles in shaping patterns of nucleotide variability. To investigate the relative effects of these forces in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, we used a multi-locus scan (105 fragments) of X-linked DNA sequence variation in a putatively ancestral African and a derived European population. Surprisingly, we found evidence for a recent size expansion in the African population, i.e., a significant excess of singletons at a chromosome-wide level. In the European population, such an excess was not detected. In contrast to the African population, we found evidence for positive natural selection in the European sample: (i) a large number of loci with low levels of variation and (ii) a significant excess of derived variants at the low-variation loci that are fixed in the European sample but rare in the African population. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the European population has experienced frequent selective sweeps in the recent past during its adaptation to new habitats. Our study shows the advantages of a genomic approach (over a locus-specific analysis) in disentangling demographic and selective forces.

  11. Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus VNTR analysis.

    PubMed

    Račić, Ivana; Spičić, Silvio; Galov, Ana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Vujnović, Anja; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2014-10-10

    Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping.

  12. Multi-locus sequence typing confirms the clonality of Trichomonas gallinae isolates circulating in European finches.

    PubMed

    Ganas, Petra; Jaskulska, Barbara; Lawson, Becki; Zadravec, Marko; Hess, Michael; Bilic, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Trichomonas gallinae emerged as the causative agent of an infectious disease of passerine birds in Europe leading to epidemic mortality of especially greenfinches Chloris chloris and chaffinches Fringilla coelebs. After the appearance of finch trichomonosis in the UK and Fennoscandia, the disease spread to Central Europe. Finch trichomonosis first reached Austria and Slovenia in 2012. In the present study the genetic heterogeneity of T. gallinae isolates from incidents in Austria and Slovenia were investigated and compared with British isolates. For this purpose comparative sequence analyses of the four genomic loci ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 18S rRNA, rpb1 and Fe-hydrogenase were performed. The results corroborate that one clonal T. gallinae strain caused the emerging infectious disease within passerine birds and that the disease is continuing to spread in Europe. The same clonal strain was also found in a columbid bird from Austria. Additionally, the present study demonstrates clearly the importance of multi-locus sequence typing for discrimination of circulating T. gallinae strains. PMID:24476813

  13. Efficient network-guided multi-locus association mapping with graph cuts

    PubMed Central

    Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Grimm, Dominik; Sugiyama, Mahito; Kawahara, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: As an increasing number of genome-wide association studies reveal the limitations of the attempt to explain phenotypic heritability by single genetic loci, there is a recent focus on associating complex phenotypes with sets of genetic loci. Although several methods for multi-locus mapping have been proposed, it is often unclear how to relate the detected loci to the growing knowledge about gene pathways and networks. The few methods that take biological pathways or networks into account are either restricted to investigating a limited number of predetermined sets of loci or do not scale to genome-wide settings. Results: We present SConES, a new efficient method to discover sets of genetic loci that are maximally associated with a phenotype while being connected in an underlying network. Our approach is based on a minimum cut reformulation of the problem of selecting features under sparsity and connectivity constraints, which can be solved exactly and rapidly. SConES outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in terms of runtime, scales to hundreds of thousands of genetic loci and exhibits higher power in detecting causal SNPs in simulation studies than other methods. On flowering time phenotypes and genotypes from Arabidopsis thaliana, SConES detects loci that enable accurate phenotype prediction and that are supported by the literature. Availability: Code is available at http://webdav.tuebingen.mpg.de/u/karsten/Forschung/scones/. Contact: chloe-agathe.azencott@tuebingen.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23812981

  14. Multi-locus Analyses Reveal Four Giraffe Species Instead of One.

    PubMed

    Fennessy, Julian; Bidon, Tobias; Reuss, Friederike; Kumar, Vikas; Elkan, Paul; Nilsson, Maria A; Vamberger, Melita; Fritz, Uwe; Janke, Axel

    2016-09-26

    Traditionally, one giraffe species and up to eleven subspecies have been recognized [1]; however, nine subspecies are commonly accepted [2]. Even after a century of research, the distinctness of each giraffe subspecies remains unclear, and the genetic variation across their distribution range has been incompletely explored. Recent genetic studies on mtDNA have shown reciprocal monophyly of the matrilines among seven of the nine assumed subspecies [3, 4]. Moreover, until now, genetic analyses have not been applied to biparentally inherited sequence data and did not include data from all nine giraffe subspecies. We sampled natural giraffe populations from across their range in Africa, and for the first time individuals from the nominate subspecies, the Nubian giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis Linnaeus 1758 [5], were included in a genetic analysis. Coalescence-based multi-locus and population genetic analyses identify at least four separate and monophyletic clades, which should be recognized as four distinct giraffe species under the genetic isolation criterion. Analyses of 190 individuals from maternal and biparental markers support these findings and further suggest subsuming Rothschild's giraffe into the Nubian giraffe, as well as Thornicroft's giraffe into the Masai giraffe [6]. A giraffe survey genome produced valuable data from microsatellites, mobile genetic elements, and accurate divergence time estimates. Our findings provide the most inclusive analysis of giraffe relationships to date and show that their genetic complexity has been underestimated, highlighting the need for greater conservation efforts for the world's tallest mammal. PMID:27618261

  15. Ebro margins sedimentary system in the western Mediterranean Sea, from delta to deep sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A. )

    1988-08-01

    During Holocene high sea level, delta-front lobes of silty mud have deposited beside a lobate Ebro delta. Topset and foreset beds of these lobes extend up to 20 km offshore in up to 30 m of water. Geostrophic currents advect fine silt and clay from river discharge and storm wave resuspension in the delta front and deposit up to 20 m of bottomset beds in a distal prodelta clay belt formed on the inner to middle shelf for 70 km south from the delta. Intensified water circulation and increased bottom-current speeds inhibit prodelta progradation over the outer shelf and north of the delta and south of the clay belt, where the shelf narrows. Deposition of Holocene hemipelagic mud on the upper slope is restricted, but some modern Ebro sediment apparently bypasses to the deep margin. During Pleistocene low sea level, a series of shelf-edge deltas resulted in extensive progradation of foreset mud beds over the continental slope east of the modern delta and south to the Columbretes Islands. In the north, rapid sediment progradation has resulted in large canyons ({plus minus}5 km wide), unconfined sediment gravity flows, and deposition of large sediment aprons (50 km diameter) downslope from canyon mouths. In the south, narrow canyons ({plus minus}2 km wide) have funneled turbidity currents to side-by-side channel-levee complexes younger and smaller to the southwest. Subsidence of the Valencia trough has facilitated sediment transport from these channel-levee complexes into Valencia Valley and thence to the Valencia fan, 200 km to the northeast. Consequently, during low sea level stands a major portion of Ebro sediment is transported north to the Valencia fan, whereas the main progradational history of the Ebro margin has been offshore and to the south of the present delta.

  16. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Lee, Mao-Yin; Chen, Lee-Sea; Lin, Hen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the “Database of Taiwan’s Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/)” as part of the “Fish Database of Taiwan,” can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity. PMID:25610339

  17. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Lee, Mao-Yin; Chen, Lee-Sea; Lin, Hen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the "Database of Taiwan's Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/)" as part of the "Fish Database of Taiwan," can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity.

  18. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A.; Baker, Maria C.; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R.; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A.; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A.; Smith, Craig R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life – SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  19. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A; Baker, Maria C; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A; Smith, Craig R; Van Dover, Cindy L

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2) and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2) and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  20. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A; Baker, Maria C; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A; Smith, Craig R; Van Dover, Cindy L

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2) and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2) and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  1. Bathyal sea urchins of the Bahamas, with notes on covering behavior in deep sea echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawson, David L.; Pawson, Doris J.

    2013-08-01

    In a survey of the bathyal echinoderms of the Bahama Islands region using manned submersibles, approximately 200 species of echinoderms were encountered and documented; 33 species were echinoids, most of them widespread in the general Caribbean area. Three species were found to exhibit covering behavior, the piling of debris on the upper surface of the body. Active covering is common in at least 20 species of shallow-water echinoids, but it has been reliably documented previously only once in deep-sea habitats. Images of covered deep-sea species, and other species of related interest, are provided. Some of the reasons adduced in the past for covering in shallow-water species, such as reduction of incident light intensity, physical camouflage, ballast in turbulent water, protection from desiccation, presumably do not apply in bathyal species. The main reasons for covering in deep, dark, environments are as yet unknown. Some covering behavior in the deep sea may be related to protection of the genital pores, ocular plates, or madreporite. Covering in some deep-sea species may also be merely a tactile reflex action, as some authors have suggested for shallow-water species.

  2. Another bipolar deep-sea anemone: new species of Iosactis (Actiniaria, Endomyaria) from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2012-06-01

    A new species of deep-sea burrowing sea anemone is described and illustrated from Antarctica. Iosactis antarctica sp. nov. is characterised by easily deciduous tentacles with sphincters in the base, smooth column, endodermal marginal sphincter, same mesenteries proximally and distally, 24 perfect mesenteries regularly arranged, diffuse retractor musculature and basilar muscles well developed. Iosactis antarctica sp. nov. is the second species of the deep-sea abyssal genus Iosactis; it differs from I. vagabunda in internal anatomy, cnidae and geographic distribution. The description of I. antarctica sp. nov. provides the opportunity to revaluate the morphology of the proximal end of this genus.

  3. Distinctive microbial community structure in highly stratified deep-sea brine water columns.

    PubMed

    Bougouffa, S; Yang, J K; Lee, O O; Wang, Y; Batang, Z; Al-Suwailem, A; Qian, P Y

    2013-06-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools. PMID:23542623

  4. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    PubMed Central

    Bougouffa, S.; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Z.; Al-Suwailem, A.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools. PMID:23542623

  5. Impacts on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem by a Severe Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M.; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B.; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  6. Impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem by a severe coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26(th) of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem.

  7. Abrupt changes in deep-sea ecosystem structure and biodiversity during the last deglaciation and Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, M.; Cronin, T. M.; Hunt, G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent research on deep-sea sediment cores suggests that the structure and diversity of deep-sea ecosystems exhibit greater instability over millennial and centennial timescales than previously realized. Centennial scale ecosystem shifts during the last deglaciation (Termination 1, 18-11.5 ka) and the Holocene (11.5 ka to recent) have been discovered using several well-dated deep-sea microfossil records. In the northwestern Atlantic ODP site 1055, weakening of North Atlantic Deep Water production around 10 ka appears to have caused the collapse of the deep-sea benthic ecosystem and reduced diversity at ca. 1800 meters water depth. During this and other Holocene events, diversity as measured by the Shannon Index was reduced by as much as 50%. Several lower resolution records also suggest rapid ecosystem change during Termination 1 in the central and northern North Atlantic region. For example, sites 82-24-4PC (mid-Atlantic Ridge) and M23414 (Rockall Plateau) reveal abrupt diversity shifts probably associated with bottom-water temperature and surface productivity changes. This presentation will assemble data on these and other fossil ostracod records from North Atlantic deep-sea sites to discuss possible causes of abrupt ecosystem changes and the application of Ostracoda to paleoceanography.

  8. Groundtruthing the Neodymium Isotope Proxy in Deep-Sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Robinson, L. F.; Adkins, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The Nd isotopic composition of marine precipitates is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool in paleoceanography. Unlike nutrient proxies such as δ13C or Cd/Ca, Nd isotopes are not thought to be altered by biological processes, and thus may serve as a quasi-conservative water mass mixing tracer. However, any archive, which is used to extract authigenic Nd isotopes, needs careful examination, to test the integrity of the inferred seawater signal. Here we present first data on cleaning experiments and modern calibration experiments on different species of deep-sea corals. Seven different coral samples ranging in age from modern to ~220ka were selected for experiments designed to remove ferromanganese crusts and / or organic residues that may contain high concentrations of Nd and Th. The aim was to determine whether the rigorous chemical procedure we use to remove Th associated with these crusts is effective at removing Nd, and whether it causes any fractionation in the Nd isotopic composition of the coral aragonite. Crusts were found to contain Th-232 concentrations of up to ~160ppm, with 232Th/230Th ratios dependent on the oceanic location of the coral. Un-cleaned corals had Th-232 concentrations of up to 8ppb and the cleaning procedure reduced these values to less than 0.2ppb in both modern and fossil specimens. Neodymium isotopic compositions reveal that for modern corals, with no visible coating, a pre-cleaning step is sufficient to yield the isotopic composition of ambient seawater. The ferromanganese coating around fossil corals however may have a very different isotopic composition than the coral aragonite since it may be a time-integrated signal biased towards modern values. This bias is observed for intermediate water depth D. dianthus corals from stage 3 in the northwest Atlantic. Modern D. dianthus skeletons from the northwest Atlantic and the Drake Passage reflect the seawater Nd isotopic composition, and we are extending this modern calibration to

  9. Hydrothermal mixing: Fuel for life in the deep-sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentscher, M.; Bach, W.; Amend, J.; McCollom, T.

    2009-04-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems show a wide range of fluid compositions and temperatures. They reach from highly alkaline and reducing, like the Lost City hydrothermal field, to acidic and reducing conditions, (e. g., the Logatchev hydrothermal field) to acidic and oxidizing conditions (e. g., island arc hosted systems). These apparently hostile vent systems are generally accompanied by high microbial activity forming the base of a food-web that often includes higher organisms like mussels, snails, or shrimp. The primary production is boosted by mixing of chemically reduced hydrothermal vent fluids with ambient seawater, which generates redox disequilibria that serve as energy source for chemolithoautotrophic microbial life. We used geochemical reaction path models to compute the affinities of catabolic (energy-harvesting) and anabolic (biosynthesis) reactions along trajectories of batch mixing between vent fluids and 2 °C seawater. Geochemical data of endmember hydrothermal fluids from 12 different vent fields (Lost City, Rainbow, Logatchev, TAG, EPR 21 °N, Manus Basin, Mariana Arc, etc.) were included in this reconnaissance study of the variability in metabolic energetics in global submarine vent systems. The results show a distinction between ultramafic-hosted and basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems. The highest energy yield for chemolithotrophic catabolism in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems is reached at low temperature and under slightly aerobic to aerobic conditions. The dominant reactions, for example at Rainbow or Lost City, are the oxidation of H2, Fe2+ and methane. At temperatures >60 °C, anaerobic metabolic reactions, e. g., sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, become more profitable. In contrast, basalt-hosted systems, such as TAG and 21 °N EPR uniformly indicate H2S oxidation to be the catabolically dominant reaction over the entire microbial-relevant temperature range. Affinities were calculated for the formation of individual cellular

  10. Aestuariivita atlantica sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Li, Guizhen; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Yaping; Liu, Xiupian; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2015-10-01

    A novel strain, 22II-S11-z3T, was isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the Atlantic Ocean. The bacterium was aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative, oval- to rod-shaped, and non-motile. Growth was observed at salinities of 1-9 % NaCl and temperatures of 10-45 °C. The isolate could hydrolyse aesculin and Tweens 20, 40 and 80, but not gelatin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 22II-S11-z3T belonged to the genus Aestuariivita, with highest sequence similarity to Aestuariivita boseongensis KCTC 42052T (97.5 %). The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 22II-S11-z3T and A. boseongensis KCTC 42052T were 71.5 % and 20.0 ± 2.3 %, respectively. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 65.5 mol%. The principal fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) (35.2 %), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (20.9 %), C16 : 0 (11.8 %), 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c (11.4 %) and C12 : 1 3-OH (9.4 %). The respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, nine unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids were present. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain 22II-S11-z3T represents a novel species of the genus Aestuariivita, for which the name Aestuariivita atlantica sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 22II-S11-z3T ( = KCTC 42276T = MCCC 1A09432T).

  11. Galbibacter marinus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Li, Chongping; Lai, Qiliang; Fu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuangxi; Shao, Zongze

    2013-04-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterium, designated strain ck-I2-15(T), which was isolated from deep-sea sediment collected from the South-west Indian Ocean Ridge. Cells of strain ck-I2-15(T) were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, moderately halophilic and capable of denitrification. Growth was observed with 0-9 % (w/v) NaCl and at temperatures of 10-37 °C. The novel strain was unable to degrade gelatin. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0). The major respiratory quinone was MK6 and the polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified glycolipid and four other unidentified lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that strain ck-I2-15(T) was most closely related to Galbibacter mesophilus Mok-17(T) (92.9 % sequence similarity), followed by 'Joostella atrarenae' M1-2 (92.8 %), Joostella marina En5(T) (92.7 %) and Zhouia amylolytica HN-171(T) (91.6 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ck-I2-15(T) formed a clade with the genus Galbibacter, within the family Flavobacteriaceae. Several phenotypic properties allowed strain ck-I2-15(T) to be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain ck-I2-15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Galbibacter, for which the name Galbibacter marinus is proposed. The type strain is ck-I2-15(T) ( = CCTCC AB 209062(T) = LMG 25228(T) = MCCC 1A03044(T)).

  12. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima

    PubMed Central

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean–atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink. PMID:26923945

  13. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima.

    PubMed

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L; Galbraith, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean-atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink. PMID:26923945

  14. Deep-Sea Origin and In-Situ Diversification of Chrysogorgiid Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Pante, Eric; France, Scott C.; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; McFadden, Catherine S.; Samadi, Sarah; Watling, Les

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ubiquity and prevalence in deep waters of the octocoral family Chrysogorgiidae Verrill, 1883 make it noteworthy as a model system to study radiation and diversification in the deep sea. Here we provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Chrysogorgiidae, and compare phylogeny and depth distribution. Phylogenetic relationships among 10 of 14 currently-described Chrysogorgiidae genera were inferred based on mitochondrial (mtMutS, cox1) and nuclear (18S) markers. Bathymetric distribution was estimated from multiple sources, including museum records, a literature review, and our own sampling records (985 stations, 2345 specimens). Genetic analyses suggest that the Chrysogorgiidae as currently described is a polyphyletic family. Shallow-water genera, and two of eight deep-water genera, appear more closely related to other octocoral families than to the remainder of the monophyletic, deep-water chrysogorgiid genera. Monophyletic chrysogorgiids are composed of strictly (Iridogorgia Verrill, 1883, Metallogorgia Versluys, 1902, Radicipes Stearns, 1883, Pseudochrysogorgia Pante & France, 2010) and predominantly (Chrysogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) deep-sea genera that diversified in situ. This group is sister to gold corals (Primnoidae Milne Edwards, 1857) and deep-sea bamboo corals (Keratoisidinae Gray, 1870), whose diversity also peaks in the deep sea. Nine species of Chrysogorgia that were described from depths shallower than 200 m, and mtMutS haplotypes sequenced from specimens sampled as shallow as 101 m, suggest a shallow-water emergence of some Chrysogorgia species. PMID:22723855

  15. Diazotrophy in the Deep: Measuring Rates and Identifying Biological Mediators of N2 fixation in Deep-Sea Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekas, A. E.; Fike, D. A.; Chadwick, G.; Connon, S. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Biological N2 fixation (the conversion of N2 to NH3) is the largest natural source of bioavailable nitrogen to the biosphere, and dictates the rate of community productivity in many nitrogen-limited environments. Deep-sea sediments are traditionally not thought to host N2 fixation, however evidence from a metagenomics dataset targeting deep-sea methanotrophic archaea (ANME) suggested their ability to fix N2 (Pernthaler, et al., PNAS 2008). Using stable isotope labeling experiments and FISH-NanoSIMS, a technique which allows the visualization of isotopic composition within phylogenetically identified cells on the nanometer scale, we demonstrated that the ANME are capable of N2 fixation (Dekas et al., Science 2009). In the present work, we use FISH-NanoSIMS and bulk Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to show that the ANME are the most significant source of new nitrogen at a Costa Rican methane seep. This suggests that the ANME may play a significant role in N2 fixation in methane seeps worldwide. We expand our investigation of deep-sea diazotrophy to include diverse habitats, including sulfide- and carbon-rich whalefalls, and observe that N2 fixation is widespread in sediments on the seafloor. Outside of methane seeps, N2 fixation appears to be mediated by a diversity of anaerobic microbes potentially including methanogens and sulfate reducing bacteria. Interestingly, deep-sea N2 fixation often occurs in the presence of high levels of NH4+. Our observations challenge long-held hypotheses about where and when N2 fixation occurs, and suggest a bigger role for N2 fixation on the seafloor - and potentially the deep-biosphere - than previously realized.

  16. Development and evaluation of a multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Mycoplasma synoviae.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2016-08-01

    Reproducible molecular Mycoplasma synoviae typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power may help to expand knowledge on its epidemiology and contribute to the improvement of control and eradication programmes of this mycoplasma species. The present study describes the development and validation of a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. synoviae. Thirteen M. synoviae isolates originating from different poultry categories, farms and lesions, were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Their sequences were compared to that of M. synoviae reference strain MS53. A high number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicating considerable genetic diversity were identified. SNPs were present in over 40 putative target genes for MLST of which five target genes were selected (nanA, uvrA, lepA, ruvB and ugpA) for the MLST scheme. This scheme was evaluated analysing 209 M. synoviae samples from different countries, categories of poultry, farms and lesions. Eleven clonal clusters and 76 different sequence types (STs) were obtained. Clustering occurred following geographical origin, supporting the hypothesis of regional population evolution. M. synoviae samples obtained from epidemiologically linked outbreaks often harboured the same ST. In contrast, multiple M. synoviae lineages were found in samples originating from swollen joints or oviducts from hens that produce eggs with eggshell apex abnormalities indicating that further research is needed to identify the genetic factors of M. synoviae that may explain its variations in tissue tropism and disease inducing potential. Furthermore, MLST proved to have a higher discriminatory power compared to variable lipoprotein and haemagglutinin A typing, which generated 50 different genotypes on the same database. PMID:26926568

  17. Multi-locus analysis of genomic time series data from experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Terhorst, Jonathan; Schlötterer, Christian; Song, Yun S

    2015-04-01

    Genomic time series data generated by evolve-and-resequence (E&R) experiments offer a powerful window into the mechanisms that drive evolution. However, standard population genetic inference procedures do not account for sampling serially over time, and new methods are needed to make full use of modern experimental evolution data. To address this problem, we develop a Gaussian process approximation to the multi-locus Wright-Fisher process with selection over a time course of tens of generations. The mean and covariance structure of the Gaussian process are obtained by computing the corresponding moments in discrete-time Wright-Fisher models conditioned on the presence of a linked selected site. This enables our method to account for the effects of linkage and selection, both along the genome and across sampled time points, in an approximate but principled manner. We first use simulated data to demonstrate the power of our method to correctly detect, locate and estimate the fitness of a selected allele from among several linked sites. We study how this power changes for different values of selection strength, initial haplotypic diversity, population size, sampling frequency, experimental duration, number of replicates, and sequencing coverage depth. In addition to providing quantitative estimates of selection parameters from experimental evolution data, our model can be used by practitioners to design E&R experiments with requisite power. We also explore how our likelihood-based approach can be used to infer other model parameters, including effective population size and recombination rate. Then, we apply our method to analyze genome-wide data from a real E&R experiment designed to study the adaptation of D. melanogaster to a new laboratory environment with alternating cold and hot temperatures.

  18. Multi-locus Analysis of Genomic Time Series Data from Experimental Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Terhorst, Jonathan; Schlötterer, Christian; Song, Yun S.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic time series data generated by evolve-and-resequence (E&R) experiments offer a powerful window into the mechanisms that drive evolution. However, standard population genetic inference procedures do not account for sampling serially over time, and new methods are needed to make full use of modern experimental evolution data. To address this problem, we develop a Gaussian process approximation to the multi-locus Wright-Fisher process with selection over a time course of tens of generations. The mean and covariance structure of the Gaussian process are obtained by computing the corresponding moments in discrete-time Wright-Fisher models conditioned on the presence of a linked selected site. This enables our method to account for the effects of linkage and selection, both along the genome and across sampled time points, in an approximate but principled manner. We first use simulated data to demonstrate the power of our method to correctly detect, locate and estimate the fitness of a selected allele from among several linked sites. We study how this power changes for different values of selection strength, initial haplotypic diversity, population size, sampling frequency, experimental duration, number of replicates, and sequencing coverage depth. In addition to providing quantitative estimates of selection parameters from experimental evolution data, our model can be used by practitioners to design E&R experiments with requisite power. We also explore how our likelihood-based approach can be used to infer other model parameters, including effective population size and recombination rate. Then, we apply our method to analyze genome-wide data from a real E&R experiment designed to study the adaptation of D. melanogaster to a new laboratory environment with alternating cold and hot temperatures. PMID:25849855

  19. Functional Multi-Locus QTL Mapping of Temporal Trends in Scots Pine Wood Traits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R.; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; García-Gil, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

  20. Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sarin, M.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Various paleoceanographic studies have indicated that the deep ocean was probably depleted in dissolved oxygen during the last glacial period ([approximately]18 kyr B.P.; [delta][sup 18]O, stage 2) compared to present time. However, direct evidence of low oxygen content in the deep waters has been lacking. Here, the authors report geochemical evidence of near anoxic conditions in the deep Arabian Sea during the entire last glacial cycle ([delta][sup 18]O; stages 2, 3, and 4). Anoxia is inferred from the concomitant enrichment of organic carbon and authigenic uranium in the glacial sections of a core from the deep eastern Arabian Sea. The anoxic conditions during the last glacial period, probably caused by a change in deep water circulation, evidently enhanced preservation of organic matter and simultaneous removal of uranium from seawater. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Gravity deposits in deep sea fans and on Continental Slopes, Black Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, M.K.; Konyukhov, A.I.

    1988-08-01

    The Danube fan has a classical structure. It is clearly expressed in the bottom relief and traced by reflection profiles for more than 200 km. The fan body is levee valley, which splits in a mid-fan area into numerous meandering distributaries. The fan consists of gravity and hemipelagic deposits. These are mainly turbidites of various compositions. Channels are filled with grain-flow deposits (sand), debris-flow deposits (sandy clay with shells), and slides from valley walls (mud, sapropelic mud). Levees in upper and mid-fan areas are formed by specific turbidite sequences: mudstone crumbs in the base, thinly laminated silt and clays in the middle, blue mud on the top. Hemipelagic sediments increase noticeably on outer slopes of the levees. In the Pleistocene sequences these are mud; in the Holocene, sapropelic mud and coccolith-diatom ooze. Distal turbidites are widespread in the lower fan areas. In the base of each cycle is a thin sand-silt layer with unclear graded bedding; the upper part is represented by mud. Reflection profiles demonstrate an ancient fan system with buried channels and levees. Configurations of these bodies are very similar to those of the modern fans. The sedimentary lens on the sea floor opposite the mouths of submarine canyons of the Rioni, Inguri, Kodori, Supsa, and Chorokh Rivers was formed by overlapped modern and ancient fans. The Inguri and Rioni produced a practically single submarine fan, the largest in this area. It is rather well expressed morphologically and traced by reflection profiles for more than 100 km. In its lower part it overlays a number of small fans. The Rioni-Inguri fan is smaller than the Danube, but the whole system of overlapped fans occupies an area of about 17,000 km/sup 2/, being more than 3 km thick. The composition and structure of sediments in this deep-sea system change sharply, depending on the geomorphological position.

  2. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  3. Multi-locus species tree of the chub genus Squalius (Leuciscinae: Cyprinidae) from western Iberia: new insights into its evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Waap, Silke; Amaral, Ana R; Gomes, Bruno; Manuela Coelho, M

    2011-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the genus Squalius are believed to be well established based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Here, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all species inhabiting most of the western Iberia river systems using a nuclear multi-locus approach and different species tree methods: concatenation and coalescent-based methods (BEST and minimize-deep-coalescence). The dataset comprised sequences of seven coding and three non-coding regions belonging to seven nuclear genes, which were chosen to cover multiple biological functions: amh, bmp4, ef1a, egr2, irbp, rh and rpl8. We provide evidence for a conflicting topology between the nuDNA species tree and the widely reported mtDNA gene tree. S. pyrenaicus is rendered paraphyletic in all nuDNA species trees, with populations of the Tagus/Colares clustering with S. carolitertii, while populations from the Guadiana, Sado and Almargem form a separate clade. Although a larger sampling size encompassing the full spectrum of Squalius populations in western Iberia is still needed to fully elucidate the phylogeography and species delimitation of this genus, our results suggest that the two S. pyrenaicus clades may represent different species. PMID:21898047

  4. Multi-locus species tree of the chub genus Squalius (Leuciscinae: Cyprinidae) from western Iberia: new insights into its evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Waap, Silke; Amaral, Ana R; Gomes, Bruno; Manuela Coelho, M

    2011-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the genus Squalius are believed to be well established based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Here, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all species inhabiting most of the western Iberia river systems using a nuclear multi-locus approach and different species tree methods: concatenation and coalescent-based methods (BEST and minimize-deep-coalescence). The dataset comprised sequences of seven coding and three non-coding regions belonging to seven nuclear genes, which were chosen to cover multiple biological functions: amh, bmp4, ef1a, egr2, irbp, rh and rpl8. We provide evidence for a conflicting topology between the nuDNA species tree and the widely reported mtDNA gene tree. S. pyrenaicus is rendered paraphyletic in all nuDNA species trees, with populations of the Tagus/Colares clustering with S. carolitertii, while populations from the Guadiana, Sado and Almargem form a separate clade. Although a larger sampling size encompassing the full spectrum of Squalius populations in western Iberia is still needed to fully elucidate the phylogeography and species delimitation of this genus, our results suggest that the two S. pyrenaicus clades may represent different species.

  5. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on yeasts isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Hué, Nguyen Thi Minh; Arzur, Danielle; Coton, Monika; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Jebbar, Mohamed; Barbier, Georges

    2015-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains.

  6. Organic matter bioavailability controls the active bacterial fraction in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. M.; Giuliano, L.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-04-01

    Deep-sea sediments, covering more than 60% of the earth surface, represent the largest Earth's ecosystem. Bacteria are the most abundant component and the major players of biogeochemical transformations. However, the knowledge of the physiological and metabolic state of bacterial cells in deep-sea sediments is still extremely poor, thus limiting our actual comprehension of bacterial role on C cycling and early diagenesis on global scale. The recent discovery that a large bacterial fraction is dead and/or inactive suggests that the rather constant bacterial number in the deep sea might be due to the inappropriate methodology of estimation. We investigated the abundance of nucleoid-containing cells (NuCC), assumed to be the active bacterial fraction, and their relative contribution to total bacterial counts in Mediterranean deep-sea sediments (from 670 to 2570 m depth), together with measurements of sedimentary organic matter. Our results indicate that living bacterial cells accounted for 14 to 70% of total bacterial number. The active bacterial abundance decreased by 4 times with increasing station depth. Moreover, NuCC abundance strongly decreased with increasing depth in the sediment, together with the decrease of organic matter concentrations (in terms of protein, carbohydrates and pigments). Our findings indicate that the bioavailable fraction of organic matter exert a strong control on activity and turnover rates of microbial assemblages in deep sea.

  7. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G.; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200–300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200–300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats. PMID:26061525

  8. Impact of Deepwater Horizon Spill on food supply to deep-sea benthos communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Pamela; Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerald; Demopoulos, Amanda; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems encompass unique and often fragile communities that are sensitive to a variety of anthropogenic and natural impacts. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, sampling efforts documented the acute impact of the spill on some deep-sea coral colonies. To investigate the impact of the DWH spill on quality and quantity of biomass delivered to the deep-sea, a suite of geochemical tracers (e.g., stable and radio-isotopes, lipid biomarkers, and compound specific isotopes) was measured from monthly sediment trap samples deployed near a high-density deep-coral site in the Viosca Knoll area of the north-central Gulf of Mexico prior to (Oct-2008 to Sept-2009) and after the spill (Oct-10 to Sept-11). Marine (e.g., autochthonous) sources of organic matter dominated the sediment traps in both years, however after the spill, there was a pronounced reduction in marinesourced OM, including a reduction in marine-sourced sterols and n-alkanes and a concomitant decrease in sediment trap organic carbon and pigment flux. Results from this study indicate a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea in 2010-2011, at least 6-18 months after the spill started. Whereas satellite observations indicate an initial increase in phytoplankton biomass, results from this sediment trap study define a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea community. In addition, a dilution from a low-14C carbon source (e.g., petrocarbon) was detected in the sediment trap samples after the spill, in conjunction with a change in the petrogenic composition. The data presented here fills a critical gap in our knowledge of biogeochemical processes and sub-acute impacts to the deep-sea that ensued after the 2010 DWH spill.

  9. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  10. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats. PMID:26061525

  11. Impact of Deepwater Horizon spill on food supply to deep-sea benthos communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, N. G.; Campbell, P. L.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Demopoulos, A. W. J.; Ross, S. W.; Brooke, S.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems encompass unique and often fragile communities that are sensitive to a variety of anthropogenic and natural impacts. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, sampling efforts documented the acute impact of the spill on some deep-sea coral colonies. To investigate the impact of the DWH spill on quality and quantity of biomass delivered to the deep-sea, a suite of geochemical tracers (e.g., stable and radio-isotopes, lipid biomarkers, and compound-specific isotopes) was measured from monthly sediment trap samples deployed near a high-density deep-coral site in the Viosca Knoll area of the north-central Gulf of Mexico prior to (Oct-2008 to Sept-2009) and after the spill (Oct-10 to Sept-11). Marine (e.g., autochthonous) sources of organic matter (OM) dominated the sediment traps in both years, however after the spill, there was a pronounced reduction in marine-sourced OM, including a reduction in marine-sourced sterols and n-alkanes and a concomitant decrease in sediment trap organic carbon and pigment flux. Results from this study indicate a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea in 2010-2011, at least 6-18 months after the spill started. Whereas satellite observations indicate an initial increase in phytoplankton biomass, results from this sediment trap study define a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea community. In addition, a dilution from a low-14C carbon source (e.g., petro-carbon) was detected in the sediment trap samples after the spill, in conjunction with a change in the petrogenic composition. The data presented here fills a critical gap in our knowledge of biogeochemical processes and sub-acute impacts to the deep-sea that ensued after the 2010 DWH spill.

  12. 13C-18O bonding (Δ47) in deep-sea corals: a calibration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. B.; Tripati, A.; Dunbar, R. B.; Eagle, R.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea corals are a potentially valuable archive of temperature in intermediate and deep waters, regions for which a paucity of temperature data exists. These archives could give valuable insight into the natural variability of areas of the ocean that play an active role in large-scale climate dynamics. Due to significant 'vital effects' (i.e., non-equilibrium mineral compositions) in δ18O, however, deep-sea coral have been challenging to develop as a paleotemperature proxy. Clumped-isotope paleothermometry is a new method that may circumvent some of the known complications with δ18O paleotemperature analysis in deep-sea coral. This geothermometer is based on the ordering of heavy 13C-18O ';clumps' in carbonate minerals. Initial calibration studies have shown that the method is independent from the solution chemistry of the precipitating fluids as well as 'vital effects' in deep-sea corals and other types of carbonates. Some kinetic effects have been observed in tropical corals and speleothems. Here we report new data in order to further develop clumped isotopes as a paleothermometer in deep-sea corals as well as to investigate taxon-specific effects. 13C-18O bond ordering was analyzed in live-collected scleractinian (Enallopsammia sp.) and gorgonian (Isididae and Coralliidae) deep-sea corals. We determined mass 47 anomalies in samples (Δ47), which refers to the parts per thousand excess of 13C-18O-16O in CO2 produced on acid digestion of a sample, relative to the amount predicted to be present if isotopes were randomly distributed amongst all CO2 isotopologues. Measured Δ47 values were compared to in situ temperatures and the relationship between Δ47 and temperature was determined for each group to investigate taxon-specific effects.

  13. Middle to Late Holocene changes in the deep convection in the Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesiński, Maciej M.; Spielhagen, Robert F.

    2013-04-01

    Under modern conditions, open-ocean deep convection occurs in the central Greenland Sea, making it an important location for the studies of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and deep water formation. Our core from the foot of the Vesterisbanken Seamount (73°N, 9°W) offers an unprecedented multicentennial record of the deep-sea Middle to Late Holocene paleoceanography of the Greenland Sea. The planktic and benthic carbon isotope ratios reached their maximum around 7 ka indicating intensive water mass ventilation. This suggests that deep convection, probably even more intense than at present, took place in the proximity of our study site. Around 3 ka the planktic carbon isotope ratios show a relatively sudden and rapid decrease which seems to represent a basinwide feature. Thickening of the cold, low salinity surface layer (as confirmed by our foraminiferal record) probably led to stronger stratification of the water column. This, in turn, resulted in the subsequent amplification of the Late Holocene warming connected with the increased Atlantic Water inflow into the Nordic Seas. Our benthic carbon isotope record also shows a decrease at 3 ka which may indicate a slow-down of deep water renewal which is unusual compared to other records. Again, the proximity of the convection centre must have played an important role. Our record exhibits generally higher values than the records from more distant areas and was stronger affected by the weakening of the deep convection.

  14. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-12-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites ranging from 350 to 4800 m water depth inside or near the channel and away from its influence. Ifremer conducted eight deep-sea cruises on board research vessels between 2000 and 2005. Standardized methods of sampling together with new technologies such as the ROV Victor 6000 and its associated instrumentation were used to investigate this poorly known continental margin. In addition to the study of sedimentary environments more or less influenced by turbidity events, the discovery of one of the largest cold seeps near the Congo channel and deep coral reefs extends our knowledge of the different habitats of this margin. This paper presents the background, objectives and major results of the BIOZAIRE Program. It highlights the work achieved in the 16 papers in this special issue. This synthesis paper describes the knowledge acquired at a regional and local scale of the Equatorial East Atlantic margin, and tackles new interdisciplinary questions to be answered in the various domains of physics, chemistry, taxonomy and ecology to better understand the deep-sea environment in the Gulf of Guinea.

  15. The transfer of river load to deep-sea fans: A quantitative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, A. )

    1993-10-01

    Submarine fans and turbidite systems are major petroleum reservoirs in many sedimentary basins worldwide. The size of a river-fed deep-sea fan is controlled mainly by the amount of sediment available from a terrestrial source, whereas sea level fluctuations only trigger mass transfer to the deep sea. The deposition rate and fan length correlate for most fans formed on abyssal plains. Fan size is independent of depositional environment (lake or sea), time span, or geological period, which may be characterized by different amplitudes and frequencies of sea level fluctuations. In climatically stable regions such as the tropics about 25 [+-] 10% of the suspended river load reaching the river mouth is transported to the deep sea over the long term. The type of river mouth affects the amount of material transported to the deep sea; estuaries with deeply incised canyons may transfer 6-8 times more material than fluvial-dominated and lobate deltas, provided the suspended river load is equal in both cases. For most river-fed deep-sea fans, a well-defined geometry develops on unconfined abyssal plains. The width/length ratio is about 0.2 at the base of the slope, and reaches a maximum of 0.5 farther downward. This is in good agreement with flume experiments. The volume of such fans resting on a planar base is roughly 0.35 [times] area [times] maximum thickness. The quantitative relationships of fans with respect to geometry, deposition rate, and river suspended discharge may provide some basic for basin modeling and calculation of the sediment budget of erosional-depositional systems.

  16. Environmental selection of protistan plankton communities in hypersaline anoxic deep-sea basins, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Filker, Sabine; Stock, Alexandra; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Edgcomb, Virginia; Orsi, William; Yakimov, Michail M; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2013-02-01

    High salt concentrations, absence of light, anoxia, and high hydrostatic pressure make deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea one of the most polyextreme habitats on Earth. Taking advantage of the unique chemical characteristics of these basins, we tested the effect of environmental selection and geographic distance on the structure of protistan communities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses were performed on water samples from the brines and seawater/brine interfaces of five basins: Discovery, Urania, Thetis, Tyro, and Medee. Using statistical analyses, we calculated the partitioning of diversity among the ten individual terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) profiles, based on peak abundance and peak incidence. While a significant distance effect on spatial protistan patterns was not detected, hydrochemical gradients emerged as strong dispersal barriers that likely lead to environmental selection in the DHAB protistan plankton communities. We identified sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and oxygen playing in concerto as dominant environmental drivers for the structuring of protistan plankton communities in the Eastern Mediterranean DHABs.

  17. Environmental selection of protistan plankton communities in hypersaline anoxic deep-sea basins, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Filker, Sabine; Stock, Alexandra; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Edgcomb, Virginia; Orsi, William; Yakimov, Michail M; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    High salt concentrations, absence of light, anoxia, and high hydrostatic pressure make deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea one of the most polyextreme habitats on Earth. Taking advantage of the unique chemical characteristics of these basins, we tested the effect of environmental selection and geographic distance on the structure of protistan communities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses were performed on water samples from the brines and seawater/brine interfaces of five basins: Discovery, Urania, Thetis, Tyro, and Medee. Using statistical analyses, we calculated the partitioning of diversity among the ten individual terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) profiles, based on peak abundance and peak incidence. While a significant distance effect on spatial protistan patterns was not detected, hydrochemical gradients emerged as strong dispersal barriers that likely lead to environmental selection in the DHAB protistan plankton communities. We identified sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and oxygen playing in concerto as dominant environmental drivers for the structuring of protistan plankton communities in the Eastern Mediterranean DHABs. PMID:23239531

  18. Comparison of deep-water viromes from the atlantic ocean and the mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Garcia, Juan A L; Weinbauer, Markus G; DuBow, Michael S; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the composition of two deep-sea viral communities obtained from the Romanche Fracture Zone in the Atlantic Ocean (collected at 5200 m depth) and the southwest Mediterranean Sea (from 2400 m depth) using a pyro-sequencing approach. The results are based on 18.7% and 6.9% of the sequences obtained from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively, with hits to genomes in the non-redundant viral RefSeq database. The identifiable richness and relative abundance in both viromes were dominated by archaeal and bacterial viruses accounting for 92.3% of the relative abundance in the Atlantic Ocean and for 83.6% in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite characteristic differences in hydrographic features between the sampling sites in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, 440 virus genomes were found in both viromes. An additional 431 virus genomes were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and 75 virus genomes were only found in the Mediterranean Sea. The results indicate that the rather contrasting deep-sea environments of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea share a common core set of virus types constituting the majority of both virus communities in terms of relative abundance (Atlantic Ocean: 81.4%; Mediterranean Sea: 88.7%).

  19. Transport of sludge-derived organic pollutants to deep-sea sediments at deep water dump site 106

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takada, H.; Farrington, J.W.; Bothner, Michael H.; Johnson, C.G.; Tripp, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), coprostanol and epi-coprostanol, were detected in sediment trap and bottom sediment samples at the Deep Water Dump Site 106 located 185 km off the coast of New Jersey, in water depths from 2400 to 2900 m. These findings clearly indicate that organic pollutants derived from dumped sludge are transported through the water column and have accumulated on the deep-sea floor. No significant difference in LABs isomeric composition was observed among sludge and samples, indicating little environmental biodegradation of these compounds. LABs and coprostanol have penetrated down to a depth of 6 cm in sediment, indicating the mixing of these compounds by biological and physical processes. Also, in artificially resuspended surface sediments, high concentrations of LABs and coprostanols were detected, implying that sewage-derived organic pollutants initially deposited on the deep-sea floor can be further dispersed by resuspension and transport processes. Small but significant amounts of coprostanol were detected in the sediment from a control site at which no LABs were detected. The coprostanol is probably derived from feces of marine mammals and sea birds and/or from microbial or geochemical transformations of cholesterol. Polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment trap samples from the dump site were largely from the sewage sludge and had a mixed petroleum and pyrogenic composition. In contrast, PAHs in sediments in the dump site were mainly pyrogenic; contributed either from sewage sludge or from atmospheric transport to the overlying waters. & 1994 American Chemical Society.

  20. Late Pleistocene Sea level on the New Jersey Margin: Implications to eustasy and deep-sea temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, J.D.; Sheridan, R.E.; Miller, K.G.; Uptegrove, J.; Cramer, B.S.; Browning, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    We assembled and dated a late Pleistocene sea-level record based on sequence stratigraphy from the New Jersey margin and compared it with published records from fossil uplifted coral reefs in New Guinea, Barbados, and Araki Island, as well as a composite sea-level estimate from scaling of Red Sea isotopic values. Radiocarbon dates, amino acid racemization data, and superposition constrain the ages of large (20-80??m) sea-level falls from New Jersey that correlate with Marine Isotope Chrons (MIC) 2, 3b, 4, 5b, and 6 (the past 130??kyr). The sea-level records for MIC 1, 2, 4, 5e, and 6 are similar to those reported from New Guinea, Barbados, Araki, and the Red Sea; some differences exist among records for MIC 3. Our record consistently provides the shallowest sea level estimates for MIC3 (??? 25-60??m below present); it agrees most closely with the New Guinea record of Chappell (2002; ??? 35-70??m), but contrasts with deeper estimates provided by Araki (??? 85-95??m) and the Red Sea (50-90??m). Comparison of eustatic estimates with benthic foraminiferal ??18O records shows that the deep sea cooled ??? 2.5????C between MIC 5e and 5d (??? 120-110??ka) and that near freezing conditions persisted until Termination 1a (14-15??ka). Sea-level variations between MIC 5b and 2 (ca. 90-20??ka) follow a well-accepted 0.1???/10??m linear variation predicted by ice-growth effects on foraminiferal ??18O values. The pattern of deep-sea cooling follows a previously established hysteresis loop between two stable modes of operation. Cold, near freezing deep-water conditions characterize most of the past 130??kyr punctuated only by two warm intervals (the Holocene/MIC 1 and MIC 5e). We link these variations to changes in Northern Component Water (NCW). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Late Pleistocene Sea level on the New Jersey Margin: Implications to eustasy and deep-sea temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James D.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Miller, Kenneth G.; Uptegrove, Jane; Cramer, Benjamin S.; Browning, James V.

    2009-03-01

    We assembled and dated a late Pleistocene sea-level record based on sequence stratigraphy from the New Jersey margin and compared it with published records from fossil uplifted coral reefs in New Guinea, Barbados, and Araki Island, as well as a composite sea-level estimate from scaling of Red Sea isotopic values. Radiocarbon dates, amino acid racemization data, and superposition constrain the ages of large (20-80 m) sea-level falls from New Jersey that correlate with Marine Isotope Chrons (MIC) 2, 3b, 4, 5b, and 6 (the past 130 kyr). The sea-level records for MIC 1, 2, 4, 5e, and 6 are similar to those reported from New Guinea, Barbados, Araki, and the Red Sea; some differences exist among records for MIC 3. Our record consistently provides the shallowest sea level estimates for MIC3 (˜ 25-60 m below present); it agrees most closely with the New Guinea record of Chappell (2002; ˜ 35-70 m), but contrasts with deeper estimates provided by Araki (˜ 85-95 m) and the Red Sea (50-90 m). Comparison of eustatic estimates with benthic foraminiferal δ18O records shows that the deep sea cooled ˜ 2.5 °C between MIC 5e and 5d (˜ 120-110 ka) and that near freezing conditions persisted until Termination 1a (14-15 ka). Sea-level variations between MIC 5b and 2 (ca. 90-20 ka) follow a well-accepted 0.1‰/10 m linear variation predicted by ice-growth effects on foraminiferal δ18O values. The pattern of deep-sea cooling follows a previously established hysteresis loop between two stable modes of operation. Cold, near freezing deep-water conditions characterize most of the past 130 kyr punctuated only by two warm intervals (the Holocene/MIC 1 and MIC 5e). We link these variations to changes in Northern Component Water (NCW).

  2. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; He, Z.; Voordeckers, J.; Zhou, A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Mason, O.U.; Dubinsky, E.; Chavarria, K.; Tom, L.; Fortney, J.; Lamendella, R.; Jansson, J.K.; D?haeseleer, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2011-06-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in U.S. history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared to outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep-sea. Various other microbial functional genes relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance, and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could play a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments.

  3. Lunar rhythms in the deep sea: evidence from the reproductive periodicity of several marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Annie; Sun, Zhao; Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    While lunar rhythms are commonly documented in plants and animals living in terrestrial and shallow-water environments, deep-sea organisms have essentially been overlooked in that respect. This report describes evidence of lunar periodicity in the reproduction of 6 deep-sea species belonging to 2 phyla. Occurrences of gamete release in free spawners and larval release in brooders exhibited significant peaks around the new and full moons, respectively. The exact nature of this lunar period (endogenous or exogenous rhythm) and its adaptive significance in the deep sea remain elusive. Current knowledge suggests that proxies of moon phases at depth may include fluxes in particulate matter deposition, cyclic currents, and moonlight for species living in the disphotic zone.

  4. Taxonomic revision of deep-sea Ostracoda from the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Stepanova, Anna; Okahashi, Hisayo; Cronin, Thomas M.; Brouwers, Elisabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of deep-sea Ostracoda from the Arctic Ocean was conducted to reduce taxonomic uncertainty that will improve our understanding of species ecology, biogeography and relationship to faunas from other deep-sea regions. Fifteen genera and 40 species were examined and (re-)illustrated with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images, covering most of known deep-sea species in the central Arctic Ocean. Seven new species are described: Bythoceratina lomonosovensis n. sp., Cytheropteron parahamatum n. sp., Cytheropteron lanceae n. sp.,Cytheropteron irizukii n. sp., Pedicythere arctica n. sp., Cluthiawhatleyi n. sp., Krithe hunti n. sp. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to paleoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in this climatically sensitive region.

  5. Ecological impacts of large-scale disposal of mining waste in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; Shimmield, Tracy M; Black, Kenneth D; Howe, John A

    2015-05-05

    Deep-Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) from terrestrial mines is one of several large-scale industrial activities now taking place in the deep sea. The scale and persistence of its impacts on seabed biota are unknown. We sampled around the Lihir and Misima island mines in Papua New Guinea to measure the impacts of ongoing DSTP and assess the state of benthic infaunal communities after its conclusion. At Lihir, where DSTP has operated continuously since 1996, abundance of sediment infauna was substantially reduced across the sampled depth range (800-2020 m), accompanied by changes in higher-taxon community structure, in comparison with unimpacted reference stations. At Misima, where DSTP took place for 15 years, ending in 2004, effects on community composition persisted 3.5 years after its conclusion. Active tailings deposition has severe impacts on deep-sea infaunal communities and these impacts are detectable at a coarse level of taxonomic resolution.

  6. Ecological impacts of large-scale disposal of mining waste in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David J.; Shimmield, Tracy M.; Black, Kenneth D.; Howe, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) from terrestrial mines is one of several large-scale industrial activities now taking place in the deep sea. The scale and persistence of its impacts on seabed biota are unknown. We sampled around the Lihir and Misima island mines in Papua New Guinea to measure the impacts of ongoing DSTP and assess the state of benthic infaunal communities after its conclusion. At Lihir, where DSTP has operated continuously since 1996, abundance of sediment infauna was substantially reduced across the sampled depth range (800–2020 m), accompanied by changes in higher-taxon community structure, in comparison with unimpacted reference stations. At Misima, where DSTP took place for 15 years, ending in 2004, effects on community composition persisted 3.5 years after its conclusion. Active tailings deposition has severe impacts on deep-sea infaunal communities and these impacts are detectable at a coarse level of taxonomic resolution. PMID:25939397

  7. Options for managing impacts of climate change on a deep-sea community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, Ronald E.; Guinotte, John M.; Matear, Richard J.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-07-01

    The deep sea hosts some of the world's largest, oldest, and most sensitive ecosystems. Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have severe implications for many deep-sea ecosystems and communities, but what, if anything, can be done to mitigate these threats is poorly understood. To begin to bridge this gap, we convened a stakeholder workshop to assess and prioritize options for conserving legislatively protected deep-sea coral reefs off southeast Australia that, without management intervention, are likely to be severely degraded within decades as a result of climate change. Seventeen possible options were explored that span biological, engineering and regulatory domains and that differed widely in their perceived costs, benefits, time to implementation, and risks. In the short term, the highest priority identified is the need to urgently locate and protect sites globally that are, or will become, refugia areas for the coral and its associated community as climate change progresses.

  8. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenmei; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Voordeckers, James; Zhou, Aifen; Lee, Yong-Jin; Mason, Olivia U; Dubinsky, Eric A; Chavarria, Krystle L; Tom, Lauren M; Fortney, Julian L; Lamendella, Regina; Jansson, Janet K; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Hazen, Terry C; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in the United State history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared with outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep sea. Various other microbial functional genes that are relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could have a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments. PMID:21814288

  9. Global-scale latitudinal patterns of species diversity in the deep-sea benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, Michael A.; Stuart, Carol T.; Hessler, Robert R.; Allen, John A.; Sanders, Howard L.; Wilson, George D. F.

    1993-10-01

    LATITUDINAL gradients of species diversity are ubiquitous features of terrestrial and coastal marine biotas, and they have inspired the development of theoretical ecology1-3. Since the discovery of high species diversity in the deep-sea benthos4, much has been learned about local5,6and regional7-9patterns of diversity. Variation in diversity on larger scales remains poorly described. Latitudinal gradients of diversity were unexpected because it was assumed that the environmental gradients that cause large-scale patterns in surface environments could not affect communities living at great depths10. Here we report that deep-sea bivalves, gastropods and isopods show clear latitudinal diversity gradients in the North Atlantic, and strong interregional variation in the South Atlantic. Many seemingly incompatible mechanisms have been proposed to explain deep-sea species diversity11. The existence of regular global patterns suggests that these mechanisms operate at different spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep-sea fan

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.

  11. Small-Scale Heterogeneity in Deep-Sea Nematode Communities around Biogenic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hasemann, Christiane; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected high species richness of deep-sea sediments gives rise to the questions, which processes produce and maintain diversity in the deep sea, and at what spatial scales do these processes operate? The idea of a small-scale habitat structure at the deep-sea floor provides the background for this study. At small scales biogenic structures create a heterogeneous environment that influences the structure of the surrounding communities and the dynamics of the meiobenthic populations. As an example for biogenic structures, small deep-sea sponges (Tentorium semisuberites Schmidt 1870) and their sedimentary environment were investigated for small-scale distribution patterns of benthic deep-sea nematodes. Sampling was carried out with the remotely operated vehicle Victor 6000 at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN. In order to investigate nematode community patterns sediment cores around three small sponges and corresponding control cores were analysed. A total of approx. 5800 nematodes were identified. The comparison of the nematode communities from sponge and control samples indicated an influence of the biogenic structure “sponge” on diversity patterns and habitat heterogeneity. The increased number of nematode species and functional groups found in the sediments around the sponges suggest that on a small scale the sponge acts as a gradient and creates a more divers habitat structure. The nematode community from the sponge sediments shows a greater taxonomic variance and species richness together with lower relative abundances of the species compared to those from control sediments. Obviously, the more homogeneous habitat conditions of the control sediments offer less micro-habitats than the sediments around the sponges. This seems to reduce the number of functional groups and species coexisting in the control sediments. PMID:22216193

  12. Cloning and characterization of dihydrofolate reductases from deep-sea bacteria.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Chiho; Ohmae, Eiji; Tate, Shin-Ichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Nakasone, Kaoru; Kato, Chiaki

    2010-04-01

    Enzymes from organisms living in deep-sea are thought to have characteristic pressure-adaptation mechanisms in structure and function. To better understand these mechanisms in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an essential enzyme in living cells, we cloned, overexpressed and purified four new DHFRs from the deep-sea bacteria Shewanella violacea (svDHFR), Photobacterium profundum (ppDHFR), Moritella yayanosii (myDHFR) and Moritella japonica (mjDHFR), and compared their structure and function with those of Escherichia coli DHFR (ecDHFR). These deep-sea DHFRs showed 33-56% primary structure identity to ecDHFR while far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that their secondary and tertiary structures were not largely different. The optimal temperature and pH for deep-sea DHFRs activity were lower than those of ecDHFR and different from each other. Deep-sea DHFRs kinetic parameters K(m) and k(cat) were larger than those of ecDHFR, resulting in 1.5-2.8-fold increase of k(cat)/K(m) except for mjDHFR which had a 28-fold decrease. The enzyme activity of ppDHFR and mjDHFR (moderate piezophilic bacteria) as well as ecDHFR decreased as pressure increased, while svDHFR and myDHFR (piezophilic bacteria) showed a significant tolerance to pressure. These results suggest that DHFRs from deep-sea bacteria possess specific enzymatic properties adapted to their life under high pressure. PMID:20040594

  13. Submarine canyons: hotspots of benthic biomass and productivity in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Fabio C; Smith, Craig R; Rowden, Ashley A; Bowden, David A; Clark, Malcolm R

    2010-09-22

    Submarine canyons are dramatic and widespread topographic features crossing continental and island margins in all oceans. Canyons can be sites of enhanced organic-matter flux and deposition through entrainment of coastal detrital export, dense shelf-water cascade, channelling of resuspended particulate material and focusing of sediment deposition. Despite their unusual ecological characteristics and global distribution along oceanic continental margins, only scattered information is available about the influence of submarine canyons on deep-sea ecosystem structure and productivity. Here, we show that deep-sea canyons such as the Kaikoura Canyon on the eastern New Zealand margin (42 degrees 01' S, 173 degrees 03' E) can sustain enormous biomasses of infaunal megabenthic invertebrates over large areas. Our reported biomass values are 100-fold higher than those previously reported for deep-sea (non-chemosynthetic) habitats below 500 m in the ocean. We also present evidence from deep-sea-towed camera images that areas in the canyon that have the extraordinary benthic biomass also harbour high abundances of macrourid (rattail) fishes likely to be feeding on the macro- and megabenthos. Bottom-trawl catch data also indicate that the Kaikoura Canyon has dramatically higher abundances of benthic-feeding fishes than adjacent slopes. Our results demonstrate that the Kaikoura Canyon is one of the most productive habitats described so far in the deep sea. A new global inventory suggests there are at least 660 submarine canyons worldwide, approximately 100 of which could be biomass hotspots similar to the Kaikoura Canyon. The importance of such deep-sea canyons as potential hotspots of production and commercial fisheries yields merits substantial further study. PMID:20444722

  14. Mg isotope fractionation in biogenic carbonates of deep-sea coral, benthic foraminifera, and hermatypic coral.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Nozomu; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2011-11-01

    High-precision Mg isotope measurements by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied for determinations of magnesium isotopic fractionation of biogenic calcium carbonates from seawater with a rapid Mg purification technique. The mean δ(26)Mg values of scleractinian corals, giant clam, benthic foraminifera, and calcite deep-sea corals were -0.87‰, -2.57‰, -2.34‰, and -2.43‰, suggesting preferential precipitation of light Mg isotopes to produce carbonate skeleton in biomineralization. Mg isotope fractionation in deep-sea coral, which has high Mg calcite skeleton, showed a clear temperature (T) dependence from 2.5 °C to 19.5 °C: 1,000 × ln(α) = -2.63 (±0.076) + 0.0138 (±0.0051) × T(R(2) = 0.82, p < 0.01). The δ(26)Mg values of large benthic foraminifera, which are also composed of a high-Mg calcite skeleton, can be plotted on the same regression line as that for deep-sea coral. Since the precipitation rates of deep-sea coral and benthic foraminifera are several orders of magnitude different, the results suggest that kinetic isotope fractionation may not be a major controlling factor for high-Mg calcite. The Mg isotope fractionation factors and the slope of temperature dependence from deep-sea corals and benthic foraminifera are similar to that for an inorganically precipitated calcite speleothem. Taking into account element partitioning and the calcification rate of biogenic CaCO(3), the similarity among inorganic minerals, deep-sea corals, and benthic foraminiferas may indicate a strong mineralogical control on Mg isotope fractionation for high-Mg calcite. On the other hand, δ(26)Mg in hermatypic corals composed of aragonite has been comparable with previous data on biogenic aragonite of coral, sclerosponges, and scaphopad, regardless of species differences of samples.

  15. Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  16. Submarine canyons: hotspots of benthic biomass and productivity in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Fabio C; Smith, Craig R; Rowden, Ashley A; Bowden, David A; Clark, Malcolm R

    2010-09-22

    Submarine canyons are dramatic and widespread topographic features crossing continental and island margins in all oceans. Canyons can be sites of enhanced organic-matter flux and deposition through entrainment of coastal detrital export, dense shelf-water cascade, channelling of resuspended particulate material and focusing of sediment deposition. Despite their unusual ecological characteristics and global distribution along oceanic continental margins, only scattered information is available about the influence of submarine canyons on deep-sea ecosystem structure and productivity. Here, we show that deep-sea canyons such as the Kaikoura Canyon on the eastern New Zealand margin (42 degrees 01' S, 173 degrees 03' E) can sustain enormous biomasses of infaunal megabenthic invertebrates over large areas. Our reported biomass values are 100-fold higher than those previously reported for deep-sea (non-chemosynthetic) habitats below 500 m in the ocean. We also present evidence from deep-sea-towed camera images that areas in the canyon that have the extraordinary benthic biomass also harbour high abundances of macrourid (rattail) fishes likely to be feeding on the macro- and megabenthos. Bottom-trawl catch data also indicate that the Kaikoura Canyon has dramatically higher abundances of benthic-feeding fishes than adjacent slopes. Our results demonstrate that the Kaikoura Canyon is one of the most productive habitats described so far in the deep sea. A new global inventory suggests there are at least 660 submarine canyons worldwide, approximately 100 of which could be biomass hotspots similar to the Kaikoura Canyon. The importance of such deep-sea canyons as potential hotspots of production and commercial fisheries yields merits substantial further study.

  17. Fungi in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damare, Samir; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Raghukumar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Although a great amount of information is available on bacteria inhabiting deep-sea sediments, the occurrence of fungi in this environment has been poorly studied and documented. We report here the occurrence of fungi in deep-sea sediments from ˜5000 m depth in the Central Indian Basin (9-16°S and 73-76°E). A total of 181 cultures of fungi, most of which belong to terrestrial sporulating species, were isolated by a variety of isolation techniques. Species of Aspergillus and non-sporulating fungi were the most common. Several yeasts were also isolated. Maximum species diversity was observed in 0-2 cm sections of the sediment cores. Direct staining of the sediments with Calcofluor, a fluorescent optical brightener, revealed the presence of fungal hyphae in the sediments. Immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies raised against a deep-sea isolate of Aspergillus terreus (# A 4634) confirmed its presence in the form of hyphae in the sub-section from which it was isolated. A total of 25 representative species of fungi produced substantial biomass at 200 bar pressure at 30° as well as at 5 °C. Many fungi showed abnormal morphology at 200 bar/5 °C. A comparison of terrestrial isolates with several deep-sea isolates indicated that the former could grow at 200 bar pressure when growth was initiated with mycelial inocula. However, spores of a deep-sea isolate A. terreus (# A 4634), but not the terrestrial ones, showed germination at 200 bar pressure and 30 °C. Our results suggest that terrestrial species of fungi transported to the deep sea are initially stressed but may gradually adapt themselves for growth under these conditions.

  18. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, André; Alam, Intikhab; Simões, Marta Filipa; Daniels, Camille; Ferreira, Ari J.S.; Siam, Rania; El-Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine–seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine–seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies. PMID:26529193

  19. The National Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Database: A Comprehensive Resource for United States Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornback, M.; Hourigan, T.; Etnoyer, P.; McGuinn, R.; Cross, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Research on deep-sea corals has expanded rapidly over the last two decades, as scientists began to realize their value as long-lived structural components of high biodiversity habitats and archives of environmental information. The NOAA Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program's National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges is a comprehensive resource for georeferenced data on these organisms in U.S. waters. The National Database currently includes more than 220,000 deep-sea coral records representing approximately 880 unique species. Database records from museum archives, commercial and scientific bycatch, and from journal publications provide baseline information with relatively coarse spatial resolution dating back as far as 1842. These data are complemented by modern, in-situ submersible observations with high spatial resolution, from surveys conducted by NOAA and NOAA partners. Management of high volumes of modern high-resolution observational data can be challenging. NOAA is working with our data partners to incorporate this occurrence data into the National Database, along with images and associated information related to geoposition, time, biology, taxonomy, environment, provenance, and accuracy. NOAA is also working to link associated datasets collected by our program's research, to properly archive them to the NOAA National Data Centers, to build a robust metadata record, and to establish a standard protocol to simplify the process. Access to the National Database is provided through an online mapping portal. The map displays point based records from the database. Records can be refined by taxon, region, time, and depth. The queries and extent used to view the map can also be used to download subsets of the database. The database, map, and website is already in use by NOAA, regional fishery management councils, and regional ocean planning bodies, but we envision it as a model that can expand to accommodate data on a global scale.

  20. Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Kuhnz, Linda A; Priede, Imants G; Urata, Makoto; Gebruk, Andrey V; Holland, Nicholas D

    2012-04-22

    Enteropneusts (phylum Hemichordata), although studied extensively because of their close relationship to chordates, have long been considered shallow-water, burrowing animals. The present paper more than doubles the number of enteropneust species recorded in the deep sea based on high-resolution imaging and sampling with remotely operated vehicles. We provide direct evidence that some enteropneusts are highly mobile-using changes in posture and currents to drift between feeding sites-and are prominent members of deep, epibenthic communities. In addition, we provide ecological information for each species. We also show that despite their great morphological diversity, most deep-living enteropneusts form a single clade (the rediagnosed family Torquaratoridae) on the basis of rDNA sequences and morphology of the proboscis skeleton and stomochord. The phylogenetic position of the torquaratorids indicates that the group, after evolving from near-shore ancestors, radiated extensively in the deep sea. PMID:22090391

  1. Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Kuhnz, Linda A; Priede, Imants G; Urata, Makoto; Gebruk, Andrey V; Holland, Nicholas D

    2012-04-22

    Enteropneusts (phylum Hemichordata), although studied extensively because of their close relationship to chordates, have long been considered shallow-water, burrowing animals. The present paper more than doubles the number of enteropneust species recorded in the deep sea based on high-resolution imaging and sampling with remotely operated vehicles. We provide direct evidence that some enteropneusts are highly mobile-using changes in posture and currents to drift between feeding sites-and are prominent members of deep, epibenthic communities. In addition, we provide ecological information for each species. We also show that despite their great morphological diversity, most deep-living enteropneusts form a single clade (the rediagnosed family Torquaratoridae) on the basis of rDNA sequences and morphology of the proboscis skeleton and stomochord. The phylogenetic position of the torquaratorids indicates that the group, after evolving from near-shore ancestors, radiated extensively in the deep sea.

  2. Size distribution of interplanetary iron and stony particles related with deep-sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Yamakoshi, K.

    1993-01-01

    To study origin and evolution of the interplanetary dust, it is very important to investigate the size distribution. Here the changes of the size distributions of meteoroid particles due to the ablative effects during atmospheric entry were investigated by numerical computer simulation. Using the results, the pre-atmospheric size distributions of the interplanetary dust particles could be estimated from that of ablated spherules taken from deep-sea sediments. We are now analyzing deep-sea spherules from some aspects and examining if we could get any information about the interplanetary dust.

  3. Thermodynamic and functional characteristics of deep-sea enzymes revealed by pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Miyashita, Yurina; Kato, Chiaki

    2013-09-01

    Hydrostatic pressure analysis is an ideal approach for studying protein dynamics and hydration. The development of full ocean depth submersibles and high pressure biological techniques allows us to investigate enzymes from deep-sea organisms at the molecular level. The aim of this review was to overview the thermodynamic and functional characteristics of deep-sea enzymes as revealed by pressure axis analysis after giving a brief introduction to the thermodynamic principles underlying the effects of pressure on the structural stability and function of enzymes.

  4. Species abundance, sexual encounter and bioluminescent signalling in the deep sea.

    PubMed Central

    Herring, P J

    2000-01-01

    The problems faced by deep-sea animals in achieving sexual and other encounters require sensory and effector systems the synergy of which can span the often very substantial distances that separate individuals. Bioluminescent systems provide one of the links between individuals, and the sexual dimorphism of some photophores suggests that they are employed to attract a mate. However, nearest-neighbour values for many deep-sea animals put them beyond the effective range of bioluminescent signals and it is therefore likely that these signals are employed at intermediate ranges, once an initial contact (perhaps olfactory) has been made. PMID:11079413

  5. In-situ measurements of bottom boundary layer processes in the deep South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Li, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, Z.; Ferreira, J. C. T.; Tate, G.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the South China Sea Deep project, we deployed a free-ascending tripod (FAT) on the sea floor of northern South China Sea at a water depth of 1900 m. During the 5-month deployment, the tripod hosted a suite of acoustic and optical oceanographic instruments that simultaneously measured time-series of 3-D velocity structure of the near bottom flows, temperature and salinity, water turbidity (sediment concentration), and particle size variations. A camera system and an acoustic altimeter closely monitored fine scale changes of the sea floor that could have resulted from either physical processes (erosion/deposition) or biological activities. Our goal of the tripod work, first-ever such study in South China Sea, along with several subsurface moorings that were also collecting flow and sedimentological data in the area, was to investigate the bottom boundary layer (BBL) processes and the regional deep current circulation surrounding a large body of sediment deposit whose formation mechanism and origins of sediment are still unclear. In addition, the tripod instruments were set up to capture the in-situ BBL signature of passing "benthic storms" that are believed to be the most important BBL processes in deep ocean. This presentation also includes a brief description of the technological advances implemented in the FAT deep-water tripod.

  6. LVP modeling and dynamic characteristics prediction of a hydraulic power unit in deep-sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xue-peng; Ye, Min; Deng, Bin; Zhang, Cui-hong; Yu, Zu-ying

    2013-03-01

    A hydraulic power unit (HPU) is the driving "heart" of deep-sea working equipment. It is critical to predict its dynamic performances in deep-water before being immerged in the seawater, while the experimental tests by simulating deep-sea environment have many disadvantages, such as expensive cost, long test cycles, and difficult to achieve low-temperature simulation, which is only used as a supplementary means for confirmatory experiment. This paper proposes a novel theoretical approach based on the linear varying parameters (LVP) modeling to foresee the dynamic performances of the driving unit. Firstly, based on the varying environment features, dynamic expressions of the compressibility and viscosity of hydraulic oil are derived to reveal the fluid performances changing. Secondly, models of hydraulic system and electrical system are accomplished respectively through studying the control process and energy transfer, and then LVP models of the pressure and flow rate control is obtained through the electro-hydraulic models integration. Thirdly, dynamic characteristics of HPU are obtained by the model simulating within bounded closed sets of varying parameters. Finally, the developed HPU is tested in a deep-sea imitating hull, and the experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis outcomes, which clearly declare that the LVP modeling is a rational way to foresee dynamic performances of HPU. The research approach and model analysis results can be applied to the predictions of working properties and product designs for other deep-sea hydraulic pump.

  7. Contribution of the Greenland and Barents Seas to the deep water of the Arctic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, J.H.; Takahashi, T.; Livingston, H.D.

    1983-07-20

    The deep waters of the Artic Ocean are traditionally held to be fed by a influx of Norwegian Sea Deep Water (NSDW) via the northward flowing West Spitsbergen Current. Discrete sample and CTD observations obtained from the Greenland-Spitsbergen Passage in August 1981 during the Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) North Atlantic expedition showed a roughly-equal100-m-thick layer of modified Greenland Sea Deep Water (GSDW: colder and fresher than NSDW) at 2500 m, spreading northward along the bottom of a deep, unimpeded channel, underneath the NSDW. Since the available data indicate that Arctic Ocean Deep Water (AODW) has a higher salinity than NSDW, mixing of NSDW and GSDW can not produce AODW. Therefore, other sources, such as the peripheral arctic shelf seas, must contribute dense saline water to the Arctic Ocean. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr observed in AODW are greater than those observed in GSDW and NSDW. The concentrations of these radionuclides on the Barents Sea shelf are sufficiently high and in the correct relative proportions to support this proposition.

  8. Disturbance of deep-sea environments induced by the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Yukari T.; Noguchi, Takuroh; Honda, Makio C.; Uchida, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Hidenori; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Tsunogai, Urumu; Okamura, Kei; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nunoura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Hirai, Miho; Lin, Weiren; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Takai, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake on deep-sea environment were investigated 36 and 98 days after the event. The light transmission anomaly in the deep-sea water after 36 days became atypically greater (∼35%) and more extensive (thickness ∼1500 m) near the trench axis owing to the turbulent diffusion of fresh seafloor sediment, coordinated with potential seafloor displacement. In addition to the chemical influx associated with sediment diffusion, an influx of 13C-enriched methane from the deep sub-seafloor reservoirs was estimated. This isotopically unusual methane influx was possibly triggered by the earthquake and its aftershocks that subsequently induced changes in the sub-seafloor hydrogeologic structures. The whole prokaryotic biomass and the development of specific phylotypes in the deep-sea microbial communities could rise and fall at 36 and 98 days, respectively, after the event. We may capture the snap shots of post-earthquake disturbance in deep-sea chemistry and microbial community responses. PMID:22355782

  9. Composition and sources of sedimentary organic matter in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Parinos, C.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Gogou, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Bouloubassi, I.; Lampadariou, N.

    2015-07-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep slopes and basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea have been analysed for bulk elemental and isotopic composition of organic carbon, total nitrogen and selected lipid biomarkers, jointly with grain size distribution and other geochemical proxies. The distribution and sources of sedimentary organic matter (OM) have been subsequently assessed and general environmental variables, such as water depth and currents, have been examined as causative factors of deep-sea sediment characteristics. Lithogenic and biogenic carbonates are the dominant sedimentary fractions, while both bulk and molecular organic tracers reflect a mixed contribution from autochthonous and allochthonous sources for the sedimentary OM, as indicated by relatively degraded marine OM, terrestrial plant waxes and anthropogenic OM including degraded petroleum by-products, respectively. Wide regional variations have been observed amongst the studied proxies, which reflect the multiple factors controlling sedimentation in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Our findings highlight the role of deep Eastern Mediterranean basins as depocentres of organic-rich fine-grained sediments (mean 5.4 ± 2.4 μm), with OM accumulation and burial due to aggregation mechanisms and hydrodynamic sorting. A multi-proxy approach is hired to investigate the biogeochemical composition of sediment samples, which sheds new light on the sources and transport mechanisms along with the impact of preservation vs. diagenetic processes on the composition of sedimentary OM in the deep basins of the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Relationships between deep-sea tunicate populations west and east of the Straits of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monniot, Claude; Monniot, Françoise

    Twenty-four species of tunicates were collected from deep bottoms on each side of the Gibraltar sill, in the adjacent Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the Atlantic, stations bathed by Atlantic and Mediterranean waters were both sampled. No transport of ascidian taxa by the outflow of Mediterranean water into the Atlantic is apparent. The alternative hypothesis of an Atlantic origin of bathyal ascidian species in the Mediterranean Sea is proposed.

  11. To what extent can specialized species succeed in the deep sea? The biology and trophic ecology of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeu, Oriol Rodríguez; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montse; Carrassón, Maite

    2016-09-01

    found related with either depth or homogenization/stratification of the water column. This lack of changes in diet is probably attributable to the greater stability of the lower slope where P. rissoanus lives. Gut fullness was mainly correlated with surface Chlorophyll a recorded simultaneously with the fish sampling. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was similar in the muscle of the two notacanthids (N. bonapartei=3.72-8.75 μmol/min/mg prot; P. rissoanus=7.56 μmol/min/mg prot). Values for N. bonapartei were the highest found compared to other deep-sea fish in the deep Mediterranean. This could be related with the special feeding behaviour of this species when it removes sessile prey from substrate.

  12. A synthesis of genetic connectivity in deep-sea fauna and implications for marine reserve design.

    PubMed

    Baco, Amy R; Etter, Ron J; Ribeiro, Pedro A; von der Heyden, Sophie; Beerli, Peter; Kinlan, Brian P

    2016-07-01

    With anthropogenic impacts rapidly advancing into deeper waters, there is growing interest in establishing deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) or reserves. Reserve design depends on estimates of connectivity and scales of dispersal for the taxa of interest. Deep-sea taxa are hypothesized to disperse greater distances than shallow-water taxa, which implies that reserves would need to be larger in size and networks could be more widely spaced; however, this paradigm has not been tested. We compiled population genetic studies of deep-sea fauna and estimated dispersal distances for 51 studies using a method based on isolation-by-distance slopes. Estimates of dispersal distance ranged from 0.24 km to 2028 km with a geometric mean of 33.2 km and differed in relation to taxonomic and life-history factors as well as several study parameters. Dispersal distances were generally greater for fishes than invertebrates with the Mollusca being the least dispersive sampled phylum. Species that are pelagic as adults were more dispersive than those with sessile or sedentary lifestyles. Benthic species from soft-substrate habitats were generally less dispersive than species from hard substrate, demersal or pelagic habitats. As expected, species with pelagic and/or feeding (planktotrophic) larvae were more dispersive than other larval types. Many of these comparisons were confounded by taxonomic or other life-history differences (e.g. fishes being more dispersive than invertebrates) making any simple interpretation difficult. Our results provide the first rough estimate of the range of dispersal distances in the deep sea and allow comparisons to shallow-water assemblages. Overall, dispersal distances were greater for deeper taxa, although the differences were not large (0.3-0.6 orders of magnitude between means), and imbalanced sampling of shallow and deep taxa complicates any simple interpretation. Our analyses suggest the scales of dispersal and connectivity for reserve design

  13. A synthesis of genetic connectivity in deep-sea fauna and implications for marine reserve design.

    PubMed

    Baco, Amy R; Etter, Ron J; Ribeiro, Pedro A; von der Heyden, Sophie; Beerli, Peter; Kinlan, Brian P

    2016-07-01

    With anthropogenic impacts rapidly advancing into deeper waters, there is growing interest in establishing deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) or reserves. Reserve design depends on estimates of connectivity and scales of dispersal for the taxa of interest. Deep-sea taxa are hypothesized to disperse greater distances than shallow-water taxa, which implies that reserves would need to be larger in size and networks could be more widely spaced; however, this paradigm has not been tested. We compiled population genetic studies of deep-sea fauna and estimated dispersal distances for 51 studies using a method based on isolation-by-distance slopes. Estimates of dispersal distance ranged from 0.24 km to 2028 km with a geometric mean of 33.2 km and differed in relation to taxonomic and life-history factors as well as several study parameters. Dispersal distances were generally greater for fishes than invertebrates with the Mollusca being the least dispersive sampled phylum. Species that are pelagic as adults were more dispersive than those with sessile or sedentary lifestyles. Benthic species from soft-substrate habitats were generally less dispersive than species from hard substrate, demersal or pelagic habitats. As expected, species with pelagic and/or feeding (planktotrophic) larvae were more dispersive than other larval types. Many of these comparisons were confounded by taxonomic or other life-history differences (e.g. fishes being more dispersive than invertebrates) making any simple interpretation difficult. Our results provide the first rough estimate of the range of dispersal distances in the deep sea and allow comparisons to shallow-water assemblages. Overall, dispersal distances were greater for deeper taxa, although the differences were not large (0.3-0.6 orders of magnitude between means), and imbalanced sampling of shallow and deep taxa complicates any simple interpretation. Our analyses suggest the scales of dispersal and connectivity for reserve design

  14. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  15. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  16. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  17. 76 FR 36511 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery... envelope, ``Comments on Red Crab Amendment 3.'' Instructions: All comments received are part of the...

  18. Deep Structures of the Palawan and Sulu Sea and Their Implications for Opening of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Li, C. F.; Li, J.; Fairhead, D.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Compared to the northern South China Sea continental margin, the deep structures and tectonic evolution of the Palawan and Sulu Sea and ambient regions are not well understood so far. However, this part of the southern continental margin and adjacent areas embed critical information on the opening of the South China Sea (SCS). We carry out geophysical investigations using regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data. Analytical signal amplitudes (ASA) of magnetic anomalies are calculated to depict the boundaries of different tectonic units. Curie-point depths are estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm. Application of the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm to Bouguer gravity anomalies yields a 3D Moho topography. The Palawan Continental Block (PCB) is defined by quiet magnetic anomalies, low ASA, moderate depths to the top and bottom of the magnetic layer, and its northern boundary is further constrained by reflection seismic data and Moho interpretation. However, the continent-ocean transition zone between the PCB and the SCS is characterized by hyper-extended continental crust intruded with magmatic bodies. The NW Sulu Sea is interpreted as a relict oceanic slice and the geometry and position of extinct trench of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS) is further constrained. With additional age constraints from inverted Moho and Curie-point depths, we confirm that the spreading of the SE Sulu Sea started in the Early Oligocene/Late Eocene due to the subduction of the PSCS, and terminated in the Middle Miocene by the obduction of the NW Sulu Sea onto the PCB. According to the newly constrained age of SE Sulu Sea, we also estimate the approximate extent, spreading rate and subducting rate of original SE Sulu Sea.

  19. A new look at deep-sea video

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, H.; Lee, J.

    1985-01-01

    A deep-towed photographic system with completely self-contained recording instrumentation and power can obtain color-video and still-photographic transects along rough terrane without need for a long electrically conducting cable. Both the video- and still-camera systems utilize relatively inexpensive and proven off-the-shelf hardware adapted for deep-water environments. The small instrument frame makes the towed sled an ideal photographic tool for use on ship or small-boat operations. The system includes a temperature probe and altimeter that relay data acoustically from the sled to the surface ship. This relay enables the operator to monitor simultaneously water temperature and the precise height off the bottom. ?? 1985.

  20. One decade of thermohaline variability in the deep western Mediterranean Sea (2004-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Katrin; Ismail, S. Ben; Bryden, Harry; Borghini, Mireno; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Ribotti, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Recent intense deep water formation events in the western Mediterranean have produced a huge amount of a new deep water. Significantly warmer and saltier than previously, it substituted the resident deep water. The deep structure and properties began to change after winter 2004/2005 and the water rapidly spread towards the interior of the basin, in the direction of the Strait of Gibraltar and within the Tyrrhenian Sea. The changes observed over the past 10 years are substantial: since 2004 we witnessed increases in deep water temperature and salinity 3-4 times faster than during 1961-2004. The possible impacts these changes could have on a global scale are still an open issue.

  1. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 1 - sub-sea weathering of oil deposited on the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R

    2016-10-15

    Chemical analysis of sediment cores collected up to 8km from the Macondo well in 2010/2011 demonstrates the extent of weathering of the Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster. On average, dissolution and biodegradation of the oil on the seafloor increased with distance from the well indicating that weathering occurred rapidly and overwhelmingly during the oil's transport as dispersed oil droplets within the deep-sea plume. Beyond about 5km from the well, the oil deposited on the seafloor had lost most mass below C25, was relatively enriched in n-C25+ n-alkanes and C3- and C4-alkylated benz[a]anthracenes/chrysenes, the latter owing to 95% depletion of total PAHs. Biodegradation of C28 and C29 tricyclic terpanes, C34 and C35 17α(H),21β(H)-homohopanes, C27 13β(H),17α(H)-dia and C27 14β(H),17β(H)-steranes and dissolution of C26 to C28 triaromatic steroids occurred. The results provide a means to distinguish Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments from naturally-occurring seep oils and pervasive ambient background hydrocarbons.

  2. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 1 - sub-sea weathering of oil deposited on the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R

    2016-10-15

    Chemical analysis of sediment cores collected up to 8km from the Macondo well in 2010/2011 demonstrates the extent of weathering of the Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster. On average, dissolution and biodegradation of the oil on the seafloor increased with distance from the well indicating that weathering occurred rapidly and overwhelmingly during the oil's transport as dispersed oil droplets within the deep-sea plume. Beyond about 5km from the well, the oil deposited on the seafloor had lost most mass below C25, was relatively enriched in n-C25+ n-alkanes and C3- and C4-alkylated benz[a]anthracenes/chrysenes, the latter owing to 95% depletion of total PAHs. Biodegradation of C28 and C29 tricyclic terpanes, C34 and C35 17α(H),21β(H)-homohopanes, C27 13β(H),17α(H)-dia and C27 14β(H),17β(H)-steranes and dissolution of C26 to C28 triaromatic steroids occurred. The results provide a means to distinguish Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments from naturally-occurring seep oils and pervasive ambient background hydrocarbons. PMID:27488960

  3. 'Lophenteropneust' hypothesis refuted by collection and photos of new deep-sea hemichordates.

    PubMed

    Holland, Nicholas D; Clague, David A; Gordon, Dennis P; Gebruk, Andrey; Pawson, David L; Vecchione, Michael

    2005-03-17

    The deep ocean is home to a group of broad-collared hemichordates--the so-called 'lophenteropneusts'--that have been photographed gliding on the sea floor but have not previously been collected. It has been claimed that these worms have collar tentacles and blend morphological features of the two main hemichordate body plans, namely the tentacle-less enteropneusts and the tentacle-bearing pterobranchs. Consequently, lophenteropneusts have been invoked as missing links to suggest that the former evolved into the latter. The most significant aspect of the lophenteropneust hypothesis is its prediction that the fundamental body plan within a basal phylum of deuterostomes was enteropneust-like. The assumption of such an ancestral state influences ideas about the evolution of the vertebrates from the invertebrates. Here we report on the first collected specimen of a broad-collared, deep-sea enteropneust and describe it as a new family, genus and species. The collar, although disproportionately broad, lacks tentacles. In addition, we find no evidence of tentacles in the available deep-sea photographs (published and unpublished) of broad-collared enteropneusts, including those formerly designated as lophenteropneusts. Thus, the lophenteropneust hypothesis was based on misinterpretation of deep-sea photographs of low quality and should no longer be used to support the idea that the enteropneust body plan is basal within the phylum Hemichordata. PMID:15772659

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Bacterium Shewanella benthica Strain KT99.

    PubMed

    Lauro, F M; Chastain, R A; Ferriera, S; Johnson, J; Yayanos, A A; Bartlett, D H

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the obligately piezophilic Shewanella benthica strain KT99 isolated from the abyssal South Pacific Ocean. Strain KT99 is the first piezophilic isolate from the Tonga-Kermadec trench, and its genome provides many clues on high-pressure adaptation and the evolution of deep-sea piezophilic bacteria. PMID:23723392

  5. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Wedding, L. M.; Friedlander, A. M.; Kittinger, J. N.; Watling, L.; Gaines, S. D.; Bennett, M.; Hardy, S. M.; Smith, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion–Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km2) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management. PMID:24197407

  6. From deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bolognini, Marie; Ricci, Jessica; Bini, Elisabetta; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-05-01

    Chemosynthetic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. In many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. Within the Epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxS/autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mechanism to control the expression of some of these functions. In this study we showed that luxS is conserved in Epsilonproteobacteria and that pathogenic and mesophilic members of this class inherited this gene from a thermophilic ancestor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the luxS gene is expressed--and a quorum-sensing signal is produced--during growth of Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Caminibacter mediatlanticus, two Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Finally, we detected luxS transcripts in Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm communities collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, our findings indicate that the epsiloproteobacterial lineage of the LuxS enzyme originated in high-temperature geothermal environments and that, in vent Epsilonproteobacteria, luxS expression is linked to the production of AI-2 signals, which are likely produced in situ at deep-sea vents. We conclude that the luxS gene is part of the ancestral epsilonproteobacterial genome and represents an evolutionary link that connects thermophiles to human pathogens.

  7. Characterization of the endosymbiont of a deep-sea bivalve, Calyptogena soyoae.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y W; Yasuda, M; Yamagishi, A; Oshima, T; Ohta, S

    1995-01-01

    We have purified DNA from gill tissue of a marine bivalve, Calyptogena soyoae, collected from the deep-sea cold seep communities in Sagami Bay, Japan. An rRNA gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. In situ hybridization revealed that the sequence is that of a bacterial endosymbiont within the gill of C. soyoae. PMID:7574622

  8. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap)

    PubMed Central

    Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body. PMID:24430487

  9. Parametrization and evaluation of marine environmental impacts produced by deep-sea manganese nodule mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oebius, Horst U.; Becker, Hermann J.; Rolinski, Susanne; Jankowski, Jacek A.

    The evaluation of marine environmental impacts resulting from the exploitation of marine resources requires the numerical description, parametrization, and modelling of such processes in order to be able to transfer, compare, and forecast the effects of anthropogenic activities in the deep sea. One of the controversial effects is the formation and behaviour of sediment clouds as a consequence of anthropogenic activities on the seafloor. Since there is a need for reliable data, two subprojects of the "Interdisciplinary Deep-sea Environmental Protection Group (TUSCH)"-project "Impacts from Technical Activities on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem of the South East Pacific Offshore Peru (ATESEPP)" were devoted to the assembly of such data. Based on the German technical approach for deep-sea mining, the possible environmental impacts by a miner were estimated, the impacts on the seafloor were simulated and investigated by tests with large volume undisturbed sediment samples on board the research vessel and in the laboratory, and the results were evaluated and extrapolated. This report gives a comprehensive presentation of the physical problems, the technical approach, and the results of these investigations.

  10. Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Biomineralization By Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Gartman, A.; Clarke, D. R.; Girguis, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are characterized by steep temperature and chemical gradients and moderate pressures. At these sites, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria thrive, however their significance for the formation of sulfide minerals is unknown. In this study we investigated sulfate reduction and sulfide biomineralization by the deep-sea bacterium Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis isolated from a deep-sea vent chimney at the Grandbonum vent site (13°N, East Pacific Rise, 2600 m water depth) [1]. Sulfate reduction rates were determined as a function of pressure and temperature. Biomineralization of sulfide minerals in the presence of various metal concentrations was characterized using light and electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. We seek to better understand the significance of biological sulfate reduction in deep-sea hydrothermal environments, to characterize the steps in sulfide mineral nucleation and growth, and identify the interactions between cells and minerals. [1] D. Alazard, S. Dukan, A. Urios, F. Verhe, N. Bouabida, F. Morel, P. Thomas, J.L. Garcia and B. Ollivier, Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from hydrothermal vents, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 53 (2003) 173-178.

  11. Microbial diversity and adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea hydrothermal vents prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jebbar, Mohamed; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric; Oger, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which "extreme" physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered. PMID:26101015

  12. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wedding, L M; Friedlander, A M; Kittinger, J N; Watling, L; Gaines, S D; Bennett, M; Hardy, S M; Smith, C R

    2013-12-22

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km(2)) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management. PMID:24197407

  13. From deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bolognini, Marie; Ricci, Jessica; Bini, Elisabetta; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-05-01

    Chemosynthetic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. In many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. Within the Epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxS/autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mechanism to control the expression of some of these functions. In this study we showed that luxS is conserved in Epsilonproteobacteria and that pathogenic and mesophilic members of this class inherited this gene from a thermophilic ancestor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the luxS gene is expressed--and a quorum-sensing signal is produced--during growth of Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Caminibacter mediatlanticus, two Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Finally, we detected luxS transcripts in Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm communities collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, our findings indicate that the epsiloproteobacterial lineage of the LuxS enzyme originated in high-temperature geothermal environments and that, in vent Epsilonproteobacteria, luxS expression is linked to the production of AI-2 signals, which are likely produced in situ at deep-sea vents. We conclude that the luxS gene is part of the ancestral epsilonproteobacterial genome and represents an evolutionary link that connects thermophiles to human pathogens. PMID:25397946

  14. A Scientific Basis for Regulating Deep-Sea Fishing by Depth.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jo; Milligan, Rosanna J; Bailey, David M; Neat, Francis C

    2015-09-21

    The deep sea is the world's largest ecosystem, with high levels of biodiversity and many species that exhibit life-history characteristics that make them vulnerable to high levels of exploitation. Many fisheries in the deep sea have a track record of being unsustainable. In the northeast Atlantic, there has been a decline in the abundance of commercial fish species since deep-sea fishing commenced in the 1970s. Current management is by effort restrictions and total allowable catch (TAC), but there remain problems with compliance and high levels of bycatch of vulnerable species such as sharks. The European Union is currently considering new legislation to manage deep-sea fisheries, including the introduction of a depth limit to bottom trawling. However, there is little evidence to suggest an appropriate depth limit. Here we use survey data to show that biodiversity of the demersal fish community, the ratio of discarded to commercial biomass, and the ratio of Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) to commercial biomass significantly increases between 600 and 800 m depth while commercial value decreases. These results suggest that limiting bottom trawling to a maximum depth of 600 m could be an effective management strategy that would fit the needs of European legislations such as the Common Fisheries Policy (EC no. 1380/2013) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

  15. Deep-sea food web analysis using cross-reacting antisera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Robert J.; Zagursky, Gregory; Day, Elizabeth A.

    1985-04-01

    The high incidence of unrecognizable prey in the stomachs of deep-sea predators prompted the application of serological methods for identification of trophic connections. Antisera to whole-organism extracts of estuarine taxa cross-reacted with antigenic protein extracts of mid-water and deep-sea taxa along phylogenetically correct lines, indicating their potential as tools for gut contents immunoassay. Stomach, intestine, and rectum contents of grenadiers ( Coryphaenoides armatus) trapped at 2500 m in the North Atlantic were analyzed visually and with 32 antisera representing taxa from 10 common deep-sea phyla. While visual analysis only revealed the presence of fluids, parasites, crustacean exoskeletons, and gastropod opercula, the immunoassay indicated the presence of antigenic proteins from holothurian, anemone, gastropod, decapod, and foraminiferan prey in the same samples. This qualitative serological identification of prey at non-specific taxonomic levels provides evidence that benthic predation may be important within deep-sea communities. The immunoassay technique, although not a panacea for elucidating food web dynamics in remote environments, may be useful when other methods fail to identify trophic pathways.

  16. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wedding, L M; Friedlander, A M; Kittinger, J N; Watling, L; Gaines, S D; Bennett, M; Hardy, S M; Smith, C R

    2013-12-22

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km(2)) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management.

  17. 'Lophenteropneust' hypothesis refuted by collection and photos of new deep-sea hemichordates.

    PubMed

    Holland, Nicholas D; Clague, David A; Gordon, Dennis P; Gebruk, Andrey; Pawson, David L; Vecchione, Michael

    2005-03-17

    The deep ocean is home to a group of broad-collared hemichordates--the so-called 'lophenteropneusts'--that have been photographed gliding on the sea floor but have not previously been collected. It has been claimed that these worms have collar tentacles and blend morphological features of the two main hemichordate body plans, namely the tentacle-less enteropneusts and the tentacle-bearing pterobranchs. Consequently, lophenteropneusts have been invoked as missing links to suggest that the former evolved into the latter. The most significant aspect of the lophenteropneust hypothesis is its prediction that the fundamental body plan within a basal phylum of deuterostomes was enteropneust-like. The assumption of such an ancestral state influences ideas about the evolution of the vertebrates from the invertebrates. Here we report on the first collected specimen of a broad-collared, deep-sea enteropneust and describe it as a new family, genus and species. The collar, although disproportionately broad, lacks tentacles. In addition, we find no evidence of tentacles in the available deep-sea photographs (published and unpublished) of broad-collared enteropneusts, including those formerly designated as lophenteropneusts. Thus, the lophenteropneust hypothesis was based on misinterpretation of deep-sea photographs of low quality and should no longer be used to support the idea that the enteropneust body plan is basal within the phylum Hemichordata.

  18. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents from Three Oceanic Regions.

    PubMed

    He, Tianliang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are considered to be one of the most spectacular ecosystems on Earth. Microorganisms form the basis of the food chain in vents controlling the vent communities. However, the diversity of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans remains largely unknown. In this study, the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities of the venting sulfide, seawater, and tubeworm trophosome from East Pacific Rise, South Atlantic Ridge, and Southwest Indian Ridge, respectively. A total of 23,767 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned into 42 different phyla. Although Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in all vents, differences of bacterial diversity were observed among different vents from three oceanic regions. The sulfides of East Pacific Rise possessed the most diverse bacterial communities. The bacterial diversities of venting seawater were much lower than those of vent sulfides. The symbiotic bacteria of tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae were included in the bacterial community of vent sulfides, suggesting their significant ecological functions as the primary producers in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Therefore, our study presented a comprehensive view of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans. PMID:26626941

  19. Microbial diversity and adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea hydrothermal vents prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jebbar, Mohamed; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric; Oger, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which "extreme" physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered.

  20. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents from Three Oceanic Regions.

    PubMed

    He, Tianliang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are considered to be one of the most spectacular ecosystems on Earth. Microorganisms form the basis of the food chain in vents controlling the vent communities. However, the diversity of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans remains largely unknown. In this study, the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities of the venting sulfide, seawater, and tubeworm trophosome from East Pacific Rise, South Atlantic Ridge, and Southwest Indian Ridge, respectively. A total of 23,767 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned into 42 different phyla. Although Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in all vents, differences of bacterial diversity were observed among different vents from three oceanic regions. The sulfides of East Pacific Rise possessed the most diverse bacterial communities. The bacterial diversities of venting seawater were much lower than those of vent sulfides. The symbiotic bacteria of tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae were included in the bacterial community of vent sulfides, suggesting their significant ecological functions as the primary producers in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Therefore, our study presented a comprehensive view of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans.

  1. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap).

    PubMed

    Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body.

  2. Multiple colonization of the deep sea by the Asellota (Crustacea: Peracarida: Isopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Held, Christoph; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    Despite its extreme environmental conditions the deep sea harbors a unique and species-rich fauna of mostly unknown age and phylogeny. Asellote isopods have undergone their most impressive radiation in the deep sea, being found at all depths down to the deepest trench. Here we present the first molecular evidence for the phylogenetic origin of this remarkable array of deep-sea crustaceans, based on 30 new DNA-sequences of the complete 18s rRNA gene of specimens collected at depths down to 4543 m in the South Atlantic and South Polar Ocean. The results show that most of these isopod lineages belong to a single ancient clade. They evolved in situ in large oceanic depths and survived several climatic changes, but the lack of fossils and of a suitable molecular clock model prevents a precise dating of this radiation. The monophyly of typical deep-sea families, for example the Haploniscidae, Ischnomesidae or Munnopsidae, is well supported by different methods of analysis, while the monophyly of the Janiridae is rejected.

  3. A Scientific Basis for Regulating Deep-Sea Fishing by Depth.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jo; Milligan, Rosanna J; Bailey, David M; Neat, Francis C

    2015-09-21

    The deep sea is the world's largest ecosystem, with high levels of biodiversity and many species that exhibit life-history characteristics that make them vulnerable to high levels of exploitation. Many fisheries in the deep sea have a track record of being unsustainable. In the northeast Atlantic, there has been a decline in the abundance of commercial fish species since deep-sea fishing commenced in the 1970s. Current management is by effort restrictions and total allowable catch (TAC), but there remain problems with compliance and high levels of bycatch of vulnerable species such as sharks. The European Union is currently considering new legislation to manage deep-sea fisheries, including the introduction of a depth limit to bottom trawling. However, there is little evidence to suggest an appropriate depth limit. Here we use survey data to show that biodiversity of the demersal fish community, the ratio of discarded to commercial biomass, and the ratio of Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) to commercial biomass significantly increases between 600 and 800 m depth while commercial value decreases. These results suggest that limiting bottom trawling to a maximum depth of 600 m could be an effective management strategy that would fit the needs of European legislations such as the Common Fisheries Policy (EC no. 1380/2013) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). PMID:26320948

  4. Assessing benthic oxygen fluxes in oligotrophic deep sea sediments (HAUSGARTEN observatory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donis, Daphne; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Holtappels, Moritz; Felden, Janine; Wenzhoefer, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Benthic oxygen fluxes, an established proxy for total organic carbon mineralization, were investigated in oligotrophic deep sea sediments. We used three different in situ technologies to estimate the benthic oxygen fluxes at an Arctic deep sea site (2500 m depth, HAUSGARTEN observatory) with limiting conditions of low oxygen gradients and fluxes, low turbulence and low particle content in the benthic boundary layer. The resolved eddy covariance turbulent oxygen flux (-0.9±0.2 (SD) mmol O2 m-2 d-1) compared well with simultaneous dissolved oxygen flux measurements carried out with a microprofiler (-1.02±0.3 (SD) mmol O2 m-2 d-1) and total oxygen uptake obtained by benthic chamber incubations (-1.1±0.1 (SD) mmol O2 m-2 d-1). The agreement between these different techniques revealed that microbial-mediated oxygen consumption was dominant at this site. The average benthic flux equals a carbon mineralization rate of 4.3 g C m-2 yr-1, which exceeds the annual sedimentation of particulate organic matter measured by sediment traps. The present study represents a detailed comparison of different in situ technologies for benthic flux measurements at different spatial scales in oligotrophic deep sea sediments. The use of eddy covariance, so far rarely used for deep sea investigations, is presented in detail.

  5. Two new cytotoxic indole alkaloids from a deep-sea sediment derived metagenomic clone.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xia; Tang, Xi-Xiang; Chen, Lin; Yi, Zhi-Wei; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2014-04-01

    Two new indole alkaloids, metagenetriindole A (1) and metagenebiindole A (2), were identified from deep-sea sediment metagenomic clone derived Escherichia coli fermentation broth. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The two new indole alkaloids demonstrated moderately cytotoxic activity against CNE2, Bel7402 and HT1080 cancer cell lines in vitro.

  6. High fungal diversity and abundance recovered in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge about the presence and ecological significance of bacteria and archaea in the deep-sea environments has been well recognized, but the eukaryotic microorganisms, such as fungi, have rarely been reported. The present study investigated the composition and abundance of fungal community in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean. In this study, a total of 1,947 internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA gene clones were recovered from five sediment samples at the Pacific Ocean (water depths ranging from 5,017 to 6,986 m) using three different PCR primer sets. There were 16, 17, and 15 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from fungal-universal, Ascomycota-, and Basidiomycota-specific clone libraries, respectively. Majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of Ascomycota (25 phylotypes) and Basidiomycota (18 phylotypes). The multiple primer approach totally recovered 27 phylotypes which showed low similarities (≤97 %) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea environments or belonging to taxa not represented in the GenBank. Our results also recovered high fungal LSU rRNA gene copy numbers (3.52 × 10(6) to 5.23 × 10(7)copies/g wet sediment) from the Pacific Ocean sediment samples, suggesting that the fungi might be involved in important ecological functions in the deep-sea environments.

  7. A method for detecting epistasis in genome-wide studies using case-control multi-locus association analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gayán, Javier; González-Pérez, Antonio; Bermudo, Fernando; Sáez, María Eugenia; Royo, Jose Luis; Quintas, Antonio; Galan, Jose Jorge; Morón, Francisco Jesús; Ramirez-Lorca, Reposo; Real, Luis Miguel; Ruiz, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    Background The difficulty in elucidating the genetic basis of complex diseases roots in the many factors that can affect the development of a disease. Some of these genetic effects may interact in complex ways, proving undetectable by current single-locus methodology. Results We have developed an analysis tool called Hypothesis Free Clinical Cloning (HFCC) to search for genome-wide epistasis in a case-control design. HFCC combines a relatively fast computing algorithm for genome-wide epistasis detection, with the flexibility to test a variety of different epistatic models in multi-locus combinations. HFCC has good power to detect multi-locus interactions simulated under a variety of genetic models and noise conditions. Most importantly, HFCC can accomplish exhaustive genome-wide epistasis search with large datasets as demonstrated with a 400,000 SNP set typed on a cohort of Parkinson's disease patients and controls. Conclusion With the current availability of genetic studies with large numbers of individuals and genetic markers, HFCC can have a great impact in the identification of epistatic effects that escape the standard single-locus association analyses. PMID:18667089

  8. Taxonomic evaluation of putative Streptomyces scabiei strains held in the ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) using multi-locus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Labeda, David P

    2016-03-01

    Multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of Streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) contains 43 strains identified as Streptomyces scabiei deposited at various times since the 1950s and these were subjected to multi-locus sequence analysis utilising partial sequences of the house-keeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of 17 of these strains as Streptomyces scabiei, 9 of the strains as the potato-pathogenic species Streptomyces europaeiscabiei and 6 strains as potentially new phytopathogenic species. Of the 16 other strains, 12 were identified as members of previously described non-pathogenic Streptomyces species while the remaining 4 strains may represent heretofore unrecognised non-pathogenic species. This study demonstrated the value of this technique for the relatively rapid, simple and sensitive molecular identification of Streptomyces strains held in culture collections. PMID:26739474

  9. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena. PMID:22279770

  10. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  11. What depth should deep-sea water be pumped up from in the South China Sea for medicinal research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Liu, Hongbing; Yang, Xue; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, seawater was pumped up from 150, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m in the South China Sea and analyzed to make certain what depth should deep-sea water (DSW) be pumped up for medicinal usage. The pumping depth of DSW was determined on the basis of chemical ingredients. The analyses of inorganic elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) respectively. The raw data were used for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that seawater pumped up from 500 m and 1000 m was similar in their chemical ingredients, and was different from the seawater pumped up from other depths. These results indicated that seawater from more than 500 m depth had relatively stable chemical ingredients and could be used as DSW in the South China Sea.

  12. Diterpenoid compounds and other lipids in deep-sea sediments and their geochemical significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclic diterpenoid compounds have been found by various investigators in the geosphere (e.g., fossil resins, coals, soil, shale, and deep-sea sediments). These compounds occur in significant amounts only in higher plants and are therefore potential markers of terrigenous plant lipids. Diterpenoids with the abietane skeleton (mainly dehydroabietic acid) have been identified in the lipids of sediment samples from the northeast Pacific Ocean, Black Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean. The presence of these resin-derived compounds was correlated with the terrigenous clay components and with the presence of pollen. The presence of polycyclic diterpenoids was also correlated with the distribution patterns and inferred sources of other sediment lipid constituents. Potamic transport, followed by turbidite redistribution, is the probable input mechanism of these resin-derived compounds to the deep-sea sediments. These diterpenoids appear to be excellent biological markers of resinous higher plants.

  13. The bathymetric distribution of the digenean parasites of deep-sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A

    2004-06-01

    The bathymetric range of 149 digenean species recorded deeper than 200 m, the approximate depth of the continental shelf/slope break, are presented in graphical form. It is found that only representatives of the four families Lepocreadiidae, Fellodistomidae, Derogenidae and Hemiuridae reach to abyssal regions (>4000 m). Three other families, the Lecithasteridae, Zoogonidae and Opecoelidae, have truly deep-water forms reaching deeper than 3000 m. Bathymetric data are available for the Acanthocolpidae, Accacoeliidae, Bucephalidae, Cryptogonimidae, Faustulidae, Gorgoderidae, Monorchiidae and Sanguinicolidae showing that they reach deeper than 200 m. No bathymetric data are available for the members of the Bivesiculidae and Hirudinellidae which are reported from deep-sea hosts. These results indicate that only seventeen out of the 150 or so digenean families are reported in the deep sea. PMID:15357406

  14. Mercury in recent and century-old deep-sea fish. [Antimora rostrata

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, R.T.; Whaling, P.J.; Cohen, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    To determine if mercury discharges to the environment in the last century have increased the mercury content of marine fish, a sample of 21 specimens of one deep-sea fish species collected in the 1880s was compared with a sample of 66 specimens of the same species collected in the 1970s. The specimens of Antimore rostrata were collected from between 2000 and 3000 m in the western North Atlantic Ocean. In both recent and old fish mercury increased as a function of length, but comparison of the two concentration vs. length relationships shows that there has not been an increase in mercury concentration in deep-sea fish in the last century. This result supports the idea that the relatively high concentrations of mercury found in marine fish that inhabit the surface and deep waters of the open ocean result from natural processes, not 20th century industrial pollution.

  15. Evolutional and ecological implications of the properties of deep-sea barophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yayanos, A A

    1986-12-01

    The rate of reproduction of deep-sea bacteria from six different capture depths between 1957 and 10,476 meters was studied as a function of temperature and pressure. The results showed the following: the true deep-sea bacteria of different depths have several characteristics, presumably evolutionally derived, distinguishing them from each other and from bacteria of atmospheric-pressure environments; pressure plays a significant role in determining the distribution of oceanic life; and pressure-adapted bacteria are easily recovered from and ubiquitous in the deep ocean. Organisms evolving in habitats of different temperatures and pressures need to be studied to understand the physical limits of life, the distribution of life within the earth and its oceans, the role of organisms in organic diagenesis and petroleum formation, and the possible existence of life on and within other planets.

  16. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  17. Larval Transport Modeling of Deep-Sea Invertebrates Can Aid the Search for Undiscovered Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yearsley, Jon M.; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many deep-sea benthic animals occur in patchy distributions separated by thousands of kilometres, yet because deep-sea habitats are remote, little is known about their larval dispersal. Our novel method simulates dispersal by combining data from the Argo array of autonomous oceanographic probes, deep-sea ecological surveys, and comparative invertebrate physiology. The predicted particle tracks allow quantitative, testable predictions about the dispersal of benthic invertebrate larvae in the south-west Pacific. Principal Findings In a test case presented here, using non-feeding, non-swimming (lecithotrophic trochophore) larvae of polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons), we show that the likely dispersal pathways in a single generation are significantly shorter than the distances between the three known population centres in our study region. The large-scale density of chiton populations throughout our study region is potentially much greater than present survey data suggest, with intermediate ‘stepping stone’ populations yet to be discovered. Conclusions/Significance We present a new method that is broadly applicable to studies of the dispersal of deep-sea organisms. This test case demonstrates the power and potential applications of our new method, in generating quantitative, testable hypotheses at multiple levels to solve the mismatch between observed and expected distributions: probabilistic predictions of locations of intermediate populations, potential alternative dispersal mechanisms, and expected population genetic structure. The global Argo data have never previously been used to address benthic biology, and our method can be applied to any non-swimming larvae of the deep-sea, giving information upon dispersal corridors and population densities in habitats that remain intrinsically difficult to assess. PMID:21857992

  18. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:25602032

  19. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems.

  20. Composition and sources of sedimentary organic matter in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Parinos, C.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Gogou, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Bouloubassi, I.; Lampadariou, N.

    2015-12-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep slopes and basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea have been analysed for bulk elemental and isotopic composition of organic carbon, total nitrogen and selected lipid biomarkers, jointly with grain size distribution and other geochemical proxies. The distribution and sources of sedimentary organic matter (OM) have been subsequently assessed and general environmental variables, such as water column depth and physical circulation patterns, have been examined as causative factors of deep-sea sediment characteristics. Lithogenic and biogenic carbonates are the dominant sedimentary fractions, accounting for up to 85.4 and 66.5 % of the total weight respectively. The low OC and TN contents in the surface sediments of the study area, which ranged from 0.15 to 1.15 % and 0.06 to 0.11 % respectively, reflect the oligotrophic character of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Both bulk and molecular organic tracers reflect a mixed contribution from autochthonous and allochthonous sources for the sedimentary OM, as indicated by relatively degraded marine OM, terrestrial plant waxes and anthropogenic OM (e.g. degraded petroleum by-products) respectively. Wide regional variations have been observed amongst the studied proxies, which reflect the multiple factors controlling sedimentation in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea. Our findings highlight the role of deep eastern Mediterranean basins as depocentres of organic-rich fine-grained sediments (mean 5.4 ± 2.4 μm), with OM accumulation and burial being attributed to aggregation mechanisms and hydrodynamic sorting. A multi-proxy approach is applied aiming to investigate the biogeochemical composition of sediment samples, which sheds new light on the sources and transport mechanisms along with the impact of preservation vs. diagenetic processes on the composition of sedimentary OM in the deep basins of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  1. A continuum of life histories in deep-sea demersal fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Haedrich, Richard L.

    2012-03-01

    It is generally perceived that all deep-sea fishes have great longevity, slow growth, and low reproductive output in comparison to shelf dwelling species. However, such a dichotomy is too simplistic because some fishes living on continental slopes are relatively fecund and fast growing, important considerations in respect to the management of expanding deep-sea fisheries. We tested two hypotheses that might explain variation in life history attributes of commercially exploited demersal fishes: (1) phylogeny best explains the differences because deep-sea species are often in different families from shelf dwelling ones and, alternatively, (2) environmental factors affecting individual life history attributes that change with depth account for the observed variation. Our analysis was based on 40 species from 9 orders, including all major commercially exploited deep-sea fishes and several phylogenetically related shelf species. Depth of occurrence correlated significantly with age at 50% maturity increasing linearly with depth (r2=0.46), while the von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, maximum fecundity and potential rate of population increase declined significantly and exponentially with depth (r2=0.41, 0.25 and 0.53, respectively). These trends were still significant when phylogenetically independent contrasts were applied. The trends were also consistent with similar slopes amongst members of the order Gadiformes and the order Scorpaeniformes. Reduced temperatures, predation pressure, food availability, or metabolic rates may all contribute to such changes with depth. Regardless of the mechanisms, by analyzing a suite of fishes from the shelves to the slope the present analysis has shown that rather than a simple dichotomy between deep-sea fishes and shelf fishes there is a continuum of life history attributes in fishes which correlate strongly with depth of occurrence.

  2. Deep-Sea Trench Microbiology Down to 10.9 Kilometers Below the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea trenches, extending to more than 10.9 km below the sea surface, are among the most remote and infrequently sampled habitats. As a result a global perspective of microbial diversity and adaptation is lacking in these extreme settings. I will present the results of studies of deep-sea trench microbes collected in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), Tonga Trench, New Britain Trench and Mariana Trench. The samples collected include sediment, seawater and animals in baited traps. The analyses to be described include microbial community activity and viability measurements as a function of hydrostatic pressure, microbial culturing at high pressure under various physiological conditions, phylogenetics and metagenome and single-cell genome characterizations. Most of the results to date stem from samples recovered from the PRT. The deep-sea PRT Trench microbes have more in common at the species level with other deep-sea microbial communities previously characterized in the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea than with the microbial populations above them in shallow waters. They also harbor larger genomes with more genes assigned to signal transduction, transcription, replication, recombination and repair and inorganic ion transport. The overrepresented transporters in the PRT metagenome include di- and tri-carboxylate transporters that correspond to the prevailing catabolic processes such as butanoate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A surprisingly high abundance of sulfatases for the degradation of sulfated polysaccharides were also present in the PRT. But, perhaps the most dramatic adaptational feature of the PRT microbes is heavy metal resistance, as reflected in the high numbers of metal efflux systems present. Single-cell genomics approaches have proven particularly useful for placing PRT metagenomic data into context.

  3. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  4. Freshening of the Dead Sea during the Last Glacial Revealed By Porewater Composition in ICDP Dead Sea Deep-Drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the brine lakes that filled the Dead Sea basin has been extensively studied on the sedimentary exposures and drill cores on the Sea marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea. These geological sections documented the history of the epilimnion (upper brine) of the hypersaline lake during its high stands periods. The cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m provided the first opportunity to study the history of the deepest part of the hypolimnion (deep brine) by measuring the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) sodium (Na+) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the pore brines revealed a substantial decrease in salinity of the hypolimnion during the high stand of the last glacial Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea), particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). Diffusion-deposition model indicated that Cl- concentration of the deep hypolimnetic brine decreased gradually to less than 2/3 of its present value. The δ18O at the same time increased to maximum of ~7‰ (3‰ higher than today). Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). The increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan was a result of evaporative fractionation of the less saline epilimnetic brine. The post-glacial δ18O decrease while salinity increased is attributed to the "reversed" δ18O fractionation during evaporation of very high salinity brine. Increase in the Na/Cl ratio due to dissolution of halite without reaching halite saturation was also observed during the freshening period.

  5. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-01

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists.

  6. The deep structure of a sea-floor hydrothermal deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Fouquet, Y.; Miller, D.J.; Bahr, J.M.; Baker, P.A.; Bjerkgard, T.; Brunner, C.A.; Duckworth, R.C.; Gable, R.; Gieskes, J.; Goodfellow, W.D.; Groschel-Becker, H. M.; Guerin, G.; Ishibashi, J.; Iturrino, G.; James, R.H.; Lackschewitz, K.S.; Marquez, L.L.; Nehlig, P.; Peter, J.M.; Rigsby, C.A.; Schultheiss, P.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Summit, M.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Urbat, M.; Zuffa, G.G.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrothermal circulation at the crests of mid-ocean ridges plays an important role in transferring heat from the interior of the Earth. A consequence of this hydrothermal circulation is the formation of metallic ore bodies known as volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits. Such deposits, preserved on land, were important sources of copper for ancient civilizations and continue to provide a significant source of base metals (for example, copper and zinc). Here we present results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 169, which drilled through a massive sulphide deposit on the northern Juan de Fuca spreading centre and penetrated the hydrothermal feeder zone through which the metal-rich fluids reached the sea floor. We found that the style of feeder-zone mineralization changes with depth in response to changes in the pore pressure of the hydrothermal fluids and discovered a stratified zone of high-grade copper-rich replacement mineralization below the massive sulphide deposit. This copper-rich zone represents a type of mineralization not previously observed below sea-floor deposits, and may provide new targets for land-based mineral exploration.

  7. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-01

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists. PMID:19026540

  8. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  9. Utility of deep sea CO2 release experiments in understanding the biology of a high-CO2 ocean: Effects of hypercapnia on deep sea meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, James P.; Buck, Kurt R.; Lovera, Chris; Kuhnz, Linda; Whaling, Patrick J.

    2005-09-01

    Oceanic CO2 levels are expected to rise during the next 2 centuries to levels not seen for 10-150 million years by the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in surface waters or potentially through the disposal of waste CO2 in the deep sea. Changes in ocean chemistry caused by CO2 influx may have broad impacts on ocean ecosystems. Physiological processes animals use to cope with CO2-related stress are known, but the range of sensitivities and effects of changes in ocean chemistry on most ocean life remain unclear. We evaluate the effectiveness of various designs for in situ CO2 release experiments in producing stable perturbations in seawater chemistry over experimental seafloor plots, as is desirable for evaluating the CO2 sensitivities of deep sea animals. We also discuss results from a subset of these experiments on the impacts of hypercapnia on deep sea meiofauna, in the context of experimental designs. Five experiments off central California show that pH perturbations were greatest for experiments using "point source" CO2 pools surrounded by experimental plots. CO2 enclosure experiments with experimental plots positioned within a circular arrangement of CO2 pools had more moderate pH variation. The concentration of dissolution plumes from CO2 pools were related to the speed and turbulence of near-bottom currents, which influence CO2 dissolution and advection. Survival of meiofauna (nematodes, amoebae, euglenoid flagellates) was low after episodic severe hypercapnia but lower and variable where pH changes ranged from 0 to 0.2 pH units below normal.

  10. Photographic observations of the life style of a deep-sea ophiuroid Asteronyx loveni (Echinodermata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Ohta, Suguru

    1988-12-01

    The life style of a deep-sea ophiuroid, Asteronyx loveni was studied from underwater photographs (7 stations) and trawled samples (11 stations) between about 800 and 1700 m along the Pacific coast of Japan and in the Flores Sea, Indonesia. This ophiuroid typically clings to gorgonians ( Radicipes spp.) and pennatulids ( Funiculina quadrangularis and Anthoptilum sp.). The stomach contents of A. loveni included fragments of crustaceans, polychaete setae, sediment particles and flocculent material, but no tissues of the host coelenterates. Bottom photographs show the ophiuroids extending several arms into the water column presumably for suspension feeding. There was rarely more than one ophiuroid per coelenterate host, perhaps due to intraspecific competition for perch sites. Stereoscopic analysis of photographs revealed that most of the ophiuroids perched 20-35 cm above the sea floor. This may be the most effective height for feeding on particulate material resuspended from the sea floor by bottom currents.

  11. Deep-Sea Field Studies of the Biological Consequences of Direct Ocean CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Seibel, B. A.; Lovera, C.

    2001-12-01

    While the notion of carbon sequestration by direct ocean disposal of CO2 in the deep ocean holds promise for mitigating atmospheric greenhouse warming, the consequences of this approach for deep-sea ecosystems are understood poorly, but are potentially large. Several factors suggest that deep-sea fauna may be more sensitive to deep-sea CO2 releases than related groups inhabiting the upper ocean. The evolution of deep-sea species in the relatively invariant environment of the deep ocean has likely led to the intolerance of many species to perturbations in seawater chemistry associated with direct CO2 injection (e.g. pH reduction) that may be more tolerable to shallow-living groups. Food limitation and reduced metabolic rates typical in deep-sea ecosystems may also limit the ability of many organisms to tolerate changes in pH (i.e. pH compensation) or CO2 (e.g. metabolic depression). We recently performed field experiments at depths from 3000 to 3600 m to evaluate the biological responses of representative deep-sea organisms to changes in seawater chemistry caused by carbon dioxide sequestration. Several small pools (ca. 15 l) of liquid CO2 were deployed on the seafloor from the ROV Tiburon operated by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, using a novel CO2 release system. Rates of survival and aspects of the physiological condition of various elements of the seafloor faunal community were compared between sites near (<1 m) and distant (control sites >30 m away) from CO2 pools. Tidally oscillating currents swept a plume of CO2-rich water away from the pools as the liquid CO2 dissolved, resulting in periodic reductions of pH around the pools to 6.0 to 7.0 units within 1 m. Rates of survival for two common megafaunal echinoderms (echinoid 1 and holothurian 1) held in cages adjacent to CO2 pools were very low compared were compared to control sites. Decalcification of urchin spines and skeletal elements was evident for animals near CO2 pools. The abundances of

  12. Prokaryote diversity and viral production in deep-sea sediments and seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Luna, Gian Marco; Magagnini, Mirko; Manini, Elena; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Despite the fact that marine prokaryotes and viruses have been increasingly investigated over the last decade, knowledge on prokaryote diversity and viral production in bathyal sediments is limited. We investigated microbial variables in the deep-sea sediments around two seamounts at 3000-m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea and sediments located at the same depth, but not affected by the presence of the seamounts. We hypothesized that seamounts altered significantly prokaryotes-viruses interactions in surrounding deep-sea sediments. Sediments surrounding seamounts were characterised by prokaryotic abundances significantly higher than those observed in non-seamount sediments. Benthic viral production was about double in sediments close to seamounts than in non-seamount sediments, where virus turnover was up to 3 times lower. Total Bacteria, as assessed by CARD-FISH, dominated prokaryotic community structure, whereas Archaea accounted on average for approximately 10%. The fraction of Crenarchaeota was always higher than Euryarchaeota. Bacterial diversity, estimated using ARISA, was high, with up to 127 different microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in a single sample. Archaeal richness (determined using T-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene) ranged from 12 to 20 OTUs, while Archaeal evenness was comprised between 0.529±0.018 and 0.623±0.08. Results represent a pointer for future investigations dealing with the interactions between viruses and prokaryotes in deep-sea sediments.

  13. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria. PMID:27312602

  14. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  15. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:27211908

  16. Evidence of a putative deep sea specific microbiome in marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Flemer, Burkhardt; Jackson, Stephen A; Morrissey, John P; O'Gara, Fergal; O'Gara, Ferghal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of four individual deep water sponges, Lissodendoryx diversichela, Poecillastra compressa, Inflatella pellicula, and Stelletta normani, together with surrounding seawater were analysed by pyrosequencing of a region of the 16S rRNA gene common to Bacteria and Archaea. Due to sampling constraints at depths below 700 m duplicate samples were not collected. The microbial communities of L. diversichela, P. compressa and I. pellicula were typical of low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges while S. normani had a community more typical of high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges. Analysis of the deep sea sponge microbiota revealed that the three LMA-like sponges shared a set of abundant OTUs that were distinct from those associated with sponges from shallow waters. Comparison of the pyrosequencing data with that from shallow water sponges revealed that the microbial communities of all sponges analysed have similar archaeal populations but that the bacterial populations of the deep sea sponges were distinct. Further analysis of the common and abundant OTUs from the three LMA-like sponges placed them within the groups of ammonia oxidising Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) and sulphur oxidising γ-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales). Reads from these two groups made up over 70% of all 16S rRNA genes detected from the three LMA-like sponge samples, providing evidence of a putative common microbial assemblage associated with deep sea LMA sponges.

  17. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems.

  18. Activity and growth of microbial populations in pressurized deep-sea sediment and animal gut samples.

    PubMed

    Tabor, P S; Deming, J W; Ohwada, K; Colwell, R R

    1982-08-01

    Benthic animals and sediment samples were collected at deep-sea stations in the northwest (3,600-m depth) and southeast (4,300- and 5200-m depths) Atlantic Ocean. Utilization rates of [14C]glutamate (0.67 to 0.74 nmol) in sediment suspensions incubated at in situ temperatures and pressures (3 to 5 degrees C and 360, 430, or 520 atmospheres) were relatively slow, ranging from 0.09 to 0.39 nmol g-1 day-1, whereas rates for pressurized samples of gut suspensions varied widely, ranging from no detectable activity to a rapid rate of 986 nmol g-1 day-1. Gut flora from a holothurian specimen and a fish demonstrated rapid, barophilic substrate utilization, based on relative rates calculated for pressurized samples and samples held at 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Substrate utilization by microbial populations in several sediment samples was not inhibited by in situ pressure. Deep-sea pressures did not restrict growth, measured as doubling time, of culturable bacteria present in a northwest Atlantic sediment sample and in a gut suspension prepared from an abyssal scavenging amphipod. From the results of this study, it was concluded that microbial populations in benthic environments can demonstrate significant metabolic activity under deep-ocean conditions of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, rates of microbial activity in the guts of benthic macrofauna are potentially more rapid than in surrounding deep-sea sediments. PMID:6127054

  19. Gulf of Mexico Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystem Studies, 2008-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Most people are familiar with tropical coral reefs, located in warm, well-illuminated, shallow waters. However, corals also exist hundreds and even thousands of meters below the ocean surface, where it is cold and completely dark. These deep-sea corals, also known as cold-water corals, have become a topic of interest due to conservation concerns over the impacts of trawling, exploration for oil and gas, and climate change. Although the existence of these corals has been known since the 1800s, our understanding of their distribution, ecology, and biology is limited due to the technical difficulties of conducting deep-sea research. DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) is a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) program focused on deep-water coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. This integrated, multidisciplinary, international effort investigates a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea coral ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level, including components of microbiology, population genetics, paleoecology, food webs, taxonomy, community ecology, physical oceanography, and mapping.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in active deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structures.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-03-19

    The phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes occurring in active deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structures was characterized based on the deduced amino acid sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene. The DSR genes were successfully amplified from microbial assemblages of the chimney structures, derived from three geographically and geologically distinct deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), in the Izu-Bonin Arc (IBA), and the Okinawa Trough (OT), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed seven major phylogenetic groups. More than half of the clones from the CIR chimney structure were related to DSR amino acid sequences of the hyperthermophilic archaeal members of the genus Archaeoglobus, and those of environmental DSR clones within the class Thermodesulfobacteria. From the OT chimney structure, a different group was obtained, which comprised a novel, deep lineage associated with the DSRs of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Thermodesulfovibrio. Most of the DSR clones from the IBA chimney structure were phylogenetically associated with the delta-proteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria represented by the genus Desulfobulbus. Sequence analysis of DSR clones demonstrated a diverse sulfate-reducing prokaryotic community in the active deep-sea hydrothermal chimney structures.

  1. The secret to successful deep-sea invasion: does low temperature hold the key?

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn E; Thatje, Sven

    2012-01-01

    There is a general consensus that today's deep-sea biodiversity has largely resulted from recurrent invasions and speciations occurring through homogenous waters during periods of the Phanerozoic eon. Migrations likely continue today, primarily via isothermal water columns, such as those typical of Polar Regions, but the necessary ecological and physiological adaptations behind them are poorly understood. In an evolutionary context, understanding the adaptations, which allow for colonisation to high-pressure environments, may enable us to predict future events. In this investigation, we examine pressure tolerance during development, in the shallow-water neogastropod Buccinum undatum using thermally acclimated egg masses from temperate and sub-polar regions across the species range. Fossil records indicate neogastropods to have a deep-water origin, suggesting shallow-water species may be likely candidates for re-emergence into the deep sea. Our results show population level differences in physiological thresholds, which indicate low temperature acclimation to increase pressure tolerance. These findings imply this species is capable of deep-sea penetration through isothermal water columns prevailing at high latitudes. This study gives new insight into the fundamentals behind past and future colonisation events. Such knowledge is instrumental to understand better how changes in climate envelopes affect the distribution and radiation of species along latitudinal as well as bathymetric temperature gradients.

  2. The Secret to Successful Deep-Sea Invasion: Does Low Temperature Hold the Key?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2012-01-01

    There is a general consensus that today’s deep-sea biodiversity has largely resulted from recurrent invasions and speciations occurring through homogenous waters during periods of the Phanerozoic eon. Migrations likely continue today, primarily via isothermal water columns, such as those typical of Polar Regions, but the necessary ecological and physiological adaptations behind them are poorly understood. In an evolutionary context, understanding the adaptations, which allow for colonisation to high-pressure environments, may enable us to predict future events. In this investigation, we examine pressure tolerance during development, in the shallow-water neogastropod Buccinum undatum using thermally acclimated egg masses from temperate and sub-polar regions across the species range. Fossil records indicate neogastropods to have a deep-water origin, suggesting shallow-water species may be likely candidates for re-emergence into the deep sea. Our results show population level differences in physiological thresholds, which indicate low temperature acclimation to increase pressure tolerance. These findings imply this species is capable of deep-sea penetration through isothermal water columns prevailing at high latitudes. This study gives new insight into the fundamentals behind past and future colonisation events. Such knowledge is instrumental to understand better how changes in climate envelopes affect the distribution and radiation of species along latitudinal as well as bathymetric temperature gradients. PMID:23227254

  3. Evidence of a Putative Deep Sea Specific Microbiome in Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Flemer, Burkhardt; Jackson, Stephen A.; Morrissey, John P.; O'Gara, Ferghal; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of four individual deep water sponges, Lissodendoryx diversichela, Poecillastra compressa, Inflatella pellicula, and Stelletta normani, together with surrounding seawater were analysed by pyrosequencing of a region of the 16S rRNA gene common to Bacteria and Archaea. Due to sampling constraints at depths below 700 m duplicate samples were not collected. The microbial communities of L. diversichela, P. compressa and I. pellicula were typical of low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges while S. normani had a community more typical of high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges. Analysis of the deep sea sponge microbiota revealed that the three LMA-like sponges shared a set of abundant OTUs that were distinct from those associated with sponges from shallow waters. Comparison of the pyrosequencing data with that from shallow water sponges revealed that the microbial communities of all sponges analysed have similar archaeal populations but that the bacterial populations of the deep sea sponges were distinct. Further analysis of the common and abundant OTUs from the three LMA-like sponges placed them within the groups of ammonia oxidising Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) and sulphur oxidising γ-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales). Reads from these two groups made up over 70% of all 16S rRNA genes detected from the three LMA-like sponge samples, providing evidence of a putative common microbial assemblage associated with deep sea LMA sponges. PMID:24670421

  4. Sulfur isotope profiles in the pelagic Panthalassic deep sea during the Permian-Triassic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kaiho, Kunio; Hori, Rie S.; Gorjan, Paul; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamakita, Satoshi; Aita, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Atsushi; Spörli, K. Bernhard; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Mesozoic accretionary complexes in Japan and New Zealand contain Panthalassic low latitude and southern mid-latitude deep-water sedimentary rock respectively. These sedimentary rocks record environmental changes in the pelagic Panthalassic Ocean during the transition associated with the severe Permian-Triassic mass extinction. This study presents sulfur isotope records of sulfide from continuous deep-sea Permian-Triassic boundary sections located in northeast Japan (the Akkamori section-2, the most continuous section among other previously reported deep-sea sections) and North Island of New Zealand (the Waiheke-1 section, providing the first sulfur isotopic record from a southern hemisphere deep-sea section). Both sections show sharp ~ 15‰ drops of the sulfur isotope ratio coupled with a negative shift of organic carbon isotope ratio. Similar decreases in sulfur isotope ratio of carbonate-associated sulfates by ~ 10‰ accompanied with a negative shift of inorganic carbon isotope ratio at the end-Permian mass extinction horizon have been reported in some shallow water Paleotethyan sections. These sulfur isotope changes suggest that a massive release of 32S-enriched sulfur from the H2S-rich water to the oxic surface-waters coincided with the end-Permian mass extinction.

  5. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:27211908

  6. High Acidification Rate of Norwegian Sea Revealed by Boron Isotopes in the Deep-Sea Coral Madrepora Oculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Douville, E.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Montagna, P.; Louvat, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Frank, N.; Bordier, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming due to the increase of anthropogenic CO2 are major threats for marine calcifying organisms, such as deep-sea corals, particularly in high-latitude regions. In order to evaluate the current anthropogenic perturbation and to properly assess the impacts and responses of calcifiers to previous changes in pH it is critical to investigate past changes of the seawater carbonate system. Unfortunately, current instrumental records of oceanic pH are limited, covering only a few decades. Scleractinian coral skeletons record chemical parameters of the seawater in which they grow. However, pH variability over multidecadal timescales remains largely unknown in intermediate and deep seawater masses. Here we present a study that highlights the potential of deep-sea-corals to overcome the lack of long-term pH records and that emphasizes a rapid acidification of high latitude subsurface waters of Norwegian Sea during the past decades. We have reconstructed seawater pH and temperature from a well dated deep-sea coral specimen Madrepora oculata collected alive from Røst reef in Norwegian Sea (67°N, 9°E, 340 m depth). This large branching framework forming coral species grew its skeleton over more than four decades determined using AMS 14C and 210Pb dating (Sabatier et al. 2012). B-isotopes and Li/Mg ratios yield an acidification rate of about -0.0030±0.0008 pH-unit.year-1 and a warming of 0.3°C during the past four decades (1967-2007). Overall our reconstruction technique agrees well with previous pH calculations (Hönisch et al., 2007 vs. Trotter et al., 2011 and McCulloch et al., 2012, i.e. the iterative method), but additional corrections are here applied using stable isotope correlations (O, C, B) to properly address kinetic fractionation of boron isotopes used for pH reconstruction. The resulting pH curve strongly anti-correlates with the annual NAO index, which further strengthens our evidence for the ocean acidification rate

  7. Deep under the sea: unraveling the evolutionary history of the deep-sea squat lobster Paramunida (Decapoda, Munididae).

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Patricia; Sanmartín, Isabel; Paulay, Gustav; Macpherson, Enrique; Machordom, Annie

    2012-06-01

    The diversification of Indo-Pacific marine fauna has long captivated the attention of evolutionary biologists. Previous studies have mainly focused on coral reef or shallow water-associated taxa. Here, we present the first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history--phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography--of a deep-water lineage. We sequenced the molecular markers 16S, COI, ND1, 18S, and 28S for nearly 80% of the nominal species of the squat lobster genus Paramunida. Analyses of the molecular phylogeny revealed an accelerated diversification in the late Oligocene-Miocene followed by a slowdown in the rate of lineage accumulation over time. A parametric biogeographical reconstruction showed the importance of the southwest Pacific area, specifically the island arc of Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis, and Futuna, for diversification of squat lobsters, probably associated with the global warming, high tectonic activity, and changes in oceanic currents that took place in this region during the Oligocene-Miocene period. These results add strong evidence to the hypothesis that the Neogene was a period of major diversification for marine organisms in both shallow and deep waters.

  8. Anomalous changes of deep-sea chemical environments and microbial communities induced by the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagucci, S.; Noguchi, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Honda, M. C.; Uchida, H.; Ishibashi, H.; Nakagawa, F.; Tsunogai, U.; Okamura, K.; Hara, T.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.; Takaki, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Lin, W.; Kitazato, H.; Takai, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the rapid impacts of the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake on the deep-sea environment 36 days after the event. The light transmission anomaly became atypically greater and more extensive near the trench axis owing to the turbulent diffusion of fresh seafloor sediment, coordinated with potential seafloor displacement. In addition to the chemical influx associated with sediment diffusion, an unusual influx of fluid with 13C-enriched methane into the deep-sea water from the deep sub-seafloor reservoirs occurred, possibly triggered by the earthquake and its aftershocks. The biomass and phylotype composition of the deep-sea microbial communities also responded rapidly to the event. We examined the post-earthquake deep-sea chemical environments and the development of the microbial community.

  9. Long-term temperature trends in the deep waters of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Robin; Visbeck, Martin; Gordon, Arnold L.; Fahrbach, E.

    Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea has important implications for Antarctic bottom water formation, melting of pack ice, and the regional ocean-atmosphere heat transfer. In order to evaluate warming trends in the Weddell Sea, a historical data set encompassing CTD and bottle data from 1912 to 2000 was analyzed for temporal trends in the deep water masses: warm deep water (WDW) and Weddell Sea deep water (WSDW). The coldest WDW temperatures were primarily associated with the Weddell Polynya of the mid-1970s. Subsequent warming occurred at a rate of ˜0.012±0.007°C yr -1 from the 1970s to 1990s. This warming was comparable to the global, average surface water warming observed by Levitus et al. (Science 287 (2000) 2225), to the warming of the WSBW in the central Weddell Sea observed by Fahrbach et al. (Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Program, Report No. 12, Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Bremerhaven, Germany, 1998a, p. 24), and to the surface ice temperature warming from 1970 to 1998 in the Weddell Sea observed by Comiso (J. Climate 13 (2000) 1674). The warming was not compensated by an increase in salinity, and thus the WDW became less dense. The location of the warmest temperature was displaced towards the surface by ˜200 m from the 1970s to the 1990s. Although the average WSDW potential temperatures between 1500 and 3500 m were warmer in the 1990s than in the 1970s, high variability in the data prevented identification of a well-defined temporal trend.

  10. Bacterial diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a strong, deep winter convection year.

    PubMed

    Korlević, M; Pop Ristova, P; Garić, R; Amann, R; Orlić, S

    2015-03-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection.

  11. How can we identify and communicate the ecological value of deep-sea ecosystem services?

    PubMed

    Jobstvogt, Niels; Townsend, Michael; Witte, Ursula; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders. PMID:25055119

  12. Bacterial Diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a Strong, Deep Winter Convection Year

    PubMed Central

    Korlević, M.; Pop Ristova, P.; Garić, R.; Amann, R.

    2014-01-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042

  13. How Can We Identify and Communicate the Ecological Value of Deep-Sea Ecosystem Services?

    PubMed Central

    Jobstvogt, Niels; Townsend, Michael; Witte, Ursula; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders. PMID:25055119

  14. How can we identify and communicate the ecological value of deep-sea ecosystem services?

    PubMed

    Jobstvogt, Niels; Townsend, Michael; Witte, Ursula; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders.

  15. Frequencies and pathways of deep cyclones forcing major inflows to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai; Höflich, Katharina; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The salt budget of the Baltic Sea is determined by a balance between saline inflow from the Kattegat and brackish water outflow from the Baltic through the Danish Straits. River runoff and precipitation cause dilution while evaporation acts in the opposite direction. Ice formation and melting act as evaporation and precipitation, respectively, but have no influence on an annual timescale. Generally, during dry periods the mean salinity of the Baltic Sea increases while during wet periods a decrease will happen. These long-term changes are overlaid by the atmospheric-driven water exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea. The salinity and the stratification in the deep basins are linked to the occurrence of Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of higher saline water of North Sea origin, which occur sporadically and transport higher saline and oxygenated water to deeper layers. These major inflows are often followed by stagnation periods with no strong saline inflows, during which the permanent halocline weakens, even disappears in some basins, and extended areas of oxygen deficiency develop in those regions where the salinity stratification remains. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased. They were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there was no obvious decrease in the frequency of larger Baltic Sea volume changes. Generally, strong inflows to the Baltic Sea are driven by strong to very strong westerly winds. For most effective inflows the frequency and pathways of deep cyclones are important. Furthermore, Atlantic cyclone frequencies and associated storm tracks are highly correlated with the NAO. Based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA Interim SLP reanalysis data for the period 1950-2013, deep cyclones variability over the northern North Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea region has been analyzed, and cyclones frequencies and characteristic pathways have been related

  16. Development of a genetic system for the deep-sea psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudoalteromonas species are a group of marine gammaproteobacteria frequently found in deep-sea sediments, which may play important roles in deep-sea sediment ecosystem. Although genome sequence analysis of Pseudoalteromonas has revealed some specific features associated with adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment, it is still difficult to study how Pseudoalteromonas adapt to the deep-sea environment due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. The aim of this study is to develop a genetic system in the deep-sea sedimentary bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913, making it possible to perform gene mutation by homologous recombination. Results The sensitivity of Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 to antibiotic was investigated and the erythromycin resistance gene was chosen as the selective marker. A shuttle vector pOriT-4Em was constructed and transferred into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 through intergeneric conjugation with an efficiency of 1.8 × 10-3, which is high enough to perform the gene knockout assay. A suicide vector pMT was constructed using pOriT-4Em as the bone vector and sacB gene as the counterselective marker. The epsT gene encoding the UDP-glucose lipid carrier transferase was selected as the target gene for inactivation by in-frame deletion. The epsT was in-frame deleted using a two-step integration–segregation strategy after transferring the suicide vector pMT into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. The ΔepsT mutant showed approximately 73% decrease in the yield of exopolysaccharides, indicating that epsT is an important gene involved in the EPS production of SM9913. Conclusions A conjugal transfer system was constructed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 with a wide temperature range for selection and a high transfer efficiency, which will lay the foundation of genetic manipulation in this strain. The epsT gene of SM9913 was successfully deleted with no selective marker left in the chromosome of the host, which thus make it

  17. Deep Coral Oases in the South Tyrrhenian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Marzia; Canese, Simonepietro; Spaggiari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Antonio; Bertolino, Marco; Angiolillo, Michela; Giusti, Michela; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Salvati, Eva; Greco, Silvestro; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    A Mediterranean “roche du large” ecosystem, represented by four rocky shoals, located a few miles apart on a muddy bottom at 70–130 m depth in the gulf of St. Eufemia (Calabria, South Tyrrhenian Sea), was studied by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) photo imaging. The shoals host highly diversified coral communities, mainly composed of arborescent colonies of gorgonians (Callogorgia verticillata, Paramuricea clavata, Paramuricea macrospina, Bebryce mollis, Villogorgia bebrycoides, Corallium rubrum, and Leptogorgia sarmentosa), and antipatharians (Antipathella subpinnata, Antipathes dichotoma and Parantipathes larix). The coral colonies reach high densities (up to ca. 17 colonies m−2) and large sizes, such as the over 1.5 m wide antipatharian colonies. We hypothesized that the abundance and composition of the coral assemblages differed significantly among the rocky shoals and with respect to the surrounding soft bottoms. Various environmental variables were tested as possible explanatory factors of the observed differences. Moreover, due to their off-coast localization, we report here that these unique ecosystems are potentially subjected to a strong pressure from the local fishing activities, which were tentatively characterized. The recorded coral β-diversity among the shoals supports the hypothesis that these habitats behave like small oases of hard substrata interspersed in a muddy bottom. Because of their intrinsic beauty and rarity and their biological and ecological value, we stress the need of specific actions aimed at the urgent protection of these oases of biodiversity. PMID:23185468

  18. Deep coral oases in the South Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bo, Marzia; Canese, Simonepietro; Spaggiari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Antonio; Bertolino, Marco; Angiolillo, Michela; Giusti, Michela; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Salvati, Eva; Greco, Silvestro; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    A Mediterranean "roche du large" ecosystem, represented by four rocky shoals, located a few miles apart on a muddy bottom at 70-130 m depth in the gulf of St. Eufemia (Calabria, South Tyrrhenian Sea), was studied by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) photo imaging. The shoals host highly diversified coral communities, mainly composed of arborescent colonies of gorgonians (Callogorgia verticillata, Paramuricea clavata, Paramuricea macrospina, Bebryce mollis, Villogorgia bebrycoides, Corallium rubrum, and Leptogorgia sarmentosa), and antipatharians (Antipathella subpinnata, Antipathes dichotoma and Parantipathes larix). The coral colonies reach high densities (up to ca. 17 colonies m(-2)) and large sizes, such as the over 1.5 m wide antipatharian colonies. We hypothesized that the abundance and composition of the coral assemblages differed significantly among the rocky shoals and with respect to the surrounding soft bottoms. Various environmental variables were tested as possible explanatory factors of the observed differences. Moreover, due to their off-coast localization, we report here that these unique ecosystems are potentially subjected to a strong pressure from the local fishing activities, which were tentatively characterized. The recorded coral β-diversity among the shoals supports the hypothesis that these habitats behave like small oases of hard substrata interspersed in a muddy bottom. Because of their intrinsic beauty and rarity and their biological and ecological value, we stress the need of specific actions aimed at the urgent protection of these oases of biodiversity. PMID:23185468

  19. Deep coral oases in the South Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bo, Marzia; Canese, Simonepietro; Spaggiari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Antonio; Bertolino, Marco; Angiolillo, Michela; Giusti, Michela; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Salvati, Eva; Greco, Silvestro; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    A Mediterranean "roche du large" ecosystem, represented by four rocky shoals, located a few miles apart on a muddy bottom at 70-130 m depth in the gulf of St. Eufemia (Calabria, South Tyrrhenian Sea), was studied by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) photo imaging. The shoals host highly diversified coral communities, mainly composed of arborescent colonies of gorgonians (Callogorgia verticillata, Paramuricea clavata, Paramuricea macrospina, Bebryce mollis, Villogorgia bebrycoides, Corallium rubrum, and Leptogorgia sarmentosa), and antipatharians (Antipathella subpinnata, Antipathes dichotoma and Parantipathes larix). The coral colonies reach high densities (up to ca. 17 colonies m(-2)) and large sizes, such as the over 1.5 m wide antipatharian colonies. We hypothesized that the abundance and composition of the coral assemblages differed significantly among the rocky shoals and with respect to the surrounding soft bottoms. Various environmental variables were tested as possible explanatory factors of the observed differences. Moreover, due to their off-coast localization, we report here that these unique ecosystems are potentially subjected to a strong pressure from the local fishing activities, which were tentatively characterized. The recorded coral β-diversity among the shoals supports the hypothesis that these habitats behave like small oases of hard substrata interspersed in a muddy bottom. Because of their intrinsic beauty and rarity and their biological and ecological value, we stress the need of specific actions aimed at the urgent protection of these oases of biodiversity.

  20. Central nervous dysfunction associated with deep-sea diving.

    PubMed

    Aarli, J A; Vaernes, R; Brubakk, A O; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Tønjum, S

    1985-01-01

    A group of 23 professional divers was investigated before and after dives to 300 and 350 metres of sea water. 12 divers were also studied during the actual dive. All divers presented neurological symptoms and signs during compression. Intention tremor, ataxia, motor weakness, sensory symptoms, vertigo, nausea and reduced memory were the most prominent features of the High Pressure Nervous Syndrome (HPNS). There were considerable individual differences. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological investigations performed after one dive showed no significant changes in any of the divers, while there was a clear-cut impairment in a group of 6 divers who had performed 2 dives 3 months apart. These changes indicate that there may be pressure-induced brain dysfunction which persists for a transient post-dive period. Loss of short-term memory is a prominent part of this dysfunction. Transitory neurological signs indicating focal cerebral dysfunction were found immediately post-dive in 4 divers, presumably reflecting the unmasking of pre-existing subclinical minimal CNS lesions.

  1. The economic implications of changing regulations for deep sea fishing under the European Common Fisheries Policy: UK case study.

    PubMed

    Mangi, Stephen C; Kenny, Andrew; Readdy, Lisa; Posen, Paulette; Ribeiro-Santos, Ana; Neat, Francis C; Burns, Finlay

    2016-08-15

    Economic impact assessment methodology was applied to UK fisheries data to better understand the implications of European Commission proposal for regulations to fishing for deep-sea stocks in the North-East Atlantic (EC COM 371 Final 2012) under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The aim was to inform the on-going debate to develop the EC proposal, and to assist the UK fishing industry and Government in evaluating the most effective options to manage deep sea fish stocks. Results indicate that enforcing the EC proposal as originally drafted results in a number of implications for the UK fleet. Because of the proposed changes to the list of species defined as being deep sea species, and a new definition of what constitutes a vessel targeting deep sea species, a total of 695 active UK fishing vessels would need a permit to fish for deep sea species. However, due to existing and capped capacity limits many vessels would potentially not be able to obtain such a permit. The economic impact of these changes from the status quo reveals that in the short term, landings would decrease by 6540 tonnes, reducing gross value added by £3.3 million. Alternative options were also assessed that provide mitigation measures to offset the impacts of the proposed regulations whilst at the same time providing more effective protection of deep sea Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs). The options include setting a 400m depth rule that identifies a depth beyond which vessels would potentially be classified as fishing for deep sea species and designating 'core areas' for deep sea fishing at depths>400m to minimise the risk of further impacts of bottom fishing gear on deep sea habitats. Applying a 400m depth limit and 'core fishing' area approach deeper than 400m, the impact of the EC proposal would essentially be reduced to zero, that is, on average no vessels (using the status quo capacity baseline) would be impacted by the proposal. PMID:27100006

  2. The economic implications of changing regulations for deep sea fishing under the European Common Fisheries Policy: UK case study.

    PubMed

    Mangi, Stephen C; Kenny, Andrew; Readdy, Lisa; Posen, Paulette; Ribeiro-Santos, Ana; Neat, Francis C; Burns, Finlay

    2016-08-15

    Economic impact assessment methodology was applied to UK fisheries data to better understand the implications of European Commission proposal for regulations to fishing for deep-sea stocks in the North-East Atlantic (EC COM 371 Final 2012) under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The aim was to inform the on-going debate to develop the EC proposal, and to assist the UK fishing industry and Government in evaluating the most effective options to manage deep sea fish stocks. Results indicate that enforcing the EC proposal as originally drafted results in a number of implications for the UK fleet. Because of the proposed changes to the list of species defined as being deep sea species, and a new definition of what constitutes a vessel targeting deep sea species, a total of 695 active UK fishing vessels would need a permit to fish for deep sea species. However, due to existing and capped capacity limits many vessels would potentially not be able to obtain such a permit. The economic impact of these changes from the status quo reveals that in the short term, landings would decrease by 6540 tonnes, reducing gross value added by £3.3 million. Alternative options were also assessed that provide mitigation measures to offset the impacts of the proposed regulations whilst at the same time providing more effective protection of deep sea Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs). The options include setting a 400m depth rule that identifies a depth beyond which vessels would potentially be classified as fishing for deep sea species and designating 'core areas' for deep sea fishing at depths>400m to minimise the risk of further impacts of bottom fishing gear on deep sea habitats. Applying a 400m depth limit and 'core fishing' area approach deeper than 400m, the impact of the EC proposal would essentially be reduced to zero, that is, on average no vessels (using the status quo capacity baseline) would be impacted by the proposal.

  3. A New Method for Reconstructing Sea-Level and Deep-Sea-Temperature Variability over the Past 5.3 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohling, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (d18O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. We have recently presented a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. A serious of caveats applies to this new method, especially in older times of its application, as is always the case with new methods. Independent validation exercises are needed to elucidate where consistency exists, and where solutions drift away from each other. A key observation from our new method is that a large temporal offset existed during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. This observation relies on relative changes within the dataset, which are more robust than absolute values. I will discuss our method and its main caveats and avenues for improvement.

  4. Sulphur isotopic compositions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The S-34/S-32 ratios of tissues from vestimentiferan worms, brachyuran crabs, and giant clams living around deep hydrothermal vents are reported. Clean tissues were dried, ground, suspended in 0.1 M LiCl, shaken twice at 37 C to remove seawater sulfates, dried at 60 C, combusted in O2 in a Parr bomb. Sulfur was recovered as BaSO4, and the isotopic abundances in SO2 generated by thermal decomposition of 5-30-mg samples were determined using an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. The results are expressed as delta S-34 and compared with values measured in seawater sulfates and in normal marine fauna. The values ranged from -4.7 to 4.7 per thousand, comparable to vent sulfide minerals (1.3-4.1 per thousand) and distinct from seawater sulfates (20.1 per thousand) and normal marine fauna (about 13-20 per thousand). These results indicate that vent sulfur rather than seawater sulfur is utilized by these animals, a process probably mediated by chemoautotrophic bacteria which can use inorganic sulfur compounds as energy sources.

  5. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Montagna, Paolo; López Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-09-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480,000 years, especially during cool interstadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12,900 to 11,700 years BP followed by a short (~ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11,230 to 10,900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12,500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (τ isol) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ~ 10,900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in a thin veneer

  6. Calibration of fossil scleraxonian Southern Ocean deep-sea corals for U-series dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hillenbrand, C.; Kuhn, G.

    2008-12-01

    The deep Southern Ocean has been pinpointed as candidate reservoir capable of storing the additional respired carbon that was drawn from the atmosphere during the Last Glacial Maximum compared with the present-day. In this context the determination of deep ocean ventilation ages is a commonly applied tool, potentially identifying radiocarbon depletion in glacial deep water and enhanced ocean stratification. In order to derive deep-sea ventilation ages most studies to date have used either radiocarbon age differences between paired planktic and benthic foraminifera samples or coupled U-Th and radiocarbon dates obtained from aragonitic deep-sea corals. Results from both these approaches are, however, as yet very scarce for the Southern Ocean. We present calendar ages for a set of deep-sea scleraxonian corals from the Marie Byrd Seamounts in the Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean (~123°W, ~69°S, 2500 m to 1430 m water depth) employing the 230Th/U-dating method. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether these calcitic octocorals can be used for ventilation age determinations. Our corals have significantly lower uranium concentrations than aragonitic deep-sea corals, ranging from 80 to 250 ng/g. Most corals of Holocene age reproduced the present-day seawater 234U/238U. Pre-Holocene corals, however, show a systematic enrichment of 234U, leading to slightly elevated deglacial initial 234U/238U and significantly higher 234U/238U for ~MIS5 sub-samples. These corals also appear to grow very slowly, on the order of only few μm/year, making it essential to sample as little coral material as possible for combined 230Th/U- and radiocarbon dating purposes. One coral, sampled at high-resolution in various sections returned ages that scatter around 10 ka BP and the early deglaciation, though several significantly older ages were obtained as well. The present-day (234U/238U) ACT in different sections of this coral is very homogenous (1.155 ± 0.003) and more or less

  7. Five Hundred and Seventy Three Holes in the Bottom of the Sea-Some Results From Seven Years of Deep-Sea Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Described are the background, operation, and findings of the work of the deep sea drilling vessel Glomar Challenger, which has taken 8,638 core samples from 573 holes at 392 sites on the floor of the Earth's oceans. (SL)

  8. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas oleovorans strain MGY01 isolated from deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runping; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans MGY01 isolated from the deep-sea water of the South China Sea could effectively degrade malachite green. The draft genome of P. oleovorans MGY01 was sequenced and analyzed to gain insights into its efficient metabolic pathway for degrading malachite green. The data obtained revealed 109 Contigs (N50; 128,269 bp) with whole genome size of 5,201,892 bp. The draft genome sequence of strain MGY01 will be helpful in studying the genetic pathways involved in the degradation of malachite green. PMID:25528517

  9. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolopoulos, K.; Belias, A.; Markou, C.; Rapidis, P.; Kappos, E.

    2016-04-01

    GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  10. Draft genome of bagasse-degrading bacteria Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 from deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 was isolated from deep sea water of the South China Sea, which can produce glucose and fructose by degrading bagasse at 25 °C. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03. The data obtained revealed 37 contigs with genome size of 5,105,129 bp and G+C content of 38.09%. The draft genome of B. aryabhattai GZ03 may provide insights into the mechanism of microbial carbohydrate and lignocellulosic material degradation.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas oleovorans strain MGY01 isolated from deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runping; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans MGY01 isolated from the deep-sea water of the South China Sea could effectively degrade malachite green. The draft genome of P. oleovorans MGY01 was sequenced and analyzed to gain insights into its efficient metabolic pathway for degrading malachite green. The data obtained revealed 109 Contigs (N50; 128,269 bp) with whole genome size of 5,201,892 bp. The draft genome sequence of strain MGY01 will be helpful in studying the genetic pathways involved in the degradation of malachite green.

  12. Population connectivity of deep-sea corals: Chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Baco, Amy; Nizinski, Martha S.; Coykendall, Dolly K.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Cho, Walter; Shank, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the scale of dispersal among habitats has been a challenge in marine ecology for decades (Grantham et al., 2003; Kinlan & Gaines, 2003; Hixon, 2011). Unlike terrestrial habitats in which barriers to dispersal may be obvious (e.g. mountain ranges, rivers), few absolute barriers to dispersal are recognizable in the sea. Additionally, most marine species have complex life cycles in which juveniles are more mobile than adults. As such, the dynamics of populations may involve processes in distant habitats that are coupled by a transport mechanism. Studies of population connectivity try to quantify the transport, or dispersal of individuals, among geographically separated populations. For benthic marine species, such as corals and demersal fishes, colonization of new populations occurs primarily by dispersal of larvae (Figure 1; Shank, 2010). Successful dispersal and recruitment, followed by maturation and reproduction of these new migrants ensures individuals contribute to the gene pool (Hedgecock, 2007). Thus, successful dispersal links and cohesively maintains spatially separated sub-populations. At shorter time scales (10-100s years), connectivity regulates community structure by influencing the genetic composition, diversity and demographic stability of the population, whereas at longer time scales (1000s years), geographic distributions are affected (McClain and Hardy, 2010). Alternatively, populations may become extinct or speciation may occur if connectivity ceases (Cowen et al., 2007). Therefore, the genetic exchange of individuals between populations is fundamental to the short-term resilience and long-term maintenance of the species. However, for the vast majority of marine species, population connectivity remains poorly understood.

  13. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    massive CDR interventions eventually bring down the global mean pH value to the RCP2.6 level, yet cannot restore a similarly homogenous distribution - while the pH of the upper ocean returns to the preindustrial value or even exceed it (in the 180 ppm scenario), the deep ocean remains acidified. The deep ocean is out of contact with the atmosphere and therefore unreachable by atmospheric CDR. Our results suggest that the proposition that the marine consequences of early emissions reductions are comparable to those of delayed reductions plus CDR is delusive and that a policy that allows for emitting CO2 today in the hopes of removing it tomorrow is bound to generate substantial regrets.

  14. An efficient multi-locus mixed model approach for genome-wide association studies in structured populations

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Vincent; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Platt, Alexander; Korte, Arthur; Seren, Ümit; Long, Quan; Nordborg, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Population structure causes genome-wide linkage disequilibrium between unlinked loci, leading to statistical confounding in genome-wide association studies. Mixed models have been shown to handle the confounding effects of a diffuse background of large numbers of loci of small effect well, but do not always account for loci of larger effect. Here we propose a multi-locus mixed model as a general method for mapping complex traits in structured populations. Simulations suggest that our method outperforms existing methods, in terms of power as well as false discovery rate. We apply our method to human and Arabidopsis thaliana data, identifying novel associations in known candidates as well as evidence for allelic heterogeneity. We also demonstrate how a priori knowledge from an A. thaliana linkage mapping study can be integrated into our method using a Bayesian approach. Our implementation is computationally efficient, making the analysis of large datasets (n > 10000) practicable. PMID:22706313

  15. An efficient multi-locus mixed-model approach for genome-wide association studies in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Segura, Vincent; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Platt, Alexander; Korte, Arthur; Seren, Ümit; Long, Quan; Nordborg, Magnus

    2012-06-17

    Population structure causes genome-wide linkage disequilibrium between unlinked loci, leading to statistical confounding in genome-wide association studies. Mixed models have been shown to handle the confounding effects of a diffuse background of large numbers of loci of small effect well, but they do not always account for loci of larger effect. Here we propose a multi-locus mixed model as a general method for mapping complex traits in structured populations. Simulations suggest that our method outperforms existing methods in terms of power as well as false discovery rate. We apply our method to human and Arabidopsis thaliana data, identifying new associations and evidence for allelic heterogeneity. We also show how a priori knowledge from an A. thaliana linkage mapping study can be integrated into our method using a Bayesian approach. Our implementation is computationally efficient, making the analysis of large data sets (n > 10,000) practicable.

  16. Optical variability and pigment biomass in the Sargasso Sea as determined using deep-sea optical mooring data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Waters, K. J.; Baker, K. S.

    1991-01-01

    A 9-month time series of optical data, composed of three separate deployments, from the Biowatt 1987 deep-sea mooring located in the oligotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea at 32 deg N, 70 deg W, is presented. These data were analyzed using several biooptical models for the purpose of providing a continuous estimate of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and pigment biomass. Results of the first 70-day deployment demonstrate the utility of optical observations as proxy measures of biological parameters, and facilitate a preliminary analysis of the temporal variations and a comparison of the present biooptical observations with concurrent physical observations. Biooptical properties exhibit variation in response to physical forcings, such as diel variations of incident solar irradiance, episodic wind forcing, advective mesoscale eddy layer depth, and succession of phytoplankton. The mooring data are discussed in the context of contemporaneous shipboard observations as well as in terms of future ocean satellite observations.

  17. NASA light emitting diode medical applications from deep space to deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Buchmann, Ellen V.; Whelan, Noel T.; Turner, Scott G.; Cevenini, Vita; Stinson, Helen; Ignatius, Ron; Martin, Todd; Cwiklinski, Joan; Meyer, Glenn A.; Hodgson, Brian; Gould, Lisa; Kane, Mary; Chen, Gina; Caviness, James

    2001-02-01

    This work is supported and managed through the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-SBIR Program. LED-technology developed for NASA plant growth experiments in space shows promise for delivering light deep into tissues of the body to promote wound healing and human tissue growth. We present the results of LED-treatment of cells grown in culture and the effects of LEDs on patients' chronic and acute wounds. LED-technology is also biologically optimal for photodynamic therapy of cancer and we discuss our successes using LEDs in conjunction with light-activated chemotherapeutic drugs. .

  18. A multi-locus analysis of phylogenetic relationships within cheilostome bryozoans supports multiple origins of ascophoran frontal shields.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sarah; Gordon, Dennis P; Lavery, Shane D

    2011-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the bryozoan order Cheilostomata are currently uncertain, with many morphological hypotheses proposed but scarcely tested by independent means of molecular analysis. This research uses DNA sequence data across five loci of both mitochondrial and nuclear origin from 91 species of cheilostome Bryozoa (34 species newly sequenced). This vastly improved the taxonomic coverage and number of loci used in a molecular analysis of this order and allowed a more in-depth look into the evolutionary history of Cheilostomata. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of individual loci were carried out along with a partitioned multi-locus approach, plus a range of topology tests based on morphological hypotheses. Together, these provide a comprehensive set of phylogenetic analyses of the order Cheilostomata. From these results inferences are made about the evolutionary history of this order and proposed morphological hypotheses are discussed in light of the independent evidence gained from the molecular data. Infraorder Ascophorina was demonstrated to be non-monophyletic, and there appears to be multiple origins of the ascus and associated structures involved in lophophore extension. This was further supported by the lack of monophyly within each of the four ascophoran grades (acanthostegomorph/spinocystal, hippothoomorph/gymnocystal, umbonulomorph/umbonuloid, lepraliomorph/lepralioid) defined by frontal-shield morphology. Chorizopora, currently classified in the ascophoran grade Hippothoomorpha, is phylogenetically distinct from Hippothoidae, providing strong evidence for multiple origins of the gymnocystal frontal shield type. Further evidence is produced to support the morphological hypothesis of multiple umbonuloid origins of lepralioid frontal shields, using a step-wise set of topological hypothesis tests combined with examination of multi-locus phylogenies.

  19. Effects of Wind and Sea Ice Drift on the Seasonal Variation of Warm Circumpolar Deep Water in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Wahlin, A.; Ha, H. K.; Lee, S.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We examined the effect of wind and sea ice on seasonal variation in the thickness of circumpolar deep water, to better understand the processes causing mass loss in the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS). Spatial and temporal variation of the layer of warm and salty circumpolar deep water (CDW) at the center of the Amundsen Shelf was measured during two oceanographic surveys and a two-year mooring deployment. A hydrographic transect from the deep ocean, across the shelf break, and into the Dotson Trough shows a local elevation of the warm deep water layer at the shelf break. On the shelf, the water flows south-east along the trough. The thickness of the warm layer displays seasonal variation with maximum thickness in austral summer and minimum thickness in austral winter. The variation in warm layer thickness gives rise to a seasonal variation of the modified CDW heat content. In order to investigate the effects of wind and sea ice drift on the heat content, ocean surface stress was calculated using the ERA interim reanalysis wind data and observed sea ice velocity and concentration from satellites. The Ekman pumping velocity was calculated from the ocean surface stress field. The Ekman pumping at the shelf break, where the warm layer is elevated, shows a strong seasonal variation coinciding with the mooring data. The average wind field is eastward north of the shelf break and westward south of the shelf break during all seasons. The main effect of a layer of sea ice (between the wind and the water) is to reduce the surface stress which can intensify the horizontal gradient of surface stress at the marginal ice zone. This creates a divergence of the Ekman transport and a positive Ekman pumping at the marginal ice zone, if the wind direction is eastward. From February to April, a marginal ice zone close to the shelf break gives rise to a positive Ekman pumping that may explain the seasonal signal seen in the mooring data. At northern boundaries of coastal polynya

  20. Oxygen and evolutionary patterns in the sea: onshore/offshore trends and recent recruitment of deep-sea faunas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Lindberg, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 15 years a striking pattern of diversification has been documented in the fossil record of benthic marine invertebrates. Higher taxa (orders) tend to originate onshore, diversify offshore, and retreat into deep-water environments. Previous studies attribute this macroevolutionary pattern to a variety of causes, foremost among them the role of nearshore disturbance in providing opportunities for the evolution of novel forms accorded ordinal rank. Our analysis of the post-Paleozoic record of ordinal first appearances indicates that the onshore preference of ordinal origination occurred only in the Mesozoic prior to the Turonian stage of the Cretaceous, a period characterized by relatively frequent anoxic/dysoxic bottom conditions in deeper marine environments. Later, in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, ordinal origination of benthic organisms did not occur exclusively, or even preferentially, in onshore environments. This change in environmental pattern of ordinal origination roughly correlates with Late Cretaceous: (i) decline in anoxia/dysoxia in offshore benthic environments; (ii) extinction of faunas associated with dysoxic conditions; (iii) increase in bioturbation with the expansion of deep burrowing forms into offshore environments; and (iv) offshore expansion of bryozoan diversity. We also advance a separate argument that the Cenomanian/Turonian and latest Paleocene global events eliminated much of the deep-water benthos. This requires a more recent origin of modern vent and deep-sea faunas, from shallower water refugia, than the Paleozoic or early Mesozoic origin of these faunas suggested by other workers.

  1. Deep seismic survey images crustal structure of Tornquist Zone beneath southern Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Tornquist Zone is Europe's longest tectonic lineament and bisects the continent in a NW-SE direction from the North Sea (off NW Denmark) to the Black Sea. New deep seismic reflection and coincident refraction data have been collected across its 50 km wide, intensely faulted and inverted NW part. The marine reflection profile in the area north of Bornholm Island shows a tilted block structure in the rigid upper crust, whereas the lower crust seems to be more gently uplifted. A complex transition from the highly reflective lower crust to the mantle is indicated by mantle reflections and a curious wide-angle event recorded by a landstation on Bornholm Island. The authors suggest that deep-reaching inversion tectonics, induced by Alpine and Carpathian orogeny, were responsible for the development of the gross crust-mantle structure of the Tornquist Zone in the study area, which seems to be similar to that in Poland.

  2. Estimation of the Iron Loss in Deep-Sea Permanent Magnet Motors considering Seawater Compressive Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress. PMID:25177717

  3. Numerical modeling of suspended sediment due to deep-sea mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, J. A.; Malcherek, A.; Zielke, W.

    1996-02-01

    A numerical model was developed in order to estimate the residence time of a sediment plume generated by potential deep-sea mining activities, with special attention to discharges in the bottom boundary layer. The site of the Disturbance and Recolonization Experiment (DISCOL) in the Peru Basin in the southeast Pacific Ocean was chosen as a case study. The model includes the actual bathymetry, as well as the characteristic flow patterns of this region. Various aspects affecting the transport and sedimentation of the plume, such as stratification, flocculation in a sediment-laden water column, and the hydrodynamics are discussed in conjunction with field data and studied with the overall aim of providing a reliable risk assessment of deep-sea mining environmental impacts.

  4. Microbial iron uptake as a mechanism for dispersing iron from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Toner, Brandy M; Baker, Brett J; Breier, John A; Sheik, Cody S; Dick, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are a significant source of oceanic iron. Although hydrothermal iron rapidly precipitates as inorganic minerals on mixing with seawater, it can be stabilized by organic matter and dispersed more widely than previously recognized. The nature and source of this organic matter is unknown. Here we show that microbial genes involved in cellular iron uptake are highly expressed in the Guaymas Basin deep-sea hydrothermal plume. The nature of these microbial iron transporters, taken together with the low concentration of dissolved iron and abundance of particulate iron in the plume, indicates that iron minerals are the target for this microbial scavenging and uptake. Our findings indicate that cellular iron uptake is a major process in plume microbial communities and suggest new mechanisms for generating Fe-C complexes. This 'microbial iron pump' could represent an important mode of converting hydrothermal iron into bioavailable forms that can be dispersed throughout the oceans.

  5. Deep-sea lebensspuren: remarks on some echiuran traces in the Porcupine Seabight, northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vaugelas, Jean

    1989-06-01

    During an exploration of the Porcupine Seabight aboard the French submersible Cyana, large rosettes attributed to echiurans were observed on the muddy bottom, sometimes associated with clumped mounds showing tension gashes. The intrusion of cores into the gashed mounds resulted in the creation of a fountain-like current of water flowing out of the center hole of the rosette, illustrating a direct connection. These two types of traces, which are classified under distinct generic names in recent classifications of deep-sea lebensspuren, are presumed to be produced by the echiuroid worm, being the two ends of an L-shaped burrow. A sketch of deep-sea echiurans' mode of life is proposed.

  6. Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Melanie; Klages, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Although recent research has shown that marine litter has made it even to the remotest parts of our planet, little information is available about temporal trends on the deep ocean floor. To quantify litter on the deep seafloor over time, we analysed images from the HAUSGARTEN observatory (79°N) taken in 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011 (2500 m depth). Our results indicate that litter increased from 3635 to 7710 items km⁻² between 2002 and 2011 and reached densities similar to those reported from a canyon near the Portuguese capital Lisboa. Plastic constituted the majority of litter (59%) followed by a black fabric (11%) and cardboard/paper (7%). Sixty-seven percent of the litter was entangled or colonised by invertebrates such as sponges (41%) or sea anemones (15%). The changes in litter could be an indirect consequence of the receding sea ice, which opens the Arctic Ocean to the impacts of man's activities.

  7. First discovery of the organic materials in deep-sea iron cosmic spherule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanchang, Peng; Peicang, XU

    1993-01-01

    The dust impact mass analyzer (PUMA) carried by the spacecraft Vega 1, Vega 2 and Giotto has provided the first direct measurements of the physical and chemical properties of cometary dust. The results indicate that most of the cometary dust particles are rich in light elements such as H, C, N, and O, suggesting the validity of models that describe the cometary dust as including organic material. Up to now, there were none found with the organic material from the deep-sea cosmic spherules. We have determined this from the deep-sea iron cosmic spherules collected from the North Pacific. An iron cosmic spherule (382 microns in diameter) was determined by the Laser Raman Microprobe.

  8. Estimation of the iron loss in deep-sea permanent magnet motors considering seawater compressive stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongxiang; Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.

  9. New Prionospio and Aurospio Species from the Deep Sea (Annelida: Polychaeta).

    PubMed

    Paterson, Gordon L J; Neal, Lenka; Altamira, Iris; Soto, Eulogio H; Smith, Craig R; Menot, Lenaick; Billett, David S M; Cunha, Marina R; Marchais-Laguionie, Claire; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    The number of records of the genus Prionospio Malmgren, 1867, from the deep sea (>2000 m) are relatively few and do not reflect the actual occurrence of species nor their potential ecological importance. In this paper we describe five new species of this genus (Prionospio amarsupiata sp. nov., P. vallensis sp. nov., P. branchilucida sp. nov., P. hermesia sp. nov. and P. kaplani sp. nov.) all of which are abundant members of the deep-sea community. We also describe two new species of the genus Aurospio Maciolek, 1981 (Aurospio abranchiata sp. nov. and A. tribranchiata sp. nov.) again common elements of the abyssal fauna. Two of the new species have characters which question the generic distinctiveness of Prionospio and Aurospio. The problems in differentiating these two genera are discussed. PMID:27394364

  10. Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lowell; Timmermann, Axel; Thunell, Robert

    2007-10-19

    Establishing what caused Earth's largest climatic changes in the past requires a precise knowledge of both the forcing and the regional responses. We determined the chronology of high- and low-latitude climate change at the last glacial termination by radiocarbon dating benthic and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope and magnesium/calcium records from a marine core collected in the western tropical Pacific. Deep-sea temperatures warmed by approximately 2 degrees C between 19 and 17 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), leading the rise in atmospheric CO2 and tropical-surface-ocean warming by approximately 1000 years. The cause of this deglacial deep-water warming does not lie within the tropics, nor can its early onset between 19 and 17 ky B.P. be attributed to CO2 forcing. Increasing austral-spring insolation combined with sea-ice albedo feedbacks appear to be the key factors responsible for this warming.

  11. Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotllant, Guiomar; Abad, Esteban; Sardà, Francisco; Ábalos, Manuela; Company, Joan B.; Rivera, Josep

    2006-12-01

    Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscle

  12. DeepPIV: Particle image velocimetry measurements using deep-sea, remotely operated vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katija, Kakani; Sherman, Alana; Graves, Dale; Klimov, Denis; Kecy, Chad; Robison, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet remains one of the least explored. Little-known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed life strategies that contribute to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. Although significant advances in underwater vehicle technologies have improved access to midwater, small-scale, in situ fluid mechanics measurement methods that seek to quantify the interactions that midwater organisms have with their physical environment are lacking. Here we present DeepPIV, an instrumentation package affixed to remotely operated vehicles that quantifies fluid motions from the surface of the ocean down to 4000 m depths. Utilizing ambient suspended particulate, fluid-structure interactions are evaluated on a range of marine organisms in midwater. Initial science targets include larvaceans, biological equivalents of flapping flexible foils, that create mucus houses to filter food. Little is known about the structure of these mucus houses and the function they play in selectively filtering particles, and these dynamics can serve as particle-mucus models for human health. Using DeepPIV, we reveal the complex structures and flows generated within larvacean mucus houses, and elucidate how these structures function. Funding is gratefully acknowledged from the Packard Foundation.

  13. Reproduction of deep-sea reef-building corals from the southwestern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, D. O.; Silva, J. C.; Bastos, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    The logistics of research on deep-sea organisms imposes restrictions on studies that require repetitive long-term collections. Studies on the reproduction of deep-water corals have commonly been made without appropriate temporal series. This study included Madrepora oculata, Solenosmilia variabilis, Lophelia pertusa, and Enallopsammia rostrata, which are among the primary deep-sea reef building corals off Brazil. Samples were collected during 13 consecutive months by the Campos Basin Deep-Sea Corals Assessment Project (R&D Center of the Brazilian Energy Company, Petrobras) in Campos Basin (CB) off Rio de Janeiro State through a remotely-operated-vehicle at approximately 600 m depth. Of every monthly sampling campaign, an average of four to five colonies of all four species were investigated histologically. Colonies of both sexes were observed, indicating that all four species are gonochoric. For now, this appears to be the predominant reproductive pattern observed in corals in the area, as well as in deep-sea corals in general, where 80% of coral species are gonochoric. Although considered functionally gonochoric, M. oculata and L. pertusa presented a few colonies with different hermaphroditism patterns. E. rostrata and M. oculata presented continuous reproduction. Although fertile year-round, S. variabilis presents a reproductive peak between April and September (Autumn-Spring) in contrast with the seasonal reproduction recorded in the southwestern Pacific. L. pertusa had a seasonal reproductive peak, confirming previous observations of periodic reproduction in this species in the northeastern Atlantic. The possible spawning season of L. pertusa from CB concentrates between May and July (high frequency of mature gametes), while spawning occurs between January and March in the North Atlantic and between September and November in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that the studied species are broadcast spawners because no embryos or larvae were observed in any

  14. Potential Mechanisms for Microbial Energy Acquisition in Oxic Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, John F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) possesses the lowest rates of sedimentation, surface chlorophyll concentration, and primary productivity in the global oceans. As a direct result, deep-sea sediments are thin and contain small amounts of labile organic carbon. It was recently shown that the entire SPG sediment column is oxygenated and may be representative of up to a third of the global marine environment. To understand the microbial processes that contribute to the removal of the labile organic matter at the water-sediment interface, a sediment sample was collected and subjected to metagenomic sequencing and analyses. Analysis of nine partially reconstructed environmental genomes, which represent approximately one-third of the microbial community, revealed that the members of the SPG surface sediment microbial community are phylogenetically distinct from surface/upper-ocean organisms. These genomes represent a wide distribution of novel organisms, including deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, two novel organisms within the Proteobacteria, and new members of the Nitrospirae, Nitrospinae, and candidate phylum NC10. These genomes contain evidence for microbially mediated metal (iron/manganese) oxidation and carbon fixation linked to nitrification. Additionally, despite hypothesized energy limitation, members of the SPG microbial community had motility and chemotaxis genes and possessed mechanisms for the degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter. This study contributes to our understanding of the metabolic potential of microorganisms in deep-sea oligotrophic sediments and their impact on local carbon geochemistry. IMPORTANCE This research provides insight into the microbial metabolic potential of organisms inhabiting oxygenated deep-sea marine sediments. Current estimates suggest that these environments account for up to a third of the global marine sediment habitat. Nine novel deep-sea microbial genomes were reconstructed from a metagenomic data set

  15. Conquered from the Deep Sea? A New Deep-Sea Isopod Species from the Antarctic Shelf Shows Pattern of Recent Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species’ potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed. PMID:23145160

  16. Nd isotopes in deep-sea corals in the North-eastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copard, Kevin; Colin, Christophe; Douville, Eric; Freiwald, Andre; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; De Mol, Ben; Frank, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    Neodymium (Nd) concentrations and isotopic signatures of living and fossil deep-sea coral species Lophelia pertusa, Desmophyllum dianthus and Madrepora oculata from the northeast Atlantic Ocean have been investigated in order to test the ability of deep-sea corals to reconstruct the seawater Nd isotopic signature and past changes of ocean circulation in the eastern North Atlantic. Small quantities of Nd—less than 45 ng/g—are incorporated into the aragonite skeleton of living deep-sea corals that dwell at upper intermediate depths throughout the Northeast Atlantic. Rigorous cleaning techniques are needed in order to avoid Nd contamination from manganese-oxide and iron hydroxide coatings. Moreover, Nd isotopic compositions have been measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by Nd-oxide method. Our data indicate that the isotopic signatures of modern corals are similar to those of adjacent water masses, implying that deep-sea corals can serve as an archive of the seawater Nd isotopic compositions in the past. The first results from few fully-cleaned fossils corals collected within the Porcupine Seabight and the southwest Rockall Bank reveal significantly higher ɛNd for corals dated between 150 ± 40 and 3060 ± 90 yrs than those of the living corals located in similar areas. This suggests rapid hydrological variations along the eastern margin of the North Atlantic Ocean at intermediate water depth with higher contribution of the Mediterranean Overflow Waters (MOW) or other temperate Atlantic mid-depth water masses (ENACW or NAC) in the past.

  17. Fission track ages and ages of deposition of deep-sea microtektites.

    PubMed

    Gentner, W; Glass, B P; Storzer, D; Wagner, G A

    1970-04-17

    The Australasian and Ivory Coast deep-sea microtektites have fission track ages of 0.71 and 1.09 million years, respectively. These ages are in good agreement with the ages of deposition of the microtektites determined from paleomagnetic data. Both the fission track ages and ages of deposition of the microtektites agree with the potassium/ argon and fission track ages of tektites from the respective tektite strewn fields.

  18. Glassy Objects (Microtektites?) from Deep-Sea Sediments near the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Glass, B P

    1968-08-30

    Glassy objects of spherical, oval, dumbbell, teardrop, and irregular shapes have been found in a deep-sea sediment core taken off the Ivory Coast. They occur in a layer of sediment that was apparently deposited about 800,000 years ago. Their geographic location, appearance, and physical properties suggest that they are microtektites and that they are related to the tektite-strewn field of the Ivory Coast.

  19. Climatic forcing of Quaternary deep-sea benthic communities in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Hokanishi, N.; Kawahata, H.; Tsujimoto, Akira; Ishitake, M.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that changes in deep-sea benthic ecosystems are modulated by climate changes, but most evidence to date comes from the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we analyze new ostracod and published foraminiferal records for the last 250,000 years on Shatsky Rise in the North Pacific Ocean. Using linear models, we evaluate statistically the ability of environmental drivers (temperature, productivity, and seasonality of productivity) to predict changes in faunal diversity, abundance, and composition. These microfossil data show glacial-interglacial shifts in overall abundances and species diversities that are low during glacial intervals and high during interglacials. These patterns replicate those previously documented in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting that the climatic forcing of the deep-sea ecosystem is widespread, and possibly global in nature. However, these results also reveal differences with prior studies that probably reflect the isolated nature of Shatsky Rise as a remote oceanic plateau. Ostracod assemblages on Shatsky Rise are highly endemic but of low diversity, consistent with the limited dispersal potential of these animals. Benthic foraminifera, by contrast, have much greater dispersal ability and their assemblages at Shatsky Rise show diversities typical for deep-sea faunas in other regions. Statistical analyses also reveal ostracod-foraminferal differences in relationships between environmental drivers and biotic change. Rarefied diversity is best explained as a hump-shaped function of surface productivity in ostracods, but as having a weak and positive relationship with temperature in foraminifera. Abundance shows a positive relationship with both productivity and seasonality of productivity in foraminifera, and a hump-shaped relationship with productivity in ostracods. Finally, species composition in ostracods is influenced by both temperature and productivity, but only a temperature effect is evident in foraminifera. Though

  20. Diversity of the benthic macrofauna off northern Namibia from the shelf to the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbarth, Simone; Zettler, Michael L.

    2016-03-01

    In late summer 2011, shortly after an upwelling event, 17 stations ranging from 30 to 2513 m water depth have been sampled at 20° south in the northern part of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) for the investigation of the benthic macrofauna. Sediments of this area are dominated by silt. At the time of sampling, oxygen conditions on the shelf were poor (between 0.42 and 0.68 ml l- 1) but not hypoxic. Below 400 m, however, concentrations rose steadily up to 5.28 ml l- 1. Macrozoobenthic communities along this depth gradient are described, revealing among others the community structure for the continental margin area and the deep sea off northern Namibia for the first time. Cluster analysis revealed 5 different communities along the depth gradient with three shelf communities, one continental margin community and one deep-sea community. All in all, 314 different taxa were found with polychaetes being the most abundant group. Diversity index (Shannon) was lowest for the shallow water community with 2.21 and highest for the deep-sea community with 4.79, showing a clear trend with increasing water depth. Species richness, however, reached its maximum with 187 taxa along the continental margin between 400 and 1300 m water depth. Dominant species for each community are named with the two Cumacea, Iphinoeafricana and Upselaspis caparti, being characteristic for the shallow water community. On the shelf, we found surprisingly high biomass values (23-123 g m- 2), mainly caused by polychaetes, the bivalve Sinupharus galatheae and the gastropod Nassarius vinctus. In terms of composition, the remaining communities were dominated by polychaetes with members of the Paraonidae dominating along the continental margin where we also found surprisingly high abundances of the bivalves Pecten sp. and Dosinia sp. Spionid polychaetes and some representatives of the genus Paraonis were the most common organisms for the deep-sea community.

  1. Dispersal Patterns of Pleistocene Sands on the North Atlantic Deep-Sea Floor.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J F

    1962-05-01

    Glauconitic, quartzose sands previously modified on the continental shelf from feldspathic glacial detritus were transported through submarine canyons onto the Hudson deep-sea fan, the Hatteras abyssal plain, and the western and central Sohm abyssal plain. These feldspar-poor, quartzose sands contrast with highly feldspathic sands derived directly from a glacial source and probably transported through the Newfoundland abyssal gap onto the eastern and southern Sohm abyssal plain. PMID:17798058

  2. Exploring deep sea habitats for baseline characterization using NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, L.; Cantwell, K. L.; Kennedy, B. R.; Lobecker, E.; Sowers, D.; Elliott, K.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the only US federal ship dedicated to ocean exploration, systematically explored previously unknown deep sea ecosystems in the Caribbean and remote regions in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. Initial characterization of these areas is essential in order to establish a baseline against which to assess potential future changes due to climate and anthropogenic change. In the Caribbean, over 37,500 sq km of previously unmapped seafloor were mapped with a high resolution multibeam revealing rugged canyons along shelf breaks, intricate incised channels, and complex tectonic features. 12 ROV dives, in the 300-6,000 m depth range, visually explored seamounts, escarpments, submarine canyons, and the water column revealing diverse ecosystems and habitats. Discoveries include large assemblages of deep sea corals, range extensions, and observations of several rare and potentially new organisms - including a seastar that had not been documented since its holotype specimen. In the Pacific, over 50,000 sq km of seafloor were mapped in high-resolution, revealing long linear ridge and tectonic fracture zone features, both peaked and flat-topped seamounts, and numerous features that appear to be volcanic in origin. To better understand ecosystem dynamics in depths greater than 2,000 m, the deepest ever ROV surveys and sampling were conducted in remote Pacific island marine sanctuaries and monuments. Novel observations include range extensions and exploration of dense deep sea coral and sponge habitat. Baseline habitat characterization was also conducted on seamounts within the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ), an area with the highest expected concentration of deep-sea minerals in the Pacific. The Hawaiian operations marked the first ever ROV sampling effort conducted onboard Okeanos, and several geological and biological samples are now available at museums and sample repositories in addition to all digital data available through the National

  3. Dispersal, environmental niches and oceanic-scale turnover in deep-sea bivalves.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Stegen, James C; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2012-05-22

    Patterns of beta-diversity or distance decay at oceanic scales are completely unknown for deep-sea communities. Even when appropriate data exist, methodological problems have made it difficult to discern the relative roles of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation for generating faunal turnover patterns. Here, we combine a spatially extensive dataset on deep-sea bivalves with a model incorporating ecological dynamics and shared evolutionary history to quantify the effects of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation. Both the model and empirical data are used to relate functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic similarity between communities to environmental and spatial distances separating them for 270 sites across the Atlantic Ocean. This study represents the first ocean-wide analysis examining distance decay as a function of a broad suite of explanatory variables. We find that both strong environmental filtering and dispersal limitation drive turnover in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic composition in deep-sea bivalves, explaining 26 per cent, 34 per cent and 9 per cent of the variation, respectively. This contrasts with previous suggestions that dispersal is not limiting in broad-scale biogeographic and biodiversity patterning in marine systems. However, rates of decay in similarity with environmental distance were eightfold to 44-fold steeper than with spatial distance. Energy availability is the most influential environmental variable evaluated, accounting for 3.9 per cent, 9.4 per cent and 22.3 per cent of the variation in functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic similarity, respectively. Comparing empirical patterns with process-based theoretical predictions provided quantitative estimates of dispersal limitation and niche breadth, indicating that 95 per cent of deep-sea bivalve propagules will be able to persist in environments that deviate from their optimum by up to 2.1 g m(-2) yr(-1) and typically disperse 749 km from their natal site.

  4. Strategies for molecular genetic studies of preserved deep-sea macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Elizabeth E.; Zardus, John D.; Chase, Michael R.; Etter, Ron J.; Rex, Michael A.

    2004-10-01

    With the development of new methods to sequence DNA from preserved organisms, existing archival collections can be used to document the population genetic structure of deep-sea species. This has made possible the first direct inferences about patterns of evolutionary diversification in the soft-sediment macrofauna. Here we report protocols and success rates for amplifying and sequencing regions of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA, Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), and Cytochrome b (cytb) genes from formalin-fixed protobranch bivalves and gastropods, major components of the deep-sea benthos. DNA was extracted from 1532 individuals of 12 common bathyal and abyssal species that had been fixed in formalin and preserved in alcohol for up to 36 years. DNA was also extracted from 53 individuals that were dried upon collection, some of which were collected more than 100 years ago. The overall success rate for amplification by PCR was 44%, but this varied considerably among species, stations, and cruises. When DNA amplified, sequencing success was generally high, averaging 85% and ranging from 19% to 100%. The reliability of amplification and sequencing depend strongly on how samples are treated during collection and storage. Amplification success was similar among samples collected from the same station and samples collected on the same cruise. We provide recommendations on strategies for primer design, PCR, and sample selection to improve success rates for genetic analysis of preserved deep-sea organisms. The success rates from different collections, sampling stations, and cruises provide important guidance for selecting material for future genetic work on deep-sea collections examined here.

  5. Search for microaustralites in deep-sea sediments less than 20,000 years old

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.; Wu, Jiquan

    1992-01-01

    Several authors have proposed that australites fell less than 20,000 years ago. We searched for microtektites in the tops of 46 deep-sea cores and were unable to find evidence for a microtektite layer less than 20,000 years old. Either the australite fall was not accompanied by microtektites, or the strewnfield did not extend into the area searched, or the australites fell about 0.77 Ma ago as indicated by their radiometric ages.

  6. Microbial eukaryotes in the hypersaline anoxic L'Atalante deep-sea basin.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Eva; Stock, Alexandra; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Behnke, Anke; Bunge, John; Yakimov, Michail M; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2009-02-01

    The frontiers of eukaryote life in nature are still unidentified. In this study, we analysed protistan communities in the hypersaline (up to 365 g l(-1) NaCl) anoxic L'Atalante deep-sea basin located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Targeting 18S ribosomal RNA retrieved from the basin's lower halocline (3501 m depth) we detected 279 protistan sequences that grouped into 42 unique phylotypes (99% sequence similarity). Statistical analyses revealed that these phylotypes account only for a proportion of the protists inhabiting this harsh environment with as much as 50% missed by this survey. Most phylotypes were affiliated with ciliates (45%), dinoflagellates (21%), choanoflagelates (10%) and uncultured marine alveolates (6%). Sequences from other taxonomic groups like stramenopiles, Polycystinea, Acantharea and Euglenozoa, all of which are typically found in non-hypersaline deep-sea systems, are either missing or very rare in our cDNA clone library. Although many DHAB sequences fell within previously identified environmental clades, a large number branched relatively deeply. Phylotype richness, community membership and community structure differ significantly from a deep seawater reference community (3499 m depth). Also, the protistan community in the L'Atalante basin is distinctively different from any previously described hypersaline community. In conclusion, we hypothesize that extreme environments may exert a high selection pressure possibly resulting in the evolution of an exceptional and distinctive assemblage of protists. The deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean Sea provide an ideal platform to test for this hypothesis and are promising targets for the discovery of undescribed protists with unknown physiological capabilities.

  7. Trophic state of benthic deep-sea ecosystems from two different continental margins off Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Anno, A.; Pusceddu, A.; Corinaldesi, C.; Canals, M.; Heussner, S.; Thomsen, L.; Danovaro, R.

    2013-05-01

    The bioavailability of organic matter in benthic deep-sea ecosystems, commonly used to define their trophic state, can greatly influence key ecological processes such as biomass production and nutrient cycling. Here, we assess the trophic state of deep-sea sediments from open slopes and canyons of the Catalan (NW Mediterranean) and Portuguese (NE Atlantic) continental margins, offshore east and west Iberia, respectively, by using a biomimetic approach based on enzymatic digestion of protein and carbohydrate pools. Patterns of sediment trophic state were analyzed in relation to increasing water depth, including repeated samplings over a 3 yr period in the Catalan margin. Two out of the three sampling periods occurred a few months after dense shelf water cascading events. The benthic deep-sea ecosystems investigated in this study were characterized by high amounts of bioavailable organic matter when compared to other deep-sea sediments. Bioavailable organic matter and its nutritional value were significantly higher in the Portuguese margin than in the Catalan margin, thus reflecting differences in primary productivity of surface waters reported for the two regions. Similarly, sediments of the Catalan margin were characterized by significantly higher food quantity and quality in spring, when the phytoplankton bloom occurs in surface waters, than in summer and autumn. Differences in the benthic trophic state of canyons against open slopes were more evident in the Portuguese than in the Catalan margin. In both continental margins, bioavailable organic C concentrations did not vary or increase with increasing water depth. Overall, our findings suggest that the intensity of primary production processes along with the lateral transfer of organic particles, even amplified by episodic events, can have a role in controlling the quantity and distribution of bioavailable organic detritus and its nutritional value along these continental margin ecosystems.

  8. Possible deep-water gas hydrate accumulations in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, Ginger A.; Scholl, David W.; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic reflection images from the deep-water Aleutian and Bowers Basins of the Bering Sea contain many hundreds of acoustic Velocity-AMPlitude (VAMP) anomalies, each of which may represent a large accumulation of natural gas hydrate. Against a backdrop of essentially horizontal sedimentary reflections, the VAMP anomalies stand out as both high-amplitude bright spots and zones of vertically aligned horizon distortions. The VAMPs are interpreted as natural gas chimneys overlain by concentrated hydrate caps.

  9. Microbial eukaryotes in the hypersaline anoxic L'Atalante deep-sea basin.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Eva; Stock, Alexandra; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Behnke, Anke; Bunge, John; Yakimov, Michail M; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2009-02-01

    The frontiers of eukaryote life in nature are still unidentified. In this study, we analysed protistan communities in the hypersaline (up to 365 g l(-1) NaCl) anoxic L'Atalante deep-sea basin located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Targeting 18S ribosomal RNA retrieved from the basin's lower halocline (3501 m depth) we detected 279 protistan sequences that grouped into 42 unique phylotypes (99% sequence similarity). Statistical analyses revealed that these phylotypes account only for a proportion of the protists inhabiting this harsh environment with as much as 50% missed by this survey. Most phylotypes were affiliated with ciliates (45%), dinoflagellates (21%), choanoflagelates (10%) and uncultured marine alveolates (6%). Sequences from other taxonomic groups like stramenopiles, Polycystinea, Acantharea and Euglenozoa, all of which are typically found in non-hypersaline deep-sea systems, are either missing or very rare in our cDNA clone library. Although many DHAB sequences fell within previously identified environmental clades, a large number branched relatively deeply. Phylotype richness, community membership and community structure differ significantly from a deep seawater reference community (3499 m depth). Also, the protistan community in the L'Atalante basin is distinctively different from any previously described hypersaline community. In conclusion, we hypothesize that extreme environments may exert a high selection pressure possibly resulting in the evolution of an exceptional and distinctive assemblage of protists. The deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean Sea provide an ideal platform to test for this hypothesis and are promising targets for the discovery of undescribed protists with unknown physiological capabilities. PMID:18826436

  10. Measurement of cosmic ray produced Mn-53 in deep sea metallic spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Cosmic ray originated Mn-53 nuclides were measured in deep sea metallic spherules by neutron activation analysis. The spherules may be fused micrometeoroids or ablation droplets from larger objects; the low activities of Mn-53 may indicate its evaporation loss resulting from the heating in the earth's atmosphere or short exposure age. The Mn-53 nuclide is now being measured in chondritic spherules, and Be-10 and Cl-36 concentrations are determined in individual spherules using ion counting methods.

  11. Glassy Objects (Microtektites?) from Deep-Sea Sediments near the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Glass, B P

    1968-08-30

    Glassy objects of spherical, oval, dumbbell, teardrop, and irregular shapes have been found in a deep-sea sediment core taken off the Ivory Coast. They occur in a layer of sediment that was apparently deposited about 800,000 years ago. Their geographic location, appearance, and physical properties suggest that they are microtektites and that they are related to the tektite-strewn field of the Ivory Coast. PMID:17812117

  12. Fission track ages and ages of deposition of deep-sea microtektites.

    PubMed

    Gentner, W; Glass, B P; Storzer, D; Wagner, G A

    1970-04-17

    The Australasian and Ivory Coast deep-sea microtektites have fission track ages of 0.71 and 1.09 million years, respectively. These ages are in good agreement with the ages of deposition of the microtektites determined from paleomagnetic data. Both the fission track ages and ages of deposition of the microtektites agree with the potassium/ argon and fission track ages of tektites from the respective tektite strewn fields. PMID:17809131

  13. Dispersal Patterns of Pleistocene Sands on the North Atlantic Deep-Sea Floor.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J F

    1962-05-01

    Glauconitic, quartzose sands previously modified on the continental shelf from feldspathic glacial detritus were transported through submarine canyons onto the Hudson deep-sea fan, the Hatteras abyssal plain, and the western and central Sohm abyssal plain. These feldspar-poor, quartzose sands contrast with highly feldspathic sands derived directly from a glacial source and probably transported through the Newfoundland abyssal gap onto the eastern and southern Sohm abyssal plain.

  14. Alkaloids from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-05-24

    Two new benzodiazepine alkaloids, circumdatins K and L (1, 2), two new prenylated indole alkaloids, 5-chlorosclerotiamide (3) and 10-epi-sclerotiamide (4), and one novel amide, aspergilliamide B (5), together with six known alkaloids were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of the compounds were tested for cytotoxicity toward human carcinoma A549, HL-60, K562, and MCF-7 cell lines.

  15. Spiroindimicins A-D: new bisindole alkaloids from a deep-sea-derived actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Liu, Zhong; Li, Sumei; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Qingbo; Ma, Liang; Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Caiguo; Zhang, Si; Ju, Jianhua; Shen, Yuemao; Zhang, Changsheng

    2012-07-01

    A PCR-based screening approach led to the identification of a deep-sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032 capable of producing new bisindole alkaloids spiroindimicins A-D (1-4). Structural elucidation of these compounds revealed the presence of unusual [5,6] or [5,5] spiro-ring containing skeletons. Spiroindimicins B-D (2-4) with a [5,5] spiro-ring exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against several cancer cell lines.

  16. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  17. Experience of cathodic protection, fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, S.; Pettersen, N.H.

    1996-08-01

    Statoil is the major operator of the oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. Different coating systems have been used for external corrosion protection of the pipelines. The paper presents the company`s experience regarding cathodic protection design and fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines.

  18. Evidence for hydrogen oxidation and metabolic plasticity in widespread deep-sea sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Karthik; Breier, John A.; Sheik, Cody S.; Dick, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are a well-known source of energy that powers chemosynthesis in the deep sea. Recent work suggests that microbial chemosynthesis is also surprisingly pervasive throughout the dark oceans, serving as a significant CO2 sink even at sites far removed from vents. Ammonia and sulfur have been identified as potential electron donors for this chemosynthesis, but they do not fully account for measured rates of dark primary production in the pelagic water column. Here we use metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses to show that deep-sea populations of the SUP05 group of uncultured sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria, which are abundant in widespread and diverse marine environments, contain and highly express genes encoding group 1 Ni, Fe hydrogenase enzymes for H2 oxidation. Reconstruction of near-complete genomes of two cooccurring SUP05 populations in hydrothermal plumes and deep waters of the Gulf of California enabled detailed population-specific metatranscriptomic analyses, revealing dynamic patterns of gene content and transcript abundance. SUP05 transcripts for genes involved in H2 and sulfur oxidation are most abundant in hydrothermal plumes where these electron donors are enriched. In contrast, a second hydrogenase has more abundant transcripts in background deep-sea samples. Coupled with results from a bioenergetic model that suggest that H2 oxidation can contribute significantly to the SUP05 energy budget, these findings reveal the potential importance of H2 as a key energy source in the deep ocean. This study also highlights the genomic plasticity of SUP05, which enables this widely distributed group to optimize its energy metabolism (electron donor and acceptor) to local geochemical conditions. PMID:23263870

  19. Hydroxylated PAHs in bile of deep-sea fish. Relationship with xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Escartin, E.; Porte, C.

    1999-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in deep-sea environments has been assessed by measuring bile PAH metabolites in deep-sea fish. Five species from the NW Mediterranean were selected for the study: Coryphaenoides guentheri, Lepidion lepidion, Mora moro, Bathypterois mediterraneus, and Alepocephalus rostratus. Bile crude samples were directly analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence at the excitation/emission wavelengths of benzo[a]pyrene. Differences among sampling sites were recorded, which suggests that coastal discharges of contaminants may reach these remote areas. Subsequently, a number of bile samples were hydrolyzed and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of individual PAHs. 1-Pyrenol and 2-phenylphenol were among the most abundant compounds detected. The results obtained confirm the long-range transport of PAHs to deep-sea environments, subsequent exposure of fish inhabiting those remote areas, and its ability to metabolize and excrete them through the bile. The data also describe hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferases) that appear to be as catalytically efficient as those in shallow water species.

  20. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica's fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze-thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  1. Molecular phylogeny of hemichordata, with updated status of deep-sea enteropneusts.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Johanna T; Rychel, Amanda L; Eccleston, Heather; Halanych, Kenneth M; Swalla, Billie J

    2009-07-01

    Hemichordates have occupied a central role in hypotheses of deuterostome and early chordate evolution. However, surprisingly little is understood about evolution within hemichordates, including hemichordate ancestral characters that may relate to other deuterostome taxa. Previous phylogenetic studies suggested that enteropneust worms are either monophyletic (based on 28S rDNA) or paraphyletic (based on 18S rDNA). Here, we expand the number of hemichordate taxa used in phylogenetic analyses for 18S rDNA data and employ more quickly evolving mitochondrial gene sequences. Novel data from an undescribed deep-sea enteropneust species similar to Torquarator bullocki and a Gulf Stream tornaria larva suggest that these taxa are closely allied to or possibly within Ptychoderidae. Saxipendium coronatum, another deep-sea species commonly called the spaghetti worm, is shown to be a member of Harrimaniidae. Recognition of these deep-sea lineages as distinct families calls into question features used in hemichordate taxonomy. In the new analyses, enteropneusts fall into two distinct monophyletic clades, with the colonial pterobranchs sister to Harrimaniidae, similar to earlier published 18S results. These results indicate that colonial pterobranchs may have evolved from a solitary acorn worm-like hemichordate ancestor. If true, pterobranchs would be unlikely to represent the deuterostome ancestral form as has been suggested by many traditional theories of deuterostome evolution. PMID:19348951

  2. The nematode fauna of a deep-sea site exposed to strong near-bottom currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thistle, David; Sherman, Kevin M.

    1985-09-01

    Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans in marine soft-bottom habitats, yet little is known of their role in deep-sea communities. We describe the nematode fauna from 4626 m depth in the North Atlantic (40°24.0'N, 63°07.4'W) at the family and genus level and compare our findings to previous reports on deep-sea nematodes. The results of covariance studies between nematodes and environmental parameters are also given. At the species level, there is no evidence of association between small