Science.gov

Sample records for deep underground gas

  1. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  2. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  3. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  4. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  5. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  6. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  7. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  8. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  9. Sidereal variations deep underground in Tasmania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humble, J. E.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the deep underground vertically directed muon telescopes at Poatina, Tasmania, have been used since 1972 for a number of investigations, including the daily intensity variations, atmospheric influences, and checking for possible effects due to the interplanetary magnetic field. These telescopes have a total sensitive area of only 3 square meters, with the result that the counting rate is low (about 1680 events per hour) and the statistical errors on the results are rather large. Consequently, it was decided several years ago to construct larger detectors for this station. The first of these telescopes has been in operation for two complete years, and the results from it are presented. Results from the new, more stable equipment at Poatina appear to confirm the existence of a first harmonic in the daily variations in sidereal time reported earlier, and are consistent with small or non-existent first harmonics in solar and anti-sidereal time. All the second harmonics appear to be small, if not zero at these energies.

  10. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  16. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Chen, Y. H.; Li, Y. J.; Shen, M. B.; Wu, S. Y.; Yue, Q.

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory — China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  17. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  18. Embedding Materials and Economy for a Deep Underground Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Takahashi

    2002-07-01

    I proposed embedding the high-conversion LWR, studied in the NERI program, about 500-1000 meters deep underground. At such depths, the earth's gravity force passively removes heat using the natural circulation of the reactor coolant; then, even a nuclear-power plant with very tight-lattice fuel assembly can be operated safely. Safety is ensured by embedding the reactor vessel and other components, such as coolant ducts, in casing containers and filling the space between the container and the vessel with embedding material. I describe suitable embedding materials that can be easily removed to allow access to the reactor and coolant components. Finally, I discuss the key economic aspects of building a reactor deep underground. (author)

  19. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  20. DIANA - A deep underground accelerator for nuclear astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, Daniel; Leitner, Daniela; Lemut, Alberto; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Couder, Manoel; Wiescher, Michael

    2013-04-19

    DIANA (Dakota Ion Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a proposed facility designed to be operated deep underground. The DIANA collaboration includes nuclear astrophysics groups from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, Colorado School of Mines, and the University of North Carolina, and is led by the University of Notre Dame. The scientific goals of the facility are measurements of low energy nuclear cross-sections associated with sun and pre-supernova stars in a laboratory setup at energies that are close to those in stars. Because of the low stellar temperatures associated with these environments, and the high Coulomb barrier, the reaction cross-sections are extremely low. Therefore these measurements are hampered by small signal to background ratios. By going underground the background due to cosmic rays can be reduced by several orders of magnitude. We report on the design status of the DIANA facility with focus on the 3 MV electrostatic accelerator.

  1. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2009-12-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory—DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota demonstrates remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the integrated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  2. Siting, Constructing, and Maintaining a Deep Underground Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Robert R.

    1983-03-01

    Experience from a recent site selection study has shown that the important considerations in siting a deep underground science facility are numerous, complicated, and most often based in economics. Even so, there are natural constraints on the maximum depth, size of openings, and construction techniques that can be attained or utilized at any particular site. In general, these are set by the local geothermal gradient, hydrologic regime, and properties of the rock mass or substance that are pertinent to geological, mining, and drilling engineering. At the same time, economics control the type of access, means of dewatering, and methods of sustaining the openings that are most feasible. If major faults can be avoided, sites offering acceptable temperature, a low water table, no outstanding aquifers or badly broken ground above the main openings, and strong, massive, largely impermeable rocks surrounding them at depth are best. Upon completion of a facility, the investment and safety of the occupants demand it rigorous maintenance.

  3. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  4. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  5. Underground gas storage in New York State: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M.; Sarwar, G.; Bass, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    New York State has a long history of underground gas storage activity that began with conversion of the Zoar gas field into a storage reservoir in 1916, the first in the United States. By 1961 another fourteen storage fields were developed and seven more were added between 1970 and 1991. All twenty-two operating storage reservoirs of New York were converted from depleted gas fields and are of low-deliverability, base-load type. Nineteen of these are in sandstone reservoirs of the Lower Silurian Medina Group and the Lower Devonian Oriskany Formation and three in limestone reservoirs are located in the gas producing areas of southwestern New York and are linked to the major interstate transmission lines. Recent developments in underground gas storage in New York involve mainly carbonate-reef and bedded salt-cavern storage facilities, one in Stuben County and the other in Cayuga County, are expected to begin operation by the 1996-1997 heating season.

  6. Heat exhaustion in a deep underground metalliferous mine

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, A; Sinclair, M.; Bates, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine the incidence, clinical state, personal risk factors, haematology, and biochemistry of heat exhaustion occurring at a deep underground metalliferous mine. To describe the underground thermal conditions associated with the occurrence of heat exhaustion.
METHODS—A 1 year prospective case series of acute heat exhaustion was undertaken. A history was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Pulse rate, blood pressure, tympanic temperature, and specific gravity of urine were measured before treatment. Venous blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical variables, during the acute presentation and after recovery. Body mass index (BMI) and maximum O2 consumption (V̇O2 max) were measured after recovery. Psychrometric wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and air velocity were measured at the underground sites where heat exhaustion had occurred. Air cooling power and psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature were derived from these data.
RESULTS—106 Cases were studied. The incidence of heat exhaustion during the year was 43.0 cases / million man-hours. In February it was 147 cases / million man-hours. The incidence rate ratio for mines operating below 1200 m compared with those operating above 1200 m was 3.17. Mean estimated fluid intake was 0.64 l/h (SD 0.29, range 0.08-1.50). The following data were increased in acute presentation compared with recovery (p value, % of acute cases above the normal clinical range): neutrophils (p<0.001, 36%), anion gap (p<0.001, 63%), urea (p<0.001, 21%), creatinine (p<0.001, 30%), glucose (p<0.001, 15%), serum osmolality (p=0.030, 71%), creatine kinase (p=0.002, 45%), aspartate transaminase (p<0.001, 14%), lactate dehydrogenase (p<0.001, 9.5%), and ferritin (p<0.001, 26%). The following data were depressed in acute presentation compared with recovery (p value, % of acute cases below the normal clinical range): eosinophils (p=0.003, 38%) and bicarbonate (p=0.011, 32%). Urea and

  7. Big Bang 6Li nucleosynthesis studied deep underground (LUNA collaboration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trezzi, D.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bellini, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülop, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Takacs, M.

    2017-03-01

    The correct prediction of the abundances of the light nuclides produced during the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the main topics of modern cosmology. For many of the nuclear reactions that are relevant for this epoch, direct experimental cross section data are available, ushering the so-called "age of precision". The present work addresses an exception to this current status: the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction that controls 6Li production in the Big Bang. Recent controversial observations of 6Li in metal-poor stars have heightened the interest in understanding primordial 6Li production. If confirmed, these observations would lead to a second cosmological lithium problem, in addition to the well-known 7Li problem. In the present work, the direct experimental cross section data on 2H(α,γ)6Li in the BBN energy range are reported. The measurement has been performed deep underground at the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) 400 kV accelerator in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The cross section has been directly measured at the energies of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis for the first time, at Ecm = 80, 93, 120, and 133 keV. Based on the new data, the 2H(α,γ)6Li thermonuclear reaction rate has been derived. Our rate is even lower than previously reported, thus increasing the discrepancy between predicted Big Bang 6Li abundance and the amount of primordial 6Li inferred from observations.

  8. DUSEL CO2: A deep underground laboratory for geologic carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Scherer, G.; Onstott, T. C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Celia, M. A.; Wang, J. S.; Prevost, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy is the long-term containment of CO2 in deep underground formations. To develop a sound understanding of geologic carbon sequestration, we will build a deep underground laboratory to study the processes of storing and trapping CO2, including the risks of unintended leakage. The laboratory will be part of the new DUSEL facility at the Homestake mine in South Dakota. In this presentation, we will highlight the features and capabilities of the planned facility, to be called “DUSEL CO2”. The experimental design exploits the nearly half-kilometer vertical extent of existing “sandline” borings at Homestake. Pipes will be installed within the sandlines to serve as long flow columns. These columns will contain the CO2 and allow experimentation at the same pressure and temperature conditions as in deep subsurface reservoirs. Fill materials will mimic sedimentary layering, as well as cements in plugged wells. Instrumentation will enable detailed monitoring of flow, pressure, temperature, brine composition, geomechanics, and microbial activity. As part of the initial suite of experiments, we plan to simulate a leak in which CO2 changes from a supercritical fluid to a subcritical gas as the pressure drops during upflow over tens to hundreds of meters. We will test for possible acceleration in CO2 flow due to increasing buoyancy. Also, we will examine the interactions of CO2 with caprocks and well cements, and determine whether CO2 will enlarge flow pathways or cause self-sealing. Finally, we will investigate the effects of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria on CO2 conversion to methane and carbonate. The findings from these unique experiments will advance carbon management technology worldwide and help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Large extra dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.; Peres, O. L. G.; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a (3 +3 N )-neutrino framework for modest values of N ; N =1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of C P -invariance violation other than one C P -odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the C P -odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic (3 +1 )-neutrino model.

  10. Coiled tubing applications for underground gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.; Holcombe, D.

    1994-12-31

    Technological advances in coiled tubing (CT), CT handling equipment, and application techniques have provided new opportunities for the effective, economic use of CT for gas storage and retrieval. This paper presents a review of the CT capabilities that can be used for improving the performance of gas storage wells and discusses applications that could be performed with CT in the near future. For more than 25 years, coiled tubing has been use as an effective, economic means of performing remedial well services. In response to the demand for better horizontal drilling equipment, the strength and diameter of CT has been increased, while surface equipment and downhole tools have become more sophisticated. CT is also widely used in well servicing after initial completion, especially since declining oil prices have made it imperative that operators find more cost-effective methods of increasing production and reducing maintenance costs. The gas storage industry can effectively take advantage of the many recent advancements in CT technology.

  11. Going Deep: Putting the Underground Dimension to Use

    SciTech Connect

    Laughton, Chris

    2007-05-02

    Underground construction can offer durable and environmentally-sound solutions to many of societies more pressing needs. The talk will identify some common uses for underground space and discuss current construction techniques used to mine in soils and rock. Examples of successful underground construction projects will demonstrate the advantages that the underground site can offer. In addition, insight will be provided into the nature of the risks run when working with a construction material (the ground) that cannot be made to order, nor precisely defined by the investigative processes currently at our disposal.

  12. A Subsurface Explorer for Deep Underground Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Morgan, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which is suitable for exploration of the deep underground environments on Mars. The device is a self-contained piledriver which uses a novel 'spinning hammer' technology to convert a small continuous power feed from the surface over a two-wire tether into a large rotational energy of a spinning mass. The rotational energy is converted to translational energy by a novel mechanism described here. The hammer blows propagate as shock waves through a nosepiece, pulverizing the medium ahead of the SSX. A small portion of the pulverized medium is returned to the surface through a hole liner extending behind the SSX. This tube is 'cast in place' from two chemical feedstocks which come down from the surface through passages in the hole liner and which are reacted together to produce new material with which to produce the hole liner. The lined hole does not need to be the full diameter of the SSX: approximately 100 kilograms of liner material can create a tunnel liner with a three millimeter inside diameter and a six millimeter outside diameter with at total length of four kilometers. Thus it is expected that core samples representing an overlapping set of three-millimeter diameter cores extending the entire length of the SSX traverse could be returned to the surface. A pneumatic prototype has been built which penetrated easily to the bottom of an eight meter vertical test facility. An electric prototype is now under construction. It is expected that the SSX will be able to penetrate through sand or mixed regolith, ice, permafrost, or solid rock, such as basalt. For pure or nearly pure ice applications, the device may be augmented with hot water jets to melt the ice and stir any sediment which may build up ahead of the vehicle. It is expected that an SSX approximately one meter long, three to four centimeters in diameter, and with a power budget of approximately 200 Watts will be able to explore

  13. A Subsurface Explorer for Deep Underground Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Morgan, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which is suitable for exploration of the deep underground environments on Mars. The device is a self-contained piledriver which uses a novel 'spinning hammer' technology to convert a small continuous power feed from the surface over a two-wire tether into a large rotational energy of a spinning mass. The rotational energy is converted to translational energy by a novel mechanism described here. The hammer blows propagate as shock waves through a nosepiece, pulverizing the medium ahead of the SSX. A small portion of the pulverized medium is returned to the surface through a hole liner extending behind the SSX. This tube is 'cast in place' from two chemical feedstocks which come down from the surface through passages in the hole liner and which are reacted together to produce new material with which to produce the hole liner. The lined hole does not need to be the full diameter of the SSX: approximately 100 kilograms of liner material can create a tunnel liner with a three millimeter inside diameter and a six millimeter outside diameter with at total length of four kilometers. Thus it is expected that core samples representing an overlapping set of three-millimeter diameter cores extending the entire length of the SSX traverse could be returned to the surface. A pneumatic prototype has been built which penetrated easily to the bottom of an eight meter vertical test facility. An electric prototype is now under construction. It is expected that the SSX will be able to penetrate through sand or mixed regolith, ice, permafrost, or solid rock, such as basalt. For pure or nearly pure ice applications, the device may be augmented with hot water jets to melt the ice and stir any sediment which may build up ahead of the vehicle. It is expected that an SSX approximately one meter long, three to four centimeters in diameter, and with a power budget of approximately 200 Watts will be able to explore

  14. A Subsurface Explorer for Deep Underground Exploration on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Morgan, A. R.

    2000-08-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which is suitable for exploration of the deep underground environments on Mars. The device is a self-contained piledriver which uses a novel 'spinning hammer' technology to convert a small continuous power feed from the surface over a two-wire tether into a large rotational energy of a spinning mass. The rotational energy is converted to translational energy by a novel mechanism described here. The hammer blows propagate as shock waves through a nosepiece, pulverizing the medium ahead of the SSX. A small portion of the pulverized medium is returned to the surface through a hole liner extending behind the SSX. This tube is 'cast in place' from two chemical feedstocks which come down from the surface through passages in the hole liner and which are reacted together to produce new material with which to produce the hole liner. The lined hole does not need to be the full diameter of the SSX: approximately 100 kilograms of liner material can create a tunnel liner with a three millimeter inside diameter and a six millimeter outside diameter with at total length of four kilometers. Thus it is expected that core samples representing an overlapping set of three-millimeter diameter cores extending the entire length of the SSX traverse could be returned to the surface. A pneumatic prototype has been built which penetrated easily to the bottom of an eight meter vertical test facility. An electric prototype is now under construction. It is expected that the SSX will be able to penetrate through sand or mixed regolith, ice, permafrost, or solid rock, such as basalt. For pure or nearly pure ice applications, the device may be augmented with hot water jets to melt the ice and stir any sediment which may build up ahead of the vehicle. It is expected that an SSX approximately one meter long, three to four centimeters in diameter, and with a power budget of approximately 200 Watts will be able to explore

  15. Underground Sources of Radioactive Noble Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Misner, Alex C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Woods, Vincent T.; Emer, Dudley

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that radon is present in relatively high concentrations below the surface of the Earth due to natural decay of uranium and thorium. However, less information is available on the background levels of other isotopes such as 133Xe and 131mXe produced via spontaneous fission of either manmade or naturally occurring elements. The background concentrations of radioxenon in the subsurface are important to understand because these isotopes potentially can be used to confirm violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) during an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured radioxenon concentrations from the subsurface at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS—formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) to determine whether xenon isotope background levels could be detected from spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium or legacy 240Pu as a result of historic nuclear testing. In this paper, we discuss the results of those measurements and review the sources of xenon background that must be taken into account during OSI noble gas measurements.

  16. Anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX by original bacterial communities from an underground gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Berlendis, Sabrina; Lascourreges, Jean-François; Schraauwers, Blandine; Sivadon, Pierre; Magot, Michel

    2010-05-01

    BTEX biodegradation by an indigenous deep subsurface microbial community was evaluated in a water sample collected in the area of an underground gas storage. Five different sulfate-reducing microbial communities able to use at least either benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or xylene (BTEX) compounds were studied. A total of 21 different bacterial phylotypes were identified, each community containing three to nine bacterial phylotypes. Archaeal phylotypes were retrieved from only three communities. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that i) these consortia were mainly composed of novel species, some of which belonging to bacterial groups not previously suspected to be involved in BTEX anaerobic degradation, ii) three consortia were dominated by an uncultured Pelobacter sp. previously detected in biodegraded oil reservoirs, iii) a deeply branching species distantly affiliated to Thermotogales was abundant in two consortia, and that iv) Firmicutes related to the Desulfotomaculum and Carboxydocella genera represented the only three detectable phylotypes in a toluene-degrading consortium. This work shows that subdominant microbial populations present in a deep subsurface aquifer used for seasonal underground gas storage could be involved in the natural attenuation of the traces of BTEX coinjected with methane in the deep subsurface.

  17. Study of underground gas storage using nitrogen as cushion gas

    SciTech Connect

    Obro, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the investigations carried out in order to evaluate the feasibility of using nitrogen as cushion gas for a gas storage project in Denmark. Two potential storage zones have been studied, a nitrogen gas reservoir and a deeper aquifer. In both cases, it seems to be feasible to use nitrogen as part of the cushion gas, thereby reducing the storage costs considerably.

  18. A Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Kimballton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2004-11-01

    The National Academy of Science, as well as several long-range plans from the physics communities, have endorsed the need to create a large, multi-disciplinary underground laboratory in the US. Several potential sites have been identified, and the National Science Foundation has begun a solicitation process to help formulate the science program as well as to identify and develop candidate sites. The only site on the East Coast is at Kimballton, near Blacksburg, in western Virginia. Of all the sites, it is the only one located in sedimentary rocks. This makes it an IDEAL and unique location for both physics, geoscience, and engineering studies. Kimballton is also only half an hour from Virginia Tech, the largest university in the state of Virginia. A multi-institution group has been developing this possibility, and will be competing on the national scale to have DUSEL located at Kimballton. One of the assets of this location is a large limestone mine, already at a depth of 2300 ft (1850 mwe), with true drive-in access and extremely large caverns. The DUSEL facility at this location will try to take advantage of the existing infrastructure, while at the same time develop complementary and adjacent facilities down to 7000 ft (6000 mwe) to allow independent operation of the future facility. Since 2003, Virginia Tech and the Naval Research Laboratory have been working to also develop a general low-level facility at this location. The initial program is to help develop extremely low-background germanium and gas proportional counters, and a single super-module of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector -- designed to measure the real-time low-energy neutrino spectrum from the Sun, including the pp-flux. Progress in this program (including seismic imaging), and the proposed overall extensive science program (Phys, Geo, Eng, Bio) which can be addressed at Kimballton will be presented. For further information, see our webpage http://www.phys.vt.edu/ kimballton

  19. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    SciTech Connect

    Osprey, S.; Barnett, J.; Smith, J.; Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  20. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  1. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  2. Time variations in the deep underground muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, S.; Cozzi, M.; Dekhissi, H.; Derkaoui, J.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Maaroufi, F.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Moussa, A.; Patrizii, L.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.

    2009-08-01

    More than 35 million high-energy muons collected with the MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory have been used to search for flux variations of different nature. Two kinds of studies were carried out: a search for the occurrence of clusters of events and a search for periodic variations. Different analysis methods, including the Scan Statistics test and the Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis have been applied to the data.

  3. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  4. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  5. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  6. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory

  7. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  8. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  9. Deep and Ultra-deep Underground Observatory for In Situ Stress, Fluids, and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Wang, H.; Kieft, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    The question 'How deeply does life extend into the Earth?' forms a single, compelling vision for multidisciplinary science opportunities associated with physical and biological processes occurring naturally or in response to construction in the deep and ultra-deep subsurface environment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the former Homestake mine. The scientific opportunity is to understand the interaction between the physical environment and microbial life, specifically, the coupling among (1) stress state and deformation; (2) flow and transport and origin of fluids; and (3) energy and nutrient sources for microbial life; and (4) microbial identity, diversity and activities. DUSEL-Homestake offers the environment in which these questions can be addressed unencumbered by competing human activities. Associated with the interaction among these variables are a number of questions that will be addressed at variety of depths and scales in the facility: What factors control the distribution of life as a function of depth and temperature? What patterns in microbial diversity, microbial activity and nutrients are found along this gradient? How do state variables (stress, strain, temperature, and pore pressure) and constitutive properties (permeability, porosity, modulus, etc.) vary with scale (space, depth, time) in a large 4D heterogeneous system: core - borehole - drift - whole mine - regional? How are fluid flow and stress coupled in a low-permeability, crystalline environment dominated by preferential flow paths? How does this interaction influence the distribution of fluids, solutes, gases, colloids, and biological resources (e.g. energy and nutritive substrates) in the deep continental subsurface? What is the interaction between geomechanics/geohydrology and microbiology (microbial abundance, diversity, distribution, and activities)? Can relationships elucidated within the mechanically and hydrologically altered subsurface habitat

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas storage...

  11. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  12. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  13. The use of inert gas as cushion gas in underground storage

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, P.L.; Foh, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989 there were 395 underground natural gas storage fields in the United States operated by both transmission and distribution companies as an integral part of the gas industry's delivery system. Base (cushion) gas is required to maintain storage reservoir volume and pressure to ensure adequate deliverability. Base gas is a major investment cost for new storage field development. An inert gas, such as nitrogen, that is less expensive than natural gas can be used to fill all or part of the base gas requirement and yield significant savings in the cost of storage field development. Inert base gas use, tested originally in France, should not dilute the pipeline quality of natural gas withdrawn from storage. The key technical issue is the degree to which natural and inert gases mix in the storage reservoir. The nature of the rock pore spaces that comprise storage fields inhibits the mixing process. A systematic planning approach has been developed to ensure that there are no long-term operating problems with storage fields containing inert base gas. The first field test of inert base gas technology in the US is being planned. The use of inert base gas is a promising technique with the potential to significantly reduce storage investment costs.

  14. The use of inert gas as cushion gas in underground storage

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, P.L.; Foh, S.E.

    1992-12-31

    In early 1989 there were 395 underground natural gas storage fields in the United States operated by both transmission and distribution companies as an integral part of the gas industry`s delivery system. Base (cushion) gas is required to maintain storage reservoir volume and pressure to ensure adequate deliverability. Base gas is a major investment cost for new storage field development. An inert gas, such as nitrogen, that is less expensive than natural gas can be used to fill all or part of the base gas requirement and yield significant savings in the cost of storage field development. Inert base gas use, tested originally in France, should not dilute the pipeline quality of natural gas withdrawn from storage. The key technical issue is the degree to which natural and inert gases mix in the storage reservoir. The nature of the rock pore spaces that comprise storage fields inhibits the mixing process. A systematic planning approach has been developed to ensure that there are no long-term operating problems with storage fields containing inert base gas. The first field test of inert base gas technology in the US is being planned. The use of inert base gas is a promising technique with the potential to significantly reduce storage investment costs.

  15. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstricht, J.; Areias, L.; Bastiaens, W.; Li, X. L.

    2010-06-01

    Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure), or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes) in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter). Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  16. First Microbial Community Assessment of Borehole Fluids from the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, D. P.; Anderson, C.; Bang, S.; Jones, T. L.; Boutt, D.; Kieft, T.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Murdoch, L. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Bruckner, J.; Fisher, J. C.; Newburn, J.; Wheatley, A.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid and gas samples were collected from two flowing boreholes at the 4100 (1,250 m) and 4850 ft (1478 m) levels of the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Service- and flood water samples were also collected as comparative benchmarks. With a maximum depth of 8,000 ft, (2,438 m), this mine currently hosts the Sanford Laboratory and is the proposed location for the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The uncased 4100L hole is a legacy of mining; whereas, the cased 4850 hole was drilled in 2009 in support of large cavity construction. Both were packered or valved to exclude mine air and sampled anaerobically using aseptic technique. Physical measurements, aquatic and dissolved gas chemistry, cell counts, and microbial community assessments (SSU rRNA libraries) were performed on all samples. This study represents the first at Sanford Lab/DUSEL specifically focused on the deep biosphere rather than mine microbiology. Fluids from the two holes differed markedly, with that from 4100L being characterized by NaHCO3 and 4850 by Na2SO4. pH values of 8.2 vs. 7.5, conductivities (μS) of 1790 vs. 7667 and alkalinities (mg/L) of 767 vs. 187 were obtained from 4100L and 4850, respectively. As expected, the deeper 4850L hole had the higher temperature (38 vs. 30 oC). Neither had measureable nitrate, but both had similar dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations (0.8 vs. 0.9 mg/L). Sulfate was present at 337 vs. 4,470 mg/L in 4100L and 4850L. Major dissolved gases were N2 (91 and 81 vol%), O2 (12 and 16 vol%) and CH4 (0.07 and 3.35 vol%) in 4100L and 4850L. The δ13C of CH4 was -51 and -56.7 permil in 4100L and 4850, respectively. The uncorrected 14C age of DIC was calculated at 25,310 (+/- 220) and 47,700 (+/-3,100) years for the two fluids. Cell counts were 5.9e3 and 2.01e5 in 4100L and 4850. Microbial community structure was diverse in both holes and distinct from that of service water. A large proportion of rRNA library clones were

  17. Letter Report: Scoping Analysis of Gas Phase Transport from the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    Clay Cooper

    2004-05-06

    This letter report documents the results of a computer model to quantify the travel time of tritium (radioactive hydrogen) from an underground nuclear detonation in 1969 toward a proposed producing gas well located 1,500 feet (457 meters) away.

  18. Monitoring underground gas storage for seismic risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Francesco Luigi; Picotti, Vincenzo; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Temporary gas storage facilities play a fundamental role in the design of energy supply. The evaluation and recognition of induced seismicity, geodetic displacements and wellbores damages are their main associated risks that should be minimized for a safe management of these facilities, especially in densely populated areas. Injection and withdrawal of gas into/from a porous reservoir generally lead reservoir rocks to deform. Rock deformation is due to variations of the state of stress of rocks, both in the reservoir and the surrounding: subsidence, wellbore damages and induced or activated seismicity are primary consequences of these variations. In this paper we present a case study on induced deformation by an exploited gas reservoir, converted to temporary natural gas storage since 1994, in North-Eastern Italy. The reservoir, composed by 2 independent carbonatic sandstone intervals, approximately 10 meters thick, and 1400 meters deep, has been exploited since 1983, recording a pressure drop of about 16 MPa. The inversion of gas pressure and volume data, together with a 26 year ground displacement dataset monitoring, allow us to define reservoir deformations, modelled by a semi-analytical method based on an equivalent Eshelby's inclusion problem, able to account for mechanical differences between reservoir and surrounding rocks. Stress field changes, and displacement fields around the reservoir and on the ground mainly represent the results of this modelling. A Coulomb Failure Stress analysis, performed by FEA, was applied to define and evaluate the influence of magnitude and shape of stress field changes on rock stability, highlighting rock volumes that mainly suffer stress changes eventually leading to induced/activated earthquakes. The microseismic monitoring provides then the control on failures and their location. The methodology here used provide a solid base for induced or activated seismicity risk assessment: it provides an easy tool to quantify magnitude

  19. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground...

  20. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground...

  1. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    extinct life beyond Earth as well, as Mars, like the Precambrian cratons, is dominated by billion year old tectonically quiescent geologic terrains, some with serpentinized ultramafics capable of sustaining production of hydrogen and potentially other reduced gases. Taking advantage of deep boreholes, subsurface mines and deep research laboratories worldwide, researchers in geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and genomics are mobilizing to explore Earth's "Inner Space". The presentation will highlight work at underground sites in 2-3 billion year old Precambrian Shield rocks in South Africa, Canada and Finland where isotope geochemistry has identified large accumulations of free H2 gas, methane, higher hydrocarbons and noble gases dissolved in saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of millions of years. Within these fracture waters, a low biomass chemolithotrophic microbial community couples H2 consumption to sulfate-reduction to eke out an existence at maintenance levels in an exotic outpost of life far from the photosphere.

  2. The study of the thermal neutron flux in the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, V. V.; Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gezhaev, A. M.; Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the study of thermal neutron flux using monitors based on mixture of ZnS(Ag) and LiF enriched with a lithium-6 isotope at the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900 at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. An annual modulation of thermal neutron flux in DULB-4900 is observed. Experimental evidences were obtained of correlation between the long-term thermal neutron flux variations and the absolute humidity of the air in laboratory. The amplitude of the modulation exceed 5% of total neutron flux.

  3. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas injection].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The liquid phase of different units of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas injection was studied with respect to its hydrochemical composition and characterized microbiologically. The presence of viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was revealed in the UGS stratal and associated waters. An important source of microorganisms and biogenic elements in the ecosystem studied is water and various technogenic admixtures contained in trace amounts in the gas entering from the gas main in the period of gas injection into the storage. Owing to this fact, the bacterial functional diversity, number, and activity are maximal in the system of gas treatment and purification and considerably lower in the observation well zone. At the terminal stages, the anaerobic transformation of organic matter in the UGS aqueous media occurs via sulfate reduction and methanogenesis; exceptionally high rates of these processes (up to 4.9 x 10(5) ng S(2-)l(-1) day(-1) and 2.8 x 10(6) nl CH4 l(-1) day(-1), respectively) were recorded for above-ground technological equipment.

  4. Production of hydrogen sulphide containing gas from underground formations

    SciTech Connect

    Delude, S.G.; Luinstra, E.A.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a process for the production of at least a gaseous product containing a substantial amount of hydrogen sulphide via a bore-hole from an underground formation containing besides the hydrogen sulphide at least elemental sulphur, comprising (a) injection of a liquid substantially consisting of hydrocarbons into the bore-hole or into the underground formation near to the end of the bore-hole; (b) producing a gaseous and a liquid fraction from the underground formation; (c) separating the gaseous fraction from the liquid fraction (d) if necessary, separating an aqueous fraction of the produced liquid fraction from the hydrocarbons-containing fraction; (e) heating the hydrocarbons-containing fraction in order to remove elemental sulphur by conversion to hydrogen sulphide in the presence of a catalyst comprising sulphides of one of more metals from Group VIB and/or Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements deposited on a support of alumina, silica or silica alumina; and (f) reinjection of at least a part of the thus treated hydrocarbons-containing fraction into the bore-hole or into the underground formation near to the end of the bore-hole as described hereinbefore.

  5. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  6. Callio Lab, a new deep Underground Laboratory in the Pyhäsalmi mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalas, P.; Enqvist, T.; Isoherranen, V.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kutuniva, J.; Kuusiniemi, P.

    2017-09-01

    A new underground laboratory, Callio Lab, has been established to manage the non-mining related operations in the Pyhäsalmi mine in Pyhäjärvi, Finland. The very deep laboratory space, called Lab 2 of Callio Lab, has been finished in spring 2016 at the depth of 1430 meters (4100 m.w.e.) and it has the area of approximately 120 m2 and the height of 8 meters. We present the structure of Callio Lab and the main technical characteristics of the deep Lab 2. We also review the current activities related to astroparticle and radiation physics, such as EMMA muon observatory and C-14 liquid scintillator research. An Open Call process has been opened to invite new scientific experiments to Callio Lab.

  7. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  8. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  9. Deep source gas: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Deep Source Gas research is focused on the hypothesis that natural gas is generated in sediments carried to great depths at convergent plate boundaries in the Earth's crust. These deeply emplaced sediments may be the source of gas for shallower, drillable traps. Many areas of North America are believed to have experienced plate tectonic convergence. The western Cordilleran Geologic Province, in particular, appears to have geologic fault structures (associated with subduction and obduction) that enabled deep emplacement of hydrocarbon-generating sediments during more recent geologic ages (during the last 180 million years). The specific area of interest in this Province encompasses approximately 1.5 million square miles of the western US (including Alaska) and Canada; other portions of this same province extend southward into Mexico and Central and South America. The ongoing research consists of basic studies of hydrocarbon generation, stability, and preservation of depths in excess of 30,000 feet, in addition to a comprehensive evaluation of the geologic structures, stratigraphy, and geochemistry of the above region. Results to date include (1) geologic and geophysical evidence of deeply emplaced sedimentary rock units at depths exceeding 30,000 feet in western Washington and south-central Alaska, (2) a new methodology for verifying deep methane stability with fluid inclusion studies, and (3) a preliminary gas resource estimate of 3000 Tcf. 17 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-08-15

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical

  11. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  12. Mitigation of elevated indoor radon gas resulting from underground air return usage.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Metzger, R L; Kraft, K R; Holbert, K E

    1992-12-01

    Underground air returns have been found to be active transportation pathways for radon gas entry into homes. Several homes for which underground air returns were contributing to elevated indoor 222Rn concentrations were evaluated for possible mitigation. Two houses with such problems were successfully mitigated by inserting flexible ducts into the returns. In one of these houses, the initial mitigation attempt resulted in an exacerbation of the problem due to leakage of the ducting. This was solved by re-sleeving the returns using a stronger material. Mitigation of elevated indoor radon gas caused by use of underground air returns by inserting flexible ducts is not possible for all situations, especially those for which the returns are small, filled with debris, misaligned, or inaccessible.

  13. Economic feasibility of inert cushions in underground gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The physical properties of storage reservoirs and the economics of three major processes for generating inert gases (cryogenic nitrogen, engine exhaust gas and boiler flue gases) have been investigated and compared to the current practice of using natural gas as the cushion. Also studied are the effects of rising gas prices and potential changes in Federal policy (tax credit and income tax) on industry's decision to use inert cushions. The analysis indicated that the site is the most important factor in the decision to use inert gas as the cushion: the reservoir should minimize mixing between inert and natural gas; and the reservoir should be located close to an alternate use for the products of the inert gas generator. Under these conditions, cryogenic nitrogen would be preferred over natural gas for the cushion and could be implemented at gas prices from $2.60 to $3.40/Mcf. If mixing could not be prevented, gas prices from $3.20 to $4.40 would be required. If an alternate use could not be found, the exhaust gas case would be preferred at prices from $3.50 to $6.50/Mcf, in aquifer storage; and in depleted fields, prices range from $4.50 to $7.90. Extensive revision in the tax code would reduce these threshold prices by approximately $1.00/Mcf but would not alter the basic choices: mixing and alternative use would continue to dominate the decision.

  14. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~ $ \\mathcal{O} $ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.

  15. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~more » $$ \\mathcal{O} $$ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.« less

  16. Non-standard interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-01

    We study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ɛ ˜ {O} (0.05 - 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.

  17. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory in South America: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The construction of the Agua Negra tunnel through the Andes between Argentina and Chile is a unique opportunity to build a world class deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere, with 1750 m of rock overburden. At 30 degrees latitude south, far from nuclear power plants, it provides a unique site for Dark Matter searches and Neutrino experiments, and can host multidisciplinary experiments with a specific focus on Earth sciences given its location in a peculiar geoactive region. Its operation is foreseen to be coordinated by an international consortium and to start in 2026. In this presentation the current status of the Agua Negra tunnel and the ANDES initiative will be reviewed, and the scientific programme of the planned laboratory will be discussed.

  18. Gas generation and gas migration in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.

    1996-12-31

    It is generally accepted that there will be some degree of gas generation in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. This gas generation will depend on a number of factors such as the nature of the waste, the waste container, the buffer material and the near field host rock. In an ideal situation the gas generated would all dissolve in the groundwater and/or be transported away from the deep repository by the mechanisms of advection, diffusion and dispersion. However the sought-after characteristic of a repository host medium of very low permeability, e.g. bentonite buffer material and argillaceous geological media can be problematic when considering gas migration. High gas pressures might be build-up which could lead to potential fracturing of engineered barriers in the near field and enhancing groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Various theoretical as well as experimental research activities have been undertaken to investigate the different phenomena. Within the framework of R&D programmes on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste, conducted by the European Commission, some of the research activities are grouped together in a coordinated project named PEGASUS (Project on the Effects of GAS in an Underground Storage facility). In this project a total of about twenty research institutes and laboratories from seven different European countries are involved. This PEGASUS project will be followed up by a new project named PROGRESS (PROject of Research into Gas generation and migration in radioactive waste REpository SystemS). In this paper, an overview is given of the various research activities carried out and results obtained so far.

  19. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  20. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA.

    PubMed

    Osburn, Magdalena R; LaRowe, Douglas E; Momper, Lily M; Amend, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to -328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe(2+) from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S(2-) from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly

  1. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Momper, Lily M.; Amend, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to −328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S2- from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly

  2. Relevance of Underground Natural Gas Storage to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Many of the experiences from storing natural gas in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are relevant to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration in spite of the different physical and chemical properties of the two gases. The first successful natural gas storage project in depleted reservoirs was in Canada in 1915, and in the US in 1916. Until about 1950, essentially all subsurface natural gas storage was in partially or fully depleted gas reservoirs. Presently there more than 450 underground storage sites in the US and Canada. According to 1998 figures, the gas is stored in 372 depleted reservoirs, 51 aquifers and 40 salt caverns. About 138 million metric tons (Mt) of natural gas were stored in subsurface formations in the US at the end of November 2000 (49 Mt as working or active gas and 89 Mt as base gas). The status of underground natural gas storage projects, as well as risk assessment, risk management, and risk mitigation issues pertinent to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration are reviewed.

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  4. Coincident observation of air Čerenkov light by a surface array and muon bundles by a deep underground detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Corona, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Coutu, S.; Decataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; Demarzo, C.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J. T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kertzman, M.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittlebrunn, M.; Monacelli, P.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicoló, D.; Nolty, R.; Nutter, S.; Okada, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pavesi, B.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N. D.; Pistilli, P.; Predieri, F.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzani, G.; Sanzgiri, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Sembroski, G.; Serra Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steele, J.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.; Worstell, W.

    1994-09-01

    We report on the simultaneous observation of atmospheric Čerenkov light by a prototype five telescope array, GRACE, (Gran Sasso Air Čerenkov Experiment) with deep underground muons in the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory). The telescope array was deployed at Campo Imperatore above the Gran Sasso Laboratory for a run completed in the fall of 1992. The total live time for the combined surface-underground operation was ~100 h during which more than 300 events were seen in coincidence. The efficacy of this technique to monitor the electromagnetic and penetrating muon components of a cosmic-ray-induced cascade is discussed.

  5. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  6. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  7. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  8. The Texas Railroad Commission, Oil and Gas Division underground injection control program: A peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The reports included herein and any reports added subsequently are the result of an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of state programs to protect Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW) from potential contamination resulting from the operation of injection wells related to the production of oil and gas (Class II injection wells). The programs examined in this study cover wells which are used for the injection of fluids into oil reservoirs for the purpose of stimulating or furthering their production when natural production mechanisms decline or cease (enhanced recovery wells) and for the disposal of waters produced in conjunction with the production of oil and gas (disposal wells). The programs examined are those where primary enforcement authority has been delegated to the states by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and EPA regulations (see following UIC Development Section of this report). The study was conducted under the auspices of the Underground Injection Practices Council (UIPC).

  9. Correlation Between Underground Radon Gas and Dormant Geological Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Dena, Oscar; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Rodriguez, German; Chavarria, Israel

    2016-09-01

    This work studies the concentration of radon in soil around a fault in the East Franklin Mountains in the El Paso area in West Texas. It is found that the in-soil production of radon is correlated to the existence of a fault even if it has not had any recorded activity in recent geological times. This adds to previous observations that link the production of radon to seismic activity, and seems to indicate that in non-active faults the radon production is due mainly to the radioactivity of the top soil and to the transport properties of the medium and not to deeper seismic activity. These results open the possibility of using in-soil radon gas concentrations as an examination tool of dormant faults.

  10. Final Report: Technoeconomic Evaluation of UndergroundCoal Gasification (UCG) for Power Generationand Synthetic Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, T.

    2011-06-15

    This report concerns the technoeconomics of using Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) for power generation and for production of synthetic natural gas. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was retained under the Work for Others Agreement L-13208 for ExxonMobil Upstream Research Laboratoryi to investigate the economics of using UCG for feedstock supply for these two scenarios. The scope included conceptual designs, mass balances, and capital & operating cost estimates.

  11. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-10-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic simulation of an underground gas storage injection-production network .

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanbi; Liu, Enbin; Xian, Weiwei; Wang, Di; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-07-01

    Underground gas storage is a well-known strategic practice to seasonal peak shaving and emergency facility. The changing operation conditions of injection-production network directly affects the reliability of downstream gas supply of the city. In the present study, a model of injection-production network on the basis of field data analysis and research was established. By comparing the actual node pressure and simulation results, the reliability of model was verified. Based on the volume of underground gas storage and downstream gas consumption, the best seasonal peak-shaving schedule of the whole year was set. According to dynamic analysis of network, 20% increase in downstream demand could be fulfilled. Besides, the study also analyzed the well pressure and flow rate changes after shutdown of gas well, which is most likely to fail, and concludes that the best rescue time should be within 4 hr after gas supply interruption. The results would help in making decisions about the operation of injection-production network, which have important significance in the environmental protection.

  13. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  14. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  15. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  16. 382-1 underground gasoline storage tank soil-gas survey

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, I.D.

    1993-08-27

    A soil-gas survey was conducted near the 382 Pump House in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of the soil-gas survey was to characterize the extent of petroleum product contamination in the soil beneath the 382-1 underground gasoline storage tank excavation. The tank was discovered to have leaked when it was removed in September 1992. The results of this soil-gas survey indicate petroleum products released from the 382-1 tank are probably contained in a localized region of soil directly beneath the tank excavation site. The soil-gas data combined with earlier tests of groundwater from a nearby downgradient monitoring well suggest the spilled petroleum hydrocarbons have not penetrated the soil profile to the water table.

  17. [Analysis of the natural radioactivity due to the radon gas in the underground of Rome].

    PubMed

    Magrini, A; Grana, M; Gianello, G; La Bua, R; Laurini, C; Messina, A; Pagliari, E; Bergamaschi, A

    2007-01-01

    Radon is a decay product of 238Uranium which is classified by WHO/IARC as group 1 carcinogen, given its causal relationship with lung neoplasia. An annual concentration of this gas higher than 500 Bq/m3 in workplace is considered potentially dangerous by the italian legislation. No data are currently available on radon level in underground tunnels, which are a potentially important source of exposure both for workers and travellers. Measurements have been performed in a station and within the trains. Two months integrated measures, and 5 days continuous (hourly) assessments have been performed. Integrated measurements have been performed by means of 12 passive dosimeters, containing a detector made of CR39 (polymeric type), whereas active scintillation-type dosimeters have been employed for continuous assessments. Two months integrated measures: radon level in the station was 665 +/- 71 Bq/m3, whereas values within the trains ranged between 96 and 117 Bq/m3. Continuous measurements: Mean radon level during work activities was 783 +/- 536 Bq/m3 and thereafter it rose to 850 +/- 131 Bq/m3 Radon nelle levels in underground tunnels may exceed attention levels, whereas within trains they remain well below these levels. Further studies focused to assess the risk of underground employers are needed.

  18. A New Shallow Underground Gas-Proportional Counting Lab - First Results and Ar-37 Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A new ultra-low-background proportional counter was recently developed with an internal volume of 100 ml and has been characterized at pressures from 1-10 atmospheres with P-10 (90% Ar, 10% methane) gas. This design, along with a counting system providing event digitization and passive and active shielding, has been developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent). Backgrounds and low-level reference materials have been measured, and system sensitivity for Ar-37 has been calculated.

  19. Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

  20. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  1. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  2. Three-dimensional seasonal deformations induced by underground gas storage. Monitoring by PSI and modeling by FE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Lovison, A.; Janna, C.; Ferretti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Land subsidence and uplift due to the production/injection of fluids from/into the subsurface have been widely observed worldwide over the last decades and occur for a variety of purposes such as groundwater pumping, aquifer system recharge, gas/oil field development, enhanced oil recovery, geologic CO2 sequestration, underground gas storage and waste disposal. The need for a reliable prediction of these processes has led to a continuous improvement of the numerical tools employed in poromechanics. However, although sophisticated poro-visco-plastic 3D codes have been developed, the lack of accurate measurements of the ground surface displacements has rarely allowed an accurate calibration of the geomechanical models. Recently, advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D transversally isotropic poromechanical finite-element model which satisfactorily reproduces the seasonal deformation due to gas injection/removal. An accurate calibration of the finite element model to the interferometry data is performed by combining metamodeling techniques such as Kriging and global optimization strategies specifically designed for handling uncertain measurements. Furthermore, it is also possible to estimate the functional dependence of physically relevant quantities, e.g., the maximum vertical seasonal displacement, with respect to operational parameters (e

  3. Pursing other deep pockets: California`s underground storage tank cleanup fund and insurance policies

    SciTech Connect

    Almanza, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    When faced with a potentially very expensive environmental cleanup, most companies and individuals try to do the only sensible thing, which is to find out if anyone else will pay the bill. This presentation will outline two avenues that may provide a substantial financial contribution to environmental cleanups: (a) California`s Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund and (b) insurance policies. The Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund was established in 1989 to help eligible owners and operators of petroleum underground storage tanks (USTs) to: (a) get reimbursed for costs of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; (b) get reimbursed for damages awarded to third parties as a result of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; and (c) meet federal and state requirements that the UST owner and/or operator be able to pay for cleanup costs and damages to third parties caused by unauthorized releases of petroleum.

  4. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  5. Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Research in Partnership with Rock Engineers at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughton, C.

    2008-12-01

    For the last half century the physics community has increasingly turned to the use of underground space to conduct basic research. The community is currently planning to conduct a new generation of underground experiments at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). DUSEL will be constructed within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Gold Mine, located in Lead, South Dakota. Physics proposals call for the construction of new caverns in which to conduct major new experiments. Some of the proposed laboratory facilities will be significantly larger and deeper than any previously constructed. The talk will highlight possible opportunities for integrating multi-disciplinary research in to the cavern construction program, and will stress the need to work closely with design and construction contractors to ensure that research goals can be achieve with minimal impact on project work. The constructors of large caverns should be particularly receptive to, and encouraging of geoscience research that could improve the engineering characterization of the rock mass. An improved understanding of the rock mass, as the host construction material, would result in a more reliable cavern design and construction process, and a reduced construction risk to the Project.

  6. Giddings Austin chalk enters deep lean-gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-25

    Deep lean gas is the latest phase in the growth of the Giddings field Austin chalk play. The first phase involved drilling vertical oil and gas wells. Next came the horizontal well boom in the shallower Austin chalk area, which is still continuing. And now this third phase places horizontal laterals in the Austen chalk at about 14,000--15,000 ft to produce lean gas. The article describes the producing wells and gas gathering.

  7. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  8. Experiments in a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) Hosted in Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, T. J.; Kimballton, M. O.; Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary-rock environments, particularly those dominated by carbonate rock, provide unique opportunities for geoscientists, geobiologists, and geophysicists, to perform revolutionary experiments aimed at answering fundamental science questions and satisfying our societal demands for resources and environmental stewardship. As part of the National Science Foundation's DUSEL initiative, the selected site should offer structurally and biologically diverse environments. At the same time, the site should offer host rock capable of providing safely engineered hallways and laboratories at depths as great as 2,200 m for numerous deep underground physics, engineering, and earth science experiments. An ideal sedimentary-rock environment offers the prospect of highly folded, thrusted, and fractured rocks that allow opportunities to study the 3-D behavior of thrusts that propagate parallel to bedding as well as those that ramp across bedding. Flow dynamics along and across deeply buried faults is poorly understood. Experiments will be developed at various scales to assess flow and transport processes to better quantify hydrogeological mechanisms influencing flow and possible aquifer compartmentalization. Seismic reflection images, vertical seismic profiles, and tomograms will provide details of the fault properties and geometry, which can be verified in-situ. Repeated overthrusted sequences provide opportunities for geobiologists to investigate how microbes in rocks of similar age are affected by differences in pressure, temperature, and depth. Carbonate rocks provide opportunities to study energy sources and adaptations for nutrient acquisition, reproduction, stability, survival, and repair under extreme conditions. Results from these investigations will permit comparisons with other foreland fold-thrust belts worldwide. Fossil fuels remain the world's main energy resource and the large majority of these are hosted in sedimentary rocks. Improved methods for reservoir

  9. Partial replacement of the traditional gas cushion by inert gas in underground aquifer storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-14

    Since 30% of the gas demand is for winter heating in France, and since the production and transportation is pretty much inelastic, large storage facilities must be provided for this seasonal peak demand. This has led to a unit capacity of several hundred million cubic meters in France, mostly in aquifers, for a total of ca. 30 billion cu m withdrawable capacity. A large part of the gas serves as a mechanical cushion, and Gaz de France has studied its partial substitution with inert gas, including production and injection facilities for such gas. Inert gas can be injected either in the center of the storage reservoir, followed by natural gas, or at the periphery of the reservoir to minimize the migration of the more valuable natural gas. The size of the cushion depends on the breathing rate, i.e., the ratio between total withdrawals and total gas volume. Replacing 20% of the gas cushion by inert gas will lead to a decrease of 10% in the installation cost of the storage facility.

  10. Time variations in the deep underground muon flux measured by MACRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherini, Y.; Cecchini, S.; Cozzi, M.; Dekhissi, H.; Derkaoui, J.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Maaroufi, F.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Manzoor, S.; Moussa, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.

    More than 30 million of high-energy muons collected with the MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory have been used to search for flux variations of different natures. Two kinds of studies were carried out: search for periodic variations and for the occurrence of clusters of events. Different analysis methods, including Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis and Scan Test statistics have been applied to the data.

  11. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  12. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE): Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, R.

    2016-01-22

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  13. Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

  14. Geological model of Lobodice underground gas storage facility based on 3D seismic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopal, Lukáš; Čížek, Pavel; Milička, Ján

    2016-06-01

    The Lobodice underground gas storage (UGS) is developed in a natural aquifer reservoir located in the Central Moravian part of the Carpathian Foredeep in the Czech Republic. In order to learn more about the UGS geological structure a 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. The reservoir is rather shallow, 400-500 m below the surface. This article describes the process workflow from the 3D seismic field data acquisition to the creation of the geological model. The outcomes of this workflow define the geometry of the UGS reservoir, its tectonics and the sealing features of the structure. Better geological knowledge of the reservoir will reduce the risks involved in the localization of new wells for increasing UGS withdrawal rates.

  15. U.S. EPA to Empty Fuel from Abandoned Underground Tanks at Former Gas Station in Fresno

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Tuesday, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will remove an estimated 4,400 gallons of fuel from three underground storage tanks (USTs) at a former gas station located in Fresno, Calif. The tanks' proximity to a residential n

  16. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: S1 Dark Matter Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Aprile, E.; Baltz, E.A.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Gondolo, P.; Hime, A.; Martoff, C.J.; Mei, D.-M.; Nelson, H.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R.W.; Sonnenschein, A.H.; Strigari, L.E.; /UC, Irvine

    2006-06-09

    In this report we have described the broad and compelling range of astrophysical and cosmological evidence that defines the dark matter problem, and the WIMP hypothesis, which offers a solution rooted in applying fundamental physics to the dynamics of the early universe. The WIMP hypothesis is being vigorously pursued, with a steady march of sensitivity improvements coming both from astrophysical searches and laboratory efforts. The connections between these approaches are profound and will reveal new information from physics at the smallest scales to the origin and workings of the entire universe. Direct searches for WIMP dark matter require sensitive detectors that have immunity to electromagnetic backgrounds, and are located in deep underground laboratories to reduce the flux from fast cosmic-ray-muon-induced neutrons which is a common background to all detection methods. With US leadership in dark matter searches and detector R&D, a new national laboratory will lay the foundation of technical support and facilities for the next generation of scientists and experiments in this field, and act as magnet for international cooperation and continued US leadership. The requirements of depth, space and technical support for the laboratory are fairly generic, regardless of the approach. Current experiments and upgraded versions that run within the next few years will probe cross sections on the 10{sup -45}-10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} scale, where depths of 3000-4000 m.w.e. are sufficient to suppress the neutron background. On the longer term, greater depths on the 5000-6000 level are desirable as cross sections down to 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} are probed, and of course, if WIMPs are discovered then building up a statistical sample free of neutron backgrounds will be essential to extracting model parameters and providing a robust solution to the dark matter problem. While most of the detector technologies are of comparable physical scale, i.e., the various liquid and solid

  17. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1996-07-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

  18. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  19. Method of producing synthesis gas by underground gasification of coal using specific well configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, B.W.; Arri, L.E.; Hunt, E.B. Jr.; Parrish, D.R.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described of producing synthesis gas by the underground gasification of coal in individual noninteracting cavities formed by the gasification of the coal in a thick coal seam which is generally horizontal under an overburden and wherein loose coal and char formed from the combustion of the coal in the seam have a known angle of repose. The seam is provided with an injection well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of less than the angle of repose and with a production well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of greater than the angle of repose but less than 90/sup 0/. The distance between the wells decreases toward the bottom of the seam. The method comprises linking the wells, initiating combustion near the bottom of the seam and thereby producing a cavity in the seam, introducing an oxygen-containing gas mixture into the seam through the injection well, and removing combustion products through the production well.

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  1. Deep underground rotation measurements: GINGERino ring laser gyroscope in Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Carelli, Giorgio; Cuccato, Davide; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Virgilio, Angela; Gebauer, André; Maccioni, Enrico; Ortolan, Antonello; Porzio, Alberto; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Simonelli, Andreino; Terreni, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    GINGERino is a large frame laser gyroscope investigating the ground motion in the most inner part of the underground international laboratory of the Gran Sasso, in central Italy. It consists of a square ring laser with a 3.6 m side. Several days of continuous measurements have been collected, with the apparatus running unattended. The power spectral density in the seismic bandwidth is at the level of 10-10 (rad/s) /√{Hz} . A maximum resolution of 30 prad/s is obtained with an integration time of few hundred seconds. The ring laser routinely detects seismic rotations induced by both regional earthquakes and teleseisms. A broadband seismic station is installed on the same structure of the gyroscope. First analysis of the correlation between the rotational and the translational signal is presented.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  3. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  4. Environmental legacy of an underground gas well blowout: long-term effects of gas and brine leakage on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schout, Gilian; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    In 1965, a catastrophic underground blowout occurred during the drilling of a gas well in the village of Sleen, the Netherlands. The blowout led to the uncontrolled release of large amounts of natural gas and saline groundwater. Now, 50 years later, a number of nearby groundwater monitoring have been sampled to study the long term effects of this event on the groundwater composition of the overlying freshwater aquifers. The findings are used as an analogue for studying the potential adverse effects of hydraulic fracturing on groundwater quality. In total, 27 samples were taken and analysed for dissolved gas molecular and isotopic composition, major ion chemistry, water isotopes and stable chlorine isotope ratios. The resulting data show that concentrations of dissolved methane are still strongly elevated compared to background samples in a plume downstream of the blowout location. Isotopic data reveals the thermogenic nature of this plume; all samples with methane concentrations greater than 10 mg/l (n=12) had δC-CH4 values greater than -30‰ (VPDB), characteristic of thermogenic methane. The maximum distance at which thermogenic methane is observed is at approximately 500 meter downstream of the centre of the blowout. The progressive enrichment of both δ13C-CH4 and δ2D-CH4, that is observed with distance from the well and decreasing methane concentrations, presents strong evidence for the role of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in limiting the spread of the dissolved methane plume. Low sulphate and increased Fe(II) and Mn(II) concentrations indeed suggest that multiple AOM pathways are involved in the natural attenuation of the dissolved methane plume. Chlorine concentrations were only elevated in a subset of wells in close proximity to the blowout location, indicating that the present-day effects of brine migration are minimal. Nevertheless, elevated Na/Cl ratio's in multiple wells reveal that freshening of the aquifer is still on-going. In summary, this

  5. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    PubMed

    Balk, Melike; Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M

    2010-09-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  6. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    PubMed Central

    Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO2. The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts. PMID:20680263

  7. Application experience of gas-thermal aluminum coatings to protect the pipes for underground construction and repair of heat networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    Questions of sacrificial protection for pipes of underground heat networks with aluminum against the external corrosion are considered. The description of pilot production of pipes with a plasma aluminum coating and the deposition of a sacrificial gas-plasma aluminum coating on weld joints of pipelines and the zone of their thermal influence during assemblage is presented. Examples of repairing the segments of distribution heat networks by the pipes with the tread protection are presented.

  8. Horton goes underground: on the relationship between shallow and deep storage in water-limited catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Arciniega, S.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2016-12-01

    In water-limited catchments, hydrological partitioning at the catchment scale is characterized by high evaporation rates and low streamflow. This results in Horton indices (average ratio of evaporation to wetting) that are close to one. This suggests that catchment terrestrial ecosystems use most of the stored amount of plant-available water (wetting), with limited amounts of shallow storage for baseflow. Although the controls and feedbacks in these environments between wetting and evapotranspiration & vegetation dynamics are well understood, little is known about the relationship between shallow (Ss) and deep storage (Sd) at the catchment scale, its spatial variability and the climate & landscape characteristics that control such relationship. This paper presents work that analyzed catchment-scale dynamics of the maximum annual Ss and Sd in a set of 33 catchments located in water-limited environments (long-term aridity index > 1) of Mexico. Maximum Ss was computed using the daily water balance and maximum Sd was derived from baseflow separation. Results showed overall positive moderate to strong and statistically significant correlation between the two types of storage for 32 catchments. Linear regressions between a set of 19 climate variables and landscape parameters revealed that Ss and Sd are primarily controlled by the amount of annual wetting and the Horton Index, respectively. In contrast, shallow storage could not be predicted by the Horton index while deep storage could not be predicted by the annual amount of wetting. Moreover, the flow duration curves of the studied catchments depend strongly on the Horton index. We conclude that in water-limited regions, the maximum amount of deep storage (and subsequent the low flows that sustain riparian ecosystems) depends on the rainwater use efficiency of the terrestrial ecosystem, but the maximum amount of shallow storage (and subsequent overland flow generation) is intrinsically linked to soil water dynamics

  9. Hydrogeological Investigations in Deep Wells at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Distinguin, Marc

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an integrated approach to characterizing the hydrogeology of the carbonate strata that encase the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the Meuse/Haute-Marne Laboratory site. The argillites are difficult to characterize due to their low permeability. The barrier properties of the argillites can be inferred from the flow and chemistry properties of the encasing Oxfordian and Dogger carbonates. Andras deep hole approach uses reverse air circulation drilling, geophysical logging, flow meter logging, geochemical sampling, and analyses of the pumping responses during sampling. The data support numerical simulations that evaluate the argillites hydraulic behaviour.

  10. From the Cosmos to the Geosphere: the quest of four European Deep Underground Laboratories originally built for Astroparticle Physics to understand Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafioti, I.

    2014-12-01

    A number of deep underground laboratories exist around the world, all originally developed to advance our understanding of the Universe. They were built to host 'low-background' Astroparticle Physics experiments, needing to be shielded from interference produced by cosmic radiation. These unique infrastructures show great diversity in terms of depth, size, and geological and environmental characteristics. Over the last decade, the four European deep underground laboratories - LSM in France, LSC in Spain, LNGS in Italy and Boulby in the UK - supported by their funding agencies, have been making great efforts to get integrated into a single distributed research infrastructure. At the same time, they have been asking "how can our facilities, primarily built for Astroparticle Physics, be used to tackle global challenges?". Astroparticle Physicists have wide experience in forming long-term large international collaborations, developing innovative technologies, building unique facilities and organising data handling, reduction, storage and analysis: all of these were put to the disposal of scientists from other disciplines. As a result, a number of very interesting multidisciplinary projects have been hosted in the labs with excellent scientific results: geologists, climatologists, environmental scientists and biologists from academia and public authorities have all used these deep underground environments. Even more recently, the four European labs have decided to go one step further: in order to treat global challenges, global cooperation is necessary, so they are trying to unite the global deep underground science community around these multidisciplinary synergies. The objective of this talk is to present the bottom-up policy adopted by these world-leading European research infrastructures related to global environmental change, including some of the most interesting scientific results received so far (e.g. muon tide detector for continuous, passive monitoring of

  11. The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H. ); Hawkins, C. )

    1996-01-01

    Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

  12. The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H.; Hawkins, C.

    1996-12-31

    Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

  13. On the Superficial Gas Velocity in Deep Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Grace, John; Shadle, Lawrence; Guenther, Chris

    2011-11-15

    The superficial gas velocity is one of the key parameters used to determine the flow hydrodynamics in gas–solids fluidized beds. However, the superficial velocity varies with height in practice, and there is no consistent basis for its specification. Different approaches to determine the superficial gas velocity in a deep gas–solids system are shown to cause difficulties in developing models and in comparing predictions with experimental results. In addition, the reference conditions for superficial gas velocity are important in modeling of deep gas–solids systems where there is a considerable pressure drop.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  15. Underground laboratory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  16. Modeling of coulpled deformation and permeability evolution during fault reactivation induced by deep underground injection of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between mechanical deformation and fluid flow in fault zones gives rise to a host of coupled hydromechanical processes fundamental to fault instability, induced seismicity, and associated fluid migration. In this paper, we discuss these coupled processes in general and describe three modeling approaches that have been considered to analyze fluid flow and stress coupling in fault-instability processes. First, fault hydromechanical models were tested to investigate fault behavior using different mechanical modeling approaches, including slip interface and finite-thickness elements with isotropic or anisotropic elasto-plastic constitutive models. The results of this investigation showed that fault hydromechanical behavior can be appropriately represented with the least complex alternative, using a finite-thickness element and isotropic plasticity. We utilized this pragmatic approach coupled with a strain-permeability model to study hydromechanical effects on fault instability during deep underground injection of CO{sub 2}. We demonstrated how such a modeling approach can be applied to determine the likelihood of fault reactivation and to estimate the associated loss of CO{sub 2} from the injection zone. It is shown that shear-enhanced permeability initiated where the fault intersects the injection zone plays an important role in propagating fault instability and permeability enhancement through the overlying caprock.

  17. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  18. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  19. Sintered bauxite proppants for deep oil and gas well stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crittenden, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    Deep gas and oil production has been substantially increased over prolonged periods through the use of sintered bauxite propping agents. Since its inception in 1976, over 170,000,000 pounds of high strength ceramic proppants have been employed. Recent field evaluations and economic analysis demonstrate the superiority of sintered bauxite proppant over quartz sand. This paper describes the development, application, field results, and product evolution of sintered bauxite.

  20. Underground Fiber-Optic Differential Absorption Instrument for Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Soil Gas Concentrations for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Humphries, S. D.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J. L.; Spangler, L. H.; Dobeck, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    The burning of fossil fuels has resulted in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere with potential impacts on the Earth's climate. The use of fossil fuels is predicted to grow over the next several decades with the potential for further increasing the atmospheric concentration of CO2. A proposed method of diminishing the impacts of increased CO2 on the Earth's climate is to capture and store the CO2 in geologic storage sites. One issue with underground sequestration of CO2 is the ability to monitor sequestration sites to verify the integrity of the storage of the CO2. An underground fiber optic differential absorption instrument based on a tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser is being developed at Montana State University to detect small changes in CO2 soil gas concentration in an effort to monitor the overall integrity of the sequestration storage site. The fiber optic instrument exploits the 2003-2006 nm region of the spectrum which contains four CO2 absorption lines. Light from the DFB laser is delivered to an underground absorption cell one meter in length via a single mode optical fiber. The normalized transmission is measured by tuning the DFB diode laser across these four absorption lines and the results are used to determine the CO2 soil gas concentration. A description of this instrument will be presented including the instrument design, operation, and performance characteristics. A field site for testing the performance of CO2 detection instruments and techniques has been developed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at Montana State University. The field site allows a controlled flow rate of CO2 to be released underground through a 100 m long horizontal pipe placed below the water table. Two release experiments were performed this past summer with flow rates of 0.1 and 0.3 tons CO2/day. The first release experiment lasted ten days while the second release lasted seven days. Measurements taken with the

  1. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  2. Underground coal gasification (UCG) gas to methanol and MTG-gasoline: an economic and sensitivity study, Task B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report, identified as Task B, examines the technical and economic aspects of the production of methanol and MTG-Gasoline using gas from an underground coal gasification (UCG) facility. The report is a sequel to a previous study performed in 1981 and identified as Task A. The Task A report, titled Cost Saving Concepts on the Production of Methanol from Underground Gasified Coal, examined the economics of producing fuel grade methanol using UCG gas. In this study we examine the economics of producing MTG-Gasoline as well as a number of other aspects of the economics of upgrading UCG gas. Capital and operating costs for three different capacities of MTG-Gasoline plant are presented. These are 1600 BPD, 4800 BPD, and 9600 BPD. These capacities are equivalent to fuel grade methanol plants having capacities of 4000 BPD, 12,000 BPD, and 24,000 BPD - the methanol capacities considered in the previous studies. The economics of the MTG-Gasoline plant were developed using published information and our best estimate of the processing steps in the MTG-Gasoline process. As part of this study, several sensitivity studies were undertaken to examine the sensitivity of both methanol and MTG-Gasoline product cost to changes in technical and economic parameters. Table 1.1 lists the various sensitivity studies undertaken. All cost figures are in first quarter 1982 dollars.

  3. Improving the location of induced earthquakes associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, Beatriz; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Blanch, Estefania

    2016-05-01

    On September 2013, increased seismic activity was recorded near the CASTOR offshore underground gas storage (UGS), in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain). According to the reports by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), more than 550 events occurred during two months, the strongest having a magnitude of Mw = 4.2 which took place two weeks after the gas injection stopped. The low magnitude of the events (with only 17 earthquakes having mbLg greater than 3), the lack of nearby stations, and the inhomogeneous station distribution made the location problem a great challenge. Here we present improved locations for a subset of 161 well recorded events from the earthquake sequence using a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location method. A new 3-D shear-wave velocity model is also estimated in this work from surface-wave ambient noise tomography. To further improve the locations, waveform cross-correlations are computed at each station for every event pair and new locations are obtained from an inverted set of adjusted travel time picks. The resulting hypocentral solutions show a tighter clustering with respect to the initial locations and they are distributed in a NW-SE direction. Most of the earthquakes are located near the injection well at depths of about 6 km. Our results indicate that the observed seismicity is closely associated with the injection activities at the CASTOR underground gas storage and may have resulted from the reactivation of pre-existing unmapped faults, located a few kilometers below the reservoir.

  4. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  5. Mapping Deep-Water Gas Emissions With Sidescan Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaucke, Ingo; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Sahling, Heiko; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Bürk, Dietmar

    2005-09-01

    Emissions of methane gas from cold seeps on the seafloor have a strong impact on a number of biogeochemical processes. These processes include the development of deep-sea benthic ecosystems via the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane [Boetius et al., 2000] or the precipitation of carbonates [Ritger et al., 1987]. The fluxes of other chemical species associated with methane emissions may even influence the chemical composition of seawater [Aloisi et al., 2004]. Such gas emissions may have been much more intensive in the past with a strong impact onglobal climate [Dickens, 1999], as suggested bycarbon isotope data. Many international and national research projects, such as the METRO collaborative project (Methane and Methane Hydrates Within the Black Sea: Structural Analyses, Quantification and Impact of a Dynamic Methane Reservoir), part of the German research and development program Geotechnologien, focus on these cold seep sites and stimulate interdisciplinary work between a variety of scientific groups.

  6. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at building 310 underground storage tank area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil gas was assessed for contaminants in the building 310 underground storage tank area adjacent to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center at Ft. Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment, which also included the detection of organic compounds in soil gas, provides environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. Soil-gas samplers were deployed below land surface at 37 locations in the building 310 underground storage tank area. Soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern near the storage tank area as well as downslope of the tank area in the direction of groundwater flow toward an unnamed tributary to Butler Creek. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 35 of the 37 soil-gas samplers at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes were detected above their detection levels in 8 of the 37 samplers. In addition, the combined masses of undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected at or above their method detection levels in 9 of the 37 samplers. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were chloroform, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethylene. In addition, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were detected below the method detection levels, but above the nondetection level.

  7. Underground laboratories in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  8. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  9. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  10. PEGASUS, a European research project on the effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-12-31

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and possible gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular in the 4th five year R and D program on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990--1994), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called PEGASUS, Project on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities for radioactive waste, about 20 organizations and research institutes from 7 European countries are involved. The project covers both experimental and theoretical studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations as clay, salt and granite. In this paper an overview is given of the various studies undertaken in the project as well as some first results presented.

  11. BP Canada expands deep B. C. gas play

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-22

    BP Canada Inc. has reported good progress with its deep gas exploration program in British Columbia. The company has an aggressive exploration program in the Monkman area of northeastern British Columbia. BP has drilled four wells in the area since its 1989 success with the West Sukunka c-1-c well, in which BP has a 75% working interest and NIM Petroleum Corp. has 25% (OGJ, Oct. 30, 1989, p. 82). An exploratory well, West Bullmose c-88-H, confirmed BP's structural interpretation of the area. The well flowed at the rate of 12.5 MMcfd of gas at 1,782 psi flowing wellhead pressure from a new Triassic reservoir. It is shut-in to test bottomhole pressure in order to determine reserves. BP and Ocelot Industries Ltd., Calgary, each have 50% working interest. The second well in the program, West Sukunka c-78- J, is 2 1/4 miles southeast of the c-1-c well. It flowed 44 MMcfd of gas with 2,415 psi flowing wellhead pressure and has been completed as an Upper Triassic Baldonnel gas well. Surface equipment capacity constrained the flow rate.

  12. Overview of underground injection control regulations relating to Class II (oil and gas associated) injection wells - past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, T.

    1989-04-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandates US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and primacy state regulation of injection wells in order to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDW) from contamination. Currently five classes (I-V) of injection wells exist with class II wells being those used in conjunction with oil and gas production activities. In 1986, 60 million bbl of oil-field fluids were injected through 166,000 injection wells in the continental US. These disposal volumes will increase significantly in the future as the producing fields continue to be depleted. The petroleum industry's generally good track record in protecting the nation's ground-water resources, unfortunately, has not been accepted by all sectors of the public. This in turn, has led to the current reevaluation of the existing class II regulatory framework and a reassessment of the degree of protection afforded to USDW from oil and gas activities. This presentation gives an overview of the evolution, current status, and emerging trends in class II Underground Injection Control regulations. Key areas discussed include well construction, operating and monitoring requirements, mechanical integrity testing, plugging and abandonment procedures, and financial assurance demonstrations. The petroleum industry must continue to work closely with EPA and other regulatory agencies in identifying and correcting any deficiencies in current injection practices. A sincere and open approach by both parties will prevent unnecessary additional regulatory burdens and enhance the petroleum industry's image and its commitment to continued protection of the drinking water resources.

  13. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  14. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  15. Highly Compressed Free Gas in Deep-Water Natural Gas Hydrate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Natural gas, predominantly methane, is stored in a highly compact form within solid gas hydrate. The large volume of free gas that can be liberated by dissociation of hydrate (at standard surface conditions) is a prominent aspect of this potential energy resource. In contrast, the highly compressed state of free gas under pressure-temperature conditions found in deep-water marine settings is rarely noted. To facilitate comparison of gas quantities present within and below the hydrate stability zone in marine gas hydrate systems, particularly those in the deep-water Bering Sea basins, a suite of volume expansion ratios for 100% methane gas have been calculated. These ratios relate free gas volume under in-situ pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions to free gas volume at standard surface conditions. The volume calculation is routine, using the Peng-Robinson equation of state (Peng and Robinson, 1976). Because most geophysical field studies aim to resolve the quantities of solid hydrate or free gas as a volume fraction of bulk rock in-situ, whereas gas resource volumes are reported as volume of free gas at STP, results here are presented as free gas volume ratios describing expansion between depth and surface conditions. This presentation also allows direct comparison with free gas yield of solid hydrate. Volume expansion ratio is presented for general reference for the pressure range 1 to 60 MPa and temperature range 0° to 80°C. (See USGS Open File Report 05-1451 online.) For pressures in the range 30 to 52 MPa and temperatures from 4° to 80°C, a more detailed evaluation of the P (water depth) and T (geotherm) effects on gas volumes has been undertaken. Ideal gas deviation factors, or z-factors, are also included. For free methane gas near the base of the hydrate stability zone at 360 m below seafloor in the Bering Sea, under conditions of 3,600 m water depth, 4°C seafloor temperature and 60°C/km geothermal gradient, the ratio of gas volume at standard

  16. Deep Fracturing of the Hard Rock Surrounding a Large Underground Cavern Subjected to High Geostress: In Situ Observation and Mechanism Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Pei, Shu-Feng; Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Yang-Yi; Li, Shao-Jun; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2017-08-01

    Rocks that are far removed from caverns or tunnels peripheries and subjected to high geostress may undergo `deep fracturing'. Deep fracturing of hard rock can cause serious hazards that cause delays and increase the cost of construction of underground caverns with high sidewalls and large spans (especially when subjected to high geostress). To extensively investigate the mechanism responsible for deep fracturing, and the relationship between fracturing and the excavation & support of caverns, this paper presents a basic procedure for making in situ observations on the deep fracturing process in hard rock. The basic procedure involves predicting the stress concentration zones in the surrounding rocks of caverns induced by excavation using geomechanical techniques. Boreholes are then drilled through these stress concentration zones from pre-existing tunnels (such as auxiliary galleries) toward the caverns before its excavation. Continuous observations of the fracturing of the surrounding rocks are performed during excavation using a borehole camera in the boreholes in order to analyze the evolution of the fracturing process. The deep fracturing observed in a large underground cavern (high sidewalls and large span) in southwest China excavated in basalt under high geostress is also discussed. By continuously observing the hard rock surrounding the arch on the upstream side of the cavern during the excavation of the first three layers, it was observed that the fracturing developed into the surrounding rocks with downward excavation of the cavern. Fracturing was found at distances up to 8-9 m from the cavern periphery during the excavation of Layer III. Also, the cracks propagated along pre-existing joints or at the interfaces between quartz porphyry and the rock matrix. The relationship between deep fracturing of the surrounding rocks and the advance of the cavern working faces was analyzed during excavation of Layer Ib. The results indicate that the extent of the

  17. Numerical Simulation Research of Gas Migration Laws on Real Underground Mining Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S. Y.; Chen, X. X.; Dong, L. H.; Li, Z.

    In order to show gas migration process visually and research gas migration laws at different status when gas gushed from driving working face and then migrated along the roadway, we used FLUENT to research the characters of gas migration when wind velocities were 6m / s, 8m / s, 10m / s, and gas emission speeds were 10m / s, 30m / s and 50m / s on real atmospheric pressure, moisture content, viscosity coefficient of the mixed gas and other real roadway conditions. We derived the following results: Gas group gather together at the bottom of the roadway when it gush from driving working face by wind action, and then rise to the top gradually. Its volume increased while gas concentration came down in the process of migration. Attenuation degree of gas group diminished slower as the volume of gas group nun larger when the wind velocity is constant. Gas attenuation degree diminished slower as wind speed came down while gas emission volume is constant. Contrarily, wind speed is constant, the volume of gas emission became larger the maximum values of gas group became much more approximated to power function.

  18. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 for renewable energy storage for a test case in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Li, Qi; Nakaten, Natalie, Christine; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Integration and further development of the energy supply system in China is a major challenge for the years to come. Part of the strategy is the implementation of a low carbon energy system based on carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The innovative idea presented here is based on an extension of the power-to-gas-to-power (PGP) technology by establishing a closed carbon dioxide cycle [1]. Thereto, hydrogen generated from excess renewable energy is transformed into methane for combustion in a combined cycle gas power plant. To comply with the fluctuating energy demand, carbon dioxide produced during methane combustion and required for the methanation process as well as excess methane are temporarily stored in two underground reservoirs located close to each other [2]. Consequently, renewable energy generation units can be operated even if energy demand is below consumption, while stored energy can be fed into the grid as energy demand exceeds production [3]. We studied a show case for Xinjiang in China [4] to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain based on numerical computer simulations for the operation of the CO2 and CH4 storage reservoirs, and to ascertain the pressure regimes present in the storage formations during the injection and production phases of the annual cycle. [1] Streibel M., Nakaten N., Kempka T., Kühn M. (2013) Analysis of an integrated carbon cycle for storage of renewables. Energy Procedia 40, 202-211. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.024. [2] Kühn M., Streibel M., Nakaten N.C., Kempka T. (2014) Integrated Underground Gas Storage of CO2 and CH4 to Decarbonise the "Power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" Technology. Energy Procedia 59, 9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.342 [3] Kühn M., Nakaten N.C., Streibel M., Kempka T. (2014) CO2 Geological Storage and Utilization for a Carbon Neutral "Power-to-gas-to-power" Cycle to Even Out Fluctuations of Renewable Energy Provision. Energy Procedia 63, 8044-8049. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  1. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  3. Theoretical tissue compartment inert gas pressures during a deep dive with and without deep decompression stops: a case analysis.

    PubMed

    Buzzacott, Peter; Papadopoulou, Virginie; Baddeley, Adrian; Petri, Nadan M; Lind, Folke

    2015-01-01

    Deep decompression stops are increasingly common in recreational technical diving. Concerns exist that they shift decompression stress back into slower tissues. A diver recorded an exceptional exposure dive, with deeps stops, on a commercially available dive computer. Using the R package SCUBA tissue inert gas pressures in 17 Bühlmann (ZH-L16A) compartments were estimated from the dive computer recorded profile. The RGBM dive plan generated by the diver's software was similarly interrogated, as was a third profile with reduced deep stops generated using the VPM-B/E model. In this dive the combination of 5 gas switches appeared to ameliorate the effect of deep stops from 76 m depth. A higher-than-anticipated inert gas content in a decompression mixture, coupled with climbing 200 stairs post-decompression, appear possible risk factors for decompression sickness. Nonetheless, the physiological effect of deep decompression stops during exceptional exposure, even when diving with gas switches, remains urgently to be determined to improve safe decompression following exceptional exposures. Until algorithms utilising deep decompression stops are validated with human data, dive profiles incorporating deep decompression stops should be considered experimental.

  4. Underground air returns as active transportation pathways for radon gas entry into homes.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Metzger, R L; Holbert, K E

    1992-12-01

    Levels of elevated 222Rn in homes can fail to correlate with measured radium concentrations in soils and surrounding rocks for reasons which can include water sources, building materials, and unusual variations in climate or building construction. Several homes were identified in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area with soil radium concentrations of < 0.074 Bq g-1 (2.0 pCi g-1) which had elevated radon concentrations unexplained by geological sources alone. Continuous monitoring of eight houses under different conditions of cooling system usage revealed a definite role of the underground air returns as active transport pathways contributing to the enhancement of the indoor concentration of 222Rn in six of the houses. The ratio of indoor 222Rn concentrations on days when the cooling system was operated continuously compared to days the system was off ranged from essentially one up to a factor exceeding 10.

  5. Prediction of Peak Hydrogen Concentrations for Deep Sludge Retrieval in Tanks AN-101 and AN-106 from Historical Data of Spontaneous Gas Release Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Cooley, Scott K.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2013-10-21

    Radioactive and chemical wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) to double-shell tanks (DSTs) and preparing for waste feed delivery (WFD). A new mechanism for a large spontaneous gas release event (GRE) in deep sludge sediments has been postulated. The creation of this potential new GRE hazard, deep sludge gas release events (DSGREs), is the retrieval of sludge waste into a single DST that results in a sediment depth greater than operating experience has demonstrated is safe. The Tank Operations Contractor program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to DSTs and preparing for WFD is being negatively impacted by this sediment depth limit.

  6. Tidal control on gas flux from the Precambrian continental bedrock revealed by gas monitoring at the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Wiersberg, Thomas; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pullinen, Arto

    2017-04-01

    Deep groundwaters within Precambrian shields are characteristically enriched in non-atmospheric gases. High concentrations of methane are frequently observed especially in graphite bearing metasedimentary rocks and accumulation of hydrogen and noble gases due to water-rock interaction and radioactive decay within the U, Th and K containing bedrock takes place. These gases can migrate not only through fractures and faults, but also through tunnels and boreholes, thereby potentially mobilizing hazardous compounds for example from underground nuclear waste repositories. Better understanding on fluid migration may also provide tools to monitor changes in bedrock properties such as fracture density or deterioration and failure of engineered barriers. In order to study gas migration mechanisms and variations with time, we conducted a gas monitoring campaign in eastern Finland within the Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield. At the study site, the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (2516 m), spontaneous bubbling of gases at the well head has been on-going since the drilling was completed in 2005, i.e. over a decade. The drill hole is open below 39 m. In the experiment an inflatable packer was placed 15 cm above the water table inside the collar (Ø 32.4 cm), gas from below the packer was collected and the gas flow in the pipe line carefully assisted by pumping (130 ml/min). Composition of gas was monitored on-line for one month using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with measurement interval of one minute. Changes in the hydraulic head and in situ temperature were simultaneously recorded with two pressure sensors which were placed 1 m apart from each other below the packer such that they remained above and below the water table. In addition, data was compared with atmospheric pressure data and theoretical effect of Earth tides at the study site. Methane was the dominant gas emanating from the bedrock, however, relative gas composition fluctuated with time. Subsurface derived gases

  7. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  8. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez-Larre, Joaquim; Remmelts, Gijs; Breunese, Jaap; Van Gessel, Serge; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2017-04-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all available onshore natural gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natural gas producers in Western Europe. The current decline of its national production and looming production restrictions on its largest field of Groningen -owing to its induced seismicity- have recently made necessary to upgrade the two largest UGS of Norg and Grijpskerk. The joined working volume of these two UGS is expected to replace the swing capacity of the Groningen field to continue guaranteeing the security of supply of low calorific natural gas. The question is whether the current UGS configuration will provide the expected working storage capacity unrestricted by issues on reservoir performances and/or induced seismicity. This matter will be of paramount importance in the near future when production restrictions and/or the advance state of depletion of the Groningen field will turn the Netherlands into a net importer of high calorific natural gas. By then, the question will be whether the current UGS will still be economically attractive to continue operating, or if additional/alternative types of UGS will be needed?. Hence the characterization and ranking of the best potential reservoirs available today is of paramount importance for future UGS developments. We built an in-house automated module based on the application of the traditional inflow performance relationship analysis to screen the performances of 156 natural gas reservoirs in onshore Netherlands. Results enable identifying the 72 best candidates with an ultimate total working volume capacity of 122±30 billion Sm3. A detailed sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the reservoir properties or wellbore/tubing configurations on withdrawal performances and storage capacity. We validate our predictions by comparing them to

  9. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 9: UNDERGROUND PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  10. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  11. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 9: UNDERGROUND PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  12. The ANDES underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, X.

    2012-09-01

    The ANDES underground laboratory, planned for inclusion in the Agua Negra tunnel crossing the Andes between Argentina and Chile, will be the first deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be deep (1750 m of rock overburden), large (60 000 m3 of volume), and provide the international community with a unique site for testing dark-matter modulation signals. The site furthermore has a low nuclear reactor neutrino background and is of special interest to the geophysics sciences. The laboratory will be run as a multi-national facility, under a consortium of Latin-American countries. Its opening is expectedfor 2020.

  13. Simulation studies of muon-produced background events deep underground and consequences for double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic radiation creates a significant background for low count rate experiments. The Majorana demonstrator experiment is located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at a depth of 4850ft below the surface but it can still be penetrated by cosmic muons with initial energies above the TeV range. The interaction of muons with the rock, the shielding material in the lab and the detector itself can produce showers of secondary particles, like fast neutrons, which are able to travel through shielding material and can produce high-energy γ-rays via capture or inelastic scattering. The energy deposition of these γ rays in the detector can overlap with energy region of interest for the neutrino-less double beta decay. Recent studies for cosmic muons penetrating the Majorana demonstrator are made with the Geant4 code. The results of these simulations will be presented in this talk and an overview of the interaction of the shower particles with the detector, shielding and veto system will be given. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  14. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Wang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Weishen; Li, Shucai; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction. PMID:26404287

  15. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Wang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Weishen; Li, Shucai; Liu, Jian

    2015-08-31

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  16. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. (Per)chlorate reduction by the thermophilic bacterium Moorella perchloratireducens sp. nov., isolated from underground gas storage.

    PubMed

    Balk, Melike; van Gelder, Ton; Weelink, Sander A; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-01-01

    A thermophilic bacterium, strain An10, was isolated from underground gas storage with methanol as a substrate and perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Cells were gram-positive straight rods, 0.4 to 0.6 mum in diameter and 2 to 8 mum in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. Spores were terminal with a bulged sporangium. The temperature range for growth was 40 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum at 55 to 60 degrees C. The pH optimum was around 7. The salinity range for growth was between 0 and 40 g NaCl liter(-1) with an optimum at 10 g liter(-1). Strain An10 was able to grow on CO, methanol, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, cellobiose, mannose, xylose, and pectin. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, thiosulfate, neutralized Fe(III) complexes, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate. The G+C content of the DNA was 57.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, strain An10 was most closely related to Moorella thermoacetica and Moorella thermoautotrophica. The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell extracts. Strain An10 is the first thermophilic and gram-positive bacterium with the ability to use (per)chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor.

  18. Review of Deep-Sea Ecology and Monitoring as They Relate to Deep-Sea Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, Roy K.

    2004-01-30

    This review summarizes available information concerning deep-sea benthic ecology and how that information might be used to monitor and eventually reduce the potential impacts resulting from oil and gas production activities. The paper provides a brief overview of deep-sea ecology and benthic faunal groups and summarizes some of the physical and biological features that may be important in evaluating potential impacts. In addition, presented is a synopsis of issues related to the design of a sampling program and a discussion of analytical considerations related to the uncertain knowledge of deep faunas. Also included is an overview of some of the variety of sampling techniques and equipment available to study the deep sea. The review concludes with management considerations and recommendations.

  19. Tepidibacillus fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov.: a moderately thermophilic anaerobic and microaerophilic bacterium from an underground gas storage.

    PubMed

    Slobodkina, G B; Panteleeva, A N; Kostrikina, N A; Kopitsyn, D S; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A; Slobodkin, A I

    2013-09-01

    A novel moderately thermophilic bacterium, strain STGH(T), was isolated from Severo-Stavropolskoye underground gas storage (Russia). Cells of strain STGH(T) were spore-forming motile straight rods 0.3 μm in diameter and 2.0-4.0 μm in length having a Gram-positive cell wall structure. The temperature range for growth was 36-65 °C, with an optimum at 50-52 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-8.0, with an optimum at pH 7.0-7.5. Growth of strain STGH(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 4.0 % (w/v) with an optimum at 1.0 % (w/v). Strain STGH(T) grew anaerobically by reduction of nitrate, thiosulfate, S(0) and AQDS using a number of complex proteinaceous compounds, organic acids and carbohydrates as electron donors. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite; thiosulfate and sulfur were reduced to sulfide. It also was able to ferment pyruvate, glucose, fructose, and maltose. The strain STGH(T) did not grow under aerobic conditions during incubation with atmospheric concentration of oxygen but was able to microaerobic growth (up to 10 % of oxygen in gas phase). The G+C content of DNA of strain STGH(T) was 34.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolated organism belongs to the class Bacilli. We propose to assign strain STGH(T) to a new species of a novel genus Tepidibacillus fermentans gen. nov., sp.nov. The type strain is STGH(T) (=DSM 23802(T), =VKM B-2671(T)).

  20. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  1. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  2. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, David W.; White, Joshua A.

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  3. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  4. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  5. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  6. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  7. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  8. Underground Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhlrott, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of underground buildings constructed primarily during last two decades for various reasons (energy conservation, density of environment, preservation of landscape and historic buildings) notes advantages, disadvantages, and psychological and design considerations. Examples of underground libraries, built mainly in United States, are…

  9. Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep- basin gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-gas deposits (methane ???95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristics of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature of these methanes suggests that they were cogenerated with C15+ HC's. Only a limited resource of deep-basin gas deposits may be expected by the accepted model for the origin of dry-gas deposits because of a limited number of deep-basin oil deposits originally available to be thermally converted to dry gas. However, by the models of this paper (inefficient source-rock oil and gas expulsion, closed fluid systems in petroleum-basin depocenters, and most dry-gas methane cogenerated with C15+ HC's), very large, previously unrecognized, unconventional, deep-basin gas resources are expected. -from Author

  10. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  11. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  12. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGES

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  13. Mesotoga infera sp. nov., a mesophilic member of the order Thermotogales, isolated from an underground gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Aüllo, Thomas; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Erauso, Gaël; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Saint-Laurent, Stéphanie; Magot, Michel; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-08-01

    Strain VNs100(T), a novel mesophilic, anaerobic, rod-coccoid-shaped bacterium, having a sheath-like outer structure (toga), was isolated from a water sample collected in the area of an underground gas storage aquifer. It was non-motile with cells appearing singly (2-4 µm long × 1-2 µm wide), in pairs or as long chains and stained Gram-negative. Strain VNs100(T) was heterotrophic, able to use arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, lactate, mannose, maltose, raffinose, ribose, sucrose and xylose as energy sources only in the presence of elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Acetate, CO2 and sulfide were the end products of sugar metabolism. Hydrogen was not detected. Elemental sulfur, but not thiosulfate, sulfate or sulfite, were reduced to sulfide. Strain VNs100(T) grew at temperatures between 30 and 50 °C (optimum 45 °C), at pH values between 6.2 and 7.9 (optimum 7.3-7.5) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 15 g l(-1) (optimum 2 g l(-1)). The DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. The main cellular fatty acid was C16 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain VNs100(T) had as its closest relatives 'Mesotoga sulfurireducens' (97.1 % similarity) and Mesotoga prima (similarity of 97.1 % and 97.7 % with each of its two genes, respectively) within the order Thermotogales. Hybridization between strain VNS100(T) and 'M. sulfurireducens' and between strain VNS100(T) and M. prima showed 12.9 % and 20.6 % relatedness, respectively. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and taxonomic characteristics, strain VNs100(T) is proposed as a representative of a novel species of the genus Mesotoga in the family Thermotogaceae, order Thermotogales. The name Mesotoga infera sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VNs100(T) (= DSM 25546(T) = JCM 18154(T)).

  14. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    DOEpatents

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  15. Thermohydrologic Modeling: Coupling Navier-Stokes Models of Gas, Moisture, and Heat Flow in Underground Engineered Systems with Porous-Media Models in Fractured Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y.; Nitao, J. J.; Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Lee, K. H.

    2004-12-01

    Combined free and porous flows occur in a wide range of natural and engineered systems such as coupled transport processes driven by underground-engineered systems. One potential application for modeling these coupled flow processes is related to the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste package in tunnels lying above the water table. This example involves the flow of gas and moisture in large open tunnel and gas- and liquid-phase flow in the surrounding fractured, porous rocks. This study aims to develop a method of coupling the Navier-Stokes equations and the Darcy's law to achieve a more rigorous representation of all major flow and transport processes in underground tunnels and surrounding fractured host-rocks. While the thermohydrologic (TH) processes in host-rocks are treated based on porous-medium Darcy-flow approximations, the Navier-Stokes modeling is applied to describe in-tunnel flow behaviors (natural convection, realistic gas/moisture movement, turbulent flow conditions, etc.). The governing equations are numerically solved by a finite-element scheme in the NUFT code. Some numerical simulation results shown in this presentation provide environmental conditions that engineered systems would experience, which, therefore, may be useful for engineered system design analysis and performance assessment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  16. Deep IR imaging of two gas-rich radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Neal

    1997-07-01

    We propose deep, high resolution continuum, line and polarization imaging of the two best candidates for recent mergers amongst the low-redshift radio galaxies: 3C 305 and 3C 293. Our primary aim is to obtain a deep IR image to locate the true nuclei and clarify the structure of the galaxies in order to test merger models, since our optical view is confused by dense dust lanes, scattering, and strong emission lines associated with the kpc-scale radio jets. The results will help assess popular models in which mergers trigger AGN activity. Our secondary aim is to image the shock-excited 1.64 micron Fe ii line to trace fast shocks and hence help understand the relationship between the radio jets and the {possibly collimated} ionizing continuum. These two galaxies provide a very rare opportunity to study the impact of the jets on their environment, because they are interacting directly with the cold interstellar medium {absent in normal elliptical radio galaxies}. The extended optical emission lines are already well studied, but interpretation has been hampered by confusion between shock- and photo-ionization. Our tertiary aim is to obtain 2 micron polarimetry to trace regions of electron scattering, to check the apparent 90degrees misalignment between the jet axis and that of the scattering ``cone'' in 3C 305, and to ensure location of even deeply-buried nuclei, either by picking up direct long- wavelength emission, or by locating the centre of the scattering pattern.

  17. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  18. Major gas discovery reported at deep test in Ardmore Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-06-17

    A North Texas deeper pool test along the Red River appears to be a major gas discovery in the southeastern Ardmore basin. The well is Heape's 1 C.A. Matthews, in J. Murphy survey, A-799, 5 miles north of Sandusky, Tex., and 16 miles southwest of Madill, Okla. Local reports credited the well as having 202 ft of pay and flowing gas at the rate of 40 MMcfd during a drillstem test of Cambro-Ordovician Ellenburger several hundred feet below old total depth of 15,814 ft. No drillstem test has been conducted on the well, being drilled and gel mud, but there is no question it appears to be a major discovery. Total depth is 20,500 ft, and liner was being run. More information will be released soon.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  20. Possible deep-water gas hydrate accumulations in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, Ginger A.; Scholl, David W.; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic reflection images from the deep-water Aleutian and Bowers Basins of the Bering Sea contain many hundreds of acoustic Velocity-AMPlitude (VAMP) anomalies, each of which may represent a large accumulation of natural gas hydrate. Against a backdrop of essentially horizontal sedimentary reflections, the VAMP anomalies stand out as both high-amplitude bright spots and zones of vertically aligned horizon distortions. The VAMPs are interpreted as natural gas chimneys overlain by concentrated hydrate caps.

  1. A gas sampling system for withdrawing humid gases from deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Thordarson, W.; Kurzmack, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A gas sampling system, designed to withdraw nearly vapor-saturated gases (93 to 100% relative humidity) from deep, unsaturated zone boreholes, was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in the unsaturated zone borehole instrumentation and monitoring program at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. This gas sampling system will be used to: (1) sample formation rock gases in support of the unsaturated zone hydrochemical characterization program; and (2) verify downhole, thermocouple psychrometer measurements of water potential in support of the unsaturated zone borehole instrumentation and monitoring program. Using this sampling system, nearly vapor-saturated formation rock-gases can be withdrawn from deep boreholes without condensing water vapor in the sampling tubes, and fractionating heavy isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. The sampling system described in this paper uses a dry carrier-gas (nitrogen) to lower the dew point temperature of the formation rock-gas at its source. Mixing of the dry carrier gas with the source gas takes place inside a specially designed downhole instrument station apparatus (DISA). Nitrogen inflow is regulated in a manner that lowers the dew point temperature of the source gas to a temperature that is colder than the coldest temperature that the mixed gas will experience in moving from warmer, deeper depths, to colder, shallower depths near the land surface. A test of this gas sampling system was conducted in December, 1992, in a 12.2 meter deep borehole that was instrumented in October, 1991. The water potential calculated using this system reproduced in-situ measurements of water potential to within five percent of the average value, as recorded by two thermocouple psychrometers that had been in operation for over 12 months.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  3. Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

  4. Interpretation of multiple archaeal lipid biomarkers in deep sediments bearing gas hydrate in the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Hun, Lee; Jong-Gu, Gal; Ji-Hoon, Kim; Jang-Jun, Bahk; Kyung-Hoon, Shin

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the distributions and stable carbon isotope values of arhaeal lipid biomarkers at seismically chimney and non-chimney sites (UBGH 2-3, UBGH 2-1_1) of gas hydrate bearing deep core sediments during the second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH 2). The objective of this study was to identify and compare the metabolic pathway of methane-related archaea between both sites. The increased concentration and δ13C-depleted archaeol and sn-2-hydroxyarcheol at the Sulphate-Methane transition Zone (SMTZ) of UBGH 2-11 could be predominantly methanotrophic activity indicating methane consumption by Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). The concentration of methane-related specific biomarkers (PMI, crocetane, archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarcheol) within deep core sediment bearing gas hydrate of both sites is relatively higher than in other sediment sections, showing lower Cl- concentration. The carbon stable isotopic data (-47.5 o -75.2o to -52.4) for archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarcheol in the sediment sections (20mbsf, 93 - 100mbsf) at UBGH 2-11 reflect methane production via microbial carbon dioxide reduction in deep core sediment. Archaeal lipid biomarker concentrations are slightly different depending on upward methane diffusion or advection with the seismic characteristics of both sites. Based on the archaeal lipid biomarker ratio (sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol/archaeol) as a tool to demonstrate the different ANME communities, our result suggest that the predominant occurrence of ANMEs is mediated by upward migration of microbial methane. Consequently, geochemical signature of archaeal lipid biomarkers in the East Sea of the western North Paci?c may be a potential indicator reflected by upward transported-methane in methane cycle of deep core sediment. In addition, the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) is discussed with archaeal lipid biomarkers in the gas hydrate bearing deep sediment.

  5. The use of novel DNA nanotracers to determine groundwater flow paths - a test study at the Grimsel Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittilä, Anniina; Evans, Keith; Puddu, Michela; Mikutis, Gediminas; Grass, Robert N.; Deuber, Claudia; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    earlier test. In this study, we present the results of tests of applying novel DNA nanotracers to characterize groundwater flow properties and the flow pathways in a fracture-dominated reservoir in the Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. This study is motivated by subsequent comparisons of similar characterizations of fractured rock masses after hydraulic stimulation. These will take place at the DUG Lab at the end of 2016. The results of the flow-path characterization are also compared with those obtained from classical solute tracer tests.

  6. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  7. Assistance to state underground injection control programs and the oil and gas industry with class 2 injection well data management and technology transfer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Paque, M.J.

    1995-11-23

    The Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation (UIPRF) administered a grant project funded by the US Department of Energy relating to Class 2 injection well operations in various primacy and direct implementation states throughout the country. This effort provided substantial benefits to state regulatory agencies and oil and gas producing companies. It enhanced the protection of the environment through the protection of ground water resources and improved oil and gas production operations within affected states. This project involved the following accomplishment: (1) Completed the design and installation of the only comprehensive, fully relational PC-Based Oil and Gas regulatory data management system (the Risk Based Data Management System) in the country. Additionally, training and data conversion was conduced and the RBDMS User`s Guide and the RBDMS Administrator`s Guide were completed. (2) State wide Area-Of-Review (AOR) workshop were held in California and Oklahoma and a national three-day workshop was held in Kansas City, Missouri where 24 state oil and gas agencies were represented.

  8. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  9. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  10. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The DESEVAL-TRANS program is developed for the purpose of helping the engineer to design and economically evaluate coal combustion byproduct transportation systems that will operate between the power plant and the disposal site. The objective of the research project was to explore the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts in underground mines in Illinois. The DESEVAL-TRANS (short for Design and Evaluation of Transportation Systems) was developed in the Materials Handling and Systems Economics branch of the overall project. Four types of coal combustion byproducts were targeted for transportation and handling: Conventional fly ash; Scrubber sludge; Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) fly ash; and Spent-bed ash. Several transportation and handling systems that could handle these byproducts were examined. These technologies were classified under three general categories: Truck; Rail; and Container. The purpose of design models is to determine the proper number of transport units, silo capacity, loading and unloading rates, underground placement capacity, number of shifts, etc., for a given case, defined by a distance-tonnage combination. The cost computation models were developed for the determination of the operating and capital costs. An economic evaluation model, which is common to all categories, was also developed to establish the cost-per-ton of byproduct transported.

  11. Deep earthquakes beneath Mount St. Helens: Evidence for magmatic gas transport?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, C.S.; Zollweg, J.E.; Malone, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Small-magnitude earthquakes began beneath Mount St. Helens 40 days before the eruption of 20 March 1982. Unlike earlier preeruption seismicity for this volcano, which had been limited to shallow events (less than 3 kilometers), many of these earthquakes were deep (between 5 and 11 kilometers). The location of these preeruptive events at such depth indicates that a larger volume of the volcanic system was affected prior to the 20 March eruption than prior to any of the earlier dome-building eruptions. The depth-time relation between the deep earthquakes and the explosive onset of the eruption is compatible with the upward migration of magmatic gas released from a separate deep reservoir.

  12. Deep earthquakes beneath mount st. Helens: evidence for magmatic gas transport?

    PubMed

    Weaver, C S; Zollweg, J E; Malone, S D

    1983-09-30

    Small-magnitude earthquakes began beneath Mount St. Helens 40 days before the eruption of 20 March 1982. Unlike earlier preeruption seismicity for this volcano, which had been limited to shallow events (less than 3 kilometers), many of these earthquakes were deep (between 5 and 11 kilometers). The location of these preeruptive events at such depth indicates that a larger volume of the volcanic system was affected prior to the 20 March eruption than prior to any of the earlier dome-building eruptions. The depth-time relation between the deep earthquakes and the explosive onset of the eruption is compatible with the upward migration of magmatic gas released from a separate deep reservoir.

  13. New Probes with Deep of Gas Flows within Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, D. C.

    2012-09-01

    Instead of using background QSO's, we suggest using the light from galaxies to probe cool gas flows within their own halos. We highlight two DEEP projects based on this idea, one by Sato et al. (2009) that uses NaD absorption lines of galaxies at low redshifts z < 0.6 and another by Weiner et al. (2009) that uses MgII lines seen in galaxies at higher redshifts z ˜ 1.4.

  14. Process-based approach for the detection of deep gas invading the surface

    DOEpatents

    Romanak, Katherine; Bennett, Philip C.

    2017-05-09

    The present invention includes a method for determining the level of deep gas in a near surface formation that includes: measuring CO.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, and N.sub.2 levels in percent by volume from one or more surface or near surface geological samples; adding the water vapor content to the measured CO.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, and N.sub.2 levels in percent by volume; normalizing the gas mixture to 100% by volume or 1 atmospheric total pressure; and determining the ratios of: O.sub.2 versus CO.sub.2 to distinguish in-situ vadose zone CO.sub.2 from exogenous deep leakage CO.sub.2; CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2 to distinguish whether CO.sub.2 is being removed from the near surface formation or CO.sub.2 is added from an exogenous deep leakage input; or CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2/O.sub.2 to determine the degree of oxygen influx, consumption, or both; wherein the ratios are indicative of natural in situ CO.sub.2 or CO.sub.2 from the exogenous deep leakage input.

  15. Gas hydrate formation in the deep sea: In situ experiments with controlled release of methane, natural gas, and carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, P.G.; Orr, F.M.; Friederich, G.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Orange, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    We have utilized a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to initiate a program of research into gas hydrate formation in the deep sea by controlled release of hydrocarbon gases and liquid CO2 into natural sea water and marine sediments. Our objectives were to investigate the formation rates and growth patterns of gas hydrates in natural systems and to assess the geochemical stability of the reaction products over time. The novel experimental procedures used the carrying capacity, imaging capability, and control mechanisms of the ROV to transport gas cylinders to depth and to open valves selectively under desired P-T conditions to release the gas either into contained natural sea water or into sediments. In experiments in Monterey Bay, California, at 910 m depth and 3.9??C water temperature we find hydrate formation to be nearly instantaneous for a variety of gases. In sediments the pattern of hydrate formation is dependent on the pore size, with flooding of the pore spaces in a coarse sand yielding a hydrate cemented mass, and gas channeling in a fine-grained mud creating a veined hydrate structure. In experiments with liquid CO2 the released globules appeared to form a hydrate skin as they slowly rose in the apparatus. An initial attempt to leave the experimental material on the sea floor for an extended period was partially successful; we observed an apparent complete dissolution of the liquid CO2 mass, and an apparent consolidation of the CH4 hydrate, over a period of about 85 days.

  16. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Drill Pipes in Deep Drilling Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC), or environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) have been identified as the most challenging causes of catastrophic brittle fracture of drill pipes during drilling operations of deep oil and natural gas wells. Although corrosion rates can be low and tensile stresses during service can be below the material yield stress, a simultaneous action between the stress and corrosive environment can cause a sudden brittle failure of a drill component. Overall, EAC failure consists of two stages: incubation and propagation. Defects, such as pits, second-phase inclusions, etc., serve as preferential sites for the EAC failure during the incubation stage. Deep oil and gas well environments are rich in chlorides and dissolved hydrogen sulfide, which are extremely detrimental to steels used in drilling operations. This article discusses catastrophic brittle fracture mechanisms due to EAC of drill pipe materials, and the corrosion challenges that need to be overcome for drilling ultra-deep oil and natural gas wells.

  17. Feasibility and Costs of Natural Gas as a Bridge to Deep Decarbonization in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; McJeon, H. C.; Muratori, M.; Shi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Achieving emissions reductions consistent with a 2 degree Celsius global warming target requires nearly complete replacement of traditional fossil fuel combustion with near-zero carbon energy technologies in the United States by 2050. There are multiple technological change pathways consistent with this deep decarbonization, including strategies that rely on renewable energy, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The replacement of coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants has also been suggested as a bridge strategy to achieve near-term emissions reduction targets. These gas plants, however, would need to be replaced by near-zero energy technologies or retrofitted with CCS by 2050 in order to achieve longer-term targets. Here we examine the costs and feasibility of a natural gas bridge strategy. Using the Global Change Assessment (GCAM) model, we develop multiple scenarios that each meet the recent US Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce GHG emissions by 26%-28% below its 2005 levels in 2025, as well as a deep decarbonization target of 80% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that the gas bridge strategy requires that gas plants be retired on average 20 years earlier than their designed lifetime of 45 years, a potentially challenging outcome to achieve from a policy perspective. Using a more idealized model, we examine the net energy system costs of this gas bridge strategy compared to one in which near-zero energy technologies are deployed in the near tem. We explore the sensitivity of these cost results to four factors: the discount rate applied to future costs, the length (or start year) of the gas bridge, the relative capital cost of natural gas vs. near-zero energy technology, and the fuel price of natural gas. The discount rate and cost factors are found to be more important than the length of the bridge. However, we find an important interaction as well. At low discount rates

  18. Gas Reservoir Identification Basing on Deep Learning of Seismic-print Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Wu, S.; He, X.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoir identification based on seismic data analysis is the core task in oil and gas geophysical exploration. The essence of reservoir identification is to identify the properties of rock pore fluid. We developed a novel gas reservoir identification method named seismic-print analysis by imitation of the vocal-print analysis techniques in speaker identification. The term "seismic-print" is referred to the characteristics of the seismic waveform which can identify determinedly the property of the geological objectives, for instance, a nature gas reservoir. Seismic-print can be characterized by one or a few parameters named as seismic-print parameters. It has been proven that gas reservoirs are of characteristics of negative 1-order cepstrum coefficient anomaly and Positive 2-order cepstrum coefficient anomaly, concurrently. The method is valid for sandstone gas reservoir, carbonate reservoir and shale gas reservoirs, and the accuracy rate may reach up to 90%. There are two main problems to deal with in the application of seismic-print analysis method. One is to identify the "ripple" of a reservoir on the seismogram, and another is to construct the mapping relationship between the seismic-print and the gas reservoirs. Deep learning developed in recent years is of the ability to reveal the complex non-linear relationship between the attribute and the data, and of ability to extract automatically the features of the objective from the data. Thus, deep learning could been used to deal with these two problems. There are lots of algorithms to carry out deep learning. The algorithms can be roughly divided into two categories: Belief Networks Network (DBNs) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). DBNs is a probabilistic generative model, which can establish a joint distribution of the observed data and tags. CNN is a feedforward neural network, which can be used to extract the 2D structure feature of the input data. Both DBNs and CNN can be used to deal with seismic data

  19. An Economic Comparison of Passively Conditioned Underground Houses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    15 Heat Transfer ........ ..................... ... 34 Energy Balance and Human Thermal Comfort . ...... ... 41 Conclusion...114 29. Thermal Comfort --Passive Underground House ... ........... .. 117 30. Stable Soil Temperature Depths...121 31. Thermal Comfort --Deep Earth Underground House .. ......... .. 124 32. Life Cycle Cash Flow Diagram--Base Underground House

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-04-01

    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

  1. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  2. Simulation of deep-seated zonal jets and shallow vortices in gas giant atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter's banded cloud layer hosts spots of various sizes. The bands are defined by eastward and westward jet streams and the spots correspond to vortices, predominantly anticyclones, which rotate in the opposite direction of Earth's cyclonic storms. Despite 350 years of observation, the origin and dynamics of jets and vortices in the atmospheres of giant planets remain debated. Simulations of the shallow weather layer produce both features, but only reproduce observed prograde equatorial flow on Jupiter and Saturn under special conditions. In contrast, deep convection models reproduce equatorial superrotation, but lack coherent vortices. Here we combine both approaches in a three-dimensional simulation where deep convection grades into a stably stratified shallow layer. We find that steady zonal jets are driven by deep convective flows, whereas anticyclonic vortices form where upwelling plumes impinge on the shallow layer. The simulated vortex circulation consists of cool anticyclones shielded by warm downwelling cyclonic rings and filaments, in agreement with observations and theory. We find that the largest vortices form in westward anticyclonic shear flow nearest to the equatorial jet, similar to Saturn's so-called storm alley and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. We conclude that vortices have a deep origin in gas giant atmospheres.

  3. Underground storage in Cerville-Velaine, France: A case history in conversion and inert gas injection as cushion substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Laille, J.P.; Coulomb, C.; Tek, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Whether on an aquifer or depleted field storage, the cushion gas represents a substantial, if not major, component of investment required to develop the storage project. The economic advantage of an inert cushion which can be produced at a lower cost than pipeline quality storage gas has been recognized for sometime. This paper presents a complete case study of a gas conversion and inert gas injection in Cerville-Velaine, an aquifer storage operated by Gaz de France. First, for 1986-87 a programmed change from low BTU to high BTU gas is described. Then, in the second stage, part of the cushion is replaced by an inert substitute. The engineering plans for the two equations involved numerical simulation by several different models. The degree of complexity of the simulators ranged from those corresponding to simplified, equal mobility displacements to 3-D with compressibility, miscibility and diffusional transport through porous environment. The conditions related to mixing were characterized by using data from field tests involving hydrogen as a tracer.

  4. Steady state fractionation of heavy noble gas isotopes in a deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seltzer, Alan M.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Andraski, Brian; Stonestrom, David A.

    2017-01-01

    To explore steady state fractionation processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), we measured argon, krypton, and xenon isotope ratios throughout a ∼110 m deep UZ at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Nevada, USA. Prior work has suggested that gravitational settling should create a nearly linear increase in heavy-to-light isotope ratios toward the bottom of stagnant air columns in porous media. Our high-precision measurements revealed a binary mixture between (1) expected steady state isotopic compositions and (2) unfractionated atmospheric air. We hypothesize that the presence of an unsealed pipe connecting the surface to the water table allowed for direct inflow of surface air in response to extensive UZ gas sampling prior to our first (2015) measurements. Observed isotopic resettling in deep UZ samples collected a year later, after sealing the pipe, supports this interpretation. Data and modeling each suggest that the strong influence of gravitational settling and weaker influences of thermal diffusion and fluxes of CO2 and water vapor accurately describe steady state isotopic fractionation of argon, krypton, and xenon within the UZ. The data confirm that heavy noble gas isotopes are sensitive indicators of UZ depth. Based on this finding, we outline a potential inverse approach to quantify past water table depths from noble gas isotope measurements in paleogroundwater, after accounting for fractionation during dissolution of UZ air and bubbles.

  5. Steady state fractionation of heavy noble gas isotopes in a deep unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, Alan M.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2017-04-01

    To explore steady state fractionation processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), we measured argon, krypton, and xenon isotope ratios throughout a ˜110 m deep UZ at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Nevada, USA. Prior work has suggested that gravitational settling should create a nearly linear increase in heavy-to-light isotope ratios toward the bottom of stagnant air columns in porous media. Our high-precision measurements revealed a binary mixture between (1) expected steady state isotopic compositions and (2) unfractionated atmospheric air. We hypothesize that the presence of an unsealed pipe connecting the surface to the water table allowed for direct inflow of surface air in response to extensive UZ gas sampling prior to our first (2015) measurements. Observed isotopic resettling in deep UZ samples collected a year later, after sealing the pipe, supports this interpretation. Data and modeling each suggest that the strong influence of gravitational settling and weaker influences of thermal diffusion and fluxes of CO2 and water vapor accurately describe steady state isotopic fractionation of argon, krypton, and xenon within the UZ. The data confirm that heavy noble gas isotopes are sensitive indicators of UZ depth. Based on this finding, we outline a potential inverse approach to quantify past water table depths from noble gas isotope measurements in paleogroundwater, after accounting for fractionation during dissolution of UZ air and bubbles.

  6. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  7. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  8. Hydraulic-gas transient processes within the overall phenomenological evolution of the French HLW deep geological disposal: current knowledge in PA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, J.; Plas, F.

    2009-04-01

    Because of the creation of the disposal underground facilities, then of the ventilation of whole or part of these facilities during operating period, and finally of hydrogen production, mainly by anoxic corrosion of metallic components, in post-closure period, the phenomenological evolution of a radwaste deep geological repository and its surrounding host rock will be characterized by an hydraulic and gas transient phase until the overall system reach an equilibrium state. This paper presents the analysis of this transient phase carried out in France within the framework of the feasibility study of a HLW and ILLW deep geological disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay layer (Meuse/Haute Marne site) (Dossier 2005 Argile) according to the current state of knowledge: the broad outlines of the expected evolution are described in time and space from operating period to post closure period, taking into consideration the studied design concept (overall architecture, disposal zones, disposal modules, disposal cells, various types of waste, operating conditions…). More particularly for hydrogen, emphasis is focused on space and time organization of production and migration, in particular the various sources of production, the various pathways of migrations and interactions with hydraulics. Although the description is supported by a sound data base on hydraulic and gas production and migration (clay media, engineered materials, corrosion, radiolysis…) and numerical calculations at different scales of time and space, uncertainties exist both in phenomenology (Hydrogen production mechanisms, Hydrogen migration mechanisms in clay media, modeling of mechanisms, values of parameters…) and in simulation (in particular limitations to achieve the various time and space scales and some couplings). So deviations of the expected evolution are discussed. Results of this analysis show that the hydraulic and gas transient phase may present a complex organization in time and space

  9. Numerical Simulations of Underground Explosions: Effect of Joints Near the Source on Energy Coupling, Shear Motions and Gas Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoun, T.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed 3D high resolution simulations of underground explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The main goal is to understand the nature of the shear motions recorded in the near field at depth. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genesis of shear motions: 1) sliding on the joints, 2) wave conversion at the material boundaries and 3) non sphericity of the source. We suggest yet another mechanism to be responsible for some shear wave generation when the cracks or joints are present in the rock mass containing the source and the explosive products find their way into the cracks. In order to investigate this mechanism, we have conducted several high resolution simulations of the source region using an Eulerian hydrodynamic code GEODYN. We explored the effect of joint orientations, number of family of fracture, energy deposition, joint aperture size, and joint spacing on the overall development of the source itself, sustained damage around the source and shear wave polarization and motions in the vicinity of the source. We have observed that waves interact with the joints and refraction and diffraction of the wave intensify the complexity of the wave field. It is worth noting that the fracture network topology has also dramatically been affected. It is expected that after the pressure has been released and the energy has been dissipated that source cavity may shrink to a different size but will sustain considerable irreversible damage which affect subsequent shots if they were to be conducted in the vicinity or at the same depth. Fracture network connectivity has drastically changed which will affect wave motions and flow of gases. To explore those effects, we have coupled STOTRAN code, which handles flow, mass and heat transport of fluids and gases in fractures and fractured porous media with the GEODYN code. We will present recent 2D and 3D simulations of typical settings for SPE

  10. Constraints on temporal velocity variations associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia using earthquake and seismic ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Gaite, Beatriz; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During September 2013, the injection of the base gas in a depleted oil reservoir used as an underground natural gas storage (CASTOR) caused a sudden seismic activity increase in the eastern coast of Spain. As a result, a compact cluster of more than 550 earthquakes with magnitudes mbLg > 0.7 were located in the shallow offshore area of the Gulf of Valencia during two months. The strongest event, having a magnitude of Mw=4.2, was followed by two Mw=4.1 events the day after and took place once the gas injection activities had finished. Using the seismic data recorded by permanent stations at more than 25 km from the injection well, we applied coda wave interferometry to monitor changes in seismic velocity structure between similar earthquakes. Then we solved for a continuous function of velocity changes with time by combining observations from all the closely located earthquake sources. The rate of repeating events allowed measurements of relative velocity variations for about 30 days on a daily scale. To extend the analysis in time, we also processed the continuous data using the autocorrelation of band-pass filtered ambient seismic noise. A 10-day average was required to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.5-1 Hz frequency bands. We quantified the time lags between two traces in the frequency and time domains by means of the Moving Window Cross Spectral Analysis and a Dynamic Time Warping technique, respectively. Injection of fluids in geologic formations causes variations in seismic velocities associated to changes in fluid saturation, increase in pore pressure or opening or enlargement of cracks due to the injection process. Time delays associated with stress changes caused by moderate to large earthquakes have also been established. In this work, we found no velocity changes during the gas injection period nor on the occasion of the Mw 4.2 earthquake. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the seismic network geometry and

  11. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  12. Clathrates (gas hydrates) in deep-sea as a next global hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Michael, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Preliminary reconnaissance of ocean basins indicates that more hydrocarbons may be located in clathrates (gas hydrates) and trapped gases than hitherto found on all continents, including coal. Clathrates are medium- to high-pressure stabilized, icelike compounds. Natural gas clathrates are stabilized by higher than sea level, ambient pressure, and are stable in the cold, deep-ocean environment. Location of clathrates on a regional scale would include using seismic reflection data. Bottom simulating reflections (BSR) are the most common indicators. The BSR reflections do indeed generally mimic the water bottom at a relatively uniform depth of some tenths of a second. Apparently, the strong acoustic impedance marking the lower clathrate/upper trapped gas reservoir contact creates the BSR. Sea floor bathymetry determines the configuration of the clathrate. Clathrate serves as a trapping mechanism; clathrate and methane gas accumulated beneath it, depending on geometry, are the reservoir; the entire sediment section is the source. Clathrates are commonly near or at the sea bottom, below 200-400 m water depth, under at least 20 to 50 atmospheres of pressure. Clathrates in the Arctic basin have been found to be up to 1700 m thick, and along continental shelves and slope of the Atlantic basin, up to 1100 m thick. Exploration may proceed either by drilling vertically into the clathrate or drilling laterally along the flanks of the clathrate. Drilling into the clathrate involves the problem of rupturing the 'seal' and permitting gas to escape. Indirect drilling under the flanks could permit 'draining' the accumulated gases and then removing the gas within the clathrate.

  13. Deep Subsurface Biodegradation of Sedimentary Organic Matter in a Methane-Rich Shale Gas Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formolo, M. J.; Petsch, S.; Salacup, J.; Waldron, P.; Martini, A.; Nusslein, K.

    2006-12-01

    Extensive, sustained subsurface microbial activity in the Antrim Shale (Late Devonian, Michigan Basin, USA) has led to the accumulation of an important unconventional natural gas resource, from which is produced ~14 million m3 of methane per day. Both geochemical and molecular evidence supports a community comprising diverse methanogens, fermentative microorganisms, and little else. The diversity of methanogens is strongly associated with a sharp gradient in formation water salinity spanning 10-4000 mM Cl-1. Analysis of hydrocarbon biomarkers within the Antrim reveal patterns of degradation that are directly associated with zones of active methanogenesis, with marked differences observed between methane- producing and non-producing sections of the formation. Maturity and source indicators show that these patterns do not result from varying degrees of thermal maturity or source inputs across the Basin, but instead demonstrate that biodegradation is confined solely to regions of the Basin exhibiting extensive methanogenesis. Calculated biodegradation indices provide evidence for nearly quantitative loss of saturated hydrocarbons, specifically n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, during biodegradation associated with methanogenesis. These results are the first to document deep subsurface ancient sedimentary organic matter biodegradation associated with the formation of economic microbial gas reserves within low permeability, thermally-immature source rocks. As such, the results provide insight into microbial activity in the deep subsurface, specifically the role that methanogen-dominated communities may play in carbon-rich, electron acceptor-poor sedimentary basins.

  14. Source identification of underground fuel spills by solid-phase microextraction/high-resolution gas chromatography/genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lavine, B K; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Wilson, M; Faruque, A; Mayfield, H T

    2000-01-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary column gas chromatography, and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of gas chromatograms from 180 neat jet fuel samples representing common aviation turbine fuels found in the United States (JP-4, Jet-A, JP-7, JPTS, JP-5, JP-8). SPME sampling of the fuel's headspace afforded well-resolved reproducible profiles, which were standardized using special peak-matching software. The peak-matching procedure yielded 84 standardized retention time windows, though not all peaks were present in all gas chromatograms. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to identify features (in the standardized chromatograms of the neat jet fuels) suitable for pattern recognition analysis. The GA selected peaks, whose two largest principal components showed clustering of the chromatograms on the basis of fuel type. The principal component analysis routine in the fitness function of the GA acted as an information filter, significantly reducing the size of the search space, since it restricted the search to feature subsets whose variance is primarily about differences between the various fuel types in the training set. In addition, the GA focused on those classes and/or samples that were difficult to classify as it trained using a form of boosting. Samples that consistently classify correctly were not as heavily weighted as samples that were difficult to classify. Over time, the GA learned its optimal parameters in a manner similar to a perceptron. The pattern recognition GA integrated aspects of strong and weak learning to yield a "smart" one-pass procedure for feature selection.

  15. Gas hydrates in the deep water Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae

    2016-04-01

    Studies on gas hydrates in the deep-water Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea was initiated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) to secure the future energy resources in 1996. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) were first identified on seismic data collected in the southwestern part of the basin from 1998 to 1999. Regional geophysical surveys and geological studies of gas hydrates in the basin have been carried out by KIGAM from 2000 to 2004. The work included 12,367 km of 2D multi-channel seismic reflection lines and 38 piston cores 5 to 8 m long. As a part of the Korean National Gas Hydrate Program that has been performed since 2005, 6690 km of 2D multi-channel reflection seismic lines, 900 km2 of 3D seismic data, 69 piston cores and three PROD cores were additionally collected. In addition, two gas hydrate drilling expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2010. Cracks generally parallel to beddings caused by the dissociation of gas hydrate were often observed in cores. The lack of higher hydrocarbons and the carbon isotope ratios indicate that the methane is primarily biogenic. The seismic data showed clear and wide-spread bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs). The BSR was identified by (a) its polarity opposite to the seafloor, (b) its seafloor-parallel reflection behavior, and (c) its occurrence at a sub-bottom depth corresponding to the expected base of gas hydrate stability zone. Several vertical to sub-vertical chimney-like blank zones up to several kilometers in diameter were also identified in the study area. They are often associated with velocity pull-up structures that are interpreted due to higher velocity in gas hydrate-bearing deposits. Seismic velocity analysis also showed a high velocity anomaly within the pull-up structure. Gas hydrate samples were collected from the shallow sedimentary section of blanking zone by piston coring in 2007. BSRs mainly occur in the southern part of the basin. They also locally observed in the

  16. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  17. CNO and pep neutrino spectroscopy in Borexino: Measurement of the deep-underground production of cosmogenic C11 in an organic liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, H.; Balata, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; D'Angelo, D.; de Bellefon, A.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Ford, R.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Goretti, A.; Grieb, C.; Harding, E.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A. M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Korga, G.; Kozlov, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lendvai, C.; Leung, M.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, P.; Machulin, I.; Maneira, J.; Manuzio, D.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Mazzucato, U.; McCarty, K.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Monzani, M. E.; Muratova, V.; Niedermeier, L.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Salvo, C.; Schoenert, S.; Shutt, T.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tarasenkov, V.; Tartaglia, R.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Vyrodov, V.; Wójcik, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zuzel, G.

    2006-10-01

    Borexino is an experiment for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. It is designed to measure the monoenergetic Be7 solar neutrino flux in real time, via neutrino-electron elastic scattering in an ultrapure organic liquid scintillator. Borexino has the potential to also detect neutrinos from the pep fusion process and the CNO cycle. For this measurement to be possible, radioactive contamination in the detector must be kept extremely low. Once sufficiently clean conditions are met, the main background source is C11, produced in reactions induced by the residual cosmic muon flux on C12. In the process, a free neutron is almost always produced. C11 can be tagged on an event-by-event basis by looking at the threefold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. This coincidence method has been implemented on the Borexino Counting Test Facility data. We report on the first event-by-event identification of in situ muon-induced C11 in a large underground scintillator detector. We measure a C11 production rate of 0.130 ± 0.026(stat) ± 0.014(syst) day-1 ton-1, in agreement with predictions from both experimental studies performed with a muon beam on a scintillator target and ab initio estimations based on the C11 producing nuclear reactions.

  18. Relationship between deep structure and oil-gas in the eastern Tarim Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changqing; Qu, Chen; Han, Jianguang

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Basin is a large composite superimposed basin which developed in the Presinian continental basement. It is an important area for oil and gas replacement in China. In the eastern part of Tarim Basin, the exploration and research degree is very low and less system, especially in the study of tectonic evolution and physical property change. Basing on the study of geophysics, drilling and regional geological data in this area, analysis of comprehensive geophysical, geological and geophysical analysis comparison are lunched by new methods and new technology of geophysical exploration. Fault, tectonic evolution and change of deep character in the eastern Tarim Basin are analyzed in system. Through in-depth study and understanding of the deep structure and physical changes of the eastern region, we obtain the fault characteristics in the study area and the deep structure and physical change maps to better guide the oil and gas exploration in this area. The east area is located in the eastern Tarim Basin, west from the Garr Man depression, Well Kunan 1 - Well Gucheng 4 line to the East, north to Kuruketage uplift group near Qunke 1 wells, south to Cherchen fault zone, east to Lop Nor depression, an area of about 9 * 104 square kilometres, Including the East of Garr Man sag, Yingjisu depression, Kongquehe slope, Tadong low uplift and the Lop Nor uplift, five two grade tectonic units. The east area of Tarim is belonging to Tarim plate. It changes with the evolution of the Tarim plate. The Tarim plate is closely related to the collision between the Yining - the Junggar plate, the Siberia plate and the southern Qiangtang - the central Kunlun plate. Therefore, it creates a complex tectonic pattern in the eastern Tarim basin. Earth electromagnetic, gravity, deep seismic and other geophysical data are processed by a new generation of geophysical information theory and method, including multi-scale inversion of potential field inversion (Hou and Yang, 2011), 3D

  19. Characterization by culture and molecular analysis of the microbial diversity of a deep subsurface gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Basso, Odile; Lascourreges, Jean-François; Le Borgne, François; Le Goff, Cyril; Magot, Michel

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity of a subsurface water sample collected from a gas storage aquifer in an Upper Jurassic calcareous formation was investigated by culture of microorganisms and construction of a 16S rRNA gene library. Both culture and molecular techniques showed that members of the phyla Firmicutes and class delta-proteobacteria dominated the bacterial community. The presence of hydrogen-utilizing autotrophic bacteria including sulfate reducers (e.g. Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) and homoacetogens (e.g. Acetobacterium carbinolicum) suggested that CO(2) and H(2) are the main carbon and energy sources sustaining a nutrient-limited subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem (SLiME). Gram-positive SRB belonging to the genus Desulfotomaculum, frequently observed in subsurface environments, represented 25% of the clone library and 4 distinct phylotypes. No Archaea were detected by both experimental approaches. Water samples were collected in an area of the rauracian geological formation located outside the maximum seasonal extension of underground gas storage. Considering the observed microbial diversity, there is no evidence of any influence on the microbial ecology of the aquifer in the surroundings of maximum extension reached by the gas bubble of the underground storage, which should have resulted from the introduction of exogenous carbon and energy sources in a nutrient-limited ecosystem.

  20. A Horizon of Natural Gas in the Deep Gulf of Mexico Dominates the Microbial Landscape (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D. L.; Kessler, J. D.; Redmond, M. C.; Mendes, S. D.; Heintz, M. B.; Farwell, C.; Hu, L.; Kinnaman, F.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Du, M.; Chan, E. W.; Garcia Tigreros, F.; Villanueva, C.

    2010-12-01

    The leakage of oil and natural gas following the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon was unprecedented because it occurred at 1.5 km water depth. We estimate that 0.3 teragrams natural gas was emitted to the deep ocean during this event, in addition to oil. The buoyant migration of petroleum from such depth allows time for dissolution of natural gas including methane, ethane, and propane that would readily escape to the atmosphere if released in shallow water. In this work we present results as to the distribution, fate, and impacts of these gases at 31 stations located 1-12.5 km from the active spill site, occupied during the Persistent and Localized Underwater Methane Emission Study (PLUMES expedition) of the RV Cape Hatteras, June 11-21, 2010. We find that the majority of these gases dissolved at depths greater than 800 meters and that respiration of select gases by bacteria dominated microbial activity in the early stages of plume development. This presentation will consider the geographic, stable isotope, radio-tracer, and molecular-microbiological results that lead to this conclusion.

  1. Successful removal of zinc sulfide scale restriction from a hot, deep, sour gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Kenrick, A.J.; Ali, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    Removal of zinc sulfide scale with hydrochloric acid from a hot, deep, Norphlet Sandstone gas well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a 29% increase in the production rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near-wellbore area. The presence of zinc sulfide is explained by the production of 25 ppm H{sub 2}S gas, and the loss of 50--100 bbl of zinc bromide fluid to the formation. Although zinc sulfide scale has been successfully removed with hydrochloric acid in low-to-moderate temperature wells, no analogous treatment data were available for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) Norphlet wells. Therefore laboratory testing was initiated to identify suitable acid systems for scale removal, and select a high quality corrosion inhibitor that would mitigate detrimental effects of the selected acid on downhole tubulars and surface equipment. This case history presents the first successful use of hydrochloric acid in removing zinc sulfide scale from a HTHP Norphlet sour gas well.

  2. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the

  3. Worldwide estimates of deep natural gas resources based on the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Crovelli, R.A.; Bartberger, C.E.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently assessed undiscovered conventional gas and oil resources in eight regions of the world outside the U.S. The resources assessed were those estimated to have the potential to be added to reserves within the next thirty years. This study is a worldwide analysis of the estimated volumes and distribution of deep (>4.5 km or about 15,000 ft), undiscovered conventional natural gas resources based on this assessment. Two hundred forty-six assessment units in 128 priority geologic provinces, 96 countries, and two jointly held areas were assessed using a probabilistic Total Petroleum System approach. Priority geologic provinces were selected from a ranking of 937 provinces worldwide. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment Team did not assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the U.S. For this report, mean estimated volumes of deep conventional undiscovered gas resources in the U.S. are taken from estimates of 101 deep plays (out of a total of 550 conventional plays in the U.S.) from the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. A probabilistic method was designed to subdivide gas resources into depth slices using a median-based triangular probability distribution as a model for drilling depth to estimate the percentages of estimated gas resources below various depths. For both the World Petroleum Assessment 2000 and the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources, minimum, median, and maximum depths were assigned to each assessment unit and play; these depths were used in our analysis. Two-hundred seventy-four deep assessment units and plays in 124 petroleum provinces were identified for the U.S. and the world. These assessment units and plays contain a mean undiscovered conventional gas resource of 844 trillion cubic ft (Tcf) occuring at depths below 4.5 km. The deep undiscovered conventional gas resource (844 Tcf) is about 17% of the total world gas resource (4,928 Tcf) based on

  4. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  5. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  6. Noble gas as tracers for CO2 deep input in petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Magali; Stuart, Finlay; Gilfillan, Stuart; Montel, François; Masini, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The sub-salt hydrocarbon reservoirs in the deep offshore part of the Atlantic Ocean passive margins are a new key target for frontier oil and gas exploration. Type I source rocks locally rich in TOC (Total Organic Carbon) combined with an important secondary connected porosity of carbonate reservoirs overlain by an impermeable salt layer gives rise to reservoirs with high petroleum potential. However, some target structures have been found to be mainly filled with CO2 rich fluids. δ13C of the CO2 is generally between -9 and -4 permil, compatible with a deep source (metamorphic or mantle). Understanding the origin of the CO2 and the relative timing of its input into reservoir layers in regard to the geodynamic context appears to be a key issue for CO2 risk evaluation. The inertness and ubiquity of noble gases in crustal fluids make them powerful tools to trace the origin and migration of mixed fluids (Ballentine and Burnard 2002). The isotopic signature of He, Ne and Ar and the elemental pattern (He to Xe) of reservoir fluid from pressurized bottom hole samples provide an insight into fluid source influences at each reservoir depth. Three main end-members can be mixed into reservoir fluids (e.g. Gilfillan et al., 2008): atmospheric signature due to aquifer recharge, radiogenic component from organic fluid ± metamorphic influence, and mantle input. Their relative fractionation provides insights into the nature of fluid transport (Burnard et al., 2012)and its relative migration timing. In the studied offshore passive margin reservoirs, from both sides of South Atlantic margin, a strong MORB-like magmatic CO2 influence is clear. Hence, CO2 charge must have occurred during or after lithospheric break-up. CO2 charge(s) history appears to be complex, and in some cases requires several inputs to generate the observed noble gas pattern. Combining the knowledge obtained from noble gas (origin, relative timing, number of charges) with organic geochemical and thermodynamic

  7. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Steven Derek

    2014-03-01

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is an operating deep underground research facility with six active projects, and greater than 50 trained researchers. KURF is 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech (VT) campus in an operating limestone mine with drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' × 20 +' the current lab is 35' × 22' × 100'), and 1700' of overburden (1450m.w.e.). The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ~0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. The current users are funded by NSF, DOE, and NNSA. Current user group: 1) mini-LENS (VT, Louisiana State University, BNL); 2) Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); 3) HPGe Low-Background Screening (University of North Carolina (UNC), VT); 4) MALBEK (UNC); 5&6) Watchman - 5) Radionuclide Detector and 6) MARS detector (LLNL, SNL, UC-Davis, UC-Berkeley, UH, Hawaii Pacific, UC-Irvine, VT).

  8. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity.

    PubMed

    Williams, James H; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S

    2012-01-06

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  9. The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R.; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S.

    2012-01-01

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California’s goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  10. Seafloor Morphology Associated With Deep-Water Gas Plumes Near Eel Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Thomas, H.

    2011-12-01

    During a surface ship multibeam mapping cruise associated with NOAA's Ocean Exploration (OE) program, five water column acoustic anomalies that extended up to 1,400 m upwards from the seafloor were encountered above both sides of the Eel Submarine Canyon off the coast of northern California (Gardner et al., 2010). These anomalies are believed to be methane gas plumes, originating from the seafloor at depths well within the gas hydrate stability field. To explore the sources of these plumes, higher resolution multi-beam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m) and 1-4.5 kHz chirp seismic reflection profiles of the seafloor, surrounding these plumes, were collected in July 2011. These surveys were conducted during four 17.5-hour-long autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) dives in up to 2 km water depths. The largest persistent water column plume appears to emanate from a distinctive topographic mound that is ~650 m long, 350 m wide, and stands nearly 60 m higher than the surrounding seafloor at 1,850 m depth. This topographic mound occurs on a ~2 km wide relatively level bench formed at the base of a 3.5 km wide scallop-shaped slide scar. Chirp profiles show that at least 40 m of layered sediment drape the bottom and sidewalls of this scar, suggesting that the slope failure that shaped this landscape was not a recent event. The surface of this mound is characterized by a distinctive hummocky topography consisting of small sometimes circular ~0.5 m deep pits, local highs and lows, separated by ~0.5 m high ledges that could have been formed by irregular erosion of the bedding surfaces. A semicircular crater-like depression occurs on the flank of this mound that is ~80 m across and more than 10 m deep. Because similar seafloor textures have been observed in other AUV surveys associated with methane-derived carbonate bearing sites known to overlie nearby seafloor gas hydrate deposits (e.g., Hydrate Ridge, Bullseye Vent, Santa Monica

  11. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Tyack, Peter L; Miller, Patrick J O; Kvadsheim, Petter H

    2014-01-01

    Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1-2 kHz) and mid- (2-7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2 ). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability.

  12. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales

    PubMed Central

    Fahlman, Andreas; Tyack, Peter L.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Kvadsheim, Petter H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1–2 kHz) and mid- (2–7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability. PMID:24478724

  13. Seafloor geological studies above active gas chimneys off Egypt (Central Nile Deep Sea Fan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Stéphanie; Woodside, John; Foucher, Jean-Paul; de Lange, Gert; Mascle, Jean; Boetius, Antje; Mastalerz, Vincent; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Ondréas, Hélène; Huguen, Caroline; Harmégnies, François; Gontharet, Swanne; Loncke, Lies; Deville, Eric; Niemann, Helge; Omoregie, Enoma; Olu-Le Roy, Karine; Fiala-Medioni, Aline; Dählmann, Anke; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Prinzhofer, Alain; Sibuet, Myriam; Pierre, Catherine; Damsté, Jaap Sinninghe; The Nautinil Scientific Party

    2007-07-01

    Four mud volcanoes of several kilometres diameter named Amon, Osiris, Isis, and North Alex and located above gas chimneys on the Central Nile Deep Sea Fan, were investigated for the first time with the submersible Nautile. One of the objectives was to characterize the seafloor morphology and the seepage activity across the mud volcanoes. The seepage activity was dominated by emissions of methane and heavier hydrocarbons associated with a major thermal contribution. The most active parts of the mud volcanoes were highly gas-saturated (methane concentrations in the water and in the sediments, respectively, of several hundreds of nmol/L and several mmol/L of wet sediment) and associated with significantly high thermal gradients (at 10 m below the seafloor, the recorded temperatures reached more than 40 °C). Patches of highly reduced blackish sediments, mats of sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, and precipitates of authigenic carbonate were detected, indicative of anaerobic methane consumption. The chemosynthetic fauna was, however, not very abundant, inhibited most likely by the high and vigorous fluxes, and was associated mainly with carbonate-crust-covered seafloor encountered on the southwestern flank of Amon. Mud expulsions are not very common at present and were found limited to the most active emission centres of two mud volcanoes, where slow extrusion of mud occurs. Each of the mud volcanoes is fed principally by a main narrow channel located below the most elevated areas, most commonly in the centres of the structures. The distribution, shape, and seafloor morphology of the mud volcanoes and associated seeps over the Central Nile Deep Sea Fan are clearly tectonically controlled.

  14. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  15. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  16. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  17. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 7: Site investigation: Deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The results of the deep drilling program performed on the Sunshine Site from January to August 1979 are presented. The work included continuous core drilling and sampling of the Sykesville to a vertical depth of 2556 ft, in hole geophysical logging, determination of rock permeability and stresses, and rock testing.

  18. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid

  19. Field-scale gas tracing experiment in unsaturated fractured media: from deep injection to surface monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Sabroux, J.; Sestier-Carlin, R.; Adler, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    For CO2 sequestration as for other applications, it is important to understand transfer mechanisms of gases in unsaturated fractured rocks from experiment and to develop modeling capabilities. We carried out a field-scale tracing experiment using SF6 with the aim to serve for a forthcoming experiment using CO2. The experimental site was well characterized (mineralogy and fracturation). Transport parameters were estimated from the field, especially permeability and dilution factor. We also evaluated methods to monitor tracer breakthrough at the surface. At the Roselend Natural Laboratory (French Alps), a tunnel provides access to the heart of unsaturated fractured crystalline rocks, at 55 m depth below ground surface. This underground research facility allows studying gas exchange between a 60 m3 chamber isolated at the dead-end of the tunnel and the surface. At the topographic surface, ten 10 meter-long vertical boreholes and one 60 meter-long subhorizontal borehole were used to monitor tracer breakthrough. Stereological analysis of fractures in the tunnel previously led to permeability estimation. Similar analysis of drilled cores (density and orientation of fractures) gave additional permeability estimates in the subsurface. Gas permeability was also determined from pneumatic injection tests in both the injection chamber and subsurface boreholes. Steady-state and transient experiments were analyzed by modeling in real geometry. Long-term continuous pressure monitoring in the isolated chamber and the packed-off boreholes were also used for permeability estimation. We found equivalent air permeability of the order of 10-12 m2 which compares well with previous estimations. Following baseline determination, SF6 was injected at 1000 ppmV in the isolated chamber that was then pressurized to 150 mbar above atmospheric pressure during 2 hours. During all the experiment SF6 concentration was continuously monitored inside the isolated chamber and in front of the isolation

  20. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG)

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use with subsurface gas hydrate sediments from the Indian Continental Shelf, Cascadia Margin and Gulf of Mexico. Generally, highest cell concentrations in enrichments occurred close to in situ pressures (14 MPa) in a variety of media, although growth continued up to at least 80 MPa. Predominant sequences in enrichments were Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Marinilactibacillus and Pseudomonas, plus Acetobacterium and Bacteroidetes in Indian samples, largely independent of media and pressures. Related 16S rRNA gene sequences for all of these Bacteria have been detected in deep, subsurface environments, although isolated strains were piezotolerant, being able to grow at atmospheric pressure. Only the Clostridium and Acetobacterium were obligate anaerobes. No Archaea were enriched. It may be that these sediment samples were not deep enough (total depth 1126–1527 m) to obtain obligate piezophiles. PMID:19694787

  1. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  2. Variation in the Deep Gas Composition in Hot Spots on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; de Pater, Imke; Wong, Michael H.; Adamkovics, Mate; Hewagama, Tilak; Hesman, Brigette

    2015-11-01

    We used CSHELL on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope in the last two years to spectrally resolve line profiles of CH3D, NH3, PH3, and H2O in 5-micron Hot Spots on Jupiter. The profile of the CH3D lines at 4.66 microns is very broad in both NEB and SEB Hot Spots due to collisions with up to 8 bars of H2, where unit optical depth occurs due to collision-induced H2 opacity. The extreme width of these CH3D features implies that the Hot Spots that we observed do not have significant cloud opacity for P > 2 bars. We retrieved NH3, PH3, and gaseous H2O within Hot Spots in both the NEB and SEB. We had dry nights on Mauna Kea and a sufficient Doppler shift to detect H2O. We will compare line wings to derive H2O profiles in the 2 to 6-bar region. NEB Hot Spots are depleted in NH3 with respect to adjacent regions. Interestingly, SEB Hot Spots exhibit stronger NH3 absorption than NEB Hot Spots. In addition, SEB Hot Spots have very similar 5-micron spectra as neighboring longitudes in the SEB, implying similar deep gas composition. The dynamical origin of SEB Hot Spots is much less studied than that of NEB Hot Spots, so our observations of gas composition in both regions may constrain mechanisms for forming Hot Spots.

  3. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  4. Deep-seated gas emission induced by the Earth tide: a basic observation for geochemical earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, R

    1981-06-12

    Variations of the helium/argon ratio of gas bubbles in a mineral spring along a fault zone coincide with fluctuations of areal dilation induced by the earth tide. This observation suggests that deep-seated gases characterized by higher heliumlargon ratios are squeezed out by stress preceding an earthquake.

  5. Overview of Opportunities in Underground Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nigel

    2016-09-01

    The field of deep underground nuclear physics is within an exciting and burgeoning phase, demonstrated by the recent award of the 2105 Nobel Prize in physics for the observation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino flavor change, with new detector systems in construction and deployment to further develop this scientific field. This talk will overview the current status of the fields within deep underground nuclear physics, focusing on the study of astrophysical neutrino sources, the intrinsic nature of the neutrino, and nuclear astrophysics. The opportunities available in these fields in the near-future will also be discussed.

  6. Characterization of the deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, D.; Alawi, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Kock, D.; Krüger, M.; Wuerdemann, H.; Shaheed, M.

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of approximately 3500 m, is characterised by high salinity (420 g/l) and temperatures up to 127°C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery), the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism), DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and 16S rRNA cloning. First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other deep environments. The sequence analyses revealed the presence of several H2-oxidising bacteria (Hydrogenophaga sp

  7. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  8. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Smith, Ashly P.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-12-21

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is highly uncertain, but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e. directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from thirty cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Carbon dioxide fluxes were strongly influenced by incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen, and had a temperature sensitivity (i.e. Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Methane emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over six orders of magnitudes higher than that from CH4. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be much more sensitive to changes in moisture than to temperature, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost melts in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be strongly affected by long-term experimental warming, and these results provide insight into their future dynamics and feedback potential with future climate change.

  9. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  10. Results of study of deep underground structure of mud volcanoes in North-Western Caucasus by means of geological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobissevitch, A. L.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Ovsuychenko, A. N.; Sobissevitch, L. E.; Stepanova, M. Yu.; Morev, B. A.

    2009-04-01

    Results of complementary geological and geophysical studies of mud volcanic phenomena in North-Western Caucasus (Taman mud volcanic province) are presented. New technology for passive subsurface sounding of the Earth's crust has been originally developed at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. Patented since 2005, this technology represents the new kind of seismic survey based on specific features of propagation of the Rayleigh waves. It uses natural background microseismic noise as a sounding signal. By using the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding in the course of field works carried out in 2006 - 2008, there have been obtained three vertical cross-sections for the two mud volcanoes down to the depth of 25 km. For the two different mud volcanoes their deep subsurface structure has been revealed and discussed. The Gora Karabetova mud volcano is one of the most active mud volcanoes in the Taman peninsula with primarily explosive behaviour while the Shugo mud volcano's activity pattern is different, explosive events are rare and both types of phenomena may be explained by the configuration of their feeding systems, tectonic position and deep pathways of migration of fluids. Complementary interpretation of raw data sets delivered form geophysical and geological surveys allows considering principal differences of origin and mechanisms of mud volcanic activity for the Shugo and the Gora Karabetova mud volcanoes.

  11. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  12. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  13. Noble gas tracers of ventilation during deep-water formation in the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.; Khatiwala, S.; Heimbach, P.

    2016-05-01

    To explore the dynamics and implications of incomplete air-sea equilibration during the formation of abyssal water masses, we simulated noble gases in the Estimating the Circulation & Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) global ocean state estimate. A novel computation approach utilizing a matrix-free Newton-Krylov (MFNK) scheme was applied to quickly compute the periodic seasonal solutions for noble gas tracers. MFNK allows for quick computation of a cyclo-stationary solution for tracers (i.e., a spun-up, repeating seasonal cycle), which would otherwise be computationally infeasible due to the long time scale of dynamic adjustment of the abyssal ocean (1000’s of years). A suite of experiments isolates individual processes, including atmospheric pressure effects, the solubility pump and air-sea bubble fluxes. In addition to these modeled processes, a volumetric contribution of 0.28 ± 0.07% of glacial melt water is required to reconcile deep-water observations in the Weddell Sea. Another primary finding of our work is that the saturation anomaly of heavy noble gases in model simulations is in excess of two-fold more negative than is suggested from Weddell Sea observations. This result suggests that model water masses are insufficiently ventilated prior to subduction and thus there is insufficient communication between atmosphere and ocean at high latitudes. The discrepancy between noble gas observations and ECCO simulations highlights that important inadequacies remain in how we model high-latitude ventilation with large implications for the oceanic uptake and storage of carbon.

  14. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  15. Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S. ); Belonin, M.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

  16. Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Belonin, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

  17. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep... later, and specify the lease and block number. (c) Once you exercise the option under paragraph (a)...

  18. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  19. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.49 May I..., or 180 days after your lease is issued, whichever is later, and specify the lease and block...

  20. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.49 May I..., or 180 days after your lease is issued, whichever is later, and specify the lease and block...

  1. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.49 May I..., or 180 days after your lease is issued, whichever is later, and specify the lease and block...

  2. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    DOE PAGES

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-21

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperaturesmore » and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52–73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have

  3. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52-73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be

  4. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  5. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2011-10-01

    A new deep underground research facility is open and operating only 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech campus. It is located in an operating limestone mine, and has drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' x 20' x 100'; the current lab is 35'x100'x22'), and is located where there is a 1700' overburden. The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ˜ 0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. There are currently six projects using the facility: mini-LENS - Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (Virginia Tech, Louisiana State University, BNL); Neutron Spectrometer (University of Maryland, NIST); Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); HPGe Low-Background Screening (North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Virginia Tech); MALBEK - Majorana neutrinoless double beta decay (University of North Carolina); Ar-39 Depleted Argon (Princeton University). I will summarize the current program, and exciting plans for the future.

  6. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek; Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2012-03-01

    A new deep underground research facility is open and operating only 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech campus. It is located in an operating limestone mine, and has drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' x 20+'; the current lab is 35' x 22' x 100'), and is located where there is a 1700' overburden. The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ˜0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. There are currently six projects using the facility: mini-LENS - Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (Virginia Tech, Louisiana State University, BNL); Neutron Spectrometer (University of Maryland, NIST); Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); HPGe Low-Background Screening (North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Virginia Tech); MALBEK - Majorana neutrinoless double beta decay (University of North Carolina); Ar-39 Depleted Argon (Princeton University). I will summarize the current program and exciting potential for the future.

  7. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During April-September 2002, the JIP concentrated on: Reviewing the tasks and subtasks on the basis of the information generated during the three workshops held in March and May 2002; Writing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Cost, Time and Resource (CTRs) estimates to accomplish the tasks and subtasks; Reviewing proposals sent in by prospective contractors; Selecting four contractors; Selecting six sites for detailed review; and Talking to drill ship owners and operators about potential work with the JIP.

  8. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

  9. Field-scale sulfur hexafluoride tracer experiment to understand long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian; Green, Christopher T.; Stonestrom, David A.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    A natural gradient SF6 tracer experiment provided an unprecedented evaluation of long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone (UZ) under controlled (known) conditions. The field-scale gas tracer test in the 110-m-thick UZ was conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. A history of anomalous (theoretically unexpected) contaminant gas transport observed at the ADRS, next to the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States, provided motivation for the SF6 tracer study. Tracer was injected into a deep UZ borehole at depths of 15 and 48 m, and plume migration was observed in a monitoring borehole 9 m away at various depths (0.5–109 m) over the course of 1 yr. Tracer results yielded useful information about gas transport as applicable to the spatial scales of interest for off-site contaminant transport in arid unsaturated zones. Modeling gas diffusion with standard empirical expressions reasonably explained SF6 plume migration, but tended to underpredict peak concentrations for the field-scale experiment given previously determined porosity information. Despite some discrepancies between observations and model results, rapid SF6 gas transport commensurate with previous contaminant migration was not observed. The results provide ancillary support for the concept that apparent anomalies in historic transport behavior at the ADRS are the result of factors other than nonreactive gas transport properties or processes currently in effect in the undisturbed UZ.

  10. Methane under-saturated fluids in deep-sea sediments: Implications for gas hydrate stability and rates of dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, Laura L.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Chapman, Ross; Martens, Christopher S.

    2010-10-01

    Deep-sea sediments contain Earth's largest reservoir of methane (CH 4, 3000 GTons C) trapped within ice-like crystals known as gas hydrates. Understanding the controls on gas hydrate stability is critical because methane released from hydrate destabilization is hypothesized to be a powerful agent of past and potentially future climate change. Hydrates are stable under high pressure, low temperature, moderate salinity, and saturated gas conditions. Yet, the degree of gas saturation is rarely known in nature because in situ dissolved pore-water CH 4 concentrations are rarely measured. Here, we report measurements of these concentrations in sediments immediately surrounding deep-sea gas hydrate deposits and show that pore-fluids are greatly under-saturated with respect to expected values for equilibrium with methane gas hydrate. This indicates that the hydrates are dissolving, even though they are found within the appropriate pressure and temperature stability field. However, dissolution rates calculated from the in situ CH 4 data are significantly less than dissolution rates predicted for methane-under-saturated pore-water in direct contact with pure methane gas hydrate if equilibrium CH 4 concentrations exist immediately adjacent to the hydrate surface. Diffusion-retarding factors found naturally in ocean sediments, such as oil coatings or biofilms, appear to enhance stability in outcropping hydrate deposits. The in situ seafloor evidence provided herein leads us to hypothesize that the stability of the worldwide hydrate deposits may be much greater than predicted from diffusion kinetics because biological (microbial excretion of slime or surfactants) and/or physical processes (oil coatings) effectively armor and stabilize exposed hydrate surfaces, substantially retarding their dissolution.

  11. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  12. Deep-ocean basalts: inert gas content and uncertainties in age dating.

    PubMed

    Noble, C S; Naughton, J J

    1968-10-11

    The radiogenic argon and helium contents of three basalts erupted into the deep ocean from an active volcano (Kilauea) have been measured. Ages calculated from these measurements increase with sample depth up to 22 million years for lavas deduced to be recent. Caution is urged in applying dates from deep-ocean basalts in studies on ocean-floor spreading.

  13. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  14. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  15. Exploration for deep gas in the Devonian Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia: Sequence stratigraphy, predictions, and well results

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.E.; Radovich, B.J.; Brett, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    In mid 1991, a team was assembled in Texaco`s Frontier Exploration Department (FED) to define the hydrocarbon potential of the Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia. The Miraflores No. 1 was drilled in the fall of 1992, for stratigraphic objectives. The well confirmed the predicted stratigraphic trap in the Mid-Devonian, with gas discovered in two highstand and transgressive sands. They are low contrast and low resistivity sands that are found in a deep basin `tight gas` setting. Testing of the gas sands was complicated by drilling fluid interactions at the well bore. Subsequent analysis indicated that the existing porosity and permeability were reduced, such that a realistic test of reservoir capabilities was prevented.

  16. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  17. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  18. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  19. Underground physics in Japan - Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, T.

    1986-04-01

    Japanese underground-physics projects and Japanese participation in international programs are reviewed. Consideration is given to the large-solid-angle 30-100-m-deep underground-detector/surface-EAS-array installation at Ohya-cho; the Kamioka-mine Cerenkov detector; the DUMAND project near Hawaii; development of Super-Mutrons A and B at Ohya-cho; the results obtained in the JACEE project regarding quark-gluon-plasma muon pairs, muon bundles, and muon point sources; and a pair calorimeter and a proton-decay experiment for Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Diagrams, graphs, and drawings are provided.

  20. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

    1982-11-01

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

  1. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease... Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.49 May...

  2. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  3. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular Gas Reservoirs in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-z galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets an ˜1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3 and 1 mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11 {L}⊙ , i.e., a detection in CO emission was expected. Out of these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than those typically found in starburst/sub-mm galaxy/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in the context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): the CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-{L}{IR} envelope of the scatter in the {L}{IR}{--}{L}{CO}\\prime relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of ˜1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ({M}{{H}2}/M *) is consistent with earlier measurements of main-sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor ˜2-5× smaller than those based on CO. When we account for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

  4. A Facility Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Norman

    1980-01-01

    Ohio's Sinclair Community College met the challenge of building a campus in an urban area with limited space by connecting the system with underground tunnels. This underground complex has made a comprehensive physical education, recreation, and intercollegiate program available to students and the community. (CJ)

  5. Above- and underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, K.; Kilbourne, A.

    1997-09-01

    Storage tanks are the primary means of storing liquid, fluid and gas products. Federal and state environmental regulations, as well as local building and fire codes, take into account leaks and spills, tank emissions, underground tank seepage and safety issues, and they define standards for tank manufacturers and owners. For specific regulatory information pertaining to your application, contact the local authorities having jurisdiction. Storage tanks listed within this product guide have been classified as underground or aboveground, with subcategories including modular, process and temporary tanks. Tank construction materials include aluminum, carbon steel, concrete, fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and stainless steel. A variety of accessories, including automatic tank gauging systems, level monitors, leak detectors, overfill protection and tank inspection systems, also are listed. Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have less than 10 percent of their tank volume and piping below ground. Available in both vertical and horizontal configurations, they can be either erected in the field or fabricated in a factory. Underground storage tanks (USTs) are primarily used to contain regulated substances; USTs have at least 10% of their tank volume and piping buried belowground. Common UST construction materials include carbon steel, coated steel, cathodically protected steel and FRP. USTs are required to have corrosion protection, spill and overfill prevention and control and release detection in place by December 1998.

  6. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  7. A deep stop during decompression from 82 fsw (25 m) significantly reduces bubbles and fast tissue gas tensions.

    PubMed

    Marroni, A; Bennett, P B; Cronje, F J; Cali-Corleo, R; Germonpre, P; Pieri, M; Bonuccelli, C; Balestra, C

    2004-01-01

    In spite of many modifications to decompression algorithms, the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) in scuba divers has changed very little. The success of stage, compared to linear ascents, is well described yet theoretical changes in decompression ratios have diminished the importance of fast tissue gas tensions as critical for bubble generation. The most serious signs and symptoms of DCS involve the spinal cord, with a tissue half time of only 12.5 minutes. It is proposed that present decompression schedules do not permit sufficient gas elimination from such fast tissues, resulting in bubble formation. Further, it is hypothesized that introduction of a deep stop will significantly reduce fast tissue bubble formation and neurological DCS risk. A total of 181 dives were made to 82 fsw (25 m) by 22 volunteers. Two dives of 25 min and 20 min were made, with a 3 hr 30 min surface interval and according to 8 different ascent protocols. Ascent rates of 10, 33 or 60 fsw/min (3, 10, 18 m/min) were combined with no stops or a shallow stop at 20 fsw (6 m) or a deep stop at 50 fsw (15 m) and a shallow at 20 fsw (6 m). The highest bubbles scores (8.78/9.97), using the Spencer Scale (SS) and Extended Spencer Scale (ESS) respectively, were with the slowest ascent rate. This also showed the highest 5 min and 10 min tissue loads of 48% and 75%. The lowest bubble scores (1.79/2.50) were with an ascent rate of 33 fsw (10 m/min) and stops for 5 min at 50 fsw (15 m) and 20 fsw (6 m). This also showed the lowest 5 and 10 min tissue loads at 25% and 52% respectively. Thus, introduction of a deep stop significantly reduced Doppler detected bubbles together with tissue gas tensions in the 5 and 10 min tissues, which has implications for reducing the incidence of neurological DCS in divers.

  8. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  9. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  10. Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Takao; Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2007-09-01

    Generation of deep-ultraviolet femtosecond pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas was demonstrated. Fundamental (omega) and second-harmonic (2omega) pulses of 25 fs Ti:sapphire amplifier output were focused into neon gas, and 20 microJ pulses with the center wavelength of 260 nm were produced by a four-wave mixing process, 2omega+2omega-omega?3omega through an ~15 cm filament. Additionally, pulses with an energy of 2 microJ at 200 nm were generated, probably by a cascaded process, 3omega+2omega-omega?4omega. The 260 nm pulses were compressed by a grating-based compressor and characterized by a dispersion-free transient grating frequency-resolved optical gating. The estimated pulse width was 12 fs.

  11. Simulating Gas-Liquid-Water Partitioning and Fluid Properties of Petroleum under Pressure: Implications for Deep-Sea Blowouts.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Socolofsky, Scott A; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-19

    With the expansion of offshore petroleum extraction, validated models are needed to simulate the behaviors of petroleum compounds released in deep (>100 m) waters. We present a thermodynamic model of the densities, viscosities, and gas-liquid-water partitioning of petroleum mixtures with varying pressure, temperature, and composition based on the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state and the modified Henry's law (Krychevsky-Kasarnovsky equation). The model is applied to Macondo reservoir fluid released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, represented with 279-280 pseudocomponents, including 131-132 individual compounds. We define >n-C8 pseudocomponents based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) measurements, which enable the modeling of aqueous partitioning for n-C8 to n-C26 fractions not quantified individually. Thermodynamic model predictions are tested against available laboratory data on petroleum liquid densities, gas/liquid volume fractions, and liquid viscosities. We find that the emitted petroleum mixture was ∼29-44% gas and ∼56-71% liquid, after cooling to local conditions near the broken Macondo riser stub (∼153 atm and 4.3 °C). High pressure conditions dramatically favor the aqueous dissolution of C1-C4 hydrocarbons and also influence the buoyancies of bubbles and droplets. Additionally, the simulated densities of emitted petroleum fluids affect previous estimates of the volumetric flow rate of dead oil from the emission source.

  12. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Travis Peak (Hosston) Formation, Gulf Coastal Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartberger, Charles E.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Condon, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of Lower Cretaceous sandstones of the Travis Peak Formation in the northern Gulf Coast Basin to harbor a basin-centered gas accumulation was evaluated by examining (1) the depositional and diagenetic history and reservoir properties of Travis Peak sandstones, (2) the presence and quality of source rocks for generating gas, (3) the burial and thermal history of source rocks and time of gas generation and migration relative to tectonic development of Travis Peak traps, (4) gas and water recoveries from drill-stem and formation tests, (5) the distribution of abnormal pressures based on shut-in-pressure data, and (6) the presence or absence of gas-water contacts associated with gas accumulations in Travis Peak sandstones. The Travis Peak Formation (and correlative Hosston Formation) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf Coast Basin from eastern Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic infl ux was focused in two main fl uvial-deltaic depocenters?one located in northeastern Texas and the other in southeastern Mississippi and northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak Formation is about 2,000 ft thick. Most Travis Peak hydrocarbon production in eastern Texas comes from drilling depths between 6,000 and 10,000 ft. Signifi cant decrease in porosity and permeability occurs through that depth interval. Above 8,000-ft drilling depth in eastern Texas, Travis Peak sandstone matrix permeabilities often are signifi cantly higher than the 0.1-millidarcy (mD) cutoff that characterizes tight-gas reservoirs. Below 8,000 ft, matrix permeability of Travis Peak sandstones is low because of pervasive quartz cementation, but abundant natural fractures impart signifi cant fracture permeability. Although pressure data within the middle and lower Travis Peak Formation are limited in eastern Texas

  13. Physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas development on methanogenesis in deep sand aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The Minami-Kanto gas field, where gases are dissolved in formation water, is a potential analogue for a marine gas hydrate area because both areas are characterized by the accumulation of microbial methane in marine turbidite sand layers interbedded with mud layers. This study examined the physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas production and well drilling on the methanogenic activity and composition in this gas field. Twenty-four gas-associated formation water samples were collected from confined sand aquifers through production wells. The stable isotopic compositions of methane in the gases indicated their origin to be biogenic via the carbonate reduction pathway. Consistent with this classification, methanogenic activity measurements using radiotracers, culturing experiments and molecular analysis of formation water samples indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The cultivation of water samples amended only with methanogenic substrates resulted in significant increases in microbial cells along with high-yield methane production, indicating the restricted availability of substrates in the aquifers. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity increased with increasing natural gas production from the corresponding wells, suggesting that the flux of substrates from organic-rich mudstones to adjacent sand aquifers is enhanced by the decrease in fluid pressure in sand layers associated with natural gas/water production. The transient predominance of methylotrophic methanogens, observed for a few years after well drilling, also suggested the stimulation of the methanogens by the exposure of unutilized organic matter through well drilling. These results provide an insight into the physicochemical impacts on the methanogenic activity in biogenic gas deposits including marine gas hydrates. PMID:25105906

  14. Physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas development on methanogenesis in deep sand aquifers.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2015-02-01

    The Minami-Kanto gas field, where gases are dissolved in formation water, is a potential analogue for a marine gas hydrate area because both areas are characterized by the accumulation of microbial methane in marine turbidite sand layers interbedded with mud layers. This study examined the physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas production and well drilling on the methanogenic activity and composition in this gas field. Twenty-four gas-associated formation water samples were collected from confined sand aquifers through production wells. The stable isotopic compositions of methane in the gases indicated their origin to be biogenic via the carbonate reduction pathway. Consistent with this classification, methanogenic activity measurements using radiotracers, culturing experiments and molecular analysis of formation water samples indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The cultivation of water samples amended only with methanogenic substrates resulted in significant increases in microbial cells along with high-yield methane production, indicating the restricted availability of substrates in the aquifers. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity increased with increasing natural gas production from the corresponding wells, suggesting that the flux of substrates from organic-rich mudstones to adjacent sand aquifers is enhanced by the decrease in fluid pressure in sand layers associated with natural gas/water production. The transient predominance of methylotrophic methanogens, observed for a few years after well drilling, also suggested the stimulation of the methanogens by the exposure of unutilized organic matter through well drilling. These results provide an insight into the physicochemical impacts on the methanogenic activity in biogenic gas deposits including marine gas hydrates.

  15. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  16. Deep, water-free gas potential is upside to New Albany shale play

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1998-02-16

    The New Albany shale of the Illinois basin contains major accumulations of Devonian shale gas, comparable both to the Antrim shale of the Michigan basin and the Ohio shale of the Appalachian basin. The size of the resource originally assessed at 61 tcf has recently been increased to between 323 tcf and 528 tcf. According to the 1995 US Geological Survey appraisal, New Albany shale gas represents 52% of the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of the Illinois basin, with another 45% attributed to coalbed methane. New Albany shale gas has been developed episodically for over 140 years, resulting in production from some 40 fields in western Kentucky, 20 fields in southern Indiana, and at least 1 field in southern Illinois. The paper describes two different plays identified by a GRI study and prospective areas.

  17. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.215 Underground storage testing...

  18. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.215 Underground storage testing...

  19. Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M.

    2005-09-01

    For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

  20. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Michael S.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Nuccio, Vito F.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for a continuous-type basin-centered gas accumulation in the Hanna Basin in Carbon County, Wyoming, is evaluated using geologic and production data including mud-weight, hydrocarbon-show, formation-test, bottom-hole-temperature, and vitrinite reflectance data from 29 exploratory wells. This limited data set supports the presence of a hypothetical basin-centered gas play in the Hanna Basin. Two generalized structural cross sections illustrate our interpretations of possible abnormally pressured compartments. Data indicate that a gas-charged, overpressured interval may occur within the Cretaceous Mowry, Frontier, and Niobrara Formations at depths below 10,000 ft along the southern and western margins of the basin. Overpressuring may also occur near the basin center within the Steele Shale and lower Mesaverde Group section at depths below 18,000 to 20,000 ft. However, the deepest wells drilled to date (12,000 to 15,300 ft) have not encountered over-pressure in the basin center. This overpressured zone is likely to be relatively small (probably 20 to 25 miles in diameter) and is probably depleted of gas near major basement reverse faults and outcrops where gas may have escaped. Water may have invaded reservoirs through outcrops and fracture zones along the basin margins, creating an extensive normally pressured zone. A zone of subnormal pressure also may exist below the water-saturated, normal-pressure zone and above the central zone of overpressure. Subnormal pressures have been interpreted in the center of the Hanna Basin at depths ranging from 10,000 to 25,000 ft based on indirect evidence including lost-circulation zones. Three wells on the south side of the basin, where the top of the subnormally pressured zone is interpreted to cut across stratigraphic boundaries, tested the Niobrara Formation and recovered gas and oil shows with very low shut-in pressures.

  1. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  2. Lightweight proppants for deep gas-well stimulation. First annual report, July 1979-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.H.; Cutler, R.A.; Swanson, S.R.

    1981-10-01

    Existing high strength proppants have desirable strength characteristics for propping deep hydraulic fractures, but also have high specific gravities when compared to sand. The high specific gravity necessitates high viscosity fracturing fluids and/or high pumping rates, along with low proppant concentration, which make fracture control and high conductivity fractures difficult to obtain. Theoretical stress and strength analyses of the proppants suggest that hollow spheres, as well as porous high purity ceramics, offer an alternative to dense bauxite proppants. Several novel ceramics, with specific gravities lower than conventional bauxite, are recommended for further evaluation in massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF).

  3. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (<0.1% by volume) confirms at least a minor thermogenic component. Authigenic carbonates and mollusk shells found throughout the core indicate sustained methane-rich fluid advection and possible sediment extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM

  4. Deep gas play probed along Rough Creek graben in Kentucky part of southern Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, L.S.; Tyler, J.G.; Maearevich, R.L.; Brewster, D.; Sonnad, J. )

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that Conoco Inc. is drilling one of the deepest rank wildcats ever in the southern Illinois basin. The Conoco 1 Turner at Carter Coordinates 21-M-29, is being drilled by Helmerich and Payne International Drilling Co. Rig No. 79 near the town of Livermore. The well will test the up-dip end of a large tilted basement horst block located in McLean County, Ky. The well is permitted to 14,800 ft and will test the Precambrian( )-Cambrian carbonates and clastics infilling the Rough Creek graben, the deep precursor of the Paleozoic Illinois basin. Only seven other tests have been drilled deeply enough to penetrate the top of this sequence in the 7.5 million acre area of the graben. The Rough Creek graben (RCG) is a part of a major Precambrian cratonic transform fault system that forms the southern edge of the Illinois basin and the northern terminus of the Reelfoot rift (Mississippi embayment). Recurrent motion along faults located in southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and northwestern Kentucky has produced a very complicated and deep graben with more than 25,000 ft of intriguing stratigraphy.

  5. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Evaporation-capillary instability in a deep vapour-gas cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, F. Kh

    1994-02-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of an instability of a molten metal surface on the walls of a deep vapour—gas cavity or crater when this surface absorbs a uniform flux of the energy of laser radiation. The instability is due to the growth of perturbations on the free surface of the melt. This growth is maintained by an associated space—time modulation of the evaporation pressure. The dispersion equation for weak hydrodynamic perturbations is derived and investigated. This equation allows for the dependence of the instability increment on the laser radiation and phase transition parameters, and also on the material constants of the medium. Quantitative estimates are obtained of the conditions for the realisation of the investigated instability mechanism.

  6. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2 -- Field investigations. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    During this quarter, the majority of activity focused on grout emplacement at the Lodestar Energy Inc. (formerly Costain Coal Co.) surface mine auger holes described in the previous report. Specifically, two different types of grout pumps were investigated: a piston pump used in previous demonstrations, and a progressive cavity pump. The latter is currently utilized for grouting in underground coal mines, is relatively small and portable, and is capable of receiving dry material (e.g., fly ash) and water, mixing it to produce a grout, and pumping the grout at high pressure. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate it`s potential use in auger mine filling. Several field demonstrations were conducted using the different pumps. Numerous problems were encountered when using the progressive cavity pump, all of which were related to its inability to handle the highly reactive and heterogeneous FBC fly ash. Even relatively small ash agglomerates (<1 in. in diameter), which were not a problem for the larger piston pump, caused blockages in the progressive cavity pump which not only proved extremely difficult to clear, but also resulted in significant mechanical failures. Furthermore, mixing of dry fly ash with water within the progressive cavity pump was inconsistent and difficult to control. Consequently, the pump was unable to completely fill even a single auger hole. It was found that a large proportion of bed ash in the grout generated a large amount of heat and caused early stiffening of the material. During the experiments, cylinders of grout were prepared for compressive strength testing, and moisture contents were determined on-site. A thermocouple assembly was also constructed to record grout temperatures within an auger hole.

  7. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  8. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  9. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  10. Fulminating gas-forming psoas muscle abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae following a deep neck infection.

    PubMed

    Jang, T N; Juang, G D; Fung, C P

    1997-02-01

    Psoas muscle abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is rare. We report a 55-year-old diabetic man who presented with progressive back pain of 1 month's duration. The patient had undergone surgical drainage for a deep neck infection with K. pneumoniae 43 days previously. On the present admission, physical examination revealed tenderness over the anterior upper aspect of both thighs, and computed tomography showed pneumoretroperitoneum dissecting the bilateral iliopsoas muscles. Parenteral administration of antibiotics was started immediately. Due to the patient's poor health status, we opted for repeated computed tomographic and sonographic-guided percutaneous drainage rather than surgical drainage. Blood and pus cultures revealed only K. pneumoniae. The patient recovered without significant sequelae. This report stresses the risk of metastatic infections caused by K. pneumoniae, especially in diabetic patients. Our experience suggests that repeated percutaneous drainage is feasible in cases of severe iliopsoas abscess, especially when risks associated with surgery are high.

  11. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics experiment JUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Direct measurement of the cross sections for the key nuclear reactions in hydrostatic stellar evolution within Gamow window, which makes use of low background at deep underground laboratory, is crucial to solve key scientific questions in nuclear astrophysics. JUNA project aims at direct measurement of (α,γ), (α,n) reactions in hydrostatic helium burning and (p, γ), (p, α) reactions in hydrostatic hydrogen burning based on Jinping deep underground laboratory in China. The progress of experimental techniques, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be presented.

  12. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  13. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ``Dynamic Stripping`` to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92.

  14. Sr Isotope Quantification of Deep Brine and Shallow Acidic Coal Mine Drainage Inputs to High TDS Gas Well Discharges in Western Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, E.; Capo, R.; Stewart, B. W.; Hedin, R.; Weaver, T.

    2009-12-01

    Chapman, E. C., Capo. R. C., Stewart, B. W. Dept. of Geology & Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15260 Hedin, R. S. and Weaver, T. R., Hedin Environmental, 195 Castle Shannon Blvd., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15228 In western Pennsylvania, numerous abandoned oil and gas wells discharge contaminated water to the surface. Many of these discharges have circumneutral pH as well as high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Total dissolved solid (TDS) content is also high relative to local groundwater. Possible sources of this water include deep brines, which have circumneutral pH and very high TDS, or shallow acidic coal mine drainage (AMD). Hundreds of hilltop strip mines are found in this area, and mine seeps have low pH (3.5-4) and high TDS. Geochemical data alone have not been definitive in determining the source of the gas well discharges. Strontium isotopic compositions of deep brine, gas well discharges drilled 150-240 m deep into Upper Devonian strata, and local AMD associated with the Leeper anticline in Clarion County strongly suggest that the water chemistry in the gas wells is dominated (>99%) by mine drainage. Because of its high Sr concentrations, even small contributions of brine (<1%) can significantly change the 87Sr/86Sr of the groundwater. With the ability to determine the source of these discharges, other questions about subsurface geochemical reactions can be addressed. For example, iron concentration in the gas well discharges is much higher than either the deep brines or shallow AMD. This could be due to siderite (FeCO3) dissolution by AMD; previous work identified the presence of siderite in sedimentary strata within the subsurface path of the AMD flows. Carbonate mineral dissolution could also explain the circumneutral pH of flows from the gas wells. Sr isotopes can be used as a sensitive tracer for the interaction of shallow and deep fossil fuel byproducts with natural waters, including produced waters from

  15. A national assessment of underground natural gas storage: identifying wells with designs likely vulnerable to a single-point-of-failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michanowicz, Drew R.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Rowland, Sebastian T.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Goho, Shaun A.; Bernstein, Aaron S.

    2017-05-01

    The leak of processed natural gas (PNG) from October 2015 to February 2016 from the Aliso Canyon storage facility, near Los Angeles, California, was the largest single accidental release of greenhouse gases in US history. The Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety and California regulators recently recommended operators phase out single-point-of-failure (SPF) well designs. Here, we develop a national dataset of UGS well activity in the continental US to assess regulatory data availability and uncertainty, and to assess the prevalence of certain well design deficiencies including single-point-of-failure designs. We identified 14 138 active UGS wells associated with 317 active UGS facilities in 29 states using regulatory and company data. State-level wellbore datasets contained numerous reporting inconsistencies that limited data concatenation. We identified 2715 active UGS wells across 160 facilities that, like the failed well at Aliso Canyon, predated the storage facility, and therefore were not originally designed for gas storage. The majority (88%) of these repurposed wells are located in OH, MI, PA, NY, and WV. Repurposed wells have a median age of 74 years, and the 2694 repurposed wells constructed prior to 1979 are particularly likely to exhibit design-related deficiencies. An estimated 210 active repurposed wells were constructed before 1917—before cement zonal isolation methods were utilized. These wells are located in OH, PA, NY, and WV and represent the highest priority related to potential design deficiencies that could lead to containment loss. This national baseline assessment identifies regulatory data uncertainties, highlights a potentially widespread vulnerability of the natural gas supply chain, and can aid in prioritization and oversight for high-risk wells and facilities.

  16. A method of estimating the amount of in-situ gas hydrates in deep marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Dillon, William P.; Miller, J.J.; Agena, W.F.; Swift, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The bulk volume of gas hydrate in marine sediment can be estimated by measuring interval velocities and amplitude blanking of hydrated zones from true-amplitude processed multichannel seismic reflection data. In general, neither velocity nor amplitude information is adequate to independently estimate hydrate concentration. We propose a method that uses amplitude blanking calibrated by interval-velocity information to quantify hydrate concentrations in the Blake Ridge area of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. On the Blake Ridge, blanking occurs in conjunction with relatively low interval velocities. The model that best explains this relation linearly mixes two end-member sediments, hydrated and unhydrated sediment. Hydrate concentration in the hydrate end-member can be calculated from a weighted equation that uses velocity estimated from the seismic data, known properties of pure hydrate, and porosity inferred from a velocity/porosity relationship. Amplitude blanking can be predicted as the proportions of hydrated and unhydrated sediment change across a reflection boundary. Our analysis of a small area near DSDP 533 indicates that the amount of gas hydrates is about 6% in total volume when interval velocity is used as a criterion and about 9.5% when amplitude information is used. This compares with a calculated value of about 8% derived from the only available measurement in DSDP 533.

  17. Method of estimating the amount of in situ gas hydrates in deep marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Dillon, William P.; Miller, J.J.; Agena, W.F.; Swift, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulk volume of gas hydrates in marine sediments can be estimated by measuring interval velocities and amplitude blanking of hydrated zones from true amplitude processed multichannel seismic reflection data. In general, neither velocity nor amplitude information is adequate to independently estimate hydrate concentration. A method is proposed that uses amplitude blanking calibrated by interval velocity information to quantify hydrate concentrations in the Blake Ridge area of the US Atlantic continental margin. On the Blake Ridge, blanking occurs in conjunction with relatively low interval velocities. The model that best explains this relation linearly mixes two end-member sediments: hydrated and unhydrated sediment. Hydrate concentration in the hydrate end-member can be calculated from a weighted equation that uses velocity estimated from the seismic data, known properties of the pure hydrate, and porosity inferred from a velocity-porosity relationship. Amplitude blanking can be predicted as the proportions of hydrated and unhydrated sediment change across a reflection boundary. Our analysis of a small area near DSDP 533 indicates that the amount of gas hydrates is about 6% in total volume when the interval velocity is used as a criterion and about 9.5% when amplitude information is used. This compares with a calculated value of about 8% derived from the only available measurement in DSDP 533. 

  18. Versatile Structure-directing Roles of Deep Eutectic Solvents and Their Implication in Generation of Porosity and Open Metal Sites for Gas Storage**

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Tao; Chen, Shumei; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Trap it in and burn it out: the deep eutectic solvent provides a versatile route for the creation of highly stable porous frameworks encapsulating neutral coordinating ligand molecule, which can escape intact from the pore upon heating to directly become crystals, leaving behind permanent porosity and coordinatively unsaturated metal sites with potential applications in gas storage and catalysis. PMID:19343752

  19. Raman gas self-organizing into deep nano-trap lattice

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, M.; Husakou, A.; Chafer, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2016-01-01

    Trapping or cooling molecules has rallied a long-standing effort for its impact in exploring new frontiers in physics and in finding new phase of matter for quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate a system for light-trapping molecules and stimulated Raman scattering based on optically self-nanostructured molecular hydrogen in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. A lattice is formed by a periodic and ultra-deep potential caused by a spatially modulated Raman saturation, where Raman-active molecules are strongly localized in a one-dimensional array of nanometre-wide sections. Only these trapped molecules participate in stimulated Raman scattering, generating high-power forward and backward Stokes continuous-wave laser radiation in the Lamb–Dicke regime with sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth as low as ∼14 kHz, more than five orders of magnitude narrower than conventional-Raman pressure-broadened linewidth, and sidebands comprising Mollow triplet, motional sidebands and four-wave mixing. PMID:27677451

  20. Raman gas self-organizing into deep nano-trap lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, M.; Husakou, A.; Chafer, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2016-09-01

    Trapping or cooling molecules has rallied a long-standing effort for its impact in exploring new frontiers in physics and in finding new phase of matter for quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate a system for light-trapping molecules and stimulated Raman scattering based on optically self-nanostructured molecular hydrogen in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. A lattice is formed by a periodic and ultra-deep potential caused by a spatially modulated Raman saturation, where Raman-active molecules are strongly localized in a one-dimensional array of nanometre-wide sections. Only these trapped molecules participate in stimulated Raman scattering, generating high-power forward and backward Stokes continuous-wave laser radiation in the Lamb-Dicke regime with sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth as low as ~14 kHz, more than five orders of magnitude narrower than conventional-Raman pressure-broadened linewidth, and sidebands comprising Mollow triplet, motional sidebands and four-wave mixing.

  1. Underground neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium.

  2. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  3. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Ten years Underground. Rover roundup (International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots and Rover Roundup, Santa Monica, CA (USA), 29 Jan - 4 Feb 1997). Reaching the Red. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of April 1, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  4. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  5. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  6. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  7. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the North

  8. Seismic precursors of a basaltic paroxysmal explosion track deep gas accumulation and slug upraise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Moretti, Roberto; Allard, Patrick; Boschi, Enzo

    2011-02-01

    Basaltic volcanoes, though fed with low-viscosity magma, occasionally produce sudden paroxysmal explosions that are unforecasted and whose triggering mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Here we report on the first detection of seismic signals precursory to such an explosion on 5 April 2003, at Stromboli volcano (Italy). This strongest event in the past 73 years was preceded by ˜25 h of seismic tremor variation, broadly coincident with strong geochemical anomalies in crater plume emissions, followed by ˜15 h of tilt-related long-period inflation pulses of increasing amplitude. These precursory signals are best explained by accelerating growth and leakage of a bubble melt "foam" layer formed at ˜10 km depth, whose collapse triggered the fast ascent of CO2-rich gas slugs and then the explosion. Our results open new perspectives for the forecasting of such paroxysmal explosions and associated hazards.

  9. Pipes to the earth subsurface: The role of atmospheric conditions in driving air movement along a borehole connecting land surface and an underground cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, Noam; Levintal, Elad; Lensky, Nadav G.; Mushkin, Amit; Dragila, Maria I.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding air dynamics in underground cavities (e.g., caves, underground storage structures, quarries, tunnels, etc.) and different types of boreholes is of great significance for the exploration of gas transport at the earth-atmosphere interface. Here, we investigated the role of atmospheric conditions on air transport inside a borehole. Two different geometries were explored in the field: a 27-m deep shaft connected to an underground large cavity and the same shaft after being disconnected from the underground cavity. The observation setup included a standard meteorological station located above the borehole and temperature and relative humidity sensors along the borehole. Absolute humidity, calculated from the measured temperature and relative humidity, was validated as a robust marker for assessing air transport inside the two shaft geometries examined. In both cases, air inflow and outflow at depths of 12 and 27 m was found to be related to changes in barometric pressure regardless of temperature instability (thermal-induced convection) or wind velocity (wind-induced convection). In contrast, these convective fluxes were found to be significant parameters driving air flow in the upper few meters. A newly developed conceptual model is presented to examine the induced airflow in both shaft geometries with the goal of improving our understanding of gas transport and its dependence on barometric pressure changes.

  10. Detection of potential methane gas pathways in deep South African gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhabela, Mbali; Manzi, Musa

    2017-08-01

    At a number of gold mines in South Africa, methane gas has been encountered when drilling into faults and/or dykes extending to depths beyond 7000 m. Methane gas has been reported to migrate up through structures from within the basin to the mine working environments (∼3000 m depth) and caused explosions. The Booysens Shale is one of the possible source rocks for hydrocarbons and it forms the footwall to the gold-bearing Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR, ∼1.5 m thick). The Booysens Shale lies at depths between 3500 and 4500 m below the surface and can be best described as a base of the divergent clastic wedge, hosting the quartzite and conglomerate units that sub-crop against the VCR towards the west of the gold mining areas. Geometric attributes (dip and dip azimuth) and instantaneous attributes (phase, frequency and envelope) computed for the Booysens Shale and VCR horizons provide insight into structures that extend from the Booysens Shale into the overlying mining level (i.e. VCR). These attributes successfully mapped the structures (faults and dykes) that have displaced both the VCR and Booysens Shale horizons. The edge-detection attributes were particularly useful in delineating faults with throws below the traditional seismic resolution criteria (e.g. a quarter of the dominant wavelength) that were not visible in the conventional seismic interpretation. The structural analysis using seismic attributes gives a new visual representation of geological structures that may be probable conduits for hydrocarbons, particularly methane, migrating from the Booysens Shale to the VCR mining levels.

  11. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  12. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  13. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  14. High-temperature quartz cement and the role of stylolites in a deep gas reservoir, Spiro Sandstone, Arkoma Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worden, Richard H.; Morad, Sadoon; Spötl, C.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Riciputi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Spiro Sandstone, a natural gas play in the central Arkoma Basin and the frontal Ouachita Mountains preserves excellent porosity in chloritic channel-fill sandstones despite thermal maturity levels corresponding to incipient metamorphism. Some wells, however, show variable proportions of a late-stage, non-syntaxial quartz cement, which post-dated thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbons to pyrobitumen plus methane. Temperatures well in excess of 150°C and possibly exceeding 200°C are also suggested by (i) fluid inclusions in associated minerals; (ii) the fact that quartz post-dated high-temperature chlorite polytype IIb; (iii) vitrinite reflectance values of the Spiro that range laterally from 1.9 to ≥ 4%; and (iii) the occurrence of late dickite in these rocks. Oxygen isotope values of quartz cement range from 17.5 to 22.4‰ VSMOW (total range of individual in situ ion microprobe measurements) which are similar to those of quartz cement formed along high-amplitude stylolites (18.4–24.9‰). We favour a model whereby quartz precipitation was controlled primarily by the availability of silica via deep-burial stylolitization within the Spiro Sandstone. Burial-history modelling showed that the basin went from a geopressured to a normally pressured regime within about 10–15 Myr after it reached maximum burial depth. While geopressure and the presence of chlorite coats stabilized the grain framework and inhibited nucleation of secondary quartz, respectively, stylolites formed during the subsequent high-temperature, normal-pressured regime and gave rise to high-temperature quartz precipitation. Authigenic quartz growing along stylolites underscores their role as a significant deep-burial silica source in this sandstone.

  15. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... constructed and the type of storage reservoir, i.e., gas expansion or dry gas, water-drive or aquifer; (ii...

  16. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... storage reservoir, i.e., gas expansion or dry gas, water-drive or aquifer; (ii) The location of the...

  17. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... the type of storage reservoir, i.e., gas expansion or dry gas, water-drive or aquifer; (ii) The...

  18. Changes in Hydrothermal Gas Chemistry Associated with Deep-Sea Eruptive Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Butterfield, D.; Cowen, J.; von Damm, K.; Baker, E.; Resing, J.; Embley, R.; Chadwick, W.; Love, B.; Greene, R.; Evans, L.

    2006-12-01

    Previous experience has shown that large changes in hydrothermal fluid chemistry occur in response to deep- sea eruptive events. In particular, for steady-state venting, the concentrations of magmatic gases such as 3He and CO2 increase in relation to other hydrothermal properties (such as heat and dissolved metals) immediately after seafloor magmatic events. Examples of this behavior include the 1986 and 1987 megaplume events on the Cleft Segment of the SJdFR, the 1993 dike intrusion event on the CoAxial Segment of the JdFR, and the 1996 event on the northern Gorda Ridge. In each of these cases one or more event plumes were detected high in the water column, seafloor eruptions of lava occurred, and the steady-state venting sampled immediately after the event had elevated 3He/heat ratios 10 times higher than typical for mature hydrothermal systems. Despite these apparently consistent observations, the mechanism producing these changes is unknown and is being debated in the literature. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent these observations apply to all MOR systems or for that matter to other submarine volcanic provinces such as volcanic arcs or the associated back-arc spreading centers. Two recent eruptive events may potentially shed light on these questions: the 2006 eruption at 9°Â°N on the EPR, and the active eruption observed at NW Rota #1, a submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc. For the 9°Â°N EPR event, we will discuss results from water-column sampling and vent fluid collections completed on the recent R/V New Horizon and R/V Atlantis expeditions to the site. Preliminary results from the water column sampling at 9°Â°N indicate very high 3He/heat ratios consistent with previous results. At NW Rota #1, the eruptive activity was first observed in 2004, but had increased dramatically when the volcano was visited again in 2006. We will compare samples from NW Rota #1 collected in 2004 vs. 2006 with the hope of learning whether the effects observed on

  19. Application of coiled-tubing-drilling technology on a deep underpressured gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Upper-Mississippian Elkton formation is a dolomitized shallow-water carbonate consisting of dense limestones and porous dolomites. The Elkton was deposited in an open-shelf environment as crinoid grainstones, coral packstones, and lime muds. Deposition of impermeable shales and siltstones of the Lower Cretaceous created the lateral and updip seals. Reservoir thickness can be up to 20 m, with porosities reaching 20% and averaging 10%. The reservoir gas contains approximately 0.5% hydrogen sulfide. Well 11-18 was to be completed in the Harmatten Elkton pool. The pool went on production in 1967 at an initial pressure of 23,500 kPa. At the current pressure of 16,800 kPa, the remaining reserves are underpressured at 6.5 kPa/m, and underbalanced horizontal drilling was selected as the most suitable technique for exploiting remaining reserves. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology was selected to ensure continuous underbalanced conditions and maintain proper well control while drilling. The paper describes the equipment, CT drilling summary, and drilling issues.

  20. The Deep Impact Campaign at ESO: Observations of the Gas Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, H.; ESO DI Project Team

    2005-08-01

    The high velocity impact of a projectile on the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1 could give for the first time access to pristine material preserved in the cometary interior. From two nights before impact to six nights after impact FORS2 at the VLT UT 1 is available every night to obtain low resolution optical spectra. These will be used to study the chemical composition of the coma by studying emissions from CN, C2, C3 and NH2, and to identify variations due to the impact. Possibly, a new surface of fresh ices in the impact crater will be present. We also intend to perform medium resolution near infrared spectroscopy using ISAAC at the VLT UT 1 to observe organic parent molecules directly instead of observing daughter products that can be addressed by optical observations. This contribution will present first results from the observations of the gas coma around the impact time. The project team comprises the following investigators: N. Ageores, M. A'Hearn, C. Arpigny, S. Bagnulo, H. Boehnhardt, T. Bonev, A. Cochran, C. Delahodde, Y. Fernandez, O. Hainaut, D. Hutsemekers, E. Jehin, H.U. Kaeufl, H. Kawakita, F. Kerber, J. Knollenberg, M. Kretlow, E. Kuehrt, M. Kueppers, L. Lara, J. Licandro, C. Lisse, J. Manfroid, O. Marco, K. Meech, H. Rauer, R. Schulz, G. Schwehm, C. Sterken, M. Sterzik, J.A. Stuewe, I. Surdej, G.P. Tozzi, M. Weiler, R. West, D. Wooden, J.-M. Zucconi

  1. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    , allows us a unique opportunity to study the response of methane hydrate deposits to warming. Gas hydrate stability in the Arctic and the permeability of the shelf sediments to gas migration is thought to be closely linked with relict submarine permafrost. Submarine permafrost extent depends on several environmental factors, such as the shelf lithology, sea level variations, mean annual air temperature, ocean bottom water temperature, geothermal heat flux, groundwater hydrology, and the salinity of the pore water. Effects of submarine groundwater discharge, which introduces fresh terrestrial groundwater off-shore, can freshen deep marine sediments and is an important control on the freezing point depression of ice and methane hydrate. While several thermal modeling studies suggest the permafrost layer should still be largely intact near-shore, many recent field studies have reported elevated methane levels in Arctic coastal waters. The permafrost layer is thought to create an impermeable barrier to fluid and gas flow, however, talik formation (unfrozen regions within otherwise continuous permafrost) below paleo-river channels can create permeable pathways for gas migration from depth. This is the first study of its kind to make predictions of the methane gas flux to the water column from the Arctic shelf sediments using a 2D multi-phase fluid flow model. Model results show that the dissociation of methane hydrate deposits through taliks can supersaturate the overlying water column at present-day relative to equilibrium with the atmosphere when taliks are large (> 1 km width) or hydrate saturation is high within hydrate layers (> 50% pore volume). Supersaturated waters likely drive a net flux of methane into the atmosphere, a potent greenhouse gas. Effects of anthropogenic global warming will certainly increase gas venting rates if ocean bottom water temperatures increase, but likely won't have immediately observable impacts due to the long response times.

  2. A modeling comparison of deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios by 2030 in California

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, Sonia; Yang, Christopher; Gibbs, Michael; ...

    2016-10-21

    California aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. We compare six energy models that have played various roles in informing the state policymakers in setting climate policy goals and targets. These models adopt a range of modeling structures, including stock-turnover back-casting models, a least-cost optimization model, macroeconomic/macro-econometric models, and an electricity dispatch model. Results from these models provide useful insights in terms of the transformations in the energy system required, including efficiency improvements in cars, trucks, and buildings, electrification of end-uses, low- or zero-carbon electricity and fuels, aggressive adoptions of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs),more » demand reduction, and large reductions of non-energy GHG emissions. Some of these studies also suggest that the direct economic costs can be fairly modest or even generate net savings, while the indirect macroeconomic benefits are large, as shifts in employment and capital investments could have higher economic returns than conventional energy expenditures. These models, however, often assume perfect markets, perfect competition, and zero transaction costs. They also do not provide specific policy guidance on how these transformative changes can be achieved. Greater emphasis on modeling uncertainty, consumer behaviors, heterogeneity of impacts, and spatial modeling would further enhance policymakers' ability to design more effective and targeted policies. Here, this paper presents an example of how policymakers, energy system modelers and stakeholders interact and work together to develop and evaluate long-term state climate policy targets. Lastly, even though this paper focuses on California, the process of dialogue and interactions, modeling results, and lessons learned can be generally adopted across different regions and scales.« less

  3. A modeling comparison of deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios by 2030 in California

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sonia; Yang, Christopher; Gibbs, Michael; Roland-Holst, David; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Mahone, Amber; Wei, Dan; Brinkman, Gregory; Cunningham, Joshua; Eggert, Anthony; Haley, Ben; Hart, Elaine; Williams, Jim

    2016-10-21

    California aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. We compare six energy models that have played various roles in informing the state policymakers in setting climate policy goals and targets. These models adopt a range of modeling structures, including stock-turnover back-casting models, a least-cost optimization model, macroeconomic/macro-econometric models, and an electricity dispatch model. Results from these models provide useful insights in terms of the transformations in the energy system required, including efficiency improvements in cars, trucks, and buildings, electrification of end-uses, low- or zero-carbon electricity and fuels, aggressive adoptions of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), demand reduction, and large reductions of non-energy GHG emissions. Some of these studies also suggest that the direct economic costs can be fairly modest or even generate net savings, while the indirect macroeconomic benefits are large, as shifts in employment and capital investments could have higher economic returns than conventional energy expenditures. These models, however, often assume perfect markets, perfect competition, and zero transaction costs. They also do not provide specific policy guidance on how these transformative changes can be achieved. Greater emphasis on modeling uncertainty, consumer behaviors, heterogeneity of impacts, and spatial modeling would further enhance policymakers' ability to design more effective and targeted policies. Here, this paper presents an example of how policymakers, energy system modelers and stakeholders interact and work together to develop and evaluate long-term state climate policy targets. Lastly, even though this paper focuses on California, the process of dialogue and interactions, modeling results, and lessons learned can be generally adopted across different regions and scales.

  4. Sediment composition and texture of Pleistocene deep-sea turbidites in the eastern Nankai Trough gas hydrate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, K.; Nishimura, O.; Izumi, S.; Ito, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX pressure coring operation, we collected a totally 60-m-long core sample from the interval of gas hydrate concentration zone at the planned site of the world's first offshore production test of natural gas hydrates in the eastern Nankai Trough area. In this contribution, the cored sediments were sedimentologically, mineralogically, and paleontologically analyzed to know sediment composition and texture of reservoir formation, which are known to provide useful geological information to discuss sedimentation, diagenesis, and permeability. The targeted interval belongs to a Middle Pleistocene deep-sea turbidite sequence distributed around the Daini Atsumi Knoll, east of the Kumano forearc basin, and consists of the lower (thick sand-dominant), middle (thin-bedded sand-and-mud alteration), and upper (mud-dominant) formations in ascending order. X-ray powder diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that pore space in turbidite sands is commonly filled with clay fractions (mostly phyllosilicates) in the lower formation. Such a pore filling of clay fractions is reflected in particle size distribution showing high standard deviation and clay content, and thus is expected to have an impact on permeability. There is the older Pliocene to Early Pleistocene fossil coccolith record in the middle formation, indicating sediment reworking probably induced by submarine landslide. The coexistence of authigenic siderite and framboidal pyrite in the middle formation strongly suggests anoxic microbial activity under methane oxidation and sulfide reduction conditions at least before the hydrate cementation. This contribution was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  5. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  6. Underground Engineering (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-04

    Layer By * An Engineering Group, by Shen Junda and Wang Jingwen .................. I Innovation in Injection Conctete Aggregates , by Hu Yexi...In the situation that the effect of underground water on the surrounding rock was small and the vibration was not significant, the surrounding rock...INNOVATIONIN INJECTION CONCRETE AGGREGATES /28 Hu Yexi The use of injection concrete in the construction of civil defense projects has already obtained

  7. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  8. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Phase 1 -- Laboratory Investigations. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The study of the kinetics of the mineral transformations which take place after the FGD materials are hydrated was continued this quarter (Task 2, Subtask 2.2). Based on X-ray diffraction data, the anhydrite was found to have essentially disappeared by the fifth day of the study, while gypsum was found to maximize in the first 14 days of the study. The relative abundance of ettringite increased throughout the period of observation (40 days). Ettringite was found to nucleate primarily on or near fly ash particles, while gypsum was found to be more mobile, readily filling in cracks and fractures. A second kinetic study was initiated during the period with an experimental setup which is similar to the current effort. The focus of this study will be to determine the effect of moisture conditions on the rate and types of mineralogical reactions which occur. Column leaching studies (Task 2, Subtask 2.4) on the ADM material were initiated during the quarter. Two columns were packed with fly ash and one with bottom ash. One of the columns was blanketed with CO{sub 2} (2.5%) to model the effects of soil gas on the leachate. The samples are being moisturized to model field conditions. Leachate analysis will be available during the next quarter. Work on the field site (Task 6) to establish background data for the demonstration continued. The proposed demonstration site at the Pleasant Valley mine was found to be displaying the effects of severe weathering. An alternate mine site will be explored.

  9. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2, Field investigations. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In this quarter, activity focused on the placement of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) grout into auger holes at the Sunny Ridge Mining Co. site. As discussed in previous reports, the grout was prepared using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-product obtained from the Costain Coal Company. The grout was thoroughly mixed with water and transferred to a concrete pumping truck. The nozzle on the pumper truck was attached to PVC pipe through which the grout was pumped into the auger holes. The first field test involved the placement of a very high slump, flowable grout into auger holes sing a simple, earthern bulkhead. These tests were conducted to explore the flowability of the grout. The second series of test was conducted with a lower-slump, higher-viscosity material pumped at high pressure and using sandbags as a bulkhead. The goal of these tests was to examine the feasibility of pressure grouting to completely fill auger holes with a material that will exhibit high long-term strength because of this low initial water content. Although there were many problems encountered during the field demonstration, these initial tests were, overall, successful. It was shown that a high-slump grout can be pumped the length of the auger holes, and can be successfully placed in holes containing standing water. Furthermore, this can be accomplished using available concrete emplacement equipment. In contrast, the pressure grouting proved more challenging than emplacement of the flowable grout mainly because of pipe-joint failures and difficulties in working the stiff, high-viscosity grout; the amount of water added to the mix is critical when placing this type of material. Cylinders of grout for compressive strength testing were prepared during field demonstration, and cores of the in situ hardened grout will be recovered after a minimum of 30 days. Additional field demonstration will focus on improving the procedure for placement of the flowable grout.

  10. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  11. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-13

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  12. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface. Technical progress report. [Composition of gases in fluid inclusions from calcite, quartz, anorthosite and olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1986-04-30

    Although present gas reserves are adequate for immediate needs, they will eventually be consumed and exploration for additional reserves will have to be pushed steadily deeper. We have continued to try and establish depth limits for commercial gas accumulations in deep reservoirs using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Theoretical: The computer program, developed over the last few years for calculating the stabilities of natural gas components in reservoirs of various mineralogies, is running routinely. It finds the minimum free energy in multicomponent (up to 70), multiphase (up to 20) systems for conditions corresponding to temperatures and pressure down to 40,000 ft (12 km). The program has been used to calculate gas composition for a wide range of potential reservoir mineralogy. In addition, some preliminary studies have been carried out to make the program compatible with the widely available microcomputers (''PC's''). Analytical: Fluid inclusions have been used to provide uncontaminated samples of deep gas. The fast-scanning, computer-controlled mass spectrometer system available for analyzing gases in individual fluid inclusions separately, has been used to study a wide range of minerals. Currently, up to 225 inclusions can be analyzed in a 10 mg sample with a dynamic range of approximately 1:10,000. Samples analyzed include: (1) calcite cements from deep sedimentary sections (down to 20,000 ft) which are frequently rich in hydrogen sulfide, (2) deep metamorphic quartz (probably > 50,000 ft) which was very rich in methane, (sometimes > 70%), and (3) mid-ocean ridge basalt plagioclase and Hawaiian olivines, which were high in carbon dioxide with minor water and carbon monoxide. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  14. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2

  15. CAVSIM. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A., Thorsness, C.B. )

    1989-03-03

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  16. Underground nuclear waste containments

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.

    1995-11-01

    In the United States, about a hundred million gallons of high-level nuclear waste are stored in underground containments. Basically, these containments are of two different designs: single-shell and double-shell structures. The single-shell structures consist of reinforced concrete cylindrical walls seated on circular mats and enclosed on top with torispherical domes or circular flat roofs. The walls and the basemats are lined with carbon steel. The double-shell structures provide another layer of protection and constitute a completely enclosed steel containment within the single-shell structure leaving an annular space between the two walls. Single-shell containments are of earlier vintage and were built in the period 1945-1965. Double-shell structures were built through the 1960s and 1970s. Experience gained in building and operating the single-shell containments was used in enhancing the design and construction of the double-shell structures. Currently, there are about 250 underground single-shell and double-shell structures containing the high-level waste with an inventory of about 800 million curies. During their service lives, especially in early stages, these structures were subjected to thermal excursions of varying extents; also, they have aged in the chemical environment. Furthermore, in their remaining service lives, the structures may be subjected to loads for which they were not designed, such as larger earthquakes or chemical explosions. As a result, the demonstration of safety of these underground nuclear containments poses a challenge to structural engineers, which increases with time. Regardless of current plans for gradual retrieval of the waste and subsequent solidification for disposal, many of these structures are expected to continue to contain the waste through the next 20-40 years. In order to verify their structural capabilities in fulfilling this mission, several studies were recently performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  17. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  18. Methanomicrobium antiquum sp. nov., a hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from deep sedimentary aquifers in a natural gas field.

    PubMed

    Mochimaru, Hanako; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Katayama, Taiki; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Susumu; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-11-01

    A mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, designated strain MobHT, was isolated from sediments derived from deep sedimentary, natural-gas-bearing aquifers in Japan. Strain MobHT utilized H2/CO2 or formate, but not ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol or cyclopentanol, for growth and methane production. In addition, acetate and tungsten were required for growth. Yeast extract stimulated the growth, but was not required. The cells were weakly motile with multiple flagella, presented as a curved-rod-shaped (0.8×2.0 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. Strain MobHT grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 35 °C) and at pH 5.9-7.9 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The sodium chloride range for growth was 0-5.8 % (optimum 2 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.6 mol%. In the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MobHT clustered together with Methanomicrobium mobile (95.4 % in sequence similarity), and formed a distinct clade from Methanolacinia petrolearia SEBR 4847T (95.6 %) and Methanolacinia paynteri G-2000T (95.4 %). The two species of the genus Methanolacinia utilized 2-propanol, whereas strain MobHT and Methanomicrobium mobile, the sole species of the genus Methanomicrobium, do not. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic features, we propose a novel species for the isolate with the name, Methanomicrobiumantiquum sp. nov. The type strain is MobHT (=DSM 21220T=NBRC 104160T).

  19. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudrapati Sandesh Kumar; Payal Shirvastava

    2002-07-01

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  20. Deep blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  1. Making of the underground scientific experimental programme at the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory, North Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Vinsot, Agnès; Krieguer, Jean-Marie; Rebours, Hervé; Armand, Gilles

    In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) on the border of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in eastern France. The research activities of the URL are dedicated to study the feasibility of reversible, deep geological disposal of high-activity, long-lived radioactive wastes in an argillaceous host rock. The Laboratory consists of two shafts, an experimental drift at 445 m depth and a set of technical and experimental drifts at the main level at 490 m depth. The main objective of the research is to characterize the confining properties of the argillaceous rock through in situ hydrogeological tests, chemical measurements and diffusion experiments. In order to achieve this goal, a fundamental understanding of the geoscientific properties and processes that govern geological isolation in clay-rich rocks has been acquired. This understanding includes both the host rocks at the laboratory site and the regional geological context. After establishing the geological conditions, the underground research programme had to demonstrate that the construction and operation of a geological disposal will not introduce pathways for waste migration. Thus, the construction of the laboratory itself serves a research purpose through the monitoring of excavation effects and the optimization of construction technology. These studies are primarily geomechanical in nature, though chemical and hydrogeological coupling also have important roles. In order to achieve the scientific objectives of this project in the underground drifts, a specific methodology has been applied for carrying out the experimental programme conducted concurrently with the construction of the shafts and drifts. This methodology includes technological as well as organizational aspects and a systematic use of feedback from other laboratories abroad and every scientific zone of the URL already installed. This methodology was first applied to set up a multi-purpose experimental area

  2. Underground corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion of underground metallic structures continues to be a crucial concern within society and the engineering community. Costs associated with corrosion losses are staggering. Indirect costs associated with environmental damage as well as loss of public confidence has in many cases out-stripped direct costs for facility repair and replacement. NACE Group Committee T-10, responsible for the study and advancement of technology necessary for engineering solutions for underground corrosion problems, is divided into five key unit committees as follows: cathodic protection; interference problems; electric power and communications; protective coating systems; and internal corrosion of pipelines. The papers presented in this publication reflect the most recent developments in field practice in all five areas. Cathodic protection criteria, protection of pipelines, tanks and pilings, test methods, transit systems investigations, power and communication cables, and compliance with regulations are addressed. Interference testing, refinery problems, methods of safely mitigating the effects of induced AC on pipelines, and experience with alternate engineering materials such as prestressed concrete cylinder pipe and ductile iron pipe are included. All 37 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  4. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... other underground mining commodities. Radon is radioactive gas. It diffuses into the underground mine atmosphere through the rock and the ground water. Radon decays in a series of steps into other radioactive.... Decay of radon and its daughters results in emissions of alpha energy. Medical doctors and...

  5. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the performance objectives of § 60.111. (d) Control of water and gas. The design of the underground facility...

  6. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  7. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  8. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  9. Appraisal of gas hydrate resources based on a P- and S-impedance reflectivity template: case study from the deep sea sediments in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoar, Behnam Hosseini; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser; Seddigh Arabani, Mojtaba

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the 2D seismic data from Makran's accretionary prism reveals the presence of gas hydrate and free gas several hundred meters below the seafloor of Iran's deep sea. According to the global distribution of marine hydrates, they are widely present in deep sea sediments, where high operational costs and hazards cause a lack of well log information. Therefore, developing a method to quantify the hydrate resources with seismic data is an ultimate goal for unexplored regions. In this study, the so-called reflectivity templates (RTs) are introduced for quantification of the hydrate and free gas near the BSR. These RTs are intuitive crossplots of P-impedance and S-impedance contrasts across the BSR. They are calculated theoretically based on the effective medium theory for different hydrate distribution modes with some assumptions on porosity and mineralogical composition of unconsolidated sediments. This technique suggests the possibility of using the amplitude variation versus offset (AVO) analysis of the BSR for a quantitative interpretation when well log data are not available. By superimposing the AVO-derived P-impedance and S-impedance contrasts across the BSR on these RTs, the saturations of the hydrate and free gas near the BSR could be estimated. Validation of this approach by synthetic data showed that a reliable quantification could be achieved if the model parameters were rearranged to a form in which the AVO inversion was independent of the S-wave to P-wave velocity-ratio assumption. Based on this approach applied on the 2D marine pre-stack time migrated seismic line in offshore Iran, 4% to 28% of the gas hydrate and 1% to 2% of the free gas are expected to be accumulated near the thrusted-ridge and thrusted-footwall types of BSRs.

  10. DOE Grant to organize "International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics", Asilomar, CA, May 24-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Kaladi S.

    2015-03-16

    The International Symposium in Opportunities in Underground Physics (ISOUP) was held in Asilomar, CA during May 24-27, 2013. The Symposium brought together scientists from the US and abroad for an open discussion on science opportunities provided by the possibility of a new generation of large underground detectors associated with long baseline neutrino beams. The Symposium was highly successful. The main focus of the Symposium was the science goals that could be achieved by placing such a detector deep underground.

  11. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  12. Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestine. Certain foods may cause gas. Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. You can reduce the amount of gas you have by Drinking lots of water and non-fizzy drinks Eating more slowly so you swallow less air ...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... inherent in the use of such gases in an underground coal mine. (b) Persons who perform welding, cutting, or... nonliquefied compressed gas is used regularly in underground shops or other underground structures, such shops...

  14. Real-time drilling mud gas monitoring for qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon gas composition during deep sea drilling in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian B; Wiersberg, Thomas; Heuer, Verena B; Wendt, Jenny; Erzinger, Jörg; Kopf, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 338 was the second scientific expedition with D/V Chikyu during which riser drilling was conducted as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. Riser drilling enabled sampling and real-time monitoring of drilling mud gas with an onboard scientific drilling mud gas monitoring system ("SciGas"). A second, independent system was provided by Geoservices, a commercial mud logging service. Both systems allowed the determination of (non-) hydrocarbon gas, while the SciGas system also monitored the methane carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)CCH4). The hydrocarbon gas composition was predominated by methane (> 1%), while ethane and propane were up to two orders of magnitude lower. δ(13)CCH4 values suggested an onset of thermogenic gas not earlier than 1600 meter below seafloor. This study aims on evaluating the onboard data and subsequent geological interpretations by conducting shorebased analyses of drilling mud gas samples. During shipboard monitoring of drilling mud gas the SciGas and Geoservices systems recorded up to 8.64% and 16.4% methane, respectively. Ethane and propane concentrations reached up to 0.03 and 0.013%, respectively, in the SciGas system, but 0.09% and 0.23% in the Geoservices data. Shorebased analyses of discrete samples by gas chromatography showed a gas composition with ~0.01 to 1.04% methane, 2 - 18 ppmv ethane, and 2 - 4 ppmv propane. Quadruple mass spectrometry yielded similar results for methane (0.04 to 4.98%). With δD values between -171‰ and -164‰, the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of methane showed little downhole variability. Although the two independent mud gas monitoring systems and shorebased analysis of discrete gas sample yielded different absolute concentrations they all agree well with respect to downhole variations of hydrocarbon gases. The data point to predominantly biogenic methane sources but suggest some contribution from thermogenic sources at depth, probably due

  15. Storage of CO2 at low temperature as liquid or solid gas hydrate - Application to the Biscay deep zone in the French EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnol, André; Thinon, Isabelle; Audigane, Pascal; Leynet, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    Amongst the various CO2 geological storage options currently under consideration, the deep saline aquifers (beyond 800-m depth) were considered to present the most interesting storage capacity due to the density of CO2 in its supercritical state. However, at lower temperature, another form of storage is possible, either in the state of CO2 hydrates or liquid CO2 (1, 2). In Alaska, a first demonstrator showed recently the possibility of exchange of CO2 and CH4 in natural gas hydrates. At higher pressures common in deep-sea sediments, liquid CO2 can be denser than the overlying seawater and therefore be trapped in the marine sediments (2). We explored in this work the storage capacity at the Biscay deep zone in the French Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). A local bathymetry of the zone (abyssal plain and continental margin) was used to define a potential interesting zone for the CO2 storage, considering different safety criteria. A sensitivity analysis on the geothermal gradient was carried out using two extreme scenarios (Low and High gradient) based on the available Ocean Drilling Program's data. In both cases, the Negative Buoyancy Zone (NBZ) and the CO2 Hydrate Formation Zone (HFZ) were calculated using the GERG-2008 Equation of State for liquid CO2 and the CSMGem code for CO2 hydrate, respectively. Following this sensitivity analysis, a CO2 injection depth is proposed and the French "deep offshore" storage capacity is quantitatively evaluated and compared to the "onshore" storage capacity in deep saline aquifers. References 1. Le Nindre Y., Allier D., Duchkov A., Altunina L. K., Shvartsev S., Zhelezniak M. and Klerkx J. (2011) Storing CO2 underneath the Siberian Permafrost: A win-win solution for long-term trapping of CO2 and heavy oil upgrading. Energy Procedia4, 5414-5421 2. House K. Z., Schrag D. P., Harvey C. F. and Lackner K. S. (2006) Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. PNAS

  16. Underground storage of hydrocarbons in Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.R.; Manocha, J.

    1995-09-01

    The underground storage of natural gas and liquified petroleum products in geological formations is a provincially significant industry in Ontario with economic, environmental, and safety benefits for the companies and residents of Ontario. There are 21 active natural gas storage pools in Ontario, with a total working storage capacity of approximately 203 bcf (5.76 billion cubic metres). Most of these pools utilize former natural gas-producing Guelph Formation pinnacle reefs. In addition there are seventy-one solution-mined salt caverns utilized for storage capacity of 24 million barrels (3.9 million cubic metres). These caverns are constructed within salt strata of the Salina A-2 Unit and the B Unit. The steadily increasing demand for natural gas in Ontario creates a continuing need for additional storage capacity. Most of the known gas-producing pinnacle reefs in Ontario have already been converted to storage. The potential value of storage rights is a major incentive for continued exploration for undiscovered reefs in this mature play. There are numerous depleted or nearly depleted natural gas reservoirs of other types with potential for use as storage pools. There is also potential for use of solution-mined caverns for natural gas storage in Ontario.

  17. Prognosis of residual coal gas capacity made by the `Express' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavel; Zapletal, Pavel; Pěgřímek, Ivo

    2011-04-01

    An easy, reliable, and inexpensive method, called `Express' method, was described to determine the residual gas capacity of deep mines using results from an air and gas balance. Air and gas balances are common elements of mine management and must be performed periodically. Using the process described here to obtain balance results, it is straightforward to obtain the residual gas capacity, which is an important parameter for decision-making in current mine operations. After a mine is closed, the residual gas capacity becomes a dominant factor used to select methods to protect against gas emissions from the closed underground area or perhaps to provide information for the use of gas reserves. The proposed `Express' method is a much simpler method to obtain the residual gas capacity than other procedures used for this purpose to date.

  18. Heat transfer model of above and underground insulated piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A simplified heat transfer model of above and underground insulated piping systems was developed to perform iterative calculations for fluid temperatures along the entire pipe length. It is applicable to gas, liquid, fluid flow with no phase change. Spreadsheet computer programs of the model have been developed and used extensively to perform the above calculations for thermal resistance, heat loss and core fluid temperature.

  19. Application of KISOS for the Monitoring Environmental Risks Assessment in Deep-water Gas Hydrate Test Production in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. R.; Chun, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline studies in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the deep-water (>2,000m) Ulleung Basin of the East Sea of Korea. The KISOS consists of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), altimeter, still camera, video camera, water sampler, measuring devices (dissolved methane, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll, and currents) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a seafloor sediment collecting device. The ultimate goals of the seafloor monitoring are to assess environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling discharge, and so on) which may occur during and after the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS was applied to solely conduct baseline studies during the last three years. We will conduct the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessments such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after production drilling test well and nearby areas. Topics that will cover include:1) configuration of KISOS and general layout/operational design of KIMOS, 2) numerical simulation of gas and materials transport using SIMAP/CHEMMAP + MUDMAP softwares, 3) sensitivity analysis such as gas leakage modeling, operational produced water discharge, and 4) modeling of drilling discharge with cuttings and mud. Key words: gas hydrate, environmental monitoring, KISOS, KIMOS, Ulleung Basin

  20. Development of GIS-Based Decision Support System for Optimizing Transportation Cost in Underground Limestone Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sungchan; Park, Jihwan; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Sangho; Choi, Youngmin

    2014-05-01

    In mining industry, large amount of cost has been invested in early stages of mine development such as prospecting, exploration, and discovery. Recent changes in mining, however, also raised the cost in operation, production, and environmental protection because ore depletion at shallow depth caused large-scale, deep mining. Therefore, many mining facilities are installed or relocated underground to reduce transportation cost as well as environmental pollution. This study presents GIS-based decision support system that optimizes transportation cost from various mining faces to mine facility in underground mines. The development of this system consists of five steps. As a first step, mining maps were collected which contains underground geo-spatial informations. In mine maps, then, mine network and contour data were converted to GIS format in second step for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. In doing so, original tunnel outline data were digitized with ground level, and converted to simplified network format, and surface morphology, contours were converted to digital elevation model (DEM). The next step is to define calculation algorithm of transportation cost. Among the many component of transportation cost, this study focused on the fuel cost because it can be easily estimated if mining maps are available by itself. The cost were calculated by multiplication of the number of blasting, haulage per blasting, distance between mining faces to facility, fuel cost per liter, and two for downhill and uphill, divided by fuel efficiency of mining trucks. Finally, decision support system, SNUTunnel was implemented. For the application of SNUTunnel in actual underground mine, Nammyeong Development Corporation, Korea, was selected as study site. This mine produces limestone with high content of calcite for paper, steel manufacture, or desulfurization, and its development is continuously ongoing to reach down to deeper calcite ore body, so the mine network is expanding

  1. Methanogen and bacterial diversity and distribution in deep gas hydrate sediments from the Cascadia Margin as revealed by 16S rRNA molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Marchesi; Weightman; Cragg; Parkes; Fry

    2001-01-01

    The microbial community of a deep (to 234 m below the sea floor) sediment gas hydrate deposit (Cascadia Margin Ocean Drilling Program Site 889/890, Leg 146) was analysed for the first time by molecular genetic techniques. Both bacterial and methanogen diversity were determined by phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. High molecular mass DNA, indicative of active bacteria, was present in all of the samples. Ribosomal RNA genes were amplified from extracted DNA extracted from sediment using bacteria, and methanogen specific PCR primers, the latter designed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of approximately 400 bacterial clones demonstrated that 96% were members of the Proteobacteria. These clones were affiliated with the alpha, beta and gamma subdivisions, with Caulobacter (Zymomonas group), Ralstonia and Pseudomonas phylotypes predominating. The methanogen clones were of low diversity and clustered in three sub-groups. Two of these sub-groups (contained 96% of the 400 clones) were closely related to Methanosarcina mazeii, while the third sub-group clustered in the Methanobacteriales. This analysis of a deep sediment gas hydrate environment shows a bacteria and methanogen community of limited diversity and confirms that the gas hydrate zone is biogeochemically active. These results are consistent with the presence of bacterial populations capable of methanogenesis throughout the core, and suggest that the methane hydrate at this site is at least partially biogenic in origin.

  2. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  3. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  4. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-05-22

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  5. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  6. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  7. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  8. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of §...

  9. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  10. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  11. Disturbance of deep-water reef communities by exploratory oil and gas operations in the Santa Maria basin and Santa Barbara channel. Final report, September 1992-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, D.; Benech, S.V.; Busnardo, M.; Davis, N.; Evans, J.

    1995-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the impacts to deep-water, hard-bottom benthic communities associated with disturbances caused by oil and gas exploratory operations on the Outer Continental Shelf of California. A literature survey compiled a history of exploratory oil and gas development and located wellsites where disturbances due to anchoring or discharges probably impacted hard-bottom communities. A photographic survey of the selected sites collected data for subsequent analyses on the type, distribution, and longevity of anchoring disturbances. Analyses of the field data revealed that less than one percent of hard-bottom habitat within the area of the mooring system was disturbed. The results of the study indicated that hard-bottom epifaunal communities do recover from these disturbances; however, recovery is highly dependent on the type of disturbance.

  12. A NOx and SO2 gas analyzer using deep-UV and violet light-emitting diodes for continuous emissions monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Ryoichi; Taniguchi, Yu; Akao, Kozo; Koizumi, Kazuhiro; Hirayama, Noritomo; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-01

    A nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas analyzer using deep ultraviolet (DUV) and violet light- emitting diodes (LEDs) is developed. The LEDs with wavelengths of 280 nm and 400 nm were alternately turned on to detect SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) absorption. Nitric oxide (NO) was converted to NO2 with an ozonizer. In order to reduce water interference caused by water adsorption onto an inner surface of a gas ow cell, collimating optics reducing re ected lights were designed. As a result, less than 1% by full scale (%F.S.) of uctuation, 2%F.S. of drift and 0.5%F.S. of water interference were achieved in 0-50 ppm concentration range. Conversion efficiency from NO to NO2 was over 95%.

  13. The Jiangmen underground neutrino observatory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugière, Timothée

    2017-02-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy as a primary physics goal, by detecting reactor antineutrinos from two power plants at 53-km distance. The detector is placed at 1800-m.w.e. deep underground and consists of a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator contained in a 34.5 m-diameter acrylic ball, instrumented by more than 17,000 20-in. PMTs ensuring a 77% photocatode coverage. To reach an unprecedented 3% energy resolution (at 1 MeV), the PMTs need a quantum efficiency of more than 30% and the attenuation length of the liquid has to be better than 20 m (at 430 nm). This precision on the energy is a key point to determine at the 3-4 σ significance level the neutrinos mass hierarchy with six years of running. The measurement of the antineutrino spectrum will also lead to the precise determination of three out of the six oscillation parameters to an accuracy of better than 1%. The experiment will also be able to observe neutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. The international collaboration of JUNO was established in 2014, the civil construction started in 2015 and the R&D of the detectors is ongoing. JUNO is planning to start data taking in 2020.

  14. Performance of a new type of down-hole motor/pump powered by down-hole forces for secondary recovery of natural gas from watered-out wells and dissolved gas in deep brines

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.B.; McDaniel, M.; Hatchitt, W.A.; Elliott, R.D.; Yates, T.M.; Murray, A.M.; Yates, D.; Morris, L.C.

    1986-09-10

    Economical secondary recovery of residual gas from gas caps in watered-out wells is anticipated quickly, thereby adding some 100 Tcf to US natural gas reserves. Water which was causing watering out is removed by pumping it out of the well with reinjection elsewhere, usually into a nearby reservoir. Most or all power for commercial turbine pumps is to be provided by the high-pressure gas being released from the reservoir; the gas will do work in newly designed motors as it expands from reservoir pressure into the lower pressure of the wells - in this sense the system is self powered. Similar units can be operated to remove dissolved gas from deep gassy brines, e.g., those along the Gulf Coast. Although drilling new wells for dissolved-gas recovery is not economic now, the future recovery of this gas offers over 5000 Tcf of gas to become available to the US in the future - this is 250 years supply at current usage rates. The self-powered motor to be used to power the pump is a two-fluid motor (natural gas/brine mixtures) of a new type. The concept is patented (US Pats. 4,262,747; 4,378,047; and 4,531,593), and proprietary concepts are also involved. Two-fluid motor/pump units have now been evaluated above ground in a 500 gal circulation system. These motors fit in 5-in turbine-pump bowls and operate 5-in. bowl commercial turbine-pumps. Test operations with compressed air and water deliver up to 16 HP at 2000 to 3500 rpm with calculated efficiencies apparently up to 90% of the thermodynamically ideal values. The present motor/pump units are of commercial size and design. In principle, these existing units would be suitable for commercial operations down hole. For example, the Turtle Bayou Field on the Mississippi Delta trapped 500 billion cubic feet of gas behind water blocks - with the motor/pumps here tested, much of the trapped gas should be recoverable. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  15. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  16. SNOLAB: An International Facility for Underground Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hime, Andrew

    2006-07-01

    SNOLAB, an international facility for underground science, is presently under construction at a depth of 6000 meters of water equivalent (m.w.e.) at Inco's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Building on the success of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the creation of SNOLAB will provide the deep-site infrastructure required of next generation particle-astrophysics experiments in pursuit of low-energy solar neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, and cosmological dark matter. Following an enthusiastic response from the scientific community to a call for Letters of Interest (LOI's) in staging experiments at SNOLAB, an initial set of recommendations have been developed to guide the scientific program at this new facility.

  17. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO Luminosity Functions and the Evolution of the Cosmic Density of Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R. J.; Popping, Gergö; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R.; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto J.; Bauer, Franz E.; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Le Fevre, Olivier; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to z ˜ 4.5. This study is based on galaxies that have been selected solely through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted “knee” of the CO luminosity function (around 5 × 109 K km s-1 pc2). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to z ˜ 0, with more CO-luminous galaxies present at z ˜ 2. The observed galaxies at z ˜ 2 also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a drop by a factor of 3-10 from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 0 (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at z > 3. This trend is similar to the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. The latter therefore appears to be at least partly driven by the increased availability of molecular gas reservoirs at the peak of cosmic star formation (z ˜ 2).

  18. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  19. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  20. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  1. Methane in Columbia River Basalt Aquifers: Isotopic and geohydrologic evidence for a deep coal-bed gas source in the Columbia Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.G. ); Graham, D.L. ); Reidel, S.P. )

    1993-07-01

    Methane occurs as a dissolved constituent in groundwater from confined aquifers in the Columbia River Basalt Group, Columbia basin, Washington. Isotopic compositions of methane in groundwater indicate that the methane is a mixture of biogenic ([sigma][sup 13]C-CH[sub 4] to -88% and [sigma][sup 2]H-CH[sub 4] to -265%) and thermogenic ([sigma][sup 13]C-CH[sub 4] to -35%, and [sigma][sup 2]H-CH[sub 4] to -134%) components. Chemical and isotopic data are consistent with entrainment of deep, coal-bed generated methane in upwelling groundwater from below the Columbia River Basalt Group (>4 km) that mixes with near-surface groundwater. The areal distribution pattern of methane suggests that fault intersections are necessary for vertical migration of deep methane through the basalt. This study suggests that deep subbasalt coal-bed methane in the Columbia basin has infiltrated the shallow basalt groundwater system, and isotopic analysis of methane in groundwater from structurally favorable locations can be used to identify potential exploration targets. The wide areal distribution of methane in this large, relatively unexplored frontier province suggests economic gas reserves. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  3. Feedbacks among O2 and CO2 in deep soil gas, oxidation of ferrous minerals, and fractures: A hypothesis for steady-state regolith thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojin; Stinchcomb, Gary; Brantley, Susan L.

    2017-02-01

    O2 and CO2, the two essential reactants in weathering along with water and minerals, are important in deep regolith development because they diffuse to weathering fronts at depth. We monitored the dynamics of these gas concentrations in the hand-augerable zone on three ridgetops-one on granite and two on diabase-in Virginia (VA) and Pennsylvania (PA), U.S.A. and related the gas chemistry to regolith development. The VA granite and the PA diabase protoliths were more deeply weathered than the VA diabase. We attribute this to high protolith fracture density. The pO2 and pCO2 measurements of these more fractured sites displayed the characteristics of aerobic respiration year round. In contrast, the relation of pO2 versus pCO2 on the more massive VA diabase is consistent with seasonal changes in the dominant electron acceptor from O2 to Fe(III), likely regulated by the expansion/contraction of nontronite in the soil BC horizon. These observations suggest that the fracture density is a first order control on deep regolith gas chemistry. However, fractures can be present in protolith but also can be caused by oxidation of ferrous minerals. We propose that subsurface pO2 and weathering-induced fracturing can create positive feedbacks in some lithologies that cause regolith to thicken while nonetheless maintaining aerobic respiration at depth. In contrast, in the absence of weathering-induced fracturing and depletion of pO2, a negative feedback that may be modulated by soil micro-biota ultimately results in thin regolith. These feedbacks may have been important in weathering systems over much of earth's history.

  4. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  5. Deep ALMA imaging of the merger NGC 1614. Is CO tracing a massive inflow of non-starforming gas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Beswick, R. J.; Xu, C. K.; Evans, A.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Observations of the molecular gas over scales of ~0.5 to several kpc provide crucial information on how molecular gas moves through galaxies, especially in mergers and interacting systems, where it ultimately reaches the galaxy center, accumulates, and feeds nuclear activity. Studying the processes involved in the gas transport is one of the important steps forward to understand galaxy evolution. Methods: 12CO, 13CO, and C18O 1-0 high-sensitivity ALMA observations (~4'' × 2'') were used to assess the properties of the large-scale molecular gas reservoir and its connection to the circumnuclear molecular ring in the merger NGC 1614. Specifically, the role of excitation and abundances were studied in this context. We also observed the molecular gas high-density tracers CN and CS. Results: The spatial distributions of the detected 12CO 1-0 and 13CO 1-0 emission show significant differences. 12CO traces the large-scale molecular gas reservoir, which is associated with a dust lane that harbors infalling gas, and extends into the southern tidal tails. 13CO emission is for the first time detected in the large-scale dust lane. In contrast to 12CO, its line emission peaks between the dust lane and the circumnuclear molecular ring. A 12CO-to-13CO 1-0 intensity ratio map shows high values in the ring region (~30) that are typical for the centers of luminous galaxy mergers and even more extreme values in the dust lane (>45). Surprisingly, we do not detect C18O emission in NGC 1614, but we do observe gas emitting the high-density tracers CN and CS. Conclusions: We find that the 12CO-to-13CO 1-0 line ratio in NGC 1614 changes from >45 in the 2 kpc dust lane to ~30 in the starburst nucleus. This drop in ratio with decreasing radius is consistent with the molecular gas in the dust lane being kept in a diffuse, unbound state while it is being funneled toward the nucleus. This also explains why there are no (or very faint) signs of star formation in the dust lane, despite its

  6. The results of pressure coring in Nankai gas-production test site, and plan for pressure core analysis of natural gas-hydrate bearing deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Konno, Y.; Kida, M.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Jin, Y.; Ito, T.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the Methane hydrate research and development (R&D) program in Japan, the first gas-production test from marine methane hydrate deposits is planned to be conducted during first quarter of 2013. The Daini Atsumi Knoll, that is located in the Nankai Trough region along the southeastern margin of Japan has been selected as the production test site by the Methane Hydrate Research Consortium in Japan (MH21). We had already carried out pressure core sampling using Pressure Temperature Core Sampler (PTCS) at 2004 near the test site, however we could not maintain their pressure after core recovery although the samples were stored as frozen material using liquid nitrogen at that time. To grasp better condition of gas hydrate bearing sediments around test-well, we decided to conduct pressure coring and analyses on them again to before starting gas production test. In June-July 2012, the pressure coring operation with Hybrid Pressure Core Sampler (Hybrid PCS) and Pressure Core Analysis/Transfer System (PCATS) was conducted. As the result of coring, more than 20m long pressure cores were taken by Hybrid PCS, successfully (pressure-maintained). They were analyzed and cut, and a part of them were transferred into Pressure Storage Cambers under gas hydrate stability P/T condition using PCATS. Also, the PCATS could take Gamma-ray density, P-wave velocity and high-resolution X-ray CT images of each core, thus, we could choose appropriate samples from each core for each specific experiment. The cores were stored under gas hydrate stability condition within Pressure Storage Cambers, and stored in refrigerator cabinet in Methane Hydrate Research Center (MHRC) of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Many analyses; such as grain size distribution, gas volume measurement, mineral composition, micro-structure observation, permeability and strength/stiffness of sediments, are proposed by researcher of MHRC/AIST to understand relationships

  7. Multicomponent seismic methods for characterizing gas hydrate occurrences and systems in deep-water Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Hardage, Bob A.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ characterization and quantification of natural gas hydrate occurrences remain critical research directions, whether for energy resource, drilling hazard, or climate-related studies. Marine multicomponent seismic data provide the full seismic wavefield including partial redundancy, and provide a promising set of approaches for gas hydrate characterization. Numerous authors have demonstrated the possibilities of multicomponent data at study sites around the world. We expand on this work by investigating the utility of very densely spaced (10’s of meters) multicomponent receivers (ocean-bottom cables, OBC, or ocean-bottom seismometers, OBS) for gas hydrate studies in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. Advanced processing techniques provide high-resolution compressional-wave (PP) and converted shearwave (PS) reflection images of shallow stratigraphy, as well as P-wave and S-wave velocity estimates at each receiver position. Reflection impedance estimates can help constrain velocity and density, and thus gas hydrate saturation. Further constraint on velocity can be determined through identification of the critical angle and associated phase reversal in both PP and PS wideangle data. We demonstrate these concepts with examples from OBC data from the northeast Green Canyon area and numerically simulated OBS data that are based on properties of known gas hydrate occurrences in the southeast (deeper water) Green Canyon area. These multicomponent data capabilities can provide a wealth of characterization and quantification information that is difficult to obtain with other geophysical methods.

  8. Fundamental Study on the Dynamics of Heterogeneity-Enhanced CO2 Gas Evolution in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Deep Geologic Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Sakaki, T.; Pawar, R.; Jensen, K.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    A concern for geologic carbon sequestration is the potential for CO2 stored in deep geologic formations to leak upward into shallow freshwater aquifers where it can have potentially detrimental impacts to the environment and human health. Understanding the mechanisms of CO2 exsolution, migration and accumulation (collectively referred to as 'gas evolution') in the shallow subsurface is critical to predict and mitigate the environmental impacts. During leakage, CO2 can move either as free-phase or as a dissolved component of formation brine. CO2 dissolved in brine may travel upward into shallow freshwater systems, and the gas may be released from solution. In the shallow aquifer, the exsolved gas may accumulate near interfaces between soil types, and/or create flow paths that allow the gas to escape through the vadose zone to the atmosphere. The process of gas evolution in the shallow subsurface is controlled by various factors, including temperature, dissolved CO2 concentration, water pressure, background water flow rate, and geologic heterogeneity. However, the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution have not yet been precisely defined and can therefore not yet be incorporated into models used for environmental risk assessment. The primary goal of this study is to conduct controlled laboratory experiments to help fill this knowledge gap. With this as a goal, a series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to observe CO2 gas evolution in porous media at multiple scales. Deionized water was saturated with dissolved CO2 gas under a specified pressure (the saturation pressure) before being injected at a constant volumetric flow rate into the bottom of a 1.7 meter-tall by 5.7 centimeter-diameter column or a 2.4 meter-tall by 40 centimeter-wide column that were both filled with sand in various heterogeneous packing configurations. Both test systems were initially saturated with fresh water and instrumented with soil

  9. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  10. Deep-coal potential in the Appalachian Coal Basin, USA: The Kentucky model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, D.C.; Chesnut, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is located in the Appalachian Basin of the United States and occupies an area of approximately 15,000 square kilometers. The coal beds range from a few centimeters to several meters in thickness and consist of high-grade bituminous coal. Currently the amount of coal mined by surface methods exceeds underground extraction; however, there is a steady and gradual shift toward underground mining. In the future, as near-surface resources are depleted, this trend toward increased underground mining will continue. Knowledge about deeper coals is essential for future economic development of resources. Preliminary investigations indicate that coal-bearing strata with deep-mining potential exist in several parts of eastern Kentucky, especially along the Eastern Kentucky Syncline. Eastern Kentucky coals are Westphalian A through D; however, current production is from major beds of Westphalian A and B. Because coals that occur above drainage are more easily accessible and are generally of better quality, most of the current mining takes place in formations that are at or near the surface. In the future, however, due to environmental regulations and increased demands, it will be necessary to attempt to utilize deeper coals about which little is known. Future development of deep resources will require data from boreholes and high-resolution geophysical-logging techniques. There is also potential for coal-bed methane from the deeper coals which could be an important resource in the Appalachian Coal Basin where a natural gas distribution system already exists.

  11. An evaluation of the deep reservoir conditions of the Bacon-Manito geothermal field, Philippines using well gas chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, Franco; Maniquis-Buenviaje, Marinela; Solis, Ramonito P.

    1993-01-28

    Gas chemistry from 28 wells complement water chemistry and physical data in developing a reservoir model for the Bacon-Manito geothermal project (BMGP), Philippines. Reservoir temperature, THSH, and steam fraction, y, are calculated or extrapolated from the grid defined by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and H2-H2S (HSH) gas equilibria reactions. A correction is made for H2 that is lost due to preferential partitioning into the vapor phase and the reequilibration of H2S after steam loss.

  12. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS.

  13. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  14. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  15. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  16. H{sub 2}-rich and Hydrocarbon Gas Recovered in a Deep Precambrian Well in Northeastern Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K. David Doveton, John H.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood Waggoner, William M. Magnuson, L. Michael

    2007-09-15

    In late 2005 and early 2006, the WTW Operating, LLC (W.T.W. Oil Co., Inc.) no. 1 Wilson well (T.D. = 5772 ft; 1759.3 m) was drilled for 1826 ft (556.6 m) into Precambrian basement underlying the Forest City Basin in northeastern Kansas. Approximately 4500 of the 380,000 wells drilled in Kansas penetrate Precambrian basement. Except for two previous wells drilled into the arkoses and basalts of the 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift and another well drilled in 1929 in basement on the Nemaha Uplift east of the Midcontinent Rift, this well represents the deepest penetration into basement rocks in the state to date. Granite is the typical lithology observed in wells that penetrate the Precambrian in the northern Midcontinent. Although no cores were taken to definitively identify lithologies, well cuttings and petrophysical logs indicate that this well encountered basement metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, gneiss, and amphibolitic gneiss, all cut by aplite dikes.The well was cased and perforated in the Precambrian, and then acidized. After several days of swabbing operations, the well produced shows of low-Btu gas, dominated by the non-flammable component gases of nitrogen (20%), carbon dioxide (43%), and helium (1%). Combustible components include methane (26%), hydrogen (10%), and higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons (1%). Although Coveney and others [Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 71, no, 1, p. 39-48, 1987] identified H{sub 2}-rich gas in two wells located close to the Midcontinent Rift in eastern Kansas, this study indicates that high levels of H{sub 2} may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Unlike previous results, the gases in this study have a significant component of hydrocarbon gas, as well as H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Although redox reactions between iron-bearing minerals and groundwater are a possible source of H{sub 2} in the Precambrian basement rocks, the hydrocarbon gas does not exhibit the characteristics typically

  17. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  18. Twenty Years of Underground Research at Canada's URL

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, N. A.

    2003-02-27

    Construction of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) began in 1982. The URL was designed to address the needs of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. Over the years, a comprehensive program of geologic characterization and underground hydrogeologic, geotechnical and geomechanical projects have been performed, many of which are ongoing. The scientific work at the URL has evolved through a number of different phases to meet the changing needs of Canada's waste management program. The various phases of the URL have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. Collaboration with international organizations is encouraged at the URL, with the facility being a centre of excellence in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of underground facilities. One of AECL's major achievements of the past 20 year program has been the preparation and public defense of a ten-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a conceptual deep geologic repository. Completion of this dissertation on the characterization, construction and performance modeling of a conceptual repository in the granite rock of the Canadian Shield was largely based on work conducted at the URL. Work conducted over the seven years since public defense of the EIS has been directed towards developing those engineering and performance assessment tools that would be required for implementation of a deep geologic repository. The URL continues to be a very active facility with ongoing experiments and demonstrations performed for a variety of Canadian and international radioactive waste management organizations.

  19. Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Eberhard J.; Muyakshin, Sergey I.; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Schlüter, Michael; Boetius, Antje; Jerosch, Kerstin; Damm, Ellen; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Klages, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The assessment of climate change factors includes a constraint of methane sources and sinks. Although marine geological sources are recognized as significant, unfortunately, most submarine sources remain poorly quantified. Beside cold vents and coastal anoxic sediments, the large number of submarine mud volcanoes (SMV) may contribute significantly to the oceanic methane pool. Recent research suggests that methane primarily released diffusively from deep-sea SMVs is immediately oxidized and, thus, has little climatic impact. New hydro-acoustic, visual, and geochemical observations performed at the deep-sea mud volcano Håkon Mosby reveal the discharge of gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles and gas hydrate flakes forming huge methane plumes extending from the seabed in 1250 m depth up to 750 m high into the water column. This depth coincides with the upper limit of the temperature-pressure field of gas hydrate stability. Hydrographic evidence suggests bubble-induced upwelling within the plume and extending above the hydrate stability zone. Thus, we propose that a significant portion of the methane from discharged methane bubbles can reach the upper water column, which may be explained due to the formation of hydrate skins. As the water mass of the plume rises to shallow water depths, methane dissolved from hydrated bubbles may be transported towards the surface and released to the atmosphere. Repeated acoustic surveys performed in 2002 and 2003 suggest continuous methane emission to the ocean. From seafloor visual observations we estimated a gas flux of 0.2 (0.08-0.36) mol s -1 which translates to several hundred tons yr -1 under the assumption of a steady discharge. Besides, methane was observed to be released by diffusion from sediments as well as by focused outflow of methane-rich water. In contrast to the bubble discharge, emission rates of these two pathways are estimated to be in the range of several tons yr -1 and, thus, to be of minor importance. Very low

  20. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  1. Underground pipeline corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Gundry, R.D.

    1988-04-01

    In the past few years, the pipeline corrosion control industry has been shaken by several catastrophic pipeline failures attributed to corrosion. Reports of corrosion-related failures seem to be on the rise, and this has caused the industry to reassess the criteria for cathodic protection and the correct application of the criteria. The US Congress and many state legislatures are also asking questions about pipeline safety. Several pieces of legislation are proposed to improve pipeline safety. NACE Task Group T-10-1 is in the process of revising Standard RP0169. Field data have been solicited from industry and are being analyzed. The committee has reviewed an extensive compilation of articles written over the last 50 years to evaluate the existing document. The committee is also awaiting the issuance of an Interim Report from the American Gas Association on the effectiveness of the criteria. The report is to present data obtained from several field test sites from around the country.

  2. The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology - Part 1: Methane synchronization (68-31 ka BP) and the gas age-ice age difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, C.; Cuffey, K. M.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Baggenstos, D.; Fudge, T. J.; Steig, E. J.; Markle, B. R.; Winstrup, M.; Rhodes, R. H.; Brook, E. J.; Sowers, T. A.; Clow, G. D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Sigl, M.; McConnell, J. R.; Taylor, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS Divide, WD) ice core is a newly drilled, high-accumulation deep ice core that provides Antarctic climate records of the past ∼68 ka at unprecedented temporal resolution. The upper 2850 m (back to 31.2 ka BP) have been dated using annual-layer counting. Here we present a chronology for the deep part of the core (67.8-31.2 ka BP), which is based on stratigraphic matching to annual-layer-counted Greenland ice cores using globally well-mixed atmospheric methane. We calculate the WD gas age-ice age difference (Δage) using a combination of firn densification modeling, ice-flow modeling, and a data set of δ15N-N2, a proxy for past firn column thickness. The largest Δage at WD occurs during the Last Glacial Maximum, and is 525 ± 120 years. Internally consistent solutions can be found only when assuming little to no influence of impurity content on densification rates, contrary to a recently proposed hypothesis. We synchronize the WD chronology to a linearly scaled version of the layer-counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology (GICC05), which brings the age of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events into agreement with the U/Th absolutely dated Hulu Cave speleothem record. The small Δage at WD provides valuable opportunities to investigate the timing of atmospheric greenhouse gas variations relative to Antarctic climate, as well as the interhemispheric phasing of the "bipolar seesaw".

  3. Gas hydrates (clathrates) causing pore-water freshening and oxygen isotope fractionation in deep-water sedimentary sections of terrigenous continental margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesse, R.; Harrison, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of gas hydrates in deep-water sections of the continental margins predicted from anomalous acoustic reflectors on seismic profiles has been confirmed by recent deep-sea drilling results. On the Pacific continental slope off Guatemala gas hydrates were brought up for the first time from two holes (497, 498A) drilled during Leg 67 of the DSDP in water depths of 2360 and 5500 m, respectively. The hydrates occur in organic matter-rich Pleistocene to Miocene terrigenous sediments. In the hydrate-bearing zone a marked decrease in interstitial water chlorinities was observed starting at about 10-20 m subbottom depth. Pore waters at the bottom of the holes (near 400 m subbottom) have as little as half the chlorinity of seawater (i.e. 9???). Similar, but less pronounced, trends were observed during previous legs of the DSDP in other hydrate-prone segments of the continental margins where recharge of fresh water from the continent can be excluded (e.g. Leg 11). The crystallization of hydrates, like ice, excludes salt ions from the crystal structure. During burial the dissolved salts are separated from the solids. Subsidence results in a downward motion of the solids (including hydrates) relative to the pore fluids. Thawing of hydrates during recovery releases fresh water which is remixed with the pore fluid not involved in hydrate formation. The volume of the latter decreases downhole thus causing downward decreasing salinity (chlorinity). Hydrate formation is responsible for oxygen isotope fractionation with 18O-enrichment in the hydrate explaining increasingly more positive ??18O values in the pore fluids recovered (after hydrate dissociation) with depth. ?? 1981.

  4. Urea deep placement reduces yield-scaled greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) and NO emissions from a ground cover rice production system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Rui; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-09-12

    Ground cover rice production system (GCRPS), i.e., paddy soils being covered by thin plastic films with soil moisture being maintained nearly saturated status, is a promising technology as increased yields are achieved with less irrigation water. However, increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may cause pollution swapping in greenhouse gas (GHG) from CH4 to N2O emissions. A 2-year experiment was performed, taking traditional rice cultivation as a reference, to assess the impacts of N-fertilizer placement methods on CH4, N2O and NO emissions and rice yields under GCRPS. Averaging across all rice seasons and N-fertilizer treatments, the GHG emissions for GCRPS were 1973 kg CO2-eq ha(-1) (or 256 kg CO2-eq Mg(-1)), which is significantly lower than that of traditional cultivation (4186 kg CO2-eq ha(-1)or 646 kg CO2-eq Mg(-1)). Furthermore, if urea was placed at a 10-15 cm soil depth instead of broadcasting, the yield-scaled GHG emissions from GCRPS were further reduced from 377 to 222 kg CO2-eq Mg(-1), as N2O emissions greatly decreased while yields increased. Urea deep placement also reduced yield-scaled NO emissions by 54%. Therefore, GCRPS with urea deep placement is a climate- and environment-smart management, which allows for maximal rice yields at minimal GHG and NO emissions.

  5. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  6. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters.

  7. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  8. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  9. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  10. Soviet underground coal gasification on the rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-13

    According to the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the U.S.S.R. has abandoned large-scale development plans for coal-gasification projects, due to the low heating value of the gas produced at test burns at Angren, and to the cost, estimated at 132% of the standard Lurgi value, in contrast to the cost of approx. 65% of the standard Lurgi value in U.S. experimental burns. The U.S.S.R. coal-gasification effort has been in development since 1950, with a peak production of approx. 2 billion cu m/yr in 1966. The poor test burn results might have been caused by: drilling the boreholes too close to each other, which would increase drilling costs; the loss of a large amount of heat through a porous overburden; the lack of good underground diagnostics before and during a burn; and a lack of a good laboratory support program. The gas heating value was too low to warrant transportation far from the burn site, but most suitable burn sites are in remote areas. In the U.S.S.R., natural gas and open-pit lignite mining appear to be cheaper sources of energy.

  11. A New Application of Photogrammetry in the Underground Pipe Network Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, N.; Tian, H.; Yang, Y.; Jin, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device that can be used for underground pipeline survey task. Through the cameras installed on the device, we can obtain stereo synchronous shooting images, and then use the method of close range photogrammetry to investigate and measure underground objects. During working process, the staff put the camera into the well and to control camera shooting from the ground. Greatly improve work efficiency, at the same time to avoid the underground toxis gas damage to people. The main content of this paper includes three parts: hardware design, software development and test production.

  12. Light weight underground pipe or cable installing device

    SciTech Connect

    Schosek, W. O.

    1985-01-08

    This invention pertains to a light weight underground pipe or cable installing device adapted for use in a narrow and deep operating trench. More particularly this underground pipe installing device employs a pair of laterally movable gates positioned adjacent the bottom of the operating trench where the earth is more solid to securely clamp the device in the operating trench to enable it to withstand the forces exerted as the actuating rod is forced through the earth from the so-called operating trench to the target trench. To accommodate the laterally movable gates positioned adjacent the bottom of the narrow pipe installing device, a pair of top operated double-acting rod clamping jaws, operated by a hydraulic cylinder positioned above the actuating rod are employed.

  13. Monitoring underground water quality based on high-density resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanyan

    2015-12-01

    Underground water is different from surface water. Once contaminated, underground water is difficult to recover, so it is necessary to give priority to the prevention of the quality of underground water. High-density resistivity method is very important in the environmental engineering geophysical prospecting and it is widely used in mineral resources as well as monitoring the underground-water quality. In the experiment, multi-tools joint inversion is applied to build the model in order to increase the accuracy. In contrast with the pollution-free water model which is owned by the RES2DMOD, the inversion result of underground water quality with the high density resistivity method is useful to monitor the underground water quality, showing that different degree of water pollution depends on the position of abnormal and there is a more significant abnormal value in the vertical direction of the deep abnormal than that of the shallow abnormal, and high and low resistance pollution depends on the different value and forms of abnormal resistance. In conclusion, monitoring the underground water quality by the high density resistivity method is efficient. In the future research, it is necessary to accomplish more precise inversion models combining with field measurements to find out the optimal solution to monitor underwater quality.

  14. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China JinPing underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Hao, Xi-Qing; Yue, Qian; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Chen, Yun-Hua; Li, Jin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ren, Jin-Bao; Shen, Man-Bin; Wang, Ji-Min; Wu, Shi-Yong; Xue, Tao; Yi, Nan; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory running in the world at present. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL, which has an effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4)×10-10/(cm2·s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL.

  15. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic reversals in deep basin gas: Evidence for limits to the stability of hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.; Laughrey, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of unconventional natural gas reservoirs of Silurian and Ordovician age in the northern Appalachian basin we observed complete reversal of the normal trend of carbon isotopic composition, such that ??13C methane (C1) >??13C ethane (C2) >??13C propane (C3). In addition, we have observed isotopic reversals in the ??2H in the deepest samples. Isotopic reversals cannot be explained by current models of hydrocarbon gas generation. Previous observations of partial isotopic reversals have been explained by mixing between gases from different sources and thermal maturities. We have constructed a model which, in addition to mixing, requires Rayleigh fractionation of C2 and C3 to cause enrichment in 13C and create reversals. In the deepest samples, the normal trend of increasing enrichment of 13C and 2H in methane with increasing depth reverses and 2H becomes depleted as 13C becomes enriched. We propose that the reactions that drive Rayleigh fractionation of C2 and C3 involve redox reactions with transition metals and water at late stages of catagenesis at temperatures on the order of 250-300??C. Published ab initio calculated fractionation factors for C-C bond breaking in ethane at these temperatures are consistent with our observations. The reversed trend in ??2H in methane appears to be caused by isotopic exchange with formation water at the same temperatures. Our interpretation that Rayleigh fractionation during redox reactions is causing isotopic reversals has important implications for natural gas resources in deeply buried sedimentary basins. ?? 2010.

  16. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968; (ii) the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979; or (iii... associated gathering lines directly related to oil or gas production and gathering operations; or (9) Storage... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage...

  17. Communicating Low-Probability High-Consequence Risk, Uncertainty and Expert Confidence: Induced Seismicity of Deep Geothermal Energy and Shale Gas.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Theresa A K; Stauffacher, Michael; Trutnevyte, Evelina

    2017-08-10

    Subsurface energy activities entail the risk of induced seismicity including low-probability high-consequence (LPHC) events. For designing respective risk communication, the scientific literature lacks empirical evidence of how the public reacts to different written risk communication formats about such LPHC events and to related uncertainty or expert confidence. This study presents findings from an online experiment (N = 590) that empirically tested the public's responses to risk communication about induced seismicity and to different technology frames, namely deep geothermal energy (DGE) and shale gas (between-subject design). Three incrementally different formats of written risk communication were tested: (i) qualitative, (ii) qualitative and quantitative, and (iii) qualitative and quantitative with risk comparison. Respondents found the latter two the easiest to understand, the most exact, and liked them the most. Adding uncertainty and expert confidence statements made the risk communication less clear, less easy to understand and increased concern. Above all, the technology for which risks are communicated and its acceptance mattered strongly: respondents in the shale gas condition found the identical risk communication less trustworthy and more concerning than in the DGE conditions. They also liked the risk communication overall less. For practitioners in DGE or shale gas projects, the study shows that the public would appreciate efforts in describing LPHC risks with numbers and optionally risk comparisons. However, there seems to be a trade-off between aiming for transparency by disclosing uncertainty and limited expert confidence, and thereby decreasing clarity and increasing concern in the view of the public. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Deep He II and C IV Spectroscopy of a Giant Lyα Nebula: Dense Compact Gas Clumps in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z ~ 2 Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano

    2015-08-01

    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (˜500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 1045 erg s-1) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ˜ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 1012 M⊙, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass Mc ≲ 6.4 × 1010 M⊙ of cool gas on ˜200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (nH ≳ 3 cm-3) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s-1), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ˜10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic medium. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a

  19. DEEP HE ii AND C iv SPECTROSCOPY OF A GIANT LYα NEBULA: DENSE COMPACT GAS CLUMPS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z ∼ 2 QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano

    2015-08-20

    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (∼500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1}) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ∼ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2}. We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass M{sub c} ≲ 6.4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙} of cool gas on ∼200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (n{sub H} ≳ 3 cm{sup −3}) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s{sup −1}), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ∼10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic

  20. Short-chain alkanes fuel mussel and sponge Cycloclasticus symbionts from deep-sea gas and oil seeps.

    PubMed

    Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Borowski, Christian; Sayavedra, Lizbeth; Pape, Thomas; Sahling, Heiko; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Kleiner, Manuel; Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L; Dubilier, Nicole

    2017-06-19

    Cycloclasticus bacteria are ubiquitous in oil-rich regions of the ocean and are known for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we describe Cycloclasticus that have established a symbiosis with Bathymodiolus heckerae mussels and poecilosclerid sponges from asphalt-rich, deep-sea oil seeps at Campeche Knolls in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that, in contrast to all previously known Cycloclasticus, the symbiotic Cycloclasticus appears to lack the genes needed for PAH degradation. Instead, these symbionts use propane and other short-chain alkanes such as ethane and butane as carbon and energy sources, thus expanding the limited range of substrates known to power chemosynthetic symbioses. Analyses of short-chain alkanes in the environment of the Campeche Knolls symbioses revealed that these are present at high concentrations (in the μM to mM range). Comparative genomic analyses revealed high similarities between the genes used by the symbiotic Cycloclasticus to degrade short-chain alkanes and those of free-living Cycloclasticus that bloomed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Our results indicate that the metabolic versatility of bacteria within the Cycloclasticus clade is higher than previously assumed, and highlight the expanded role of these keystone species in the degradation of marine hydrocarbons.

  1. Underground hibernation in a primate.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Marina B; Dausmann, Kathrin H; Ranaivoarisoa, Jean F; Yoder, Anne D

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a remarkable state of heterothermy wherein metabolic rates are reduced, core body temperatures reach ambient levels, and key physiological functions are suspended. Typically, hibernation is observed in cold-adapted mammals, though it has also been documented in tropical species and even primates, such as the dwarf lemurs of Madagascar. Western fat-tailed dwarf lemurs are known to hibernate for seven months per year inside tree holes. Here, we report for the first time the observation that eastern dwarf lemurs also hibernate, though in self-made underground hibernacula. Hence, we show evidence that a clawless primate is able to bury itself below ground. Our findings that dwarf lemurs can hibernate underground in tropical forests draw unforeseen parallels to mammalian temperate hibernation. We expect that this work will illuminate fundamental information about the influence of temperature, resource limitation and use of insulated hibernacula on the evolution of hibernation.

  2. Underground hibernation in a primate

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Marina B.; Dausmann, Kathrin H.; Ranaivoarisoa, Jean F.; Yoder, Anne D.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a remarkable state of heterothermy wherein metabolic rates are reduced, core body temperatures reach ambient levels, and key physiological functions are suspended. Typically, hibernation is observed in cold-adapted mammals, though it has also been documented in tropical species and even primates, such as the dwarf lemurs of Madagascar. Western fat-tailed dwarf lemurs are known to hibernate for seven months per year inside tree holes. Here, we report for the first time the observation that eastern dwarf lemurs also hibernate, though in self-made underground hibernacula. Hence, we show evidence that a clawless primate is able to bury itself below ground. Our findings that dwarf lemurs can hibernate underground in tropical forests draw unforeseen parallels to mammalian temperate hibernation. We expect that this work will illuminate fundamental information about the influence of temperature, resource limitation and use of insulated hibernacula on the evolution of hibernation. PMID:23636180

  3. Deep Reaching Gas-permeable Tectonic Faults of the Early Earth as Habitats for the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, U.; Mayer, C.

    2012-04-01

    The discussion on the origin of life encounters difficulties when it comes to estimate the conditions of the early earth and to define plausible environments for the development of the first complex organic molecules. Until now, the role of the earth's crust has been more or less ignored. First continental crustal cores may have been developed some tens to hundreds of million years after formation of earth. Due to tectonic stress the proto continents were sheared by vertical strike-slip faults at an early stage. These deep-reaching open, interconnected tectonic faults may provide possible reaction habitats ranging from nano- to centimetre and even larger dimensions that sum up to several cubic kilometres for the formation of prebiotic molecules. Their fillings consist of supercritical and subcritical waters and supercritical and subcritical gases. Here, all necessary raw materials including phosphate for the development of prebiotic molecules exist in variable concentrations and in sufficient quantities. Furthermore, there are periodically changing pressure and temperature conditions, varying pH-values, metallic surfaces, clay minerals and a large number of catalysts. While cosmic and UV-radiation are excluded, nuclear radiation intervenes the chemical evolution of the molecules inside the crust. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is of crucial importance. It can be present in an almost pure form as a supercritical fluid (scCO2) in a crustal depth less than 1 km (critical point of pure CO2: 74 bar; 31°C). Inside strike-slip faults, a two-phase system formed by supercritical CO2 in liquid water provides the environment for condensation and polymerisation of hydrogen cyanide, nucleobases, nucleotides and amino acids. ScCO2 is a non-polar solvent that is widely used in "green chemistry" (Anastas and Kirchhoff 2002) and enables the dissolution of non-polar reactants and their reactions normally occurring in the absence of water. Under the influence of periodically changing

  4. Alveolar gas composition and exchange during deep breath-hold diving and dry breath holds in elite divers.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Costa, M; Ferrigno, M; Grassi, B; Marconi, C; Lundgren, C E; Cerretelli, P

    1991-02-01

    End tidal O2 and CO2 (PETCO2) pressures, expired volume, blood lactate concentration ([Lab]), and arterial blood O2 saturation [dry breath holds (BHs) only] were assessed in three elite breath-hold divers (ED) before and after deep dives and BH and in nine control subjects (C; BH only). After the dives (depth 40-70 m, duration 88-151 s), end-tidal O2 pressure decreased from approximately 140 Torr to a minimum of 30.6 Torr, PETCO2 increased from approximately 25 Torr to a maximum of 47.0 Torr, and expired volume (BTPS) ranged from 1.32 to 2.86 liters. Pulmonary O2 exchange was 455-1,006 ml. CO2 output approached zero. [Lab] increased from approximately 1.2 mM to at most 6.46 mM. Estimated power output during dives was 513-929 ml O2/min, i.e. approximately 20-30% of maximal O2 consumption. During BH, alveolar PO2 decreased from approximately 130 to less than 30 Torr in ED and from 125 to 45 Torr in C. PETCO2 increased from approximately 30 to approximately 50 Torr in both ED and C. Contrary to C, pulmonary O2 exchange in ED was less than resting O2 consumption, whereas CO2 output approached zero in both groups. [Lab] was unchanged. Arterial blood O2 saturation decreased more in ED than in C. ED are characterized by increased anaerobic metabolism likely due to the existence of a diving reflex.

  5. Desulfotomaculum aquiferis sp. nov. and Desulfotomaculum profundi sp. nov., isolated from a deep natural gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Berlendis, Sabrina; Ranchou-Peyruse, Magali; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Lascourrèges, Jean-François; Joseph, Manon; Ollivier, Bernard; Aüllo, Thomas; Dequidt, David; Magot, Michel; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony

    2016-11-01

    Two novel strictly anaerobic bacteria, strains Bs105T and Bs107T, were isolated from a deep aquifer-derived hydrocarbonoclastic community. The cells were rod-shaped, not motile and had terminal spores. Phylogenetic affiliation and physiological properties revealed that these isolates belong to two novel species of the genus Desulfotomaculum. Optimal growth temperatures for strains Bs105T and Bs107T were 42 and 45 °C, respectively. The estimated G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.9 and 48.7 mol%. For both strains, the major cellular fatty acid was palmitate (C16 : 0). Specific carbon fatty acid signatures of Gram-positive bacteria (iso-C17 : 0) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (C17 : 0cyc) were also detected. An insertion was revealed in one of the two 16S rRNA gene copies harboured by strain Bs107T. Similar insertions have previously been highlighted among moderately thermophilic species of the genus Desulfotomaculum. Both strains shared the ability to oxidize aromatic acids (Bs105T: hydroquinone, acetophenone, para-toluic acid, 2-phenylethanol, trans-cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid 4-hydroxybutyl ester; Bs107T: ortho-toluic acid, benzoic acid 4-hydroxybutyl ester). The names Desulfotomaculum aquiferis sp. nov. and Desulfotomaculum profundi sp. nov. are proposed for the type strains Bs105T (=DSM 24088T=JCM 31386T) and Bs107T (=DSM 24093T=JCM 31387T).

  6. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... odorant from that line before May 5, 1975; (i) An underground storage field; (ii) A gas processing plant; (iii) A gas dehydration plant; or (iv) An industrial plant using gas in a process where the presence...

  7. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  8. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  9. Deterministic modeling of the impact of underground structures on urban groundwater temperature.

    PubMed

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Underground structures have a major influence on groundwater temperature and have a major contribution on the anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers. Groundwater temperature is crucial for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators for groundwater quality and geothermal energy. Here, a three dimensional heat transport modeling approach was conducted to quantify the thermally affected zone (TAZ, i.e. increase in temperature of more than +0.5°C) caused by two common underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. These design techniques consist in (1) ballasting the underground structure in order to resist hydrostatic pressure, or (2) draining the groundwater under the structure in order to remove the hydrostatic pressure. The volume of the TAZ caused by these underground structures was shown to range from 14 to 20 times the volume of the underground structure. Additionally, the cumulative impact of underground structures was assessed under average thermal conditions at the scale of the greater Lyon area (France). The heat island effect caused by underground structures was highlighted in the business center of the city. Increase in temperature of more than +4.5°C were locally put in evidence. The annual heat flow from underground structures to the urban aquifer was computed deterministically and represents 4.5GW·h. Considering these impacts, the TAZ of deep underground structures should be taken into account in the geothermal potential mapping. Finally, the amount of heat energy provided should be used as an indicator of heating potential in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  11. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    The psychosocial aspects of productivity in underground coal mining were investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) labor productivity in deep mines and the explanations for productivity changes; (2) current concepts and research on psychosocial factors in productivity; (3) a survey of experiments in productivity improvement (4) the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production (5) a clinical study of a coal mining operation, model described how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face; and (6) implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management.

  12. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  13. A Deep Hubble Space Telescope H-Band Imaging Survey of Massive Gas-Rich Mergers. II. The QUEST QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Kim, D.-C.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Peng, C. Y.; Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Sturm, E.; Contursi, A.; Schweitzer, M.; Dasyra, K. M.; Ho, L. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Burkert, A.

    2009-08-01

    We report the results from a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS H-band imaging survey of 28 z < 0.3 QSOs from the Palomar-Green (PG) sample. This program is part of QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) and complements a similar set of data on 26 highly nucleated ULIRGs presented in Paper I. Our analysis indicates that the fraction of QSOs with elliptical hosts is higher among QSOs with undetected far-infrared (FIR) emission, small infrared excess (L IR/L B < 10), and luminous hosts. The hosts of FIR-faint QSOs show a tendency to have less pronounced merger-induced morphological anomalies and larger QSO-to-host luminosity ratios on average than the hosts of FIR-bright QSOs, consistent with late-merger evolution from FIR-bright to FIR-faint QSOs. The spheroid sizes (~ 0.3-5.5 kpc) and total host luminosities (~ 0.6-7.2 L* H ) of the radio-quiet PG QSOs in our sample are statistically indistinguishable from the ULIRG hosts presented in Paper I, while those of radio-loud PG QSOs are systematically larger and more luminous. ULIRGs and PG QSOs with elliptical hosts fall near, but not exactly on, the fundamental plane of inactive spheroids. We confirm the systematic trend noted in Paper I for objects with small (lsim 2 kpc) spheroids to be up to ~ 1 mag brighter than inactive spheroids. The host colors and wavelength dependence of their sizes support the idea that these deviations are at least in part due to non-nuclear star formation. However, the amplitudes of these deviations depend mainly on host sizes, and possibly on infrared excess, but not on merger phase, QSO-to-host luminosity ratio, optical spectral type, active galactic nucleus fractional contribution to the bolometric luminosity, or host R - H color. Taken at face value (i.e., no correction for extinction or the presence of a young stellar population), the H-band spheroid-host luminosities imply black hole masses ~ (5-200) × 107 M sun and sub-Eddington mass accretion rates for both QSOs and ULIRGs

  14. Methanolobus profundi sp. nov., a methylotrophic methanogen isolated from deep subsurface sediments in a natural gas field.

    PubMed

    Mochimaru, Hanako; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Hanada, Satoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kohei; Sakata, Susumu; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2009-04-01

    A mesophilic, methylotrophic methanogen, strain MobM(T), was isolated from a natural gas field in Japan. Strain MobM(T) grew on methanol and methylamines, but not on H(2)/CO(2), formate, acetate or dimethyl sulfide. The cells were motile, irregular cocci (diameter, 0.9-1.2 microm) and occurred singly, in pairs, as tetracocci or (occasionally) as aggregates. Strain MobM(T) grew at 9-37 degrees C (optimally at 30 degrees C) and at pH 6.1-7.8 (optimally at pH 6.5). Sodium and magnesium were required for growth, at 0.1-1.0 M Na(+) (optimally at 0.35 M) and 10-400 mM Mg(2+) (optimally at 15-25 mM). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolate is a member of the genus Methanolobus, but distinct from its closest neighbours, Methanolobus tindarius DSM 2278(T) (sequence similarity, 98.0 %) and Methanolobus vulcani DSM 3029(T) (98.1 %). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic features of MobM(T), it is clear that this strain represents a novel species of the genus Methanolobus, for which the name Methanolobus profundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MobM(T) (=DSM 21213(T)=NBRC 104158(T)).

  15. DAMA results at Gran Sasso underground lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; d'Angelo, A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; He, H. L.; Incicchitti, A.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Montecchia, F.; Sheng, X. D.; Wang, R. G.; Ye, Z. P.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton × yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles are summarized. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles) give evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target. The modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112 ± 0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144 ± 7) days and the measured period is (0.998 ± 0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 are outlined.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.

  17. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  18. Variability in gas and solute fluxes through deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems inhabited by vesicomyid bivalves in the Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripounoff, A.; Caprais, J. C.; Decker, C.; Essirard, M.; Le Bruchec, J.; Noel, P.; Olu, K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied two species of vesicomyid bivalves inhabiting different areas of sulfide-rich sediments in association with methane seepage at two pockmarks located at about 650 m and 3150 m depth, respectively, along the Gabon-Congo margin, and organic-rich sediments in the deepest zone (4950 m depth) of the Congo deep-sea fan. Benthic chambers Calmar were deployed on three study sites to assess gas and solute exchanges at the water-sediment interface. We recorded in situ measurements of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, ammonium, methane, and sulfide in two clam beds at each site. At all sites, irrespective of which the vesicomyid species are present, oxygen consumption was high and variable (28-433 mmol m-2 d-1) as was total carbon dioxide emission (36-1857 mmol m-2 d-1). Consequently, the respiratory coefficient also varied greatly, ranging from 0.2 to 5.4. The observed gas and solute fluxes were attributed primarily to the respiration of clams, but microbial and geochemical processes in the sediment may be also responsible for some of the variation among sites. Ammonium production (7.5-71.8 mmol m-2 d-1) was associated predominantly with nitrogen excretion resulting from vesicomyid metabolism. The O:N index ranged from 2 to 17 indicating that the vesicomyid clams, living in symbiosis with bacteria, have a protein-based metabolism. The cold-seep and organic-rich sediment ecosystems were fuelled by methane expelled from the sediment; methane emission varied from 1.8 to 139 mmol m-2d-1, independently of bivalve biomass. Significant sulfide emission from the sediment was observed only at the shallowest station (156 mmol m-2 d-1). Our in situ measurements confirm that the vesicomyid bivalves have a high capacity for growth and survival across a large gradient of methane and hydrogen sulfide fluxes that occur at 700 m to 5000 m depth.

  19. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Acoustic Plumes: Split-beam Echo sounder and Deep Tow Camera Observations of Gas Seeps on the Central Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S. J.; Spain, E. A.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Fox, J. M.; Bowie, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) are two active volcanic edifices on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Scientists aboard the Heard Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions voyage in early 2016 explored how this volcanic activity manifests itself near HIMI. Using Simrad EK60 split-beam echo sounder and deep tow camera data from RV Investigator, we recorded the distribution of seafloor emissions, providing the first direct evidence of seabed discharge around HIMI, mapping >244 acoustic plume signals. Northeast of Heard, three distinct plume clusters are associated with bubbles (towed camera) and the largest directly overlies a sub-seafloor opaque zone (sub-bottom profiler) with >140 zones observed within 6.5 km. Large temperature anomalies did not characterize any of the acoustic plumes where temperature data were recorded. We therefore suggest that these plumes are cold methane seeps. Acoustic properties - mean volume backscattering and target strength - and morphology - height, width, depth to surface - of plumes around McDonald resembled those northeast of Heard, also suggesting gas bubbles. We observed no bubbles on extremely limited towed camera data around McDonald; however, visibility was poor. The acoustic response of the plumes at different frequencies (120 kHz vs. 18 kHz), a technique used to classify water column scatterers, differed between HIMI, suggestiing dissimilar target size (bubble radii) distributions. Environmental context and temporal characteristics of the plumes differed between HIMI. Heard plumes were concentrated on flat, sediment rich plains, whereas around McDonald plumes emanated from sea knolls and mounds with hard volcanic seafloor. The Heard plumes were consistent temporally, while the McDonald plumes varied temporally possibly related to tides or subsurface processes. Our data and analyses suggest that HIMI acoustic plumes were likely caused by gas bubbles; however, the bubbles may originate from two or more distinct processes.

  20. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  1. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  2. Deep UV AlGaN light emitting diodes grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire and AlGaN/sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishin, S.; Borisov, B.; Kuryatkov, V.; Usikov, A.; Dmitriev, V.; Holtz, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report the electrical and optical properties of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on digital alloy structures (DAS) of AlN/Al 0.08Ga 0.92N grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy with ammonia on sapphire substrates and AlGaN/sapphire templates. AlGaN/sapphire templates were grown by recently developed stress controlled hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). For DAS with effective bandgap of 5.1 eV we obtain room temperature electron concentrations up to 1x10 19 cm -3 and hole concentrations of 1x10 18 cm -3. Based on these results we prepared double heterostructure (DHS) LEDs operating in the range of 250 to 290 nm. The emission wavelengths were controlled through the effective bandgap of the active region. The possible ways for increase of LED's efficiency are discussed. We observed significant improvement in the room temperature luminescence efficiency (by factor of 100) of AlGaN quantum wells when a transition growth mode is induced by reduced flux of ammonia. We found that active layer grown on HVPE AlGaN/sapphire substrates have higher luminescence efficiency (by factor of 3) than DAS grown on sapphire.

  3. GOING UNDERGROUND IN FINLAND: DESIGN OF ONKALO IN PROGRESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dikds, T.; Ikonen, A.; Niiranen, S.; Hansen, J.

    2003-02-27

    The long-term program aimed at selection of a site for a deep repository was initiated in Finland in 1983. This program has come to end in 2001 and a new phase aimed at implementation of the geological disposal of spent fuel has been started. In this new phase the first milestone is the application for a construction license for the disposal facility around 2010. To fulfill the needs for detailed design of the disposal system, an underground rock characterization facility (URCF) will be constructed at the representative depth at Olkiluoto. The excavation of this facility will start the work for underground characterization, testing and demonstration, which is planned to be a continuous activity throughout the whole life cycle of the deep repository. The overall objectives for the underground site characterization are (1) verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, (2) definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and (3) characterization of planned host rock for detailed design, safety assessment and construction planning. The objective for verification aims at assessing that the Olkiluoto site meets the basic criteria for long-term safety and as well the basic requirements for construction and thus justifies the site selection. The two other main objectives are closely related to design of the repository and assessing the long-term safety of the site-specific disposal system. The most important objective of ONKALO should allow an in-depth investigation of the geological environment and to provide the opportunity to allow validation of models at more appropriate scales and conditions than can be achieved from the surface. In some areas, such as in demonstrating operational safety, in acquiring geological information at a repository scale and in constructional and operational feasibility, the ONKALO will provide the only reliable source of in situ data. The depth range envisaged for URCF called ONKALO is between 400 and

  4. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development.

    PubMed

    Aalseth, C E; Bonicalzi, R M; Cantaloub, M G; Day, A R; Erikson, L E; Fast, J; Forrester, J B; Fuller, E S; Glasgow, B D; Greenwood, L R; Hoppe, E W; Hossbach, T W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Merriman, J H; Myers, A W; Overman, C T; Overman, N R; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A; Warren, G A; Runkle, R C

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  5. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  6. Underground structures increasing the intrinsic vulnerability of urban groundwater: Sensitivity analysis and development of an empirical law based on a groundwater age modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In a previous paper published in Journal of Hydrology, it was shown that underground structures are responsible for a mixing process between shallow and deep groundwater that can favour the spreading of urban contamination. In this paper, the impact of underground structures on the intrinsic vulnerability of urban aquifers was investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a 2D deterministic modelling approach based on the reservoir theory generalized to hydrodispersive systems to better understand this mixing phenomenon and the mixing affected zone (MAZ) caused by underground structures. It was shown that the maximal extent of the MAZ caused by an underground structure is reached approximately 20 years after construction. Consequently, underground structures represent a long-term threat for deep aquifer reservoirs. Regarding the construction process, draining operations have a major impact and favour large-scale mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. Consequently, dewatering should be reduced and enclosed as much as possible. The role played by underground structures' dimensions was assessed. The obstruction of the first aquifer layer caused by construction has the greatest influence on the MAZ. The cumulative impact of several underground structures was assessed. It was shown that the total MAZ area increases linearly with underground structures' density. The role played by materials' properties and hydraulic gradient were assessed. Hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and porosity have the strongest influence on the development of MAZ. Finally, an empirical law was derived to estimate the MAZ caused by an underground structure in a bi-layered aquifer under unconfined conditions. This empirical law, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis developed in this paper, allows for the estimation of MAZ dimensions under known material properties and underground structure dimensions. This empirical law can help urban planners assess the area of

  7. Shotcrete for underground support VI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings consists of papers presented at the Shotcrete for Underground Support VI Conference held in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, May 2-6, 1993. It covers three broad themes concerning shotcrete - engineering, research, and applications. Specifically, the proceedings presents papers on: (1) materials engineering; (2) shotcrete research; (3) engineering design; and (4) tunneling, soil nailing, and mining applications. The book concludes by presenting an international compilation of guidelines and recommendations on shotcrete. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  9. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall...

  14. Effect of permafrost properties on gas hydrate petroleum system in the Qilian Mountains, Qinghai, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingkang; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Youhai; Li, Bing; Huang, Xia; Pang, Shouji; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Rui

    2014-12-01

    The gas hydrate petroleum system in the permafrost of the Qilian Mountains, which exists as an epigenetic hydrocarbon reservoir above a deep-seated hydrocarbon reservoir, has been dynamic since the end of the Late Pleistocene because of climate change. The permafrost limits the occurrence of gas hydrate reservoirs by changing the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions, and it affects the migration of the underlying hydrocarbon gas because of its strong sealing ability. In this study, we reconstructed the permafrost structure of the Qilian Mountains using a combination of methods and measured methane permeability in ice-bearing sediment permafrost. A relationship between the ice saturation of permafrost and methane permeability was established, which permitted the quantitative evaluation of the sealing ability of permafrost with regard to methane migration. The test results showed that when ice saturation is >80%, methane gas can be completely sealed within the permafrost. Based on the permafrost properti