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Sample records for deep upper mantle

  1. Seismic evidence for water deep in Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    van der Meijde, Mark; Marone, Federica; Giardini, Domenico; van der Lee, Suzan

    2003-06-01

    Water in the deep upper mantle can influence the properties of seismic discontinuities in the mantle transition zone. Observations of converted seismic waves provide evidence of a 20- to 35-kilometer-thick discontinuity near a depth of 410 kilometers, most likely explained by as much as 700 parts per million of water by weight.

  2. Iron-titanium oxyhydroxides which transport water into the deep upper mantle and mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukage, K. N.; Nishihara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally discovered a new hydrous phase in the system FeOOH-TiO2 at pressures of 10-16 GPa and temperatures of 1000-1600°C which corresponds to conditions of the deep upper mantle and the Earth's mantle transition zone. Seven different compositions in the FeOOH-TiO2 system having molar ratios of x = Ti/(Fe + Ti) = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.75 that were prepared by mixing reagent grade a-FeOOH (goethite) and TiO2 (anatase) powders were used as starting materials. High-pressure and high-temperature experiments were carried out using Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus (Orange-1000 at Ehime University and SPI-1000 at Tokyo Institute of Technology). In this system, we identified two stable iron-titanium oxyhydroxide phases whose estimated composition is expressed by (FeH)1 - xTixO2 . One is the Fe-rich solid solution (x < 0.23) with e-FeOOH type crystal structure (e-phase, orthorhombic, P21nm) that was described by the previous studies (e.g., Suzuki 2010), and the other is the more Ti-rich solid solution (x > 0.35) with a-PbO2 type structure (a-phase, orthorhombic, Pbcn). The a-phase is stable up to 1500ºC for a composition of x = 0.5 and at least to 1600ºC for x = 0.75. Our result means that this phase is stable at average mantle temperature in the Earth's mantle transition zone. The Iron-titanium-rich hydrous phases was possible to stable in basalt + H2O system (e.g., Hashimoto and Matsukage 2013). Therefore our findings suggest that water transport in the Earth's deep interior is probably much more efficient than had been previously thought.

  3. Melting in the Earth's deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Hirschmann, Marc M

    2006-03-30

    The onset of partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges governs the cycling of highly incompatible elements from the mantle to the crust, the flux of key volatiles (such as CO2, He and Ar) and the rheological properties of the upper mantle. Geophysical observations indicate that melting beneath ridges begins at depths approaching 300 km, but the cause of this melting has remained unclear. Here we determine the solidus of carbonated peridotite from 3 to 10 GPa and demonstrate that melting beneath ridges may occur at depths up to 330 km, producing 0.03-0.3% carbonatite liquid. We argue that these melts promote recrystallization and realignment of the mineral matrix, which may explain the geophysical observations. Extraction of incipient carbonatite melts from deep within the oceanic mantle produces an abundant source of metasomatic fluids and a vast mantle residue depleted in highly incompatible elements and fractionated in key parent-daughter elements. We infer that carbon, helium, argon and highly incompatible heat-producing elements (such as uranium, thorium and potassium) are efficiently scavenged from depths of approximately 200-330 km in the upper mantle. PMID:16572168

  4. Melting in the Earth's deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Hirschmann, Marc M

    2006-03-30

    The onset of partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges governs the cycling of highly incompatible elements from the mantle to the crust, the flux of key volatiles (such as CO2, He and Ar) and the rheological properties of the upper mantle. Geophysical observations indicate that melting beneath ridges begins at depths approaching 300 km, but the cause of this melting has remained unclear. Here we determine the solidus of carbonated peridotite from 3 to 10 GPa and demonstrate that melting beneath ridges may occur at depths up to 330 km, producing 0.03-0.3% carbonatite liquid. We argue that these melts promote recrystallization and realignment of the mineral matrix, which may explain the geophysical observations. Extraction of incipient carbonatite melts from deep within the oceanic mantle produces an abundant source of metasomatic fluids and a vast mantle residue depleted in highly incompatible elements and fractionated in key parent-daughter elements. We infer that carbon, helium, argon and highly incompatible heat-producing elements (such as uranium, thorium and potassium) are efficiently scavenged from depths of approximately 200-330 km in the upper mantle.

  5. Structure of the Upper Mantle Beneath Northern Eurasia Derived from Russian Deep-Seismic PNE Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryberg, Trond; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Wenzel, Friedemann

    From 1968 until 1990, Russian scientists carried out an intensive program of deep seismic sounding across the territory of the former Soviet Union, using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs) as powerful sources for elastic waves. The explosions, both chemical and nuclear, were recorded by up to 400 shot-period (1-2 Hz) three-component, analog recording systems. The average station spacing of about 10 km along the profiles provided a data density not previously available for studies of the upper mantle and the transition zone. Observation distances of more than 3000 km allow the investigation of the velocity structure of the Earths crust and upper mantle to a depth of 700 km. The analog data have been digitized and used to constrain the fine structure of the upper mantle below Northern Eurasia. They reveal reflections and refractions from upper mantle discontinuities at 410, 520 and 660 km depth. Several properties of the recorded phases have been used to derive a regional P wave velocity model. Synthetic seismograms were calculated and compared with the observations to test these models. Characteristic for all the data in northern Eurasia is the absence of strong pre-critical reflections predicted by the global IASP91 model for the 660 km discontinuity. The appearance of two additional characteristic travel-time branches in the distance range of 2200 km was interpreted as being caused by the proposed and disputed upper mantle discontinuity at 520 km depth. Synthetic seismograms were calculated to constrain its properties. The recordings on the Quartz profile in Northern Eurasia have been used to constrain the nature of the globally observed high-frequency teleseismic P phase, which can be observed for shot-receiver distances of more than 3000 km. We suggest that this phase is caused by velocity fluctuations in the upper mantle acting as scatterers. This hypothesis was tested by extensive numerical simulations of the wave propagation using finite difference methods

  6. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Upper mantle and crustal structure of southwestern Scandinavia: Results of the TopoScandiaDeep project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Balling, N.; Ebbing, J.; England, R.; Frassetto, A.; Gradmann, S.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Kvarven, T.; Maupin, V.; Medhus, A. Bondo; Mjelde, R.; Ritter, J.; Schweizer, J.; Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.; Wawerzinek, B.; Weidle, C.

    2012-04-01

    The origin of the Scandinavian mountains, located far away from any presently active plate margin, is still not well understood. In particular, it is not clear if the mountains are sustained isostatically either by crustal thickening or by light upper mantle material. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project (a collaborative research project within the ESF TOPO-EUROPE programme), we therefore analyse recently collected passive seismological and active seismic data in the southern Scandes and surrounding regions. We infer crustal and upper mantle (velocity) structures and relate them to results of gravity and temperature-composition modelling. The Moho under the high topography of southern Norway appears from controlled source seismic refraction and Receiver Functions as relatively shallow (<= 45 km) compared to the deeper conversion (>55 km) imaged beneath the low topography in Sweden and elsewhere in the Baltic Shield area outside Norway. The Receiver Function modeling as well as the active seismic results suggest that the differences in the observed Moho response may represent the transition between tectonically reworked Moho under southern Norway and an intact, cratonic crust-mantle boundary beneath the Baltic Shield. Furthermore, the 410km-discontinuity and the LAB is imaged, the latter one suggesting a lithospheric thickening in NE direction. Upper mantle P-wave and S-wave velocities in southern Sweden and southern Norway east of the Oslo Graben are correspondingly relatively high while lower velocities are observed in the southwestern part of Norway and northern Denmark. The lateral velocity gradient, interpreted as the southwestern boundary of thick Baltic Shield lithosphere, is remarkably sharp. Differences in upper mantle velocities are found at depths of 100-400 km and amount to ± 2-3%. S-to-P wave conversions, interpreted to originate from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, are preliminary estimated to 90-120 km depth. Inversion of Rayleigh and Love

  8. Upper bounds of seismic anisotropy in the Tonga slab near deep earthquake foci and in the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshima, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy in and around subducting Tonga slab (latitude ˜20°S) is investigated by using three component broad-band seismograms of deep earthquakes at Tonga (h > 550 km) recorded at the F-net, Japan. In the study area, the slab becomes stagnant when approaching the upper- and lower-mantle boundary, and the mantle transition zone and the shallowest lower mantle have been claimed to be anisotropic both the backarc side and the ocean side.We analyse shear wave splitting of teleseismic direct S waves from the deep earthquakes, and investigate a slightly different part of the Tonga subduction zone from previous studies. We find that anisotropy of an observable degree exists neither in the slab near the bottom of the upper mantle (below 600 km) nor in the lower mantle beneath the foci. The shear wave splitting lag time (δt) attributable to the anisotropy inside the slab around the foci is less than 0.15 s, and the corresponding maximum degree of anisotropy is 0.9 per cent. The result is consistent with recent mineralogical studies which indicate that ringwoodite does not acquire significant preferred orientation of crystal lattice due to the deformation near the bottom of the upper mantle. The maximum δt by large-scale anisotropy in the lower mantle traversed by the S waves from Tonga to Japan does not exceed 0.05 s, suggesting the absence of significant shear deformation near the top of the lower mantle.

  9. Rheology of the Deep Upper Mantle and its Implications for the Preservation of the Continental Roots: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Karato, S.

    2010-01-01

    The longevity of deep continental roots depends critically on the rheological properties of upper mantle minerals under deep upper mantle conditions. Geodynamic studies suggest that the rheological contrast between the deep continental and oceanic upper mantle is a key factor that controls the longevity of the continental roots. Current understanding of rheological properties of deep upper mantle is reviewed to examine how a large enough rheological contrast between the continental and oceanic upper mantle develops that leads to the longevity of the deep continental roots. Based on the microstructures of naturally deformed deep continental rocks as well as on the observations of seismic anisotropy, it is concluded that power-law dislocation creep dominates in most of the deep upper mantle. Deformation by power-law creep is sensitive to water content and therefore the removal of water by partial melting to form depleted continental roots is a likely mechanism to establish a large rheological contrast. The results of experimental studies on the influence of temperature, pressure and water content on plastic flow by power-law dislocation creep are reviewed. The degree of rheological contrast depends critically on the dependence of effective viscosity on water content under 'wet' (water-rich) conditions but it is also sensitive to the effective viscosity under 'dry' (water-free) conditions that depends critically on the influence of pressure on deformation. Based on the analysis of thermodynamics of defects and high-temperature creep, it is shown that a robust estimate of the influence of water and pressure can be made only by the combination of low-pressure (< 0.5 GPa) and high-pressure (> 5 GPa) studies. A wide range of flow laws has been reported, leading to nearly 10 orders of magnitude differences in estimated viscosities under the deep upper mantle conditions. However, based on the examination of several criteria, it is concluded that relatively robust

  10. Deep mantle subduction flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Katherine A.; White, William M.

    2009-12-01

    We assess the flux of incompatible trace elements into the deep mantle in the Aleutian, Central America, Izu-Bonin, Kurile, Lesser Antilles, Mariana, Sunda, and Tonga subduction zones. We use a simple mass balance approach in which we assume that all of the material lost from the subducting crust and sediment (the "slab") is incorporated into the magmas erupted above the subduction zone, and we use these assumptions to calculate a residual slab composition. The calculated residual slabs are enriched in incompatible elements compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts and highly enriched compared to primitive or depleted mantle. Almost all of the subducted Nb, Ta, and intermediate and heavy rare earths survive into the deep mantle, as do most of the light rare earths. On average, 73% of Th and Pb, 74% of K, 79% of U, 80% of Rb, 80% of Sr, and 82% of Ba survive into the deep mantle. Pb/Ce ratios are systematically lower, and Nb/U ratios are systematically higher, in the deep mantle flux than they are in the flux of material into the trench. Nevertheless, most residual slabs have Pb/Ce and Nb/U ratios outside the typical mantle range. Changes to U/Pb and Th/U ratios tend to be small and are not systematic. Rb/Sr ratios significantly decrease in some subduction zones but increase in others. In contrast, Sm/Nd ratios increase by small but significant amounts in most arcs. Based on these results, we attempt to predict the Sr, Nd, and Pb composition of anciently recycled material now in the mantle. We find that such material would most resemble enriched mantle II-type oceanic island basalts (OIB). None of our calculated residual slabs would evolve to Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions similar to either high 238U/204Pb or enriched mantle I. The range of Sr and Pb isotope ratios in anciently recycled material is similar to that seen in modern OIB, but Nd isotopic compositions do not range to ɛNd values as low as those in some modern OIB. Neither radiogenic nor unradiogenic Pb isotope

  11. Deep Upper Mantle Anisotropy from SKS Splitting Delay Times and Higher Mode Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Beghein, C.; Davis, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The splitting of SKS waves is widely used to study mantle anisotropy and to get insight on Earth's dynamic interior. However, while SKS splitting is an unambiguous signature of anisotropy, it cannot be used directly to infer the depth distribution of the anisotropy because the dealy times between the two polarization directions result from integrated measurements along quasi-vertical paths between the core-mantle boundary and the surface. SKS splitting data are generally interpreted in terms of olivine lattice preferred orientation in the uppermost 250 km of the mantle. There is, nevertheless, growing evidence from regional studies that the splitting may contain significant contributions from greater depths. In addition, SKS delay times are strongly under predicted by tomographic models of azimuthal anisotropy derived from fundamentqal mode surface waves. These models typically display anisotropy only in the 250 km of the mantle because fundamental mode surface wave data have little sensitivity to structure below that depth. For example, we calculated predictions of SKS splitting using the global azimuthal anisotropy model of Debayle et al. (2005), and found a global delay times distributon with a median of 0.4 s, compared to 1.1 s for the global station-averaged SKS splitting database compiled by Becker et al. (2012). This discrepancy may indicate that seismic anisotropy is present at greater depths. In this work, we analyzed a new global 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy (Yuan and Beghein, 2013) that was obtained from the inversion of higher modes surface wave phase velocity data with unprecedented sensitivity to the top 1000 km of the mantle. While this model is comparable to previous models in the uppermost mantle, it also displays anisotropy amplitudes of about 1% below 250 km depth and a complex 3-D pattern of fast axes directions down to 800 km depth. The predicted SKS delay times calculated using this new model have a median of 0.75 s, which is in much

  12. Deep global cycling of carbon constrained by the solidus of anhydrous, carbonated eclogite under upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Withers, Anthony C.

    2004-10-01

    eclogite solidus is likely to intersect the oceanic geotherm at a depth close to 400 km. Carbonated eclogite bodies entering the convecting upper mantle will thus release carbonate melt near the top of the mantle transition zone and may account for anomalously slow seismic velocities at depths of 280-400 km. Upon release, this small volume, highly reactive melt could be an effective agent of deep mantle metasomatism. Comparison of the carbonated eclogite solidus with that of peridotite-CO 2 shows a shallower solidus-geotherm intersection for the latter. This implies that carbonated peridotite is a more likely proximal source of magmatic carbon in oceanic provinces. However, carbonated eclogite is a potential source of continental carbonatites, as its solidus crosses the continental shield geotherm at ca. 4 GPa. Transfer of eclogite-derived carbonate melt to peridotite may account for the geochemical characteristics of some oceanic island basalts (OIBs) and their association with high CaO and CO 2.

  13. Depth distribution for boundary of crust-upper mantle and deep dynamical process in eastern Asian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Yan, Y.; Wang, G.; Zheng, H.; Sun, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The continent of China is located in the eastern Asia. The studied region (5°N-55°N, 60°E-150°E) in this work included most of he eastern Asian continent, continental margin and its southeast ocean, it is a key region for studying the global tectonics and continental dynamics. Since the 1970s of last century, deep seismic sounding profiles with the total length of 50,000 km (including seismic reflection profile over 2,000 km length) have been carried out by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Seismological Bureau and the Ministry of the Land and Resources of China. This data (up to the year of 2001) provide an important base for overall recognition of Moho undulation and new discoveries in this study. With the results of interpretation of deep seismic sounding profiles acquired in the past 30 years in the continent of China and its adjacent countries and ocean regions, such as Russia Kazakhstan, Japan, India, Pakistan, Philippine, Philippine ocean basin, Pacific and Indian Ocean we complied a 2D Moho distribution map for the continent and its adjacent areas of eastern Asia. From the features of depth distribution and undulation of Moho, it is suggested that the eastern Asian region can be divided into 18gradient belts with different sizes and 18 crustal blocks. The depth of Moho varies smoothly in each block, while the boundary (separating different blocks) delineates the abrupt variation of Moho depth. Then, some subjects, such as orogen, fault system and rift, plate boundary, ocean-continent coupling and geodynamical effect, are discussed based on the distribution gradient belts and block partition features of Moho depth in the eastern Asian and its adjacent regions.

  14. The statistical upper mantle assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Anderson, Don L.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in modern mantle geochemistry is to link geochemical data with geological and geophysical observations. Most of the early geochemical models involved a layered mantle and the concept of geochemical reservoirs. Indeed, the two layer mantle model has been implicit in almost all geochemical literature and the provenance of oceanic island basalt (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) [van Keken et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 30 (2002) 493-525]. Large-scale regions in the mantle, such as the 'convective' (i.e. well-stirred, homogeneous) upper mantle, sub-continental lithosphere, and the lower mantle were treated as distinct and accessible geochemical reservoirs. Here we discuss evidence for a ubiquitous distribution of small- to moderate-scale (i.e. 10 2-10 5 m) heterogeneity in the upper mantle, which we refer to as the statistical upper mantle assemblage (SUMA). This heterogeneity forms as the result of long-term plate tectonic recycling of sedimentary and crustal components. The SUMA model does not require a convectively homogenized MORB mantle reservoir, which has become a frequently used concept in geochemistry. Recently, Kellogg et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 204 (2002) 183-202] modeled MORB and OIB Sr and Nd isotopic compositions as local mantle averages of random distributions of depleted residues and recycled continental crustal material. In this model, homogenization of the MORB source region is achieved by convective stirring and mixing. In contrast, in the SUMA model, the isotopic compositions of MORB and OIB are the outcome of homogenization during sampling, by partial melting and magma mixing (e.g. [Helffrich and Wood, Nature 412 (2001) 501-507]), of a distribution of small- to moderate-scale upper mantle heterogeneity, as predicted by the central limit theorem. Thus, the 'SUMA' acronym also captures what we consider the primary homogenization process: sampling upon melting and averaging. SUMA does not require the

  15. Deep seismic structure and tectonics of northern Alaska: Crustal-scale duplexing with deformation extending into the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Murphy, J.M.; Lutter, W.J.; Moore, T.E.; Bird, K.J.; Christensen, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction and laboratory velocity data collected along a transect of northern Alaska (including the east edge of the Koyukuk basin, the Brooks Range, and the North Slope) yield a composite picture of the crustal and upper mantle structure of this Mesozoic and Cenozoic compressional orogen. The following observations are made: (1) Northern Alaska is underlain by nested tectonic wedges, most with northward vergence (i.e., with their tips pointed north). (2) High reflectivity throughout the crust above a basal decollement, which deepens southward from about 10 km depth beneath the northern front of the Brooks Range to about 30 km depth beneath the southern Brooks Range, is interpreted as structural complexity due to the presence of these tectonic wedges, or duplexes. (3) Low reflectivity throughout the crust below the decollement is interpreted as minimal deformation, which appears to involve chiefly bending of a relatively rigid plate consisting of the parautochthonous North Slope crust and a 10- to 15-km-thick section of mantle material. (4) This plate is interpreted as a southward verging tectonic wedge, with its tip in the lower crust or at the Moho beneath the southern Brooks Range. In this interpretation the middle and upper crust, or all of the crust, is detached in the southern Brooks Range by the tectonic wedge, or indentor: as a result, crust is uplifted and deformed above the wedge, and mantle is depressed and underthrust beneath this wedge. (5) Underthrusting has juxtaposed mantle of two different origins (and seismic velocities), giving rise to a prominent sub-Moho reflector. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Carbon storage in the deep reducing mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, A.; Ghosh, S.; Schmidt, M. W.; Wijbrans, C. H.; Klemme, S.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the storage and cycling of carbon in/through Earth's deep mantle it is vital to examine carbon speciations at relevant pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity (fO2). In particular redox conditions of the mantle critically influence the mobility of carbon bearing phases in the silicate matrix; oxidized species are generally more mobile (carbonatites, carbonated silicate melts) or have a larger impact on silicate solidi (carbonated peridotite/eclogite) than reduced species (diamond, carbides, metals). Within garnet bearing mantle lithologies, fO2 can be expected to decrease with depth [1], eventually reaching values similar to the iron-wüstite equilibrium which implies the precipitation of a Fe-Ni metal phase at pressures corresponding to the base of the upper mantle [2]. Because Ni is more noble than Fe, Ni partitions strongly into the reduced phases such that at low metal fractions the metal phase reaches XNi > 0.5. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the mantle contains ~0.1 wt.% Fe,Ni metal at ~300 km depth [3], increasing to ~1 wt% in the lower mantle [4]. To understand the nature of carbon bearing reduced phases in the Earth mantle, we examine experimentally phase relations and melting behavior in the system Fe-Ni-C at 10 and 23 GPa. Dependent on Fe-Ni ratio and related fO2, C content, P and T we observe a variety of phases, namely (Fe,Ni)3C and (Fe,Ni)7C3 carbides, carbon bearing Fe-Ni metal, diamond and carbon rich metal-melt. In the subsolidus, mantle bulk C contents of 50 to 500 ppm [5] would result in the phase association (Fe,Ni)3C + metal + diamond at 10 GPa. In the uppermost lower mantle, about 1 wt.% metal would dissolve ca. 100 ppm C, any further C would lead to (Fe,Ni)3C carbide saturation. The solidus temperatures of theses phase assemblages however are considerably lower than the geotherm at upper and lower mantle pressures. We therefore suggest that reduced carbon bearing phases in the deep mantle are largely molten [6]. [1

  17. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  18. Deep Europe today: Geophysical synthesis of the upper mantle structure and lithospheric processes over 3.5 Ga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Thybo, H.; Kaban, M.K.; ,

    2006-01-01

    We present a summary of geophysical models of the subcrustal lithosphere of Europe. This includes the results from seismic (reflection and refraction profiles, P- and S-wave tomography, mantle anisotropy), gravity, thermal, electromagnetic, elastic and petrological studies of the lithospheric mantle. We discuss major tectonic processes as reflected in the lithospheric structure of Europe, from Precambrian terrane accretion and subduction to Phanerozoic rifting, volcanism, subduction and continent-continent collision. The differences in the lithospheric structure of Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe, as illustrated by a comparative analysis of different geophysical data, are shown to have both a compositional and a thermal origin. We propose an integrated model of physical properties of the European subcrustal lithosphere, with emphasis on the depth intervals around 150 and 250 km. At these depths, seismic velocity models, constrained by body-and surface-wave continent-scale tomography, are compared with mantle temperatures and mantle gravity anomalies. This comparison provides a framework for discussion of the physical or chemical origin of the major lithospheric anomalies and their relation to large-scale tectonic processes, which have formed the present lithosphere of Europe. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  19. Dihedral angle of carbonatite melts in mantle residue near the upper mantle and transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Rohrbach, A.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate melts are thought to be ideal metasomatic agents in the deep upper mantle (Green & Wallace, 1988) and these melts are low in viscosities (10-1-10-3 Pa·s) compared to primitive basalt (101-102 Pa·s), furthermore the ability to form an interconnected grain-edge melt network at low melt fractions (< 1%) make carbonate melts extremely mobile. They are molten at relatively low temperatures and have solidus temperatures hundreds of degrees lower than silicate melts at >3 GPa (Dasgupta et al. 2006, Ghosh et al., 2009), dissolve a number of geochemically incompatible elements much better than silicate melts (Blundy and Dalton, 2000). Previous studies of carbonate melt dihedral angles in olivine-dominated matrices yielded 25-30oat 1-3 GPa, relatively independent of melt composition (Watson et al., 1990) and temperature (Hunter and McKenzie, 1989). Dihedral angles of carbonate melts in contact with deep mantle silicate phases (e.g. garnet, wadsleyite, and ringwoodite) which constitute more than 70 % of the deep upper mantle and transition zone have not been studied yet. We have performed multi-anvil experiments on carbonate-bearing peridotites with 5.0 wt% CO2 from 13.5 to 20 GPa 1550 oC to investigate the dihedral angle of magnesio-carbonatite melts in equilibrium with garnet, olivine (and its high-pressure polymorphs), and clinoenstatite. The dihedral angle of carbonate melts in the deep upper mantle and transition zone is ~30° for majorite garnet and olivine (and its polymorphs) dominated matrices. It does not change with increasing pressure in the range 13.5-20 GPa. Our results suggest that very low melt fractions of carbonatite melt forming in the deep upper mantle and transition zone are interconnected at melt fractions less than 0.01. Consistent with geophysical observations, this could possibly explain low velocity regions in the deep mantle and transition zone.

  20. The upper mantle transition region - Eclogite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in the upper mantle. Eclogite is denser than Al2O3-poor mantle to depths of 670 km, but it stays in the garnet stability field to pressures in excess of those required to transform depleted mantle to denser phases such as ilmenite and perovskite. Eclogite, therefore, remains above 670 km. The seismic properties of the transition region are more consistent with eclogite than peridotite. Most of the mantle's inventory of incompatible trace elements may be in this layer, which is a potential source region for some basalt magmas. The radioactivity in this layer is the main source of mantle heat flow, 0.7 microcalorie/sq cm-sec, and drives upper mantle convection.

  1. Upper-mantle origin of the Yellowstone hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, R.L.; Foulger, G.R.; Evans, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental features of the geology and tectonic setting of the northeast-propagating Yellowstone hotspot are not explained by a simple deep-mantle plume hypothesis and, within that framework, must be attributed to coincidence or be explained by auxiliary hypotheses. These features include the persistence of basaltic magmatism along the hotspot track, the origin of the hotspot during a regional middle Miocene tectonic reorganization, a similar and coeval zone of northwestward magmatic propagation, the occurrence of both zones of magmatic propagation along a first-order tectonic boundary, and control of the hotspot track by preexisting structures. Seismic imaging provides no evidence for, and several contraindications of, a vertically extensive plume-like structure beneath Yellowstone or a broad trailing plume head beneath the eastern Snake River Plain. The high helium isotope ratios observed at Yellowstone and other hotspots are commonly assumed to arise from the lower mantle, but upper-mantle processes can explain the observations. The available evidence thus renders an upper-mantle origin for the Yellowstone system the preferred model; there is no evidence that the system extends deeper than ???200 km, and some evidence that it does not. A model whereby the Yellowstone system reflects feedback between upper-mantle convection and regional lithospheric tectonics is able to explain the observations better than a deep-mantle plume hypothesis.

  2. Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic deep-sounding studies in rifts and adjacent areas: constraints on physical processes in the crust and upper mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Hermance, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Deep electrical studies are reviewed along with other supportive geophysical/geological investigations of five of the major rift zones of the world: the Baikal rift, and Rhine graben, the East African rift, Iceland and the Rio Grande rift. All of these regions exhibit anomalously low values of electrical resistivity, density and seismic velocity, either within the crust itselt or at high levels in the mantle. Deep electrical studies support a model where ascending masses of material from the mantle are intimately coupled to the fractionation of a basalt melt and its accumulation at higher levels within the earth. In Iceland, an interplate rift, the accumulation and chilling of melt at the base of the crust apparently leads to a significant component of crustal underplating whereas in intraplate rifts such as the Rio Grande rift, the emplacement of basaltic magma at high levels may lead to extensive remelting of the crust, triggering eruptive episodes of silicic magmas.

  3. Evidence for a plum pudding mantle from deep seismic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, P.; Earle, P.; Hedlin, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recent analyses of PKP precursors and other seismic phases indicate scattering from small-scale heterogeneities in the deep mantle. These features are almost certainly compositional in origin because thermal perturbations would not last very long at the 5 to 20 km scale length of the anomalies. These results support ``plum pudding'' models of the mantle, in which incomplete mixing permits small blobs of chemically distinct material to persist for many convection cycles. In general, analyses of short-period scattered waves provide a window into deep Earth structure at much finer scales than those resolved by tomographic inversions for three-dimensional seismic velocities. Recent computational advances permit modeling of scattering throughout the Earth, despite large differences in scattering strength. Most observations to date can be roughly explained with about 4% RMS velocity heterogeneity in the upper 200 km of the mantle and 0.5% heterogeneity in the lower mantle, although there are also large geographic variations in scattering strength.

  4. Fe-Ni-Cu-C-S phase relations at high pressures and temperatures - The role of sulfur in carbon storage and diamond stability at mid- to deep-upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, Kyusei; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2015-02-01

    Constraining the stable form of carbon in the deep mantle is important because carbon has key influence on mantle processes such as partial melting and element mobility, thereby affecting the efficiency of carbon exchange between the endogenic and exogenic reservoirs. In the reduced, mid- to deep-upper mantle, the chief host of deep carbon is expected to be graphite/diamond but in the presence of Fe-Ni alloy melt in the reduced mantle and owing to high solubility of carbon in such alloy phase, diamond may become unstable. To investigate the nature of stable, C-bearing phases in the reduced, mid- to deep-upper mantle, here we have performed experiments to examine the effect of sulfur on the phase relations of the Ni-rich portion of Fe-Ni ± Cu-C-S system, and carbon solubility in the Fe-Ni solid and Fe-Ni-S liquid alloys at 6-8 GPa and 800-1400 °C using a multianvil press. Low-temperature experiments for six starting mixes (Ni/(Fe + Ni) ∼ 0.61, 8-16 wt.% S) contain C-bearing, solid Fe-Ni alloy + Fe-Ni-C-S alloy melt + metastable graphite, and the solid alloy-out boundary is constrained, at 1150-1200 °C at 6 GPa and 900-1000 °C at 8 GPa for S-poor starting mix, and at 1000-1050 °C at 6 GPa and 900-1000 °C at 8 GPa for the S-rich starting mix. The carbon solubility in the liquid alloy significantly diminishes from 2.1 to 0.8 wt.% with sulfur in the melt increasing from 8 to 24 wt.%, irrespective of temperature. We also observed a slight decrease of carbon solubility in the liquid alloy with increasing pressure when alloy liquid contains >∼18 wt.% S, and with decreasing Ni/(Fe + Ni) ratio from 0.65 to ∼0.53. Based on our results, diamond, coexisting with Ni-rich sulfide liquid alloy is expected to be stable in the reduced, alloy-bearing oceanic mantle with C content as low as 20 to 5 ppm for mantle S varying between 100 and 200 ppm. Deep, reduced root of cratonic mantle, on the other hand, is expected to have C distributed among solid alloy, liquid alloy

  5. Isotopic Evidence For Chaotic Imprint In The Upper Mantle Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Gasperini, D.

    2006-12-01

    Heterogeneities of the asthenospheric mantle along mid-ocean ridges have been documented as the ultimate effect of complex processes dominated by temperature, pressure and composition of the shallow mantle, in a convective regime that involves mass transfer from the deep mantle, occasionally disturbed by the occurrence of hot spots (e.g. Graham et al., 2001; Agranier et al., 2005; Debaille et al., 2006). Alternatively, upper mantle heterogeneity is seen as the natural result of basically athermal processes that are intrinsic to plate tectonics, such as delamination and recycling of continental crust and of subducted aseismic ridges (Meibom and Anderson, 2003; Anderson, 2006). Here we discuss whether the theory of chaotic dynamical systems applied to isotopic space series along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR) can delimit the length-scale of upper mantle heterogeneities, then if the model of marble-cake mantle (Allègre and Turcotte, 1986) is consistent with a fractal distribution of such heterogeneity. The correlations between the isotopic (Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb) composition of MORB were parameterized as a function of the ridge length. We found that the distribution of isotopic heterogenity along both the MAR and EPR is self- similar in the range of 7000-9000 km. Self-similarity is the imprint of chaotic mantle processes. The existence of strange attractors in the distribution of isotopic composition of the asthenosphere sampled at ridge crests reveals recursion of the same mantle process(es), endured over long periods of time, up to a stationary state. The occurrence of the same fractal dimension for both the MAR and EPR implies independency of contingent events, suggesting common mantle processes, on a planetary scale. We envisage the cyclic route of "melting, melt extraction and recycling" as the main mantle process which could be able to induce scale invariance. It should have happened for a significant number of times over the Earth

  6. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  7. Deep Mantle Fluids Bottled Up in Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Y.; Pearson, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Many mantle xenoliths and mineral inclusions in diamonds reflect refertilisation and enrichment by mantle metasomatism, a key mechanism for controlling abrupt changes in the chemical and physical properties of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) globally. However, the nature of the fluids involved can normally only be constrained indirectly from geochemical proxies or calculated using mineral/melt partition coefficients. Direct samples of mantle metasomatic fluids, shielded from any late stage alteration, are encased as microinclusions in fast-growing diamonds - "fibrous diamonds". These trapped high-density fluids (HDFs) provide a unique chemical and physical record for tracing the sources of deep mantle fluids and constraining the processes that shape their nature.Diamond HDFs vary between four major compositional types: saline, silicic and high-Mg plus low-Mg carbonatitic. A strong connection has been established between high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs and a carbonated peridotite source. In addition, the silicic and low-Mg carbonatitic HDFs have been related to hydrous eclogite (±carbonate). However, the compositionally extreme saline fluid endmember remained enigmatic and its source in the deep lithosphere has remained ambiguous. Our new data on fluid-rich diamonds show the geochemical fingerprints of a subducting slab as the source of deep mantle fluids of saline composition. In addition, for the first time, we show that these deep saline fluids are parental, via fluid rock interaction, to in-situ forming carbonatitic and silicic melts in the lithosphere. This model provides a strong platform for resolving the effects of the compositional spectrum of mantle fluids, which alter the deep lithosphere globally and play key roles in diamond formation.

  8. Development of diapiric structures in the upper mantle due to phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, M.; Yuen, D. A.; Zhao, W.; Honda, S.

    1991-01-01

    Solid-state phase transition in time-dependent mantle convection can induce diapiric flows in the upper mantle. When a deep mantle plume rises toward phase boundaries in the upper mantle, the changes in the local thermal buoyancy, local heat capacity, and latent heat associated with the phase change at a depth of 670 kilometers tend to pinch off the plume head from the feeding stem and form a diapir. This mechanism may explain episodic hot spot volcanism. The nature of the multiple phase boundaries at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle may control the fate of deep mantle plumes, allowing hot plumes to go through and retarding the tepid ones.

  9. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  10. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-06-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  11. Upper mantle beneath Southeast Asia from S velocity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Nolet, Guust

    2003-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional, S velocity model of the SE Asian-western Pacific upper mantle with 400-km lateral resolution. Using the novel Automated Multimode Inversion technique, we processed 4038 vertical-component seismograms and extracted 22,708 linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties that constrain upper mantle structure. We used time-frequency windows to select signal with negligible proportion of scattered energy. The windows included the fundamental Rayleigh mode and S and multiple S waves. The observed range of S velocity variations is the widest (17-18%) in the upper 150 km of the mantle. High-velocity continental roots can reach beyond the present extent of the overlying Archean-Proterozoic crust by 500 km. Beneath some Precambrian units the roots are absent, which can be attributed to deformation and gradual destruction of the ancient lithosphere. At 120-150 km, S velocity beneath some cratons reaches 4.8 km/s; this can be accounted for by thermal and compositional effects. Beneath the Hainan Island area a low-velocity anomaly is observed from near the surface to the bottom of our model; the hot spot-type volcanism here may be caused by the deep-mantle Hainan plume. A low-velocity mantle domain underlies the south central Sea of Japan, surrounded on the surface by intraplate volcanoes. A deep-seismicity gap is present near 40°N in the Pacific slab subducting below and may result from a plume-slab interaction. A high-velocity anomaly is present in the transition zone beneath the northern boundary of the Yangtze Craton. We propose that the anomaly corresponds to subducted continental lithosphere, stagnant atop the 660-km discontinuity.

  12. Surface wave tomography applied to the North American upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lee, Suzan; Frederiksen, Andrew

    Tomographic techniques that invert seismic surface waves for 3-D Earth structure differ in their definitions of data and the forward problem as well as in the parameterization of the tomographic model. However, all such techniques have in common that the tomographic inverse problem involves solving a large and mixed-determined set of linear equations. Consequently these inverse problems have multiple solutions and inherently undefinable accuracy. Smoother and rougher tomographic models are found with rougher (confined to great circle path) and smoother (finite-width) sensitivity kernels, respectively. A powerful, well-tested method of surface wave tomography (Partitioned Waveform Inversion) is based on inverting the waveforms of wave trains comprising regional S and surface waves from at least hundreds of seismograms for 3-D variations in S wave velocity. We apply this method to nearly 1400 seismograms recorded by digital broadband seismic stations in North America. The new 3-D S-velocity model, NA04, is consistent with previous findings that are based on separate, overlapping data sets. The merging of US and Canadian data sets, adding Canadian recordings of Mexican earthquakes, and combining fundamental-mode with higher-mode waveforms provides superior resolution, in particular in the US-Canada border region and the deep upper mantle. NA04 shows that 1) the Atlantic upper mantle is seismically faster than the Pacific upper mantle, 2) the uppermost mantle beneath Precambrian North America could be one and a half times as rigid as the upper mantle beneath Meso- and Cenozoic North America, with the upper mantle beneath Paleozoic North America being intermediate in seismic rigidity, 3) upper-mantle structure varies laterally within these geologic-age domains, and 4) the distribution of high-velocity anomalies in the deep upper mantle aligns with lower mantle images of the subducted Farallon and Kula plates and indicate that trailing fragments of these subducted

  13. The upper mantle beneath the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei Aleksandrovich

    We present a high-resolution, three-dimensional S-velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia. We develop a novel Automated Multimode Inversion (AMI) technique that allows us to process a very large waveform data set with high accuracy. Information on upper mantle structure is obtained from vertical-component broadband seismograms, using the time and frequency windows that do not contain significant amounts of scattered energy. The time windows include both the fundamental Rayleigh mode and the S and multiple S waves, the body waves often triplicated. 4038 seismograms constrain the resulting tomographic model down to the 660-km discontinuity. The lateral resolution is about 400 km; velocity contrasts are located with a 100--400 km precision. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface waves proves an efficient technique for high-resolution upper-mantle imaging and presents opportunities for future developments that should further enhance tomographic resolution. The tomographic model offers new insights into the structure and dynamics of the SE Asia upper mantle. The western Yangtze Craton displays a signature of pronounced continental tectosphere; a strong high-velocity anomaly extends down to 300--350 km and continues about 500 km northwest outside of the cratonic boundaries; it is particularly fast beneath the Sichuan Basin. In the Sino-Korean Craton, the Archean Ordos Basin is fast down to 200--250 km depth; the eastern part of the craton is slow in the upper 250 km of the mantle. The Songliao Basin to the north of the craton is fast, at least down to 300 km; in agreement with geologic data, the fast ancient lithosphere of the Songliao Block extends west of the present boundaries of the basin. A pattern of deep high-velocity anomalies dominates the transition zone. The fastest anomaly, estimated to be up to 4--5%, is beneath the Bohai Gulf. The top of the fast anomaly is at a 250--300 km depth. The anomaly continues to the

  14. Metal Transport between the Upper Mantle and the Lower Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locmelis, M.; Adam, J.; Zaccarini, F.; Fiorentini, M. L.; Rushmer, T. A.; Garuti, G.; Turner, S.; Kollegger, P.; Davies, E.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the significance attributed to mantle-derived fluids as key elements in the transport and concentration of metals within the crust, we lack a robust understanding of the processes through which the mantle evolves and interacts with fluids at sub-crustal depths. This multi-scale integrated study addresses this void in our understanding through (1) designing a set of experiments to evaluate the chemical behaviour of fluid systems at lithospheric mantle-asthenospheric conditions, (2) parameterising and testing these experiments through the measurement of samples collected from the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ) in Italy. As well as representing direct exposure of continental lithospheric mantle rocks, this domain of deeply exhumed lower crust and mantle rocks hosts the most comprehensive and coherent suite known of deep-level Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide bearing mafic/ultramafic intrusions, providing a unique opportunity to resolve the dynamic emplacement and evolution of such magmatic ore bodies. These deposits display features that are anomalous in relation to typical orthomagmatic systems, in that they display pipe-like geometries and contain abundant hydrous minerals and accessory mineral phases, which are anomalously enriched in large ion lithophile and highly incompatible elements, with a strong alkaline affinity and a unique metal paragenesis. Preliminary data show that the pipes were emplaced at a temperature close to the water-saturated peridotite solidus of around 900 degrees Celsius. Mineral-chemical and isotopic data on amphibole and phlogopite grains indicate that mantle-derived carbonate-rich juvenile water played an important role in the formation of these mineral systems, whereby mantle metasomatism introduced elevated contents of alkalis and metals into the depleted mantle of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone. Increased water activity caused the harzburgite to undergo partial melting, thus producing pockets of volatile-rich sulphide-bearing ultramafic magma that evolved

  15. Processes of deep terrestrial mantles and cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure experiments are currently focused on revealing processes occurring deep inside planets. This is in addition to the traditional emphasis on the constitution of planetary interiors, such as the identification of the high pressure perovskite phase of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 as the predominant mineral inside the Earth, and probably Venus. For example, experiments show that the mechanism of geochemical differentiation, separation of partial melts, differs fundamentally in the lower mantles of Earth and Venus than at near surface conditions. In addition to structural transformations, changes in chemical bonding caused by pressure can also be significant for planetary interiors. Measurements of AC and DC electrical conductivity can be obtained at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures, to greater than 80 GPa and 3000 K simultaneously, using the laser heated diamond cell. Anhydrous lower mantle assemblages (perovskite + or - oxide phases) exhibit an electrical conductivity that depends strongly on Fe content. Contrary to traditional assumptions, temperature affects the conductivity of lower mantle assemblages relatively little. The Earth's deep focus seismicity can be explained by the recycling of water into the mantle.

  16. Attenuation Tomography of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of surface wave attenuation in the upper mantle. The model is constrained by a large data set of fundamental and higher Rayleigh mode observations. This data set consists of about 1,800,000 attenuation curves measured in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard (2012). A careful selection allows us to reject data for which measurements are likely biased by the poor knowledge of the scalar seismic moment or by a ray propagation too close to a node of the source radiation pattern. For each epicenter-station path, elastic focusing effects due to seismic heterogeneities are corrected using DR2012 and the data are turned into log(1/Q). The selected data are then combined in a tomographic inversion using the non-linear least square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982). The obtained attenuation maps are in agreement with the surface tectonic for periods and modes sensitive to the top 200km of the upper mantle. Low attenuation regions correlate with continental shields while high attenuation regions are located beneath young oceanic regions. The attenuation pattern becomes more homogeneous at depths greater than 200 km and the maps are dominated by a high quality factor signature beneath slabs. We will discuss the similarities and differences between the tomographies of seismic velocities and of attenuations.

  17. Os and HSE of the hot upper mantle beneath southern Tibet: Indian mantle affinity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Dale, C. W.; Pearson, D. G.; Niu, Y.; Zhu, D.; Mo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The subduction of the Indian plate (including cratonic continental crust and/or upper mantle) beneath southern Tibet is widely accepted from both geological and geophysical studies. Mantle-derived xenoliths from this region provide a means of directly investigating the mantle underlying the southern part of the plateau. Studies of xenoliths hosted in the Sailipu ultrapotassic volcanic rocks, erupted at ~17 Ma, have indicated that the subcontinental mantle of southern Tibetan Plateau is hot and strongly influenced by metasomatism (Zhao et al., 2008a, b; Liu et al., 2011). Here we report comprehensive EPMA and LA-ICP-MS major and trace element data for the Sailipu xenoliths and also whole rock Os isotope and HSE data in order to constrain the depletion history of the mantle and to identify the presence of any potential Indian cratonic mantle. The xenoliths, ranging in size from 0.5cm to 1.5cm in diameter, are mostly peridotites. The calculated temperatures are 1010-1230°C at the given pressures of ~1.6-2.0 GPa (n=47). These P-T conditions are similar to rift-related upper mantle regimes (e.g. Kenya), indicating the influence of regional extension beneath southern Tibet in the Miocene. A series of compositional discriminations for minerals (Cpx, Opx, Ol, and Phl), e.g. Fo<90, suggest that the xenoliths are non-cratonic spinel-peridotite (cratonic peridotite olivine Fo> ~91), with a clear metasomatic signature We obtained Os isotope data and abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE, including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re) on a set of six olivine-dominated peridotite samples from Sailipu volcanics, less than 1 cm in dimension. They allow us to further constrain the nature and state of the upper mantle beneath the southern Tibet. Sailipu samples display low total HSE abundances (Os+Ir+Ru+Pt+Pd+Re) ranging from 8.7 to 25 ppb, with nearly constant Os, Ir , and Ru, but rather varied Pt (2-13), Pd (0.4-5.2), and Re (0.01-0.5). Chondrite-normalised Pd/Ir ratios range from

  18. Small-scale upper mantle extension beneath a destroyed craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Zheng, T.; Chen, L.; Ai, Y.; He, Y.; Xu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC), as an unusual craton with part of its thick lithosphere destructed, records the geodynamic processes associated with the convergence of Eurasia and the Pacific and Philippine plates lasting from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic. How the cratonic lithosphere deformed in response to the extensional tectonics caused by the oceanic plate subduction, however, remains debated. In order to investigate the mantle deformation of the NCC, we present new shear wave splitting measurements and updated tomographic models beneath a 900-km long profile across the north NCC. Compared to our other observations in the NCC, this profile is shorter but also crosses a region that experienced strong lithospheric destruction, therefore provides a good opportunity to improve our understanding of upper mantle deformation during the craton destruction. The upper mantle deformation is studied using SKS data from 60 broadband stations with average spacing of 15 km. For the data from events occurring at distances of 85º-115º, fast polarization directions and delay times (fδt) are retrieved by a routine method, while for the events at distances < 85º, waveform modeling are applied to obtain (fδt) after separating the effects of S and SKS. The measured splitting parameters show small-scale variations from east to west: the major fast directions, trending NE-SW or NW-SE in contrast, distribute intermittently along the profile. We plot the splitting parameters overlapping on the geological map and the tomography image for a depth range of 120-300 km. Comparison shows good consistency of the splitting pattern and structural features both at shallow and deep depths: NW-SE trending fast directions are observed at stations located within the basins or extensional zones like metamorphic core complexes, with the fast direction parallel to the extensional or stretching directions; the fast directions and the shear-wave velocity anomalies within the upper mantle

  19. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Kohn, S C; Araujo, D; Bulanova, G P; Smith, C B; Gaillou, E; Wang, J; Steele, A; Shirey, S B

    2011-10-01

    A primary consequence of plate tectonics is that basaltic oceanic crust subducts with lithospheric slabs into the mantle. Seismological studies extend this process to the lower mantle, and geochemical observations indicate return of oceanic crust to the upper mantle in plumes. There has been no direct petrologic evidence, however, of the return of subducted oceanic crustal components from the lower mantle. We analyzed superdeep diamonds from Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, which host inclusions with compositions comprising the entire phase assemblage expected to crystallize from basalt under lower-mantle conditions. The inclusion mineralogies require exhumation from the lower to upper mantle. Because the diamond hosts have carbon isotope signatures consistent with surface-derived carbon, we conclude that the deep carbon cycle extends into the lower mantle.

  20. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Kohn, S C; Araujo, D; Bulanova, G P; Smith, C B; Gaillou, E; Wang, J; Steele, A; Shirey, S B

    2011-10-01

    A primary consequence of plate tectonics is that basaltic oceanic crust subducts with lithospheric slabs into the mantle. Seismological studies extend this process to the lower mantle, and geochemical observations indicate return of oceanic crust to the upper mantle in plumes. There has been no direct petrologic evidence, however, of the return of subducted oceanic crustal components from the lower mantle. We analyzed superdeep diamonds from Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, which host inclusions with compositions comprising the entire phase assemblage expected to crystallize from basalt under lower-mantle conditions. The inclusion mineralogies require exhumation from the lower to upper mantle. Because the diamond hosts have carbon isotope signatures consistent with surface-derived carbon, we conclude that the deep carbon cycle extends into the lower mantle. PMID:21921159

  1. Towards a Global Upper Mantle Attenuation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglu, Haydar; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Global anelastic tomography is crucial for addressing the nature of heterogeneity in the Earth's interior. The intrinsic attenuation manifests itself through dispersion and amplitude decay. These are contaminated by elastic effects such as (de)focusing and scattering. Therefore, mapping anelasticity accurately requires separation of elastic effects from the anelastic ones. To achieve this, a possible approach is to try and first predict elastic effects through the computation of seismic waveforms in a high resolution 3D elastic model, which can now be achieved accurately using numerical wavefield computations. Building upon the recent construction of such a whole mantle elastic and radially anisotropic shear velocity model (SEMUCB_WM1, French and Romanowicz, 2014), which will be used as starting model, our goal is to develop a higher resolution 3D attenuation model of the upper mantle based on full waveform inversion. As in the development of SEMUCB_WM1, forward modeling will be performed using the spectral element method, while the inverse problem will be treated approximately, using normal mode asymptotics. Both fundamental and overtone time domain long period waveforms (T>60s) will be used from a dataset of over 200 events observed at several hundred stations globally. Here we present preliminary results of synthetic tests, exploring different iterative inversion strategies.

  2. Primordial metallic melt in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Dorfman, Susannah M.; Labidi, Jabrane; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Mingming; Manga, Michael; Stixrude, Lars; McDonough, William F.; Williams, Quentin

    2016-04-01

    Seismic tomography models reveal two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that identify large-scale variations in temperature and composition in the deep mantle. Other characteristics include elevated density, elevated bulk sound speed, and sharp boundaries. We show that properties of LLSVPs can be explained by the presence of small quantities (0.3-3%) of suspended, dense Fe-Ni-S liquid. Trapping of metallic liquid is demonstrated to be likely during the crystallization of a dense basal magma ocean, and retention of such melts is consistent with currently available experimental constraints. Calculated seismic velocities and densities of lower mantle material containing low-abundance metallic liquids match the observed LLSVP properties. Small quantities of metallic liquids trapped at depth provide a natural explanation for primitive noble gas signatures in plume-related magmas. Our model hence provides a mechanism for generating large-scale chemical heterogeneities in Earth's early history and makes clear predictions for future tests of our hypothesis.

  3. Teleseismic tomography for imaging Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, Kadircan

    Teleseismic tomography is an important imaging tool in earthquake seismology, used to characterize lithospheric structure beneath a region of interest. In this study I investigate three different tomographic techniques applied to real and synthetic teleseismic data, with the aim of imaging the velocity structure of the upper mantle. First, by applying well established traveltime tomographic techniques to teleseismic data from southern Ontario, I obtained high-resolution images of the upper mantle beneath the lower Great Lakes. Two salient features of the 3D models are: (1) a patchy, NNW-trending low-velocity region, and (2) a linear, NE-striking high-velocity anomaly. I interpret the high-velocity anomaly as a possible relict slab associated with ca. 1.25 Ga subduction, whereas the low-velocity anomaly is interpreted as a zone of alteration and metasomatism associated with the ascent of magmas that produced the Late Cretaceous Monteregian plutons. The next part of the thesis is concerned with adaptation of existing full-waveform tomographic techniques for application to teleseismic body-wave observations. The method used here is intended to be complementary to traveltime tomography, and to take advantage of efficient frequency-domain methodologies that have been developed for inverting large controlled-source datasets. Existing full-waveform acoustic modelling and inversion codes have been modified to handle plane waves impinging from the base of the lithospheric model at a known incidence angle. A processing protocol has been developed to prepare teleseismic observations for the inversion algorithm. To assess the validity of the acoustic approximation, the processing procedure and modelling-inversion algorithm were tested using synthetic seismograms computed using an elastic Kirchhoff integral method. These tests were performed to evaluate the ability of the frequency-domain full-waveform inversion algorithm to recover topographic variations of the Moho under a

  4. Seismic images of the upper mantle velocities and structure of European mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Munzarova, Helena; Vecsey, Ludek; Babuska, Vladislav

    2014-05-01

    Tomography images of seismic velocities in the Earth mantle represent significant tool for recovering first order structural features. Regional studies, based on dense networks of temporary stations allow us to focus on structure of the continental upper mantle and to study variations of body-wave velocities in greater detail. However, the standard tomography exhibits only isotropic view of the Earth, whose structure is anisotropic in general, as shown by results of various studies exploiting a broad range of methods, types of waves and scales. We present results of our studies of seismic anisotropy in tectonically different provinces that clearly demonstrate the continental mantle lithosphere consists of domains with different fossil fabrics. We detect anisotropic signal both in teleseismic P-wave travel-time deviations and shear-wave splitting and show changes of the anisotropic parameters across seismic arrays, in which stations with similar characteristics form groups. The geographical variations of seismic-wave anisotropy delimit individual, often sharply bounded domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having a consistent fabric. The domains can be modelled in 3D by peridotite aggregates with dipping lineation a or foliation (a,c). These findings allow us to interpret the domains as micro-plate fragments retaining fossil fabrics in the mantle lithosphere, reflecting thus an olivine LPO created before the micro-plates assembled. Modelling anisotropic structure of individual domains of the continental mantle lithosphere helps to decipher boundaries of individual blocks building the continental lithosphere and hypothesize on processes of its formation (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010). Exploiting the long memory of the deep continental lithosphere fabric, we present the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as a transition between a fossil anisotropy in the mantle lithosphere and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to the present-day flow in

  5. Upper and mid mantle fabric developing during subduction-induced mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenda, Manuele

    2013-04-01

    Subduction zones are convergent margins where the rigid lithosphere sinks into the Earth's mantle inducing complex 3D flow patterns. Seismic anisotropy generated by strain-induced lattice/crystal preferred orientation (LPO/CPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals is commonly used to study flow in the mantle and its relations with plate motions. We computed the seismic anisotropy of the upper and mid mantle due to strain-induced LPO in 3D mechanical models of dynamic subduction by using, respectively, D-Rex and Underworld. Subsequently, FSTRACK was used to compute seismogram synthetics and SKS splitting patterns. Strong anisotropy develops in the upper mantle, while weak or null seismic anisotropy is formed in the upper transition zone/lower mantle and lower transition zone, respectively. The distribution of the fabric in the mantle depends on the distribution and amount of the deformation, and not on the rate at which the slab subducts. The SKS splitting patterns are controlled by the anisotropy in the upper mantle because SKS waves are more sensitive to the anisotropy in the shallowest layers. Horizontally propagating shear waves in the mid mantle originating from local earthquakes are characterized by significant splitting that is mostly due to the fabric in the uppermost lower mantle. We discuss the implications of our results for real subduction settings like Tonga, where a discrete amount of observations have been collected in the past 10 years on the anisotropy in the upper and mid mantle.

  6. European upper mantle tomography: adaptively parameterized models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Boschi, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have devised a new algorithm for upper-mantle surface-wave tomography based on adaptive parameterization: i.e. the size of each parameterization pixel depends on the local density of seismic data coverage. The advantage in using this kind of parameterization is that a high resolution can be achieved in regions with dense data coverage while a lower (and cheaper) resolution is kept in regions with low coverage. This way, parameterization is everywhere optimal, both in terms of its computational cost, and of model resolution. This is especially important for data sets with inhomogenous data coverage, as it is usually the case for global seismic databases. The data set we use has an especially good coverage around Switzerland and over central Europe. We focus on periods from 35s to 150s. The final goal of the project is to determine a new model of seismic velocities for the upper mantle underlying Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, of resolution higher than what is currently found in the literature. Our inversions involve regularization via norm and roughness minimization, and this in turn requires that discrete norm and roughness operators associated with our adaptive grid be precisely defined. The discretization of the roughness damping operator in the case of adaptive parameterizations is not as trivial as it is for the uniform ones; important complications arise from the significant lateral variations in the size of pixels. We chose to first define the roughness operator in a spherical harmonic framework, and subsequently translate it to discrete pixels via a linear transformation. Since the smallest pixels we allow in our parameterization have a size of 0.625 °, the spherical-harmonic roughness operator has to be defined up to harmonic degree 899, corresponding to 810.000 harmonic coefficients. This results in considerable computational costs: we conduct the harmonic-pixel transformations on a small Beowulf cluster. We validate our implementation of adaptive

  7. Upper Mantle Anisotropy Structures Beneath Eastern Tibet and Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tibetan plateau and eastern Asia subduction zone are tectonic active regions. Understanding the evolution and dynamics process of the two regions is important for us to understand mantle dynamics. A lot of work has been done on the velocity structures beneath the two regions, and several tectonic models are proposed to explain their dynamic process. But due to the absence of the detailed upper mantle anisotropy structures, those models are still under debate. Fine upper mantle velocity and anisotropy structures can help us understand the dynamic process of the two regions. Waveform modeling of upper mantle triplication phases can provide a good vertical resolution of upper mantle velocity structures, but present methods for calculating synthetic seismograms cannot process anisotropic media. We develop a method based on the generalized reflection and transmission method (GRTM) to calculate synthetic seismograms for wave propagating in stratified VTI media, so we can waveform model upper mantle triplications propagating in anisotropic media. In this study, we waveform model the tangential and radial seismic triplication data recorded in Chinese digital seismic stations at a epicentral distance of 10-30 degree for one event occurring in middle Tibet and one event occurring in Japan, to constrain fine upper mantle velocity and anisotropy structures beneath eastern Tibet and northeast Asia. The result shows that beneath eastern Tibet, horizontal S wave velocity is larger than vertical S wave velocity in the upper mantle; beneath northeast Asia, horizontal S wave velocity is larger than vertical S wave velocity above the depth of 190 km, and is smaller than vertical S wave velocity below the depth of 190 km. We also build a mineral physics modeling method, which can calculate upper mantle anisotropy structures based on mantle temperatures, compositions and directions of mantle flow, and use this method to explore compositional and dynamic models that would explain the

  8. Upper mantle anisotropy in the New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Klosko, E.K.

    1999-02-01

    Shear-wave splitting parameters of fast polarization direction (F) and delay time (dt) are determined using data from the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE), on the South Island of New Zealand and in the surrounding region. Our results clearly show that F are subparallel to trends of the Alpine and Marlborough Faults, and to the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. The dt values range from 0.6-2.2 s with an average value of 1.6 s; the largest values are from the central South Island. The main source of the observed shear-wave splitting is an anisotropic region between 40-400 km. The width of the zone is approximately 200 km. We attribute the coincidence of surface structural trends with the measured F, and the large dt values, to significant shear deformation in a 200 km thick zone along the plate boundary extending from the surface to deep within the upper mantle.

  9. The distribution of H2O between silicate melt and nominally anhydrous peridotite and the onset of hydrous melting in the deep upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novella, Davide; Frost, Daniel J.; Hauri, Erik H.; Bureau, Helene; Raepsaet, Caroline; Roberge, Mathilde

    2014-08-01

    The partitioning of H2O between a mantle peridotite assemblage and low degree hydrous melt has been investigated at 6 GPa (corresponding to ∼180 km depth) at a temperature of 1400 °C. Peridotite mineral phases were analysed from 6 melting experiments performed in a natural chemical system. The experiments contained ∼80 wt% of a low degree hydrous melt that was obtained through a series of experiments where the melt composition was iteratively adjusted until saturation with the appropriate peridotite assemblage was achieved. The melt is fluid-undersaturated at the conditions of the experiment. Ion microprobe measurements of the mineral phases indicate olivine H2O concentrations of 434±61 ppm wt and average clinopyroxene (cpx) concentrations of 1268±173 ppm wt H2O. Orthopyroxene (opx) and garnet contain 700±46 ppm wt and 347±83 ppm wt H2O, respectively. The H2O content of the hydrous melts was determined by mass balance to be 11±0.5 wt% H2O. H2O partition coefficients between minerals and melt (DH2Omin/melt=XH2Omin/XH2Omelt) are 0.0040±0.0006 for olivine, 0.0064±0.0004 for opx, 0.0115±0.0016 for cpx and 0.0032±0.0008 for garnet. Using the determined H2O partition coefficients the onset and extent of melting at conditions equivalent to 180 km below mid-ocean ridges was determined as a function of mantle H2O content. Current estimates for the H2O content of the depleted mantle (50-200 ppm wt H2O) are insufficient to induce mantle melting at this depth, which requires ∼700 ppm wt H2O to produce 0.1% melting and 1600 ppm wt H2O for 1% melting, along an adiabat with a potential temperature of 1327 °C. Melting can occur at these conditions within the mantle source of ocean island basalts, which are estimated to contain up to 900 ppm wt H2O. If adiabatic temperatures are 200 °C higher within such plume related sources, then melt fractions of over 1% can be reached at 180 km depth. In addition, a model for the distribution of H2O between peridotite mineral

  10. Seismic Waves Reflected from Discontinuities within Earth's Upper Mantle.

    PubMed

    Engdahl, E R; Flinn, E A

    1969-01-10

    Precursors to normtial seismic waves of the PKPPKP type in the distance range of 55 degrees to 75 degrees are ascribed to reflection of this phase from within the earth's upper mantle. The new observations confirm the existence of a sharply defined transition zone, probably worldwide in extent, at a depth of approximately 650 kilometers. These data are shown to be a useful tool for the study of upper mantle structure on a global basis.

  11. Redox state of earth's upper mantle from kimberlitic ilmenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.; Tompkins, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures and oxygen fugacities are reported on discrete ilmenite nodules in kimberlites from West Africa which demonstrate that the source region in the upper mantle is moderately oxidized, consistent with other nodule suites in kimberlites from southern Africa and the United States. A model is presented for a variety of tectonic settings, proposing that the upper mantle is profiled in redox potential, oxidized in the fertile asthenosphere but reduced in the depleted lithosphere.

  12. Topographic Expression of Deep Crustal and Mantle Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, K. X.; Ouimet, W. B.; Baldwin, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The topography of mountain ranges records much information about the history of tectonic events and climatic conditions. Although this record is not easily read, as there are many imperfectly understood factors that influence landscape morphology, there is much encouraging evidence that the river steepness index (a cousin of the Hack gradient index) exhibits a robust correlation with rock uplift rate. Published, and soon to be published, examples span a wide range of field conditions from sites around the globe (e.g., Western US, Bolivia, Nepal, China, Taiwan). Differences in substrate rock properties can have a pronounced influence on channel steepness for a given rock uplift rate, however, and analyses are best limited to regional studies where climatic conditions and lithology are largely uniform. In such settings, careful analysis of river profiles and the relief structure of the landscape can reveal important information about the history of rock uplift, recording temporal changes in uplift/river incision rates. This potential adds considerably to the value of topographic analyses, especially where uplift is driven by deep crustal or mantle processes and not clearly expressed in upper crustal structures and geodetic shortening data. However, this potential comes at the price of complicating the interpretation of the relationship between topography and the modern snapshot of deep crustal/mantle conditions provided by geophysical imaging techniques. Over what timescales does topography retain a record of past events in earth's interior? Important questions remain unanswered about the age of topography in many landscapes where deep crustal or mantle dynamics have been invoked. We discuss the factors that control landscape response time, both to an increase in rock uplift rate and to the cessation of tectonic activity, and present constraints on the antiquity of topography in several field settings.

  13. Evidence for deep mantle convection and primordial heterogeneity from nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Cartigny, P.; Harris, J. W.; Kaminsky, F. V.; Stachel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Diamond, as the deepest sample available for study, provides a unique opportunity to sample and examine parts of the Earth's mantle not directly accessible. In order to provide further constraints on mantle convection and deep volatile cycles, we analysed nitrogen and carbon isotopes and nitrogen abundances in 133 diamonds from Juina (Brazil) and Kankan (Guinea). Host syngenetic inclusions within these diamonds indicate origins from the lithosphere, the asthenosphere-transition zone and the lower mantle. Juina and Kankan diamonds both display overall carbon isotopic compositions within the current upper mantle range but the δ13C signatures of diamonds from the asthenosphere-transition zone extend toward very negative and positive values, respectively. Two Kankan diamonds with both lower mantle and asthenosphere-transition zone inclusions (KK-45 and KK-83) are zoned in δ13C, and have signatures consistent with multiple growth steps likely within both the lower mantle and the asthenosphere-transition zone illustrating the transfer of material through the 670 km seismic discontinuity. At a given locality, diamonds from the upper and the lower mantle show similar δ15N distributions with coinciding modes within the range defined by typical upper mantle samples, as one might expect for a well stirred reservoir resulting from whole mantle convection. Kankan diamonds KK-11 (lower mantle), KK-21 and KK-92 (both lithospheric) display the lowest δ15N values (-24.9%, -39.4% and -30.4%) ever measured in terrestrial samples, which we interpret as reflecting primordial heterogeneity preserved in an imperfectly mixed convective mantle. Our diamond data thus provide support for deeply rooted convection cells, together with the preservation of primordial volatiles in an imperfectly mixed convecting mantle, thereby reconciling the conflicting interpretations regarding mantle homogeneity derived from geochemical and geophysical studies.

  14. Formation of hydrocarbons under upper mantle conditions: experimental view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.

    2010-05-01

    Main postulates of the theory of abiogenic abyssal origin of petroleum have been developed in the last 50 years in Russia and Ukraine. According to this theory, hydrocarbon compounds were generated in the mantle and migrated through the deep faults into the Earth's crust. There they formed oil and gas deposits in any kinds of rocks and in any kind of their structural positions. Until recently the main obstacle to accept the theory was the lack of reliable and reproducible experimental data confirming the possibility of the synthesis of complex hydrocarbon systems under the mantle conditions. The results received in the last decade by different groups of researchers from Russia, U.S.A. and China have confirmed the possibility of generation of hydrocarbons from inorganic materials, highly distributed in the Earth's mantle, under thermobaric conditions of 70-250 km: 2 - 5 GPa and 1000-1500 K. Experiments made in the CONAC chamber at pressures of 3-5 GPa and temperatures of 1000-1500 K by Kutcherov et al. [1, 2] have demonstrated that the mixtures of hydrocarbons with composition similar to natural hydrocarbon systems have been received as a result of chemical reactions between CaCO3, FeO and H2O. Methane formation from the same compounds was registered after heating up to 600-1500 K at pressures of 4-11 GPa in diamond anvil cells [4, 5, 6]. Influence of oxidation state of carbon donor and cooling rate of the fluid synthesized at high pressure were studied using different types of high pressure equipments. It was shown that composition of the final hydrocarbon mixture depends on these parameters. Experimental investigations of transformation of methane and ethane at 2-5 GPa and 1000-1500 K [3] confirmed thermodynamic stability of heavy hydrocarbons in the upper mantle and showed the possibility of hydrocarbon chain growth even at oxidative environment. For development of the theory of abiogenic abyssal origin of petroleum it is necessary to arrange a set of new

  15. Upper mantle discontinuity structure from underside reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    This research investigates Earth structure in the mantle transition zone, a range of depths bounded by two major solid-state phase transformations of the mineral olivine: the conversion of olivine to wadsleyite near 410 km depth, and the dissociation of ringwoodite into Mg-silicate perovskite plus magnesiowuestite near 660 km depth. The phase transformations are dependent upon the thermal and chemical state of the mantle; lateral heterogeneity in mantle temperature and composition will change the transformation depth. The denser, more compact structures of olivine possess higher seismic wave speeds and densities, thus giving rise to seismic discontinuities at the phase transitions. The depth and sharpness of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are mapped using seismic energy that reflects from the underside of these boundaries to investigate the thermal and chemical state of the mantle. Underside reflections of shear and compressional seismic waves arrive as precursory energy several hundred seconds before the seismic phases SS and PP, which form as underside reflections off the crust. Using broadband datasets of precursors to SS and PP, topographic variation maps of the 410 km and 660 km boundaries are produced for study regions beneath the Pacific Ocean and South American continent. Beneath most of the Pacific, the discontinuities are found close to the global average, suggesting that the mantle in this region is not significantly perturbed in temperature and chemistry. However, within 1000 km of several Pacific hotspots, including Hawaii, there is evidence for hot upwelling material rising through the transition zone that correlates with the edges of extremely hot (i.e., seismically low velocity) regions of the lowermost mantle, supporting whole mantle convection. Beneath the South American continent there is evidence for both thermal and chemical variation near the subducting Nazca plate, consistent with cold, and hydrated materials sinking into the mantle

  16. An in situ experimental study of Zr4+ transport capacity of water-rich fluids in the temperature and pressure range of the deep crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Earth's history, mass transport involved fluids. In order to address the circumstances under which Zr4+ may have been transported in this manner, its solubility behavior in aqueous fluid with and without NaOH and SiO2 in equilibrium with crystalline ZrO2 was determined from 550 to 950 °C and 60 to 1200 MPa. The measurements were carried out in situ while the samples were at the temperatures and pressures of interest. In ZrO2-H2O and ZrO2-SiO2-H2O fluids, the Zr4+ concentration ranges from ≤10 to ~70 ppm with increasing temperature and pressure. Addition of SiO2 to the ZrO2-H2O system does not affect these values appreciably. In these two environments, Zr4+ forms simple oxide complexes in the H2O fluid with ∆H ~ 40 kJ/mol for the solution equilibrium, ZrO2(solid) = ZrO2(fluid). The Zr4+ concentration in aqueous fluid increases about an order of magnitude upon addition of 1 M NaOH, which reflects the formation of zirconate complexes. The principal solution mechanism is ZrO2 + 4NaOH = Na4ZrO4 + 2H2O with ∆H ~ 200 kJ/mol. Addition of both SiO2 and NaOH to ZrO2-H2O enhances the Zr4+ by an additional factor of about 5 with the formation of partially protonated alkali zircon silicate complexes in the fluid. The principal solution mechanism is 2ZrO2 + 2NaOH + 2SiO2 = Na2Zr2Si2O9 + H2O with ∆H ~ 40 kJ/mol. These results, in combination with other published experimental data, imply that fluid released during high-temperature/high-pressure dehydration of hydrous mineral assemblages in the Earth's interior under some circumstances may carry significant concentrations of Zr and probably other high field strength elements (HFSEs). This suggestion is consistent with the occurrence of Zr-rich veins in high-grade metamorphic eclogite and granulite terranes. Moreover, aqueous fluids transported from dehydrating oceanic crust into overlying mantle source rocks of partial melting also may carry high-abundance HFSE of fluids released from dehydrating slabs and

  17. Upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Keith; Cipar, John; Egorkin, Anatoli; Pavlenkova, Nina

    1994-08-01

    We present a new velocity model for the continental upper mantle beneath central Siberia based on observations of the 1982'RIFT'Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile. Three Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) were detonated to provide energy for the 2600 km long profile that extends from the Yamal Peninsula to the Mongolian border SE of Lake Baikal. In this paper, we model seismic recordings from the northernmost explosion since data from that shot shows unambiguous arrivals from the mantle-transition-zone discontinuities. The analysis combines forward-traveltime modelling and waveform matching using reflectivity synthetic seismograms. Our model for the lithosphere has velocities of 8.25-8.20 km s-1 from the Moho to 117 km depth. Between 117 and 123 km depth, a strong velocity gradient (8.30-8.53 km s-1) is required while a moderate gradient (8.53-8.55 km s-1) exists between 123 and 136 km depth. A low-velocity zone from 136 to 210 km depth terminates this phase arrival branch. The gradient again rises between 210 and 233 km and depth, culminating in a high-gradient zone (8.63-8.80 km s-1) between 233 and 235 km depth. Below the high-gradient zone, more moderate gradient (8.80-8.85 km s-1) is required from 235 to 253 km depth, terminating in a zone of lower velocity (8.62-8.64 km s-1) from 253 to 400 km depth. The upper-mantle transition zone consists of two high-gradient zones separated by a more moderate gradient. The upper zone is best modelled as a 35 km thick velocity gradient (8.64-9.45 km s-1) from 400 to 435 km depth. The existence of the velocity gradient is based on the observation that arrivals from this feature can be identified starting at 1580 km range and rapidly become prominent with increasing distance. A model with a first-order discontinuity predicts significant arrivals at ranges closer than 1580 km. Our observations contain no compelling evidence for a 520 km discontinuity, although a small discontinuity cannot be ruled out. The lower

  18. The North American upper mantle: Density, composition, and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Kaban, Mikhail K.

    2010-12-01

    The upper mantle of North America has been well studied using various seismic methods. Here we investigate the density structure of the North American (NA) upper mantle based on the integrative use of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. The effect of the crust is removed in three steps by subtracting the gravitational contributions of (1) topography and bathymetry, (2) low-density sedimentary accumulations, and (3) the three-dimensional density structure of the crystalline crust as determined by seismic observations. Information regarding sedimentary accumulations, including thickness and density, are taken from published maps and summaries of borehole measurements of densities; the seismic structure of the crust is based on a recent compilation, with layer densities estimated from P-wave velocities. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (-50 to -400 mGal) beneath western North America and the adjacent oceanic region and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mGal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of North America into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. The close correlation of large-scale features of the mantle anomaly map with those of the topographic map indicates that a significant amount of the topographic uplift in western NA is due to buoyancy in the hot upper mantle, a conclusion supported by previous investigations. To separate the contributions of mantle temperature anomalies from mantle compositional anomalies, we apply an additional correction to the mantle anomaly map for the thermal structure of the uppermost mantle. The thermal model is based on the conversion of seismic shear-wave velocities to temperature and is consistent with mantle temperatures that are independently estimated from heat flow and heat production data. The

  19. The North American upper mantle: density, composition, and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, Walter D.; Kaban, Mikhail K.

    2010-01-01

    The upper mantle of North America has been well studied using various seismic methods. Here we investigate the density structure of the North American (NA) upper mantle based on the integrative use of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. The effect of the crust is removed in three steps by subtracting the gravitational contributions of (1) topography and bathymetry, (2) low-density sedimentary accumulations, and (3) the three-dimensional density structure of the crystalline crust as determined by seismic observations. Information regarding sedimentary accumulations, including thickness and density, are taken from published maps and summaries of borehole measurements of densities; the seismic structure of the crust is based on a recent compilation, with layer densities estimated from P-wave velocities. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (−50 to −400 mGal) beneath western North America and the adjacent oceanic region and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mGal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of North America into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. The close correlation of large-scale features of the mantle anomaly map with those of the topographic map indicates that a significant amount of the topographic uplift in western NA is due to buoyancy in the hot upper mantle, a conclusion supported by previous investigations. To separate the contributions of mantle temperature anomalies from mantle compositional anomalies, we apply an additional correction to the mantle anomaly map for the thermal structure of the uppermost mantle. The thermal model is based on the conversion of seismic shear-wave velocities to temperature and is consistent with mantle temperatures that are independently estimated from heat flow and heat production data

  20. Seismic structure and heterogeneity in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenntt, B. L. N.

    The earliest models of the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle were smooth. But, since the introduction of strong gradients near 400 km depth by Jeffreys to explain the '20° discontinuity" in observed travel times, there has been a steady accumulation of detail in mantle structure. For a particular region, a smoothed and averaged representation of the seismic structure in the upper mantle can be derived from long-period body wave and higher mode surface wave observations. The vertical resolving power of such techniques is limited by the relatively long wavelengths. In contrast short-period observations offer potential resolution, but are susceptible to the influence of lateral heterogeneity. Fortunately the major features of the upper mantle can be discerned but important questions for structural processes such as the detailed nature ofthe transitions near 410 and 660 km are generally inaccessible. There is a natural tendency to overweight those observations on which particularly clear features are seen (as compared with the statistical anonymity of less spectacular data) which can lead to unwarranted generalizationsof specific results. To reconcile different views of mantle structure requires us to address the purpose for which the mantle structures are to be used. For example, fine detail in a velocity model which is insignificant for travel time studies can have a profound effect on amplitudes and short-period seismic waveforms. The variability in the patterns of body wave observations, especially atshort periods, provides strong evidence for 1-2 per cent heterogeneity on scales around 200 km in the upper mantle. Such features are superimposed on larger scale and larger amplitude lateral variations which can be mapped using surface wave studies. Much of the pattern of lateral variability in the upper mantle is likely to be due to thermal processes both directly by the influence of temperature and indirectly by compositional effects induced by flow

  1. Solid-liquid iron partitioning in Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Andrault, Denis; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Lo Nigro, Giacomo; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Veronesi, Giulia; Garbarino, Gaston; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2012-07-18

    Melting processes in the deep mantle have important implications for the origin of the deep-derived plumes believed to feed hotspot volcanoes such as those in Hawaii. They also provide insight into how the mantle has evolved, geochemically and dynamically, since the formation of Earth. Melt production in the shallow mantle is quite well understood, but deeper melting near the core-mantle boundary remains controversial. Modelling the dynamic behaviour of deep, partially molten mantle requires knowledge of the density contrast between solid and melt fractions. Although both positive and negative melt buoyancies can produce major chemical segregation between different geochemical reservoirs, each type of buoyancy yields drastically different geodynamical models. Ascent or descent of liquids in a partially molten deep mantle should contribute to surface volcanism or production of a deep magma ocean, respectively. We investigated phase relations in a partially molten chondritic-type material under deep-mantle conditions. Here we show that the iron partition coefficient between aluminium-bearing (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite and liquid is between 0.45 and 0.6, so iron is not as incompatible with deep-mantle minerals as has been reported previously. Calculated solid and melt density contrasts suggest that melt generated at the core-mantle boundary should be buoyant, and hence should segregate upwards. In the framework of the magma oceans induced by large meteoritic impacts on early Earth, our results imply that the magma crystallization should push the liquids towards the surface and form a deep solid residue depleted in incompatible elements.

  2. Solid-liquid iron partitioning in Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Andrault, Denis; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Lo Nigro, Giacomo; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Veronesi, Giulia; Garbarino, Gaston; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2012-07-19

    Melting processes in the deep mantle have important implications for the origin of the deep-derived plumes believed to feed hotspot volcanoes such as those in Hawaii. They also provide insight into how the mantle has evolved, geochemically and dynamically, since the formation of Earth. Melt production in the shallow mantle is quite well understood, but deeper melting near the core-mantle boundary remains controversial. Modelling the dynamic behaviour of deep, partially molten mantle requires knowledge of the density contrast between solid and melt fractions. Although both positive and negative melt buoyancies can produce major chemical segregation between different geochemical reservoirs, each type of buoyancy yields drastically different geodynamical models. Ascent or descent of liquids in a partially molten deep mantle should contribute to surface volcanism or production of a deep magma ocean, respectively. We investigated phase relations in a partially molten chondritic-type material under deep-mantle conditions. Here we show that the iron partition coefficient between aluminium-bearing (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite and liquid is between 0.45 and 0.6, so iron is not as incompatible with deep-mantle minerals as has been reported previously. Calculated solid and melt density contrasts suggest that melt generated at the core-mantle boundary should be buoyant, and hence should segregate upwards. In the framework of the magma oceans induced by large meteoritic impacts on early Earth, our results imply that the magma crystallization should push the liquids towards the surface and form a deep solid residue depleted in incompatible elements. PMID:22810700

  3. Adiabaticity and viscosity in deep mantle convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quareni, F.; Yuen, D. A.; Saari, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been conducted of steady convection with adiabatic and viscous heating for variable viscosity in the Boussinesq limit using the mean-field theory. A strong nonlinear coupling is found between the thermodynamic constants governing adiabatic heating and the rheological parameters. The range of rheological values for which adiabaticity would occur throughout the mantle has been established. Too large an activation volume, greater than 6 cu cm/mol for the cases examined, would produce unreasonably high temperature at the bottom of the mantle (greater than 6000 K) and superadiabatic gradients, especially in the lower mantle. Radiogenic heating plays a profound role in controlling dynamically mantle temperatures. Present values for the averaged mantle heat production would yield objectionably high temperatures in the lower mantle.

  4. Redox freezing and melting in the Earth's deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Arno; Schmidt, Max W

    2011-04-14

    Very low seismic velocity anomalies in the Earth's mantle may reflect small amounts of melt present in the peridotite matrix, and the onset of melting in the Earth's upper mantle is likely to be triggered by the presence of small amounts of carbonate. Such carbonates stem from subducted oceanic lithosphere in part buried to depths below the 660-kilometre discontinuity and remixed into the mantle. Here we demonstrate that carbonate-induced melting may occur in deeply subducted lithosphere at near-adiabatic temperatures in the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle. We show experimentally that these carbonatite melts are unstable when infiltrating ambient mantle and are reduced to immobile diamond when recycled at depths greater than ∼250 kilometres, where mantle redox conditions are determined by the presence of an (Fe,Ni) metal phase. This 'redox freezing' process leads to diamond-enriched mantle domains in which the Fe(0), resulting from Fe(2+) disproportionation in perovskites and garnet, is consumed but the Fe(3+) preserved. When such carbon-enriched mantle heterogeneities become part of the upwelling mantle, diamond will inevitably react with the Fe(3+) leading to true carbonatite redox melting at ∼660 and ∼250 kilometres depth to form deep-seated melts in the Earth's mantle. PMID:21441908

  5. Redox freezing and melting in the Earth's deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Arno; Schmidt, Max W

    2011-04-14

    Very low seismic velocity anomalies in the Earth's mantle may reflect small amounts of melt present in the peridotite matrix, and the onset of melting in the Earth's upper mantle is likely to be triggered by the presence of small amounts of carbonate. Such carbonates stem from subducted oceanic lithosphere in part buried to depths below the 660-kilometre discontinuity and remixed into the mantle. Here we demonstrate that carbonate-induced melting may occur in deeply subducted lithosphere at near-adiabatic temperatures in the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle. We show experimentally that these carbonatite melts are unstable when infiltrating ambient mantle and are reduced to immobile diamond when recycled at depths greater than ∼250 kilometres, where mantle redox conditions are determined by the presence of an (Fe,Ni) metal phase. This 'redox freezing' process leads to diamond-enriched mantle domains in which the Fe(0), resulting from Fe(2+) disproportionation in perovskites and garnet, is consumed but the Fe(3+) preserved. When such carbon-enriched mantle heterogeneities become part of the upwelling mantle, diamond will inevitably react with the Fe(3+) leading to true carbonatite redox melting at ∼660 and ∼250 kilometres depth to form deep-seated melts in the Earth's mantle.

  6. The origin of teleseismic Pn waves: Multiple crustal scattering of upper mantle whispering gallery phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Thybo, H.

    2003-10-01

    Teleseismic Pn arrivals with an extensive coda are observed to offsets beyond 3000 km along the peaceful nuclear explosion seismic profiles Quartz and Ruby, which were recorded in the western part of the former Soviet Union. We interpret these arrivals as multiply reflected sub-Moho refractions that travel over large distances due to a positive vertical upper mantle velocity gradient, which is characteristic for the study area. Analysis of the observed data shows that the teleseismic Pn and its coda contain significant amounts of energy at all frequencies between 0 and 10 Hz. Our modeling results show that crustal scattering may fully explain the teleseismic Pn coda contrary to another published model with upper mantle heterogeneity in the ˜35-130 km depth range. These conclusions are based on two-dimensional viscoelastic finite-difference seismic wave field simulations in 2000-km-long and 250-km-deep models of the crust and upper mantle. The computationally demanding calculations are facilitated by the use of supercomputer systems. Our preferred model of crustal scattering is consistent with the results of other high-resolution wide-angle and normal-incidence seismic investigations of the crust and upper mantle. They show pronounced reflectivity of the lower crust above an almost transparent uppermost mantle down to ˜80-100 km depth. Our model includes a high vertical velocity gradient in the upper mantle based on the results from seismic refraction studies. We suggest that the teleseismic Pn wave travels as an upper mantle whispering gallery phase and that the origin of its long coda is crustal scattering.

  7. Seismic Anisotropy in the Deep Mantle, Boundary Layers and the Geometry of Mantle Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    An attempt is made to explore the geodynamical significance of seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle on the basis of mineral physics. The mineral physics observations used include the effects of deformation mechanisms on lattice and shape preferred orientation, the effects of pressure on elastic anisotropy and the nature of lattice preferred orientation in deep mantle minerals in dislocation creep regime. Many of these issues are still poorly constrained, but a review of recent results shows that it is possible to interpret deep mantle seismic anisotropy in a unified fashion, based on the solid state processes without invoking partial melting. The key notions are (i) the likely regional variation in the magnitude of anisotropy as deformation mechanisms change from dislocation to diffusion creep (or superplasticity), associated with a change in the stress level and/or grain-size in the convecting mantle with a high Rayleigh number, and (ii) the change in elastic anisotropy with pressure in major mantle minerals, particularly in (Mg, Fe)O. The results provide the following constraints on the style of mantle convection (i) the SH > SV anisotropy in the bottom transition zone and the SV > SH anisotropy in the top lower mantle can be attributed to anisotropy structures (lattice preferred orientation and/or laminated structures) caused by the horizontal flow in this depth range, suggesting the presence of a mid-mantle boundary layer due to (partially) layered convection, (ii) the observed no significant seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle near subduction zones implies that deformation associated with subducting slabs is due mostly to diffusion creep (or superplasticity) and therefore slabs are weak in the deep mantle and hence easily deformed when encountered with resistance forces, and (iii) the SH > SV anisotropy in the cold thick portions of the D" layer is likely to be due to horizontally aligned shape preferred orientation in perovskite plus magnesiow

  8. Upper mantle fluids involved in diamond formation and mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Diamond formation coupled with metasomatic reactions involving the interaction of fluids with silicate host rocks provides important clues about the deep carbon cycle. However, quantitative modeling of diamond formation with silicate rock metasomatism has not been possible. Here the Deep Water (DEW) model [1] was used to generate equilibrium constants for irreversible chemical mass transfer calculations monitoring evolving fluid chemistry during diamond formation and coupled silicate reactions. Conceptual models for diamond formation in two environments were constructed for the purpose of illustrating the role of pH in diamond-forming systems. For cratonic diamonds, fluid at 900°C and 5.0 GPa was derived in equilibrium with a carbonated mafic part of a subducting slab consisting of pure diopside, enstatite, pyrope, phlogopite, magnesite, diamond and pyrite. The fluid was assumed to infiltrate and react at constant T and P with a model metasedimentary eclogite (jadeite, pyrope, kyanite and coesite). Abundant diamond was predicted to precipitate as reactant silicate minerals were destroyed and secondary pyrope, jadeite and kyanite were precipitated, which could represent the solid inclusions in natural diamonds. The final fluid chemistry was extremely enriched in Si and depleted in Ca relative to the initial fluid, consistent with the worldwide fluid inclusion trend from carbonatitic fluid to silicic fluid. The logfO2 changed by only 0.2, whereas pH continuously decreased as reaction with jadeite and kyanite and precipitation of secondary pyrope removed Mg2+ and added H+ to the fluid. Most of the carbon precipitated as diamond was derived from decreasing concentrations of formate and propionate. In the UHPM scenario, fluid at 600°C and 5.0 GPa in carbonated peridotite (forsterite, antigorite, clinochlore, magnesite, and pyrrhotite) in a subducting slab was assumed to infiltrate and react at constant T and P with a different model metasedimentary eclogite (jadeite

  9. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity in the Indian Ocean Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, K. E.; Dalton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Current understanding of the seismic properties of the oceanic upper mantle is heavily weighted toward studies of the Pacific upper mantle. However, global seismic models indicate differences in upper-mantle properties beneath the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Furthermore, factors such as spreading rate, absolute plate motion, and the presence of intraplate volcanism vary between these regions. It is thus important to consider the broad range in parameters when forming ideas about mantle dynamics and lithosphere evolution within ocean basins. We are developing a high-resolution basin-wide seismic model of the Indian Ocean upper mantle. The Indian Ocean contains 16,000 km of mid-ocean ridge, with spreading rates ranging from approximately 14 mm/yr along the Southwest Indian Ridge to 55-75 mm/yr along the Southeast Indian Ridge. It also contains 12 volcanic hotspots, overlies a portion of a large low-shear-velocity province in the lower mantle, and is home to the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and a negative geoid anomaly just south of India, among other features. We measure phase velocity in the period range 30-130 seconds for fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves traversing the Indian Ocean; the data set includes 831 events that occurred between 1992 and 2014 and 769 stations. In order to isolate the signal of the oceanic upper mantle, paths with >30% of their length through continental upper mantle are excluded. Variations in phase velocity in the Indian Ocean upper mantle are explored with two approaches. One, phase velocity is allowed to vary only as a function of seafloor age. Two, a general two-dimensional parameterization is utilized in order to capture perturbations to age-dependent structure. Our preliminary results indicate a strong dependence of phase velocity on seafloor age, with higher velocity associated with older seafloor, and perturbations to the age-dependent trend in the vicinity of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and the Marion and

  10. The composition of mantle plumes and the deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, Alan R.; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Kerr, Andrew C.; McDonald, Iain; Schwindrofska, Antje; Hoernle, Kaj

    2016-06-01

    Determining the composition and geochemical diversity of Earth's deep mantle and subsequent ascending mantle plumes is vital so that we can better understand how the Earth's primitive mantle reservoirs initially formed and how they have evolved over the last 4.6 billion years. Further data on the composition of mantle plumes, which generate voluminous eruptions on the planet's surface, are also essential to fully understand the evolution of the Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere with links to surface environmental changes that may have led to mass extinction events. Here we present new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data on basalts from Curacao, part of the Caribbean large igneous province. From these and literature data, we calculate combined major and trace element compositions for the mantle plumes that generated the Caribbean and Ontong Java large igneous provinces and use mass balance to determine the composition of the Earth's lower mantle. Incompatible element and isotope results indicate that mantle plumes have broadly distinctive depleted and enriched compositions that, in addition to the numerous mantle reservoirs already proposed in the literature, represent large planetary-scale geochemical heterogeneity in the Earth's deep mantle that are similar to non-chondritic Bulk Silicate Earth compositions.

  11. Postglacial rebound with a non-Newtonian upper mantle and a Newtonian lower mantle rheology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Yuen, David A.; Sabadini, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    A composite rheology is employed consisting of both linear and nonlinear creep mechanisms which are connected by a 'transition' stress. Background stress due to geodynamical processes is included. For models with a non-Newtonian upper-mantle overlying a Newtonian lower-mantle, the temporal responses of the displacements can reproduce those of Newtonian models. The average effective viscosity profile under the ice-load at the end of deglaciation turns out to be the crucial factor governing mantle relaxation. This can explain why simple Newtonian rheology has been successful in fitting the uplift data over formerly glaciated regions.

  12. Regional models of the upper mantle structure in the greater Alpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, J.; Babuska, V.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.; Karousova, H.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale international passive seismic experiments proved their essential role in acquiring digital waveform data for studies of deep structure of the Earth, particularly of the upper mantle or specifically, of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The Alps developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates and their fragments, however an extensive passive seismic experiment similar to those in other European provinces has not been carried out yet. Interactions of European lithosphere with plates colliding from the south were not simple and resulted in complicated geometry of subductions in the Western and Eastern Alps, where two separated Alpine roots developed (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003, Kissling et al., ELD 2006). Standard tomographic images of the velocity or velocity perturbations detect predominantly isotropic structure of the upper mantle. By evaluating large-scale seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle we can model its fabric and map in detail structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Studies of the mantle fabrics in 3D, exploiting body-wave anisotropic parameters, shed more light on development of the complex Alpine region and its surroundings. We present isotropic and anisotropic models of the upper mantle in tectonically different provinces of the greater Alpine area, retrieved from joint inversion/interpretation of both directional terms of relative travel-time deviations of longitudinal waves and shear-wave splitting. The 3D self-consistent anisotropic models of the continental mantle lithosphere exhibit often sharply bounded domains of uniform fossil fabrics. We interpret the domain-like structure of the mantle lithosphere as representing individual continental fragments, which are able to retain their original anisotropy, which was created a long time before their assembly (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006; Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010). Deciphering the structure of paleo-plates in

  13. Localized seismic deformation in the upper mantle revealed by dense seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbal, Asaf; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Clayton, Robert W.

    2016-10-01

    Seismicity along continental transform faults is usually confined to the upper half of the crust, but the Newport-Inglewood fault (NIF), a major fault traversing the Los Angeles basin, is seismically active down to the upper mantle. We use seismic array analysis to illuminate the seismogenic root of the NIF beneath Long Beach, California, and identify seismicity in an actively deforming localized zone penetrating the lithospheric mantle. Deep earthquakes, which are spatially correlated with geochemical evidence of a fluid pathway from the mantle, as well as with a sharp vertical offset in the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, exhibit narrow size distribution and weak temporal clustering. We attribute these characteristics to a transition from strong to weak interaction regimes in a system of seismic asperities embedded in a ductile fault zone matrix.

  14. Dikes, joints, and faults in the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Kirby, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of macroscopic fractures are recognized in upper-mantle and lower-crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks from around the world: 1. (1) joints that are tensile fractures not occupied by crystallized magma products 2. (2) dikes that are tensile fractures occupied by mafic magmas crystallized to pyroxenites, gabbros or hydrous-mineral-rich rocks, 3. (3) faults that are unfilled shear fractures with surface markings indicative of shear displacement. In addition to intra-xenolith fractures, xenoliths commonly have polygonal or faceted shapes that represent fractures exploited during incorporation of the xenoliths into the host magma that brought them to the surface. The various types of fractures are considered to have formed in response to the pressures associated with magmatic fluids and to the ambient tectonic stress field. The presence of fracture sets and crosscutting relations indicate that both magma-filled and unfilled fractures can be contemporaneous and that the local stress field can change with time, leading to repeated episodes of fracture. These observations give insight into the nature of deep fracture processes and the importance of fluid-peridotite interactions in the mantle. We suggest that unfilled fractures were opened by volatile fluids exsolved from ascending magmas to the tops of growing dikes. These volatile fluids are important because they are of low viscosity and can rapidly transmit fluid pressure to dike and fault tips and because they lower the energy and tectonic stresses required to extend macroscopic cracks and to allow sliding on pre-existing fractures. Mantle seismicity at depths of 20-65 km beneath active volcanic centers in Hawaii corresponds to the depth interval where CO2-rich fluids are expected to be liberated from ascending basaltic magmas, suggesting that such fluids play an important role in facilitating earthquake instabilities in the presence of tectonic stresses. Other phenomena related to the fractures

  15. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  16. Carbon-dioxide-rich silicate melt in the Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Mallik, Ananya; Tsuno, Kyusei; Withers, Anthony C; Hirth, Greg; Hirschmann, Marc M

    2013-01-10

    The onset of melting in the Earth's upper mantle influences the thermal evolution of the planet, fluxes of key volatiles to the exosphere, and geochemical and geophysical properties of the mantle. Although carbonatitic melt could be stable 250 km or less beneath mid-oceanic ridges, owing to the small fraction (∼0.03 wt%) its effects on the mantle properties are unclear. Geophysical measurements, however, suggest that melts of greater volume may be present at ∼200 km (refs 3-5) but large melt fractions are thought to be restricted to shallower depths. Here we present experiments on carbonated peridotites over 2-5 GPa that constrain the location and the slope of the onset of silicate melting in the mantle. We find that the pressure-temperature slope of carbonated silicate melting is steeper than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite and that silicate melting of dry peridotite + CO(2) beneath ridges commences at ∼180 km. Accounting for the effect of 50-200 p.p.m. H(2)O on freezing point depression, the onset of silicate melting for a sub-ridge mantle with ∼100 p.p.m. CO(2) becomes as deep as ∼220-300 km. We suggest that, on a global scale, carbonated silicate melt generation at a redox front ∼250-200 km deep, with destabilization of metal and majorite in the upwelling mantle, explains the oceanic low-velocity zone and the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle. In locally oxidized domains, deeper carbonated silicate melt may contribute to the seismic X-discontinuity. Furthermore, our results, along with the electrical conductivity of molten carbonated peridotite and that of the oceanic upper mantle, suggest that mantle at depth is CO(2)-rich but H(2)O-poor. Finally, carbonated silicate melts restrict the stability of carbonatite in the Earth's deep upper mantle, and the inventory of carbon, H(2)O and other highly incompatible elements at ridges becomes controlled by the flux of the former. PMID:23302861

  17. Carbon-dioxide-rich silicate melt in the Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Mallik, Ananya; Tsuno, Kyusei; Withers, Anthony C; Hirth, Greg; Hirschmann, Marc M

    2013-01-10

    The onset of melting in the Earth's upper mantle influences the thermal evolution of the planet, fluxes of key volatiles to the exosphere, and geochemical and geophysical properties of the mantle. Although carbonatitic melt could be stable 250 km or less beneath mid-oceanic ridges, owing to the small fraction (∼0.03 wt%) its effects on the mantle properties are unclear. Geophysical measurements, however, suggest that melts of greater volume may be present at ∼200 km (refs 3-5) but large melt fractions are thought to be restricted to shallower depths. Here we present experiments on carbonated peridotites over 2-5 GPa that constrain the location and the slope of the onset of silicate melting in the mantle. We find that the pressure-temperature slope of carbonated silicate melting is steeper than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite and that silicate melting of dry peridotite + CO(2) beneath ridges commences at ∼180 km. Accounting for the effect of 50-200 p.p.m. H(2)O on freezing point depression, the onset of silicate melting for a sub-ridge mantle with ∼100 p.p.m. CO(2) becomes as deep as ∼220-300 km. We suggest that, on a global scale, carbonated silicate melt generation at a redox front ∼250-200 km deep, with destabilization of metal and majorite in the upwelling mantle, explains the oceanic low-velocity zone and the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle. In locally oxidized domains, deeper carbonated silicate melt may contribute to the seismic X-discontinuity. Furthermore, our results, along with the electrical conductivity of molten carbonated peridotite and that of the oceanic upper mantle, suggest that mantle at depth is CO(2)-rich but H(2)O-poor. Finally, carbonated silicate melts restrict the stability of carbonatite in the Earth's deep upper mantle, and the inventory of carbon, H(2)O and other highly incompatible elements at ridges becomes controlled by the flux of the former.

  18. Isotopic evidence for chaotic imprint in upper mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, Pietro; Gasperini, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    The intrinsic structure of the isotope data set of samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise, believed to represent the isotopic composition of their mantle source, reveals a close relationship between sample spatial distribution and their geochemical features. The spatial distribution of their isotopic heterogeneity is self-similar on a scale between 5000 and 6000 km (about 1/6 of Earth's circumference), suggesting a self-organized structure for the underlying mantle. This implies the imprint of chaotic mantle processes, induced by mantle flow and likely related to an early phase of highly dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. The size of the identified self-organized region reflects the large length scale of upper mantle chemical variability, and it is likely frozen since the Proterozoic. The geochemical heterogeneity of the asthenosphere along the ridges is believed to record a transition in the thermal conditions of the Earth's mantle and to be reflected in the l = 6 peak expansion of several geophysical observables.

  19. Volatile element content of the heterogeneous upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Saal, A. E.; Hauri, E. H.; Forsyth, D. W.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Niu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The physical properties of the asthenosphere (e.g., seismic velocity, viscosity, electrical conductivity) have been attributed to either mineral properties at relevant temperature, pressure, and water content or to the presence of a low melt fraction. We resort to the geochemical studies of MORB to unravel the composition of the asthenosphere. It is important to determine to what extent the geochemical variations in axial MORB do represent a homogeneous mantle composition and variations in the physical conditions of magma generation and transport; or alternatively, they represent mixing of melts from a heterogeneous upper mantle. Lavas from intra-transform faults and off-axis seamounts share a common mantle source with axial MORB, but experience less differentiation and homogenization. Therefore they provide better estimates for the end-member volatile budget of the heterogeneous upper mantle. We present major, trace, and volatile element data (H2O, CO2, Cl, F, S) as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions [1, 2] of basaltic glasses (MgO > 6.0 wt%) from the NEPR seamounts, Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar transform fault system, and Macquarie Island. The samples range from incompatible trace element (ITE) depleted (DMORB: Th/La<0.035) to enriched (EMORB: Th/La>0.07) spanning the entire range of EPR MORB. The isotopic composition of the samples correlates with the degree of trace element enrichment indicating long-lived mantle heterogeneity. Once shallow-level processes (degassing, crystallization, and crustal assimilation) have been considered, we conducted a two-component (DMORB- and EMORB-) mantle melting-mixing model. Our model reproduces the major, trace and volatile element contents and isotopic composition of our samples and suggests that (1) 90% of the upper mantle is highly depleted in ITE (DMORB source) with only 10% of an enriched component (EMORB source), (2) the EMORB source is peridotitic rather than pyroxenitic, and (3) NMORB do not represent an actual

  20. Modeling gravity and magnetic fields for crustal and upper mantle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denoyer, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Research was conducted to: (1) make a direct comparison between the gravity and magnetic fields near the ellipsoid and at the height expected for the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) for the same geologic model, (2) obtain realistic estimates of the gradients that can be expected at the orbit height of the GRM, and (3) demonstrate the value of data that the GRM could provide for investigating upper mantle and deep crustal anomalies.

  1. The Hales discontinuity and upper mantle anisotropy beneath cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musacchio, G.; White, D. J.; Thomson, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    Seismic velocity discontinuities are commonly found within the upper 100 km of the mantle lithosphere, with great variability in their depth, lateral extent, and the polarity of velocity jump. Among the more commonly observed is the Hales discontinuity, identified in a variety of tectonic environments, and commonly associated with a high-velocity, highly reflective and sometimes anisotropic layer. In the Archean Western Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, long range R/WAR profiling gives a high-resolution estimate of the mantle V_P in the shallow upper mantle, providing a more certain determination of the nature of the Hales dicontinuity. Ray-based travel-time inversion of the data, have shown that Vp in the uppermost mantle is 8.0-8.3 km/s. A 15-20 km thick layer (layer-H) with >6% seismic anisotropy (N-S V_P of 8.3 km/s and E-W V_P of 8.8 km/s) dips northward at ˜10^o from a minimum depth of 48-50 km. The attitude of layer-H is consistent with the general tectonic strike; its depth range (50-75 km) falls within that of the Hales discontinuity. If a link between the Hales discontinuity and layer-H can be drawn, observations strengthen the objection that the estimated velocity contrast (0.2 to 0.4 km/s depending on the direction of wave propagation) is relatively high if layer-H represents a phase transition, and thus (re)opens the debate on the nature of shallow upper-mantle boundaries beneath continents. The high V_P and intermediate anisotropy of upper-mantle layer-H requires a harzburgite peridotitic composition with the a-axis of olivine aligned E-W. Layer-H might have emplaced during accretion (2.7 Ga Kenoran orogeny) of the North American proto-craton and be relic oceanic lithosphere. The Hales discontinuity might be an expression of continents accretion and map relic slabs in the shallow upper mantle.

  2. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (< 30 km deep), mid-Atlantic ridge earthquakes recorded by USArray seismometers in Alaska. We generated 4th root vespagrams to enhance the SS precursors and determine how they sample the mantle. Our data show detection of localized structure on the discontinuity boundaries as well as additional horizons, such as the X-discontinuity and a potential reflection from a discontinuity near the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These structures are related to the transition from predominantly old ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while

  3. Slab mantle dehydrates beneath Kamchatka—Yet recycles water into the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Halama, Ralf; Manea, Vlad C.

    2016-08-01

    The subduction of hydrated slab mantle is the most important and yet weakly constrained factor in the quantification of the Earth's deep geologic water cycle. The most critical unknowns are the initial hydration state and the dehydration behavior of the subducted oceanic mantle. Here we present a combined thermomechanical, thermodynamic, and geochemical model of the Kamchatka subduction zone that indicates significant dehydration of subducted slab mantle beneath Kamchatka. Evidence for the subduction of hydrated oceanic mantle comes from across-arc trends of boron concentrations and isotopic compositions in arc volcanic rocks. Our thermodynamic-geochemical models successfully predict the complex geochemical patterns and the spatial distribution of arc volcanoes in Kamchatka assuming the subduction of hydrated oceanic mantle. Our results show that water content and dehydration behavior of the slab mantle beneath Kamchatka can be directly linked to compositional features in arc volcanic rocks. Depending on hydration depth of the slab mantle, our models yield water recycling rates between 1.1 × 103 and 7.4 × 103 Tg/Ma/km corresponding to values between 0.75 × 106 and 5.2 × 106 Tg/Ma for the entire Kamchatkan subduction zone. These values are up to one order of magnitude lower than previous estimates for Kamchatka, but clearly show that subducted hydrated slab mantle significantly contributes to the water budget in the Kamchatkan subduction zone.

  4. Metasomatic oxidation of upper mantle periodotite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.V.; Dyar, M.D.; Nielson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    metasomatism may produce a greater change in the redox state of mantle peridotite than cryptic metasomatism. Comparison of the metasomatized samples with unmetasomatized peridotites reveals that both Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations p.f.u. were increased during metasomatism and 50% or more of iron added was Fe3+. With increasing distance from the dike, the ratio of added Fe3+ to added Fe2+ increases. The high Fe3+/FeT of amphibole and phlogopite in the dikes and in the peridotite, and the high ratios of added Fe3+/added Fe2+ in pyroxenes and spinel suggest that the Fe3+/FeT ratio of the metasomatic silicate fluid was high. As the fluid perolated through and reacted with the peridotite, Fe3+ and C-O-H volatile species were concentrated in the fluid, increasing the fluid Fe3+/FeT. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Upper mantle viscosity and dynamic subsidence of curved continental margins.

    PubMed

    Sacek, Victor; Ussami, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Continental rifting does not always follow a straight line. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to the influence of rifting curvature in the evolution of extended margins. Here, using a three-dimensional model to simulate mantle dynamics, we demonstrate that the curvature of rifting along a margin also controls post-rift basin subsidence. Our results indicate that a concave-oceanward margin subsides faster than a convex margin does during the post-rift phase. This dynamic subsidence of curved margins is a result of lateral thermal conduction and mantle convection. Furthermore, the differential subsidence is strongly dependent on the viscosity structure. As a natural example, we analyse the post-rift stratigraphic evolution of the Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil. The differential dynamic subsidence of this margin is only possible if the viscosity of the upper mantle is >2-3 × 10(19) Pa s.

  6. Teleseismic array analysis of upper mantle compressional velocity structure. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walck, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Relative array analysis of upper mantle lateral velocity variations in southern California, analysis techniques for dense data profiles, the P-wave upper mantle structure beneath an active spreading center: the Gulf of California, and the upper mantle under the Cascade ranges: a comparison with the Gulf of California are presented.

  7. Isolated deep earthquakes and the fate of subduction in the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Paul; Giardini, Domenico

    1994-08-01

    The locations of earthquakes with depth in the mantle provide direct evidence of the trajectory and state of stress of subducting lithosphere. The occurrence over the last decade of isolated large deep earthquakes outside the main Wadati-Benioff zones in the Kurile, Izu-Bonin, and Chile deep seismic areas (in addition to the observed flat distributions of deep seismicity beneath the Banda Sea and Fiji Plateau areas and the large number of deep earthquakes located away from the main slab in the Tonga arc) supports recent tomographic and other seismological studies, leading to a reconsideration of slabs as simple planar structures sinking undeformed into the lower mantle. The focal geometries of these isolated earthquakes, which often exhibit near vertical compressional stresses, are distinct from adjacent events in the main Wadati-Benioff zone. They are also different in orientation from events in the deflecting toe of the slab and from the stress orientation expected if the deflected slab acts as a stress guide. These isolated mantle earthquakes are interpreted to take place in subducted lithosphere that has deflected to a horizontal posture at the base of the upper mantle. Conversely, the deep seismicity in the adjacent Wadati-Benioff is associated with the deflection of the subducting lithosphere.

  8. Thermophysical Properties and Phase Changes in the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafin, Sayyadul

    2015-11-01

    The correlation between phase changes within the upper mantle and the thermophysical properties of the minerals therein has been investigated by using the thermoelastic and thermodynamic equations. The depth dependence data of seismic velocities of Jeffreys-Bullen and density within the upper mantle are used as inputs in the analysis. The material characteristic properties like Debye temperature,Θ _D, adiabatic compressibility, κ S, Grüneisen parameter, ξ and the specific heat capacity, C_{{P}} computed as a function of depth show clearly two discontinuities at average depths of 414 km and 645 km which are in fair agreement with the presently accepted depths 410 km and 670 km from the preliminary reference earth model data.

  9. Imaging Upper Mantle Interfaces under the Pacific Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Leahy, G. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Pacific provides an ideal region for the study of upper mantle interfaces due to its broad extent and relatively homogeneous structure. Multi-taper correlation (MTC) methods for the estimation of teleseismic receiver fuctions (RF's) provide a natural way to study these interfaces due to their sensitivity to impedence contrasts and desirable statistical properties. Recent improvements to the MTC algorithm (Park and Levin, 2005 GJI, submitted) permit the reconstruction of Ps conversions from interfaces below 100km depth. Here we apply these new techniques to imaging interfaces in the upper mantle beneath four ocean islands in the Pacific (broadband stations RAR, PPT, POHA, and XMAS). In particular, we attempt to constrain the depth, sharpness, and topography of the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, and examine evidence for a low velocity zone above the transition zone in this area.

  10. Rheologic Controls on the Dynamic Evolution of Slabs in the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, M.; Hirth, G.

    2004-12-01

    Subduction of tectonic plates is characterized by long-lived subduction zones, asymmetric subduction and slab dip angles of 25--80o in the upper mantle. Several mechanisms proposed to explain the variation in observed dip include large-scale mantle flow, trench roll-back, and interaction of the slab with the transition zone. Previous dynamic models of subduction that include only Newtonian viscosity and moderately strong slabs generally fail to predict subduction angles less than 60--90o at shallow depths (100--300 km). We find that the observed characteristics of subduction are reproduced by viscous flow models, in which the rheologic structure is consistent with experimentally determined flow laws for Newtonian and non-Newtonian visco-plastic deformation of olivine. The properties of the models required to match the observed characteristics of slabs are: non-Newtonian viscosity in the mantle producing a weak mantle wedge (1018--1019~Pa s), a stiff slab interior (1025~Pa s) limited by a plastic yield criterion and a weak plate boundary shear zone (1020--1021~Pa s). The shallow slab dip reaches a minimum of 25--30o for high convergence rates and a stiff slab, without trench roll-back or relative motion of the entire lithosphere with respect to the mantle, suggesting these other mechanisms are not the primary controls on slab geometry. The deep slab dip (350--650 km) decreases as the slab penetrates the stiffer (x10), Newtonian viscosity lower mantle, eventually stabilizing the upper mantle slab geometry.

  11. Seismic evidence for widespread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along the Cascadia margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Parsons, T.; Trehu, A.M.; Snelson, C.M.; Fisher, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Petrologic models suggest that dehydration and metamorphism of subducting slabs release water that serpentinizes the overlying forearc mantle. To test these models, we use the results of controlled-source seismic surveys and earthquake tomography to map the upper mantle along the Cascadia margin forearc. We find anomalously low upper-mantle velocities and/or weak wide-angle reflections from the top of the upper mantle in a narrow region along the margin, compatible with recent teleseismic studies and indicative of a serpentinized upper mantle. The existence of a hydrated forearc upper-mantle wedge in Cascadia has important geological and geophysical implications. For example, shearing within the upper mantle, inferred from seismic reflectivity and consistent with its serpentinite rheology, may occur during aseismic slow slip events on the megathrust. In addition, progressive dehydration of the hydrated mantle wedge south of the Mendocino triple junction may enhance the effects of a slap gap during the evolution of the California margin.

  12. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  13. Thermo-chemical plumes rooted in the deep mantle beneath major hotspots: implications for mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; French, S.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of mantle plumes as a possible origin for hotspots has been the subject of debate for the last 30 years. Many seismic tomographic studies have hinted at the presence of plume-like features in the lower mantle, but resolution of narrow low velocity features is difficult, and ambiguity remains as to the vertical continuity of these features and how distinct they are from other low velocity blobs. We present robust evidence for significant, vertically continuous, low velocity columns in the lower mantle beneath prominent hotspots located within the footprint of the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs), from a recent global, radially anisotropic whole mantle shear-wave velocity (Vs) model, SEMUCB-WM1 (French and Romanowicz, 2014, 2015). This model was constructed by inversion of a large dataset of long period three-component seismograms down to 32s period. Because it includes surface-wave overtones, S-diffracted waves and multiply reflected waves between the surface and the CMB, this dataset provides considerably better illumination of the whole mantle volume than can be obtained with a standard set of travel times alone. In addition, accurate numerical computation of the forward wavefield using the spectral element method at each iteration of the model construction, allows us to better resolve regions of lower than average Vs. The imaged plumes have several common characteristics: they are rooted in patches of very low Vs near the core mantle boundary, some of which contain documented ULVZs, and extend vertically through the lower mantle up to ~1000 km depth, where some are deflected horizontally, or give rise to somewhat thinner conduits that meander through the upper mantle in the vicinity of the target hotpots. Combined with evidence for slab stagnation at ~1000 km depth, this suggests a change in rheology between 660 and 1000 km depth, very high viscosity throughout the bulk of the lower mantle, and lower viscosity plumes, only mildly

  14. Constraints on the heterogeneity spectrum of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Nicholas; Shearer, Peter; Liu, Qinya

    2016-05-01

    We constrain the heterogeneity spectrum of Earth's upper mantle at scales from a few kilometers to tens of thousands of kilometers using observations from high-frequency scattering, long-period scattering, and tomography. Tomography and high-frequency scattering constraints are drawn from previous studies, but constraints on mantle heterogeneity at intermediate scales (5-500 km) are lacking. To address this, we stack ˜15,000 long-period P coda envelopes to characterize the globally averaged scattered wavefield at periods from 5 to 60 s and at ranges from 50 to 98°. To fit these observations, we consider models of random mantle heterogeneity and compute the corresponding global wavefield using both a ray theoretical "seismic particle" approach and full spectral element simulations. Von Kármán random media distributed throughout the uppermost 600 km of the mantle with a = 2000 km, ɛ = 10%, and κ = 0.05 provide a good fit to the time, range, and frequency dependence of the stacks, although there is a trade-off between ɛ and the thickness of the assumed scattering layer. This random media model also fits previously published 1 Hz stacks of P coda and agrees with constraints on long-wavelength structure from tomography. Finally, we explore geodynamically plausible scenarios that might be responsible for the RMS and falloff rate of the proposed spectrum, including a self-similar mixture of basalt and harzburgite.

  15. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet

  16. The mantle transition zone and the upper mantle in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anja Kraft, Helene; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    We present a receiver function (RF) study of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland. Our results are based on data from 18 temporary broad-band seismometers and 5 additional stations from the GLISN and GLATIS networks. The stations were operating in the region between Scoresby Sund and Summit (~ 70 ° N) with half of them installed on ice, the other half on bedrock. For our analysis we calculated low frequency PRF and SRF, which use the difference in travel times between converted and not converted phases at discontinuities. We see clear signals from P410s and P660s in most of our PRF and from S410p in the SRF. Their delay times suggest a surprisingly thin MTZ for most parts of the study area with up to 25 km of thinning compared to standard Earth models. The only exception is a small region in the centre of the study area, which shows times close to standard. It is mainly the delay time for P410s, that varies, while P660s is stable throughout our study area. This indicates, that the thinning of the MTZ is mainly due to topography on the 410-discontinuity. We furthermore observe an M-shaped signal for P410s at stations in the western part around Summit. A similar, complicated signal has been observed previously in different settings and is interpreted as a thin low velocity layer between 410 km and 520 km. In addition we jointly inverted the PRF and SRF for upper mantle velocities. These results show velocities slower than IASP91 for the entire study area. Both the low velocities in the upper mantle and the thinning of the MTZ are in contrary to simple models of old continental shields and might indicate a fairly recent heating event.

  17. Anisotropy and shear-velocity heterogeneities in the upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataf, H.-C.; Nakanishi, I.; Anderson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Long-period surface waves are used to map lateral heterogeneities of velocity and anisotropy in the upper mantle. The dispersion curves are expanded in spherical harmonics up to degree 6 and inverted to find the depth structure. The data are corrected for the effect of surface layers and both Love and Rayleigh waves are used. Shear wave velocity and shear polarization anisotropy can be resolved down to a depth of about 450 km. The shear wave velocity distribution to 200 km depth correlates with surface tectonics, except in a few anomalous regions. Below that depth the correlation vanishes. Cold subducted material shows up weakly at 350 km as fast S-wave anomalies. In the transition region a large scale pattern appears with fast mantle in the South-Atlantic. S-anisotropy at 200 km can resolve uprising or downwelling currents under some ridges and subduction zones. The Pacific shows a NW-SE fabric.

  18. Deep-focus earthquakes and recycling of water into the earth's mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Charles; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    For more than 50 years, observations of earthquakes to depths of 100 to 650 kilometers inside earth have been enigmatic: at these depths, rocks are expected to deform by ductile flow rather than brittle fracturing or frictional sliding on fault surfaces. Laboratory experiments and detailed calculations of the pressures and temperatures in seismically active subduction zones indicate that this deep-focus seismicity could originate from dehydration and high-pressure structural instabilities occurring in the hydrated part of the lithosphere that sinks into the upper mantle. Thus, seismologists may be mapping the recirculation of water from the oceans back into the deep interior of the planet.

  19. Deep-Focus Earthquakes and Recycling of Water into the Earth's Mantle.

    PubMed

    Meade, C; Jeanloz, R

    1991-04-01

    For more than 50 years, observations of earthquakes to depths of 100 to 650 kilometers inside Earth have been enigmatic: at these depths, rocks are expected to deform by ductile flow rather than brittle fracturing or frictional sliding on fault surfaces. Laboratory experiments and detailed calculations of the pressures and temperatures in seismically active subduction zones indicate that this deep-focus seismicity could originate from dehydration and high-pressure structural instabilities occurring in the hydrated part of the lithosphere that sinks into the upper mantle. Thus, seismologists may be mapping the recirculation of water from the oceans back into the deep interior of our planet. PMID:17739075

  20. Plume's buoyancy and heat fluxes from the deep mantle estimated by an instantaneous mantle flow simulation based on the S40RTS global seismic tomography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2012-11-01

    It is still an open question as to how much heat is transported from the deep mantle to the upper mantle by mantle upwelling plumes, which would impose a strong constraint on models of the thermal evolution of the earth. Here I perform numerical computations of instantaneous mantle flow based on a recent highly resolved global seismic tomography model (S40RTS), apply new simple fluid dynamics theories to the plume's radius and velocity, considering a Poiseuille flow assumption and a power-law relationship between the boundary layer thickness and Rayleigh number, and estimate the plume's buoyancy and heat fluxes from the deep lower mantle under varying plume viscosity. The results show that for some major mantle upwelling plumes with localized strong ascent velocity under the South Pacific and Africa, the buoyancy fluxes of each plume beneath the ringwoodite to perovskite + magnesiowüstite ("660-km") phase decomposition boundary are comparable to those inferred from observed hotspot swell volumes on the earth, i.e., on the order of 1 Mg s-1, when the plume viscosity is 1019-1020 Pa s. This result, together with previous numerical simulations of mantle convection and the gentle Clausius-Clapeyron slope for the 660-km phase decomposition derived from recent high-pressure measurements under dehydrated/hydrated conditions in the mantle transition zone, implies that mantle upwelling plumes in the lower mantle penetrate the 660-km phase decomposition boundary without significant loss in thermal buoyancy because of the weak thermal barrier at the 660-km boundary. The total plume heat flux under the South Pacific is estimated to be about 1 TW beneath the 660-km boundary, which is significantly smaller than the core-mantle boundary heat flux. Previously published scaling laws for the plume's radius and velocity based on a plume spacing theory, which explains well plume dynamics in three-dimensional time-dependent mantle convection, suggest that these plume fluxes depend

  1. Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Pritchard, M.J.; Julian, B.R.; Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2001-01-01

    range ??? 100-300 km beneath east-central Iceland. The anomalous body is approximately cylindrical in the top 250 km but tabular in shape at greater depth, elongated north-south and generally underlying the spreading plate boundary. Such a morphological change and its relationship to surface rift zones are predicted to occur in convective upwellings driven by basal heating, passive upwelling in response to plate separation and lateral temperature gradients. Although we cannot resolve structure deeper than ??? 450 km, and do not detect a bottom to the anomaly, these models suggest that it extends no deeper than the mantle transition zone. Such models thus suggest a shallow origin for the Iceland hotspot rather than a deep mantle plume, and imply that the hotspot has been located on the spreading ridge in the centre of the north Atlantic for its entire history, and is not fixed relative to other Atlantic hotspots. The results are consistent with recent, regional full-thickness mantle tomography and whole-mantle tomography images that show a strong, low-wave-speed anomaly beneath the Iceland region that is confined to the upper mantle and thus do not require a plume in the lower mantle. Seismic and geochemical observations that are interpreted as indicating a lower mantle, or core-mantle boundary origin for the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Iceland hotspot should be re-examined to consider whether they are consistent with upper mantle processes.

  2. New insight into the Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Pacific Ocean Using PP and SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrola, H.; Rogers, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The passing of the EarthScope Transportable array has provided a dense data set that enabled beam forming of SS and PP data that resultes in improved frequency content to as much a 1 Hz in the imaging of upper mantle structure. This combined with the application of simultaneous iterative deconvolution has resulted in images to as much as 4 Hz. The processing however results in structure being averaged over regions of 60 to 100 km in radius. This is becomes a powerful new tool to image the upper mantle beneath Oceanic regions where locating stations is expensive and difficult. This presentation will summarize work from a number of regions as to new observations of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Images from a region of the Pacific Ocean furthest from hot spots or subduction zones (we will refer to this as the 'reference region'). show considerable layering in the upper mantle. The 410 km discontinuity is always imaged using these tools and appears to be a very sharp boundary. It does usually appear as an isolated positive phase. There appears to be a LAB at ~100 km as expected but there is a strong negative phase at ~ 200 km with a positive phase 15 km deeper. This is best explained as a lens of partial melt as expected for this depth based on the geothermal gradient. If so this should be a low friction point and so we would expect it to accommodate plate motion. Imaging of the Aleutian subduction zone does show the 100 km deep LAB as it descends but this 200 km deep horizon appears as a week descending positive anomaly without the shallower negative pulse. In addition to the 410, 100 and 200 km discontinuities there are a number of paired anomalies, between the 200 and 400 km depths, with a negative pulse 15 to 20 km shallower then the positive pulse. We do not believe these are side lobes or we would see side lobes on the 100 km and 410 km discontinuities. We believe these to be the result of friction induced partial melt along zones of

  3. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  4. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  5. The Upper Mantle Flow Field around South-Africa as Reflected by Isotopic Provinciality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyzen, C.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Ludden, J.; Humler, E.; Mevel, C.; Albarede, F.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic studies of MORB have established the existence of broad isotopic provinces within the underlying asthenosphere, such as in the Indian Ocean (DUPAL). How these features relate to mantle circulation is, however, still unknown. The steepness of the transition between such isotopic provinces will define the geometry of the velocity field in the upper mantle. In this respect, the transition between the Indian and South Atlantic provinces, two domains that are isotopically contrasted, should be readily identifiable over this long ridge segment. Here, we present Hf isotope data for 60 samples dredged along the SWIR between 35° and 69°E. The new Hf isotope data show that the Indian asthenosphere does not spill directly into the South Atlantic upper mantle: the general decreasing southward gradient observed for ^{176}Hf/^{177}Hf down the mid- Atlantic Ridge, and also for Sr isotopes and model Th/U ratios (derived from Pb isotopes), is overprinted by material with radiogenic Sr, unradiogenic Hf and high Th/U. The Indian domain grades into the South Atlantic around Bouvet, while the South Atlantic collides with the Atlantic province around Tristan. We interpret these features to represent fronts between three adjacent isotopic provinces similar to what has been suggested for the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. The common DUPAL signature of MORB and OIB from the Indian province and the geochemistry of Gulf of Aden MORB and the Afar plume suggest that the source of this distinctive mantle component is deep and lies to the north of the province. This is also what the three-dimensional flow field computed by Behn et al. (2004) from shear-wave splitting shows with a major lower mantle upwelling radiating at the base of the asthenosphere under the Afar plume. Lower mantle gushing out from this source flows southward unimpeded along the Indian ridges, whereas it only reaches the South Atlantic ridge after first having been deflected under the deep roots of the South

  6. Upper mantle discontinuity beneath the SW-Iberia peninsula: A multidisciplinary view.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, Imma; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Ayarza, Puy; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Diaz, Jordi; Morales, Jose; Carbonell, Ramon; Topoiberia Working Group

    2010-05-01

    Evidence for an upper mantle discontinuity located between 60 and 70 km depth have been provided by different seismic data sets acquired in the Southern Iberian peninsula. First indications of such a discontinuity were obtained by the very long offsets seismic refraction shot gathers acquired within the DSS ILIHA project in the early 90's. Clear seismic events recoded by the dense wide-angle seismic reflection shot gathers of the IBERSEIS experiment (2003) provided further constraints on the depth of the discontinuity and first-order estimates of its physical properties beneath the Ossa Morena Zone. Furthermore, the normal incidence Vibroseis deep seismic reflection images of the ALCUDIA transect (2007) extends this structure to the northeast beneath the Central Iberian Zone. This transect images deep laterally discontinuous reflections at upper mantle travel times (19 s) that roughly correspond to depths within the range of 60-70 km. Receiver function studies of the passive seismic recordings acquired by the IBERARRAY (TOPOIBERIA projects) provides additional support for the existence of this upper mantle structure and suggests that this is a relatively large scale regional feature. Two major scenarios need to be addressed when discussing the origin and nature of this deep structure. One is the tectonic scenario in which the structure maybe be related to a major tectonic event such as an old subduction process and therefore represent an ancient slab. A second hypothesis, would relate this feature to a phase change in the mantle. This latter assumption requires this feature ought to be a broader scale boundary which could be identified by different seismic techniques. Reflectivity modeling carried out over the IBERSEIS wide angle reflection data concludes that the observed phase is consistent with an heterogeneous gradient zone located at, approximately, 61-72 km depth. A layered structure with alternating velocities within ranges 8.1 to 8.3 km/s is necessary in

  7. Komatiites reveal a hydrous Archaean deep-mantle reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Asafov, Evgeny V; Gurenko, Andrey A; Arndt, Nicholas T; Batanova, Valentina G; Portnyagin, Maxim V; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Krasheninnikov, Stepan P

    2016-03-31

    Archaean komatiites (ultramafic lavas) result from melting under extreme conditions of the Earth's mantle. Their chemical compositions evoke very high eruption temperatures, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius, which suggests even higher temperatures in their mantle source. This message is clouded, however, by uncertainty about the water content in komatiite magmas. One school of thought holds that komatiites were essentially dry and originated in mantle plumes while another argues that these magmas contained several per cent water, which drastically reduced their eruption temperature and links them to subduction processes. Here we report measurements of the content of water and other volatile components, and of major and trace elements in melt inclusions in exceptionally magnesian olivine (up to 94.5 mole per cent forsterite). This information provides direct estimates of the composition and crystallization temperature of the parental melts of Archaean komatiites. We show that the parental melt for 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from the Abitibi greenstone belt in Canada contained 30 per cent magnesium oxide and 0.6 per cent water by weight, and was depleted in highly incompatible elements. This melt began to crystallize at around 1,530 degrees Celsius at shallow depth and under reducing conditions, and it evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by minor crustal assimilation. As its major- and trace-element composition and low oxygen fugacities are inconsistent with a subduction setting, we propose that its high H2O/Ce ratio (over 6,000) resulted from entrainment into the komatiite source of hydrous material from the mantle transition zone. These results confirm a plume origin for komatiites and high Archaean mantle temperatures, and evoke a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle early in Earth's history. PMID:27029278

  8. Komatiites reveal a hydrous Archaean deep-mantle reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Alexander V.; Asafov, Evgeny V.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Batanova, Valentina G.; Portnyagin, Maxim V.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Krasheninnikov, Stepan P.

    2016-03-01

    Archaean komatiites (ultramafic lavas) result from melting under extreme conditions of the Earth’s mantle. Their chemical compositions evoke very high eruption temperatures, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius, which suggests even higher temperatures in their mantle source. This message is clouded, however, by uncertainty about the water content in komatiite magmas. One school of thought holds that komatiites were essentially dry and originated in mantle plumes while another argues that these magmas contained several per cent water, which drastically reduced their eruption temperature and links them to subduction processes. Here we report measurements of the content of water and other volatile components, and of major and trace elements in melt inclusions in exceptionally magnesian olivine (up to 94.5 mole per cent forsterite). This information provides direct estimates of the composition and crystallization temperature of the parental melts of Archaean komatiites. We show that the parental melt for 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from the Abitibi greenstone belt in Canada contained 30 per cent magnesium oxide and 0.6 per cent water by weight, and was depleted in highly incompatible elements. This melt began to crystallize at around 1,530 degrees Celsius at shallow depth and under reducing conditions, and it evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by minor crustal assimilation. As its major- and trace-element composition and low oxygen fugacities are inconsistent with a subduction setting, we propose that its high H2O/Ce ratio (over 6,000) resulted from entrainment into the komatiite source of hydrous material from the mantle transition zone. These results confirm a plume origin for komatiites and high Archaean mantle temperatures, and evoke a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle early in Earth’s history.

  9. Komatiites reveal a hydrous Archaean deep-mantle reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Asafov, Evgeny V; Gurenko, Andrey A; Arndt, Nicholas T; Batanova, Valentina G; Portnyagin, Maxim V; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Krasheninnikov, Stepan P

    2016-03-31

    Archaean komatiites (ultramafic lavas) result from melting under extreme conditions of the Earth's mantle. Their chemical compositions evoke very high eruption temperatures, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius, which suggests even higher temperatures in their mantle source. This message is clouded, however, by uncertainty about the water content in komatiite magmas. One school of thought holds that komatiites were essentially dry and originated in mantle plumes while another argues that these magmas contained several per cent water, which drastically reduced their eruption temperature and links them to subduction processes. Here we report measurements of the content of water and other volatile components, and of major and trace elements in melt inclusions in exceptionally magnesian olivine (up to 94.5 mole per cent forsterite). This information provides direct estimates of the composition and crystallization temperature of the parental melts of Archaean komatiites. We show that the parental melt for 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from the Abitibi greenstone belt in Canada contained 30 per cent magnesium oxide and 0.6 per cent water by weight, and was depleted in highly incompatible elements. This melt began to crystallize at around 1,530 degrees Celsius at shallow depth and under reducing conditions, and it evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by minor crustal assimilation. As its major- and trace-element composition and low oxygen fugacities are inconsistent with a subduction setting, we propose that its high H2O/Ce ratio (over 6,000) resulted from entrainment into the komatiite source of hydrous material from the mantle transition zone. These results confirm a plume origin for komatiites and high Archaean mantle temperatures, and evoke a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle early in Earth's history.

  10. Seismic tomography of the Colorado Rocky Mountains upper mantle from CREST: Lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions and mantle support of topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, J. K.; Aster, R. C.; Dueker, K.; Hansen, S.; Schmandt, B.; Karlstrom, K.

    2014-09-01

    The CREST experiment (Colorado Rocky Mountains Experiment and Seismic Transects) integrated the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array with portable and permanent stations to provide detailed seismic imaging of crust and mantle properties beneath the highest topography region of the Rocky Mountains. Inverting approximately 14,600 P- and 3600 S-wave arrival times recorded at 160 stations for upper mantle Vp and Vs structure, we find that large Vp perturbations relative to AK135 of 7% and Vs variations of 8% take place over very short (approaching tens of kilometers) lateral distances. Highest heterogeneity is observed in the upper 300 km of the mantle, but well resolved low velocity features extend to the top of the transition zone in portions of these images. The previously noted low velocity upper mantle Aspen Anomaly is resolved into multiple features. The lowest Vp and Vs velocities in the region are found beneath the San Juan Mountains, which is clearly distinguished from other low velocity features of the northern Rio Grande Rift, Taos/Latir region, Aspen region, and below the Never Summer Mountains. We suggest that the San Juan anomaly, and a similar feature below the Taos/Latir region of northern New Mexico, are related to delamination and remnant heat (and melt) beneath these sites of extraordinarily voluminous middle-Cenozoic volcanism. We interpret a northeast-southwest grain in velocity structure that parallels the Colorado Mineral belt to depths near 150 km as being reflective of control by uppermost mantle Proterozoic accretionary lithospheric architecture. Further to the north and west, the Wyoming province and northern Colorado Plateau show high velocity features indicative of thick (∼150 km) preserved Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere, respectively. Overall, we interpret the highly heterogeneous uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath the southern Rocky Mountains as reflecting interfingered chemical Proterozoic lithosphere that has been, is

  11. Double layering of a thermochemical plume in the upper mantle beneath Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmer, M. D.; Ito, G.; Wolfe, C. J.; Cadio, C.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanism far from plate boundaries has traditionally been explained by "classical" plume theory. Classical plumes are typically described as narrow thermal upwellings that rise through the entire mantle to be deflected into a thin (<100 km) "pancake" beneath the overriding lithosphere. The pancake is thought to be deflected by the drag of the overriding plate and hence to support a hotspot swell that is parabolic in map view and symmetric about the direction of plate motion. Many hotspots and their swells, such as Cape Verde and Iceland, are indeed well explained by near-classical thermal plumes. High-resolution seismic velocity images obtained from the PLUME project support the concept of a deep-rooted mantle plume beneath the Hawaiian hotspot. However, in detail these images challenge traditional concepts inasmuch as they indicate a low-velocity body in the upper mantle that is too thick (~400 km) and asymmetric to be interpreted as a classical pancake. Classical plume theory is, moreover, inconsistent with several geochemical characteristics of Hawaiian magmas, which point to a heterogeneous mantle source involving mafic lithologies such as eclogite and not an exclusively thermal (i.e., isochemical) origin¹. To explore the dynamical and melting behavior of plumes containing a substantial fraction (~15%) of eclogite, we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of thermochemical convection. Relative to ambient-mantle peridotite, eclogite is intrinsically dense. This density contrast is sensitive to phase changes in the upper mantle; the contrast peaks at 410-300 km and lessens at about 250-190 km depth, where eclogite is subsequently removed by melting. For a plume core with an eclogite content >12%, these effects locally increase the density beyond that of the ambient mantle. Therefore, the upwelling column forms a broad and thick pool at depths of 450-300 km (which we term the deep eclogite pool, or DEP). As the DEP is well supported by the deeper

  12. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  13. Deep mantle viscous structure with prior estimate and satellite constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivins, E. R.; Sammis, C. G.; Yoder, C. F.

    1993-01-01

    A radially stratified and incompressible earth model with secular variation of the second degree gravity field J-dot(2) is used here to test sensitivity of data to viscosity increases with depth and convective boundary layer structure. Prior estimates and observed nontidal J-dot(23)(-C-dot(20)) are consistent with a layered lower mantle viscosity. Details of this layering are examined by comparing predicted and observed J-dot(3), J-dot(4). Speculation that a high-velocity layer exists above D-double prime is considered. With a 650-km thick deep high-viscosity layer, the remaining lower mantle is in one of two ranges: 1.5 to 3.5 x 10 exp 20 or 3.5 to about 10 exp 22 Pa s.

  14. Subduction Zone Processes and Implications for Changing Composition of the Upper and Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. D.; Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    With ca. forty thousand kilometers of subduction zones and convergence rates from 30 km Ma-1 to 180 km Ma-1, subduction carries massive amounts of material into seafloor trenches, and beyond. Most of the subducting plate is made of mantle material returning to the depths from which it originated. The hydrated and altered upper oceanic section and the overlying sediments, however, carry a record of low-temperature interaction with the ocean, atmosphere, and continents. Subduction and recycling of these components into the mantle has the potential to change mantle composition in terms of volatile contents, heat-producing elements, radiogenic isotope systematics, and trace element abundances. Enrichments in volatile and potassium, uranium, and thorium contents could change the rheological, thermal, and geodynamical behavior of portions of the mantle. Changing isotope and trace-element systematics provide a means for tracking mantle mixing and the possible subduction modification of the deep mantle. A large number of studies point to possible contributions of subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC) to the mantle-source region for enriched mantle II (EMII) and high mu (HiMU) enriched oceanic island basalts. Transit through the subduction zone, however, changes the composition of the subducting sediment and AOC from that measured outboard of trenches.This chapter focuses on subduction zone processes and their implications for mantle composition. It examines subduction contributions to the shallow mantle that may be left behind in the wedge following arc magma genesis, as well as the changing composition of the slab as it is processed beneath the fore-arc, volcanic front and rear arc on its way to the deep mantle. Much of this chapter uses boron and the beryllium isotopes as index tracers: boron, because it appears to be completely recycled in volcanic arcs with little to none subducted into the deep mantle, and cosmogenic 10Be, with a 1.5 Ma half

  15. Wavefront Healing and Tomographic Resolution of Deep Mantle Superplumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jing; Zhou, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Seismic tomography revealed two large low shear velocity province (LLSVP) at the bottom of the mantle, one under Africa and the other under the southern Pacific. Traditional tomographic results show strong anti-correlation between bulk sound speed and S wave speed perturbations, supporting at least partially chemical origin of deep mantle superplumes. The core-mantle boundary regions are best sampled by core diffracted waves while wave front healing effects of diffracted waves have been ignored in traditional tomographic studies. To investigate the resolution of deep mantle superplumes as well as the robustness of the anti correlation between bulk sound speed and S wave speed, we use Spectral Element Method (SEM) to simulate global seismic wave propagation in 3-D plume models at periods down to 10s. We measure frequency-dependent P-wave and S-wave travel time anomalies caused by 3-D plume structures using a multi-taper technique, and calculate bulk sound speed perturbations based on measured P-wave and S-wave traveltimes. The comparison between measured delay times and ray-theory predictions shows that different healing rates between P waves and S waves in thermal plume models can lead to significant artifact as anti-correlation between bulk sound speed and S-wave speed perturbations. The strength of this artifact depends on epicenter distance and wave frequency. The artifact in anti-correlation is also confirmed in tomographic inversions based on ray theory using Pdiff and Sdiff traveltimes measured from SEM seismograms. We show that resolutions of superplumes as well as artifacts in the anti-correlation are dependent upon the length scale of the anomalies, the frequency of the wave as well as source-receiver distribution. Finally we compare calculations based on finite-frequency theory and ray theory and show that different healing rates between P waves and S waves can be properly accounted for in finite-frequency tomography.

  16. Xenolith constraints on seismic velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. E.; Boyd, F. R.; Schutt, D.; Bell, D. R.; Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    relatively recent thermal perturbation and compositional modification associated with emplacement of kimberlitic fluids into the deep tectospheric root. Seismic velocities and densities for cratonic xenoliths differ significantly from those predicted for both primitive mantle peridotite and mantle eclogite. A model primitive mantle under cratonic P-T conditions exhibits velocities about 1% lower for P and about 1.5% lower for S, a consequence of a more fertile composition and different modal composition. Primitive mantle is also about 2% more dense at 150-km depth than low-T garnet lherzolite at cratonic P-T conditions. Similar calculations based on an oceanic geotherm are consistent with the isopycnic hypothesis of comparable density columns beneath oceanic and cratonic regions. Calculations for a hypothetical "cratonic" eclogite (50:50 garnet/omphacite) with an assumed cratonic geotherm produce extremely high VP and VS (8.68 km/s and 4.84 km/s, respectively, at 150 km depth) as well as high density (˜3.54 gm/cc). The very high velocity of eclogite should render it seismically conspicuous in the cratonic mantle if present as large volume blocks or slabs. We discuss how the seismic velocity data we have compiled in this paper from both xenoliths and generic petrologic models of the upper mantle differ from commonly used standard earth models IASPEI and PREM.

  17. Hunting for the Tristan plume - An upper mantle tomography around the volcanic island Tristan da Cunha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlömer, Antje; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island in the South Atlantic close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is part of an area consisting of widely scattered seamounts and small islands at the western and youngest end of the aseismic Walvis Ridge. Tristan da Cunha together with the Walvis Ridge represents the classical example of a mantle plume track, because of the connection to the Cretaceous Etendeka flood basalt province in NW Namibia. The genesis of the island has so far remained enigmatic. It is hotly debated, if Tristan da Cunha sits actually above a deep mantle plume or if it is only originated by upwelling material from weak (leaky) fracture zones. It also has to be clarified if there are any indications for a plume-ridge interaction. Geochemical investigations have shown complex compositions of magmatic samples from Tristan da Cunha, which could be interpreted as a mixing of plume-derived melts and depleted upper mantle sources. To improve our understanding about the origin of Tristan and to test the mantle plume hypothesis, we deployed 24 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers and 2 seismological land stations around and on the island during an expedition in January 2012 with the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. After acquiring continuous seismological data for almost one year, the seismometers were recovered in early January 2013. We cross-correlated the arrival times of teleseismic P and PKP phases to perform a finite-frequency tomography of the upper mantle beneath the study area. Here we show the 3D mantle structure in terms of velocity variations: We do not image a "classical" plume-like structure directly beneath Tristan da Cunha, but we observe regions of low velocities at the edges of our array that we relate to local mantle upwelling from potentially deeper sources. Additionally we discuss local seismicity within the Tristan da Cunha region, which show processes along the nearby mid-ocean ridge and transform faults. Furthermore, the local seismicity

  18. Insights on the upper mantle beneath the Eastern Alps

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Irene; Miller, Meghan S.; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of Ps and Sp receiver functions from datasets collected by permanent and temporary seismic stations, image a seismic discontinuity, due to a negative velocity contrast across the entire Eastern Alps. The receiver functions show the presence of the discontinuity within the upper mantle with a resolution of tens of kilometers laterally. It is deeper (100–130 km) below the central portion of the Eastern Alps, and shallower (70–80 km) towards the Pannonian Basin and in the Central Alps. Comparison with previous studies renders it likely that the observed discontinuity coincides with the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) east of 15°E longitude, while it could be associated with a low velocity zone west of 15°E. PMID:25843967

  19. Variation of the upper mantle velocity structure along the central-south Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Sandvol, E. A.; Shen, Y.; Gao, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Variations in the subduction angle of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate has lead to different modes of deformation and volcanism along the Andean active margin. The volcanic gap between the central and southern Andean volcanic zones is correlated with the Pampean flat-slab subduction zone, where the subducting Nazca slab changes from a 30-degree dipping slab beneath the Puna plateau to a horizontal slab beneath the Sierras Pampeanas, and then to a 30-degree dipping slab beneath the south Andes from north to south. The Pampean flat-slab subduction correlates spatially with the track of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, and is associated with the inboard migration of crustal deformation. A major Pliocene delamination event beneath the southern Puna plateau has previously been inferred from geochemical, geological, and preliminary geophysical data. The mechanisms for the transition between dipping- and flat-subduction slab and the mountain building process of the central Andean plateau are key issues to understanding the Andean-type orogenic process. We use a new frequency-time normalization approach to extract very-broadband (up to 300 second) empirical Green's functions (EGFs) from continuous seismic records. The long-period EGFs provide the sensitivity needed to constrain the deep mantle structure. The broadband waveform data are from 393 portable stations of eight temporary networks: PUNA, SIEMBRA, CHARGE, RAMP, East Sierras Pampeanas, BANJO/SEDA, REFUCA, ANCORP, and 31 permanent stations accessed from both the IRIS DMC and GFZ GEOFON DMC. A finite difference wave propagation method is used to generate synthetic seismograms from 3-D velocity model. We use 3-D traveltime sensitivity kernels, and traveltime residuals measured by waveform cross-correlation to directly invert the upper mantle shear-wave velocity structure. The preliminary model shows strong along-strike velocity variations within in the mantle wedge and the subducting NAZCA slab. Low upper

  20. Crust and Upper Mantle Structure of Antarctica from Rayleigh Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Heeszel, D. S.; Sun, X.; Chaput, J. A.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Wilson, T. J.; Huerta, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    We combine data from three temporary arrays of seismometers (AGAP/GAMSEIS 2007-2010, ANET/POLENET 2007-2012, TAMSEIS 2001-2003) deployed across Antarctica, along with permanent stations in the region, to produce a large scale shear velocity model of the continent extending from the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in East Antarctica, across the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) to Marie Byrd Land (MBL) in West Antarctica. Our combined dataset consists of Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude measurements from 112 stations across the study region. We first invert for 2-D Rayleigh wave phase velocities using the two-plane wave method. These results are then inverted for shear velocity structure using crustal thicknesses derived from ambient noise tomography and teleseismic receiver functions. We refine our shear velocity model by performing a Monte Carlo simulation that explores the tradeoff between crustal thickness and upper mantle seismic velocities. The resulting model is higher resolution than previous studies (~150 km resolution length) and highlights significant differences in crustal and uppermost mantle structure between East and West Antarctica in greater detail than previously possible. East Antarctica is underlain by thick crust (reaching ~55 km beneath the GSM) and fast, cratonic lithosphere. West Antarctica is defined by thinner crust and slow upper mantle velocities indicative of its more recent tectonic activity. The observed boundary in crustal thickness closely follows the TAM front. MBL is underlain by a thicker lithosphere than that observed beneath the WARS, but slow mantle velocities persist to depths greater than 200 km, indicating a 'deep seated' (i.e. deeper than the deepest resolvable features of our model) thermal source for volcanism in the region. The slowest seismic velocities at shallow depths are observed in the Terror Rift region of the Ross Sea along an arc following the TAM front, where the most

  1. Adaptively parametrized surface wave tomography: methodology and a new model of the European upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, J. F.; Boschi, L.; Kissling, E.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we aim to close the gap between regional and global traveltime tomography in the context of surface wave tomography of the upper mantle implementing the principle of adaptive parametrization. Observations of seismic surface waves are a very powerful tool to constrain the 3-D structure of the Earth's upper mantle, including its anisotropy, because they sample this volume efficiently due to their sensitivity over a wide depth range along the ray path. On a global scale, surface wave tomography models are often parametrized uniformly, without accounting for inhomogeneities in data coverage and, as a result, in resolution, that are caused by effective under- or overparametrization in many areas. If the local resolving power of seismic data is not taken into account when parametrizing the model, features will be smeared and distorted in tomographic maps, with subsequent misinterpretation. Parametrization density has to change locally, for models to be robustly constrained without losing any accurate information available in the best sampled regions. We have implemented a new algorithm for upper mantle surface wave tomography, based on adaptive-voxel parametrization, with voxel size defined by both the 'hit count' (number of observations sampling the voxel) and 'azimuthal coverage' (how well different azimuths with respect to the voxel are covered by the source-station distribution). High image resolution is achieved in regions with dense data coverage, while lower image resolution is kept in regions where data coverage is poorer. This way, parametrization is everywhere tuned to optimal resolution, minimizing both the computational costs, and the non-uniqueness of the solution. The spacing of our global grid is locally as small as ˜50 km. We apply our method to identify a new global model of vertically and horizontally polarized shear velocity, with resolution particularly enhanced in the European lithosphere and upper mantle. We find our new model to

  2. Noble gas isotope signals of mid-ocean ridge basalts and their implication for upper mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroncik, Nicole A.; Niedermann, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The geochemical structure of the upper mantle in general and its noble gas isotopic structure in particular have been the subject of countless studies, as both provide important insights into mantle dynamic processes and are essential for the formulation of mantle geodynamic models. This contribution presents a noble gas study of basaltic glasses derived from the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge (MAR) between 4 and 12° S, an area well known for its high degree of lithophile isotope heterogeneity and exhibiting anomalous crustal thickness. The Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopies along this segment of the MAR range from ultra-depleted (more than NMORB) to highly enriched, and different concepts have been proposed to explain the observed isotopic signatures. Here we show that the high degree of heterogeneity is not confined to the isotopes of the lithophile elements, but is also shown by the noble gas isotopes and noble gas interelement ratios, such as e.g. 3He/22NeM or 4He/40Ar*. 3He/4He, 21Ne/22Neextra and 40Ar/36Ar range from 7.3 to 9.3 RA, from 0.05 to 0.08, and from 346 to 37,400, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of the Ne isotope data are clearly aligned along a single mixing line in the Ne-three-isotope diagram, represented by the equation 20Ne/22Ne=70.5 x 21Ne/22Ne + 7.782, with a slope distinctly different from that of the MORB line, indicating that the ultra-depleted material is characterised by a significantly more nucleogenic 21Ne/22Ne isotopy than the normal depleted mantle. We show, based on covariations between 3He/4He and 21Ne/22Neextra with 206Pb/204Pb and 178Hf/177Hf, that the ultra-depleted material erupted at this MAR segment was most likely produced by an ancient, deep melting event. This implies that isotopic heterogeneities in the upper mantle are not solely caused by the injection of enriched materials from deep-seated mantle plumes or by crustal recycling but may also be due to differences in the depth and degree of melting of upper mantle material within

  3. Single-crystal elasticity of the deep-mantle magnesite at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Mao, Zhu; Lin, Jung-Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2014-04-01

    Magnesite (MgCO3) is considered to be a major candidate carbon host in the Earth's mantle, and has been found to exist as an accessory mineral in carbonated peridotite and eclogite. Studying the thermal elastic properties of magnesite under relevant pressure-temperature conditions of the upper mantle is thus important for our understanding of the deep-carbon storage in the Earth's interior. Here we have measured the single-crystal elasticity of a natural magnesite using in situ Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell up to 14 GPa at room temperature and up to 750 K at ambient pressure, respectively. Using the third-order Eulerian finite-strain equations to model the elasticity data, we have derived the aggregate adiabatic bulk, KS0, and shear moduli, G0, at ambient conditions: KS0=114.7 (±1.3) GPa and G0=69.9 (±0.6) GPa. The pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli at 300 K are (∂KS/∂P)T=4.82 (±0.10) and (∂G/∂P)T=1.75 (±0.10), respectively, while their temperature derivatives at ambient pressure are (∂Ks/∂T)P=-24.0 (±0.2) MPa/K and (∂G/∂T)P=-14.8 (±0.7) MPa/K. Based on the thermal elastic modeling of the measured elastic constants along an expected normal upper-mantle geotherm and a cold subducting slab, magnesite exhibits compressional wave (VP) anisotropy of approximately 46-49% and shear wave (VS) splitting of 37-41% that are much larger than those of major constituent minerals in the Earth's upper mantle including olivine, pyroxene, and garnet. The modeled aggregate VP and VS velocity in moderately carbonated peridotite and eclogite containing approximately 10 wt.% magnesite (approximately 5 wt.% CO2) show minimal effects of magnesite on the seismic profiles of these rock assemblages at upper mantle conditions, suggesting that the presence of magnesite is likely difficult to be detected seismically. However, due to its unusually high VP and VS anisotropies, magnesite with strong preferred orientations

  4. Metastable mantle phase transformations and deep earthquakes in subducting oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Stephen H.; Stein, Seth; Okal, Emile A.; Rubie, David C.

    1996-05-01

    Earth's deepest earthquakes occur as a population in subducting or previously subducted lithosphere at depths ranging from about 325 to 690 km. This depth interval closely brackets the mantle transition zone, characterized by rapid seismic velocity increases resulting from the transformation of upper mantle minerals to higher-pressure phases. Deep earthquakes thus provide the primary direct evidence for subduction of the lithosphere to these depths and allow us to investigate the deep thermal, thermodynamic, and mechanical ferment inside slabs. Numerical simulations of reaction rates show that the olivine → spinel transformation should be kinetically hindered in old, cold slabs descending into the transition zone. Thus wedge-shaped zones of metastable peridotite probably persist to depths of more than 600 km. Laboratory deformation experiments on some metastable minerals display a shear instability called transformational faulting. This instability involves sudden failure by localized superplasticity in thin shear zones where the metastable host mineral transforms to a denser, finer-grained phase. Hence in cold slabs, such faulting is expected for the polymorphic reactions in which olivine transforms to the spinel structure and clinoenstatite transforms to ilmenite. It is thus natural to hypothesize that deep earthquakes result from transformational faulting in metastable peridotite wedges within cold slabs. This consideration of the mineralogical states of slabs augments the traditional largely thermal view of slab processes and explains some previously enigmatic slab features. It explains why deep seismicity occurs only in the approximate depth range of the mantle transition zone, where minerals in downgoing slabs should transform to spinel and ilmenite structures. The onset of deep shocks at about 325 km is consistent with the onset of metastability near the equilibrium phase boundary in the slab. Even if a slab penetrates into the lower mantle, earthquakes

  5. Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Flow: Thermochemical Convection and Entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    One of the most robust results from tomographic studies is the existence of two antipodally located Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) at the base of the mantle, which appear to be chemically denser than the ambient mantle. Results from reconstruction studies (Torsvik et al., 2006) infer that the LLSVPs are stable, long-lived, and are sampled by deep mantle plumes that rise predominantly from their margins. The origin of the dense material is debated, but generally falls within three categories: (i) a primitive layer that formed during magma ocean crystallization, (ii) accumulation of a dense eclogitic component from the recycled oceanic crust, and (iii) outer core material leaking into the lower mantle. A dense layer underlying a less dense ambient mantle is gravitationally stable. However, the flow due to thermal density variations, i.e. hot rising plumes and cold downwelling slabs, may deform the layer into piles with higher topography. Further deformation may lead to entrainment of the dense layer, its mixing with the ambient material, and even complete homogenisation with the rest of the mantle. The amount of the anomalous LLSVP-material that gets entrained into the rising plumes poses a constraint on the survival time of the LLSVPs, as well as on the plume buoyancy, on the lithospheric uplift associated with plume interaction and geochemical signature of the erupted lavas observed at the Earth's surface. Recent estimates for the plume responsible for the formation of the Siberian Flood Basalts give about 15% of entrained dense recycled oceanic crust, which made the hot mantle plume almost neutrally buoyant (Sobolev et al., 2011). In this numerical study we investigate the mechanics of entrainment of a dense basal layer by convective mantle flow. We observe that the types of flow that promote entrainment of the dense layer are (i) upwelling of the dense layer when it gets heated enough to overcome its stabilizing chemical density anomaly, (ii

  6. Volatile-rich Melts in the Earth's Upper Mantle (AGU Kuno Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2013-04-01

    The onset of silicate magma generation in the Earth's upper mantle influences the thermal evolution of the planet, fluxes of key volatiles to the exosphere, and geochemical and geophysical properties of the mantle. Although carbonatitic fluid with variable water content could be stable ≤250 km beneath mid oceanic ridges [1-3], owing to the small fraction (<< 1 wt.%), its effects on the mantle properties are unclear. Geophysical measurements, however, suggest that melts of greater volume may be present down to ~200 km [4-6] but large melt fractions is thought to be restricted to shallower depths. In this Kuno Award lecture, I will discuss the recent advancements on our understanding of deeper silicate melt generation induced by CO2-H2O volatiles and the relative stability of silicate versus carbonatitic melt in various tectonic settings. I will present recent experiments on carbonated peridotites that constrain the location and the slope of the onset of silicate melting in the mantle [7]. The new finding is that the pressure-temperature slope of carbonated silicate melting is steeper than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite and as a consequence the silicate melting of dry peridotite+CO2 beneath ridges commences at ~180 km. Accounting for the effect of 50-200 ppm of mantle H2O on freezing point depression, the onset of silicate melting for a sub-ridge mantle with ~100 ppm CO2 becomes as deep as ~220-300 km [7]. This melting generates a kimberlitic magma with ~25 wt.% dissolved CO2 and 1-5 wt.% dissolved H2O. Based on the recent constraints of oxygen fugacity of the mantle in the garnet peridotite field [2, 3], we suggest that on a global scale, carbonated silicate melt generation at ~250-180 km deep redox solidus, with destabilization of metal and majorite in the upwelling mantle, explains oceanic low-velocity zone and electrical conductivity structure of the mantle. In locally oxidized domains (i.e., higher than average Fe3+/Fetotal), deeper carbonated

  7. Volatile-rich Melts in the Earth's Upper Mantle (AGU Kuno Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2013-04-01

    The onset of silicate magma generation in the Earth's upper mantle influences the thermal evolution of the planet, fluxes of key volatiles to the exosphere, and geochemical and geophysical properties of the mantle. Although carbonatitic fluid with variable water content could be stable ≤250 km beneath mid oceanic ridges [1-3], owing to the small fraction (<< 1 wt.%), its effects on the mantle properties are unclear. Geophysical measurements, however, suggest that melts of greater volume may be present down to ~200 km [4-6] but large melt fractions is thought to be restricted to shallower depths. In this Kuno Award lecture, I will discuss the recent advancements on our understanding of deeper silicate melt generation induced by CO2-H2O volatiles and the relative stability of silicate versus carbonatitic melt in various tectonic settings. I will present recent experiments on carbonated peridotites that constrain the location and the slope of the onset of silicate melting in the mantle [7]. The new finding is that the pressure-temperature slope of carbonated silicate melting is steeper than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite and as a consequence the silicate melting of dry peridotite+CO2 beneath ridges commences at ~180 km. Accounting for the effect of 50-200 ppm of mantle H2O on freezing point depression, the onset of silicate melting for a sub-ridge mantle with ~100 ppm CO2 becomes as deep as ~220-300 km [7]. This melting generates a kimberlitic magma with ~25 wt.% dissolved CO2 and 1-5 wt.% dissolved H2O. Based on the recent constraints of oxygen fugacity of the mantle in the garnet peridotite field [2, 3], we suggest that on a global scale, carbonated silicate melt generation at ~250-180 km deep redox solidus, with destabilization of metal and majorite in the upwelling mantle, explains oceanic low-velocity zone and electrical conductivity structure of the mantle. In locally oxidized domains (i.e., higher than average Fe3+/Fetotal), deeper carbonated

  8. Hafnium isotope evidence from Archean granitic rocks for deep-mantle origin of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitreau, Martin; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Martin, Hervé; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Combined whole-rock and zircon MC-ICP-MS Lu-Hf isotope data are reported for a large collection of Archean granitoids belonging to typical tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites. Our data demonstrate that the time-integrated Lu/Hf of the mantle source of TTGs has not significantly changed over the last 4 Gy. Continents therefore most likely grew from nearly primordial unfractionated material extracted from the deep mantle via rising plumes that left a depleted melt residue in the upper mantle. The deep mantle could retain its primitive relative element abundances over time because sinking plates are largely stripped barren of their oceanic and continental crust components at subduction zones; this process results in only small proportions (<15-25%) of present-day continental mass getting recycled to great depths. Zircon populations extracted from the analyzed TTGs have Hf isotopic compositions broadly consistent with those of their host whole-rocks, whereas the U-Pb system in the same grains is often disturbed, causing a discrepancy that creates spurious initial ɛHf values. This problem is endemic to the Archean detrital zircon record and consistent with experimental results bearing on the relative retentivity of Hf vs. U and Pb in zircon. We argue that this behavior biases the Archean zircon record toward negative ɛHf values, which are at odds with the present TTG data set. If Hadean Jack Hills zircons are considered in light of these results, the mantle source of continents has remained unchanged for the last 4.3 Gy.

  9. Supercontinents, Plate Tectonics, Large Igneous Provinces and Deep Mantle Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Steinberger, B.; Burke, K.; Smethurst, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The formation and break-up of supercontinents is a spectacular demonstration of the Earth's dynamic nature. Pangea, the best-documented supercontinent, formed at the end of the Palaeozoic era (320 Ma) and its dispersal, starting in the Early Jurassic (190 Ma), was preceded by and associated with widespread volcanic activity, much of which produced Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), but whether any of the heat or material involved in the generation of LIP rocks comes from greater depths has remained controversial. Two antipodal Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces with centre of mass somewhat south of the equator (African and Pacific LLSVPs), isolated within the faster parts of the deep mantle dominate all global shear- wave tomography models. We have tested eight global models and two D" models: They all show that deep- plume sourced hotspots and most reconstructed LIPs for the last 300 million years project radially downwards to the core-mantle-boundary near the edges of the LLSVPs showing that the plumes that made those hotspots and LIPS came only from those plume generation zones. This is a robust result because it is observed in multiple reference frames, i.e. fixed/moving hotspot and palaeomagnetic frames, and in the latter case whether the effect of True Polar Wander (TPW) is considered or not. Our observations show that the LLSVPs must have remained essentially stable in their present position for the last 300 million years. LIPs have erupted since the Archean and may all have been derived from the margins of LLSVPs but whether the African and Pacific LLSVPs have remained the same throughout Earth's history is less certain although analogous structures on Mars do indicate long-term stability on that planet. Deep mantle heterogeneities and the geoid have remained very stable for the last 300 million years, and the possibility is therefore open for speculating on links to Pangea assembly. In a numerical model, Zhong et al. (2007, EPSL) argued that Pangea

  10. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Salton Trough, southeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; McCarthy, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents data and modelling results from a crustal and upper mantle wide-angle seismic transect across the Salton Trough region in southeast California. The Salton Trough is a unique part of the Basin and Range province where mid-ocean ridge/transform spreading in the Gulf of California has evolved northward into the continent. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the final leg of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE). Two perpendicular models of the crust and upper mantle were fit to wide-angle reflection and refraction travel times, seismic amplitudes, and Bouguer gravity anomalies. The first profile crossed the Salton Trough from the southwest to the northeast, and the second was a strike line that paralleled the Salton Sea along its western edge. We found thin crust (???21-22 km thick) beneath the axis of the Salton Trough (Imperial Valley) and locally thicker crust (???27 km) beneath the Chocolate Mountains to the northeast. We modelled a slight thinning of the crust further to the northeast beneath the Colorado River (???24 km) and subsequent thickening beneath the metamorphic core complex belt northeast of the Colorado River. There is a deep, apparently young basin (???5-6 km unmetamorphosed sediments) beneath the Imperial Valley and a shallower (???2-3 km) basin beneath the Colorado River. A regional 6.9-km/s layer (between ???15-km depth and the Moho) underlies the Salton Trough as well as the Chocolate Mountains where it pinches out at the Moho. This lower crustal layer is spatially associated with a low-velocity (7.6-7.7 km/s) upper mantle. We found that our crustal model is locally compatible with the previously suggested notion that the crust of the Salton Trough has formed almost entirely from magmatism in the lower crust and sedimentation in the upper crust. However, we observe an apparently magmatically emplaced lower crust to the northeast, outside of the Salton Trough, and propose that this layer in part

  11. Unified Structural Representation of the southern California crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John H.; Plesch, Andreas; Tape, Carl; Suess, M. Peter; Jordan, Thomas H.; Ely, Geoffrey; Hauksson, Egill; Tromp, Jeroen; Tanimoto, Toshiro; Graves, Robert; Olsen, Kim; Nicholson, Craig; Maechling, Philip J.; Rivero, Carlos; Lovely, Peter; Brankman, Charles M.; Munster, Jason

    2015-04-01

    We present a new, 3D description of crust and upper mantle velocity structure in southern California implemented as a Unified Structural Representation (USR). The USR is comprised of detailed basin velocity descriptions that are based on tens of thousands of direct velocity (Vp, Vs) measurements and incorporates the locations and displacement of major fault zones that influence basin structure. These basin descriptions were used to developed tomographic models of crust and upper mantle velocity and density structure, which were subsequently iterated and improved using 3D waveform adjoint tomography. A geotechnical layer (GTL) based on Vs30 measurements and consistent with the underlying velocity descriptions was also developed as an optional model component. The resulting model provides a detailed description of the structure of the southern California crust and upper mantle that reflects the complex tectonic history of the region. The crust thickens eastward as Moho depth varies from 10 to 40 km reflecting the transition from oceanic to continental crust. Deep sedimentary basins and underlying areas of thin crust reflect Neogene extensional tectonics overprinted by transpressional deformation and rapid sediment deposition since the late Pliocene. To illustrate the impact of this complex structure on strong ground motion forecasting, we simulate rupture of a proposed M 7.9 earthquake source in the Western Transverse Ranges. The results show distinct basin amplification and focusing of energy that reflects crustal structure described by the USR that is not captured by simpler velocity descriptions. We anticipate that the USR will be useful for a broad range of simulation and modeling efforts, including strong ground motion forecasting, dynamic rupture simulations, and fault system modeling. The USR is available through the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) website (href="http://www.scec.org).

  12. Upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness under Iceland determined from a microphysical modelling approach of mantle rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, A.; van der Wal, W.; Drury, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Vatnajökull glacier, located in the south-east of Iceland is the largest ice cap of Iceland having a mean radius of ~50 km covering an area of ˜8100 km2. The Vatnajökull glacier is situated directly on top of the spreading axis in the eastern volcanic zone (EVZ) of the Icelandic mid-ocean ridge and near the inferred center of the Icelandic hotspot. Due to the vicinity of the glacier to the active tectonic area, the response of the solid earth to melting of the ice cap is strongly controlled by the properties of the hot newly formed upper mantle underneath the mid-ocean ridge. The relatively high temperatures in the mantle during rifting result in relatively low upper mantle viscosities and fast relaxation times in comparison with tectonically inactive glaciated areas such as in. In this study, estimates for lithospheric thickness and upper mantle viscosity under Iceland are produced by a microphysical modelling approach using the theoretical temperature distribution under mid-ocean ridges combined with olivine diffusion and dislocation creep flow laws. Large lateral variations in upper mantle viscosity and especially lithospheric thickness are expected for Iceland perpendicular to the ridge axis due to the large changes in temperatures away from the ridge axis. The lithospheric thickness (27-40 km) and upper mantle viscosity (2 × 1018-1019 Pa s) outcomes for the recent glaciation are consistent with previous reports of viscosity and lithospheric thickness from glacial isostatic adjustment studies. A combination of a 40 km thick elastic lithosphere and an average upper mantle viscosity of 5 × 1018 Pa s would suggest that the upper mantle under Iceland is most likely dry. Also, the results indicate that the presence of a plume under Iceland cannot explain the recent low viscosity values reported for Iceland. Using a larger extent and larger thickness of the Icelandic icecap during the Weichselian glaciation event (˜10,000 BP) this study predicts that during

  13. Anisotropic Peridotite Rheology and Regional Upper Mantle Flow Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Boyce, D.; Dawson, P.; Castelnau, O.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the rheologic impact of strong lattice preferred orientation (LPO), such as develops due to plate-driven shear, on the pattern of upper mantle flow near plate boundaries. We use finite element models to simulate a regional system of mantle flow, that includes LPO evolution in olivine polycrystal aggregates tracked along flow paths and anisotropic viscosity tensors based on the LPO. Our first, loosely coupled approach begins with a flow field based on a scalar viscosity. The results are postprocessed to compute LPO by integration along streamlines, and an anisotropic viscosity tensor field is derived from LPO. A new flow field is then computed based on the viscosity tensor field. For this case, the predicted flow field differed in a modest but geologically relevant way from the isotropic case. In preparation for incorporating the LPO and effective viscosity calculation directly into the flow code, we have been testing this step separately to assess the sensitivity of the computed tensor to specified deformation parameters. New work explores a power law stress:strain rate relation for the LPO development, upon which the aggregate's effective viscosity tensor depends. The pattern and amplitude of predicted deviation from isotropic viscosity are stronger than for the previously assumed linear stress:strain rate case, as expected. Initial runs that employ the power law viscosity tensor in updated flow calculations are underway at the time of this writing. In addition to the stress exponent for LPO and the resulting viscosity tensor, flow model parameters that notably impact the predictions include the specified stiffening as asthenosphere cools to lithospheric temperatures and mesh resolution within the axial and the base of lithosphere regions. We will present results for subaxial oceanic spreading center flow and report the outcomes of model parameter testing.

  14. Seismic Structure and Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle in the Pannonian - Carpathian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, G.; Stuart, G.; Dando, B.; Hetenyi, G.; Lorinczi, P.; Brueckl, E.; Hegedus, E.; Radovanovic, S.; Brisbourne, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Pannonian Basin is the largest of a group of Miocene-age extensional basins within the arc of the Alpine-Carpathian Mountain Ranges. These basins are extensional in origin, but the surrounding Carpathians result from sustained convergence during and since the period of active extension. A significant part of the mantle lithosphere here has been replaced, as gravitational instability caused an overturn of the upper mantle. The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) is a major international broadband seismology experiment, supported by geodynamical modelling and designed to improve our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the Pannonian and Vienna Basins. Between 2005 and 2007 we deployed 56 portable broadband seismic stations in Austria, Hungary and Serbia, spanning the Vienna Basin and the western part of the Pannonian Basin. Arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes are delayed by about 0.8 sec in the Vienna Basin and early by a similar amount in southwest Hungary. Tomographic inversion of the travel time residuals shows relatively fast P-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath the western Pannonian Basin and slow P-wave velocities beneath the West Carpathians. Seismic anisotropy (SKS) measurements reveal an intriguing pattern of lithospheric anisotropy: in the north-west the fast direction is generally elongated EW, perpendicular to the shortening direction across the Alps. Across the Vienna Basin the fast direction is NW-SE, perpendicular to the major bounding fault systems. Across the Pannonian Basin the dominant fast direction is EW, but in several locations the vectors are rotated toward NW-SE. The Mid-Hungarian Line, a major strike-slip structure already clearly identified in the gravity field, also is associated with abrupt changes in the azimuth of lithospheric anisotropy. Receiver function analysis of the seismic discontinuity at 670 km shows significant structure on scales of order 100 km, and

  15. Melt migration modeling in partially molten upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, Abdolreza

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the importance of melt migration in shaping major characteristics of geological features associated with the partial melting of the upper mantle, such as sea-floor spreading, continental flood basalts and rifting. The partial melting produces permeable partially molten rocks and a buoyant low viscosity melt. Melt migrates through the partially molten rocks, and transfers mass and heat. Due to its much faster velocity and appreciable buoyancy, melt migration has the potential to modify dynamics of the upwelling partially molten plumes. I develop a 2-D, two-phase flow model and apply it to investigate effects of melt migration on the dynamics and melt generation of upwelling mantle plumes and focusing of melt migration beneath mid-ocean ridges. Melt migration changes distribution of the melt-retention buoyancy force and therefore affects the dynamics of the upwelling plume. This is investigated by modeling a plume with a constant initial melt of 10% where no further melting is considered. Melt migration polarizes melt-retention buoyancy force into high and low melt fraction regions at the top and bottom portions of the plume and therefore results in formation of a more slender and faster upwelling plume. Allowing the plume to melt as it ascends through the upper mantle also produces a slender and faster plume. It is shown that melt produced by decompressional melting of the plume migrates to the upper horizons of the plume, increases the upwelling velocity and thus, the volume of melt generated by the plume. Melt migration produces a plume which lacks the mushroom shape observed for the plume models without melt migration. Melt migration forms a high melt fraction layer beneath the sloping base of the impermeable oceanic lithosphere. Using realistic conditions of melting, freezing and melt extraction, I examine whether the high melt fraction layer is able to focus melt from a wide partial melting zone to a narrow region

  16. Metastable mantle phase transformations and deep earthquakes in subducting oceanic lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stein, S.; Okal, E.A.; Rubie, David C.

    1996-01-01

    Earth's deepest earthquakes occur as a population in subducting or previously subducted lithosphere at depths ranging from about 325 to 690 km. This depth interval closely brackets the mantle transition zone, characterized by rapid seismic velocity increases resulting from the transformation of upper mantle minerals to higher-pressure phases. Deep earthquakes thus provide the primary direct evidence for subduction of the lithosphere to these depths and allow us to investigate the deep thermal, thermodynamic, and mechanical ferment inside slabs. Numerical simulations of reaction rates show that the olivine ??? spinel transformation should be kinetically hindered in old, cold slabs descending into the transition zone. Thus wedge-shaped zones of metastable peridotite probably persist to depths of more than 600 km. Laboratory deformation experiments on some metastable minerals display a shear instability called transformational faulting. This instability involves sudden failure by localized superplasticity in thin shear zones where the metastable host mineral transforms to a denser, finer-grained phase. Hence in cold slabs, such faulting is expected for the polymorphic reactions in which olivine transforms to the spinel structure and clinoenstatite transforms to ilmenite. It is thus natural to hypothesize that deep earthquakes result from transformational faulting in metastable peridotite wedges within cold slabs. This consideration of the mineralogical states of slabs augments the traditional largely thermal view of slab processes and explains some previously enigmatic slab features. It explains why deep seismicity occurs only in the approximate depth range of the mantle transition zone, where minerals in downgoing slabs should transform to spinel and ilmenite structures. The onset of deep shocks at about 325 km is consistent with the onset of metastability near the equilibrium phase boundary in the slab. Even if a slab penetrates into the lower mantle, earthquakes

  17. Upper Mantle Structure Around the Trans-European Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutyte, Ilma; Majdanski, Mariusz; Voss, Peter H.; Kozlovskaya, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) is the transition between old Proterozoic lithosphere in Northern and Eastern Europe and the younger Phanerozoic lithosphere in Central and Western Europe. The presented study is a part of the PASSEQ 2006-2008 project which is linked to the TOR project realized during 1996-1997. The PASSEQ and the TOR projects aimed to study the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure around the TESZ, but the latter was focused on the northwestern part of the TESZ between Sweden and Denmark - Germany, while the PASSEQ project was focused on the TESZ mainly beneath Poland. During the PASSEQ project 139 short-period and 49 broadband temporary seismic stations were deployed along the transect stretching from Germany throughout Czech Republic and Poland to Lithuania. The array recorded continuous seismic data from May, 2006 to June, 2008. In our study we used data of all available PASSEQ seismic stations and seismic stations of the national seismological networks of the participating countries and compiled a data set of teleseismic P-wave arrivals. The full data set consists of 8308 manually picked arrivals. Due to limited computational power we used the data of the highest quality only, i.e. 6008 picks. The non-linear teleseismic tomography algorithm TELINV was used to obtain the model of P-wave velocity perturbations in the upper mantle around the TESZ. We recovered the upper mantle structure from 70 km down to 350 km in the study area. The results show ±6.5 % P-wave velocity variations compared to the IASP91 velocity model. We found higher velocities beneath the old East European Craton (EEC) east of the TESZ and lower ones beneath the younger Western Europe west of the TESZ. The thickest litosphere was found beneath the EEC (Lithuania) where the higher velocities continue to about 300 km or even more. To the west of the TESZ under the Variscides the average depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is about 100 km. The TESZ appears

  18. Modeling the Crust and Upper Mantle in Northern Beata Ridge (CARIBE NORTE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.

  19. A kinematic model for the late Cenozoic development of southern California crust and upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Eugene D.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1990-01-01

    A model is developed for the young and ongoing kinematic deformation of the southern California crust and upper mantle. The kinematic model qualitatively explains both the overall seismic structure of the upper mantle and much of the known geological history of the late Cenozoic as consequences of ongoing convection beneath southern California. In this model, the high-velocity upper-mantle anomaly of the Transverse ranges is created through the convergence and sinking of the entire thickness of subcrustal lihtosphere, and the low-velocity upper-mantle anomaly beneath the Salton Trough region is attributed to high temperatures and 1-4 percent partial melt related to adiabatic decompression during mantle upwelling.

  20. Formation of harzburgite by pervasive melt/rock reaction in the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelemen, P.B.; Dick, H.J.B.; Quick, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Many mantle peridotite samples are too rich in SiO2 (in the form of orthopyroxene) and have ratios of light to heavy rare earth elements that are too high to be consistent with an origin as the residuum of partial melting of the primitive mantle. Trace element studies of melt/rock reaction zones in the Trinity peridotite provide evidence for reaction of the mantle lithosphere with ascending melts, which dissolved calcium-pyroxene and precipitated orthopyroxene as magma mass decreased. This process can account for the observed major and trace element compositions of lithospheric mantle samples, and may accordingly be prevalent in the upper mantle.

  1. Mantle Temperature, Mantle Composition, Mantle Heterogeneity, and the Composition of the Upper Mantle: The View from a Global Synthesis of MORB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, C. H.; Gale, A.; Dalton, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    A new comprehensive review of global MORB can address outstanding issues such mantle temperature vs. mantle composition in controlling MORB compositions, the mean composition of ocean ridge basalts, the K/U ratio of the MORB reservoir, and the implications for silicate Earth mass balance of the composition of the upper mantle. We created a global catalogue of ridge segments to assign every sample to a segment. We carried out interlaboratory corrections for major elements, and examined data from each segment to ensure appropriate fractionation correction. We included large unpublished data sets from the Langmuir and Schilling laboratories, assembling the most comprehensive data set for MORB. Data averaged by segment permit calculation of averages that include weighting by segment length and spreading rate. The segment-based approach, comprehensive data set, individualized fractionation correction and interlaboratory corrections distinguish these results from earlier efforts. We also carried out bootstrapping statistical tests for meaningful errors on average compositions. The mean composition of the ocean crust is best determined by a segment length and spreading rate weighted arithmetic mean. As with other recent efforts, notably Su (2002) and also Arevalo and McDonough (2009), the mean composition is substantially more enriched than previous MORB estimates. Average MORB implies a MORB mantle Sm/Nd and Nd isotopic composition similar to the 'non-chondritic primitive mantle' composition based on 142Nd. Then continental crust/MORB mantle mass balance is not possible using a non-chondritic (depleted) bulk silicate earth composition, unless there is a large unsampled depleted reservoir. In contrast to Arevalo and McDonough, who suggested a K/U ratio for MORB of 19,000, we find K/U of 12,340±810, in line with earlier estimates. The discrepancy can be understood from contrasts in methodology, as we determine average K/ average U, while they determine average K/U. To

  2. The Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure of China From Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Niu, F.; Liu, R.; Tkalcic, H.; Huang, Z.; Chan, W.; Sun, L.

    2008-12-01

    We collected and processed a large amount of high-quality broadband teleseismic waveforms recorded at 48 stations in the Chinese National Digital Seismic Network (CNDSN) across China to invert a fine 1-D crustal and upper mantle velocity model beneath each station by receiver function analyses. A cross-correlation based method was used to select mutually coherent receiver functions, which yielded over 200 traces for most of the stations. These high-quality receiver functions have been used to estimate the lateral variations of Moho depth and crustal Vp/Vs ratio (hence Poisson's ratio) in China by an advanced H-k domain search algorithm. The individual RZ (radial and vertical components) receiver functions were stacked for different ranges of back azimuths to represent their mean receiver functions for a given station. Because the geological and geophysical a prior constraints do not exist on all stations, we first adopted grid search to obtain a simple three-layer crustal velocity model selected from a complete model database by modeling stacked receiver functions on every station. The starting model with fine layers down to upper mantle was then constituted from this coarse model, the derived crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio, and velocity constraints at Moho from deep seismic soundings and other geophysical investigations for China. Finally this initial model was utilized in a linearized inversion to obtain a much finer earth structure model. The derived models do no change the main feature of Moho estimated from our previous studies, but reveal more detailed velocity structure across Moho than H-k domain search. Although we utilized the results obtained from Pn tomographic studies in projecting time to depth to constrain the velocity at Moho and the average crustal velocity, the crustal velocity structure, as well as the crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio obtained from receiver functions still show significant discrepancies with those inferred from Pn waves

  3. Density Structure of the Upper Mantle in the Middle East and Surroundings: Interaction of Diverse Tectonic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, M. K.; El Khrepy, S.; Al-Arifi, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Middle East is a very complex region combining several tectonic regimes, which are linked together. Density heterogeneity of the upper mantle, which is related to temperature and compositional variations, is one of the principal factors governing tectonic processes. Therefore, a comprehensive density model of the upper mantle is a key for understanding of these processes. Here we use seismic, gravity and tomography data to construct a 3D density model of the lithosphere and upper mantle and to identify main factors responsible for density variations. At the first stage we use a recent crustal model (Stolk et al., 2013) to estimate gravity effect of the crust and to remove it from the observed fields. As a result, the residual mantle gravity anomalies and residual topography are calculated. In addition we remove the impact of deep density variations below 325 km as estimated by a recent instantaneous dynamic model of the mantle (Kaban et al., 2014). We invert the residual fields jointly with seismic tomography data to image density distribution within the crust and upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the fact that the residual gravity and residual topography are controlled by the same factors but in a different way, e.g. depending on depth and wavelength. This provides a possibility for remarkably better vertical resolution of the resulting density model. As the initial approximation, we employ the seismic tomography model of Schaeffer and Lebedev (2013). Velocity variations are converted to density by applying mineral physics constrains. This model is adjusted in the inversion to fit both residual mantle gravity and topography. The obtained density variations are very significant; their amplitude somewhere exceeds 60 kg/m3 relative to a reference model. The most pronounced decrease of the mantle density corresponds to the Gulf of Aden spreading axis, the Red sea and the Afar zone. The maximum density of the upper mantle is associated with the

  4. Crust and upper mantle electrical conductivity beneath the Yellowstone Hotspot Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, A.; Egbert, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    We have used high-quality electromagnetic data obtained through the EarthScope USArray project to obtain detailed three-dimensional images of electrical resistivity / conductivity in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Snake River Plain/Yellowstone (SRP/Y) volcanic province (Idaho and Wyoming, United States). The lowest resistivities in the area can only plausibly be explained by partial melt and/or fluids, providing valuable new information about the distribution of these phases deep within the Earth beneath the volcanic system. Unexpectedly, in light of the mantle plume models often used to explain Yellowstone volcanism, the electromagnetic data imply that there is no interconnected melt in the lower crust and uppermost mantle directly beneath the modern Yellowstone caldera. Instead, low resistivities consistent with 1-3% melt in the uppermost mantle (depths of 40-80 km) extend at least 200 km southwest of Yellowstone. Shallower areas of reduced resistivity extend upward into the mid-crust around the edges of the seemingly impermeable Snake River Plain province, including beneath Yellowstone. We suggest that the elevated temperatures beneath the active volcanic center have resulted in greater permeability, allowing magma to ascend to shallower depths and pool in the crust. Little melt is entering the system from below at present, perhaps due to intermittency of supply. We describe these results in the context of larger scale electrical resistivity and seismic tomography models of the western US and employ joint interpretation to formulate hypotheses that would explain this unexpected melt distribution beneath the SRP/Y. Our 3-D model is available at http://www.iris.edu/dms/products/emc/models/SRPY-MT.htm

  5. Dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding as the major deformation mechanism of olivine in the Earth’s upper mantle

    PubMed Central

    Ohuchi, Tomohiro; Kawazoe, Takaaki; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Akio; Kikegawa, Takumi; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the deformation mechanisms of olivine is important for addressing the dynamic processes in Earth’s upper mantle. It has been thought that dislocation creep is the dominant mechanism because of extrapolated laboratory data on the plasticity of olivine at pressures below 0.5 GPa. However, we found that dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding (DisGBS), rather than dislocation creep, dominates the deformation of olivine under middle and deep upper mantle conditions. We used a deformation-DIA apparatus combined with synchrotron in situ x-ray observations to study the plasticity of olivine aggregates at pressures up to 6.7 GPa (that is, ~200-km depth) and at temperatures between 1273 and 1473 K, which is equivalent to the conditions in the middle region of the upper mantle. The creep strength of olivine deforming by DisGBS is apparently less sensitive to pressure because of the competing pressure-hardening effect of the activation volume and pressure-softening effect of water fugacity. The estimated viscosity of olivine controlled by DisGBS is independent of depth and ranges from 1019.6 to 1020.7 Pa·s throughout the asthenospheric upper mantle with a representative water content (50 to 1000 parts per million H/Si), which is consistent with geophysical viscosity profiles. Because DisGBS is a grain size–sensitive creep mechanism, the evolution of the grain size of olivine is an important process controlling the dynamics of the upper mantle. PMID:26601281

  6. Shear wave splitting and upper mantle anisotropy beneath Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. D.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Shear wave birefringence is a consequence of seismic anisotropy and is often used, with constraints from mineral physics, to characterize the pattern of upper mantle deformation. In the context of a subduction zone, however, the relationship between measured shear wave splitting parameters (φ , δ t) and geodynamical processes is not straightforward. The three-dimensional pattern of anisotropy in a subduction zone may reflect processes such as corner flow in the mantle wedge, flow around the slab edge, back-arc extension, and motion of the overriding plate. This relationship may be further complicated by complex slab morphology, by the presence of frozen anisotropy in the slab itself, and by the presence of volatiles such as water. In this study, we take advantage of dense station coverage in Japan and use seismic phases covering a wide range of incidence angles, incoming polarization angles, and backazimuths. We take advantage of the good data coverage needed to consider complexities in structure such as multiple anisotropic layers, dipping symmetry axes, and small-scale lateral variations in anisotropic properties. We utilize data from the Japanese F-net network, which comprises 65 broadband seismic stations. We have compiled a database of approximately 1500 splitting measurements of S, SKS, and SKKS phases at F-net stations, and investigate the variations of measured splitting parameters with incoming polarization angle and incidence angle. In the southern part of the array, along the Ryukyu arc, we find that fast directions are consistently trench-parallel, with splitting times of 1 second or more. Moving northward along the array, the measured splitting patterns become more complicated, with significant variations in apparent splitting parameters that indicate complex anisotropic structure. Additionally, measured fast directions vary significantly over short length scales, and stations separated by less than 100 km often exhibit very different splitting

  7. Evidence for primordial water in Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Hallis, Lydia J; Huss, Gary R; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Hilton, David R; Mottl, Michael J; Meech, Karen J

    2015-11-13

    The hydrogen-isotope [deuterium/hydrogen (D/H)] ratio of Earth can be used to constrain the origin of its water. However, the most accessible reservoir, Earth's oceans, may no longer represent the original (primordial) D/H ratio, owing to changes caused by water cycling between the surface and the interior. Thus, a reservoir completely isolated from surface processes is required to define Earth's original D/H signature. Here we present data for Baffin Island and Icelandic lavas, which suggest that the deep mantle has a low D/H ratio (δD more negative than -218 per mil). Such strongly negative values indicate the existence of a component within Earth's interior that inherited its D/H ratio directly from the protosolar nebula. PMID:26564850

  8. Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Mai, Cuc; Hunt, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is less common than lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. However, upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is associated with similar adverse consequences and is becoming more common in patients with complex medical conditions requiring central venous catheters or wires. Although guidelines suggest that this disorder be managed using approaches similar to those for lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis, studies are refining the prognosis and management of upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis. Physicians should be familiar with the diagnostic and treatment considerations for this disease. This review will differentiate between primary and secondary upper-extremity deep venous thromboses; assess the risk factors and clinical sequelae associated with upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis, comparing these with lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis; and describe an approach to treatment and prevention of secondary upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis based on clinical evidence.

  9. Three-Dimensional Geophysical Structure of the Yellowstone / Snake River Plain Hotspot System: Is a Deep Mantle Plume Required?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Kelbert, A.; Egbert, G. D.; Wagner, L. S.; Carlson, R. W.; Roth, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Providing new constraints on the origin of the Yellowstone / Snake River Plain (YSRP) hotspot system is an important contribution enabled the EarthScope program. This age-progressive track of rhyolitic volcanism has long been hypothesized as resulting from a deep mantle plume. Here we present an integrated view of new results from EarthScope seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data that shed new light on the deep structure and dynamics of the YSRP system. Nearly all new body wave tomographic models utilizing EarthScope data show a distinct swath of strongly reduced seismic wavespeeds extending laterally from the central SRP to Yellowstone, extending to depths of no greater than ~200 km. There is no evidence for a singular, concentrated conduit of reduced velocities below 200 km, as expected from a focused mantle plume upwelling. Surface wave tomography shows similar patterns for the YSRP region, with shear wavespeeds consistent with partial melt zones within the YSRP crust and uppermost mantle extending to depths of ~125 km, and aligned with the widespread distribution of Quaternary basaltic volcanism all along the SRP. Results from regional 3D MT models show focused zones of highly conductive crust and upper mantle, with the strongest conductivities in the uppermost mantle residing beneath the central Snake River Plain and the largest contrasts extending to ~100km depth. Given the paucity of evidence for a present-day plume, we explore geophysical proxies in the mantle flow field for past plume-related dynamics, appealing to proxies for mantle flow. Data from several seismic anisotropy studies confirm that the Yellowstone region exhibits little evidence for vertical mantle flow across the region. Further, the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate, imaged clearly in the tomographic studies, would provide a barrier to an upwelling mantle plume. An alternative to the plume model involves mantle flow around a stranded fragment of the Farallon plate whose northern edge parallels

  10. Calculations of upper-mantle velocity from published Soviet earthquake data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriquez, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The lack of information on mantle velocities and crustal structure of the U.S.S.R. has led to a preliminary examination of published Soviet earthquake bulletins in the hope of deriving useful velocity and structure information from the data they contain. Mantle velocities deduced from earthquake data on several Russian earthquakes are in excellent agreement with results of Soviet deep seismic sounding.

  11. Nitrogen speciation in upper mantle fluids and the origin of Earth's nitrogen-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Sami; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2014-11-01

    Volatile elements stored in the mantles of terrestrial planets escape through volcanic degassing, and thereby influence planetary atmospheric evolution and habitability. Compared with the atmospheres of Venus and Mars, Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen-rich relative to primordial noble gas concentrations. The compatibility of volatile elements in mantle minerals versus melts and fluids controls how readily these elements are degassed. However, the speciation of nitrogen in mantle fluids is not well constrained. Here we present thermodynamic calculations that establish the speciation of nitrogen in aqueous fluids under upper mantle conditions. We find that, under the relatively oxidized conditions of Earth's mantle wedges at convergent plate margins, nitrogen is expected to exist predominantly as N2 in fluids and, therefore, be degassed easily. In contrast, under more reducing conditions elsewhere in the Earth's upper mantle and in the mantles of Venus and Mars, nitrogen is expected predominantly in the form of ammonium (NH4+) in aqueous fluids. Ammonium is moderately compatible in upper mantle minerals and unconducive to nitrogen degassing. We conclude that Earth's oxidized mantle wedge conditions--a result of subduction and hence plate tectonics--favour the development of a nitrogen-enriched atmosphere, relative to the primordial noble gases, whereas the atmospheres of Venus and Mars have less nitrogen because they lack plate tectonics.

  12. Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.

  13. Global mantle convection: Evidence from carbon and nitrogen isotopes in super-deep diamonds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Cartigny, P.; Harris, J.; Kaminsky, F. V.; Stachel, T.

    2009-12-01

    Constraining the convective regime of the Earth’s mantle has profound implications for our understanding of the Earth’s cooling and the geodynamics of plate tectonics. Although subducting plates seem to be occasionally deflected at 660 km, evidence from seismic tomography and fluid dynamics suggest that substantial amounts of material reach the core-mantle boundary. Most geochemists, on the other hand, based on evidence from noble gases, would argue for the presence of separate upper and lower mantle reservoirs. Diamond provides a unique opportunity to sample those parts of the mantle that remains inaccessible by any other means. Some mineral associations in diamond, such as majoritic garnet, calcic and magnesian perovskite and manganoan ilmenite with ferropericlase have been recognised as originated from the transition zone down to the lower mantle (Stachel et al., 1999; Kaminsky et al., 2001). In addition, nitrogen in these diamonds is potentially a good tracer for mantle geodynamics. Exchanges between an inner reservoir (characterised by negative δ15N) via degassing at oceanic ridges with an outer reservoir (characterised by positive δ15N) via recycling at a subduction zones can lead to isotopic contrast in a stratified mantle. Because of common super-deep mineral inclusion assemblages in diamonds from Juina (Brazil) and Kankan (Guinea), we carried out a detailed study of nitrogen and carbon isotopes. The Juina diamonds show broadly similar ranges of δ15N from +3.8‰ down to -8.8‰ for both upper (UM) and lower (LM) mantle diamonds. This important feature is also found for UM and LM diamonds from Kankan, although the range of δ15N differs with values from +9.6‰ down to -39.4‰. Both sets of results suggest extensive material-isotopic exchange through the 660km discontinuity, contrary to the idea of an isolated reservoir. Transition zone (TZ) diamonds are enriched in 13C with δ13C from -3.1‰ up to +3.8‰ at Kankan but those of Juina are depleted

  14. A Preliminary Look at the Crust and Upper Mantle of North Africa Using Libyan Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M

    2005-08-05

    In recent years, LLNL has been developing methods to jointly invert both surface wave dispersion data and teleseismic receiver functions. The technique holds great promise in accurately estimating seismic structure, including important tectonic parameters such as basin thickness, crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity, etc. We proposed applying this method to some recently available data from several Libyan stations, as we believe the technique has not been applied to any stations in Libya. The technique holds the promise of improving our understanding of the crust and upper mantle in Libya and North Africa. We recently requested seismic data from stations GHAR (Gharyan) and MARJ (Al Marj) in Libya for about 20 events. The events were large events at regional distances suitable for making dispersion measurements. An example of waveforms recorded at the two stations from an earthquake in Italy is shown in Figure 1. The paths traverse the Ionian Sea. Notice the slow short period group velocities of the surface waves across the Mediterranean, particularly to the easternmost station MARJ. However, because of data availability, signal-to-noise ratio, etc. we were unable to make measurements for every one of these events at both stations. Figure 2 shows a map of paths for 20 sec Rayleigh waves in the eastern Mediterranean region. Paths measured at the two Libyan stations are shown in green. Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements at 20 sec period are sensitive to velocities in the upper 20 km or so, and reveal sediment thickness, crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. Tomographic inversions reveal the sharp group velocity contrast between regions with deep sedimentary basins and those without. Figure 3, the result of an inversion made before adding the new dispersion measurements, shows slow group velocities in the Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Eastern Mediterranean. In general, these features correspond well with the sediment thickness model from Laske, shown in Figure

  15. Receiver Function Study of the Upper Mantle Discontinuities beneath Northeast China: Evidence for Local Mantle Upwelling Beneath the Songliao Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, K.; Chen, Y. J.; Liu, H.; Niu, F.; Ning, J.; Grand, S. P.; Kawakatsu, H.; Tanaka, S.; Necessarray Project Team

    2011-12-01

    We employ receiver function technique and pseudo-station stacking method to study the crust and upper mantle discontinuities beneath Northeast China. Receiver functions are calculated from waveforms recorded by the NorthEast China Extended SeiSmic Array (NECESSArray). NECESSArray is a large deployment of 120 high quality broadband seismographs operated by a multi-national collaboration of China, United States and Japan. The operation of this array began in September 2009 and lasted for two years. This seismic experiment was designed to study the behavior of the Pacific subducting slab in the mantle transition zone, the cause of intraplate continental magmatism and tectonics in Northeast China, and the evolution of ancient Archean lithosphere. Preliminary results show strong velocity heterogeneity beneath the Songliao basin. In this region, there is a negative pulse before the Ps conversion of the Moho in most receiver functions and this may indicate the existence of a low velocity zone in the crust of the Songliao basin. There exists a negative pulse at about 37 s which might stand for the signature of a low velocity zone above the 410-km discontinuity. The most important finding is that both of the 410-km and the 660-km discontinuities are depressed. This observation suggests that a local mantle upwelling probably exists in the upper mantle above, including the upper part of, the transition zone, while the remnant subducted Pacific slab is remained in the lower part of the transition zone.

  16. Stability of Carbonated Eclogite in the Upper Mantle: Experimental Solidus from 2 to 9 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Withers, A. C.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2003-12-01

    intersects the oceanic geotherm deeper than 400 km. Thus, eclogite cannot host carbonates in the asthenosphere. Carbonated eclogite bodies entering the convecting upper mantle would release carbonate melt in the mantle transition zone. Upon release, this small volume, highly reactive melt could be an effective agent of deep mantle metasomatism. Comparison of our eclogite-CO2 solidus with that of peridotite-CO2 shows a shallower solidus-geotherm intersection for the latter. This implies that carbonated peridotite is a more likely proximal source of magmatic carbon in oceanic provinces. However, carbonated eclogite is a potential source of continental carbonatites, as its solidus crosses the continental shield geotherm at ca. 4 GPa.

  17. Inferring Chemical, Thermal and Mechanical Heterogeneities in the Upper Mantle From Seismological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.; Shito, A.

    2003-12-01

    Inferring heterogeneity in the mantle is critical for our understanding of evolution and dynamics of this planet. Most previous efforts in this direction have been concerned with mapping anomalies in temperature, partial melting and/or major element chemistry. We show that in addition to these anomalies, anomalies in trace elements such as hydrogen (water) and the stress level can now be mapped using seismological observations when combined with the latest results of mineral physics. The effects of hydrogen on seismic wave propagation are mostly through its effects on attenuation (Q) and anisotropy. A theoretical analysis shows that the effects of water on attenuation and seismic wave velocities can be parameterized using the rheologically effective temperature (Karato, 2003). This formulation predicts that the velocity heterogeneity caused by anomalies in temperature or water content must have correlation with anomalies in Q. Furthermore the slopes of correlation between Q and velocity anomalies are different between thermal and water origin. Consequently a comparison of anomalies in average seismic wave velocities and Q provides a useful tool to identify the cause of these anomalies. Such an analysis on wedge mantle in the western Pacific suggests that significant heterogeneity in major element chemistry is present in the shallow (<200km) upper mantle whereas anomalies in the deep upper mantle are most likely attributed to the heterogeneity in water content (Shito and Shibutani, 2003). Recent laboratory studies also show that the nature of seismic anisotropy is sensitive to various parameters including water content, temperature and stress magnitude (Jung and Karato, 2001; Katayama et al., 2003). A commonly observed trend of fast shear wave polarization (trench parallel near trench to trench normal anisotropy away from trench) can be attributed to the regional variation in stress level (and water content) in the subduction zone: high stress (plus high water

  18. Potassium:rubidium ratio in ultramafic rocks: differentiation history of the upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Stueber, A M; Murthy, V R

    1966-08-12

    The increase in K:Rb ratio with decrease in potassium content found in basaltic rocks does not seem to apply to ultramafic rocks. The ratios in a series of alpine ultramafic rocks and ultramafic inclusions in basals and kimberlite pipes are about 200 to 500-significantly lower than those in oceanic tholeiites. This characteristic of ultramafic rocks appears to be consistent with a simplified model in which early differentiation of the primitive mantle led to formation of an upper mantle region enriched in alkali elements and having a low K:Rb ratio. Alpine ultramafic rocks may be residuals from such an upper mantle region.

  19. Potassium:rubidium ratio in ultramafic rocks: differentiation history of the upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Stueber, A M; Murthy, V R

    1966-08-12

    The increase in K:Rb ratio with decrease in potassium content found in basaltic rocks does not seem to apply to ultramafic rocks. The ratios in a series of alpine ultramafic rocks and ultramafic inclusions in basals and kimberlite pipes are about 200 to 500-significantly lower than those in oceanic tholeiites. This characteristic of ultramafic rocks appears to be consistent with a simplified model in which early differentiation of the primitive mantle led to formation of an upper mantle region enriched in alkali elements and having a low K:Rb ratio. Alpine ultramafic rocks may be residuals from such an upper mantle region. PMID:17791130

  20. Multi-Observable Thermochemical Tomography of the lithosphere and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, J. C.; Yang, Y.; Rawlinson, N.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Qashqai, M.

    2015-12-01

    Current knowledge of the present-day physical state and structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle essentially derives from four independent sources: i) gravity field and thermal modelling, ii) modelling/inversion of different seismic datasets, iii) magnetotelluric studies, and iv) thermobarometric and geochemical data from exhumed mantle samples. Unfortunately, the integration of these different sources of information in modern geophysical studies is still uncommon and significant discrepancies and/or inconsistencies in predictions between these sources are still the rule rather than the exception.In this contribution we will present a thermodynamically-constrained multi-observable probabilistic inversion method capable of jointly inverting i) surface and body wave datasets, gravity anomalies, geoid height, gravity gradients, receiver functions, surface heat flow, magnetotelluric data, and elevation (static and dynamic) in 3D spherical coordinates. Key aspects of the method are: (a) it combines multiple geophysical observables with different sensitivities to deep/shallow, thermal/compositional anomalies into a single thermodynamic-geophysical framework; (b) it works with thermophysical models of the Earth rather than with parameterized structures of physical parameters (e.g. Vs, Vp, density, etc), (c) it uses a general probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation to appraise the data; (d) no initial model is needed; (e) a priori compositional information relies on robust statistical analyses of a large database of natural mantle samples; (f) it provides a natural platform to estimate realistic uncertainties; (g) it handles multiscale parameterizations and complex physical models, and (h) it includes dynamic (convection) effects on surface observables by solving the complete Stokes flow using multi-dimensional decomposition methods. We will present results for both synthetic and real case studies, which serve to highlight the advantages and limitations of this new

  1. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    PubMed Central

    du Breuil, Anne L.; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses. PMID:27800207

  2. The concentration, behavior and storage of H 2O in the suboceanic upper mantle: Implications for mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Peter J.

    1988-02-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalt glasses from the Pacific-Nazca Ridge and the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge were analyzed for H 2O by gas chromatography. Incompatible element enriched (IEE) glasses have higher H 2O contents than depleted (IED) glasses. H 2O increases systematically with decreasing Mg/Mg + Fe 2+ within each group. Near-primary IED MORBs have an average of about 800 ppm H 2O, while near-primary IEE MORBs (with chondrite normalized Nb/ Zr or La/ Sm ≈2) have about 2100 ppm H 2O. If these basalts formed by 10-20% partial melting then the IED mantle source had 100-180 ppm H 2O, while the IEE source had 250-450 ppm H 2O. The ratio H 2O/(Ce + Nd) is fairly constant at 95 ± 30 for all oceanic basalts from the Pacific. During trace element fractionation in the suboceanic upper mantle, H 2O behaves more compatibly than K, Rb, Nb, and Cl, but less compatibly than Sm, Zr and Ti. H 2O is contained mostly in amphibole in the shallow upper mantle. At pressures greater than the amphibole stability limit, it is likely that a significant proportion of H 2O is contained in a mantle phase which is more refractory than phlogopite at these pressures. The role of H 2O in mantle enrichment processes is examined by assuming that an enriched component was added. The modelled concentrations of K, Na, Ti and incompatible trace elements in this component are high relative to H 2O, indicating that suboceanic mantle enrichment is caused by silicate melts such as basanites and not by aqueous fluids.

  3. Concentration, behavior and storage of H/sub 2/O in the suboceanic upper mantle: implications for mantle metasomatism

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, P.J.

    1988-02-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalt glasses from the Pacific-Nazca Ridge and the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge were analyzed for H/sub 2/O by gas chromatography. Incompatible element enriched (IEE) glasses have higher H/sub 2/O contents than depleted (IED) glasses. H/sub 2/O increases systematically with decreasing Mg/Mg + Fe/sup 2 +/ within each group. Near-primary IED MORBs have an average of about 800 ppm H/sub 2/O, while near-primary IEE MORBs (with chondrite normalized Nb/Zr or La/Sm approx. 2) have about 2100 ppm H/sub 2/O. If these basalts formed by 10-20% partial melting then the IED mantle source had 100-180 ppm H/sub 2/O, while the IEE source had 250-450 ppm H/sub 2/O. The ratio H/sub 2/O/(Ce + Nd) is fairly constant at 95 +/- 30 for all oceanic basalts from the Pacific. During trace element fractionation in the suboceanic upper mantle, H/sub 2/O behaves more compatibly than K, Rb, Nb, and Cl, but less compatibly than Sm, Zr and Ti. H/sub 2/O is contained mostly in amphibole in the shallow upper mantle. At pressures greater than the amphibole stability limit, it is likely that a significant proportion of H/sub 2/O is contained in a mantle phase which is more refractory than phlogopite at these pressures. The role of H/sub 2/O in mantle enrichment processes is examined by assuming that an enriched component was added. The modeled concentrations of K, Na, Ti and incompatible trace elements in this component are high relative to H/sub 2/O, indicating that suboceanic mantle enrichment is caused by silicate melts such as basanites and not by aqueous fluids.

  4. 3SMAC: an a priori tomographic model of the upper mantle based on geophysical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude; Ricard, Yanick

    1996-05-01

    We present an a priori three-dimensional 'tomographic' model of the upper mantle. We construct this model (called 3SMAC — three-dimensional seismological model a priori constrained) in four steps: we compile information on the thickness of 'chemical' layers in the Earth (water, sediments, upper and lower crust, etc); we get a 3D temperature distribution from thermal plate models applied to the oceans and continents; we deduce the mineralogy in the mantle from pressure and temperature and we finally get a three-dimensional model of density, seismic velocities, and attenuation by introducing laboratory measurements of these quantities as a function of pressure and temperature. The model is thus consistent with various geophysical data, such as ocean bathymetry, and surface heat flux. We use this model to compute synthetic travel-times of body waves, and we compare them with observations. A similar exercise is performed for surface waves and normal modes in a companion paper (Ricard et al., 1996, J. Geophys. Res., in press). We find that our model predicts the bulk of the observed travel-time variations. Both the amplitude and general pattern are well recovered. The discrepancies suggest that tomography can provide useful regional information on the thermal state of the continents. In the oceans, the flattening of the sea-floor beond 70 Ma seems difficult to reconcile with the seismic observations. Overall, our 3SMAC model is both a realistic model, which can be used to test various tomographic methods, and a model of the minimum heterogeneities to be expected from geodynamical modeling. Therefore, it should be a useful a priori model to be used in tomographic inversions, in order to retrieve reliable images of heterogeneities in the transition zone, which should, in turn, greatly improve our understanding of geodynamical processes in the deep Earth. 3SMAC and accompanying software can be retrieved by anonymous ftp at geoscope.ipgp.jussieu.fr.

  5. Constraints on upper mantle rheology from modeling of plate motions with fully 3D visco-elasto-plastic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Popov, A.; Steinberger, B.

    2009-04-01

    The convection in deep Earth is linked to the surface through the heterogeneous and rheologically complex lithosphere and asthenosphere, which are usually strongly simplified in global geodynamic models. We use a newly developed 3D thermomechanical finite element numerical technique (Popov and Sobolev, PEPI 2008) to model a 300 km thick upper layer of the Earth in full 3D, coupled with the convecting mantle. The present day temperature distribution and crustal structure within the layer are taken from existing models. We also assume that the upper layer is composed from non-linear temperature- and stress-dependent visco-elastic rheology, corresponding to the dry or wet olivine (mantle) or naturally wet plagioclase (crust), combined with Mohr-Coulomb frictional plasticity. Plate boundaries are represented by the narrow zones of elasto-visco-plastic rheology with much lower frictional strength than within the plates. The mantle below the 300 km depth is modeled using Hager and O'Connell's mantle flow spectral modeling technique with present day density and viscosity distribution based on either interpretation of global seismic tomography or history of subduction. The upper layer and mantle modeling domains are coupled by iteratively achieved precise continuity of tractions and velocities at 300 km depth. Here we will show modeling results for the present day Earth structure focusing on the effect on the plate velocities of the frictional strength at plate boundaries, of mantle potential temperature and of rheology of the asthenosphere (dry versus wet). Modeling shows that deep convection generates plate tectonic-like velocity pattern only when effective friction at subduction plate boundaries becomes less than 0.1. Both magnitudes and directions of plate velocities are reproduced very well at friction in subduction zones around 0.005-0.05 and friction at other plate boundaries of 0.05-0.1. The best fit of the observed velocities is obtained assuming that

  6. Structural change in molten basalt at deep mantle conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Drewitt, James W E; Konôpková, Zuzana; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Morton, Donna M; Rai, Nachiketa; van Westrenen, Wim; Morgenroth, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Silicate liquids play a key part at all stages of deep Earth evolution, ranging from core and crust formation billions of years ago to present-day volcanic activity. Quantitative models of these processes require knowledge of the structural changes and compression mechanisms that take place in liquid silicates at the high pressures and temperatures in the Earth's interior. However, obtaining such knowledge has long been impeded by the challenging nature of the experiments. In recent years, structural and density information for silica glass was obtained at record pressures of up to 100 GPa (ref. 1), a major step towards obtaining data on the molten state. Here we report the structure of molten basalt up to 60 GPa by means of in situ X-ray diffraction. The coordination of silicon increases from four under ambient conditions to six at 35 GPa, similar to what has been reported in silica glass. The compressibility of the melt after the completion of the coordination change is lower than at lower pressure, implying that only a high-order equation of state can accurately describe the density evolution of silicate melts over the pressure range of the whole mantle. The transition pressure coincides with a marked change in the pressure-evolution of nickel partitioning between molten iron and molten silicates, indicating that melt compressibility controls siderophile-element partitioning.

  7. Relationship between observed upper mantle structures and recent tectonic activity across the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. Berk; Wagner, Lara S.; Fischer, Karen M.; Hawman, Robert B.

    2016-05-01

    The lithospheric structure of the Southeastern United States is a product of earlier episodes of continental collision and breakup. The region is located in the interior of the North American Plate, away from active plate margins. However, there is ongoing tectonism in the region with multiple zones of seismicity, uplifting arches, and Cenozoic intraplate volcanism. The mechanisms controlling this activity and the state of stress remain enigmatic. Two important factors are plate strength and preexisting, inherited structures. Here we present new tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the Southeastern United States, revealing large-scale structural variations in the upper mantle. Examples include the relatively thick lithospheric mantle of stable North America that abruptly thins beneath the Paleozoic Appalachian orogeny, and the slow upper mantle of the Proterozoic Reelfoot rift. Our results also indicate fast seismic velocity patterns that can be interpreted as ongoing lithospheric foundering. This provides a viable explanation for seismicity, uplifting, and young intraplate volcanism. We postulate that not only tectonic inheritance but also continuing lithospheric foundering may control the ongoing activity of the region long after it became a passive margin. Based on distinct variations in the geometry and thickness of the lithospheric mantle and foundered lithosphere, we propose that piecemeal delamination has occurred beneath the region throughout the Cenozoic, removing a significant amount of reworked/deformed mantle lithosphere. Ongoing lithospheric foundering beneath the eastern margin of stable North America explains significant variations in thickness of lithospheric mantle across the former Grenville deformation front.

  8. The Asthenosphere Melting Regimes Alteration due to Changing Conditions of Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sharapov, V. N.; Sorokin, K., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Analyzed in the article are different asthenosphere magma generation regimes above the upper mantle hot spots as thermodynamic and geometric parameters of the upper mantle and the conditions on its boundaries vary. The two-layer mantle model is applied to consider the formation of decompression melting areas. The thickness of metasomatically altered lithospheric mantle is determined by the mantle substance rheology and the location of the upper boundary of asthenosphere. We also take into consideration the principal solid state phase transitions by using the mantle substance state equation. The sizes and distribution of hot spots as well as their maximal temperature were defined by the thermodynamic conditions of the perovskite transition existence. The numerical analysis results demonstrate the manifestation of three main mantle dynamics modes; the conditions necessary to form the partial melting zones are not reached; some melting areas with the 30 to 65 Ma existence time do occur; the melting areas that are formed exist permanently. The permanently existing asthenosphere zones are marked by quasiperiodical variation in thickness and the degree of melting. The typical temperatures of a hot spot sharing these modes are the 1740°С and 2020°С correspondingly. The originally presupposed heating degree and the temperature ratio of the upper mantle do influence the decompression melting degree substantially and - to a lesser extent - they influence the size of melting zones. The primary evolution of the second mode is described by the development of a complex system of asthenosphere zones that lead to the occurrence of additional convectional cells dividing the partial melting zone. The variation in the rheological properties of the mantle substance also contributes to the manifestation of the complex structure of asthenosphere zone. The work was made with support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant #12-05-00625.

  9. Duration of the hydrocarbon fluid formation under thermobaric conditions of the Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhina, Elena; Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Deep abiogenic formation of hydrocarbons is an inherent part of the Earth's global carbon cycle. It was experimentally confirmed that natural gas could be formed from inorganic carbon and hydrogen containing minerals at pressure and temperature corresponding to the Earth's upper mantle conditions. Reaction between calcite, wustite and water in the large volume device was studied in several works. It was previously proposed that reaction is possible only after 40 minutes of exposure at high pressure and temperature. In this work similar experiment at P = 60 kbar and T = 1200 K were carried out in "Toroid" type chamber with the 5 seconds duration of thermobaric exposure. Gas chromatographic analysis of the reaction products has shown the presence of hydrocarbon mixture comparable to 5 minutes and 6 hours exposure experiments. Based on this fact it is possible to conclude that the reaction of natural gas formation is instant at least at given thermobaric conditions. This experiment will help to better understand the process of deep hydrocarbon generation, particularly its kinetics.

  10. Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity under California

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; Carrigan, C.R. )

    1993-07-23

    Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 [times] 10[sup 19] pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence.

  11. Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity under california.

    PubMed

    Zandt, G; Carrigan, C R

    1993-07-23

    Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 x 10(19) pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence. PMID:17770025

  12. Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity Under California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandt, George; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1993-07-01

    Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 x 1019 pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence.

  13. The effect of water and iron content on electrical conductivity of upper mantle rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yi, L.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysical observations (MT and GDS) show the conductivity anomaly which may be related to the presence of water and melting. Recently, several researchers have estimated the water content in the transition zone (Huang et al. 2005; Yoshino et al. 2008) and the upper mantle (Wang et al.2006; Yoshino et al. 2006) by electrical conductivity methods. They may underestimate the water content, especially, Yoshino et al did too much underestimate. However, other coexisting phases such as pyroxene and its high-pressure polymorphs may also contribute to the bulk conductivity of the mantle. To test this hypothesis, we measured the electrical conductivity of upper mantle rocks- dunite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at ~ 2-3 GPa and ~1273-1573 K using impedance spectra within a frequency range of 0.1~1000000 Hz. The oxygen fugacity was controlled by a Mo-MoO2 solid buffer. The results show that the electrical conductivity of lherzolite and pyroxenite are ~ half and one order of magnitude higher than that of dunite. These differences were interpreted through a preliminary model involving water and iron content effects on the electrical conductivity. We extrapolated our results and compared the results with some of geophysical observations of the upper mantle. Our results indicate the maximum water content in oceanic upper mantle is as high as ~ 0.09wt % and suggest that pyroxenes dominate the bulk conductivity of upper mantle in hydrous conditions. These results indicated that our model with various water contents could explain the conductivity anomaly in the oceanic upper mantle without involving the presence of partial melt at these depths. This work was supported by national natural science foundation of china (40774036); the special grant from the president of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate University of Chinese Academy Sciences.

  14. Crust and Upper Mantle Velocity Structure beneath NE China from Joint Inversion of Local and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Liu, Z.; Yang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Northeast China, which is located in the composite part of Paleo Asia ocean and Pacific ocean Domain, has undergone multi-stage tectonism. The geological structure is complicated and volcanic activity is strong. In this region, two major geologic and geophysical boundaries are distinct, the NNE-trending North South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and Tanlu fault. With respect to North China Craton (NCC), Northeast China is more closely adjacent to the subduction zone of Pacific slab, along the eastern boundary of Northeast China the subducting Pacific plate approaches depths of 600 km, many deep earthquakes often occurred here, thus, this region become an ideal place to investigate deep structure related to deep subduction, deep earthquakes as well as intraplate volcanism. In this study, we determined high-resolution three dimensional P- and S-wave velocity models of the crust and upper mantle to 800 km depth by jointly inverting arrival times from local events and relative residuals from teleseismic events recorded by more than 400 seismic stations which belong to the six regional seismic Networks and a PASSCALL temporary array (NECESSArray). Our results show that main velocity anomalies exhibited block feature and are generally oriented in NE to NNE direction, which is consistent with regional tectonic direction. The NSGL is characterized by a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly belt with a width of approximately 100 km, and the high-V anomaly extents to the bottom of upper mantle or mantle transition zone. The songliao basin, which is located between NSGL and Tanlu fault tectonic boundaries, obvious low-velocity anomaly extends to about depth of 200 km. Under the Great Xing'an Range on the west side of NSGL, the velocity is slightly low in the lithosphere. Our results also revealed that most of deep earthquakes all occurred in deep subduction zone with high-velocity anomaly,but in the subduction zone with low-velocity, almost deep earthquakes have not occurred. Further

  15. Osmium isotopes suggest fast and efficient mixing in the oceanic upper mantle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, Michael; Salters, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    The depleted upper mantle (DUM; the source of MORB) is thought to represent the complementary reservoir of continental crust extraction. Previous studies have calculated the "average" DUM composition based on the geochemistry of MORB. However the Nd isotope compositions of abyssal peridotites have been shown to extend to more depleted compositions than associated MORB. While this argues for the presence of both relatively depleted and enriched material within the upper mantle, the extent of compositional variability, length scales of heterogeneity and timescales of mixing in the upper mantle are not well constrained. Model calculations show that 2Ga is a reasonable mean age of depletion for DUM while Hf - Nd isotopes show the persistence of a depleted terrestrial reservoir by the early Archean (3.5-3.8Ga). U/Pb zircon ages of crustal rocks show three distinct peaks at 1.2, 1.9, and 2.7Ga and these are thought to represent the ages of three major crustal growth events. A fundamental question therefore is whether the present day upper mantle retains a memory of multiple ancient depletion events, or has been effectively homogenized. This has important implications for the nature of convection and time scales of survival of heterogeneities in the upper mantle. Here we compare published Os isotope data from abyssal peridotites and ophiolitic Os-Ir alloys with new data from Hawaiian spinel peridotite xenoliths. The Re-Os isotope system has been shown to yield useful depletion age information in peridotites, so we use it here to investigate the distribution of Re-depletion ages (TRD) in these mantle samples as a proxy for the variability of DUM. The probability density functions (PDF) of TRD from osmiridiums, abyssal and Hawaiian peridotites are all remarkably similar and show a distinct peak at 1.2-1.3 Ga (errors for TRD are set at 0.2Ga to suppress statistically spurious age peaks). The Hawaiian peridotites further show a distinct peak at 1.9-2Ga, but no oceanic mantle

  16. Crustal and upper mantle structure of central Qiangtang terrane (Tibet Plateau) imaged with magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, S.; Hu, X.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the Tethys Ocean closed, the ongoing collision between India and Aisa continents has created the Tibet Plateau, which is the most spectacular topographic feature on the surface of the earth. In the last decades, a large number of geological and geophysical studies have been undertaken in the Tibet Plateau, but most of these studies were focused on southern Tibet, where the collision of the Indian tectonic plate with Eurasia was occurred, and southeast Tibet, where lateral extrusion of crustal material may be occurred, absent in the central Tibet. As research continues, it has become clear that a complete understanding of the formation and deformation of the Tibet Plateau requires a study of the entire plateau. The Qiangtang terrane is located in the central Tibet Plateau. In 1993-1994, three profiles of broadband MT data (320 Hz to 2000 s) along N-S trending ranges from 86°E to 91°E were collected by China University of Geoscience in central Qiangtang terrane for the purpose of oil and gas exploration, the previous interpretation was focused on the shallow structures. In this study, we reanalyze the three MT profiles to produce more detailed images of the deep electrical structure of the Qiangtang terrane. Dimensionality analysis and geoelectric strike analysis of these data show that they appear to be two dimensional. 2-D inversion model show that there is a pervasive conductivity layer in the mid- to lower crustal and upper mantle, especially in the north Qiangtang terrane, which was considered to be the result of partial melt. The partial melt fraction is sufficient for crustal flow to occur. The similarity of the inversion models of the three profiles show that there is west-east crustal flow along the Jinsha River suture in central Qiangtang terrane, which seems to be western extension of the crustal flow observed in southeast Tibet by Bai et al. (2010). The inversion results also show difference of the electrical structure between the west and east

  17. Relationship between the upper mantle high velocity seismic lid and the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Keith; Tilmann, Frederik

    2009-04-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary corresponds to the base of the "rigid" plates - the depth at which heat transport changes from advection in the convecting deeper upper mantle to conduction in the shallow upper mantle. Although this boundary is a fundamental feature of the Earth, mapping it has been difficult because it does not correspond to a sharp change in temperature or composition. Various definitions of the lithosphere and asthenosphere are based on the analysis of different types of geophysical and geological observations. The depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary determined from these different observations often shows little agreement when they are applied to the same region because the geophysical and geological observations (i.e., seismic velocity, strain rate, electrical resistivity, chemical depletion, etc.) are proxies for the change in rheological properties rather than a direct measure of the rheological properties. In this paper, we focus on the seismic mapping of the upper mantle high velocity lid and low velocity zone and its relationship to the lithosphere and asthenosphere. We have two goals: (a) to examine the differences in how teleseismic body-wave travel-time tomography and surface-wave tomography image upper mantle seismic structure; and (b) to summarise how upper mantle seismic velocity structure can be related to the structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Surface-wave tomography provides reasonably good depth resolution, especially when higher modes are included in the analysis, but lateral resolution is limited by the horizontal wavelength of the long-period surface waves used to constrain upper mantle velocity structure. Teleseismic body-wave tomography has poor depth resolution in the upper mantle, particularly when no strong lateral contrasts are present. If station terms are used, features with large lateral extent and gradual boundaries are attenuated in the tomographic image. Body-wave models are not

  18. A new density model of the upper mantle of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the density structure of the North America upper mantle based on the integrative analysis of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust from the observed field to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. We use a new crustal model, which is based on nearly all existing seismic determinations including the most recent. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (-50 to -400 mgal) beneath western NA and the adjacent oceanic region, and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mgal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of NA into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. In the same way we estimate the residual topography, which represents the part of the surface topography not- (or over-) compensated by the crustal structure. We invert these fields jointly with seismic tomography data to image density distribution within the crust and upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the fact that the residual gravity and residual topography are controlled by the same factors but in a different way, e.g. depending on depth. In the final stage we separate the effect of mantle temperature variations, which is estimated from seismic tomography models constrained by geothermal modelling. Some features of the composition density distribution, which are invisible in the seismic tomography data, are for the first time detected in the upper mantle. The strongest positive anomaly is co-incident with the Gulf of Mexico, and indicates possibly a high-density eclogite layer that has caused subsidence in the Gulf. Two linear positive anomalies are also seen: one with a NE-SW trend in the eastern USA roughly coincident with the Appalachians, and a second with a NW-SE trend beneath the states of Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado. These anomalies are interpreted as due either to: (1) the presence of remnants of

  19. Poisson's ratios of the upper and lower crust and the sub-Moho mantle beneath central Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukawa, Motoo; Fukao, Yoshio

    1981-08-01

    Poisson's ratios of the upper and lower crust and the sub-Moho mantle beneath central Honshu, Japan, are investigated using three independent methods that are based on S to P ratios of apparent velocities, the Wadati diagrams and an inversion of P and S arrivals. Shallow earthquakes at distances of 200—500 km from the Nagoya University Telemeter Network are used for the apparent velocity ratio method. Crustal and subcrustal earth-quakes under the network are used for the other two methods. The network consists of wide-band seismometers with three components which are particularly suitable for detecting S waves. The three different methods give a consistent result for Poisson's ratio σ, that is, (1) σ = 0.23 ± 0.01 in the upper crust, (2) σ = 0.26-0.28 in both the lower crust and in the sub-Moho mantle. The result indicates a sharp contrast in σ between the upper and the lower crust rather than at the Moho. The low σ in the upper crust can only be explained by the presence of a substantial amount of free quartz, indicating granitic rocks. A higher σ in the lower crust suggests that this portion is presumably less saturated in silica and may be even undersaturated, pointing to intermediate to mafic rocks. The sub-Moho σ is almost equal to the σ averaged over the entire upper mantle that has been estimated from the Wadati diagrams of deep shocks beneath Japan but is higher than those calculated from Pn and Sn velocities in oceanic and stable continental regions.

  20. The Deep Mantle Subduction Flux and its Implications for Mantle Th/U and Pb/Ce Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K. A.; White, W.

    2003-12-01

    Subduction of oceanic crust and sediment is thought to have profoundly influenced the chemical evolution of the mantle. In particular, it has been argued that crustal recycling through subduction is responsible for the incompatible-element-enriched nature of mantle plumes; the addition of crustal material to the mantle has also been suggested as a solution to the 'kappa conundrum', i.e., the discrepancy between time-integrated mantle Th/U ratios ( ˜3-4, as recorded by radiogenic Pb isotopes) and the present-day mantle Th/U ( ˜2.55). These hypotheses can be tested if the composition of material subducted into the deep mantle is known. However, before oceanic crust and sediment is carried into the deep mantle, its composition is modified through extraction of fluids and/or melts that are incorporated into island arc magmas. We have attempted to account for these processes using a simple mass-balance approach to calculating deep mantle subduction fluxes. Our calculations allow us to estimate residual slab (i.e., slab material carried into the mantle) compositions for trace elements other than Th, U, Pb, and Ce. In general, the residual slabs are enriched relative to primitive mantle in all elements except Ba and Zr. The slabs themselves lose large fractions of their initial budgets of fluid-mobile elements, particularly Pb and Ba, within the subduction zone. On the other hand, less than 10% of the less fluid mobile, moderately incompatible elements, such as the intermediate and heavy rare earths, is lost from the slab in the subduction zone. Our results indicate an important role for slab-derived fluids in subduction zones, and suggest that enriched mantle sources may contain a recycled crustal component. In the six subduction systems we have examined to date (Marianas, Izu-Bonin, Tonga, Kurile, and the Southern and Northern Lesser Antilles), generally high Th/U subducting sediments (2.0-8.9) are combined with low Th/U altered oceanic crust ( ˜0.23), and bulk

  1. A tomographic glimpse of the upper mantle source of magmas of the Jemez lineament, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.; Gross, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    To infer spatial distributions of partial melt in the upper mantle source zones for the Rio Grande rift and the Jemez lineament, the lateral variations of P wave velocity in the upper mantle beneath these features has been investigated. Teleseismic P wave delays recorded at a 22-station network were used to perform a damped least squares, three-dimensional inversion for these lateral variations. Results infer that a large magmatic source zone exists beneath the Jemez lineament but not beneath the Rio Grande rift. This implies that the volcanic potential of the Jemez lineaments continues to greatly exceed that of the Rio Grande rift. The magmatic source zones of the Jemez lineament are modeled as due to clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau about a pole in northeastern Colorado. This rotation caused extension of the lithosphere beneath the Jemez lineament, permitting concentration there of partially melted rock in the upper mantle. -from Authors

  2. Sharpness of upper-mantle discontinuities determined from high-frequency reflections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    AN understanding of the nature of seismic discontinuities in the Earth's upper mantle is important for understanding mantle processes: in particular, the amplitude and sharpness of these discontinuities are critical for assessing models of upper-mantle phase changes and chemical layering. So far, seismic studies aimed at determining the thickness and lateral variability of upper-mantle discontinuities have yielded equivocal results, particularly for the discontinuity at 410km depth1,2. Here we present short-period (0.8-2.0 s) recordings of upper-mantle precursors to the seismic phase P???P??? (PKPPKP) from two South American earthquakes recorded by the ???700-station short-period array in California. Our results show that the 410- and 660-km discontinuities beneath the Indian Ocean are locally simple and sharp, corresponding to transition zones of 4 km or less. These observations pose problems for mineral physics models3-5, which predict a transitional thickness greater than 6 km for the peridotite to ??-spinel phase transition. In contrast to the results of long-period studies6,7, we observe no short-period arrivals from near 520 km depth.

  3. Sharpness of upper-mantle discontinuities determined from high-frequency reflections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    AN understanding of the nature of seismic discontinuities in the Earth's upper mantle is important for understanding mantle processes: in particular, the amplitude and sharpness of these discontinuities are critical for assessing models of upper-mantle phase changes and chemical layering. So far, seismic studies aimed at determining the thickness and lateral variability of upper-mantle discontinuities have yielded equivocal results, particularly for the discontinuity at 410km depth1,2. Here we present short-period (0.8-2.0 s) recordings of upper-mantle precursors to the seismic phase P???P??? (PKPPKP) from two South American earthquakes recorded by the ???700-station short-period array in California. Our results show that the 410- and 660-km discontinuities beneath the Indian Ocean are locally simple and sharp, corresponding to transi-tion zones of 4 km or less. These observations pose problems for mineral physics models3-5, which predict a transitional thickness greater than 6 km for the peridotite to ??-spinel phase transition. In contrast to the results of long-period studies6,7, we observe no short-period arrivals from near 520 km depth. ?? 1993 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Teleseismic P wave spectra from USArray and implications for upper mantle attenuation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafferky, Samantha; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-10-01

    Teleseismic P wave amplitude spectra from deep earthquakes recorded by USArray are inverted for maps of upper mantle Δt* for multiple frequency bands within 0.08-2 Hz. All frequency bands show high Δt* regions in the southwestern U.S., southern Rocky Mountains, and Appalachian margin. Low Δt* is more common across the cratonic interior. Inversions with narrower frequency bands yield similar patterns, but greater Δt* magnitudes. Even the two standard deviation Δt* magnitude for the widest band is ˜2-7 times greater than predicted by global QS tomography or an anelastic olivine thermal model, suggesting that much of the Δt* signal is nonthermal in origin. Nonthermal contributions are further indicated by only a moderate correlation between Δt* and P travel times. Some geographic variations, such as high Δt* in parts of the cratonic interior with high mantle velocities and low heat flow, demonstrate that the influence of temperature is regionally overwhelmed. Transverse spectra are used to investigate the importance of scattering because they would receive no P energy in the absence of 3-D heterogeneity or anisotropy. Transverse to vertical (T/Z) spectral ratios for stations with high Δt* are higher and exhibit steeper increases with frequency compared to T/Z spectra for low Δt* stations. The large magnitude of Δt* estimates and the T/Z spectra are consistent with major contributions to Δt* from scattering. A weak positive correlation between intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering may contribute to Δt* magnitude and the moderate correlation of Δt* with travel times.

  5. Source Parameters of the Upper-Mantle September 21, 2013 Mw4.8 Wyoming Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froment, B.; Prieto, G. A.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    On September 21, 2013, a Mw4.8 earthquake occurred at more than 70 km deep in the Wind River Range (western Wyoming). Moment tensor inversions show dominant strike-slip faulting with a small reverse component, with nodal planes striking nearly ENE and NW. While intermediate-depth earthquakes are common in a subduction context, there have been very few upper-mantle intraplate events. The 2012 Mw8.6 off-shore Sumatra event is an example of a « deep » intraplate strike-slip earthquake which occurred in the low ocean crust or mantle. The Wyoming event is thus a very unique example of deep intracontinental earthquake. The physical mechanism responsible of intermediate-depth earthquakes remains under debate. This work aims at determining robust source parameters to investigate any distinct characteristic from that for shallow earthquakes or subduction zone intermediate-depth events.We adopt the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach to empirically correct for path and site effects. The nearby Ml3.0 aftershock which occurred 2 hours after the mainshock and at similar depth, is considered as EGF earthquake. This only aftershock is located at ~5 km from the mainshock and turns out to be a good EGF since both earthquakes generate high-correlated waveforms. Using the multitaper approach we are able to deconvolve the EGF from the mainshock with robust spectral and temporal representations. We use both the spectral (spectral ratio) and the temporal (source time function) information to obtain a more robust estimate of the source duration and the corresponding corner frequency, but require an adaptive window in order to have good signal to noise ratios in as wide a frequency band as possible. We propose a semi-automatic, adaptive time window approach, that allows for a robust measurement at each single station, thereby enhancing the analysis of the azimuthal distribution of corner frequencies.We additionally investigate the radiated seismic energy of the Mw4.8 earthquake

  6. Deep mantle mineralogy and novel materials synthesis using multianvil high-pressure technology (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsuo, Irifune

    2016-04-01

    Phase relations in mantle and slab materials have been studied using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus (KMA) under pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle transition region and the uppermost lower mantle of the Earth. The associated density and sound velocity changes of these materials have also been determined using the KMA technology combined with synchrotron in situ X-ray and ultrasonic interferometry measurements. The results show that the mantle transition region is made of a pyrolitic composition, while the presence of a harzburgite-rich layer is suggested in the lower parts of this region. Use of sintered diamond anvils for KMA has allowed expansion of these measurements toward deeper region of the lower mantle. Our preliminary results of such measurements indicate that at least upper part of the lower mantle is made of the pyrolitic composition contrary to a recent study based on Brillouin scattering measurements in diamond anvil cell, which concluded a more Si-rich lower mantle. On the other hand, we have been applying KMA technology to synthesis of novel functional materials utilizing its capability of producing very high static pressures and homogeneous temperatures in relatively large sample volumes. These include ultrahard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) directly converted from graphite, which is now being used for applications to abrasive and cutting tools as well as for some scientific applications such as anvils for some high-pressure devices. Another example of such a novel material is hard and tough nano-polycrystalline stishovite (NPS), which is also potentially important for some industrial applications. Moreover, we recently succeeded in making highly transparent nano-polycrystalline garnet (NPG), which is ideal for the measurements of sound velocities by various methods, such as Brillouin scattering and GHz ultrasonic interferometry. Thus, the KMA technology opens the door to the synthesis of transparent nano

  7. Inferring upper-mantle structure by full waveform tomography with the spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekić, V.; Romanowicz, B.

    2011-05-01

    Mapping the elastic and anelastic structure of the Earth's mantle is crucial for understanding the temperature, composition and dynamics of our planet. In the past quarter century, global tomography based on ray theory and first-order perturbation methods has imaged long-wavelength elastic velocity heterogeneities of the Earth's mantle. However, the approximate techniques upon which global tomographers have traditionally relied become inadequate when dealing with crustal structure, as well as short-wavelength or large amplitude mantle heterogeneity. The spectral element method, on the other hand, permits accurate calculation of wave propagation through highly heterogeneous structures, and is computationally economical when coupled with a normal mode solution and applied to a restricted region of the Earth such as the upper mantle (SEM). Importantly, SEM allows a dramatic improvement in accounting for the effects of crustal structure. Here, we develop and apply a new hybrid method of tomography, which allows us to leverage the accuracy of SEM to model fundamental and higher-mode long period (>60 s) waveforms. We then present the first global model of upper-mantle velocity and radial anisotropy developed using SEM. Our model, SEMum, confirms that the long-wavelength mantle structure imaged using approximate semi-analytic techniques is robust and representative of the Earth's true structure. Furthermore, it reveals structures in the upper mantle that were not clearly seen in previous global tomographic models. We show that SEMum favourably compares to and rivals the resolving power of continental-scale studies. This new hybrid approach to tomography can be applied to a larger and higher-frequency data set in order to gain new insights into the structure of the lower mantle and more robustly map seismic structure at the regional and smaller scales.

  8. Activation volume for creep in the upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Ross, J V; Ave'lallemant, H G; Carter, N L

    1979-01-19

    The activation volume for creep, V*, of olivine-rich rocks has been determined in pressure-differential creep experiments on dunite at temperatures from 1100 degrees to 1350 degrees C and confining pressures from 5 to 15 kilobars. Values of V* range from 10.6 to 15.4 cubic centimeters per mole with a mean value of 13.4 cubic centimeters per mole, near that expected for oxygen ion self-diffusion. The quantity V* is incorporated into existing flow equations; in combination with observations on naturally deformed mantle xenoliths, estimates are given of the variation with depth of stress, strain rate, and viscosity. PMID:17738997

  9. Consequences of experimental transient rheology. [of earth lower crust and upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabadini, Roberto; Smith, Brad K.; Yuen, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent analyses of transient creep data for lower crustal and upper mantle substances are used to constrain the viscosity contrast across the 670 km discontinuity, and a 4-layer earth model in which both upper and lower mantles are described by a Burgers body rheology is assumed. Results indicate that the previously inferred viscosity variations would be reduced by a factor of ten using the new transient models. This result is in agreement with a revised viscosity estimate based on long-wavelength geoid anomalies and seismic tomography. Time-dependent perturbations to the gravity field from recent ice movements are shown to be significant.

  10. Structure of the crust and upper mantle in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pakiser, L.C.

    1963-01-01

    Seismic waves generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions have been recorded in a network of nearly 2,000 stations in the western conterminous United States as a part of the VELA UNIFORM program. The network extends from eastern Colorado to the California coastline and from central Idaho to the border of the United States and Mexico. The speed of compressional waves in the upper-mantle rocks ranges from 7.7 km/sec in the southern part of the Basin and Range province to 8.2 km/sec in the Great Plains province. In general, the speed of compressional waves in the upper-mantle rocks tends to be nearly the same over large areas within individual geologic provinces. Measured crustal thickness ranges from less than 20 km in the Central Valley of California to 50 km in the Great Plains province. Changes in crustal thickness across provincial boundaries are not controlled by regional altitude above sea level unless the properties of the upper mantle are the same across those boundaries. The crust tends to be thick in regions where the speed of compressional waves in the upper-mantle rocks (and presumably the density) is high, and tends to be relatively thin where the speed of compressional waves in the upper-mantle rocks (and density) is lower. With in the Basin and Range province, crustal thickness seems to vary directly with regional altitude above sea level. Evidence that a layer of intermediate compressional-wave speed exists in the lower part of the crust has been accumulated from seismic waves that have traveled least-time paths, as well as secondary arrivals (particularly reflections). On a scale that includes many geologic provinces, isostatic compensation is related largely to variations in the density of the upper- mantle rocks. Within geologic provinces or adjacent provinces, isostatic compensation may be related to variations in the thickness of crustal layers. Regions of thick crust and dense upper mantle have been relatively stable in Cenozoic

  11. Lunar thermal regime to 300 km. [in crust and upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.; Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of the global heat flow, crustal heat source enrichment, thermal conductivity, and temperature in the crust and upper mantle of the moon is examined. A steady-state moon in which conductive heat transfer dominates is assumed. Heat-flow measurements from the Apollo 15 and 17 missions and gamma-ray mapping of thorium conducted by the Apollo 15 and 16 missions provide data for the study of the lunar thermal regime. Temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1600 K are found for the 300-km depth level. In the upper mantle, temperature gradients are in the range of 1.8 to 3.2 K/km.

  12. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  13. Using Seismic Discontinuities to Image Melt and Dynamics in the Sub-Continental Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Courtier, A. M.; Hier-Majumder, S.; Lekic, V.

    2014-12-01

    Continents are assembled from multiple Proterozoic and Archean terranes to form stable cratonic platforms with associated deformation typically localized to margins and/or rift zones. Successive episodes of subsequent extension, compression, magmatism, accretion, and rifting have left the sub-continental upper mantle with a complex signature of thermal and chemical heterogeneity. One key interest is the history of melt production, migration, and storage in sub-continental upper mantle as it provides a window into past and present dynamical processes, including the differentiation and formation of continental structure. Here we examine seismic discontinuities within the mantle that arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. Using a dataset of broadband seismograms of underside reflected S-waves arriving as precursors to the seismic phase SS, we determine the depth and impedance contrast of discontinuities in the depth range of 80-410 km. Our observations are compared to predictions for the seismic moduli from a mineral physics database using the software MuMaP (Multiphase Material Properties). MuMaP modeling allows us to vary the average regional temperature, mantle composition and account for the effects of melt (if present). In our initial study of the western North American plate, we detect the presence of the 410 km discontinuity, a discontinuity at 300 km depth (X), and a G discontinuity at 60-80 km depth. The X is indicative of the coesite to stishovite phase transition in the upper mantle and suggests substantial mixing of subducted basalt with the mantle. The presence of the G may indicate partial melt in the asthenosphere, melt frozen into the lithosphere, and/or anisotropic fabrics preserved beneath the continent. These hypotheses are evaluated against MuMap predictions for melt content and anisotropic structure in the upper

  14. Shear zones in the upper mantle - relation between geochemical enrichment and deformation in mantle peridotites

    SciTech Connect

    Downes, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Textural variations in mantle-derived spinel peridotites have previously been interpreted as evidence of the existence of asthenospheric mantle diapirs, indicating deformational heterogeneity on a large lateral scale (kilometers to tens of kilometers). However, many volcanic vents entrain both deformed and undeformed xenoliths, and field relations in peridotite massifs show the scale of alternation between deformed and undeformed peridotite to be small (centimeters to meters) because of the presence of numerous lithospheric shear zones. Some rare xenoliths contain both deformed and undeformed peridotite. These is also an apparent relation between deformation and the growth of metasomatic minerals; amphibole is often concentrated in strongly deformed zones in peridotite massifs and deformed xenoliths, although it is also found in crosscutting veins and aureoles around such veins. A relation can also be seen between deformation and indicators of geochemical enrichment. Clinopyroxenes from many deformed spinel peridotites show light rate earth element (REE) enrichment, whereas clinopyroxenes from undeformed spinel peridotites commonly have mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-type light REE-depleted patterns. Sr and Nd radiogenic isotopic compositions of undeformed peridotites are generally MORB-like, and have low {epsilon}Sr and high {epsilon}Nd. In contrast, deformed peridotites, with or without amphibole, often have higher {epsilon}Sr and low {epsilon}Nd values, indicating geochemical enrichment by large ion lithophile (LIL)- and light REE-enriched fluids or melts. These observations can be used to infer that the shallow mantle contains lithospheric ductile shear zones in which metasomatic fluids precipitated amphibole and clinopyroxene.

  15. Three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure in the Atlantic upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Esther Kezia Candace

    Oceanic lithosphere constitutes the upper boundary layer of the Earth's convecting mantle. Its structure and evolution provide a vital window on the dynamics of the mantle and important clues to how the motions of Earth's surface plates are coupled to convection in the mantle below. The three-dimensional shear-velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Atlantic Ocean is investigated to gain insight into processes that drive formation of oceanic lithosphere. Travel times are measured for approximately 10,000 fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves, in the period range 30-130 seconds, traversing the Atlantic basin. Paths with >30% of their length through continental upper mantle are excluded to maximize sensitivity to the oceanic upper mantle. The lateral distribution of Rayleigh wave phase velocity in the Atlantic upper mantle is explored with two approaches. One, phase velocity is allowed to vary only as a function of seafloor age. Two, a general two-dimensional parameterization is utilized in order to capture perturbations to age-dependent structure. Phase velocity shows a strong dependence on seafloor age, and removing age-dependent velocity from the 2-D maps highlights areas of anomalously low velocity, almost all of which are proximal to locations of hotspot volcanism. Depth-dependent variations in vertically-polarized shear velocity (Vsv) are determined with two sets of 3-D models: a layered model that requires constant VSV in each depth layer, and a splined model that allows VSV to vary continuously with depth. At shallow depths (˜75 km) the seismic structure shows the expected dependence on seafloor age. At greater depths (˜200 km) high-velocity lithosphere is found only beneath the oldest seafloor; velocity variations beneath younger seafloor may result from temperature or compositional variations within the asthenosphere. The age-dependent phase velocities are used to constrain temperature in the mantle and show that, in contrast to previous results for

  16. Geophysical constraints on partial melt in the upper mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Shankland, T.J.; O'Connell, R.J.; Waff, H.S.

    1981-08-01

    This paper adresses the conditions under which partial melt can exist in the mantle in order to be observed as a geophysical 'anomaly'. Typical observed anomalies are high electrical conductivity of the order of 0.1 S/m or greater, velocity decreases of 7--10%, seismic Q values less than 100, and a frequency band for seismic effects in the region mear 1 Hz. Existing theories of electrical conduction in partial melts and of frequency-dependent seismic properties together with recent measurements of melt electrical conductivity, viscosity, and partial melt texture can be used to establish requirements for melt to be observed by geophysical methods. From electrical anomalies, mainly sensitive to melt volume and its interconnection, one can require a minimum melt fraction of several percent at temperatures close to the solidus (1150/sup 0/--1300/sup 0/C). However, seismic models demand only a small volume in very flattened shapes (aspect ratio approx. =0.001, melt fraction approx.0.1%). Further, if melt configuration permits seismic dissipation in bulk, that is, there exist flattened voids intersecting more or less equant voids, then it is possible to infer melt fractions for elastic anomalies that are consistent with the several percent required for electrical anomalies. Observed equilibrium textures of partly melted peridotite together with inferred melt-solid surface energies suggest that melt on a grain size scale in a gravitational field segregates into a strongly anisotropic pattern. Thus if partial melt causes mantle geophysical anomalies, it should exist in a variety of void shapes and probably of sizes. While the association of electrical and elastic anomalies with indications of reduced density, volcanism, and high heat flow makes the hypothesis of partial melting an attractive explanation, the minimum physical requirement is for existence of relatively high temperature.

  17. P/n/ velocity and cooling of the continental lithosphere. [upper mantle compression waves in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, P. R.; Braile, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    The average upper mantle compressional wave velocity and heat flow figures presently computed for continental physiographic provinces in North America exhibit an inverse relationship, and possess a statistically significant correlation coefficient. A correlation is also demonstrated between compressional wave velocity and material temperature by estimating crust-mantle boundary temperatures from heat flow values. The dependency of compressional wave velocity on temperature implies that the observed geographical distribution in upper mantle seismic velocity may be due to the temperature effect character of upper mantle compressional wave velocity variation.

  18. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  19. Deep mantle heat flow and thermal evolution of the Earth's core based on thermo-chemical mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Tackley, P.; Buffett, B.

    2004-12-01

    A coupled core-mantle evolution model that combines the global heat balance in the core with a fully-dynamical thermo-chemical mantle convection [Nakagawa and Tackley, 2004 published in EPSL] is used to investigate the deep mantle heat flow that is required to sustain the magnetic field generated by the geodynamo process. Effects of a radioactive heat source due to potassium in the core are also included in the global heat balance in the Earth??s core. Two important parameters are checked in this study; (1) density variation between depleted hartzbergite and basaltic material (0 to 3 percent) and (2) concentration of radioactive potassium in the core alloy (0ppm to 400ppm). The parameter set that most closely satisfies the criteria of size of the inner core (1220km at present time) is around 2 percent of density difference in a convecting mantle and 200ppm of radioactive heat source in the core. The concentration of potassium in the core is consistent with the geochemical approach [Murthy et al., 2003] but smaller than other successful thermal evolution models [Labrosse, 2003; Nimmo et al., 2004]. Heat flow through the core-mantle boundary and the contribution of radioactive heat sources in the core are consistent with theoretical estimates [e.g. Buffett, 2002] and geochemical constraints [Gessmann and Wood, 2002]. The power available to the geodynamo, based on the predicted heat flow through the core-mantle boundary, is approximately four times greater than the value predicted by numerical models of the geodynamo [Christensen and Kutzner, 2004] but closer to theoretical estimates [e.g. Buffett, 2002].

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Upper Mantle Plasticity: Integrating Experimental and Theoretical data into Mean-field Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raterron, P.; Castelnau, O.; Detrez, F.; Bollinger, C.; Cordier, P.; Fraysse, G.; Merkel, S.

    2013-12-01

    the hard phase. It shows that, to reproduce the low stresses expected in the deep upper mantle, ';diffusion-related' creep must contribute significantly to deformation. It also suggests that the significant weakening of olivine LPO with increasing depth results from both the P-induced [100]/[001] dislocation-slip transition and the increasing activity with T of ';diffusion-related' plasticity.

  1. Using Receiver Functions to Image the Montana Crust and Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirianni, R. T.; Russo, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    We determined receiver functions (RFs) at six permanent Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) stations to examine crust and upper mantle structure of the Wyoming craton (WC) and Medicine Hat block (MHB). The Deep Probe & SAREX projects (Henstock et al., 1998; Clowes et al., 2002; Gorman et al., 2002) used active source seismics to model a high velocity crustal layer (the so-called 7x layer) beneath the WC. This layer exhibits P wave velocities that are high for lower continental crust (~7+ km/s) and extends from 30-55 km below the surface. Interpretations of the active source data indicate that this layer may represent wide scale crustal underplating of the WC, implying post-Archean craton modification with implications for Laurentia assembly. We used 43 earthquakes from a wide azimuthal distribution recorded at the Montana ANSS stations; high signal-to-noise ratios of 25 of these RFs were acceptable for further analysis. Receiver functions constrain crustal velocity structure beneath a seismometer by using P-to-S wave conversions at sharp velocity contrast boundaries. Preliminary results for seismic stations DGMT, EGMT, and LAO, located to the east of the Deep Probe and SAREX seismic line on the Wyoming craton/Medicine Hat block show the influence of sedimentary cover and a strong Ps phase at approximately four seconds after P. At BOZ and MSO, located in the Rocky mountains, the sedimentary cover signal previously noted is absent, and instead we observe a sharp Ps phase at about four and a half seconds after P. RFs at station RLMT (on the WC) are highly anomalous, probably reflecting complex conversions from two differently oriented dipping layers. We will use the RFs to produce suites of acceptable structural models to test for the presence and lateral extent of the 7x layer and other structural features of the Rocky Mountains-craton transition.

  2. Constraints on Shear Velocity in the Cratonic Upper Mantle From Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, A. C.; Dalton, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (200-300 km), defined by a depleted composition and a steady-state conductively cooled temperature structure, has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth and anomalously high attenuation in the uppermost mantle, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected with a thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. Here, we used forward-modeling to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves that primarily traversed cratons in North America, South America, Africa, and Australia. We considered two approaches; with the first, depth profiles of shear velocity were predicted from thermal models of the cratonic upper mantle that correspond to a range of assumed values of mantle potential temperature, surface heat flow, and radiogenic heat production in the crust and upper mantle. With the second approach, depth profiles of shear velocity were randomly generated. In both cases, Rayleigh wave phase velocity was calculated from the Earth models and compared to the observed values. We show that it is very difficult to match the observations with an Earth model containing a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle; instead, the best-fit models contain a flat or positive velocity gradient with depth. We explore the implications of this result for the thermal and

  3. Olivine-mica pyroxenite xenoliths from northern Tanzania: metasomatic products of upper-mantle peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. B.; Smith, J. V.

    1992-04-01

    Olivine-mica-pyroxene blocks in Neogene pyroclastics from Oldoinyo Lengai and Loluni, Tanzania, result from K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Al, REE, Cl, F and OH metasomatism of upper-mantle peridotite. Deformed olivine relicts and high Cr and Ni in bulk-rock analyses indicate a peridotite precursor.

  4. Osmium Isotopic Compositions of Chondrites and Earth's Primitive Upper Mantle: Constraints on the Late Veneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Meisel, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 187 Os/188 Os of carbonaceous chondrites averages approximately 2% lower than for enstatite and ordinary chondrites. The primitive upper mantle ratio for the Earth best matches that of ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob

    2012-05-22

    An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

  6. Lower crust and upper mantle electrical anisotropy in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Zara R. 13Thiel, Stephan 2Cull, James P.

    2012-08-01

    The dominant north-south strike of the Palaeozoic outcrop of central Victoria has been well documented, but to the north, these rocks are covered by the Cainozoic sedimentary deposits of the Murray Basin. Two magnetotelluric surveys were completed to assist in extrapolation of the known structure and to identify possible new targets for mineral discovery. Supporting the results from previous seismic interpretations for the region, the 2D MT inversion models substantiate an intrazone thrust fault system of listric geometries in the Bendigo Zone connected in the mid-crust. With the zone boundary clearly defined the electrical resistivity structure is distinct between the major subdivisions, indicating a different tectonic evolution for the Bendigo and Melbourne Zones. However, the conductive overburden in the region poses complications for the generation of the 2D resistivity models. Static shifts and electrical anisotropy were identified as distortions in the dataset, with further processing needed to attain a complete picture of the underlying geology. The difficulties caused by galvanic distortion were allayed by using the phase tensor response in place of the distorted amplitude response. Phase tensor analysis of MT data has been completed subsequently, the results of which we present here, along with the original 2D inversion models, confirming that electrical anisotropy persists into the mantle.

  7. Upper mantle structures beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Implications for the geodynamics of continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Dando, B.; Ionescu, C.; Hegedüs, E.; Radovanović, S.; Shen, Y.; South Carpathian Project Working Group

    2012-10-01

    The Carpathian-Pannonian system of Eastern and Central Europe represents a unique opportunity to study the interaction between surface tectonic processes involving convergence, extension and convective overturn in the upper mantle. Here, we present high-resolution images of upper mantle structure beneath the region from P-wave finite-frequency teleseismic tomography to help constrain such geodynamical interactions. We have selected earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.5 in the distance range 30°-95°, which occurred between 2006 and 2011. The data were recorded on 54 temporary stations deployed by the South Carpathian Project (2009-2011), 56 temporary stations deployed by the Carpathian Basins Project (2005-2007), and 131 national network broadband stations. The P-wave relative arrival times are measured in two frequency bands (0.5-2.0 Hz and 0.1-0.5 Hz), and are inverted for Vp perturbation maps in the upper mantle. Our images show a sub-vertical slab of fast material beneath the eastern Alps which extends eastward across the Pannonian basin at depths below ˜300km. The fast material extends down into the mantle transition zone (MTZ), where it spreads out beneath the entire basin. Above ˜300km, the upper mantle below the Pannonian basin is dominated by relatively slow velocities, the largest of which extends down to ˜200km. We suggest that cold mantle lithospheric downwelling occurred below the Pannonian Basin before detaching in the mid-Miocene. In the Vrancea Zone of SE Romania, intermediate-depth (75-180 km) seismicity occurs at the NE end of an upper mantle high velocity structure that extends SW under the Moesian Platform, oblique to the southern edge of the South Carpathians. At greater depths (180-400 km), a sub-circular high velocity anomaly is found directly beneath the seismicity. This sub-vertical high-velocity body is bounded by slow anomalies to the NW and SE, which extend down to the top of the MTZ. No clear evidence of a residual slab is

  8. Os Isotope Heterogeneity of the Convecting Upper Mantle: The Mayari-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt (Eastern Cuba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Gervilla, F.; Meibom, A.; Proenza, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Chromite separates from a set of historically important chromite deposits from the 90 Ma old Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt in eastern Cuba were inspected for Re-Os isotopic systematics in an attempt to quantify the extent of Os isotopic heterogeneities within a restricted upper mantle portion represented by a single ophiolite. Compositional variations of chromites indicate their crystallization from hydrous melts varying in composition from back-arc basin basalts (Al-rich chromites; Cr# = 0.43-0.55; low Pd/Ir) to boninites (Cr-rich chromites; Cr# = 0.60-0.83; high Pd/Ir) in a supra-subduction zone setting. Initial Os isotopic compositions of the studied chromites can be grouped according to their distribution in 3 regional districts. Results indicate systematically negative calculated initial γOs values varying from -1.06 ± 0.79 (Moa-Baracoa district), -1.77 ± 0.80 (Sagua de Tanamo district) and -2.79 ± 0.31 (Mayari district). These suprachondritic values are distinctly (3.5-5.2%) less radiogenic than the estimated minimum 187Os/188Os composition of the primitive upper mantle of 0.1296 ± 8 and can be explained by Re depletion during ancient partial melting and melt percolation events. Old Os isotope model ages (<2100 Ma)of some of the chromites (or platinum-group minerals included in them) show and confirm previous findings that ancient Os isotopic signatures can survive in the Earth's upper mantle. Our systematically negative initial γOs values do not improve the definition of an already statistically poorly defined present-day Os isotopic composition of the convecting upper mantle, but instead indicate a complex history for the convecting upper mantle which precludes the calculation of a uniform regional Os isotopic signature for this reservoir.

  9. OH solubility in olivine in the peridotite-COH system under reducing conditions and implications for water storage and hydrous melting in the reducing upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhi

    2015-12-01

    at ˜100 and 210 km depth, respectively, and is even larger at greater depths. These values exceed the typical H2O abundance (˜ 100 ± 50 ppm) in the upper mantle, suggesting that pervasive hydrous melting at reducing depths of the oceanic upper mantle is not likely. Similar arguments may also be casted for the reducing deep upper mantle in the continental regions.

  10. Fault-controlled hydration of the upper mantle during continental rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, G.; Minshull, T. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Reston, T. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C.; Ranero, C.; Bull, J. M.; Davy, R. G.; Shillington, D. J.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Morgan, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    Water and carbon are transferred from the ocean to the mantle in a process that alters mantle peridotite to create serpentinite and supports diverse ecosystems. Serpentinized mantle rocks are found beneath the sea floor at slow- to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridges and are thought to be present at about half the world’s rifted margins. Serpentinite is also inferred to exist in the downgoing plate at subduction zones, where it may trigger arc magmatism or hydrate the deep Earth. Water is thought to reach the mantle via active faults. Here we show that serpentinization at the rifted continental margin offshore from western Spain was probably initiated when the whole crust cooled to become brittle and deformation was focused along large normal faults. We use seismic tomography to image the three-dimensional distribution of serpentinization in the mantle and find that the local volume of serpentinite beneath thinned, brittle crust is related to the amount of displacement along each fault. This implies that sea water reaches the mantle only when the faults are active. We estimate the fluid flux along the faults and find it is comparable to that inferred for mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. We conclude that brittle processes in the crust may ultimately control the global flux of sea water into the Earth.

  11. The Interaction Between Supercontinent Cycles and Compositional Variations in the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, J. P.; Trim, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Earth is the only planet known to currently feature active plate tectonics. Two features that may influence the Earth's ability to sustain plate-like surface motion are the presence of continents and the inferred chemical piles lying on the core mantle boundary. In our previous study that modelled thermochemical convection in the mantle with evolving plates, it was shown that upwellings that form on top of chemical piles are relatively weak and make a diminished contribution to lithospheric stress. Yet, surface yielding is required in order to maintain plate tectonics and form new plate boundaries. Consequently an intrinsically dense layer in the lower mantle can decrease the vigour of convection and the likelihood of surface failure. In contrast to the mantle upwellings that form above the chemically dense provinces in our models, particularly vigorous plumes form where the ambient mantle lies adjacent to the core mantle boundary and at the edges of the chemically dense piles. Continents also affect surface mobility, due to their inherent buoyancy and their distinct yield strength. In this study we employ numerical models of mantle convection featuring both tectonic plates and compositional variation in the mantle and lithosphere. Plate-like surface motion is dynamically modelled using a force-balance method that determines plate velocities based upon lithospheric stresses. Oceanic and continental margins evolve in response to the plate velocities and specified lithospheric yield stresses. Compositional variations in the deep mantle are tracked using the tracer ratio method. For a range of ratios of the ambient mantle density to the density of the compositionally enriched material, we examine the the impact of mantle compositional variation on plate evolution, the effect of continents on planetary surface mobility and the frequency of supercontinent assembly versus the mobility of compositional provinces.

  12. Upper-mantle dynamics revealed by helium isotope variations along the southeast Indian ridge.

    PubMed

    Graham, D W; Lupton, J E; Spera, F J; Christie, D M

    2001-02-01

    Helium isotope variations in igneous rocks are important for relating isotopic heterogeneity to convective mixing in the Earth's mantle. High 3He/4He ratios at many ocean islands, along with lower and relatively uniform values in mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs), are thought to result from a well mixed upper-mantle source for MORB and a distinct deeper-mantle source for ocean island basalts. At finer scales, 3He/4He variations along mid-ocean ridges have been related to underlying mantle heterogeneity, but relationships between the scales of geochemical segmentation and mantle convection remain enigmatic. Here we present helium isotope data for MORB glasses recovered along approximately 5,800 km of the southeast Indian ridge, and develop an approach to quantitatively relate spatial variations in geochemical and geophysical parameters at the Earth's surface. A point-to-point correlation analysis reveals structure in the helium isotope data at length scales of approximately 150 and approximately 400 km that appears to be related to secondary convection in the underlying mantle.

  13. Mapping Upper Mantle Seismic Discontinuities Using Singular Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y. J.; Dokht, R.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities are fundamental to the understanding of mantle composition and dynamics. Their depth and impedance are generally determined using secondary seismic phases, most commonly SS precursors and P-to-S converted waves. However, the analysis and interpretation using these approaches often suffer from incomplete data coverage, high noise levels and interfering seismic phases, especially near tectonically complex regions such as subduction zones and continental margins. To overcome these pitfalls, we apply Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to remove random noise, reconstruct missing traces and enhance the robustness of SS precursors and P-to-S conversions from seismic discontinuities. Our method takes advantage of the predictability of time series in frequency-space domain and performs a rank reduction using a singular value decomposition of the trajectory matrix. We apply SSA to synthetic record sections as well as observations of 1) SS precursors beneath the northwestern Pacific subduction zones, and 2) P-to-S converted waves from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). In comparison with raw or interpolated data, the SSA enhanced reflectivity maps show a greater resolution and a stronger negative correlation between the depths of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. These effects can be attributed to the suppression of incoherent noise, which tends to reduce the signal amplitude during normal averaging procedures, through rank reduction and the emphasis of principle singular values. Our new results suggest a more laterally coherent 520 km reflection in the western Pacific regions. Similar improvements in data imaging are achieved in western Canada, where strong lateral variations in discontinuity topography are observed in the craton-Cordillera boundary zone. Improvements from SSA relative to conventional approaches are most notable in under-sampled regions.

  14. Upper mantle structure of central and West Antarctica from array analysis of Rayleigh wave phase velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeszel, David S.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard C.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.; Huerta, Audrey D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wilson, Terry J.; Winberry, J. Paul

    2016-03-01

    The seismic velocity structure of Antarctica is important, both as a constraint on the tectonic history of the continent and for understanding solid Earth interactions with the ice sheet. We use Rayleigh wave array analysis methods applied to teleseismic data from recent temporary broadband seismograph deployments to image the upper mantle structure of central and West Antarctica. Phase velocity maps are determined using a two-plane wave tomography method and are inverted for shear velocity using a Monte Carlo approach to estimate three-dimensional velocity structure. Results illuminate the structural dichotomy between the East Antarctic Craton and West Antarctica, with West Antarctica showing thinner crust and slower upper mantle velocity. West Antarctica is characterized by a 70-100 km thick lithosphere, underlain by a low-velocity zone to depths of at least 200 km. The slowest anomalies are beneath Ross Island and the Marie Byrd Land dome and are interpreted as upper mantle thermal anomalies possibly due to mantle plumes. The central Transantarctic Mountains are marked by an uppermost mantle slow-velocity anomaly, suggesting that the topography is thermally supported. The presence of thin, higher-velocity lithosphere to depths of about 70 km beneath the West Antarctic Rift System limits estimates of the regionally averaged heat flow to less than 90 mW/m2. The Ellsworth-Whitmore block is underlain by mantle with velocities that are intermediate between those of the West Antarctic Rift System and the East Antarctic Craton. We interpret this province as Precambrian continental lithosphere that has been altered by Phanerozoic tectonic and magmatic activity.

  15. Upper Mantle Anisotropy Beneath the Ordos Basin in China and its geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangshu; Mi, Ning; Huang, Zhouchuan; Xu, Mingjie

    2016-04-01

    The Ordos basin is a stable block between the Eastern and Western China, and surrounded by active thrust belts and extensional graben systems. Investigations on the upper-mantle deformation and flowing pattern beneath the Ordos basin will help to illuminate how the different geodynamical processes affect the intra-continental deformation in China. From five portable seismic arrays in the southern Ordos block, SKS and SKKS phases are used to estimate the S-wave splitting parameters. The results show distinct anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath the Ordos area. To the southwest of the Ordos, the orientations of anisotropy are NNW-SSE, which are subparallel to the thrust belt and boundary faults between the Ordos and the Northeast Tibetan Plateau, mapping a clockwise mantle flow induced by the eastward extrusion of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and deflected by the Ordos block. To the south of the Ordos, mantle flow direction is nearly E-W, parallel to the strike-slip direction of the Weihe graben, indicating an eastward mantle flow from the NE Tibetan plateau to the eastern part of China. To the east of the Ordos, the direction of fast S-wave is changing slowly from NWW-SSE to E-W, perpendicular to the main tectonic direction in Shanxi graben system, showing an extension feature similar to that of the North China. Above results illuminate much information on the mass deformation and migration in the upper mantle resulting from the interactions between the Ordos block and its surrounding dynamic systems. It can be seen that the thrust faults and extensional grabens around the Ordos block are the positions where the anisotropy shows obvious change. As the boundary area of different blocks, they are the key areas to adjust the transformation between different geodynamic systems.

  16. Effects of the Electronic Spin Transitions of Iron in Lower Mantle Minerals: Implications for Deep Mantle Geophysics and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Speziale, Sergio; Mao, Zhu; Marquardt, Hauke

    2013-04-01

    We have critically reviewed and discussed currently available information regarding the spin and valence states of iron in lower mantle minerals and the associated effects of the spin transitions on physical, chemical, and transport properties of the deep Earth. A high-spin to low-spin crossover of Fe2+ in ferropericlase has been observed to occur at pressure-temperature conditions corresponding to the middle part of the lower mantle. In contrast, recent studies consistently show that Fe2+ predominantly exhibits extremely high quadrupole splitting values in the pseudo-dodecahedral site (A site) of perovskite and post-perovskite, indicative of a strong lattice distortion. Fe3+ in the A site of these structures likely remains in the high-spin state, while a high-spin to low-spin transition of Fe3+ in the octahedral site of perovskite occurs at pressures of 15-50 GPa. In post-perovskite, the octahedral-site Fe3+ remains in the low-spin state at the pressure conditions of the lowermost mantle. These changes in the spin and valence states of iron as a function of pressure and temperature have been reported to affect physical, chemical, rheological, and transport properties of the lower mantle minerals. The spin crossover of Fe2+ in ferropericlase has been documented to affect these properties and is discussed in depth here, whereas the effects of the spin transition of iron in perovskite and post-perovskite are much more complex and remain debated. The consequences of the transitions are evaluated in terms of their implications to deep Earth geophysics, geochemistry, and geodynamics including elasticity, element partitioning, fractionation and diffusion, and rheological and transport properties.

  17. Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oceanic Transform Faults- Implications for Hydration of the Upper Oceanic Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of water at oceanic transform faults influences the thermal structure, rheology, and petrology of the upper mantle. Serpentinization at ridges and transforms plays an important role for the large-scale water budget of the mantle and eventual flux melting that is responsible for arc volcanism at convergent margins. The extent to which hydrous minerals (e.g., serpentine and talc) are incorporated into the upper mantle at oceanic transform faults is highly dependent on the thermal structure and stress state. Previous numerical modeling studies have suggested that the mantle beneath oceanic transform faults is anomalously cold, with depressed isotherms relative to a half-space cooling model [1,2,3]. However, recent models, that incorporate brittle rheology, show that transform faults may represent a region of enhanced mantle upwelling and elevated temperatures [4]. To investigate the thermal-mechanical behavior of oceanic transform faults, we utilize a 3D finite element model, assuming mantle convection, conduction, and steady-state incompressible mantle flow. Our model incorporates a non-linear viscous rheology with a visco-plastic approximation to simulate lithospheric brittle failure. The introduction of water into the lithosphere causes rheological changes with additional feedbacks on the thermal and rheologic structure such as enhanced conductive cooling and changes in frictional behavior. We incorporate the effects of these feedbacks, and our derived thermal structures are integrated with the estimated zone of permeable fluid flow to approximate the stability fields of hydrous phases in the upper mantle. Through examining a rage of parameters, including spreading rate, fault length, and the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation, we constrain the potential for transform faults to act as a source for mantle hydration, and estimate the amount of water that could be bound in hydrous phases as a result of brittle cracking at oceanic faults. 1. Furlong et

  18. Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oceanic Transform Faults- Implications for Hydration of the Upper Oceanic Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of water at oceanic transform faults influences the thermal structure, rheology, and petrology of the upper mantle. Serpentinization at ridges and transforms plays an important role for the large-scale water budget of the mantle and eventual flux melting that is responsible for arc volcanism at convergent margins. The extent to which hydrous minerals (e.g., serpentine and talc) are incorporated into the upper mantle at oceanic transform faults is highly dependent on the thermal structure and stress state. Previous numerical modeling studies have suggested that the mantle beneath oceanic transform faults is anomalously cold, with depressed isotherms relative to a half-space cooling model [1,2,3]. However, recent models, that incorporate brittle rheology, show that transform faults may represent a region of enhanced mantle upwelling and elevated temperatures [4]. To investigate the thermal-mechanical behavior of oceanic transform faults, we utilize a 3D finite element model, assuming mantle convection, conduction, and steady-state incompressible mantle flow. Our model incorporates a non-linear viscous rheology with a visco-plastic approximation to simulate lithospheric brittle failure. The introduction of water into the lithosphere causes rheological changes with additional feedbacks on the thermal and rheologic structure such as enhanced conductive cooling and changes in frictional behavior. We incorporate the effects of these feedbacks, and our derived thermal structures are integrated with the estimated zone of permeable fluid flow to approximate the stability fields of hydrous phases in the upper mantle. Through examining a rage of parameters, including spreading rate, fault length, and the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation, we constrain the potential for transform faults to act as a source for mantle hydration, and estimate the amount of water that could be bound in hydrous phases as a result of brittle cracking at oceanic faults. 1. Furlong et

  19. Crust and upper mantle electrical structure of Haiyuan-Liupanshan Thrust Belt and its vicinity revealed by magnetotelluric(MT) detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Liu, G.; Han, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under the auspices of SinoProbe Project, an array of 91 broad-band magnetotelluric(MT) sites across the southern segment of the Haiyuan-Liupanshan Thrust Belt (HLTB) was occupied to determine the crust and upper mantle structure of the transition zone between the Ordos Block (OB) and the Qilian Orogenic Belt (QOB).An electrical structure model of the crust and the upper mantle was finally obtained after data processing, qualitative analysis and 2D inversion of the observed data.The model revealed the deep structure of the profile.The upper crust of the HLTB is modelled as resistive while the other two tectonic units are modelled as less resistive.The massive high resistive blocks in the upper crust are seen in the HLTB.On the contrast,the lower crust is revealed as conduvtive on the whole.Middle to lower crustal high conductive layers (HCL) are seen both in the QOB and the OB.A strong lower crust conductor is revealed in the HLTB.Electrical structure of the upper mantle is revealed as resistive,respectively.The wedge structure is seen in the uppermost mantle under the Liupanshan Mountain.According to the electrical structure of the profile,the study region can be divided into three tectonic units:the QOB,the Liupan Transition Zone (LTZ,expansion of the HLTB) and the OB.The tectonic deformation for the QB manifest as thrust nappe in the upper crust and shortening strain in the lower crust.The east-dipping conductor in the west of QOB may represent the accumulated weak material in the form of middle crust flow and the HCL of the QB may be the migration channel.The fluctuation of HCL may indicate interior deformation of the OB.The LTZ is quite different from the adjacent tectonic units that fragment structure exists in the upper crust and deep thrust faults cut through the upper crust.The conductor located in the lower crust is interpreted as partial melt zone as a result of the vertical decompression process.Joint interpretation of the electrical structure and the

  20. Subduction recycling of continental sediments and the origin of geochemically enriched reservoirs in the deep mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, R.P.; Irifune, T.; Shimizu, N.; Nishiyama, N.; Norman, M.D.; Inoue, T.

    2008-10-08

    Isotopic and trace element geochemical studies of ocean island basalts (OIBs) have for many years been used to infer the presence of long-lived ({approx} 1-2 Ga old) compositional heterogeneities in the deep mantle related to recycling of crustal lithologies and marine and terrigenous sediments via subduction [e.g., Zindler, A., Hart, S.R., 1986. Chemical geodynamics. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 14, 493-571; Weaver, B.L., 1991. The origin of ocean island basalt end-member compositions: trace element and isotopic constraints. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104, 381-397; Chauvel, C., Hofmann, A.W., Vidal, P., 1992. HIMU-EM: the French Polynesian connection. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 110, 99-119; Hofmann, A.W., 1997. Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism. Nature 385, 219-229; Willbold, M., Stracke, A., 2006. Trace element composition of mantle end-members: Implications for recycling of oceanic and upper and lower continental crust. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. Q04004. 7, doi:10.1029/2005GC001005]. In particular, models for the EM-1 type ('enriched mantle') OIB reservoir have invoked the presence of subducted, continental-derived sediment to explain high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, low {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios, and extreme enrichments in incompatible elements observed in OIB lavas from, for example, the Pitcairn Island group in the South Pacific [Woodhead, J.D., McCulloch, M.T., 1989; Woodhead, J.D., Devey, C.W., 1993. Geochemistry of the Pitcairn seamounts, I: source character and temporal trends. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 116, 81-99; Eisele, J., Sharma, M., Galer, S.J.G., Blichert-Toft, J., Devey, C.W., Hofmann, A.W., 2002. The role of sediment recycling in EM-1 inferred from Os, Pb, Hf, Nd, Sr isotope and trace element systematics of the Pitcairn hotspot. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 196, 197-212]. More recently, ultrapotassic, mantle-derived lavas (lamproites) from Gaussberg, Antarctica have been interpreted as the product

  1. Origin of a 'Southern Hemisphere' geochemical signature in the Arctic upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Steven L; Soffer, Gad; Langmuir, Charles H; Lehnert, Kerstin A; Graham, David W; Michael, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    The Gakkel ridge, which extends under the Arctic ice cap for approximately 1,800 km, is the slowest spreading ocean ridge on Earth. Its spreading created the Eurasian basin, which is isolated from the rest of the oceanic mantle by North America, Eurasia and the Lomonosov ridge. The Gakkel ridge thus provides unique opportunities to investigate the composition of the sub-Arctic mantle and mantle heterogeneity and melting at the lower limits of seafloor spreading. The first results of the 2001 Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (ref. 1) divided the Gakkel ridge into three tectonic segments, composed of robust western and eastern volcanic zones separated by a 'sparsely magmatic zone'. On the basis of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios and trace elements in basalts from the spreading axis, we show that the sparsely magmatic zone contains an abrupt mantle compositional boundary. Basalts to the west of the boundary display affinities to the Southern Hemisphere 'Dupal' isotopic province, whereas those to the east-closest to the Eurasian continent and where the spreading rate is slowest-display affinities to 'Northern Hemisphere' ridges. The western zone is the only known spreading ridge outside the Southern Hemisphere that samples a significant upper-mantle region with Dupal-like characteristics. Although the cause of Dupal mantle has been long debated, we show that the source of this signature beneath the western Gakkel ridge was subcontinental lithospheric mantle that delaminated and became integrated into the convecting Arctic asthenosphere. This occurred as North Atlantic mantle propagated north into the Arctic during the separation of Svalbard and Greenland. PMID:18451860

  2. Origin of a 'Southern Hemisphere' geochemical signature in the Arctic upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Steven L; Soffer, Gad; Langmuir, Charles H; Lehnert, Kerstin A; Graham, David W; Michael, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    The Gakkel ridge, which extends under the Arctic ice cap for approximately 1,800 km, is the slowest spreading ocean ridge on Earth. Its spreading created the Eurasian basin, which is isolated from the rest of the oceanic mantle by North America, Eurasia and the Lomonosov ridge. The Gakkel ridge thus provides unique opportunities to investigate the composition of the sub-Arctic mantle and mantle heterogeneity and melting at the lower limits of seafloor spreading. The first results of the 2001 Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (ref. 1) divided the Gakkel ridge into three tectonic segments, composed of robust western and eastern volcanic zones separated by a 'sparsely magmatic zone'. On the basis of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios and trace elements in basalts from the spreading axis, we show that the sparsely magmatic zone contains an abrupt mantle compositional boundary. Basalts to the west of the boundary display affinities to the Southern Hemisphere 'Dupal' isotopic province, whereas those to the east-closest to the Eurasian continent and where the spreading rate is slowest-display affinities to 'Northern Hemisphere' ridges. The western zone is the only known spreading ridge outside the Southern Hemisphere that samples a significant upper-mantle region with Dupal-like characteristics. Although the cause of Dupal mantle has been long debated, we show that the source of this signature beneath the western Gakkel ridge was subcontinental lithospheric mantle that delaminated and became integrated into the convecting Arctic asthenosphere. This occurred as North Atlantic mantle propagated north into the Arctic during the separation of Svalbard and Greenland.

  3. Deep Seismic Reflectivity at Volcanic Margins: Reflections from the Petrological Moho or from within the Mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, Nick; Roberts, Alan; Bellingham, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Advances in deep long-offset seismic-reflection acquisition and processing now frequently provide imaging of strong and laterally continuous reflectors in the TWTT range of 10 to 14 seconds. While an initial interpretation might be that these reflectors correspond to the crust-mantle interface, this interpretation may in some cases be incorrect or over-simplistic. Do these deep reflectors correspond to the petrological Moho or could they be located within the mantle? Examples of deep laterally-coherent reflectivity can be seen within the ocean-continent transition of the Argentine, Uruguayan and S Brazilian volcanic margins of the S Atlantic. An initial qualitative interpretation of the seismic data suggests the presence of deep crustal "keels" or crustal roots underlying well developed seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). Joint inversion of the PSTM time-domain seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been used to determine the average interval density and seismic velocity between base sediment and the deep seismic reflectivity. Joint inversion densities and seismic velocities for this depth interval reach values in excess of 3000 kg/m3 and 7.0 km/sec for the entire thickness of the interval, substantially in excess of densities and velocities observed for normal oceanic and continental crust. The high densities determined from joint seismic-gravity inversion under the SDR regions are also consistent with results from flexural subsidence analysis. We consider two interpretations of these results. One interpretation is that the strong deep reflectivity corresponds to the base of the petrological crust and that the crust has an abnormally high average density and seismic velocity due to high-temperature mantle-plume-related magmatism. An alternative interpretation is that the deep seismic reflectivity is located within the mantle beneath the petrological Moho, and that the high density and seismic velocity result from averaging of both crustal basement (~2850

  4. Are Deep Seismic Reflections at Volcanic Margins from the Petrological Moho or from within the Mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkin, C. J.; Kusznir, N. J.; Roberts, A. M.; Bellingham, P.; Manatschal, G.

    2015-12-01

    Deep long-offset seismic-reflection now frequently provide imaging of strong and laterally continuous reflectors in the TWTT range of 10 to 14 seconds. Examples of deep laterally-coherent reflectivity can be seen within the ocean-continent transition of the Argentine, Uruguayan and S Brazilian volcanic margins of the S Atlantic. Qualitative interpretation of the seismic data suggests the presence of deep crustal "keels" or crustal roots underlying well developed seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). While an initial interpretation might be that these reflectors correspond to the crust-mantle interface, this interpretation may in some cases be incorrect or over-simplistic. Do these deep reflectors correspond to the petrological Moho or could they be located within the mantle? Joint inversion of the PSTM time-domain seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been used to determine the average interval density and seismic velocity between base sediment and the deep seismic reflectivity. Joint inversion densities and seismic velocities for this depth interval reach values in excess of 3000 kg/m3 and 7.0 km/sec for the entire thickness of the interval, substantially in excess of densities and velocities observed for normal oceanic and continental crust. The high densities determined from joint seismic-gravity inversion under the SDR regions are also consistent with results from flexural subsidence analysis. We consider two interpretations of these results. One interpretation is that the strong deep reflectivity corresponds to the base of the petrological crust and that the crust has an abnormally high average density and seismic velocity due to high-temperature mantle-plume-related magmatism. An alternative interpretation is that the deep seismic reflectivity is located within the mantle beneath the petrological Moho, and that the high density and seismic velocity result from averaging of both crustal basement (~2850 kg/m3) and mantle (~3300 kg/m3) values. In some

  5. Evidence for a heterogeneous upper mantle in the cabo ortegal complex, Spain.

    PubMed

    Girardeau, J; Ibarguchi, J I; Jamaa, N B

    1989-09-15

    A well-preserved fragment of a heterogeneous upper mantle is present in the Cabo Ortegal Complex (Spain). This section is made of harzburgite containing a large volume of pyroxenite. The pyroxenite is concentrated in a layer 300 meters thick by 3 kilometers long. In this layer, ultramafic rocks, essentially pyroxenite (massive websterite and clinopyroxenite) and minor dunite, alternate without any rhythmicity. Part of this layering is of primary magmatic origin and possibly resulted from crystallization of magmas in dikes intruded into the host peridotite under mantle conditions. PMID:17747886

  6. the P-wave upper mantle structure beneath an active spreading center: The Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walck, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed analysis of short period travel time, and waveform data reveals the upper mantle structure beneath an oceanic ridge to depths of 900 km. More than 1400 digital seismograms from earthquakes in Mexico and central America recorded at SCARLET yield 1753 travel times and 58 direct measurements of short period travel time as well as high quality, stable waveforms. The 29 events combine to form a continuous record section from 9 deg to 40 deg with an average station spacing of less than 5 km. First the travel times are inverted. Further constraints arise from the observed relative amplitudes of mantle phases, which are modeled by trial and error.

  7. Evidence for a heterogeneous upper mantle in the cabo ortegal complex, Spain.

    PubMed

    Girardeau, J; Ibarguchi, J I; Jamaa, N B

    1989-09-15

    A well-preserved fragment of a heterogeneous upper mantle is present in the Cabo Ortegal Complex (Spain). This section is made of harzburgite containing a large volume of pyroxenite. The pyroxenite is concentrated in a layer 300 meters thick by 3 kilometers long. In this layer, ultramafic rocks, essentially pyroxenite (massive websterite and clinopyroxenite) and minor dunite, alternate without any rhythmicity. Part of this layering is of primary magmatic origin and possibly resulted from crystallization of magmas in dikes intruded into the host peridotite under mantle conditions.

  8. Teleseismic wave front anomalies at a Continental Rift: no mantle anomaly below the central Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Stephanie; Ritter, Joachim; Wawerzinek, Britta

    2011-08-01

    The deep structure of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), a continental rift in SW Germany and E France, is still poorly known. This deficit impedes a full understanding of the geodynamic evolution of this prominent rift. We study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure using teleseismic waveforms obtained from the passive broad-band TIMO project across the central URG. The recovered, crust-corrected traveltime residuals relative to the iasp91 earth model are tiny (mostly less than 0.2-0.3 s). The average measured slowness (<1 s deg-1) and backazimuth (<5°) deviations are also very small and do not show any systematic wave front anomalies. These observed perturbation values are smaller than expected ones from synthetic 3-D ray tracing modelling with anomalies exceeding 2-3 per cent seismic velocity in the mantle. Thus there is no significant hint for any deep-seated anomaly such as a mantle cushion, etc. This result means that the rifting process did not leave behind a lower lithospheric signature, which could be clearly verified with high-resolution teleseismic experiments. The only significant traveltime perturbation at the central URG is located at its western side in the upper crust around a known geothermal anomaly. The upper crustal seismic anomaly with traveltime delays of 0.2-0.3 s cannot be explained with increased temperature alone. It is possibly related to a zone of highly altered granite. In the west of our network a traveltime anomaly (0.6-0.7 s delay) related with the Eifel plume is confirmed by the TIMO data set.

  9. Mineralogy of the lower mantle: A review of 'super-deep' mineral inclusions in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the late 1980s, several groups of lower-mantle mineral inclusions in diamond have been found. Three associations were established among them: juvenile ultramafic, analogous to eclogitic, and carbonatitic. The juvenile ultramafic association strongly predominates, and it is composed of ferropericlase, MgSi-, CaSi- and CaTi-perovskites, stishovite, tetragonal almandine-pyrope phase (TAPP), and some others. The association analogous to the upper-mantle eclogitic association, formed from subducting lithosphere, comprises: majorite, CaSi-perovskite bearing compositional Eu anomalies, phase 'Egg' with a tetragonal structure, and stishovite. The carbonatitic association is represented by various carbonates, halides, and associated minerals. Some mineral associations (wüstite + periclase and native iron + iron carbides) are, possibly, related to the D″ layer at the core/mantle boundary. The mineralogical composition of the lower mantle is now understood to be more complex than had been suggested in theoretic and experimental works. The proportion of ferropericlase in the lower mantle is higher than it was suggested before, and its composition is more iron-rich ( mg = 0.36-0.90) as compared to experimental and theoretical data. Free silica (stishovite) is always present in lower-mantle associations, and a separate aluminous phase (TAPP) has been identified in several areas. These discrepancies suggest that the composition of the lower mantle differs to that of the upper-mantle, and experiments based solely on 'pyrolitic' compositions are not, therefore, applicable to the lower mantle. These data indicate a probability of an alternative to the CI-chondrite model of the Earth's formation, for example, an enstatite-chondrite model.

  10. Issues of oxygen excess in the crust and upper mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Y. A.; Martynov, E. V.

    2012-04-01

    Application of a new geochemical buffer, 'CeB' - Ce+4/Ce+3 for zircons, is promising for oxygen fugacity (FO2) estimation in crust and mantle. Absence of Ce+4 and Eu+2-enriched zircons are typical of the lower lithosphere. Reducing setting dominate in mantle rocks. Subduction adds oxidized substance for lithosphere into deeper mantle (Balashov ea, 2011-2012). The zircons in upper lithosphere are oxidized. Peridotites minerals show increased H2O and OH- preserves to 150-160 km at ΔFMQ -1.4 - -0.1 (Babushkina et al, 2009) comparable with CeB 2.2 - 3.9. Increasing oceanic mass in the geological time controls water efflux and oxidation of upper the lithosphere. Oxygen source in crust and upper mantle is the most important, yet outstanding issues in geochemistry of Earth's upper shells. Oxygen excess in atmosphere correlating with long-term emergence and evolution of Earth's biosphere is an approach reflected in the schemes of cycle- and phase-wise biosphere evolution (Dobretsov et al, 2006; Sorokhtin et al, 2010). The both schemes demonstrate ideas for oxygen evolution of atmosphere, but are not confirmed by geochronology. Applying these outlines an actual picture FO2 evolution. Precambrian granitoids, detrital zircons and upper mantle lithosphere have similar CeB. The initial data include Australian Hadean and Archaean detrital zircons (Peck et al, 2001), CeB: 27.1 -1.96, and Eu+2/Eu+3: 0.015-0.12 (Balashov, Skublov, 2011). Greenland tonalities (3813 Ma) and granodiorite (3638 Ma) (Whitehouse, Kamber, 2002) CeB: 34 - 0.5. In oldest crust rocks dominated zircons with generation under high and heterogeneous FO2. Zircons in younger mantle-crustal rocks of S. American subduction zones (Ballard et al, 2002; Hoskin et al, 2000, etc.) show the same. Upper mantle lithosphere and crust represent continuously interacted with oxygen. If Progressively oxygen increase from Hadean to modern state (Dobretsov ea, 2006; Sorokhtin ea, 2010), contradicts with actual Archaean data. We

  11. High-Pressure Orthorhombic Ferromagnesite as a Potential Deep-Mantle Carbon Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions of approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth. PMID:25560542

  12. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO₃] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO₃ system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO₂, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO₄ structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO₃ carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions of approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO₃ phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth. PMID:25560542

  13. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions ofmore » approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.« less

  14. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

  15. Petrology of lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths from the Cima Volcanic Field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; McGuire, A.V.; Noller, J.S.; Turrin, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    Basaltic rocks of the Cima Volcanic Field in the southern Basin and Range province contain abundant gabbro, pyroxenite, and peridotite xenoliths. Composite xenoliths containing two or more rock types show that upper-mantle spinel peridotite was enriched by multiple dike intrusions in at least three episodes; the mantle was further enriched by intergranular and shear-zone melt infiltration in at least two episodes. Because of their high densities, the gabbros and pyroxenites can occupy the zone immediately above the present Moho (modeled on seismic data as 10-13 km thick, with Vp 6.8 km/s) only if their seismic velocities are reduced by the joints, partial melts, and fluid inclusions that occur in them. Alternatively, these xenoliths may have been derived entirely from beneath the Moho, in which case the Moho is not the local crust-mantle boundary. -from Authors

  16. Inferred rheology and upper mantle conditions of western Nevada and southern California-northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Haylee L.

    Understanding the viscous strength (rheology) of the mantle is essential for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth. Rheology affects many geologic processes such as mantle convection, the earthquake cycle, and plate tectonics. This study uses tectonic (postseismic) and non-tectonic (lake unloading) events that have induced differential stress changes within the crust and mantle, which in turn, create surface deformation. The viscoelastic relaxation is constrained using geodetic methods, such as GPS, InSAR, or measurements of shoreline rebound. We can use these observed surface displacements to constrain numerical models of the relaxation processes that can be used to infer a viscosity structure. These studies allow us to infer the mechanical nature of the lithosphere and asthenosphere using 3D finite element models. When we combine our inferred viscosity structure with calculations of conductive geothermal gradients and models of mantle melting, we can infer environmental conditions of the upper mantle like water content, mineralogy, and degree of melt. In our first study, we seek to reduce non-uniqueness issues that plague in situ rheology studies by simultaneously modeling the response of the crust and mantle for a single region of western Nevada to multiple processes constrained by multiple observational data sets. Western Nevada has experienced a series of Mw >6.5 earthquakes over the last ~150 years, from the 1872 Owen's Valley earthquake to the 1954 Dixie Valley event, as well as the loading/unloading of Pleistocene-aged Lake Lahontan. Our goal was to answer whether a single Newtonian viscosity structure can explain all of the geodetic constraints. We found a strong lower crust underlain by a relatively weak upper mantle can explain all observational constraints. We also infer the decreases in viscosity we observed are due to hydration possibly from the subduction of the Farallon slab and melt content. In the next study, we investigate the

  17. Rheological properties of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Baja California: a microstructural study of xenoliths from San Quintin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Werf, Thomas F.; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-04-01

    Baja California is an active transtensional rift zone, which links the San Andreas Fault with the East Pacific Rise. The erupted basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field contain xenoliths, which sample the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Baja California. The aim of this research is to gain insight in the rheology of the lower crust and the upper mantle by investigating the xenolith microstructure. Microstructural observations have been used to determine the dominant deformation mechanisms. Differential stresses were estimated from recrystallized grain size piezometry of plagioclase and clinopyroxene for the lower crust and olivine for the upper mantle. The degree of deformation can be inferred from macroscopic foliations and the deformation microstructures. Preliminary results show that both the lower crust and the upper mantle have been affected by multiple stages of deformation and recrystallization. In addition the dominant deformation mechanism in both the lower crust and the upper mantle is dislocation creep based on the existence of strong crystallographic preferred orientations. The differential stress estimates for the lower crust are 10-29 MPa using plagioclase piezometry and 12-35 MPa using clinopyroxene piezometry. For the upper mantle, differential stress estimates are 10-20 MPa. These results indicate that the strength of the lower crust and the upper mantle are very similar. Our data do not fit with the general models of lithospheric strength and may have important implications for the rheological structure of the lithosphere in transtensional plate margins and for geodynamic models of the region.

  18. Deep crust vs shallow mantle: sources of long wavelength magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Friedman, S. A.; El Atrassi, F.; Conder, J. A.; Demory, F.; Feinberg, J. M.; Filiberto, J.; Khakhalova, E.; Knafelc, J.; Martín-Hernández, F.; Neal, C. R.; Rochette, P.; Till, J. L.; Walsh, K. B., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Recent petromagnetic results on shallow mantle xenoliths suggest that the uppermost mantle is significantly more magnetic than previously thought, particularly in metasomatised or cold region. This magnetic mantle bears minute amounts of magnetite, a mineral indicative of higher oxygen fugacities. While the exact origin of this magnetite remains uncertain, its contribution to long wavelength magnetic anomalies adds to the potential contributions of crustal rocks. Here we present a compilation of rock magnetic and paleomagnetic data enabling the quantitification of the respective contributions in distinct tectonic settings including subduction zones and stable cratons. The magnetic properties of over 400 specimens of mantle xenoliths are compared to published data from hundreds of deep crustal xenoliths. The picture emerging from this comparison supports a layered distribution of oxidation state in the lithosphere reflecting both the tectonic setting and the degree of melt extraction.

  19. Deep mantle melting-solidifying and produced heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Ilya; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Model for solid-liquid equilibrium and substance properties in lower mantle conditions is important to understand the early stages of evolution of terrestrial planets, such as core formation and magma ocean crystallization. This model is also necessary to prove theories on some modern seismic features of the Earth (e.g. ultra-low velocity zones) and petrological observations (e.g. lower mantle mineral assemblage inclusions in diamonds). Numerous experimental and numerical studies of the lower mantle phases provide sufficient amount of data to build up a thermodynamic model, which can be used in geophysical fluid dynamics research. Molecular Dynamics modeling provides data on thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids (density, heat capacity, thermal expansion, latent heat of melting etc.). Absence of minor components (iron, alkali etc.) makes it to overestimate melting temperatures significantly (up to 20-30%), so experimental data are also very important. Our model is based on MD data by [de Koker et al., 2013] with evaluation of all important parameters according to classical thermodynamic equations. Melting temperatures (especially at eutectic points) are corrected along Clausius-Clapeyron slopes to agree with modern experimental data ([Andrault et al., 2011], [Andrault et al., 2014], [Fiquet et al., 2010], [Hirose et al., 1999], [Mosenfelder et al., 2007], [Nomura et al., 2014], [Ozawa et al., 2011], [Zerr et al., 1998]). KD value for iron reported by [Andrault et al., 2012] was used. Proposed model was implemented into StagYY software (e.g. [Tackley, 2008]). It is a finite-volume discretization code for advection of solid and liquid in a planetary scale. A principal new feature of the used code modification is that we use separated variables for chemical compounds: SiO2, FeO, MgO and other (list can be extended). So it is possible to trace mantle heterogeneities produced by melting and solidifying events. Calculations predict appearing and disappearing

  20. Tectonic denudation of upper mantle along passive margins: a model based on drilling (ODP Leg 103) and diving (Galinaute cruise) results, western Galicia Margin, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Boillot, G.; Winterer, E.L.; Recq, M.; Girardeau, J.; Kornprobst, J.; Loreau, J.P.; Malod, J.; Mougenot, D.

    1987-05-01

    During ODP Leg 103 (April-June 1985) and the Galinaute cruise (June-July 1986), serpentinized peridotite (clinopyroxene-spinel harzburgite) was recovered within the basement approximately at the boundary between the North Atlantic ocean crust to the west and the thinned continental crust of the Galicia passive margin (Spain) to the east. The exposure of mantle-derived peridotite on the sea floor occurred at the end of the period of rifting, roughly 110 Ma. Ductile shear zones observed in the peridotite are consistent with movements along a deep, low-angle normal fault rooted within the upper mantle and dipping eastward beneath the Galicia margin. To explain the tectonic denudation of the mantle at the ocean-continent boundary, they use a nonuniform stretching model for the lithosphere, set up from Wernicke's model.

  1. Towards the Next Generation Upper-Mantle 3D Anelastic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglu, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to distinguish the thermal and compositional heterogeneities in the mantle, it is crucial to resolve the lateral variations not only in seismic velocities but also in intrinsic attenuation. Indeed, the high sensitivity of intrinsic attenuation to temperature and water content, governed by a form of Arrhenius equation, contrasts with the quasi-linear dependence of velocities on both temperature and major element composition. The major challenge in imaging attenuation lies in separating its effects on seismic waves from the elastic ones. The latter originate from the wave propagation in media with strong lateral elastic gradients causing (de)focusing and scattering. We have previously developed a 3D upper-mantle shear attenuation model based on time domain waveform inversion of long period (T > 60s) fundamental and overtone surface wave data (Gung & Romanowicz, 2004). However, at that time, resolution was limited to very long wavelength structure, because elastic models were still rather smooth, and the effects of focusing could only be estimated approximately, using asymptotic normal mode perturbation theory.With recent progress in constraining global mantle shear velocity from waveform tomography based on the Spectral Element Method (e.g. SEMUCB_WM1, French & Romanowicz, 2014), we are now in a position to develop an improved global 3D model of shear attenuation in the upper mantle. In doing so, we use a similar time domain waveform inversion approach, but (1) start with a higher resolution elastic model with better constraints on lateral elastic gradients and (2) jointly invert, in an iterative fashion, for shear attenuation and elastic parameters. Here, we present the results of synthetic tests that confirm our inversion strategy, as well as preliminary results towards the construction of the next generation upper-mantle anelastic model.

  2. Crust and Upper Mantle Structure of the Hellenic and Cyprus Subduction Zones from Gravity Data Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemdar, S.; Mahatsente, R.; Cemen, I.

    2015-12-01

    The neotectonics of the Anatolian and Aegean regions is the result of the African plate subduction along the Hellenic and Cyprus trenches and the Anatolian plate collision with the Eurosian plate. The African slab, as imaged by seismic tomography, penetrates the lower mantle and exhibits two major lateral tears below the Anatolian plate. The tears in the slab are related to low velocity structures in the sub-lithospheric mantle. The presence of low velocity structures in the upper mantle is a clear indication of anomalous asthenosphere (asthenospheric windows). What remains unclear is, however, how and to what extent the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the Anatolian region has been modified by the upwelling hot asthenospheric material. To determine the effects of the upwelling hot asthenospheric material in the region, we developed a 3-D gravity model of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Aegean and Anatolian regions (24°-33° E and 34°-40° N). The gravity model is based on satellite-derived gravity data from GRACE, LAGEOS and GOCE missions (EIGEN 6C2). The results of the gravity modelling, as constrained by seismic tomography, shows that the crust above the asthenospheric window, where the subducted African slab exhibits major lateral tears, is relatively thin. The crustal thickness variation within the asthenospheric window area is between 24 & 29 km. In contrast, the regions outside the asthenospheric window area exhibit by far the largest crustal thickness (30 - 42 km). We therefore conclude that the observed crustal thinning in the asthenospheric window area might be attributed to thermal erosion induced by the upwelling hot asthenospheric material and extensional tectonics related to the Southwest retreating Hellenic trench and westward movement of the Anatolian micro plate. The thinning may also be responsible for the high geothermal gradient in the Denizli graben area where two major grabens (i.e., Alaşehir and Bűyűk Menderes Grabens

  3. A crust and upper mantle model of Eurasia and North Africa for Pn travel time calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S; Begnaud, M; Ballard, S; Pasyanos, M; Phillips, W S; Ramirez, A; Antolik, M; Hutchenson, K; Dwyer, J; Rowe, C; Wagner, G

    2009-03-19

    We develop a Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) model and methods to account for the first-order effect of the three-dimensional crust and upper mantle on travel times. The model parameterization is a global tessellation of nodes with a velocity profile at each node. Interpolation of the velocity profiles generates a 3-dimensional crust and laterally variable upper mantle velocity. The upper mantle velocity profile at each node is represented as a linear velocity gradient, which enables travel time computation in approximately 1 millisecond. This computational speed allows the model to be used in routine analyses in operational monitoring systems. We refine the model using a tomographic formulation that adjusts the average crustal velocity, mantle velocity at the Moho, and the mantle velocity gradient at each node. While the RSTT model is inherently global and our ultimate goal is to produce a model that provides accurate travel time predictions over the globe, our first RSTT tomography effort covers Eurasia and North Africa, where we have compiled a data set of approximately 600,000 Pn arrivals that provide path coverage over this vast area. Ten percent of the tomography data are randomly selected and set aside for testing purposes. Travel time residual variance for the validation data is reduced by 32%. Based on a geographically distributed set of validation events with epicenter accuracy of 5 km or better, epicenter error using 16 Pn arrivals is reduced by 46% from 17.3 km (ak135 model) to 9.3 km after tomography. Relative to the ak135 model, the median uncertainty ellipse area is reduced by 68% from 3070 km{sup 2} to 994 km{sup 2}, and the number of ellipses with area less than 1000 km{sup 2}, which is the area allowed for onsite inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, is increased from 0% to 51%.

  4. Upper Mantle Structure and Transition Zone Thickness Beneath Ocean Islands From Receiver Function Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Kind, R.; Yuan, X.

    2001-12-01

    Receiver function analysis is a robust method to detect the main upper mantle discontinuities, to measure the transition zone thickness and to deduce the lateral temperature variation in the upper mantle. However, this method is limited by the distribution of the seismic stations. Till now the receiver function observations have been obtained mainly on the continents where most of the stations are located. Observations from oceanic stations are, in contrary, rarely published. One reason is the high noise level at the oceanic stations. In this work we have carefully selected teleseismic earthquake records with high signal-noise ratios and calculated receiver functions for stations on some ocean islands. Different low pass filters are applied to suppress the ocean noise. All the oceanic receiver functions have a later 410 arrivals, indicating a lower upper mantle velocity above these stations. The transition zone thickness varies, however, up to 30 km, which is significantly smaller than beneath Hawaii where a strong mantle plume was reported. Beneath Samoa island (AFI) in south Pacific ocean, the transition zone is about 3 seconds thinner than predicted by the IASP91 model (about 250oC temperature anomaly). Beneath Cook island (RAR), the transition zone thickness is normal, indicating that no temperature anomaly at that depth exists beneath the station. Beneath the Island Reunion (RER) in Indian ocean, both the 410 and the 660 are observed after a low pass filter is applied. The transition zone thickness is about 2 seconds less than the prediction of IASP91 model, associated with about 150oC excess mantle temperature.

  5. Dynamics of upper mantle rocks decompression melting above hot spots under continental plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Yury; Sorokin, Konstantin; Sharapov, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Numeric 2D simulation of the decompression melting above the hot spots (HS) was accomplished under the following conditions: initial temperature within crust mantle section was postulated; thickness of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle is determined by the mantle rheology and position of upper asthenosphere boundary; upper and lower boundaries were postulated to be not permeable and the condition for adhesion and the distribution of temperature (1400-2050°C); lateral boundaries imitated infinity of layer. Sizes and distribution of lateral points, their symmetry, and maximum temperature varied between the thermodynamic condition for existences of perovskite - majorite transition and its excess above transition temperature. Problem was solved numerically a cell-vertex finite volume method for thermo hydrodynamic problems. For increasing convergence of iterative process the method of lower relaxation with different value of relaxation parameter for each equation was used. The method of through calculation was used for the increase in the computing rate for the two-layered upper mantle - lithosphere system. Calculated region was selected as 700 x (2100-4900) km. The time step for the study of the asthenosphere dynamics composed 0.15-0.65 Ma. The following factors controlling the sizes and melting degree of the convective upper mantle, are shown: a) the initial temperature distribution along the section of upper mantleb) sizes and the symmetry of HS, c) temperature excess within the HS above the temperature on the upper and lower mantle border TB=1500-2000oC with 5-15% deviation but not exceed 2350oC. It is found, that appearance of decompression melting with HS presence initiate primitive mantle melting at TB > of 1600oC. Initial upper mantle heating influence on asthenolens dimensions with a constant HS size is controlled mainly by decompression melting degree. Thus, with lateral sizes of HS = 400 km the decompression melting appears at TB > 1600oC and HS

  6. Elasticity of Diopside to 8 GPa and 1073K and Implications for the Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    B Li; D Neuville

    2011-12-31

    Simultaneous measurements of elastic wave velocities and density have been conducted on diopside by a combined ultrasonic interferometry and X-ray diffraction methods at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the Earth's upper mantle. The current study not only yielded the first direct measurement of the shear modulus at high pressures, but also enabled a simultaneous determination of the bulk and shear properties and their pressure and temperature derivatives from the measured density and velocities. Finite strain analysis of the experimental data results in K{sub S0} = 116.4(7) GPa, K'S0 = 4.9(1), ({partial_derivative}K{sub S}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} = -0.012(1) GPa GPa, G'{sub 0} = 1.6(1) and ({partial_derivative}G/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} = -0.011(1) GPa/K. With these results and the same finite strain equations, the P and S wave velocities of diopsidic mantle clinopyroxene were calculated along a 1600 K adiabatic geotherm. In comparison with other mantle minerals, the seismic velocities of diopsidic clinopyroxene at upper mantle depths are 1-3% higher than those of orthopyroxene, 1-2% and 6-8% lower than those of olivine and majoritic garnet, respectively.

  7. A global horizontal shear velocity model of the upper mantle from multimode Love wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tak; Priestley, Keith; Debayle, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Surface wave studies in the 1960s provided the first indication that the upper mantle was radially anisotropic. Resolving the anisotropic structure is important because it may yield information on deformation and flow patterns in the upper mantle. The existing radially anisotropic models are in poor agreement. Rayleigh waves have been studied extensively and recent models show general agreement. Less work has focused on Love waves and the models that do exist are less well-constrained than are Rayleigh wave models, suggesting it is the Love wave models that are responsible for the poor agreement in the radially anisotropic structure of the upper mantle. We have adapted the waveform inversion procedure of Debayle & Ricard to extract propagation information for the fundamental mode and up to the fifth overtone from Love waveforms in the 50-250 s period range. We have tomographically inverted these results for a mantle horizontal shear wave-speed model (βh(z)) to transition zone depths. We include azimuthal anisotropy (2θ and 4θ terms) in the tomography, but in this paper we discuss only the isotropic βh(z) structure. The data set is significantly larger, almost 500 000 Love waveforms, than previously published Love wave data sets and provides ˜17 000 000 constraints on the upper-mantle βh(z) structure. Sensitivity and resolution tests show that the horizontal resolution of the model is on the order of 800-1000 km to transition zone depths. The high wave-speed roots beneath the oldest parts of the continents appear to extend deeper for βh(z) than for βv(z) as in previous βh(z) models, but the resolution tests indicate that at least parts of these features could be artefacts. The low wave speeds beneath the mid-ocean ridges fade by ˜150 km depth except for the upper mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise which remains slow to ˜250 km depth. The resolution tests suggest that the low wave speeds at deeper depths beneath the East Pacific Rise are not solely due

  8. Low velocities in the oceanic upper mantle and their relation to plumes: insights from SEM-based waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekic, V.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The exchange of heat, mass and momentum between tectonic plates and mantle convection controls lithospheric evolution and hotspot volcanism, and must occur at a range of spatial scales. Yet, the detailed morphology of the associated convection patterns continues to elude geophysicists. Because seismic velocities are affected by temperature, seismic tomography can be used to map the patterns of flow in the Earth's mantle. Here, we present a global-scale long-period full-waveform seismic tomographic model SEMum2 constructed using the Spectral Element Method, which can very accurately model wave propagation through highly complex structures, and account for phenomena such as scattering, (de)focusing, and wavefront healing. Notably, SEMum2 achieves more realistic amplitudes of lateral heterogeneity - particularly low velocities in the upper 250km - than previous generations of global models, while still retrieving the long-wavelength structure present in earlier tomographic models. Cluster analysis of profiles of shear velocity in the SEMum2 oceanic upper mantle, confirms the presence of a well marked shear wave low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the lithosphere, with a velocity minimum which deepens progressively as a function of age of the plate. The LVZ minimum in SEMum2 reaches values that are lower than in previous tomographic global models and in agreement with local estimates where available. Interestingly, reaching below this "classical" low velocity zone, the model reveals a pattern of alternating lower and higher velocities organized into elongated bands in the direction of absolute plate motion (APM), with a quasi-regular spacing of ~2000 km perpendicular to the APM. This fingerlike structure, most prominent around 200-250 km and extending down to 350-400 km, is most prominent beneath the Pacific plate, but also present under the eastern Antarctic plate, in the south Atlantic and in parts of the Indian Ocean Below this depth, the low velocities appear organized

  9. Correlation Length Scales of Isotopic Variations Along Mid-Ocean Ridges and Upper Mantle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. W.; Spera, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    How isotopic variations in basalts erupted at the Earth's surface are linked to convective mixing in the underlying mantle is a central problem in geodynamics. The objective of this study is to quantify the length scales of upper mantle heterogeneity through spatial statistical analysis of MORB. We define a characteristic length scale, the scale of segregation L, computed from the spatial self-correlations for 3He/4He, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and 206,207,208Pb/204Pb in "zero age" lavas from mid-ocean ridges. Our working hypothesis is that small scale convection in the upper mantle controls dispersion of geochemical tracers. Differences in L between ocean basins may then be quantitatively related to unsteadiness in this convection, due to thickening of the lithosphere, plume impingement, or lateral temperature/compositional differences between continental and oceanic lithosphere induced by batholith formation. The correlation coefficient R, and the separation distance r, are calculated for every i,j pair of points. Ri,j is given by the product of the deviations in isotope composition from the population mean, normalized to the population variance, and R(r) is computed as an ensemble average. The total number of point pairs (N) for n sample locations is given by N=n(n-1)/2. For the global MORB data set (n=1265 and 735 for Sr and He, respectively), N exceeds 105 (799480 and 269745, respectively). A value of R(r) close to 1 indicates that an isotope ratio above (or below) the population average is likely to be associated with an above (or below) average value at a distance r away. A value of R(r) close to zero implies a random relationship, and a value close to -1 implies an anti-correlation. R(r) approaches unity at small r by definition, as points close together are from the same "clump" of mantle. The value of r at which R first goes to zero is denoted as r*. On a diagram of R(r) vs. r (the correlogram), the integral of R(r) from r=0 to r=r* is the scale of

  10. Dislocation damping and anisotropic seismic wave attenuation in Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Farla, Robert J M; Jackson, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D; Faul, Ulrich H; Zimmerman, Mark E

    2012-04-20

    Crystal defects form during tectonic deformation and are reactivated by the shear stress associated with passing seismic waves. Although these defects, known as dislocations, potentially contribute to the attenuation of seismic waves in Earth's upper mantle, evidence for dislocation damping from laboratory studies has been circumstantial. We experimentally determined the shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in pre-deformed synthetic olivine aggregates under high pressures and temperatures. Enhanced high-temperature background dissipation occurred in specimens pre-deformed by dislocation creep in either compression or torsion, the enhancement being greater for prior deformation in torsion. These observations suggest the possibility of anisotropic attenuation in relatively coarse-grained rocks where olivine is or was deformed at relatively high stress by dislocation creep in Earth's upper mantle. PMID:22517856

  11. Dislocation damping and anisotropic seismic wave attenuation in Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Farla, Robert J M; Jackson, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D; Faul, Ulrich H; Zimmerman, Mark E

    2012-04-20

    Crystal defects form during tectonic deformation and are reactivated by the shear stress associated with passing seismic waves. Although these defects, known as dislocations, potentially contribute to the attenuation of seismic waves in Earth's upper mantle, evidence for dislocation damping from laboratory studies has been circumstantial. We experimentally determined the shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in pre-deformed synthetic olivine aggregates under high pressures and temperatures. Enhanced high-temperature background dissipation occurred in specimens pre-deformed by dislocation creep in either compression or torsion, the enhancement being greater for prior deformation in torsion. These observations suggest the possibility of anisotropic attenuation in relatively coarse-grained rocks where olivine is or was deformed at relatively high stress by dislocation creep in Earth's upper mantle.

  12. The upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of East Africa derived from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2012-12-01

    An expanded model of the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath East Africa has been developed using data from the latest phases of the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from preceding studies. The combined dataset consists of 331 events recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this latest study, 149 events were used to determine fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 seconds using the two-plane-wave method. These were subsequently combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for an updated upper mantle three-dimensional shear wave velocity model. Newly imaged features include a substantial fast anomaly in eastern Zambia that may have exerted a controlling influence on the evolution of the Western Rift Branch. Furthermore, there is a suggestion that the Eastern Rift Branch trends southeastward offshore eastern Tanzania.

  13. The influence of deep mantle heterogeneity on the rhythms and scales of surface topography evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, Maëlis; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Earth's surface, the interface between external processes and internal dynamics (lithosphere motions and mantle convection), is continuously reorganised. A large part of Earth's topography is generated by mantle motions and lithospheric stresses [1], which impacts for instance the global sea-level, the dynamics of sedimentary basins and the geoid. Studying how surface topography evolves in both space and time thus not only provides information on the rhythms and scales of evolution of those processes, but would also be a tool for the study of the mantle motions and properties from which it originates [2]. In this study, we propose to characterise the spatial and temporal scales of evolution of surface topography in 2D spherical annulus numerical models of mantle convection developing a plate-like behaviour. We use the geodynamical code StagYY [3] to first determine a mantle convection regime generating a surface topography with Earth-like amplitudes and realistic mantle dynamics at first order (e.g. high Rayleigh number, reasonable lithosphere thickness, pseudo-plastic lithosphere rheology generating plate tectonics). We then use this convection regime to investigate how the presence of stable deep-rooted thermochemical heterogeneities influence the rhythms of evolution of surface topography. We analyse our results to identify how the timescales of evolution are connected with the lengthscales of topography, in light of the tectonic histories produced by the models. References: [1] M. Gurnis, Long-term controls of eustatic and epeirogenic motions by mantle convection, GSA Today, 2(7):141-157, 1992. [2] B.H. Hager, R.W. Clayton, M.A. Richards, R.P. Comer, and A.M. Dziewonski, Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313:541-545, 1985. [3] J.W. Hernlund and P.J. Tackley, Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 171(1):48-54, 2008.

  14. Diamonds in an upper mantle peridotite nodule from kimberlite in southern wyoming.

    PubMed

    McCallum, M E; Eggler, D H

    1976-04-16

    Diamonds in a serpentinized garnet peridotite nodule from a diatreme in southern Wyoming are the first known occurrence in an upper mantle peridotite xenolith from a kimberlite intrusion in North America as well as the second authenticated occurrence of diamonds from kimberlite pipes in North America. The nodule is believed to have come from a section of depleted (partially melted) lherzolite at a depth of 130 to 180 kilometers. PMID:17831161

  15. Compositional effects on the density of volatile-bearing magmatic liquids in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, R.; Malfait, W.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Petitgirard, S.; Mezouar, N.

    2013-12-01

    The density of silicate liquids is a key control on many magmatic processes, including magma chamber dynamics and volcanic eruptions, melt extraction from residual rocks during partial melting, fractional crystallization processes and crystal settling. However, the experimental data on the density and compressibility of silicate melts relevant for magmatic processes in the crust and upper mantle remain scarce until now, especially for volatile-bearing compositions. In this contribution we review recent experimental studies to determine the density of silicate liquids with magmatic composition at upper mantle conditions (up to 3.5 GPa and 2000 K). The investigated compositions include dry and hydrous granitic (4.5 and 7.7 wt% H2O), alkaline (phonolite, 4.3 wt% H2O) and andesitic (6 wt% H2O) melts. The experiments were performed using a panoramic Paris-Edinbugh and the density was determined from the X-ray absorption contrast between the samples and a diamond capsule used as sample container. The run products were analyzed by electron microprobe, infrared spectroscopy and SIMS to verify the chemical composition and volatile content of the samples. The results, combined with literature data on silicate melt density at atmospheric pressure, provides the first experimentally derived equations of state for magmatic liquids with a broad range of silica contents at crustal and upper mantle conditions. The resulting equations of state allow constraining pressure and compositional effects on the compressibility of dissolved water in silicate melts. The implications of these results for the ascent rate of slab melts in subduction zones, the dynamics of magma chambers and crystal-liquid buoyancy relations and crystal settling velocities in the upper mantle will be discussed.

  16. Diamonds in an upper mantle peridotite nodule from kimberlite in southern wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Eggler, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Diamonds in a serpentinized garnet peridotite nodule from a diatreme in southern Wyoming are the first known occurrence in an upper mantle peridotite xenolith from a kimberlite intrusion in North America as well as the second authenticated occurrence of diamonds from kimberlite pipes in North America. The nodule is believed to have come from a section of depleted (partially melted) Iherzolite at a depth of 130 to 180 kilometers.

  17. Diamonds in an upper mantle peridotite nodule from kimberlite in southern wyoming.

    PubMed

    McCallum, M E; Eggler, D H

    1976-04-16

    Diamonds in a serpentinized garnet peridotite nodule from a diatreme in southern Wyoming are the first known occurrence in an upper mantle peridotite xenolith from a kimberlite intrusion in North America as well as the second authenticated occurrence of diamonds from kimberlite pipes in North America. The nodule is believed to have come from a section of depleted (partially melted) lherzolite at a depth of 130 to 180 kilometers.

  18. P wave velocity of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Vogfjord, Kristin S.; Langston, Charles A.

    1996-05-01

    P wave velocity structure of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Africa was investigated by forward modeling of Pnl waveforms from four moderate size earthquakes. The source-receiver path of one event crosses central Africa and lies outside the African superswell while the source-receiver paths for the other events cross Proterozoic lithosphere within southern Africa, inside the African superswell. Three observables (Pn waveshape, PL-Pn time, and Pn/PL amplitude ratio) from the Pnl waveform were used to constrain upper mantle velocity models in a grid search procedure. For central Africa, synthetic seismograms were computed for 5880 upper mantle models using the generalized ray method and wavenumber integration; synthetic seismograms for 216 models were computed for southern Africa. Successful models were taken as those whose synthetic seismograms had similar waveshapes to the observed waveforms, as well as PL-Pn times within 3 s of the observed times and Pn/PL amplitude ratios within 30% of the observed ratio. Successful models for central Africa yield a range of uppermost mantle velocity between 7.9 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 8.3 and 8.5 km s-1 at a depth of 200 km, and velocity gradients that are constant or slightly positive. For southern Africa, successful models yield uppermost mantle velocities between 8.1 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 7.9 and 8.4 km s-1 at a depth of 130 km, and velocity gradients between -0.001 and 0.001 s-1. Because velocity gradients are controlled strongly by structure at the bottoming depths for Pn waves, it is not easy to compare the velocity gradients obtained for central and southern Africa. For central Africa, Pn waves turn at depths of about 150-200 km, whereas for southern Africa they bottom at ˜100-150 km depth. With regard to the origin of the African superswell, our results do not have sufficient resolution to test hypotheses that invoke simple lithospheric reheating. However, our models are not

  19. Three dimensional crust and upper mantle velocity structure of Antarctica from seismic noise correlation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Chaput, J. A.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    The successful deployment and year-around operation of the AGAP/GAMSEIS and POLENET/ANET arrays in Antarctica, which include more than 50 broadband seismic stations, provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the detailed structure beneath the continent. Using about four years of continuous data from these arrays (from late 2007 through end of 2011), together with data from the previous TAMSEIS array and permanent stations around Antarctica, we acquire empirical Green's functions between all possible pairs of seismographs by cross-correlating seismic ambient noise. We then extract Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities from 8 to 60 s, and velocity maps for each period are determined by tomographic inversion. Finally, shear velocities in the crust and upper mantle, together with Moho depths are determined from the Rayleigh wave dispersion curves at each location. Our results show the crust and upper mantle structure with higher resolution than obtained in previous studies. The general features are: 1) At shallow depths (several to tens of km), fast velocities are seen beneath the Gamburtsev Mountains (GSM), Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Mountains, while slow velocities are seen underneath the West Antarctic rift system (WARS) and Ross Embayment. We interpret this result as indicating thick sedimentary deposits in the WARS and Ross Sea. 2) We also find slow velocities in East Antarctica and fast velocities in West Antarctica at about 20-40 km, which is consistent with the thick/thin crust thickness in these two regions. The transition between the fast and slow velocity is along the Transantarctic Mountains front. 3) Beneath the Gamburtsev Mountains in East Antarctica, low crustal velocities extend to about 55 km, suggesting the mountains are supported by thickened crust. 4) There are pronounced slow upper mantle anomalies within the WARS, indicating a mantle thermal anomaly resulting from Cenozoic extension. 5) Clear fast

  20. A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Rakib; Müller, R. Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth’s mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin—probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian-Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific.

  1. A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rakib; Müller, R Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon E; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-05-11

    Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth's mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin--probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian-Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific.

  2. A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Rakib; Müller, R. Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth’s mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin—probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian–Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific.

  3. A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rakib; Müller, R Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon E; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-05-12

    Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth's mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin--probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian-Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific. PMID:27172048

  4. Upper mantle structures beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Implications for the geodynamics of continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Dando, B.; Ionescu, C.; Hegedus, E.; Radovanovic, S.; South Carpathian Project Working Group

    2012-04-01

    The Carpathian-Pannonian system of Eastern and Central Europe represents a unique opportunity to study the interaction between surface tectonic processes involving convergence and extension and convective processes in the upper mantle. Here, we present high-resolution images of upper mantle structure beneath the region obtained using P- and S-wave finite-frequency teleseismic tomography to help constrain the geodynamical interpretation of the region. We have selected earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.5 in the distance range 30°-95°, which occurred between 2006 and 2011. The data were recorded on 54 temporary stations deployed in the South Carpathian Project (2009-2011), 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (2005-2007), and 131 permanent broadband stations of national networks. The relative arrival times are measured in high, intermediate and low frequency bands (0.5-2.0 Hz, 0.1-0.5 Hz and 0.03-0.1 Hz for both P-waves, 0.1-0.5 Hz, 0.05-0.1 Hz and 0.02-0.05 Hz for S-waves), and are inverted using a 3-D finite-frequency formulation to produce P- and S-wave velocity maps at depths between 75 and 600 km in the mantle. Our images show a sub-vertical slab of fast material beneath the eastern Alps which extends eastward across the Pannonian basin at depths below ~300 km. The fast material extends down into the mantle transition zone (MTZ), where it spreads out beneath the entire basin. Above ~300 km, the upper mantle below the Pannonian basin is dominated by relatively slow velocities, the most dominant of which extends down to nearly 200 km and underlies the >7km thick sediments of the Mako-Békés rift basins. We suggest that cold mantle lithospheric downwelling occurred below the Pannonian Basin before detaching in the mid-Miocene. In the Vrancea Zone, intermediate depth seismicity occurs at the NE end of a tabular upper mantle high velocity structure that trends SW along the southern edge of the South Carpathians and extends to

  5. Structure and Evolution of the North American Upper Mantle: Insight from Integrative Modeling of Gravity, Topography and Seismic Tomography Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kaban, M. K.; Tesauro, M.

    2014-12-01

    A limitation on the application of geophysical methods for the study of the upper mantle is the effect of lateral variations in the structure of the overlying crust that obscure the signal from the mantle. However, the North American upper mantle is particularly well-suited for geophysical study because crustal corrections can be made based on the results from numerous active- and passive-source seismic investigations that have determined lateral variations in crustal properties, including crustal thickness, P- and S-wave velocities, and crustal density estimated from empirical velocity-density relations. We exploit this knowledge of the crust of North America to construct an integrated 3D model of variations in density, temperature and composition within the upper mantle to a depth of 250 km. Our model is based on a joint analysis of topography, gravity, and seismic tomography data, coupled with mineral physics constraints. In the first step we remove the effect of the laterally-varying crust from the observed gravity field and topography (assuming Airy isostasy) using our crustal model NACr2014 (Tesauro et al., submitted). In the second step the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography (obtained in the first step) are inverted to obtain a 3D density model of the upper mantle. Thermal effects dominate this initial density model. To compensate for the thermal effects we invert for mantle temperatures based on the S-wave velocities determined by two seismic tomography models (S40RTS and NA2007). After removing the thermal effect from the mantle gravity anomalies we are left with the upper mantle density variations that are due to compositional variations. We recover two long-wavelength (5°-10°) features in the upper mantle compositional density model that are not evident in seismic tomography models: (1) a strong (+200 mgal) positive compositional anomaly beneath the Gulf of Mexico, perhaps due to eclogite in the uppermost mantle, and (2) a NE

  6. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Kirby, S H; Durham, W B; Stern, L A

    1991-04-12

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events. PMID:17769266

  7. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events.

  8. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Kirby, S H; Durham, W B; Stern, L A

    1991-04-12

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events.

  9. Upper mantle anisotropy obtained from SKS analysis in Kerman province, South-Central Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirahmadi, S.; Sadidkhouy, A.; Rezaei Nayeh, A.; Javan Doloei, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, studying anisotropic properties has become a proper procedure to survey rate of tectonics phenomena in upper crust and mantle. Therefore, analyzing specific phases of the wave that an earthquake produces, which is intensely sensitive to both earthquake mechanism and any anisotropy along the path at upper crust, is worthwhile. Researchers consider anisotropy in the upper mantle mainly as a result of olivine crystals which have been aligned by mantle flow. Whenever a shear-wave reaches the anisotropic media; it splits into two directions called fast direction and slow direction. Parameters which describe splitting are the fast polarization direction (φ) and the lag time between fast and slow shear-waves (dt). We applied SKS phase and probe optimized results by using cluster analyzing method, which Teanby et al. (2004) established basis on splitting correction method of Silver and Chan (1991) .Unlike Silver and Chan (1991), Teanby et al. (2004) made the selections of analyzing windows automate. In sum the method is consist of three steps: First φ and δt are calculated for a range of start and end times, and 2D diagram of φ versus δt are plotted. Second stable region, where have tight clusters or have desired compaction are specialized by cluster analysis. Finally optimized clusters are applied and the window which has the least error in evaluation of φ and δt are determined. We select teleseismic data which the S waves which lie inside the so called shear wave window have to be considered as diagnostic for the inference of the anisotropic properties of the medium. This research is based on analyzing shear wave splitting by use of SKS phase to measure anisotropy at upper mantle in Kerman province. Teleseimic data is resulted by four stations in Kerman province of broad band seismic network, assembled by Iranian Seismological Center. We determined shear-wave anisotropy parameters in upper mantle in Kerman province that has been mainly surrounded by the

  10. Contrasting origins of the upper mantle revealed by hafnium and lead isotopes from the Southeast Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    Hanan, Barry B; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pyle, Douglas G; Christie, David M

    2004-11-01

    The origin of the isotopic signature of Indian mid-ocean ridge basalts has remained enigmatic, because the geochemical composition of these basalts is consistent either with pollution from recycled, ancient altered oceanic crust and sediments, or with ancient continental crust or lithosphere. The radiogenic isotopic signature may therefore be the result of contamination of the upper mantle by plumes containing recycled altered ancient oceanic crust and sediments, detachment and dispersal of continental material into the shallow mantle during rifting and breakup of Gondwana, or contamination of the upper mantle by ancient subduction processes. The identification of a process operating on a scale large enough to affect major portions of the Indian mid-ocean ridge basalt source region has been a long-standing problem. Here we present hafnium and lead isotope data from across the Indian-Pacific mantle boundary at the Australian-Antarctic discordance region of the Southeast Indian Ridge, which demonstrate that the Pacific and Indian upper mantle basalt source domains were each affected by different mechanisms. We infer that the Indian upper-mantle isotope signature in this region is affected mainly by lower continental crust entrained during Gondwana rifting, whereas the isotope signature of the Pacific upper mantle is influenced predominantly by ocean floor subduction-related processes.

  11. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Thomas S

    2008-11-28

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in the CaIrO3-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones). PMID:18826921

  12. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Thomas S

    2008-11-28

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in the CaIrO3-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

  13. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T S

    2008-12-09

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} in the CaIrO{sub 3}-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

  14. Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.

    2013-05-01

    Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.

  15. Upper mantle structure of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates revealed by seafloor seismic array observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isse, Takehi; Shiobara, Hajime; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Seismic tomography studies have revealed the structure and dynamics of Earth's interior since the 1980s. However, the spatial resolution of the oceanic region is not good enough caused by sparse distribution of the seismic stations. The observations with broadband ocean-bottom seismographs (BBOBSs) since the 2000s enabled us to obtain seismic tomography models with higher spatial resolution. Our Japanese BBOBS group deployed more than 100 BBOBSs in the Pacific Ocean and obtained a high-resolution (300-500 km) three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath northwestern and south Pacific Ocean by using surface wave tomography technique. In the northwestern Pacific Ocean, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate, we found that the shear wave structure in the Philippine sea plate is well correlated with the seafloor age in the upper 120 km, three separate slow anomalies in the mantle wedge at depth shallower than 100 km beneath the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, which have a close relationship with the three groups of frontal and rear arc volcanoes having distinct Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios, and that the Philippine Sea plate, which is a single plate, shows very large lateral variations in azimuthal and radial anisotropies compared with the Pacific plate. In the South Pacific Ocean, where midplate hotspots are concentrated, we found that the localized slow anomalies are found near hotspots in the upper mantle, estimated thickness of the lithosphere is about 90 km in average and is thinned by ~20 km in the vicinity of hotspots, which may represent thermal erosion due to mantle plumes.

  16. Towards Tidal Tomography: Using Earth's Body-Tide Signal to Constrain Deep-Mantle Density Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Harriet; Yang, Hsin-Ying; Davis, James; Mitrovica, Jerry; Tromp, Jeroen; Latychev, Konstantin

    2015-04-01

    Luni-solar forcings drive long wavelength deformation at timescales ranging from 8 hours to 18.6 years. We propose that globally distributed GPS estimates of this deformation within the semi-diurnal band provide a new and independent constraint on long-wavelength deep mantle structure. A particular target of "tidal tomography" is the buoyancy structure of LLSVPs, which constitute a large volumetric fraction of the mantle. Constraining this structure is the key to understanding the longevity of the LLSVPs, and indeed the evolution of the entire mantle and Earth system. To this end, we begin by reporting on the development of a new normal-mode theory, based on relatively recent advances in free oscillation seismology, which is capable of predicting semi-diurnal body tides on a laterally heterogeneous, rotating and anelastic Earth. We next present the results of a suite of benchmark tests involving comparisons with predictions based on both classical tidal Love number theory for 1-D Earth models and finite-volume simulations that incorporate 3-D elastic and density structure. We find that body tide deformation is most sensitive to long wavelength, deep mantle structure, and, in particularly, to shear wave velocity and density structure. When combined with results from seismological datasets, this sensitivity provides a powerful tool to investigate the buoyancy structure of the LLSVPs. For example, adopting a variety of seismic tomography models a priori, we perform an extensive parameter search to determine misfits between model predictions based on the new theory and GPS-derived estimates of the semi-diurnal body tide displacements. Preliminary results, focusing only on density structure, have indicated that the observations are best fit when the LLSVPs have a bulk density greater than average mantle, in broad agreement with previous inferences based upon seismic normal mode inversions. In follow-up work, we have mapped out trade-offs related to the adopted seismic

  17. Earth's Deep Carbon Cycle Constrained by Partial Melting of Mantle Peridotite and Eclogite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.

    2006-05-01

    The mass of carbon in the mantle is thought to exceed that in all Earth's other reservoirs combined1 and large fluxes of carbon are cycled into and out of the mantle via subduction and volcanic emission. Devolatilization is known to release water in the mantle wedge, but release of carbon could be delayed if the relevant decarbonation reactions or solidi of oceanic crust are not encountered along P-T path of subduction. Outgassing of CO2 from the mantle also has a critical influence on Earth's climate for time scales of 108-109 yr1. The residence time for carbon in the mantle is thought to exceed the age of the Earth1,2, but it could be significantly shorter owing to pervasive deep melting beneath oceanic ridges. The dominant influx of carbon is via carbonate in altered ocean-floor basalts, which survives decarbonation during subduction. Our experiments demonstrate that solidi of carbonated eclogite remain hotter than average subduction geotherms at least as deep as transition zone3, and thus significant subducted C is delivered to the deep Earth, rather than liberated in the shallow mantle by melting. Flux of CO2 into the mantle, assuming average estimate of carbon in altered ocean crust of 0.21 wt. % CO24, can amount to 0.15 × 1015 g/yr. In upwelling mantle, however, partial melting of carbonated eclogite releases calcio-dolomitic carbonatite melt at depths near ~400 km and metasomatically implants carbonate to surrounding peridotite. Thus, volcanic release of CO2 to basalt source regions is likely controlled by the solidus of carbonated peridotite. Our recent experiments with nominally anhydrous, carbonate-bearing garnet lherzolite indicate that the solidus of peridotite with a trace amount of CO2 is ~500 °C lower than that of volatile-free peridotite at 10 GPa5. In upwelling mantle the solidus of carbonated lherzolite is ~100-200 km shallower than that of eclogite+CO2, but beneath oceanic ridges, initial melting occurs as deep as 300-330 km. For peridotite

  18. Variation of the upper mantle velocity structure along the central-south Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandvol, Eric; Shen, Yang; Gao, Haiying

    2014-05-01

    Variations in the subduction angle of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate has lead to different modes of deformation and volcanism along the Andean active margin. The volcanic gap between the central and southern Andean volcanic zones is correlated with the Pampean flat-slab subduction zone, where the subducting Nazca slab changes from a 30-degree dipping slab beneath the Puna plateau to a horizontal slab beneath the Sierras Pampeanas, and then to a 30-degree dipping slab beneath the south Andes from north to south. The Pampean flat-slab subduction correlates spatially with the track of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, and is associated with the inboard migration of crustal deformation. A major Pliocene delamination event beneath the southern Puna plateau has previously been inferred from geochemical and geological and preliminary geophysical data. The mechanisms for the transition between dipping- and flat-subduction slab and the mountain building process of the central Andean plateau are key issues to understanding the Andean-type orogenic process. We use a new frequency-time normalization approach with non-linear stacking to extract very-broadband (up to 300 second) empirical Green's functions (EGFs) from continuous seismic records. The long-period EGFs provide the deeper depth-sensitivity needed to constrain the mantle structure. The broadband waveform data are from 393 portable stations of four temporary networks: PUNA, SIEMBRA, CHARGE, RAMP, East Sierras Pampeanas, BANJO/SEDA, REFUCA, ANCORP, and 31 permanent stations accessed from both the IRIS DMC and GFZ GEOFON DMC. A finite difference waveform propagation method is used to generate synthetic seismograms from 3-D velocity model. We use 3-D traveltime sensitivity kernels, and traveltime residuals measurement by waveform cross-correlation to directly invert the upper mantle shear-wave velocity structure. The preliminary model shows strong along-strike velocity variations within in the mantle wedge and

  19. The Effect of Upper to Lower Mantle Viscosity Jump on the Regime Diagram of Slab Deformation in the Mantle Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.; Garel, F.; Goes, S. D. B.; Davies, R.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Slabs display a wide range of morphologies in the mantle transition zone. This slab transition zone deformation is likely caused by a barrier arising from a jump of viscosity between upper and lower mantle, and/or from the endothermic phase transitions at 660-km depth. We use 2-D thermo-mechanical models of a two-plate subduction system, modeled with the finite-element, adaptive-mesh code Fluidity, to investigate the influence of the viscosity jump on slab morphologies. We implement a temperature- and stress-dependent rheology, and variable viscosity increases from upper to lower mantle of 10, 30 or 100 (no mineral phase transitions). Various end-member subduction modes arise, ranging from vertical folding to horizontally deflected to retreating and penetrating slabs. For each viscosity contrast between upper and lower mantle, we build a regime diagram for subduction dynamics based on the initial subducting and overriding plate ages. Trench motion is facilitated by smaller upper-lower-mantle viscosity contrasts, and, for all but the oldest subducting plate cases, simulations with a 100-fold viscosity increase exhibit a stationary trench later in their evolution. Slower sinking rates also lead to weaker (lower-viscosity) slabs encountering the viscosity jump. These effects, together with the increased resistance to penetration associated with a more viscous lower mantle, produce increasingly deformed and stalling slabs at depth, as the viscosity contrast increases. Slab deformation in the transition zone leads to an alternation between phases of penetration into the lower mantle and stagnation phases, reflected in subducting plate velocity. The periodicity and amplitude of such oscillations is directly controlled by the magnitude of the viscosity jump. Hence, our dynamic models help to interpret present-day observations of slab morphologies, along with the time-evolution of plate surface velocities, in terms of Earth rheology. The range of observed slab morphologies

  20. LILE enrichment in MORB melt inclusions: evidence for upper-mantle autometasomatism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murton, B. J.; Tindle, A. G.; Font, L.

    2002-12-01

    After corrections for host plagioclase interaction, primitive melt inclusions from Central Indian Ridge basaltic lavas have compositions that can be accounted for by fractional crystallisation of an olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase assemblage. Correcting for this fractional crystallisation, the melt inclusions are also found to be depleted in phosphorus, titanium and iron, relative to their matrix glasses. Furthermore, phosphorus and titanium concentrations correlate inversely with sodium and potassium, an effect that is incompatible with either mantle partial melting processes or diffusion between melt inclusions and their external magma. Instead, it is concluded that the melt inclusions were formed from melt increments derived from the depleted shallow mantle melting column during which fusion was promoted by a hydrous fluid carrying sodium and potassium. We suggest the fluid originates during early dehydration melting of the mantle column and is transported rapidly to shallower levels. The common occurrence of similar enrichment in depleted basaltic magmas, melt inclusions and upper-mantle peridotites indicates that this is a globally significant process.

  1. Using Cross-Correlation to Detect Upper Mantle Phases beneath Spain and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, L.; Schimmel, M.; Gallart, J.; Morales, J.

    2012-04-01

    A novel technique is implemented to search for weak amplitude upper mantle phases that arrive in the P-wave coda. Cross-correlation and stacking techniques are applied in order to detect waveform similarity and eliminate the source influence from the vertical and radial component of records from single stations. A pilot wave is selected from the vertical component, this wavelet contains the P-wave and part of its coda. Phase cross-correlation (PCC) and geometrically normalized cross-correlation (CCGN) are performed between this pilot and the vertical, and the radial component of each event. It is expected that this procedure detects P to s conversions, and reflections at different mantle discontinuities (such as 410-km and 660-km depth discontinuities). Stacking is used to enhance signals which arrive consistently (near receiver conversions and reflections) and attenuate isolated depth phases and also spurious arrivals. Besides the source equalization, PCC and CCGN provide relative travel times with respect to the P phase through their correlation maxima. The data set used in the real data example is obtained from more than 40 stations selected from the first phase of the IberArray seismic network deployment (TopoIberia project) in south Spain and north Morocco. P-wave reflections and P to s conversions at 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities were detected beneath the studied region. Both discontinuities are on average within the expected depth range from global studies.

  2. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  3. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Gettings, M. E.; Blank, H. R.; Healy, J. H.

    1985-02-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovičić discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is interpreted

  4. Fine scale heterogeneity in the Earth's upper mantle - observation and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    High resolution seismic data has over the last decade provided significant evidence for pronounced fine scale heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle at an unprecedented detail. Seismic tomography developed tremendously during the last 20-30 years. The results show overall structure in the mantle which can be correlated to main plate tectonic features, such as oceanic spreading centres, continental rift zones and subducting slabs. Much seismological mantle research is now concentrated on imaging fine scale heterogeneity, which may be detected and imaged with high-resolution seismic data with dense station spacing and at high frequency, e.g. from the Russian Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) data set and array recordings of waves from natural seismic sources. Mantle body waves indicate pronounced heterogeneity at three depth levels whereas other depth intervals appear transparent, at least in the frequency band of 0.5-15 Hz: (1) The Mantle Low-Velocity Zone (LVZ) is a global feature which has been detected in more than 50 long-range seismic profiles (Thybo and Perchuc, Science, 1997). Since then numerous studies based on receiver functions, surface waves, and controlled source seismology have confirmed the presence of this zone. The data demonstrates that the top of the LVZ everywhere is at a depth of 100±20 km. A pronounced coda shows that the zone is highly heterogeneous at characteristic scale lengths of 5-15 by 2-6 km. We interpret that the rocks in the LVZ have a temperature close to the solidus or even may contain small fractions of partial melt. The solidus of mantle rocks is very low below a depth of ca. 90 km if volatiles are present due to a characteristic kink in the solidus which is much lower than for dry mantle rocks. We suggest that the rocks are in a totally solid state below the LVZ and that the depth to the interface to fully solid rocks is an indicator of the thermal state of the upper mantle. (2) Significant scattering from around the top of the

  5. Fine scale heterogeneity in the Earth's upper mantle - observation and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thybo, Hans

    2013-04-01

    High resolution seismic data has over the last decade provided significant evidence for pronounced fine scale heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle at an unprecedented detail. Seismic tomography developed tremendously during the last 20-30 years. The results show overall structure in the mantle which can be correlated to main plate tectonic features, such as oceanic spreading centres, continental rift zones and subducting slabs. Much seismological mantle research is now concentrated on imaging fine scale heterogeneity, which may be detected and imaged with high-resolution seismic data with dense station spacing and at high frequency, e.g. from the Russian Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) data set and array recordings of waves from natural seismic sources. Mantle body waves indicate pronounced heterogeneity at three depth levels whereas other depth intervals appear transparent, at least in the frequency band of 0.5-15 Hz: (1) The Mantle Low-Velocity Zone (LVZ) is a global feature which has been detected in more than 50 long-range seismic profiles (Thybo and Perchuc, Science, 1997). Since then numerous studies based on receiver functions, surface waves, and controlled source seismology have confirmed the presence of this zone. The data demonstrates that the top of the LVZ everywhere is at a depth of 100±20 km. A pronounced coda shows that the zone is highly heterogeneous at characteristic scale lengths of 5-15 by 2-6 km. We interpret that the rocks in the LVZ have a temperature close to the solidus or even may contain small fractions of partial melt. The solidus of mantle rocks is very low below a depth of ca. 90 km if volatiles are present due to a characteristic kink in the solidus which is much lower than for dry mantle rocks. We suggest that the rocks are in a totally solid state below the LVZ and that the depth to the interface to fully solid rocks is an indicator of the thermal state of the upper mantle. (2) Significant scattering from around the top of the

  6. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions of approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.

  7. Seismic Scattering from Heterogeneity in the Continental Crust and Upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thybo, H. J.; Nielsen, L.

    2003-12-01

    We document pronounced seismic scattering from three heterogeneous zones in the continental crust and upper mantle under Eurasia: (1) The lower crust, (2) The mantle low-velocity zone, and (3) An interval around the top of the mantle transition zone. We model the scattering by use of viscoelastic, full wavefield, 2D finite-difference synthetic seismograms. The calculations are for large models of seismic velocity (2500 by 550 km), which include by heterogeneous layers, defined by random fluctuations of the elastic parameters and Q-values. Our primary data source is Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) seismic data sets collected in the former Soviet Union. High-frequency signals (up to 10 Hz with centre frequencies of 2-4 Hz) from the PNEs were recorded with a nominal receiver spacing of 10-15 km along profiles of up to 4000 km length. (1) Lower crustal scattering explains the characteristics of the teleseismic (or long-range) Pn wave at all frequencies in the data. This wave propagates as a whispering-gallery phase to more than 3000 km offset from the sources with apparent mantle velocity. It requires a large, positive vertical upper mantle velocity gradient. The model is consistent with outcrop and seismic observations. We reject a previously published model for the teleseismic Pn in terms of upper mantle scattering which only explains the wavefield characteristics at high frequency, but not at low frequency. It also leads to strong damping of later arrivals, in disagreement with observations. (2) Heterogeneity in the mantle low-velocity zone below the 8° discontinuity at 100 km depth causes scattering of the main frequencies (2-4 Hz) of the seismic wavefield. The scattering is primarily observed directly behind the first arrivals in the 800-1400 km offset range. Pronounced delay of the first arrivals beyond ca. 800 km offset demonstrates the presence of the mantle low velocity zone. The best fit to observations is obtained by including an 80 km thick heterogeneous

  8. Deep dehydration and physical and chemical nature of the mantle above the stagnant slab (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Zhao, D.; Kuritani, T.; Tajima, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent seismic tomography studies imply that the slab is stagnant in some regions such as beneath Japan and NE China [1]. Dehydration is expected from the slabs due to decomposition of hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals in the slabs. There are two phase boundaries between the phases with a large contrast of the water contents; i.e., the olivine-wadsleyite boundary and the decomposition boundary of ringwoodite. Dehydration could occur at the boundaries in plumes or slabs crossing the boundaries. The low velocity beneath Eastern China and United State (e.g., [2]) suggests existence of gravitationally stable hydrous melts at the base of the upper mantle. Body waveforms analysis suggested existence of highly localized low velocity anomalies at the base of the transition zone [3], which are consistent with decomposition of hydrous ringwoodite in slabs. Measurement of hydrogen diffusion in wadsleyite and ringwoodite revealed that the diffusion rates of hydrogen are comparable with that of olivine suggesting heterogeneity in hydrogen contents in the transition zone [4]. Based on hydrogen diffusion coefficients together with reported electrical conductivity of mantle minerals [5] the water content in the mantle transition zone and upper mantle can be estimated combining the electrical conductivity observations and seismic tomography data. These analyses indicate that transition zone is generally more hydrous beneath Japan compared to beneath Europe [6], and the water is localized within the wet transition zone [7]. The stagnant slabs have an important effect on the overlying transition zone and upper mantle. A big mantle wedge (BMW) model has been proposed by Zhao [1], in which the stagnant slab in the transition zone could play an essential role in the intra-plate volcanic activities overlying the slab. Water released by the stagnant slab could be important for these igneous activities, such as Changbaishan in Northeast China. The recent isotopic data of basaltic

  9. Upper mantle P velocity structure beneath the Baikal Rift from modeling regional seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2003-02-01

    Uppermost mantle P wave velocity structure beneath the Baikal rift and southern margin of the Siberian Platform has been investigated by using a grid search method to model Pnl waveforms from two moderate earthquakes recorded by station TLY at the southwestern end of Lake Baikal. The results yielded a limited number of successful models which indicate the presence of upper mantle P wave velocities beneath the rift axis and the margin of the platform that are 2-5% lower than expected. The magnitude of the velocity anomalies and their location support the presence of a thermal anomaly that extends laterally beyond the rift proper, possibly created by small-scale convection or a plume-like, thermal upwelling.

  10. Model of the Arctic evolution since the Cretaceous to present, based on upper mantle convection linked with Pacific lithosphere subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobkovsky, Leopold

    2015-04-01

    The present paper comprises a model of Arctic basin evolution since early-mid Cretaceous to present. The model is based on the mechanism of upper mantle substance circulation beneath the Arctic lithosphere linked with Pacific lithosphere subduction. Seismic tomography data obtained for the Pacific-Eurasia-Arctic joint area indicate that Pacific lithosphere slab sinking to the mantle in subduction zone transforms into the horizontal layer upon reaching the upper mantle foot, this layer extending for two or more thousands km beneath the Eurasian continent. This pattern of seismic tomography indicates the presence of a horizontal convective cell where a flow of substance moving along the upper mantle foot from a subduction zone into the continent is compensated by a return flow moving along the lithosphere foot towards the subduction zone. The return mantle flow makes continental lithosphere extension, giving rise to processes of rifting, magmatism and spreading. The convective cell being continuously supplied with new substance which is transported through the subduction zone it is sure to expand horizontally. The above cell expansion occurs first, due to ocean ward movement of subduction zone (roll back) and secondly, due to the cell front propagation into the continent. The given model allows to understand main features for the Arctic evolution since early-mid Cretaceous to present. Numerous seismic profiling data obtained for shelf and deep water sedimentary basins in the Arctic Ocean as well as on land geological investigation reveal that since Aptian up to present the Arctic region has been characterized by sublatitudinal lithosphere extension. This extension is explained by the effect the return mantle flow related to the subduction of the Northern part of the Pacific plate acts on the Arctic lithosphere foot. The model shows the phenomenon of Arctic plume to be caused by the convective cell uprising flow. In fact lower horizontal flow of convective cell moving

  11. Seismic Tomography for the Crust and Upper Mantle behind the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific plate subducts WNW under the Eurasian plates with a ~30° angle of dip and a rate of ~8 cm/yr from the Japan-Kuril Trench. The Kuril-NE Japan arc of the uppermost mantle, overlying the subducting Pacific slab, is the locus of important processes, including serpentinization of the forearc mantle wedge, repeated genesis of megathrust earthquakes, slab dehydration, arc magmatism and interplate coupling. To improve our knowledge of crustal and upper mantle structures through tomographic imaging, we determined the three-dimensional (3-D) velocity (Vp, Vs) and Vp/Vs structures under the Kuril-NE Japan subduction zone. The Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models provide compelling evidence for a highly hydrated and serpentinized forearc mantle and the fluids related to low-velocity and high-Vp/Vs anomalies associated with the slab dehydration. Significant slow anomalous Vp and Vs with a high-Vp/Vs ratio are clearly imaged along the volcanic front with an extended depth of ~100 km under the Kuril-NE Japan arc, showing good consistency with the results of previous studies. This is caused mainly by the fluids associated with the extensive dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab. Fluid-related anomalies under the Kuril-NE Japan arc system, attributed to various processes such as slab dehydration and serpentinization of the forearc mantle wedge, are contributed mainly by arc magmatism, interplate coupling and the repeated generation of megathrust earthquakes. The characteristic distribution of high and low Vp/Vs in the forearc continental crust along the trench-parallel direction may reflects the spatial heterogeneity of the amount of the subducted water which related to the difference of the sedimentary unit and seismic activity in the oceanic crust. Our study demonstrates that the directly optimization of Vp/Vs tomographic procedure provides more stable and reliable Vp/Vs image than previous method.

  12. The oxidation state of Fe in MORB glasses and the oxygen fugacity of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Kelley, Katherine A.

    2011-05-01

    Micro-analytical determination of Fe3+/∑Fe ratios in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses using micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy reveals a substantially more oxidized upper mantle than determined by previous studies. Here, we show that global MORBs yield average Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of 0.16 ± 0.01 (n = 103), which trace back to primary MORB melts equilibrated at the conditions of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. Our results necessitate an upward revision of the Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of MORBs, mantle oxygen fugacity, and the ferric iron content of the mantle relative to previous wet chemical determinations. We show that only 0.01 (absolute, or < 10%) of the difference between Fe3+/∑Fe ratios determined by micro-colorimety and XANES can be attributed to the Mössbauer-based XANES calibration. The difference must instead derive from a bias between micro-colorimetry performed on experimental vs. natural basalts. Co-variations of Fe3+/∑Fe ratios in global MORB with indices of low-pressure fractional crystallization are consistent with Fe3+ behaving incompatibly in shallow MORB magma chambers. MORB Fe3+/∑Fe ratios do not, however, vary with indices of the extent of mantle melting (e.g., Na2O(8)) or water concentration. We offer two hypotheses to explain these observations: The bulk partition coefficient of Fe3+ may be higher during peridotite melting than previously thought, and may vary with temperature, or redox exchange between sulfide and sulfate species could buffer mantle melting at ~ QFM. Both explanations, in combination with the measured MORB Fe3+/∑Fe ratios, point to a fertile MORB source with greater than 0.3 wt.% Fe2O3.

  13. Anelastic Modeling of Upper Mantle Seismic Observations: Explaining Rocky Mountain Isostacy and Constraining Rheological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2001-12-01

    Utilizing tomographic models of attenuation and velocity derived using the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF) broadband seismic dataset acquired in 1992, this study models the relationships of attenuation to velocity to identify regions of elevated temperature and anomalous rheology. Studies of the area include P, S and surface wave velocity tomography and all indicate slow upper mantle velocities below the Rocky Mountain region. Recent attenuation measurements exhibit a similar trend. The coupling of attenuation and velocity measurements provides an indication of the change in temperature (Karato, 1993). A more vigorous examination of the relationships between attenuation and velocity can provide insight into the rheological parameters of the mantle. The theoretical basis of the modeling is the complex modulus of the standard anelastic solid under the influence of a thermally activated process (Nowick and Berry, 1972). An activation energy of 500 kJ/mol, the diffusion of oxygen through olivine, is assumed. An integral part of the modeling is the assumption that the thermally activated process has a normal distribution of activation energies. A greater variance of this distribution is an indication of the materials inability to equilibrate differential stress. Relationships between attenuation and velocity suggest elevated temperatures up to 300 K 100 to 150 km beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains. This temperature difference is enough to cause density changes partly responsible for isostacy of the mountains. Additional findings include a significant reduction in variance of the activation energies in the upper mantle coincident with the region of elevated temperature. This is due to a softening of the mantle material and may imply the existence of partial melt. >http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~oliverb/AnMod.html

  14. Crust and upper mantle structures beneath Northeast China from receiver function studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhen; Cao, Yuliang; Wang, Xianguang; John Chen, Y.; Ning, Jieyuan; He, Weiguang; Tang, Youcai; Feng, Yongge

    2014-06-01

    P-wave and S-wave receiver function analyses have been performed along a profile consisted of 27 broadband seismic stations to image the crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across Northeast China. The results show that the average Moho depth varies from about 37 km beneath the Daxing'anling orogenic belt in the west to about 33 km beneath the Songliao Basin, and to about 35 km beneath the Changbai mountain region in the east. Our results reveal that the Moho is generally flat beneath the Daxing'anling region and a remarkable Moho offset (about 4 km) exists beneath the basin-mountain boundary, the Daxing'anling-Taihang Gravity Line. Beneath the Tanlu faults zone, which seperates the Songliao Basin and Changbai region, the Moho is uplift and the crustal thickness changes rapidly. We interpret this feature as that the Tanlu faults might deeply penetrate into the upper mantle, and facilitate the mantle upwelling along the faults during the Cenozoic era. The average depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is ~80 km along the profile which is thinner than an average thickness of a continental lithosphere. The LAB shows an arc-like shape in the basin, with the shallowest part approximately beneath the center of the basin. The uplift LAB beneath the basin might be related to the extensive lithospheric stretching in the Mesozoic. In the mantle transition zone, a structurally complicated 660 km discontinuity with a maximum 35 km depression beneath the Changbai region is observed. The 35 km depression is roughly coincident with the location of the stagnant western pacific slab on top of the 660 km discontinuity revealed by the recent P wave tomography.

  15. Compositional Stratification in the Upper Mantle: Seismic Evidence and Geodynamic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarano, F.; Romanowicz, B.; Tackley, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    The study of interior dynamics requires knowing the current physical properties (e.g., rheology, elasticity) and understanding the relations between the driving forces and their effects, which lead to the current conditions. Mineral physics provides a description of these physical properties as a function of composition (C), temperature (T) and pressure (P). The knowledge of T-C conditions in the Earth relies on the interpretation of geophysical data based on mineral physics. Recently, we inverted long-period seismic waveforms directly for temperature or composition. We found that lateral variations of temperature can explain a large part of the data in the upper mantle. However, the radial average VS profile we obtain cannot be explained with a homogenous composition. A relative enrichment with depth in garnet and pyroxenes is consistent with seismic data. A similar compositional structure characterizes recent geodynamic models that include the phase transitions of the non-olivine system. Here, we use the same physical properties for the seismic inversion and to model the thermochemical evolution of the mantle with the code STAGYY. The flow field is computed with a finite-volume multigrid solver and tracers are used for composition. Multi-component phase changes and melting-induced compositional differentiation are included. The principal features of the modeled T-C structure are compared with the one inferred from observations and the presence of compositional stratification in the upper mantle is examined in details. In addition, the thermo-chemical models give insights on small-scale heterogeneities that are not resolved from the geophysical observations. In order to account for the large uncertainties of some key mineral physics parameters at mantle conditions (e.g., viscosity and seismic attenuation, density relation between depleted and enriched compositions), the seismic inversion and the modeling are repeated using different possible parameters.

  16. Surface Wave Phase Speed Models of the Crustal and Upper Mantle Beneath Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirci, Taciser; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Fırat Özer, Mithat

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Turkey using phase speed of the fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves. To determine the Rayleigh wave phase dispersion, the two-station method is employed to analyze vertical-component seismograms of 165 broad-band seismic stations in Turkey and surrounding areas. We used 289 teleseismic events with moment magnitude 5.5 and greater, and with focal depth shallower than 100 km occurred in the world between January, 2006 and December, 2008. The data is obtained from two national seismic networks operated by Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), and General Directorate of Disaster Affairs Earthquake Research Department (ERI). In the first step of the study, the path-average dispersion curves along the great circle for each event are determined using the conventional two-station technique. In the second step, Rayleigh-wave phase speed maps of the entire region of Turkey are obtained as a function of frequency using the LSQR algorithm. The phase speed models are constructed in a period range from 30 to 160 sec. The fast phase speed anomalies are found in the western and southern parts of Turkey (particularly conspicuous in the north-western part; i.e., the Marmara Region) and the phase speed becomes slow in the eastern part in almost all phase speed models. In the eastern region, prominent slow anomalies are found in the short period range below 40 seconds, which corresponds to the depth of the crust and the uppermost mantle, while the faster phase speed anomaly becomes dominant in the longer periods, which sample the deeper part of the mantle. We may explain the observed fast phase speed anomaly in the northwestern part of Turkey by the cooling of the upper mantle, which can affect the immersion of oceanic lithosphere of the Black Sea beneath southward margin of the Marmara region. The slow anomalies of phase speed in the eastern Turkey, may represent the presence of

  17. Upper mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath northern Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijalva, A. N.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand, R.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.

    2015-12-01

    A recent deployment of 55 broadband seismic stations around the northern Lake Malawi rift as part of the SEGMeNT project have provided a new dataset for imaging crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the Rungwe volcanic center and northern most segment of the Lake Malawi Rift. The goal of our study is to characterize the upper mantle velocity structure and determine to what extent the rifting has been influenced by magmatism. P relative arrival time residuals have been obtained for 115 teleseismic events with magnitudes > 5 in the 30 - 90 degree distance range. They are being tomographically inverted, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments for a 3-D velocity model of the upper mantle. Preliminary results indicate a low wave speed anomaly in the uppermost mantle beneath the Rungwe volcanics. Future results will determine if this anomaly exists under the northern Lake Malawi rift.

  18. Episodic entrainment of deep primordial mantle material into ocean island basalts.

    PubMed

    Williams, Curtis D; Li, Mingming; McNamara, Allen K; Garnero, Edward J; van Soest, Matthijs C

    2015-11-24

    Chemical differences between mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs) provide critical evidence that the Earth's mantle is compositionally heterogeneous. MORBs generally exhibit a relatively low and narrow range of (3)He/(4)He ratios on a global scale, whereas OIBs display larger variability in both time and space. The primordial origin of (3)He in OIBs has motivated hypotheses that high (3)He/(4)He ratios are the product of mantle plumes sampling chemically distinct material, but do not account for lower MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratios in OIBs, nor their observed spatial and temporal variability. Here we perform thermochemical convection calculations which show the variable (3)He/(4)He signature of OIBs can be reproduced by deep isolated mantle reservoirs of primordial material that are viscously entrained by thermal plumes. Entrainment is highly time-dependent, producing a wide range of (3)He/(4)He ratios similar to that observed in OIBs worldwide and indicate MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratios in OIBs cannot be used to preclude deep mantle-sourced hotspots.

  19. Episodic entrainment of deep primordial mantle material into ocean island basalts.

    PubMed

    Williams, Curtis D; Li, Mingming; McNamara, Allen K; Garnero, Edward J; van Soest, Matthijs C

    2015-01-01

    Chemical differences between mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs) provide critical evidence that the Earth's mantle is compositionally heterogeneous. MORBs generally exhibit a relatively low and narrow range of (3)He/(4)He ratios on a global scale, whereas OIBs display larger variability in both time and space. The primordial origin of (3)He in OIBs has motivated hypotheses that high (3)He/(4)He ratios are the product of mantle plumes sampling chemically distinct material, but do not account for lower MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratios in OIBs, nor their observed spatial and temporal variability. Here we perform thermochemical convection calculations which show the variable (3)He/(4)He signature of OIBs can be reproduced by deep isolated mantle reservoirs of primordial material that are viscously entrained by thermal plumes. Entrainment is highly time-dependent, producing a wide range of (3)He/(4)He ratios similar to that observed in OIBs worldwide and indicate MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratios in OIBs cannot be used to preclude deep mantle-sourced hotspots. PMID:26596781

  20. Episodic entrainment of deep primordial mantle material into ocean island basalts

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Curtis D.; Li, Mingming; McNamara, Allen K.; Garnero, Edward J.; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical differences between mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs) provide critical evidence that the Earth's mantle is compositionally heterogeneous. MORBs generally exhibit a relatively low and narrow range of 3He/4He ratios on a global scale, whereas OIBs display larger variability in both time and space. The primordial origin of 3He in OIBs has motivated hypotheses that high 3He/4He ratios are the product of mantle plumes sampling chemically distinct material, but do not account for lower MORB-like 3He/4He ratios in OIBs, nor their observed spatial and temporal variability. Here we perform thermochemical convection calculations which show the variable 3He/4He signature of OIBs can be reproduced by deep isolated mantle reservoirs of primordial material that are viscously entrained by thermal plumes. Entrainment is highly time-dependent, producing a wide range of 3He/4He ratios similar to that observed in OIBs worldwide and indicate MORB-like 3He/4He ratios in OIBs cannot be used to preclude deep mantle-sourced hotspots. PMID:26596781

  1. Experimental halogen partitioning between earth upper mantle minerals and silicate melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, Bastian; Pawley, Alison; Lyon, Ian; Henkel, Torsten; Burgess, Ray; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2013-04-01

    Owing to their incompatibility, halogens have similar geochemical properties to noble gases in many systems and may therefore be used as key tracers of volatile transport processes in the earth. Halogen fractionation may occur during partial melting of the upper mantle, fractional crystallization or partitioning between immiscible fluids. Experimental determination of the halogen partitioning behaviour is the basis for the investigation of the concentration and distribution of halogens in the earth's mantle. High P-T partition experiments were performed in a piston cylinder apparatus using a model primitive mantle composition proposed by Jagoutz et al. (1979) simplified to the four components CaO, MgO, A2lO3 and SiO2 (CMAS) according to the procedure of O'Hara (1968). Defined small amounts of halogens (0.2 wt%) were added as CaF2, CaCl2 and CaBr2. All experiments were first heated up to 1720° C and then cooled slowly to the target temperature to guarantee growth of large homogeneous crystals, following the method of Beyer et al. (2011). Pressures range between 1.0 GPa and 2.5 GPa and final experimental temperatures between 1500° C and 1600° C, thus representing partial melting conditions of the earth upper mantle. Back-scattered electron images of polished samples show euhedral, almost rectangular forsterite grains or a mixture of euhedral forsterite and pyroxene grains with a side length of up to 150 μm, which are embedded in a MORB-like melt. Electron microprobe analysis reveals a homogeneous major element composition of the forsterite and pyroxene single crystals as well as of the melt. Halogen mapping, measured via Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), shows no concentration gradients within the minerals or within the melt. These observations suggest that the experiments were performed at equilibrium conditions. The fact that we were able to produce large pyroxene and forsterite crystals at equilibrium conditions in a halogen doped

  2. Upper mantle structure beneath the Hangay dome, central Mongolia and implications for high topography and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Stephanie

    Origin and support of high topography in an intracontinental setting is not fully understood. The Hangay Dome in central Mongolia spans an area of ˜200,000 km2 and reaches elevations of ˜4,000 m. It has a complex accretionary history associated with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and is bound to the north, south, and west by active strike-slip faults. The extent to which the accretionary history or present day deformation contributes to current topography remain open questions. Geodynamic models that have been proposed to account for current topography include far-field effects of Pacific Plate subduction or the India-Asia collision, rifting stemming from the Lake Baikal region, mantle-plume activity, upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle, lithospheric delamination, and/or the underplating of magmatic rocks at the base of the crust. In order to determine which whether upper mantle structure might contribute to the origin of high topography in the Hangay, two years of teleseismic P and S body wave data are inverted for 3D velocity variations in Vp and Vs in the upper mantle beneath the Hangay. Velocity perturbations range between +/-3% for the P wave model and +/-7% for the S wave model. Changes in velocity are a function of temperature, density, composition, and presence of melt or fluid. Thermal anomalies are the primary causes for velocity perturbations in the upper mantle. The Hangay is underlain by non-uniform low velocity zones that correlate well with areas of the Hangay that have experienced volcanism in the past ˜30 Ma. High velocity zones are located off the edges of the dome to the west, east, and south. One low velocity anomaly in particular, is located near the headwaters of the Orkhon River beneath a region that had experienced magmatism ˜15-20 million years ago. Interestingly, this region sits between two areas ˜50 km away on either side that have experienced magmatism in the last 3 million years. This low velocity anomaly has a DeltaVp of -4

  3. Seismic Structure and Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle in the Pannonian - Carpathian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, G.; Brückl, E.; Hegedüs, E.; Radovanovic, S.; Brisbourne, A.; Lorinczi, P.; Dando, B.; Hausmann, H.; Kovács, A.; Török, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin is the largest of a group of Miocene-age extensional basins within the arc of the Alpine-Carpathian Mountain Ranges. These basins are extensional in origin, but the surrounding Carpathians result from sustained convergence during and since the period of active extension. A significant part of the mantle lithosphere here has been replaced, as gravitational instability caused an overturn of the upper mantle. The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) is a major international broadband seismology experiment, supported by geodynamical modelling and designed to improve our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the Pannonian and Vienna Basins. Between 2005 and 2007 we deployed 56 portable broadband seismic stations in Austria, Hungary and Serbia, spanning the Vienna Basin and the western part of the Pannonian Basin. Arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes are delayed by about 0.8 sec in the Vienna Basin and early by a similar amount in southwest Hungary. Tomographic inversion of the travel time residuals shows relatively fast P-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath the western Pannonian Basin and slow P-wave velocities beneath the West Carpathians. Seismic anisotropy (SKS) measurements reveal an intriguing pattern of lithospheric anisotropy: in the north-west the fast direction is generally elongated EW, perpendicular to the shortening direction across the Alps. Across the Vienna Basin the fast direction is NW-SE, perpendicular to the major bounding fault systems. Across the Pannonian Basin the dominant fast direction is EW, but in several locations the vectors are rotated toward NW-SE. The Mid-Hungarian Line, a major strike-slip structure already clearly identified in the gravity field, also is associated with abrupt changes in the azimuth of lithospheric anisotropy, and crustal receiver function signature. The object of these investigations is to use the seismic data to discriminate

  4. Sulfide Composition and Melt Stability Field in the Earth's Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's upper mantle, sulfur occurs chiefly as (Fe, Ni)xS minerals and melts with near-monosulfide stoichiometries. These could have substantial influence on geochemical and geophysical properties of the Earth's interior. For example, sulfide mineral and melts are the major carriers of chalcophile and platinum group elements (PGEs) and sulfide melts are potentially responsible for mantle geophysical anomalies, as their physical properties (higher density, surface tension, electrical conductivity and lower melting points) differ greatly from those of silicates. Sulfide melts are a potential sink for reduced mantle carbon and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Sulfides may be molten in large parts of the mantle, but this is determined in part by sulfide composition, which is in turn a product of Fe-Ni exchange with olivine and of the effect of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon fugacities on metal/anion ratios of melts. Melting experiments define the monosulfide (Fe0.35Ni0.12Cu0.01S0.52) solidus from 1-8 GPa at carbon-free and graphite saturated conditions. The resulting carbon-free solidus is below the mantle adiabat to depths of at least 300 km, but does not indicate sulfide melting in continental lithosphere. In contrast, the graphite saturated solidus indicates melting in the lithosphere at 6-7 GPa (~200 km), close to the source conditions typical of diamond formation. To determine the composition of sulfide equilibrated with olivine, we performed experiments on monosulfide-olivine (crushed powders from San Carlos single crystal) under 2 GPa, 1400 ◦C. Our preliminary results suggests that Fe-Ni distribution coefficients KD, defined by (Ni/Fe)sulfide/(Ni/Fe)olivine, have significantly lower values than those determined previously at one atmosphere (Doyle and Naldrett 1987; Fleet and MacRae 1987; Gaetani and Grove 1997). This indicates that sulfide equilibrated with olivine in the mantle is richer in Fe than former

  5. New constraints on the textural and geochemical evolution of the upper mantle beneath the Styrian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradi, Laszlo; Hidas, Károly; Zanetti, Alberto; János Kovács, István; Patkó, Levente; Szabó, Csaba

    2016-04-01

    Plio-Pleistocene alkali basaltic volcanism sampled sporadically the upper mantle beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (CPR, e.g. [1]). Lavas and pyroclasts often contain mantle derived xenoliths, and the majority of them have been extensively studied [1], except the westernmost Styrian Basin Volcanic Field (SBVF, Eastern Austria and Slovenia). In the SBVF only a few volcanic centers have been studied in details (e.g. Kapfenstein & Tobaj). Based on these studies, the upper mantle beneath the SBVF is consists of dominantly high temperature, texturally and geochemically homogeneous protogranular spinel lherzolite. New major and trace element data from rock-forming minerals of ultramafic xenoliths, coupled with texture and deformation analysis from 12 volcanic outcrops across the SBVF, suggest that the lithospheric roots of the region are more heterogeneous than described previously. The studied xenoliths are predominantly lherzolite, amphibole is a common phase that replaces pyroxenes and spinels and proves modal metasomatism. Phlogopite coupled with apatite is also present in amphibole-rich samples. The texture of the xenoliths is usually coarse-grained and annealed with low abundance of subgrain boundaries in both olivine and pyroxenes. Olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) varies between the three most abundant one: [010]-fiber, orthogonal and [100]-fiber symmetry [2]. The CPO of pyroxenes is usually coherent with coeval deformation with olivine, however the CPO of amphibole is suggesting postkinematic epitaxial overgrowth on the precursor pyroxenes. According to equilibrium temperatures, the studied xenolith suite samples a broader temperature range (850-1100 °C) than the literature data, corresponding to mantle depths between 30 and 60 km, which indicates that the xenolith suite only represents the shallower part of the recent 100 km thick lithospheric mantle beneath the SBVF. The equilibrium temperatures show correlation with the varying CPO symmetries

  6. Sensitivity of seismic measurements to frequency-dependent attenuation and upper mantle structure: An initial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellis, C.; Holtzman, B.

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses the sensitivity of seismic attenuation measurements to dissipative mechanisms and structure in the Earth's upper mantle. The Andrade anelastic model fits experimental attenuation data with a mild power law frequency dependence and can be scaled from laboratory to Earth conditions. We incorporate this anelastic model into 400km 1-D thermal profiles of the upper mantle. These continuous-spectrum models are approximated by multiple relaxation mechanisms that are implemented within a finite-difference scheme to perform wave propagation simulations in 1-D domains. In two sets of numerical experiments, we evaluate the measurable signature of the intrinsic attenuation structure. The two sets are defined by thermal profiles with added step functions of temperature, varying in (i) amplitude and depth or (ii) amplitude and sharpness. The corresponding synthetic data are processed using both the conventional t* approach, i.e., a linear regression of the displacement frequency spectrum, and an alternative nonlinear fit to identify the integrated value of attenuation and its frequency dependence. The measured sensitivity patterns are analyzed to assess the effects of the anelastic model and its spatial distribution on seismic data (in the absence of scattering effects). We have two straightforward results: (1) the frequency dependence power law is recoverable from the measurements; (2) t* is sensitive to both the depth and the amplitude of the step, and it is insensitive to the sharpness of the step, in the 0.25 to 2 Hz band. There is much potential for gaining information about the upper mantle thermodynamic state from careful interpretation of attenuation.

  7. Upper mantle electrical resistivity structure beneath back-arc spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seama, N.; Shibata, Y.; Kimura, M.; Shindo, H.; Matsuno, T.; Nogi, Y.; Okino, K.

    2011-12-01

    We compare four electrical resistivity structure images of the upper mantle across back-arc spreading centers (Mariana Trough at 18 N and 13 N, and the Eastern Lau at 19.7 S and 21.3 S) to provide geophysical constraints on issues of mantle dynamics beneath the back-arc spreading system related to the subducting slab. The central Mariana Trough at 18 N has the full spreading rate of 25 km/Myr, and shows characteristic slow-spreading features; existence of median valley neovolcanic zone and "Bull's eyes" mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) along the axes. On the other hand, the southern Mariana Trough at 13 N shows an EPR type axial relief in morphology and lower MBA than that in the central Mariana Trough (Kitada et al., 2006), suggesting abundance of magma supply, even though the full spreading rate is 35 km/Myr that is categorized as a slow spreading ridge. At the Eastern Lau spreading center, crustal thickness and morphology vary systematically with arc proximity and shows the opposed trends against spreading rate: The full spreading rate increases from 65 km/Myr at 21.3 S to 85 km/Myr at 19.7 S, while the crustal thicknesses decrease together with morphology transitions from shallow peaked volcanic highs to a deeper flat axis (Martinez et al., 2006). Matsuno et al. (2010) provides a resistivity structure image of the upper mantle across the central Mariana subduction system, which contains several key features: There is an uppermost resistive layer with a thickness of 80-100 km beneath the central Mariana Trough, suggesting dry residual from the plate accretion process. But there is no evidence for a conductive feature beneath the back-arc spreading center at 18 N, and this feature is clearly independent from the conductive region beneath the volcanic arc below 60 km depth that reflects melting and hydration driven by water release from the subducting slab. The resultant upper mantle resistivity structure well support that the melt supply is not abundant, resulting in

  8. Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J.-J.; Mooney, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between VS and T and of <0.47 between QS and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling arrefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the VS and QS anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, VS and QS usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high VS and QS and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in

  9. Upper-mantle seismic discontinuities and the thermal structure of subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vidale, J.E.; Benz, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    The precise depths at which seismic velocities change abruptly in the upper mantle are revealed by the analysis of data from hundreds of seismometers across the western United States. The boundary near 410 km depth is locally elevated, that near 660 km depressed. The depths of these boundaries, which mark phase transitions, provide an in situ thermometer in subduction zones: the observed temperature contrasts require at least moderate thickening of the subducting slab near 660 km depth. In addition, a reflector near 210 km depth may mark the bottom of the aesthenosphere.

  10. Improving Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination using Attenuation Models of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M; Rodgers, A J; Ford, S R; Gok, R; Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-06

    In the past year, we have made significant progress on developing and calibrating methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using high-frequency regional P/S amplitude ratios. Closely-spaced earthquakes and explosions generally discriminate easily using this method, as demonstrated by recordings of explosions from test sites around the world. In relatively simple geophysical regions such as the continental parts of the Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula (YSKP) we have successfully used a 1-D Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction methodology (1-D MDAC) to extend the regional P/S technique over large areas. However in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East, or the mixed oceanic-continental paths for the YSKP the lateral variations in amplitudes are not well predicted by 1-D corrections and 1-D MDAC P/S discrimination over broad areas can perform poorly. We have developed a new technique to map 2-D attenuation structure in the crust and upper mantle. We retain the MDAC source model and geometrical spreading formulation and use the amplitudes of the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg), to develop a simultaneous multi-phase approach to determine the P-wave and S-wave attenuation of the lithosphere. The methodology allows solving for attenuation structure in different depth layers. Here we show results for the P and S-wave attenuation in crust and upper mantle layers. When applied to the Middle East, we find variations in the attenuation quality factor Q that are consistent with the complex tectonics of the region. For example, provinces along the tectonically-active Tethys collision zone (e.g. Turkish Plateau, Zagros) have high attenuation in both the crust and upper mantle, while the stable outlying regions like the Indian Shield generally have low attenuation. In the Arabian Shield, however, we find that the low attenuation in this Precambrian crust is underlain by a high-attenuation upper mantle similar to the nearby Red

  11. Thermal and mechanical structure of the upper mantle: A comparison between continental and oceanic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, C.; Schubert, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature, velocity, and viscosity profiles for coupled thermal and mechanical models of the upper mantle beneath continental shields and old ocean basins show that under the continents, both tectonic plates and the asthenosphere, are thicker than they are beneath the oceans. The minimum value of viscosity in the continental asthenosphere is about an order of magnitude larger than in the shear zone beneath oceans. The shear stress or drag underneath continental plates is also approximately an order of magnitude larger than the drag on oceanic plates. Effects of shear heating may account for flattening of ocean floor topography and heat flux in old ocean basins.

  12. Investigating Transition Zone Thickness Variation under the Arabian Plate: Evidence Lacking for Deep Mantle Upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliá, J.; Tang, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Zahran, H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic outcrops in Arabia - locally known as harrats - span more than 2000 km along the western half of the Arabian plate, from eastern Yemen to southern Syria. The magmatism is bimodal in character, with older volcanics (30 to 20 My) being tholeiitic-to-transitional and paralleling the Red Sea margin, and younger volcanics (12 Ma to Recent) being transitional-to-strongly-alkalic and aligning in a more north-south direction. The bimodal character has been attributed to a two-stage rifting process along the Red Sea, where the old volcanics would have produced from shallow sources related to an initial passive rifting stage, and young volcanics would have originated from one or more deep-seated mantle plumes driving present active rifting. Early models suggested the harrats would have resulted from either lateral flow from the Afar plume in Ethiopia, or more locally from a separate mantle plume directly located under the shield. Most recently, tomographic images of the Arabian mantle have suggested the northern harrats could be resulting from flow originating at a deep plume under Jordan. In this work, we investigate the location of deep mantle plumes under the Arabian plate by mapping transition zone thickness with teleseismic receiver functions. The transition zone is bounded by seismic discontinuities, nominally at 410 and 660 km depth, originating from phase transitions in the olivine-normative component of the mantle. The precise depth of the discontinuities is strongly dependent on temperature and, due to the opposing signs of the corresponding Clapeyron slopes, positive temperature anomalies are expected to result in thinning of the transition zone. Our dataset consists of ~5000 low-frequency (fc < 0.25 Hz) receiver function waveforms obtained at ~110 broadband stations belonging to a number of permanent and temporary seismic networks in the region. The receiver functions were migrated to depth and stacked along a ~2000 km long record section

  13. LILE enrichment in MORB melt inclusions: is this evidence for upper-mantle autometasomatism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murton, B.; Tindle, A.; Font, L.

    2003-04-01

    After corrections for host plagioclase interaction, primitive melt inclusions from Central Indian Ridge basaltic lavas have compositions that can be accounted for by fractional crystallisation of an olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase assemblage. After corrections for fractional crystallisation, the melt inclusions are also found to be depleted in P2O5, TiO2 and FeO relative to their matrix glasses. Furthermore, P2O5 and TiO2 concentrations correlate inversely with Na2O and K2O, an effect that is incompatible with a simple partial melting process. The enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and concomitant depletion in high-field strength elements can not be easily explained by diffusion with their external magma. Instead, it is concluded that the melt inclusions were formed from melt increments derived from the depleted shallow mantle melting column during which fusion was promoted by a hydrous fluid carrying sodium and potassium. We suggest the fluid originates during early dehydration melting of the mantle column and is transported rapidly to shallower levels. The common occurrence of similar enrichment in depleted basaltic magmas, melt inclusions and upper-mantle peridotites indicates that this is a globally significant process.

  14. Attenuation tomography beneath the Rocky Mountain front: Implications for the physical state of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    Utilizing the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF) broadband seismic dataset acquired in 1992, this study has derived the seismic attenuation structure underlying part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and surrounding areas through measurements of differential t* of S-phase waveforms. Previous studies of the area include P, S and surface wave travel time tomography, and all indicate low upper mantle velocities below the Rocky Mountain region. Calculations of intrinsic attenuation coupled with current velocity models aid in the determination of temperature, partial melt distributions, and compositional variation. A N-S zone of high shear wave attenuation (Qs≃30) is found in the mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and lies east of the region of lowest shear wave velocity. Relationships between shear wave attenuation and shear wave velocity are consistent with both thermal and compositional variability. Along the eastern Colorado Rockies and due north of the Rio Grande Rift, the relationships are consistent with an interpretation of elevated temperatures by up to 50 K at 125 km depth. West of this region low velocities and low attenuation suggest either unusual composition or very high temperatures. The low density mantle material beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains in addition to increased crustal thickness and low density crustal intrusions provides a density contrast sufficient to support its overburden.

  15. Spin crossover and iron-rich silicate melt in the Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryuichi; Ozawa, Haruka; Tateno, Shigehiko; Hirose, Kei; Hernlund, John; Muto, Shunsuke; Ishii, Hirofumi; Hiraoka, Nozomu

    2011-05-12

    A melt has greater volume than a silicate solid of the same composition. But this difference diminishes at high pressure, and the possibility that a melt sufficiently enriched in the heavy element iron might then become more dense than solids at the pressures in the interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial bodies) has long been a source of considerable speculation. The occurrence of such dense silicate melts in the Earth's lowermost mantle would carry important consequences for its physical and chemical evolution and could provide a unifying model for explaining a variety of observed features in the core-mantle boundary region. Recent theoretical calculations combined with estimates of iron partitioning between (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite and melt at shallower mantle conditions suggest that melt is more dense than solids at pressures in the Earth's deepest mantle, consistent with analysis of shockwave experiments. Here we extend measurements of iron partitioning over the entire mantle pressure range, and find a precipitous change at pressures greater than ∼76 GPa, resulting in strong iron enrichment in melts. Additional X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements on (Mg(0.95)Fe(0.05))SiO(3) glass indicate a spin collapse around 70 GPa, suggesting that the observed change in iron partitioning could be explained by a spin crossover of iron (from high-spin to low-spin) in silicate melt. These results imply that (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) liquid becomes more dense than coexisting solid at ∼1,800 km depth in the lower mantle. Soon after the Earth's formation, the heat dissipated by accretion and internal differentiation could have produced a dense melt layer up to ∼1,000 km in thickness underneath the solid mantle. We also infer that (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite is on the liquidus at deep mantle conditions, and predict that fractional crystallization of dense magma would have evolved towards an iron-rich and silicon-poor composition, consistent with seismic inferences of

  16. Spin crossover and iron-rich silicate melt in the Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryuichi; Ozawa, Haruka; Tateno, Shigehiko; Hirose, Kei; Hernlund, John; Muto, Shunsuke; Ishii, Hirofumi; Hiraoka, Nozomu

    2011-05-12

    A melt has greater volume than a silicate solid of the same composition. But this difference diminishes at high pressure, and the possibility that a melt sufficiently enriched in the heavy element iron might then become more dense than solids at the pressures in the interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial bodies) has long been a source of considerable speculation. The occurrence of such dense silicate melts in the Earth's lowermost mantle would carry important consequences for its physical and chemical evolution and could provide a unifying model for explaining a variety of observed features in the core-mantle boundary region. Recent theoretical calculations combined with estimates of iron partitioning between (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite and melt at shallower mantle conditions suggest that melt is more dense than solids at pressures in the Earth's deepest mantle, consistent with analysis of shockwave experiments. Here we extend measurements of iron partitioning over the entire mantle pressure range, and find a precipitous change at pressures greater than ∼76 GPa, resulting in strong iron enrichment in melts. Additional X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements on (Mg(0.95)Fe(0.05))SiO(3) glass indicate a spin collapse around 70 GPa, suggesting that the observed change in iron partitioning could be explained by a spin crossover of iron (from high-spin to low-spin) in silicate melt. These results imply that (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) liquid becomes more dense than coexisting solid at ∼1,800 km depth in the lower mantle. Soon after the Earth's formation, the heat dissipated by accretion and internal differentiation could have produced a dense melt layer up to ∼1,000 km in thickness underneath the solid mantle. We also infer that (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite is on the liquidus at deep mantle conditions, and predict that fractional crystallization of dense magma would have evolved towards an iron-rich and silicon-poor composition, consistent with seismic inferences of

  17. Upper and lower mantle anisotropy inferred from comprehensive SKS and SKKS splitting measurements from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sunil K.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Srinagesh, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the upper mantle anisotropy beneath India using high quality SKS and SKKS waveforms from 382 teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 119 broadband seismic stations. In addition, we present evidence for anisotropy in the D″ layer beneath southeast Asia using SKS and SKKS splitting discrepancies on the same seismogram. During this exercise, we obtain 200 new splitting measurements from 35 stations recently deployed in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), central India and northeast India. While the delay times between the fast and slow axes of anisotropy (δt) range from 0.3 to 1.7 s, the fast polarization azimuths (Φ) at a majority of stations in the IGP and central India coincide with the absolute plate motion of India implying shear at the base of the lithosphere as the dominant mechanism for forging anisotropy. However, stations in NE India reveal fast polarization azimuths mainly in the ENE-WSW direction suggestive of lithospheric strain induced by the ongoing Indo-Eurasian collision. Our analysis for D″ anisotropy yielded a total of 100 SKS-SKKS pairs, which can be categorized into those exhibiting (I) null measurements for one phase and significant splitting for the other phase, (II) null measurement for both the phases, (III) significant splitting for both the phases. A pair is considered to be anomalous if the splitting difference between SKS and SKKS is ⩾0.5 s and the individual split time is ⩾0.5 s. Using this criterion, we obtain 12 measurements under category III and 9 under category I that show a null measurement for SKS and large splitting for the SKKS phase. Further, we quantify the strength of the lower mantle anisotropy by correcting the SKKS measurement for the upper mantle anisotropy obtained by the SKS phase on the same seismogram. The SKS delay times are found to be consistently less than SKKS times, suggesting that the SKS phases do not capture the lower mantle anisotropy in comparison to their SKKS counterparts

  18. Toward global waveform tomography with the SEM: Improving upper-mantle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, S. W.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past three decades, advances in theory and improved quality and coverage of global seismic data have lead to progressively higher-resolution global images of earth structure. While long-wavelength velocity structure correlates well across recent global models, notable differences remain - particularly in the amplitudes and gradients of velocity anomalies, crucial to characterizing the respective roles of temperature and composition in mantle dynamics. Establishing better constraints on these features represents a critical open problem, toward which advanced full-waveform modeling using finite-frequency approaches may be applied. Over the last 20 years, we have developed a full-waveform inversion methodology based on asymptotic normal mode coupling theory (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) and applied it to global elastic and anelastic tomography (e.g. Mégnin and Romanowicz, 2000; Gung and Romanowicz, 2004). The approximate synthetic waveforms thus computed can now easily be replaced by more accurate numerical synthetics, albeit at a considerably higher computational cost. As a first step toward this goal, the SEMum upper-mantle VS model of Lekic and Romanowicz (2011) was developed using the spectral element method (SEM: Komatitsch and Vilotte, 1998) to invert fundamental and higher mode surface waves (T ≥ 60s) of over 200 well-distributed global events. A coupled-SEM scheme was used to speed computation (cSEM: Capdeville, et al. 2003), combining SEM in the mantle with an efficient modal solution in a 1D core. The crust was implemented as a radially-anisotropic equivalent smooth model (e.g. Backus, 1962), adjusted to fit a global surface-wave dispersion dataset (Shapiro and Ritzwoller, 2002). A uniform 60km crustal thickness allowed us to take large time steps, further speeding computation. The lower mantle was fixed to 3D model SAW24B16 (Mégnin and Romanowicz, 2000). SEMum exhibits stronger VS anomalies in the uppermost 200km, while also attaining good

  19. The longevity of Archean mantle residues in the convecting upper mantle and their role in young continent formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingao; Scott, James M.; Martin, Candace E.; Pearson, D. Graham

    2015-08-01

    The role played by ancient melt-depleted lithospheric mantle in preserving continental crust through time is critical in understanding how continents are built, disrupted and recycled. While it has become clear that much of the extant Archean crust is underpinned by Archean mantle roots, reports of Proterozoic melt depletion ages for peridotites erupted through Phanerozoic terranes raise the possibility that ancient buoyant lithospheric mantle acts as a "life-raft" for much of the Earth's continental crust. Here we report the largest crust-lithospheric mantle age decoupling (∼2.4 Ga) so far observed on Earth and examine the potential cause for such extreme age decoupling. The Phanerozoic (<300 Ma) continental crust of West Otago, New Zealand, is intruded by Cenozoic diatremes that have erupted cratonic mantle-like highly depleted harzburgites and dunites. These peridotites have rhenium depletion Os model ages that vary from 0.5 to 2.7 Ga, firmly establishing the record of an Archean depletion event. However, the vast range in depletion ages does not correlate with melt depletion or metasomatic tracer indices, providing little support for the presence of a significant volume of ancient mantle root beneath this region. Instead, the chemical and isotopic data are best explained by mixing of relict components of Archean depleted peridotitic mantle residues that have cycled through the asthenosphere over Ga timescales along with more fertile convecting mantle. Extensive melt depletion associated with the "docking" of these melt residues beneath the young continental crust of the Zealandia continent explains the decoupled age relationship that we observe today. Hence, the newly formed lithospheric root incorporates a mixture of ancient and modern mantle derived from the convecting mantle, cooled and accreted in recent times. We argue that in this case, the ancient components played no earlier role in continent stabilization, but their highly depleted nature along with

  20. Upper Mantle Origin of the Newberry Hotspot Track: Evidence From Shear-Wave Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, M.; Allen, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    In the northwestern United States there are two hotspot tracks: the Newberry track and the Yellowstone track. Both are located on the North American Plate with the Yellowstone track parallel to plate motion and the Newberry track oblique to it. While a mantle plume is probably the most popular cause of the Yellowstone track, the Newberry track cannot be the product of plate motion over a stationary mantle source. Instead proposed causal mechanisms include upper mantle process where melt buoyancy driven convection is directed west-northwest by subduction-driven corner flow or alternatively a westward-spreading plume head. In this SKS splitting study, we collected data from the OATS (Oregon Array for Teleseismic Study) array, a deployment of the University of Wisconsin Broadband Network (UWBN) along the Newberry track from NW to SE Oregon, which was installed in May 2003 and will operate until September 2005. Measurements were made for 23 events at 12 OATS stations using Wolfe and Silver (1998)¡_s multi-event stacking procedure. A gradual rotation of fast polarization direction is observed from NE-SW at the northwest end of the array to E-W to the southeast. Most stations also exhibit null results when the event back azimuth was parallel or perpendicular to the fast direction determined from other events, strongly indicating a single layer of anisotropy. The first order observation is that the SKS splits are not aligned with the Newberry hotspot track indicating that either the splits are not sensitive to mantle flow oriented along the track or the track is not the product of asthenospheric flow. We prefer the second explanation as our null splitting observations strongly argue for one layer of anisotropy. If our continuing analysis confirms this conclusion, then the alignment of the Yellowstone track with plate motion and anisotropy may be coincidental rather than representative of the causal mechanism.

  1. Electrical conductivity of partially-molten olivine aggregate and melt interconnectivity in the oceanic upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Frost, Dan; Farla, Robert; Katsura, Tomoo; Marquardt, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    A consistent explanation for mantle geophysical anomalies such as the Lithosphere-Astenosphere Boundary (LAB) relies on the existence of little amount of melt trapped in the solid peridotite. Mathematical models have been used to assess the melt fraction possibly lying at mantle depths, but they have not been experimentally checked at low melt fraction (< 2 vol. %). To fill this gap, we performed in situ electrical conductivity (EC) measurement on a partially-molten olivine aggregate (Fo92-olivine from a natural peridotite of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain) containing various amount of basaltic (MORB-like composition) melt (0 to 100%) at upper mantle conditions. We used the MAVO 6-ram press (BGI) combined with a Solartron gain phase analyser to acquire the electrical resistance of the sample at pressure of 1.5 GPa and temperature up to 1400°C. The results show the increase of the electrical conductivity with the temperature following an Arrhenius law, and with the melt fraction, but the effect of pressure between 1.5 and 3.0 GPa was found negligible at a melt fraction of 0.5 vol.%. The conductivity of a partially molten aggregate fits the modified Archie's law from 0.5 to 100 vol.%. At melt fractions of 0.25, 0.15 and 0.0 vol.%, the EC value deviates from the trend previously defined, suggesting that the melt is no longer fully interconnected through the sample, also supported by chemical mapping. Our results extend the previous results obtained on mixed system between 1 and 10% of melt. Since the melt appears fully interconnected down to very low melt fraction (0.5 vol.%), we conclude that (i) only 0.5 to 1 vol.% of melt is enough to explain the LAB EC anomaly, lower than previously determined; and (ii) deformation is not mandatory to enhance electrical conductivity of melt-bearing mantle rocks.

  2. The development of slabs in the upper mantle: Insights from numerical and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Faccenna, Caludio; O'Connell, Richard J.; Giardini, Domenico

    1999-07-01

    We have performed numerical and laboratory experiments to model subduction of oceanic lithosphere in the upper mantle from its beginnings as a gravitational instability to the fully developed slab. A two-dimensional finite element code is applied to model Newtonian creep in the numerical experiments. Scaled analog media are used in the laboratory, a sand mixture models the brittle crust, silicone putty simulates creep in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere, and glucose syrup is the asthenosphere analog. Both model approaches show similar results and reproduce first-order observations of the subduction process in nature based on density and viscosity heterogeneities in a Stokes flow model. Subduction nucleates slowly and a pronounced slab forms only when the viscosity contrast between oceanic plate and mantle is below a threshold. We find that the subduction velocity and angle are time-dependent and increase roughly exponentially over tens of millions of years before the slab reaches the 670-km discontinuity. The style of subduction is controlled by the prescribed velocity of convergence, the density contrast between the plates, and the viscosity contrast between the oceanic plate and the mantle. These factors can be combined in the buoyancy number F which expresses the ratio between driving slab pull and resisting viscous dissipation in the oceanic plate. Variations in F control the stress in the plates, the speed and the dip of subduction, and the rate of trench retreat, reproducing the contrasting styles of subduction observed in nature. The subduction rate is strongly influenced by the work of bending the lithosphere as it subducts.

  3. The Yellowstone magmatic system from the mantle plume to the upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. H.; Lin, F. C.; Schmandt, B.; Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Tsai, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Yellowstone supervolcano is one of the largest active continental silicic volcanic fields in the world. An understanding of its properties is key to enhancing our knowledge of volcanic mechanisms and corresponding risk. Using a joint local and teleseismic earthquake P-wave seismic inversion, we unveil a basaltic lower-crustal magma body that provides a magmatic link between the Yellowstone mantle plume and the previously imaged upper-crustal magma reservoir. This lower-crustal magma body has a volume of 46,000 km3, ~4.5 times larger than the upper-crustal magma reservoir, and contains a melt fraction of ~2%. These estimates are critical to understanding the evolution of bimodal basaltic-rhyolitic volcanism, explaining the magnitude of CO2 discharge, and constraining dynamic models of the magmatic system for volcanic hazard assessment.

  4. Volcanology. The Yellowstone magmatic system from the mantle plume to the upper crust.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Hua; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schmandt, Brandon; Farrell, Jamie; Smith, Robert B; Tsai, Victor C

    2015-05-15

    The Yellowstone supervolcano is one of the largest active continental silicic volcanic fields in the world. An understanding of its properties is key to enhancing our knowledge of volcanic mechanisms and corresponding risk. Using a joint local and teleseismic earthquake P-wave seismic inversion, we revealed a basaltic lower-crustal magma body that provides a magmatic link between the Yellowstone mantle plume and the previously imaged upper-crustal magma reservoir. This lower-crustal magma body has a volume of 46,000 cubic kilometers, ~4.5 times that of the upper-crustal magma reservoir, and contains a melt fraction of ~2%. These estimates are critical to understanding the evolution of bimodal basaltic-rhyolitic volcanism, explaining the magnitude of CO2 discharge, and constraining dynamic models of the magmatic system for volcanic hazard assessment.

  5. The Yellowstone magmatic system from the mantle plume to the upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsin-Hua; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schmandt, Brandon; Farrell, Jamie; Smith, Robert B.; Tsai, Victor C.

    2015-05-01

    The Yellowstone supervolcano is one of the largest active continental silicic volcanic fields in the world. An understanding of its properties is key to enhancing our knowledge of volcanic mechanisms and corresponding risk. Using a joint local and teleseismic earthquake P-wave seismic inversion, we revealed a basaltic lower-crustal magma body that provides a magmatic link between the Yellowstone mantle plume and the previously imaged upper-crustal magma reservoir. This lower-crustal magma body has a volume of 46,000 cubic kilometers, ~4.5 times that of the upper-crustal magma reservoir, and contains a melt fraction of ~2%. These estimates are critical to understanding the evolution of bimodal basaltic-rhyolitic volcanism, explaining the magnitude of CO2 discharge, and constraining dynamic models of the magmatic system for volcanic hazard assessment.

  6. The p-wave upper mantle structure beneath an active spreading centre - The Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walck, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Over 1400 seismograms of earthquakes in Mexico are analyzed and data sets for the travel time, apparent phase velocity, and relative amplitude information are utilized to produce a tightly constrained, detailed model for depths to 900 km beneath an active oceanic ridge region, the Gulf of California. The data are combined by first inverting the travel times, perturbing that model to fit the p-delta data, and then performing trial and error synthetic seismogram modelling to fit the short-period waveforms. The final model satisfies all three data sets. The ridge model is similar to existing upper mantle models for shield, tectonic-continental, and arc-trench regimes below 400 km, but differs significantly in the upper 350 km. Ridge model velocities are very low in this depth range; the model 'catches up' with the others with a very large velocity gradient from 225 to 390 km.

  7. Volcanology. The Yellowstone magmatic system from the mantle plume to the upper crust.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Hua; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schmandt, Brandon; Farrell, Jamie; Smith, Robert B; Tsai, Victor C

    2015-05-15

    The Yellowstone supervolcano is one of the largest active continental silicic volcanic fields in the world. An understanding of its properties is key to enhancing our knowledge of volcanic mechanisms and corresponding risk. Using a joint local and teleseismic earthquake P-wave seismic inversion, we revealed a basaltic lower-crustal magma body that provides a magmatic link between the Yellowstone mantle plume and the previously imaged upper-crustal magma reservoir. This lower-crustal magma body has a volume of 46,000 cubic kilometers, ~4.5 times that of the upper-crustal magma reservoir, and contains a melt fraction of ~2%. These estimates are critical to understanding the evolution of bimodal basaltic-rhyolitic volcanism, explaining the magnitude of CO2 discharge, and constraining dynamic models of the magmatic system for volcanic hazard assessment. PMID:25908659

  8. I. Rupture properties of large subduction earthquakes. II. Broadband upper mantle structure of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, Timothy Ian

    This thesis contains two studies, one of which employs geodetic data bearing on large subduction earthquakes to infer complexity of rupture duration, and the other is a high frequency seismological study of the upper mantle discontinuity structure under western North America and the East Pacific Rise. In the first part, we present Global Positioning System and tide gauge data which record the co-seismic deformation which accompanied the 1995 Mw8.0 Jalisco event offshore central Mexico, the 1994 Mw7.5 Sanriku event offshore Northern Honshu, Japan, and the 1995 Mw8.1 Antofagasta earthquake offshore Northern Chile. In two of the three cases we find that the mainshocks were followed by significant amounts of rapid, post-seismic deformation which is best and most easily explained by continued slip near the co-seismic rupture patch. This is the first documented case of rapid slip migration following a large earthquake, and is pertinent to earthquake prediction based on precursory deformation. As the three GPS data sets represent the best observations of large subduction earthquakes to date and two of them show significant amounts of aseismic energy release, they strongly suggest silent faulting may be common in certain types of subduction zones. This, in turn, bears on estimates of global moment release, seismic coupling, and our understanding of the natural hazards associated with convergent margins. The second part of this dissertation utilizes high frequency body waves to infer the upper mantle structure of western North America and the East Pacific Rise. An uncharacteristically large Mw5.9 earthquake located in Western Texas provided a vivid topside reflection off the 410 Km velocity discontinuity ("410"), which we model to infer the fine details of this structure. We find that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the 410 is not sharp, and our results help reconcile seismic observations of 410 structure with laboratory predictions. By analyzing differences between our

  9. Splitting intensity measurements of North America and finite-frequency modeling of upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongsresawat, Sutatcha

    The central theme of this dissertation is to investigate the interaction between the overlying lithospheric plates and the hotter and more deformable asthenosphere to examine how they are coupled. The answer will have very significant implications because the coupled lithosphere-asthenosphere setting predicts shear beneath the lithosphere which drives large-scale mantle convection, a widely-accepted schematic for modern mantle convection research. In our research, the primary tool to examine this coupled interaction is anisotropy in the upper mantle observed via shear wave splitting. The first research component involves measuring splitting intensity (SI) of the core-refracted shear waves (SKS) observed at 1,436 USArray Transportable Array (USArray-TA) seismic stations which cover most of the contiguous U.S. By fitting a sinusoidal to the back-azimuthal dependence of splitting intensity, traditional splitting parameters, the polarization angle between the radial direction and the fast axis, φ, and the delay time between the fast and slow polarizations, deltat, are obtained and used in comparison with absolute plate motion (APM), geological basement provinces, magnetic, gravity anomalies and lithospheric thickness to reveal the interactions between asthenospheric flow and lithospheric anisotropic structures of several geological regions of North America. Preliminary results shows that the Rocky Mountain front has a complicated flow due to transition with thickness along APM flow, the Gulf Coast has a strong APM asthenospheric signature in region of thin lithosphere and the northern Central U.S. has complicated interactions between asthenosphere and lithosphere. We observe a notable contrast between the Superior Province vs. Trans-Hudson where lithospheric texture alignment plays an important role in adding vs. subtracting the splitting signals. The next component of our research focuses on the Idaho-Oregon (IDOR) region. This region is an assemblage of several

  10. Seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath the southern Kenya Rift from wide-angle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, G. F.; Jacob, A. W. B.; Mechie, J.; Dindi, E.

    1997-09-01

    In February 1994, the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project carried out two wide-angle reflection and refraction seismic profiles between Lake Victoria and Mombasa across southern Kenya. Our investigation of the data has revealed evidence for the presence of two upper mantle reflectors beneath southwestern Kenya, sometimes at short range, from seven shotpoints. Two-dimensional forward modelling of these reflectors using a pre-existing two-dimensional velocity-depth model for the crust [Birt, C.S., Maguire, P.H.K., Khan, M.A., Thybo, H., Keller, G.R., Patel, J., 1997. The influence of pre-existing structures on the evolution of the Southern Kenya Rift Valley — evidence from seismic and gravity studies. Tectonophysics 278, 211-242], has shown them to lie at depths of approximately 51 and 63 km. The upper reflector, denoted d 1, shallows by about 5-10 km in the area beneath Lake Magadi, situated in the rift itself. Correlations for the deeper reflector, denoted d 2, are sparse and more difficult to determine, so it was not possible to define any shallowing corresponding to the surface expression of the rift. Only limited control exists over the upper mantle velocities used in the modelling. Immediately beneath the Moho we use a value of P n calculated from the crustal model, and constraints from previous refraction, teleseismic and gravity studies, to determine the velocity at depth. At the d 1 reflector a reasonable velocity contrast was introduced to produce a reflector for modelling purposes. Beneath the d 1 reflector the velocity decreases to the average value over 3 km. Beneath the rift the velocity also rises across d 1 and again, decreases to the average value over the next 3 km. At the d 2 reflector a similar model is used. This model accounts for the presence of the mantle reflectors seen in the data by using layers of thin higher velocity in a lower background velocity. Due to the uncertainty in the velocities the absolute position of both d 1 and d 2

  11. Global distribution of azimuthal anisotropy within the upper mantle and the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    We present our new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle and the crust. We compare two versions of this new model, the rough SL2013svAr and smooth SL2013svA, which are constrained by a larger, updated waveform fit dataset (>900, 000 vertical component seismogram fits) than that used in the construction of the isotropic model SL2013sv (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013). These two anisotropy models are computed using a more precise regularization of anisotropy, which is tuned to honour the both the amplitude and orientation of the anisotropic terms uniformly, including near the poles. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with complementary high-resolution regional arrays in additional to global networks, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. The model also reveals smaller scale patterns of 3D anisotropy variations related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, in particular in densely sampled regions. In oceanic regions, we examine the strength of azimuthal anisotropy, as a function of depth, spatial position with respect to the spreading ridge, and deviation in fast axis orientation from the current and fossil spreading directions. In continental regions, azimuthal anisotropy is more complex. Reconciling complementary observations given by shear wave splitting, surface-wave array analysis, and large-scale, global 3D models offers new insights into the mechanisms of continental deformation and the architecture and evolution of the lithosphere. Finally, quantitative comparisons with other recently published models demonstrate which features are consistently resolved across the different models, and therefore provide a means to estimate the robustness of anisotropic patterns and amplitudes. Reference: Schaeffer, A. J

  12. IRIS and the S-velocity structure of the North American upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lee, S.; Frederiksen, A. W.

    2004-12-01

    Owing to its US-based origin and resulting seismogram holdings the Data Management Center (DMC) of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) has greatly facilitated waveform tomographic studies worldwide, and for North America in particular. We report on one such undertaking, in which nearly one and a half thousand seismograms from the IRIS DMC and the Canadian National Seismic Network have been interactively analyzed and used in a Partitioned Waveform Inversion for a tomographic model for the three-dimensional S-velocity structure of the North American upper mantle. A predecessor (NA95) of this new model is consistent with global tomographic models and revealed additional detail such as an upper-mantle component of subducted Farallon lithosphere, an enigmatic structure for the Wyoming lithosphere, and a V-shaped dent in the new England cratonic lithosphere. These details in turn helped spark additional IRIS activity in the form of further analyses of the data holdings of the DMC and PASSCAL experiments addressing these details. The new model provides relatively high-resolution images of the high-velocity rigid root beneath the Canadian shield and central US, which extends to depths of 200-300 km, the low velocities beneath the tectonically active Cordillera and the continent west of it, which also reach depths of 200-300 km, and details herein such as those mentioned above. Below these structures, high-velocity features in the transition zone are not as steep as but in line with the dipping high-velocity Farallon slab imaged in the lower mantle with tomographic methods that include teleseismic body waves. Increased accuracy in the new model, relative to its predecessors, is largely a result of extending the data base that constrains it. We checked the effects of using sensitivity kernels that cover elliptical areas around the great circles and found that they do not lead to better a posteriori data fits.

  13. Microstructure of Finero phlogopite peridotite, indicating deformation history during exhuming from the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, N.; Ando, J. I.; Yamamoto, T.; Kaushik, D.

    2014-12-01

    Finero phlogopite peridotite is considered to be emplaced into the lower continental crust with shear deformation due to plate divergence in Paleozoic time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it was metasomatized in the mantle wedge during the emplacement. We studied the detail of deformation history of the Finero phlogopite peridotite during the exhumation from the upper mantle through microstructural observation mainly with optical and electron microscopy, namely SEM/EBSD and TEM. The summary of our microstructural observation is described as follows. The peridotite was originally deformed by dislocation creep with [100](010) olivine slip system, which is a general one for the upper mantle. The porphyroclastic texture was formed during this process. Subsequently, while deformation by dislocation creep was still proceeding, the active slip system of olivine changed to [100]{0kl}, which is known as a dominant system at higher stress condition. The change of slip system was probably caused by temperature reduction during ascent of the peridotite. Then, the fluid infiltration triggered the brittle deformation of the peridotite. The complex undulatory extinction observed in olivine grains due to high dislocation tangling should be created during this process under extremely high stress condition. The recrystallization of these olivine grains is characteristic. The driving force of the recrystallization might be the elastic strain energy introduced by high dislocation tangling. These recrystallized olivine grains make LPO with [100](001), which is a dominant system under wet condition. These facts suggest that the brittle deformation of the peridotite caused by the fluid infiltration occurred at plastic regime.

  14. The Upper Mantle Under the South Pacific Super-Swell from Multimode Surface Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Debayle, E.; Priestley, K.; Barruol, G.; Fontaine, F.; Reymond, D.

    2003-12-01

    The South Pacific contains a swarm of volcanic island chains superimposed on a broad bathymetric high known as the South Pacific Superswell. The islands and swell are thought to be the surface manifestation of a ``superplume'' beneath the the region. We present a Sv-wave speed tomographic model for the South Pacific derived from multi-mode waveform inversion of more than 17,000 vertical component seismograms. Most of the data are from the Global Digital Seismic Network but we include important data from ten broadband seismographs deployed in French Polynesia as part of the PLUME experiment (Polynesia Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Experiment). We use preferentially short propagation paths (Δ < 54o) to minimize off great circle path propagation, but increase the path length in areas of insufficient coverage. We resolve the subduction zones bounding the South Pacific to the east and west with a width compatible with the smoothing used in the tomographic inversion. The slow wave speed structure associated with the East Pacific Rise is offset to the west as has previously been noted in more detailed local studies. There seems to be no pervasive low wave speed feature in the upper mantle beneath the South Pacific. However, low wave speed structures extend from shallow depth to the transition zone beneath the Society hotspot, the Austral hotspot and Easter Island. The presence of similar structures beneath other Pacific hotspots is currently masked by lack of resolution.

  15. An Evolutionary S-wave Model of the Earth Upper Mantle and Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debayle, E.; Dubuffet, F.; Durand, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present 3D2015_03Sv, an evolutionary S-wave model of the upper mantle. At the time of submitting this abstract, the model is based on the waveform modeling of most Rayleigh waves recorded between 1976 and March 2015, and includes 1,330,210 fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waveforms analyzed at periods between 40 and 400 s. The use of approximate forward theory and modeling allows updating the model with new data on a regular basis, a few days after the publication of the monthly centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog issued at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. 3D2015_03Sv contains azimuthal anisotropy and achieves a lateral resolution of ~600 km in the upper mantle. Comparison with other seismic models shows that in the uppermost 200 km, the use of massive datasets with large redundancies allows to average errors, so that it is possible to build models that are consistent up to degree 60. In the transition zone, the number of data decreases and the effect of modeling choices is important. The most recent seismic models agree up to degree 15, which represents an improvement compared to the previous generation of models.

  16. A review on the analysis of the crustal and upper mantle structure using receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiafu; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guangquan; Peng, Hengchu

    2015-11-01

    The discontinuities in the earth such as Moho, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), 410 and 660 km discontinuities, are characterized with an abrupt jump in velocities of P and S waves. The depths of these discontinuities are an important parameter to investigate tectonic evolution in the lithosphere. Receiver functions technique with teleseismic events is very suitable for studying the crust and upper mantle structure beneath stations, thus becoming one of the standard tools for such study. The principle of receiver functions is to separate the converted Ps or Sp phases generated at the discontinuities beneath stations in the case that the direct P or S is a delta function. In this paper, the methods of receiver function analysis are collected from literatures. We introduce the coordinate transform technique for the separation of Ps or Sp waves, the deconvolution algorithm to extract P and S receiver functions, the waveform fitting method to invert for S-wave velocity structure, the stacking technique to improve signals, and the migration from time series to depth domain. With some illustrative examples, the care that should be taken in study of the crustal and upper mantle structure using receiver functions are summarized.

  17. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. The electrical conductivity of the upper mantle as estimated from satellite magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didwall, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of the upper mantle is estimated from low-latitude magnetic field variations caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current. The data base is derived from magnetic field magnitude data measured by satellites OGO 2, 4, and 6, which offer better global coverage than land-based observatories. The procedures of analysis consist of: (1) separation of the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the earth, (2) estimation of an electromagnetic response function Q(omega) which relates the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current, and (3) interpretation of the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for assumed conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible oceanic and ionospheric effects. Best estimates of the geomagnetic response function Q(omega) for 0.2 to 2.0 cpd indicate an upper mantle conductivity of the order of 0.01 S/m.

  19. Re-Os isotopic evidence for long-lived heterogeneity and equilibration processes in the Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Anders; Sleep, Norman H; Chamberlain, C Page; Coleman, Robert G; Frei, Robert; Hren, Michael T; Wooden, Joseph L

    2002-10-17

    The geochemical composition of the Earth's upper mantle is thought to reflect 4.5 billion years of melt extraction, as well as the recycling of crustal materials. The fractionation of rhenium and osmium during partial melting in the upper mantle makes the Re-Os isotopic system well suited for tracing the extraction of melt and recycling of the resulting mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Here we report osmium isotope compositions of more than 700 osmium-rich platinum-group element alloys derived from the upper mantle. The osmium isotopic data form a wide, essentially gaussian distribution, demonstrating that, with respect to Re-Os isotope systematics, the upper mantle is extremely heterogeneous. As depleted and enriched domains can apparently remain unequilibrated on a timescale of billions of years, effective equilibration seems to require high degrees of partial melting, such as occur under mid-ocean ridges or in back-arc settings, where percolating melts enhance the mobility of both osmium and rhenium. We infer that the gaussian shape of the osmium isotope distribution is the signature of a random mixing process between depleted and enriched domains, resulting from a 'plum pudding' distribution in the upper mantle, rather than from individual melt depletion events.

  20. Shear wave splitting hints at dynamical features of mantle convection: a global study of homogeneously processed source and receiver side upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Masters, G.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The asthenosphere is embroiled in the process of mantle convection. Its viscous properties allow it to flow around sinking slabs and deep cratonic roots as it is displaced by intruding material and dragged around by the moving layer above. As the asthenosphere flows it develops a crystalline fabric with anisotropic crystals preferentially aligned in the direction of flow. Meanwhile, the lithosphere above deforms as it is squeezed and stretched by underlying tectonic processes, enabling anisotropic fabrics to develop and become fossilised in the rigid rock and to persist over vast spans of geological time. As a shear wave passes through an anisotropic medium it splits into two orthogonally polarised quasi shear waves that propagate at different velocities (this phenomenon is known as shear wave splitting). By analysing the polarisation and the delay time of many split waves that have passed through a region it is possible to constrain the anisotropy of the medium in that region. This anisotropy is the key to revealing the deformation history of the deep Earth. In this study we present measurements of shear wave splitting recorded on S, SKS, and SKKS waves from earthquakes recorded at stations from the IRIS DMC catalogue (1976-2010). We have used a cluster analysis phase picking technique [1] to pick hundreds of thousands of high signal to noise waveforms on long period data. These picks are used to feed the broadband data into an automated processing workflow that recovers shear wave splitting parameters [2,3]. The workflow includes a new method for making source and receiver corrections, whereby the stacked error surfaces are used as input to correction rather than a single set of parameters, this propagates uncertainty information into the final measurement. Using SKS, SKKS, and source corrected S, we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 1,569 stations. Using receiver corrected S we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 470 events. We compare

  1. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Webb, Susan J.; Bull, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core–mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth’s surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core–mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth’s axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth’s mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic. PMID:24889632

  2. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D; Trønnes, Reidar G; Webb, Susan J; Bull, Abigail L

    2014-06-17

    Earth's residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core-mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth's surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth's axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth's mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic.

  3. Deep-seated xenoliths and xenocrysts from Sytykanskaya pipe: evidence for the evolution of the mantle beneath Alakit, Yakutia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Vladykin, Nikolai; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Logvinova, Alla; Yudin, Denis; Karpenko, Mikhail; Palessky, Stanislav; Khmelnikova, Olga; Travin, Alexey; Salikhov, Ravil

    2014-05-01

    The concentrate from two phases of the kimberlite (breccia and porphyritic kimberlite) and about 130 xenoliths from the Sytykanskaya pipe of the Alakit field (Yakutia) were studied by EPMA and LAM ICP methods. Reconstructions of the PTXfO2 mantle sections were made separately for the two phases. The porphyritic kimberlites and breccia show differences in the minerals although the layering and pressure interval remains the same. For the porphyritic kimberlite the trends P- Fe# - CaO in garnet, fO2 are sub-vertical while the xenocrysts from the breccia show stepped and curved trends possibly due to interaction with fluids. Minerals within xenoliths show the widest variation in all pressure intervals. PT points for the ilmenites which trace the magmatic system show splitting of the magmatic source into two levels at the pyroxenite lens (4GPa) accompanied by peridotite contamination and an increase in Cr in ilmenites. Two groups of metasomatites with Fe#Ol ~ 10-12% and 13-15% were created by the melts derived from protokimberlites and trace the mantle columns from the lithosphere base (Ilm - Gar - Cr diopside) to Moho becoming essentially pyroxenitic (Cr-diopside with Phl). The first Opx-Gar-based mantle geotherm from the Alakit field has been constructed from15 associations and is close to 35 mw/m2 in the lower part of mantle section but deviates to high temperatures in the upper part of the mantle section. The oxidation state for the protokimberlite melts determined from ilmenites is higher than for the other pipes in the Yakutian kimberlite province which probably accounts for the decrease in the diamond grade of this pipe. The geochemistry of the minerals (garnets and clinopyroxenes) from breccias, metasomatic peridotite xenoliths and pyroxenites systematically differ. Xenocrysts from the breccia were produced by the most differentiated melts and enriched protokimberlite or carbonatite; they show highly inclined nearly linear REE patterns and deep troughs of HFSE

  4. Inversion of gravity and bathymetry in oceanic regions for long-wavelength variations in upper mantle temperature and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-wavelength variations in geoid height, bathymetry, and SS-S travel times are all relatable to lateral variations in the characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the upper mantle. The temperature and composition are in turn relatable to mantle convection and the degree of melt extraction from the upper mantle residuum. Thus the combined inversion of the geoid or gravity field, residual bathymetry, and seismic velocity information offers the promise of resolving fundamental aspects of the pattern of mantle dynamics. The use of differential body wave travel times as a measure of seismic velocity information, in particular, permits resolution of lateral variations at scales not resolvable by conventional global or regional-scale seismic tomography with long-period surface waves. These intermediate scale lengths, well resolved in global gravity field models, are crucial for understanding the details of any chemical or physical layering in the mantle and of the characteristics of so-called 'small-scale' convection beneath oceanic lithosphere. In 1991 a three-year project to the NASA Geophysics Program was proposed to carry out a systematic inversion of long-wavelength geoid anomalies, residual bathymetric anomalies, and differential SS-S travel time delays for the lateral variation in characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the oceanic upper mantle. The project was funded as a three-year award, beginning on 1 Jan. 1992.

  5. Geology of the Crust and Mantle, Western United States: Geophysical data reveal a thin crust and anomalous upper mantle characteristic of active regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Talwani, M

    1964-12-18

    Seismic refraction, gravity, phase velocity, and magnetic data, coupled with the geologic record, are all approximately satisfied by the structure shown in Fig. 9. A 20-kilometer crust under the Coast Ranges and Great Valley thickens to more than 30 kilometers under the Sierra Nevada and parts of the Basin and Range province; this whole area is underlain by an anomalous upper mantle with a velocity and density about 3 percent less than normal. It is not likely that the anomalous mantle extends much deeper than 50 kilometers, and the lower boundary may be gradational. The thicker crust or "root" under the Sierran highland region (Sierra Nevada and western Basin Ranges) is not limited to the Sierra Nevada proper. The root and the voluminous plustonic rocks originated in the Mesozoic era, and they constitute the now consolidated core of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. But it must not be supposed that the root has persisted unchanged. The great mountain-building uplifts in the Cenozoic era must have been accompanied by large changes in the root and adjacent mantle. A zone of positive gravity and magnetic anomalies extending the length of the Great Valley is associated with mafic rocks of the western Sierra greenstone belt, an element of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. Belts of maficto-intermediate lavas, accompanied by mafic and ultramafic intrusions, are marked by similar anomalies in other ancient geosynclines. An anomalous upper mantle of plagioclase peridotite, an expanded phase of the normal mantle, could explain about 1 kilometer of the uplift that took place over much of the region in Cenozoic time. To explain all of the Cenozoic uplift in the Sierra Nevada and Basin Ranges by this means would require the hypothesis of a separation of the anomalous mantle into crust and normal mantle fractions, followed by a renewal of the anomalous mantle through the action of regional convection currents or local overturning in the upper mantle. The low-velocity zones for

  6. Geology of the Crust and Mantle, Western United States: Geophysical data reveal a thin crust and anomalous upper mantle characteristic of active regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Talwani, M

    1964-12-18

    Seismic refraction, gravity, phase velocity, and magnetic data, coupled with the geologic record, are all approximately satisfied by the structure shown in Fig. 9. A 20-kilometer crust under the Coast Ranges and Great Valley thickens to more than 30 kilometers under the Sierra Nevada and parts of the Basin and Range province; this whole area is underlain by an anomalous upper mantle with a velocity and density about 3 percent less than normal. It is not likely that the anomalous mantle extends much deeper than 50 kilometers, and the lower boundary may be gradational. The thicker crust or "root" under the Sierran highland region (Sierra Nevada and western Basin Ranges) is not limited to the Sierra Nevada proper. The root and the voluminous plustonic rocks originated in the Mesozoic era, and they constitute the now consolidated core of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. But it must not be supposed that the root has persisted unchanged. The great mountain-building uplifts in the Cenozoic era must have been accompanied by large changes in the root and adjacent mantle. A zone of positive gravity and magnetic anomalies extending the length of the Great Valley is associated with mafic rocks of the western Sierra greenstone belt, an element of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. Belts of maficto-intermediate lavas, accompanied by mafic and ultramafic intrusions, are marked by similar anomalies in other ancient geosynclines. An anomalous upper mantle of plagioclase peridotite, an expanded phase of the normal mantle, could explain about 1 kilometer of the uplift that took place over much of the region in Cenozoic time. To explain all of the Cenozoic uplift in the Sierra Nevada and Basin Ranges by this means would require the hypothesis of a separation of the anomalous mantle into crust and normal mantle fractions, followed by a renewal of the anomalous mantle through the action of regional convection currents or local overturning in the upper mantle. The low-velocity zones for

  7. Receiver function analysis of the crust and upper mantle in Fennoscandia - isostatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, Andrew; Thybo, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The mountains across southern Norway and other margins of the North Atlantic Ocean appear conspicuously high in the absence of recent convergent tectonics. We investigate this phenomenon with receiver functions calculated for seismometers deployed across southern Fennoscandia. These are used to constrain the structure and seismic properties of the lithosphere and primarily to measure the thickness and infer the bulk composition of the crust. Such parameters are key to understanding crustal isostasy and assessing its role, or lack thereof, in supporting the observed elevations. Our study focuses on the southern Scandes mountain range that has an average elevation >1.0 km above mean sea level. The crust-mantle boundary (Moho) is ubiquitously imaged, and we occasionally observe structures that may represent the base of the continental lithosphere or other thermal, chemical, or viscous boundaries in the upper mantle. The Moho resides at ˜25-30 km depth below mean sea level in southeastern coastal Norway and parts of Denmark, ˜35-45 km across the southern Scandes, and ˜50-60 km near the Norwegian-Swedish border. That section of thickest crust coincides with much of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt and often exhibits a diffuse conversion at the Moho, which probably results from the presence of a high wave speed, mafic lower crust across inner Fennoscandia. A zone of thinned crust (<35 km) underlies the Oslo Graben. Crustal Vp/Vs ratio measurements show trends that generally correlate with Moho depth; relatively high Vp/Vs occurs near the coast and areas affected by post-Caledonide rifting and lower Vp/Vs appears in older, unrifted crust across the southern Scandes. Our results indicate that most of the observed surface elevation in the southern Scandes is supported by an Airy-like crustal root and potentially thin mantle lithosphere. To the east, where thicker crust and mantle lithosphere underlie low elevations, the presence of dense mafic lower crust fits a Pratt

  8. The Oxidation State of Fe in MORB Glasses and the Oxygen Fugacity of the Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    E Cottrell; K Kelley

    2011-12-31

    Micro-analytical determination of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses using micro X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) spectroscopy reveals a substantially more oxidized upper mantle than determined by previous studies. Here, we show that global MORBs yield average Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios of 0.16 {+-} 0.01 (n = 103), which trace back to primary MORB melts equilibrated at the conditions of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. Our results necessitate an upward revision of the Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios of MORBs, mantle oxygen fugacity, and the ferric iron content of the mantle relative to previous wet chemical determinations. We show that only 0.01 (absolute, or < 10%) of the difference between Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios determined by micro-colorimety and XANES can be attributed to the Moessbauer-based XANES calibration. The difference must instead derive from a bias between micro-colorimetry performed on experimental vs. natural basalts. Co-variations of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios in global MORB with indices of low-pressure fractional crystallization are consistent with Fe{sup 3+} behaving incompatibly in shallow MORB magma chambers. MORB Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios do not, however, vary with indices of the extent of mantle melting (e.g., Na{sub 2}O(8)) or water concentration. We offer two hypotheses to explain these observations: The bulk partition coefficient of Fe{sup 3+} may be higher during peridotite melting than previously thought, and may vary with temperature, or redox exchange between sulfide and sulfate species could buffer mantle melting at {approx} QFM. Both explanations, in combination with the measured MORB Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios, point to a fertile MORB source with greater than 0.3 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. Finite-frequency wave propagation through outer rise fault zones and seismic measurements of upper mantle hydration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Nathaniel; Lizarralde, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Effects of serpentine-filled fault zones on seismic wave propagation in the upper mantle at the outer rise of subduction zones are evaluated using acoustic wave propagation models. Modeled wave speeds depend on azimuth, with slowest speeds in the fault-normal direction. Propagation is fastest along faults, but, for fault widths on the order of the seismic wavelength, apparent wave speeds in this direction depend on frequency. For the 5–12 Hz Pn arrivals used in tomographic studies, joint-parallel wavefronts are slowed by joints. This delay can account for the slowing seen in tomographic images of the outer rise upper mantle. At the Middle America Trench, confining serpentine to fault zones, as opposed to a uniform distribution, reduces estimates of bulk upper mantle hydration from ~3.5 wt % to as low as 0.33 wt % H2O.

  10. Refertilization of deep continental arc lithosphere: constraints from major element and trace element systematics in mantle xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, E. J.; Lee, C.; Luffi, P. I.

    2010-12-01

    Thickening of continental arc lithosphere, either by underplating, magmatic inflation, or other tectonic processes, is an important stage in the maturation of primitive island arcs into Phanerozoic continental crust. The Sierra Nevada continental arc is one example of a mature arc that has experienced significant thickening and recent orogenic collapse. Previous studies of mantle xenoliths from the Sierras point to delamination of a dense mafic root that represented the residua of the evolved crust distilled out of a >90 km thickened lithospheric column. What has not received much attention, however, is how this lithospheric column has been compositionally modified over the lifespan of the Sierra Nevada arc. As the interface between the crust and mantle, the base of the thickened lithospheric column (upper mantle and lowermost crust) is potentially a zone of refertilization, wherein previously depleted mantle is replenished with fertile components from ascending melts and/or fluids. Refertilization of deep lithosphere not only influences the composition of arc magmas in their early stages, but also has implications for the stability of highly melt-depleted, refractory mantle that may become “rejuvenated” by such refertilization. In this study, we evaluate the role of refertilization in continental arc evolution by investigating upper mantle xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada. Cr# in spinel cores is chosen as a baseline index of melt depletion, and is compared to whole-rock major- and trace-element concentrations (Yb, Ti, Mg, Al) to assess the degree of refertilization. Whole-rock trace element patterns indicate depletions in high field strength elements and complementary enrichments in fluid mobile elements, suggesting that the deep Sierran lithosphere was refertilized by a melt containing a large component of slab-derived fluid. Although high degrees of melting (>15%) are recorded by Cr# in spinel, many Sierran peridotites contain diffuse bands comprised of

  11. Three-dimensional velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in southwestern China and its tectonic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Chan, W.W.; Mooney, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using P and S arrival times from 4625 local and regional earthquakes recorded at 174 seismic stations and associated geophysical investigations, this paper presents a three-dimensional crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of southwestern China (21??-34??N, 97??-105??E). Southwestern China lies in the transition zone between the uplifted Tibetan plateau to the west and the Yangtze continental platform to the east. In the upper crust a positive velocity anomaly exists in the Sichuan Basin, whereas a large-scale negative velocity anomaly exists in the western Sichuan Plateau, consistent with the upper crustal structure under the southern Tibetan plateau. The boundary between these two anomaly zones is the Longmen Shan Fault. The negative velocity anomalies at 50-km depth in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The Red River Fault is the boundary between the positive and negative velocity anomalies at 50-km depth. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in southwestern China are a low average velocity, large crustal thickness variations, the existence of a high-conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and a high heat flow value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates.

  12. Deep blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  13. The Feedback Between Continents and Compositional Anomalies in the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, J. P.; Trim, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Findings from global seismic tomography studies suggest that the deep mantle may harbor a pair of broad, steep-sided, relatively dense compositionally anomalous provinces. The longevity and stability of these Large Low Shear-Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) has received considerable interest but their possible influence on surface motion has drawn lesser attention. Recent work using numerical mantle convection models investigated the feedback between oceanic plate motion and high density compositional anomalies. It was found that surface mobility is affected by the presence of compositional anomalies such that critical density contrasts and volumes of the enriched material produce a transition to stagnant-lid convection. For lesser volumes and density contrast (for example, volumes that are representative of the concentrations in the Earth's mantle) the presence of the compositional anomalies affects mean plate velocity and size when compared to the characteristics of systems in which the enriched material is absent. In addition, numerous studies and lines of evidence in the geologic record suggest that the presence of the density anomalies plays a role in determining the location of mantle upwellings, which in turn influence surface dynamics. In this study, we present the results from a study implementing a two-dimensional mantle convection model featuring an anomalously dense component and distinct continental and oceanic lithosphere. The mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved using a hybrid spectral-finite difference code. Compositional variations are tracked using Lagrangian tracer particles. Mobile tectonic plates are modeled using a force-balance method and plate boundary locations evolve in response to interior stresses, plate velocity, age and lithospheric chemistry (i.e., oceanic versus continental). We examine the influence of continents on compositional anomaly morphology and longevity and the influence of compositional anomalies on

  14. Structure of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Across the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2007-01-05

    Analysis of modern broadband (BB) waveform data allows for the inference of seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle using a variety of techniques. This presentation will report inferences of seismic structure of the Arabian Plate using BB data from various networks. Most data were recorded by the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) which consists of 38 (26 BB, 11 SP) stations, mostly located on the Arabian Shield. Additional data were taken from the 1995-7 Saudi Arabian IRIS-PASSCAL Deployment (9 BB stations) and other stations across the Peninsula. Crustal structure, inferred from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, reveals thicker crust in the Arabian Platform (40-45 km) and the interior of the Arabian Shield (35-40 km) and thinner crust along the Red Sea coast. Lithospheric thickness inferred from teleseismic S-wave receiver functions reveals very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). We also observe a step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness across the Shield-Platform boundary. Seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle inferred from teleseismic P- and S-wave travel time tomography reveals large differences between the Shield and Platform, with the Shield being underlain by slower velocities, {+-}3% for P-waves and {+-}6% for S-waves. Seismic anisotropy was inferred from shear-wave splitting, using teleseismic SKS waveforms. Results reveal a splitting time of approximately 1.4 seconds, with the fast axis slightly east of north. The shear-wave splitting results are consistent across the Peninsula, with a slight clockwise rotation parallel for stations near the Gulf of Aqaba. In summary, these results allow us to make several conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. Lithospheric thickness implies that thinning near the Red Sea has accompanied the rupturing of the Arabian

  15. Volatile Reservoirs Below The Upper Lunar Mantle And Their Incompatibility With The Giant Impact Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2011-12-01

    Separate accretion and capture is a physically plausible alternative to the giant Earth impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon. Like the capture hypothesis, giant impact relies on gravitational interaction of the Earth and a smaller planetesimal under very specific orbital encounter conditions. In addition to questions about the physics of debris re-aggregation in Earth-orbit, the giant impact hypothesis, as currently formulated by computer models, fails a critical reality check; namely, the Moon contains reservoirs of volatiles that would have been dispersed at ejection temperatures predicted by the models... Researchers have previously noted that concentrations of many volatile elements in both the Apollo 17 and Apollo 15 pyroclastic glass samples indicate the existence of volatile reservoirs at depth. Both the orange and green glasses are enriched over mare basalts by factors >100 in Cl, F, Br, Zn, Ge, Dc, Tl, and Ag and by factors >10 in Pb, Ga, Sb, Bi, In, Au, Ni, Se, Te, and Cu. These elements exist almost entirely in the non-glass components of the pyroclastic samples. The recent identification of significant water within the Apollo 17 orange pyroclastic glasses further emphasizes the existence of volatile reservoirs in the lunar mantle... No evidence exists that the volatiles in the vesicles of mare basalts, derived by partial melting of a differentiated and solidified lunar magma ocean (upper mantle), were comparable to those in the pyroclastic glasses. Accretionary thermal effects that produced the magma ocean, combined with low lunar gravity, to would have depleted primordial volatiles. Any remaining magma ocean water would be converted to hydrogen and FeO by migration of early-formed, broadly disseminated, immiscible FexNiySz liquid. The reservoirs for the pyroclastic volatiles, therefore, would be below about 500km (lower mantle), that is, below the base of the original magma ocean. Relatively inert hydrogen and carbon monoxide probably made up

  16. Could Low Thermal Diffusivity Provide Runaway Melting in The Upper Mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Melting in the mantle has been attributed to thermal feedback associated with the temperature dependence of viscosity during deformation (Shaw, 1969, J. Petrol.). Visco-elastic heating has been explored in various geodynamics studies. In particular, Branlund et al. (2000, EPSL) found that a non-linear decrease of thermal diffusivity (D) with temperature (T) would enhance shear zone thinning and speed-up instabilities. Their result suggests that thermal feedback enhances melting in the uppermost mantle, without viscous heating, if considerable non-linearities exist in D(T) at the onset of melting. In fact, extreme non-linearities are indicated by theory and measurements. (1) Measurements of D of volcanic olivine-melilitite (Buettner et al. 1998, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res.) show large non-linearities in D(T) due to pre-melting effects, and a discontinuous decrease in D upon melting. This behavior should be general, because increasing disorder reduces D (e.g., Giesting and Hofmeister, 2002, Phys. Rev. B). (2) Our laser-flash measurements of various glasses show that D depends non-linearly on T. Melts will behave similarly. To quantify the functionality we are applying the melting experiments of Buettner et al. to Icelandic lavas and other relevant materials. In our runaway model, melting under ridges or hotspots does not define a magma chamber, but rather occurs on grain boundaries of the solid phases. A small amount of melting decreases D precipitously and raises the temperature which induces more melting. This phenomena is confined to low pressures (since D increases with P) and T below 2000 K (wherein radiative effects are unimportant), and can occur in a low temperature gradient. Thus, production of magmas at hot spots need not require a deep-seated mantle plume.

  17. Lateral heterogeneity scales in regional and global upper mantle shear velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschede, Matthias; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    We analyse the lateral heterogeneity scales of recent upper mantle tomographic shear velocity (Vs) global and regional models. Our goal is to constrain the spherical harmonics power spectrum over the largest possible range of scales to get an estimate of the strength and statistical distribution of both long and small-scale structure. We use a spherical multitaper method to obtain high quality power spectral estimates from the regional models. After deconvolution of the employed taper functions, we combine global and regional spectral estimates from scales of 20 000 to around 200 km (degree 100). In contrast to previous studies that focus on linear power spectral densities, we interpret the logarithmic power per harmonic degree l as heterogeneity strength at a particular depth and horizontal scale. Throughout the mantle, we observe in recent global models, that their low degree spectrum is anisotropic with respect to Earth's rotation axis. We then constrain the uppermost mantle spectrum from global and regional models. Their power spectra transfer smoothly into each other in overlapping spectral bands, and model correlation is in general best in the uppermost 250 km (i.e. the `heterosphere'). In Europe, we see good correlation from the largest scales down to features of about 500 km. Detailed analysis and interpretation of spectral shape in this depth range shows that the heterosphere has several characteristic length scales and varying spectral decay rates. We interpret these as expressions of different physical processes. At larger depths, the correlation between different models drops, and the power spectrum exhibits strong small scale structure whose location and strength is not as well resolved at present. The spectrum also has bands with elevated power that likely correspond to length scales that are enhanced due to the inversion process.

  18. The effect of topography of upper-mantle discontinuities on SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroni, Maria; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-01-01

    Using the spectral-element method, we explored the effect of topography of upper-mantle discontinuities on the traveltimes of SS precursors recorded on transverse component seismograms. The latter are routinely used to infer the topography of mantle transition zone discontinuities. The step from precursory traveltimes to topographic changes is mainly done using linearised ray theory, or sometimes using finite-frequency kernels. We simulated exact seismograms in 1-D and 3-D elastic models of the mantle. In a second simulation, we added topography to the discontinuities. We compared the waveforms obtained with and without topography by cross correlation of the SS precursors. Since we did not add noise, the precursors are visible in individual seismograms without the need of stacking. The resulting time anomalies were then converted into topographic variations and compared to the original topographic models. Based on the correlation between initial and inferred models, and provided that ray coverage is good, we found that linearised ray theory gives a relatively good idea on the location of the uplifts and depressions of the discontinuities. It seriously underestimates the amplitude of the topographic variations by a factor ranging between 2 and 7. Real data depend on the 3-D elastic structure and the topography. All studies to date correct for the 3-D elastic effects assuming that the traveltimes can be linearly decomposed into a structure and a discontinuity part. We found a strong non-linearity in this decomposition which cannot be modelled without a fully non-linear inversion for elastic structure and discontinuities simultaneously.

  19. Azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle and the thickness of tectonic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-08-01

    Azimuthal seismic anisotropy, the dependence of seismic wave speeds on propagation azimuth, is largely due to fabrics within the Earth's crust and mantle, produced by deformation. It thus provides constraints on the distribution and evolution of deformation within the upper mantle. Here, we present a new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Two versions of this new model are computed: the rough SL2016svAr and the smooth SL2016svA. Both are constrained by a very large dataset of waveform fits (˜750, 000 vertical component seismogram fits). Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms in broad period ranges (dominantly from 11 to 450 s, with the best global sampling in the 20-350 s range), yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. In our global tomographic inversion, regularization of anisotropy is implemented to more uniformly recover the amplitude and orientation of anisotropy, including near the poles. Our massive waveform dataset, with complementary large global networks and high-density regional array data, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. We show that regional scale variations, related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, can now be resolved by the global models, in particular in densely sampled regions. For oceanic regions, we compare quantitatively the directions of past and present plate motions and the fast-propagation orientations of anisotropy. By doing so, we infer the depth of the boundary between the rigid, high-viscosity lithosphere (preserving ancient, frozen fabric) and the rheologically weak asthenosphere (characterized by fabric developed recently). The average depth of thus inferred rheological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the world's oceans is ˜115 km. The LAB depth displays a clear dependence on the age of the oceanic

  20. Small effect of water on upper mantle rheology based on silicon self-diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, H.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Yamazaki, D.; Katsura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Water has been considered to significantly affect the mantle dynamics. In particular, experimental deformation studies [1-4] claimed that even small amount of water enhanced the creep in olivine by orders of magnitude. However, we note that their results are experimental artifact due to a number of limitations: e.g., unavoidable grain boundary sliding when polycrystalline samples were used; limited ranges of water contents due to the limited pressures; several orders higher stress and strain rate than those in nature. High temperature creep of silicate minerals is controlled by silicon self-diffusion. Therefore, measurement of silicon self-diffusion coefficients (DSi) in minerals, which can be performed without these limitations, is an independent way to study the mantle rheology. In this study, we measured DSi in Mg end-member of olivine, namely, forsterite, as a function of water content (CH2O) across a wide range, and concluded that effect of water on upper mantle rheology is very small. Forsterite single crystals were doped with <1 to ~800 μg/g of water at 1600 K, 8 GPa using talc+brucite water sources and graphite buffer. The CH2O in the samples were controlled by the ratio of water sources to graphite. The water doped samples were polished, deposited with 500 nm 29Si enriched Mg2SiO4 thin films, and annealed at 8 GPa, 1600 or 1800 K for diffusion with the same proportion of water sources, which successfully made constant values of CH2O during diffusion annealing. The diffusion profiles were obtained by SIMS. CH2O in the samples were determined by FT-IR before and after diffusion, and also examined by SIMS. Our results yield a relationship: DSi ∝ (CH2O)1/3. This is explained by defect chemistry, where DSi∝[VSi‧‧‧‧]×[VO●●]∝(CH2O)2/3×(CH2O)-1/3=(CH2O)1/3 under the charge neutrality condition of [(OH)O●]=2[VMg‧‧] because both Si and O vacancies are needed for Si ions to diffuse. The water contents exponent (1/3) determined in this study

  1. Azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle and the thickness of tectonic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    Azimuthal seismic anisotropy, the dependence of seismic wave speeds on propagation azimuth, is largely due to fabrics within the Earth's crust and mantle, produced by deformation. It thus provides constraints on the distribution and evolution of deformation within the upper mantle. Here, we present a new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Two versions of this new model are computed: the rough SL2016svAr and the smooth SL2016svA. Both are constrained by a very large data set of waveform fits (˜750 000 vertical component seismogram fits). Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms in broad period ranges (dominantly from 11 to 450 s, with the best global sampling in the 20-350 s range), yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. In our global tomographic inversion, regularization of anisotropy is implemented to more uniformly recover the amplitude and orientation of anisotropy, including near the poles. Our massive waveform data set, with complementary large global networks and high-density regional array data, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. We show that regional scale variations, related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, can now be resolved by the global models, in particular in densely sampled regions. For oceanic regions, we compare quantitatively the directions of past and present plate motions and the fast-propagation orientations of anisotropy. By doing so, we infer the depth of the boundary between the rigid, high-viscosity lithosphere (preserving ancient, frozen fabric) and the rheologically weak asthenosphere (characterized by fabric developed recently). The average depth of thus inferred rheological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the world's oceans is ˜115 km. The LAB depth displays a clear dependence on the age of the oceanic

  2. Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T P; Burnard, P; Marty, B; Hilton, D R; Füri, E; Palhol, F; Sharp, Z D; Mangasini, F

    2009-05-01

    Carbonatite lavas are highly unusual in that they contain almost no SiO(2) and are >50 per cent carbonate minerals. Although carbonatite magmatism has occurred throughout Earth's history, Oldoinyo Lengai, in Tanzania, is the only currently active volcano producing these exotic rocks. Here we show that volcanic gases captured during an eruptive episode at Oldoinyo Lengai are indistinguishable from those emitted along mid-ocean ridges, despite the fact that Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites occur in a setting far removed from oceanic spreading centres. In contrast to lithophile trace elements, which are highly fractionated by the immiscible phase separation that produces these carbonatites, volatiles (CO(2), He, N(2) and Ar) are little affected by this process. Our results demonstrate that a globally homogenous reservoir exists in the upper mantle and supplies volatiles to both mid-ocean ridges and continental rifts. This argues against an unusually C-rich mantle being responsible for the genesis of Na-rich carbonatite and its nephelinite source magma at Oldoinyo Lengai. Rather, these carbonatites are formed in the shallow crust by immiscibility from silicate magmas (nephelinite), and are stable under eruption conditions as a result of their high Na contents. PMID:19424154

  3. Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T P; Burnard, P; Marty, B; Hilton, D R; Füri, E; Palhol, F; Sharp, Z D; Mangasini, F

    2009-05-01

    Carbonatite lavas are highly unusual in that they contain almost no SiO(2) and are >50 per cent carbonate minerals. Although carbonatite magmatism has occurred throughout Earth's history, Oldoinyo Lengai, in Tanzania, is the only currently active volcano producing these exotic rocks. Here we show that volcanic gases captured during an eruptive episode at Oldoinyo Lengai are indistinguishable from those emitted along mid-ocean ridges, despite the fact that Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites occur in a setting far removed from oceanic spreading centres. In contrast to lithophile trace elements, which are highly fractionated by the immiscible phase separation that produces these carbonatites, volatiles (CO(2), He, N(2) and Ar) are little affected by this process. Our results demonstrate that a globally homogenous reservoir exists in the upper mantle and supplies volatiles to both mid-ocean ridges and continental rifts. This argues against an unusually C-rich mantle being responsible for the genesis of Na-rich carbonatite and its nephelinite source magma at Oldoinyo Lengai. Rather, these carbonatites are formed in the shallow crust by immiscibility from silicate magmas (nephelinite), and are stable under eruption conditions as a result of their high Na contents.

  4. Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of regional gravity and magnetic patterns, LANDSAT images and geological information revealed two major lineaments crossing western Pennsylvania and parts of surrounding states. These lineaments are inferred to be expressions of fracture zones which penetrare deeply into the crust and possibly the upper mantle. The extensions of the Tyron-Mt. Union and the Pittsburgh-Washington lineaments bound a distinct crustal block (Lake Erie-Maryland block) over 100 km wide and probably more than 600 km in length. Evidence exists for the lateral displacement of this block at least 60 km northwestward during late Precambrian to Lower Ordovician time. Subsequent movements have been mainly vertical with respect to neighboring blocks. A possible crustal block that passes through eastern Kentucky, proposed by a TVA study on tectonics in the southern Appalachians, was also investigated. Finally, the use of regional gravity and magnetic data in identifying major crustal structures beneath western Pennsylvania is discussed.

  5. Implications of regional gravity for state of stress in the earth's crust and upper mantle.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNutt, M.

    1980-01-01

    Topography is maintained by stress differences within the earth. Depending on the distribution of the stress we classify the support as either local or regional compensation. In general, the stresses implied in a regional compensation scheme are an order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to local isostasy. Gravity anomalies, a measure of the earth's departure from hydrostatic equilibrium, can be used to distinguish between the two compensation mechanisms and thus to estimate the magnitude of deviatoric stress in the crust and upper mantle. Topography created at an ocean ridge crest or in a major contiental orogenic zone appears to be locally compensated. Such features were formed on weak crust incapable of maintaining stress differences much greater than the stress from the applied load. Oceanic volcanoes formed on an already cooled, thickened lithosphere are regionally supported with elastic stresses. -Author

  6. Spectral-element global waveform tomography: A second-generation upper-mantle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, S. W.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The SEMum model of Lekic and Romanowicz (2011a) was the first global upper-mantle VS model obtained using whole-waveform inversion with spectral element (SEM: Komatitsch and Vilotte, 1998) forward modeling of time domain three component waveforms. SEMum exhibits stronger amplitudes of heterogeneity in the upper 200km of the mantle compared to previous global models - particularly with respect to low-velocity anomalies. To make SEM-based waveform inversion tractable at global scales, SEMum was developed using: (1) a version of SEM coupled to 1D mode computation in the earth's core (C-SEM, Capdeville et al., 2003); (2) asymptotic normal-mode sensitivity kernels, incorporating multiple forward scattering and finite-frequency effects in the great-circle plane (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995); and (3) a smooth anisotropic crustal layer of uniform 60km thickness, designed to match global surface-wave dispersion while reducing the cost of time integration in the SEM. The use of asymptotic kernels reduced the number of SEM computations considerably (≥ 3x) relative to purely numerical approaches (e.g. Tarantola, 1984), while remaining sufficiently accurate at the periods of interest (down to 60s). However, while the choice of a 60km crustal-layer thickness is justifiable in the continents, it can complicate interpretation of shallow oceanic upper-mantle structure. We here present an update to the SEMum model, designed primarily to address these concerns. The resulting model, SEMum2, was derived using a crustal layer that again fits global surface-wave dispersion, but with a more geologically consistent laterally varying thickness: approximately honoring Crust2.0 (Bassin, et al., 2000) Moho depth in the continents, while saturating at 30km in the oceans. We demonstrate that this approach does not bias our upper mantle model, which is constrained not only by fundamental mode surface waves, but also by overtone waveforms. We have also improved our data-selection and

  7. Upper mantle electrical conductivity for seven subcontinental regions of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.; Schiffmacher, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis coefficients of the external and internal parts of the quiet-day geomagnetic field variations (Sq) separated for the 7 continental regions of the observatories have been used to determine conductivity profiles to depths of about 600 km by the Schmucker equivalent substitute conductor method. The profiles give evidence of increases in conductivity between about 150 and 350 km depth, then a general increase in conductivity thereafter. For South America we found a high conductivity at shallow depths. The European profile showed a highly conducting layer near 125 km. At the greater depths, Europe, Australia and South America had the lowest values of conductivity. North America and east Asia had intermediate values whereas the African and central Asian profiles both showed the conductivities rising rapidly beyond 450 km depth. The regional differences indicate that there may be considerable lateral heterogeneity of electrical conductivity in the Earth's upper mantle. -Authors

  8. Analysis of upper mantle structure using wave field continuation of P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walck, M. C.; Clayton, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Wave field continuation theory, which allows transformation of the seismic record section data directly into velocity-depth space, is tested for upper mantle analysis using a large array-recorded data set obtained at the 200-station Caltech-USGS Southern California Seismic Network that is representative of the structure beneath the gulf of California. The method's resolution capability is illustrated by the comparison of the slant stacks and downward continuation of both synthetic and data record sections. It is stressed that when high-quality, densely sampled digital data are available, the technique is easy to implement, provides an inversion which contains all the data in the global format, and produces an objective estimate of depth resolution as a function of ray parameter.

  9. Crust and Upper Mantle Structure of Northern Iran Across Alborz Mountains and Monitoring of Damvand Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinaghi, A.; Kind, R.

    2008-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of investigating the crust and upper mantle structure along a seismic profile across Alborz mountain range in northern Iran. A temporary deployment of 11 broadband seismographs strengthened by existence of four permanent seismic stations in the area during a 7 month experiment, from October 2007 through June 2008, allowed us to register over 190 teleseismic events, adequate for conducting both a receiver function and tomography imaging along a 170 km seismic profile. Also, in this context, six stations of the network by surrounding Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano, 70 km northeast of the metropolitan Tehran, has enabled the first seismic monitoring of the volcano at local distances. The result of the analysis of this data will show whether Damavand, in addition to obvious fumarolic emissions -which has been intensified since May 2007 and continues up the present time-, and many hot water springs, shows signs of volcanic seismic activity as well.

  10. A tomographic glimpse of the upper mantle source of magmas of the Jemez lineament, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, William; Gross, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the lateral variations of the P wave velocity as a function of depth were examined for the regions of the Rio Grande rift and the Jemez lineament, to infer spatial distributions of partial melt in the upper mantle source zones for the rift and the lineament. The method involved measurements of teleismic P wave delays at a 22-station network followed by performing a damped least-squares three-dimensional inversion for these lateral variations. Results indicate that, directly beneath the Jemez lineament (but not beneath the Rio Grande rift), there is a 100-km-wide 1-2-percent low-P-wave-velocity feature in the depth range of 50-160 km. This implies that the volcanic potential of the Jemez lineaments continues to greatly exceed that of the Rio Grande rift.

  11. Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Available seismic and ground based gravity data are combined to infer the three dimensional crust and upper mantle structure in selected regions. This synthesis and interpretation proceeds from large-scale average models suitable for early comparison with high-altitude satellite potential field data to more detailed delineation of structural boundaries and other variations that may be significant in natural resource assessment. Seismic and ground based gravity data are the primary focal point, but other relevant information (e.g. magnetic field, heat flow, Landsat imagery, geodetic leveling, and natural resources maps) is used to constrain the structure inferred and to assist in defining structural domains and boundaries. The seismic data consists of regional refraction lines, limited reflection coverage, surface wave dispersion, teleseismic P and S wave delay times, anelastic absorption, and regional seismicity patterns. The gravity data base consists of available point gravity determinations for the areas considered.

  12. Can we probe the conductivity of the lithosphere and upper mantle using satellite tidal magnetic signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.

    2015-05-01

    A few studies convincingly demonstrated that the magnetic fields induced by the lunar semidiurnal (M2) ocean flow can be identified in satellite observations. This result encourages using M2 satellite magnetic data to constrain subsurface electrical conductivity in oceanic regions. Traditional satellite-based induction studies using signals of magnetospheric origin are mostly sensitive to conducting structures because of the inductive coupling between primary and induced sources. In contrast, galvanic coupling from the oceanic tidal signal allows for studying less conductive, shallower structures. We perform global 3-D electromagnetic numerical simulations to investigate the sensitivity of M2 signals to conductivity distributions at different depths. The results of our sensitivity analysis suggest it will be promising to use M2 oceanic signals detected at satellite altitude for probing lithospheric and upper mantle conductivity. Our simulations also suggest that M2 seafloor electric and magnetic field data may provide complementary details to better constrain lithospheric conductivity.

  13. Oxidation state of the Earth's upper mantle during the last 3800 million years: Implications for the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    A popular, as well as scientifically rigorous, scenario for the origin of life on Earth involves the production of organic molecules by interaction of lightning (or other forms of energy) with a chemically reducing atmosphere in the early history of Earth. Experiments since the 1950's have convincingly demonstrated that the yield of organic molecules is high when the atmosphere contains molecular hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor. Additional work has also shown that such a highly reducing atmosphere might not, however, have been sufficiently long-lived in the presence of intense solar ultraviolet radiation for life to have formed from it. One way of maintaining such an atmosphere would be to have a continual replenishment of the reduced gases by prolonged volcanic outgassing from a reducing of Earth's interior. The length of time that this replenishment might need to continue is in part constrained by the flux of asteroids onto the Earth's surface containing sufficient energy to destroy most, if not all, life that had developed up to that point in time. If a reducing atmosphere is a key ingredient for the origin of life on Earth, the time of the last environmental sterilization due to large impacts would be an important constraint. In a deep marine setting (e.g., hydrothermal vent), the last global sterilization might have occurred at 4200-4000 Ma. On the Earth's surface, the last global sterilization event might have occurred at 4000-3700 Ma. If these are meaningful constraints, how likely is it that a reducing atmosphere could have survived on the Earth until about 3800 Ma ago? Due to the importance of replenishing this atmosphere with reducing components by volcanic outgassing from the mantle, geochemical information on the history of the mantle's oxidation state would be useful for addressing this question. Geochemical and experimental data discussed in this abstract suggest that extrusive mafic volcanics derived from the upper mantle have had

  14. Conserving mass and energy in cooling models of oceanic lithosphere requires upper mantle origins for trends in subsidence and heat flux and indicates global power of 30 TW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Hamza, V. N.

    2008-12-01

    One-dimensional conductive cooling models of ocean lithosphere fail to predict the lateral variation in oceanic heat flux and provide problematic calculations of subsidence, for reasons enumerated below. Our new model follows conservation laws and shows that bathymetric trends are tied to upper mantle temperature variations, given realistic values for thermal expansivity. Heat flux increases towards mid-ocean ridges due to (1) flux varying across upper mantle convection cells and (2) redistribution of mantle heat (Qmtl) by moving magma, and also by (3) hydrothermal circulation. Foremost, widespread, lateral, uptake of Qmtl as latent heat occurs during deep lithospheric melting but this energy is released near ridges through dike emplacement during seafloor spreading. Redistribution and energy conservation account for the local heat flux maximum near x=1200 km, heretofore unexplained. We show that the trend Qmtl(x) far from the ridge is consistent with behavior near the ridge and measured global power of <30 TW , which is compatible with quasi-steady-state conditions and an enstatite chondrite model for the Earth. Observables, such as the pattern of mid-ocean ridges on the globe, point to layered convection and lack of vigor, and gross characteristics of the Earth are supported by an enstatite chondrite model. Our analysis circumvents problems associated with 1-d conductive cooling models of the lithosphere: (1) Existing models replaced conservation of rock-mass with isostatic balance, which unwittingly created subsidence by converting lithosphere to ocean. (2) Half-space models incorrectly cancelled infinities. (3) Plate models omitted latent heat which is immense. (4) 1-d models only permit vertical contraction. These faulty constructs fitted seafloor depths through erroneous use of volumetric (αV=3αL) thermal expansivity coupled with great leeway in cross-multiplied parameters. The underlying premise that thermal aspects of lithosphere can be separately

  15. Joint Inversion of Phase and Amplitude Data of Surface Waves for North American Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2015-12-01

    For the reconstruction of the laterally heterogeneous upper-mantle structure using surface waves, we generally use phase delay information of seismograms, which represents the average phase velocity perturbation along a ray path, while the amplitude information has been rarely used in the velocity mapping. Amplitude anomalies of surface waves contain a variety of information such as anelastic attenuation, elastic focusing/defocusing, geometrical spreading, and receiver effects. The effects of elastic focusing/defocusing are dependent on the second derivative of phase velocity across the ray path, and thus, are sensitive to shorter-wavelength structure than the conventional phase data. Therefore, suitably-corrected amplitude data of surface waves can be useful for improving the lateral resolution of phase velocity models. In this study, we collect a large-number of inter-station phase velocity and amplitude ratio data for fundamental-mode surface waves with a non-linear waveform fitting between two stations of USArray. The measured inter-station phase velocity and amplitude ratios are then inverted simultaneously for phase velocity maps and local amplification factor at receiver locations in North America. The synthetic experiments suggest that, while the phase velocity maps derived from phase data only reflect large-scale tectonic features, those from phase and amplitude data tend to exhibit better recovery of the strength of velocity perturbations, which emphasizes local-scale tectonic features with larger lateral velocity gradients; e.g., slow anomalies in Snake River Plain and Rio Grande Rift, where significant local amplification due to elastic focusing are observed. Also, the spatial distribution of receiver amplification factor shows a clear correlation with the velocity structure. Our results indicate that inter-station amplitude-ratio data can be of help in reconstructing shorter-wavelength structures of the upper mantle.

  16. Multiscale modeling of upper mantle plasticity: From single-crystal rheology to multiphase aggregate deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raterron, Paul; Detrez, Fabrice; Castelnau, Olivier; Bollinger, Caroline; Cordier, Patrick; Merkel, Sébastien

    2014-03-01

    We report a first application of an improved second-order (SO) viscoplastic self-consistent model for multiphase aggregates, applied to an olivine + diopside aggregate as analogue for a dry upper mantle peridotite deformed at 10-15 s-1 shear strain rate along a 20-Ma ocean geotherm. Beside known dislocation slip systems, this SO-model version accounts for an isotropic relaxation mechanism representing ‘diffusion-related’ creep mechanisms in olivine. Slip-system critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) are evaluated in both phases - as functions of P, T, oxygen fugacity (fO2) and strain rate - from previously reported experimental data obtained on single crystals and first-principle calculations coupled with the Peierls-Nabarro model for crystal plasticity; and the isotropic-mechanism dependence on T and P matches that of Si self-diffusion in olivine, while its relative activity is constrained by reported data. The model reproduces well the olivine and diopside lattice preferred orientations (LPO) produced experimentally and observed in naturally deformed rocks, as well as observed sensitivities of multiphase aggregate strength to the volume fraction of the hard phase (here diopside). It shows a significant weakening of olivine LPO with increasing depth, which results from the combined effects of the P-induced [1 0 0]/[0 0 1] dislocation-slip transition and the increasing activity with T of ‘diffusion-related’ creep. This work thus provides a first quantification of the respective effects of [1 0 0]/[0 0 1] slip transition and diffusion creep on the olivine LPO weakening inducing the seismic anisotropy attenuation observed in the upper mantle.

  17. Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity Structure of East Asian Upper Mantle from Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is a seismically active region featuring active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of East Asia. High quality teleseismic waveforms were collected for both permanent and temporary stations in the target and its adjacent regions, providing good ray path coverage of the study region. Fundamental and overtone wave packets, filtered down to 60 sec, were inverted for isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave structure using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms was then carried out following the methodology described in (Marone and Romanowicz, 2007). The 3D velocity model shows strong lateral heterogeneities in the target region, which correlate well with the surface geology in East Asia. Our model shows that Indian lithosphere has subducted beneath Tibet with a different northern reach from western to eastern Tibet,. We also find variations of the slab geometry in Western Pacific subduction zones. Old and stable regions, such as, Indian shield, Siberia platform, Tarim and Yangtze blocks are found to have higher shear wave velocity in the upper mantle. Lower velocity anomalies are found in regions like Baikal rift, Tienshan, Indochina block, and the regions along Japan island-Ryukyu Trench and Izu-bonin Trench. The dominant fast and slow velocity boundaries in the study region are well correlated with tectonic belts, such as the central Asian orogenic belt and Alty/Qilian-Qinling/Dabie orogenic belt. Our radially anisotropic model shows Vsh> Vsv in oceanic regions and at larger depths(>300km), and Vsv > Vsh in some orogenic zones.. We'll show preliminary results of azimuthally anisotropic joint inversion of SKS

  18. Small effect of water on upper-mantle rheology based on silicon self-diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Fei, Hongzhan; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Katsura, Tomoo

    2013-06-13

    Water has been thought to affect the dynamical processes in the Earth's interior to a great extent. In particular, experimental deformation results suggest that even only a few tens of parts per million of water by weight enhances the creep rates in olivine by orders of magnitude. However, those deformation studies have limitations, such as considering only a limited range of water concentrations and very high stresses, which might affect the results. Rock deformation can also be understood as an effect of silicon self-diffusion, because the creep rates of minerals at temperatures as high as those in the Earth's interior are limited by self-diffusion of the slowest species. Here we experimentally determine the silicon self-diffusion coefficient DSi in forsterite at 8 GPa and 1,600 K to 1,800 K as a function of water content CH2O from less than 1 to about 800 parts per million of water by weight, yielding the relationship, DSi ≈ (CH2O)(1/3). This exponent is strikingly lower than that obtained by deformation experiments (1.2; ref. 7). The high nominal creep rates in the deformation studies under wet conditions may be caused by excess grain boundary water. We conclude that the effect of water on upper-mantle rheology is very small. Hence, the smooth motion of the Earth's tectonic plates cannot be caused by mineral hydration in the asthenosphere. Also, water cannot cause the viscosity minimum zone in the upper mantle. And finally, the dominant mechanism responsible for hotspot immobility cannot be water content differences between their source and surrounding regions. PMID:23765497

  19. Effect of earthquakes on ambient noise surface wave tomography in upper-mantle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovskaya, Tatiana; Koroleva, Tatiana; Lyskova, Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    Application of the ambient noise surface wave tomography method (ANT) for determination of the upper-mantle structure requires data on long-periodic noise (T > 40 s). The ANT technique implies that noise sources are distributed almost uniformly over the surface. This is practically true for short-periodic noise, however, it is not so in the case of long periods. In this paper we show that the main contribution to noise at long periods is caused by signals from earthquakes. In some cases, they may strongly distort noise cross-correlation. This leads to an incorrect determination of surface wave velocity dispersion curves. To minimize such a distortion we propose two means: (1) to use records of noise for the periods when there is no clustering of earthquakes, such as aftershocks of strong events; (2) to stack cross-correlation functions for a period of at least three years in order to achieve sufficient uniformity of earthquake locations. Validity of this approach is demonstrated by ANT results for Europe. Tomographic reconstruction of Rayleigh wave group velocities for 10-100 s measured along interstation paths was carried out in a central part of Western Europe where resolving power of the data was the highest. Locally averaged dispersion curves were inverted to vertical S-wave velocity sections in this area. The results correspond closely to known features of the structure of the region, namely: strong difference of the crust and upper-mantle structure at the opposite sides from the Tornquist-Teisseyre Line down to ˜ 250 km, penetration of high-velocity material of East European Platform lithosphere under Carpathians, as well as penetration of low-velocity asthenospheric layer from the Carpathian region towards the northeast.

  20. P and S wave upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath the northern Apennines: New evidence for the end of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Margaret H.; Torpey, Megan; Liszewski, Kelly; Levin, Vadim; Park, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    Orogeny in the geologically young northern Apennines is explained by the eastward retreat of a convergence zone in which Adriatic lithosphere subducts to the west. It is unclear, however, whether all of the lithosphere or only the lower portion has subducted since 15 Ma, when the convergence zone lay near Corsica. We combine teleseismic P and S wave arrival time data from the RETREAT seismic network (2003-2006) and surrounding permanent stations to estimate tomographic images of the upper mantle structure beneath the northern Apennines. We image a vertically oriented slab that that extends to only ˜300 km depth. Our slab termination is shallower than previous studies but is confirmed by resolution tests. Furthermore, our images resolve the southern edge of the northern Apennines slab at ˜43°N, with no deep continuity with any slab segment to the south, as earlier proposed. Our results suggest that only a 300-400 km strip of lithosphere has subducted since 15 Ma beneath the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, a length roughly equivalent to the distance from the present-day west coast of Corsica to the crest of the northern Apennines. Although not a definitive indicator, the largely aseismic vertical slab configuration and its limited extent, coupled with other volcanic and geophysical indicators, suggests the delamination scenario of Bird (1979), in which only the lower portion of the continental lithosphere subducts.

  1. Magnetospheric and ionospheric signals in magnetic observatory monthly means: Electrical conductivity of the deep mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, Malcolm G.

    1994-01-01

    First differences of magnetic observatory monthly means for 1963-1982 were analyzed using techniques of spherical harmonics analysis and power spectral analysis. The external source signal is shown to be primarily zonal in geomagnetic coordinates. Prominent peaks are present in the power spectrum at frequencies of 1.0 cycle/yr and 2.0 cycles/yr. The annual signal is largest on the degree 2 external zonal spherical harmonic, while the semiannual signal is largest on the degree 1 and degree 3 external zonal spherical harmonics. The presence of the semiannual signal on odd-degree spherical harmonics and of the annual signal on even-degree spherical harmonics was predicted from symmetry considerations and the annual cycle of solar inclination. These signals are all modulated by the sunspot frequency and its harmonics. The degree 1 term is believed to be due mainly to magnetopause and ring currents while the degree 2 and degree 3 terms are believed to be due mainly to ionospheric currents. The degree 1 external zonal harmonic has a continuous spectrum in addition to the semiannual spectral peak. A corresponding degree 1 internal term is due to electromagnetic induction. The degree 1 continuous spectrum is useful for study of the electrical conductivity of the deep mantle. A global geomagnetic response function consistent with a mantle conductivity of about 10 S/m at the core-mantle boundary has been derived.

  2. Seismic investigations of core-mantle boundary structure and source properties of deep-focus earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persh, Steven Eric

    This dissertation investigates geophysical problems concerning the structure of the Earth's interior and the physics of the earthquake source by stacking seismograms recorded at global and regional networks. The core-mantle boundary (CMB) region contains thermal and compositional heterogeneities at different length-scales, including thin layers at the base of the mantle with large P-wave velocity reductions (ULVZs). Core-reflected seismic phases PcP and ScP are sensitive to velocity and density changes within ULVZs, discontinuity sharpness, and CMB variability on short length-scales. Amplitudes of globally-recorded PcP and ScP reveal a sharp average CMB with no more than 10% velocity reductions in the mantle for P- and S-waves. The amplitudes do not support proposed 30% S-wave velocity reductions or core-mantle transition zones. No precursor arrivals to PcP and ScP are visible on regional network stacks at times and amplitudes predicted for ULVZ properties. This suggests ULUZs transition gradually from the lower mantle. Diminished core-grazing P-waves sampling the CNM in a localized region of the mid-Pacific provide evidence for short length-scale variation, possibly reflecting dynamical processes. Time histories of moment release provide insight into rupture processes of deep earthquakes, whose physical mechanism remains unknown. We compare source time functions computed from stacks of teleseismic P-waves of 111 deep earthquakes with MW ≥ 6.4 and depth ≥ 100 km. An abrupt change in character occurs at 550 km. Earthquakes deeper than 550 km have shorter durations and simpler time functions. Shallow events have longer durations, and the 350--550 km range averages more subevents. Radiated energy-to-moment ratios are lower than for large shallow earthquakes and maximum seismic efficiency decreases slightly with depth. Initiations and terminations are consistent with self-similar rupture, although large events tend to begin more rapidly. Aftershock productivity

  3. A radial anisotropy model of the upper mantle from surface wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T. M.; Debayle, E.; Priestley, K. F.; Chapman, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Radial anisotropy within the upper mantle was first encountered in the early 1960's based on studies using surface waves. A disrepancy between the Love and Rayleigh wave data was observed which could not be explained using a simple isotropic model. This was later reconconciled using a transversely isotropic model now assumed in many modern day anisotropic models such as SAW642AN and S362ANI. Radial anisotropy is attributed to the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of the anisotropic crystals believed to be organised by the flow in the upper mantle. These models are therefore important for analysing the geometry of the flow and the deformation of the mantle. Surface wave observations offer a unique way of studying the radial anisotropy. Rayleigh waves are sensitive to the vertical shear velocity (SV) and Love waves are sensitive to the horizontal shear velocity (SH). The ratio of these give the radial anisotropy parameter ξ. Although radial anisotropy models exist, they are usually limited to the fundamental mode measurments with poor path coverage due to the noise on the horizontal components. Higher mode Love wave measurements are difficult for oceanic paths. This is because group velocities of the higher modes are similar to the fundamental mode between a period range of 50-100 s. These therefore arrive and interferre with each other. The higher mode information therefore cannot be extracted easily. We modify the method of Debayle and Ricard 2012 which allow the extraction of information up to the 5th overtone by mimicking the interferrence from the arrival of the fundamental and higher modes. Synthetic tests show an excellent recovery of the fundamental and higher mode information from the Love waves. The inclusion of the the higher modes greatly increases the resolution to the SH velocity and increases the sampling to deeper structures. We apply this modified method to a large dataset and construct an SH model. This is then combined with an equivalent SV

  4. Experimental derivation of nepheline syenite and phonolite liquids by partial melting of upper mantle peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Didier; Lambart, Sarah; Schiano, Pierre; Ottolini, Luisa

    2014-10-01

    Piston-cylinder experiments were performed to characterize the composition of liquids formed at very low degrees of melting of two fertile lherzolite compositions with 430 ppm and 910 ppm K2O at 1 and 1.3 GPa. We used the microdike technique (Laporte et al., 2004) to extract the liquid phase from the partially molten peridotite, allowing us to analyze liquid compositions at degrees of melting F down to 0.9%. At 1.3 GPa, the liquid is in equilibrium with olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel in all the experiments; at 1 GPa, plagioclase is present in addition to these four mineral phases up to about 5% of melting (T≈1240 °C). Important variations of liquid compositions are observed with decreasing temperature, including strong increases in SiO2, Na2O, K2O, and Al2O3 concentrations, and decreases in MgO, FeO, and CaO concentrations. The most extreme liquid compositions are phonolites with 57% SiO2, 20-22% Al2O3, Na2O + K2O up to 14%, and concentrations of MgO, FeO, and CaO as low as 2-3%. Reversal experiments confirm that low-degree melts of a fertile lherzolite have phonolitic compositions, and pMELTS calculations show that the amount of phonolite liquid generated at 1.2 GPa increases from 0.3% in a source with 100 ppm K2O to 3% in a source with 2000 ppm K2O. The enrichment in silica and alkalis with decreasing melt fraction is coupled with an increase of the degree of melt polymerization, which has important consequences for the partitioning of minor and trace elements. Thus Ti4+ in our experiments and, by analogy with Ti4+, other highly charged cations, and rare earth elements become less incompatible near the peridotite solidus. Our study brings a strong support to the hypothesis that phonolitic lavas or their plutonic equivalents (nepheline syenites) may be produced directly by partial melting of upper mantle rock-types at moderate pressures (1-1.5 GPa), especially where large domains of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has been enriched in

  5. Structure of the upper mantle boundaries in North Eurasia and their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, Ninel

    2016-04-01

    The seismic profiling with Peace Nuclear Explosions (PNE) shows unusual velocity stratification of the North Eurasia upper mantle. The asthenosphere is not traced as a low velocity layer, on the contrary, the 10-20 km thick velocity inversion zones are revealed at depth around 100 km. Several seismic boundaries are traced along the profiles. The most regular boundaries are at depths of 80-120 km (N boundary or 80 boundary) and 200-250 km (L boundary). The reflections from these boundaries are complicate many phase groups which may be formed by the reflective zones with alternating of the high- and low-velocity layers. These boundaries and the low velocity layers were unexpected results of the seismic profiling because it appeared unrealistic to find the regular and strong velocity contrasts in the upper mantle whose velocities are insensitive to the material composition, and no phase transitions were revealed at the boundary depths. The interpretation of the low velocity layers at depth around 100 km as zones of partial melting is invalid in the old platform areas where the melting ("thermal asthenosphere") was supposed at the depths of 250-300 km. The revealed boundaries might appear as the physical boundaries marked by the sharp changes in the different physical or mechanical properties of the material (porosity, permeability, fissuring and others). The increase or decrease in porosity is invariably followed by the change in the fluid content, which can initiate the different physicochemical transformations of the material, such as the new degrees of metamorphism, and initiate partial melting and mobility of the material at relatively low temperature. The laboratory study of the fluids transportation through the mantle rocks at the high pressure and temperature confirm such transformation. The matter flow along these weak zones may assist the formation of the anisotropic high velocity intermediate layers. Comparison of the seismic data with other geophysical data

  6. Silicate melts density, buoyancy relations and the dynamics of magmatic processes in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Malfait, Wim J.

    2016-04-01

    Although silicate melts comprise only a minor volume fraction of the present day Earth, they play a critical role on the Earth's geochemical and geodynamical evolution. Their physical properties, namely the density, are a key control on many magmatic processes, including magma chamber dynamics and volcanic eruptions, melt extraction from residual rocks during partial melting, as well as crystal settling and melt migration. However, the quantitative modeling of these processes has been long limited by the scarcity of data on the density and compressibility of volatile-bearing silicate melts at relevant pressure and temperature conditions. In the last decade, new experimental designs namely combining large volume presses and synchrotron-based techniques have opened the possibility for determining in situ the density of a wide range of dry and volatile-bearing (H2O and CO2) silicate melt compositions at high pressure-high temperature conditions. In this contribution we will illustrate some of these progresses with focus on recent results on the density of dry and hydrous felsic and intermediate melt compositions (rhyolite, phonolite and andesite melts) at crustal and upper mantle conditions (up to 4 GPa and 2000 K). The new data on felsic-intermediate melts has been combined with in situ data on (ultra)mafic systems and ambient pressure dilatometry and sound velocity data to calibrate a continuous, predictive density model for hydrous and CO2-bearing silicate melts with applications to magmatic processes down to the conditions of the mantle transition zone (up to 2773 K and 22 GPa). The calibration dataset consist of more than 370 density measurements on high-pressure and/or water-and CO2-bearing melts and it is formulated in terms of the partial molar properties of the oxide components. The model predicts the density of volatile-bearing liquids to within 42 kg/m3 in the calibration interval and the model extrapolations up to 3000 K and 100 GPa are in good agreement

  7. The Upper Mantle Shear Boundary Layer Is The Source Of Midplate Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    The lithosphere, lid, low-velocity layer (LVL) and the shallow part of the asthenosphere are all part of the upper boundary layer (BL) of the mantle, which generally overlies the canonical "convecting" upper mantle source (DMM) of ridge basalts. This global BL, Gutenberg's Region B (=BL), extends to ~200-250 km depth under cratons, which is well known, and to comparable depths under oceans, which is not generally appreciated because lid, plate, lithosphere and BL are often (erroneously) equated. A new BL is superposed on top of the pre-existing older one in oceans. The region above 220±20 km depth supports a high thermal gradient and is the most anisotropic and heterogeneous part of the mantle, indicators of thermal and shear BLs. The magnitude of the anisotropy and the velocity drop into the LVL, plus internal reflections, imply a laminated structure probably with refractory harzburgite lamellae coexisting with melt-rich sills, both normally less dense than DMM. This structure is sheared by plate motions causing shear-driven melt segregation into parallel fine-grained shear-bands, shear-driven upwellings, and decoupling and long-term isolation from DMM. The BL is twice as thick and is hotter at the base than canonical petrological and geochemical models based on McKenzie-Bickle-Steins thin-plate assumptions. The lower part of the shear layer (>150 km depth) is almost stationary with respect to plate motions and is ~200 K hotter than plate boundary magmas, features that are often attributed to mantle plumes. The refractory lamellae preserve ancient isotope signatures such as high 3He/4He ala Albarede; the melt-rich lamellae explain the volumes, compositions and locations of midplate volcanoes. BL is the largest (4x larger than D") and most accessible of all proposed geochemical reservoirs and has the required chemical, spatial, scale and thermal attributes. It resolves the Hart-Hanan conundrum concerning the Common Component FOZO; this resides in the shallowest

  8. Joint seismic-geodynamic-mineral physical modelling of African geodynamics: A reconciliation of deep-mantle convection with surface geophysical constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, A M; Quere, S; Moucha, R; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P; Mitrovica, J X; Rowley, D B

    2008-08-22

    Recent progress in seismic tomography provides the first complete 3-D images of the combined thermal and chemical anomalies that characterise the unique deep mantle structure below the African continent. With these latest tomography results we predict flow patterns under Africa that reveal a large-scale, active hot upwelling, or superplume, below the western margin of Africa under the Cape Verde Islands. The scale and dynamical intensity of this West African superplume (WASP) is comparable to that of the south African superplume (SASP) that has long been assumed to dominate the flow dynamics under Africa. On the basis of this new tomography model, we find the dynamics of the SASP is strongly controlled by chemical contributions to deep mantle buoyancy that significantly compensate its thermal buoyancy. In contrast, the WASP appears to be entirely dominated by thermal buoyancy. New calculations of mantle convection incorporating these two superplumes reveal that the plate-driving forces due to the flow generated by the WASP is as strong as that due to the SASP. We find that the chemical buoyancy of the SASP exerts a strong stabilising control on the pattern and amplitude of shallow mantle flow in the asthenosphere below the southern half of the African plate. The asthenospheric flow predictions provide the first high resolution maps of focussed upwellings that lie below the major centres of Late Cenozoic volcanism, including the Kenya domes and Hoggar massif that lies above a remnant plume head in the upper mantle. Inferences of sublithospheric deformation from seismic anisotropy data are shown to be sensitive to the contributions of chemical buoyancy in the SASP.

  9. A New Comprehensive Model for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure of the European Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.; Molinari, I.; Postpischl, L.; Schivardi, R.; Serretti, P.; Tondi, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new comprehensive model of crustal and upper mantle structure of the whole European Plate — from the North Atlantic ridge to Urals, and from North Africa to the North Pole — describing seismic speeds (P and S) and density. Our description of crustal structure merges information from previous studies: large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness and seismic parameters. Most original information refers to P-wave speed, from which we derive S speed and density from scaling relations. This a priori crustal model by itself improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps, as derived from GRACE satellite data, over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. In the inversion for transversely isotropic mantle structure, we use group speed measurements made on European event-to-station paths, and use a global a priori model (S20RTS) to ensure fair rendition of earth structure at depth and in border areas with little coverage from our data. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We map compressional wave speed inverting ISC travel times (reprocessed by Engdahl et al.) with a non linear inversion scheme making use of finite-difference travel time calculation. The inversion is based on an a priori model obtained by scaling the 3D mantle S-wave speed to P. The new model substantially confirms images of descending lithospheric slabs and back-arc shallow asthenospheric regions, shown in

  10. Control of slab width on subduction-induced upper mantle flow and associated upwellings: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strak, Vincent; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of slab width W (i.e., trench-parallel extent) on subduction-induced upper mantle flow remains uncertain. We present a series of free subduction analog models where W was systematically varied to upscaled values of 250-3600 km to investigate its effect on subducting plate kinematics and upper mantle return flow around the lateral slab edges. We particularly focused on the upwelling component of mantle flow, which might promote decompression melting and could thereby produce intraplate volcanism. The models show that W has a strong control on trench curvature and on the trench retreat, subducting plate, and subduction velocities, generally in good agreement with previous modeling studies. Upper mantle flow velocity maps produced by means of a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique indicate that the magnitude of the subduction-induced mantle flow around the lateral slab edges correlates positively with the product of W and trench retreat velocity. For all models an important upwelling component is always produced close to the lateral slab edges, with higher magnitudes for wider slabs. The trench-parallel lateral extent of this upwelling component is the same irrespective of W, but its maximum magnitude gets located closer to the subducting plate in the trench-normal direction and it is more focused when W increases. For W ≤ 2000 km the upwelling occurs laterally (in the trench-parallel direction) next to the subslab domain and the mantle wedge domain, while for W ≥ 2000 km it is located only next to the subslab domain and focuses closer to the trench tip, because of stronger poloidal flow in the mantle wedge extending laterally.

  11. 3-D multi-observable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. II: General methodology and resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, J. C.; Fullea, J.; Yang, Y.; Connolly, J. A. D.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    Here we present a 3-D multi-observable probabilistic inversion method, particularly designed for high-resolution (regional) thermal and compositional mapping of the lithosphere and sub-lithospheric upper mantle that circumvents the problems associated with traditional inversion methods. The key aspects of the method are as follows: (a) it exploits the increasing amount and quality of geophysical datasets; (b) it combines multiple geophysical observables (Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves, body-wave tomography, magnetotelluric, geothermal, petrological, gravity, elevation, and geoid) with different sensitivities to deep/shallow, thermal/compositional anomalies into a single thermodynamic-geophysical framework; (c) it uses a general probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation to appraise the data; (d) no initial model is needed; (e) compositional a priori information relies on robust statistical analyses of a large database of natural mantle samples; and (f) it provides a natural platform to estimate realistic uncertainties. In addition, the modular nature of the method/algorithm allows for incorporating or isolating specific forward operators according to available data. The strengths and limitations of the method are thoroughly explored with synthetic models. It is shown that the a posteriori probability density function (i.e., solution to the inverse problem) satisfactorily captures spatial variations in bulk composition and temperature with high resolution, as well as sharp discontinuities in these fields. Our results indicate that only temperature anomalies of ΔT ⪆150°C and large compositional anomalies of ΔMg# > 3 (or bulk ΔAl2O3 > 1.5) can be expected to be resolved simultaneously when combining high-quality geophysical data. This resolving power is sufficient to explore some long-standing problems regarding the nature and evolution of the lithosphere (e.g., vertical stratification of cratonic mantle, compositional versus temperature signatures in seismic

  12. Management of catheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey D; Liem, Timothy K; Moneta, Gregory L

    2016-07-01

    Central venous catheters or peripherally inserted central catheters are major risk factors for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). The body and quality of literature evaluating catheter-associated (CA) UEDVT have increased, yet strong evidence on screening, diagnosis, prevention, and optimal treatment is limited. We herein review the current evidence of CA UEDVT that can be applied clinically. Principally, we review the anatomy and definition of CA UEDVT, identification of risk factors, utility of duplex ultrasound as the preferred diagnostic modality, preventive strategies, and an algorithm for management of CA UEDVT. PMID:27318061

  13. Constraining the rheology of the lithosphere and upper mantle with geodynamic inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, Boris; Baumann, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of the lithosphere is of key importance for the physics of the lithosphere. Yet, it is probably the most uncertain parameter in geodynamics as experimental rock rheologies have to be extrapolated to geological conditions and as existing geophysical methods such as EET estimations make simplifying assumptions about the structure of the lithosphere. In many geologically interesting regions, such as the Alps, Andes or Himalaya, we actually have a significant amount of data already and as a result the geometry of the lithosphere is quite well constrained. Yet, knowing the geometry is only one part of the story, as we also need to have an accurate knowledge on the rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere. Here, we discuss a relatively new method that we developed over the last few years, which is called geodynamic inversion. The basic principle of the method is simple: we compile available geophysical data into a realistic geometric model of the lithosphere and incorporate that into a thermo-mechanical numerical model of lithospheric deformation. In order to do so, we have to know the temperature structure, the density and the (nonlinear) rheological parameters for various parts of the lithosphere (upper crust, upper mantle, etc.). Rather than fixing these parameters we assume that they are all uncertain. This is used as a priori information to formulate a Bayesian inverse problem that employs topography, gravity, horizontal and vertical surface velocities to invert for the unknown material parameters and temperature structure. In order to test the general methodology, we first perform a geodynamic inversion of a synthetic forward model of intra-oceanic subduction with known parameters. This requires solving an inverse problem with 14-16 parameters, depending on whether temperature is assumed to be known or not. With the help of a massively parallel direct-search combined with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, solving the inverse problem

  14. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Galápagos Hotspot from Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez, D. R.; Toomey, D. R.; Hooft, E. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    To understand plume-lithosphere interaction in a near-ridge setting, we present a surface wave tomographic study of the upper mantle beneath the Galápagos Archipelago. We use Rayleigh waves recorded by a network of 10 broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA experiment and the GSN station PAYG. We analyze waves in 12 separate frequency bands (8-50 mHz), which are sensitive to shear wave velocity (Vs) structure in the upper 150 km. To account for non-great-circle propagation caused by multipathing we use the two-plane-wave approximation of Forsyth and others. Two-dimensional models of phase velocity obtained at each frequency are inverted for three-dimensional variations in Vs. Average one-dimensional phase velocities are 1-2% slower than for 0-4 My-old Pacific mantle, and phase velocities vary laterally by ±3%. Inversions of phase velocities reveal that Vs varies regionally from 3.7 to 4.1 km/s, 3-15% slower than predicted along a 1300° C adiabat, and that there are two volumes of pronounced low velocity (>10% Vs reduction). Neither anomaly can be attributed to temperature alone; instead they require increased amounts of partial melt. The first anomaly, located beneath the volcanoes of the southwestern archipelago that erupt large volumes of enriched magmas, is most pronounced above 40 km depth and its magnitude increases toward the surface. This anomaly lies above an area of thinner-than-normal mantle transition zone and a cylindrical low-velocity body imaged by P and S wave tomography at depths of 100 to 250 km. This first anomaly may be the result of melt accumulation above a region of decompression melting driven by plume upwelling. The second low-velocity volume underlies the central archipelago, including the islands of Santiago and Marchena, and appears to be concentrated between 50 and 80 km depth. This anomaly is less pronounced near the surface, underlies a region that produces MORB, and coincides with a region of apparent

  15. Isotopic and trace element compositions of upper mantle and lower crustal xenoliths, Cima volcanic field, California: Implications for evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukasa, S.B.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    Ultramafic and mafic xenoliths from the Cima volcanic field, southern California, provide evidence of episodic modification of the upper mantle and underplating of the crust beneath a portion of the southern Basin and Range province. The upper mantle xenoliths include spinel peridotite and anhydrous and hydrous pyroxenite, some cut by igneous-textured pyroxenite-gabbro veins and dikes and some by veins of amphibole ?? plagioclase. Igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros like the dike rocks also occur abundantly as isolated xenoliths inferred to represent underplated crust. Mineral and whole rock trace element compositions among and within the different groups of xenoliths are highly variable, reflecting multiple processes that include magma-mantle wall rock reactions, episodic intrusion and it filtration of basaltic melts of varied sources into the mantle wall rock, and fractionation. Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic compositions mostly of clinopyroxene and plagioclase mineral separates show distinct differences between mantle xenoliths (??Nd = -5.7 to +3.4; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7051 - 0.7073; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.045 - 19.195) and the igneous-textured xenoliths (??Nd = +7.7 to +11.7; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7027 - 0.7036 with one carbonate-affected outlier at 0.7054; and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.751 - 19.068), so that they cannot be related. The igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros are similar in their isotopic compositions to the host basaltic rocks, which have ??Nd of+5.1 to +9.3; 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7028 - 0.7050, and 206Pb/204Pb of 18.685 - 21.050. The igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros are therefore inferred to be related to the host rocks as earlier cogenetic intrusions in the mantle and in the lower crust. Two samples of peridotite, one modally metasomatized by amphibole and the other by plagioclase, have isotopic compositions intermediate between the igneous-textured xenoliths and the mantle rock, suggesting mixing, but also derivation of the metasomatizing magmas from two separate and

  16. Platinum group elements in a 3.5 Ga nickel-iron occurrence - Possible evidence of a deep mantle origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tredoux, Marian; Hart, Rodger J.; Lindsay, Nicholas M.; De Wit, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of new field observations and the geochemical analyses for the area of the Bon Accord (BA) (the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa) Ni-Fe deposit, with particular consideration given to the trace element, platinum-group element, and isotopic (Pb, Nd, and Os) compositions. On the basis of these data, an interpretation of BA is suggested, according to which the BA deposit is a siderophile-rich heterogeneity remaining in the deep mantle after a process of incomplete core formation. The implications of such a model for the study of core-mantle segregation and the geochemistry of the lowermost mantle are discussed.

  17. Deep Structures and Initiation of Plate Tectonics in Thermochemical Mantle Convection Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; Stein, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recently deep thermochemical structures have been studied intensively. The observed large anomalies with reduced seismic velocities (LLSVPs) beneath Africa and the Pacific are obtained in numerical models as an initial dense layer at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is pushed up to piles by the convective flow (e.g., McNamara et al., EPSL 229, 1-9, 2010). Adding a dense CMB layer to a model featuring active plate tectonics, Trim et al. (EPSL 405, 1-14, 2014) find that surface mobility is strongly hindered by the dense material and can even vanish completely for a CMB layer that has a too high density or too large a volume.In a further study we employed a fully rheological model in which oceanic plates form self-consistently. We observe that an initial dense CMB layer strongly affects the formation of plates and therefore the onset time of plate tectonics. We present a systematic 2D parameter study exploring the time of plate initiation and discuss the resulting deep thermal and thermochemical structures in a self-consistent thermochemical mantle convection system.

  18. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Whitmore Mountains, West Antarctic Rift System, and Marie Byrd Land from Body-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Lloyd, A. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.; Shore, P.; Zhao, D.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the International Polar Year in Antarctica, 37 seismic stations have been installed across West Antarctica as part of the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET). 23 stations form a sparse backbone network of which 21 are co-located on rock sites with a network of continuously recording GPS stations. The remaining 14 stations, in conjunction with 2 backbone stations, form a seismic transect extending from the Ellsworth Mountains across the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and into Marie Byrd Land. Here we present preliminary P and S wave velocity models of the upper mantle from regional body wave tomography using P and S travel times from teleseismic events recorded by the seismic transect during the first year (2009-2010) of deployment. Preliminary P wave velocity models consisting of ~3,000 ray paths from 266 events indicate that the upper mantle beneath the Whitmore Mountains is seismically faster than the upper mantle beneath Marie Byrd Land and the WARS. Furthermore, we observe two substantial upper mantle low velocity zones located beneath Marie Byrd Land and near the southern boundary of the WARS.

  19. Isotropic and anisotropic shear velocity model of the NA upper mantle using EarthScope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J.; Clouzet, P.; French, S. W.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage across the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous work, we present a new 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic shear wave model of the North American (NA) lithospheric mantle, using full waveform tomography and shorter-period (40 s) waveform data. Our isotropic velocity model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between major tectonic localities of the eastern NA continent, as evidenced in the geology, and seismic anomalies, suggesting recurring episodes of tectonic events not only are well exposed at the surface, but also leave persistent scars in the continental lithosphere mantle, marked by isotropic and radially anisotropic velocity anomalies that reach as deep as 100-150 km. In eastern North America, our Vs images distinguish the fast velocity cratonic NA from the deep rooted large volume high velocity blocks which are east of the continent rift margin and extend 200-300 km offshore into Atlantic. In between is a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the south and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. The lithosphere associated with this low velocity band is thinned likely due to combined effects of repeated rifting processes along the rift margin and northward extension of the Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. Deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin are proposed to represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia formation but left behind during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The anisotropy model takes advantage of the up-to-date SKS compilation in the continent and new splitting results from Greenland. The new joint waveform and SKS splitting data inversion is carried out with a 2

  20. Ultra-depleted isotopic compositions in fertile asthenosphere-derived peridotites: constraints on the composition of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byerly, B. L.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of abyssal peridotites (AP) and OIB xenoliths have reported refractory, isotopically ultra-depleted domains within the convecting upper mantle with Nd- and Hf-isotope compositions that extend far beyond the MORB field. These results have important implications regarding the average composition of the depleted upper mantle and the genetic relationship between MORB and AP. However, the abundance of ultra-depleted domains in the mantle is unclear. In addition, recent melt extraction processes at mid-ocean ridges make it difficult to evaluate the compositions of ultra-depleted domains prior to exhumation and thus evaluate their role in melt generation. To better constrain the abundance and composition of typical convecting upper mantle, we examined a suite of spinel peridotite xenoliths from the central Rio Grande Rift (RGR) where most of the preexisting lithosphere has been convectively removed and replaced with depleted upper mantle. Seismic tomography indicates that the lithosphere beneath the RGR has been substantially removed (Gao, 2004), and geochemical evidence supports this. Two distinct populations of xenoliths are observed from Elephant Butte, central RGR. One population, interpreted to derive from residual Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, is refractory (bulk Al2O3 <2.3 wt.%), LREE- and LILE-enriched, has enriched Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions and along with xenoliths from the Eastern Colorado Plateau define a strong Lu/Hf-176Hf/177Hf "pseudo-isochron" with an apparent age of ~1.6 Ga. In contrast, the majority of the RGR xenoliths have fertile major element compositions (bulk Al2O3 ~ 4.0 wt %), low spinel Cr# (~10), and LREE-depleted trace element patterns, and overlap with composition estimates for the depleted mantle (Workman & Hart, 2005). We interpret these xenoliths to reflect recent replacement of the pre-existing lithosphere with material from the convecting upper mantle. The fertile xenoliths have cpx Sr-, Nd-, and Hf

  1. Effects of iron enrichment on the chemistry and physical properties of deep lower mantle silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pasquale, Antonella

    Variations in seismic wave speed and density in the Earth's deep lower mantle have been linked to chemical heterogeneities. In order to identify the compositions of these regions and determine their roles in Earth history and dynamics, experimental measurements are needed of the effects of compositional variation, particularly major elements Fe and Al, on phase equilibria and physical properties of mantle minerals. The experiments that comprise this dissertation provide new constraints on the chemistry and compressibility of mantle silicates. Experiments were conducted at mantle pressure-temperature conditions using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Determination of pressure in the diamond anvil cell requires internal pressure calibrants which suffer from uncertainty as high as 10% at Mbar pressures. A series of experiments were performed to test the reliability and agreement of pressure scales for Au, Mo, MgO, NaCl B2, Ne and Pt. These data were used to determine a new comprehensive pressure scale for use in experiments on mantle materials. The lower mantle's dominant phase is (Mg,Fe,Al)(Fe,Al,Si)O3 perovskite. At pressure-temperature conditions comparable to the deep lower mantle, perovskite undergoes a transition to a post-perovskite phase. I synthesized perovskites and post-perovskites from a series of Fe-rich (enstatite--ferrosilite, (Mg1--x,Fex)SiO 3, 0 < x < 74) and Fe,Al-rich (pyrope--almandine, (Mg1--x,Fex) 3Al2Si3O12, 0 < x < 100) compositions. These experiments have shown that as much as 75% FeSiO 3 is soluble in perovskite at 70--80 GPa. Fe was observed to lower and broaden the pressure range of the post-perovskite transition. Volume data were collected over a range of pressures for all compositions to constrain the effects of Fe and Al on the equations of state of these phases. Fe and Al incorporation were observed to increase the unit cell volume of perovskite but have a weak effect on its compressibility. The electronic behavior of Fe in

  2. The Effect of Plate Motion History on the Longevity of Deep Mantle Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Abigail; Domeier, Mathew; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    Numerical studies of mantle convection have attempted to explain tomographic observations that reveal a lower mantle dominated by broad regional areas of lower-than-average shear-wave speeds beneath Africa and the Central Pacific. The anomalous regions, termed LLSVPs ("large low shear velocity provinces"), are inferred to be thermochemical structures encircled by regions of higher-than-average shear-wave speeds associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic subduction zones. The origin and long-term evolution of the LLSVPs remains enigmatic. It has been proposed that the LLSVP beneath Africa was not present before 240 Ma, prior to which time the lower mantle was dominated by a degree-1 convection pattern with a major upwelling centred close to the present-day Pacific LLSVP and subduction concentrated mainly in the antipodal hemisphere. The African LLSVP would thus have formed during the time-frame of the supercontinent Pangea as a result of return flow in the mantle due to circum-Pacific subduction. An opposing hypothesis, which propounds a more long-term stability for both the African and Pacific LLSVPs, is suggested by recent palaeomagnetic plate motion models that propose a geographic correlation between the surface eruption sites of Phanerozoic kimberlites, major hotspots and Large Igneous Provinces to deep regions of the mantle termed "Plume Generation Zones" (PGZs), which lie at the margins of the LLSVPs. If the surface volcanism was sourced from the PGZs, such a link would suggest that both LLSVPs may have remained stationary for at least the age of the volcanics. i.e., 540 Myr. To investigate these competing hypotheses for the evolution of LLSVPs in Earth's mantle, we integrate plate tectonic histories and numerical models of mantle dynamics and perform a series of 3D spherical thermochemical convection calculations with Earth-like boundary conditions. We improve upon previous studies by employing a new, TPW-corrected global plate motion model to impose surface

  3. Helium Isotopic Compositions of Antarctic High-Mg Rocks Related to the Karoo Continental Flood Basalts: Evidence for a Depleted Upper Mantle Source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, J. S.; Kurz, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic composition of helium is often considered to be one of the key elements in resolving deep mantle plume vs. upper mantle origin of hotspot-related volcanic rocks. High 3He/4He values, greater than 10 times atmospheric (Ra), are generally thought to indicate plume-related sources in the lower mantle. The use of helium isotopes in continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces has been limited by the lack of fresh rock material, poor exposures, time-integrated ingrowth of radiogenic 4He, and strong lithospheric overprinting. Vestfjella mountain range at western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is comprised of lava flows and intrusive rocks that belong to the Jurassic (~180 Ma) Karoo continental flood basalt province, the bulk of which is exposed in southern Africa. The Karoo CFBs and related rocks show strong lithospheric influence in their geochemistry in general, but some high-Mg dikes from Vestfjella show geochemical evidence of derivation from sublithospheric sources. In an attempt to determine the first estimate for the helium isotopic composition of the Karoo mantle sources, we performed He isotopic measurements on six primitive Vestfjella dike samples collected from variably exposed nunataks. Helium was extracted by in-vacuo stepwise crushing and melting of separated and carefully hand-picked olivine phenocrysts (Ø = 0.25-1 mm; ~10 000 grains in total; abraded and unabraded fractions). The results of coupled crushing and melting measurements show evidence of both cosmogenic and radiogenic helium contributions within the olivines (i.e. by having high He contents and anomalously low or high 3He/4He released by melting), which complicates interpretation of the data. As a best estimate for the mantle isotopic composition, we use the sample with the highest amount of He released (> 50%) during the first crushing step of an abraded coarse fraction, which gave 3He/4He of 7.03 ± 0.23 (2σ) Ra. This value is indistinguishable from those measured from Southwest

  4. Broadband Seismic Investigations of the Upper Mantle Beneath the Vienna and Pannonian Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, B. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Team, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) aims to understand the origin of the Miocene-age extensional basins contained within the compressional arc of the Alpine-Carpathian system. To test competing models for the recent geological evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere and upper mantle, we present a new determination of P-wave velocity structure to depths of 700 km beneath this region. This model is based on inversion of seismic travel-time residuals from 97 broadband seismic stations. We include CBP data from a 15-month deployment of a high resolution network of 46 stations deployed NW-SE across the Vienna and western Pannonian basins through Austria, Hungary and Serbia, together with 10 broadband stations spread across the Pannonian basin and a further 41 permanent broadband stations. We use P-wave arrival times from approximately 341 teleseismic events. The 3-D velocity variation obtained by tomographic inversion of the P-wave travel-time residuals shows an approximately linear belt of fast material of width about 100 km, orientated WNW-ESE beneath the western Pannonian Basin at sub-lithospheric depths. This feature is apparently continuous with structure beneath the Eastern Alps, but becomes more diffuse into the transition zone. Our initial interpretation of these fast velocities is in terms of mantle downwelling related to the early collision of Adria and Europe. We use receiver functions to assess crustal structure variations. We also determine SKS anisotropy; regionally SKS varies systematically in direction, with a delay time of about 1.0s. E-W fast directions above the fast tomographic anomaly change to NW-SE across the Great Hungarian Plane and the Vienna Basin.

  5. Lithosphere structure and upper mantle characteristics below the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Srinivasa; Radhakrishna, M.; Sreejith, K. M.; Krishna, K. S.; Bull, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The oceanic lithosphere in the Bay of Bengal (BOB) formed 80-120 Ma following the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland. Since its formation, it has been affected by the emplacement of two long N-S trending linear aseismic ridges (85°E and Ninetyeast) and by the loading of ca. 20-km of sediments of the Bengal Fan. Here, we present the results of a combined spatial and spectral domain analysis of residual geoid, bathymetry and gravity data constrained by seismic reflection and refraction data. Self-consistent geoid and gravity modelling defined by temperature-dependent mantle densities along a N-S transect in the BOB region revealed that the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) deepens steeply from 77 km in the south to 127 km in north, with the greater thickness being anomalously thick compared to the lithosphere of similar-age beneath the Pacific Ocean. The Geoid-Topography Ratio (GTR) analysis of the 85°E and Ninetyeast ridges indicate that they are compensated at shallow depths. Effective elastic thickness (Te) estimates obtained through admittance/ coherence analysis as well as the flexural modelling along these ridges led to the conclusions: (i) 85°E Ridge was emplaced in off-ridge environment (Te = 10-15 km); (ii) the higher Te values of ˜25 km over the Afanasy Nikitin Seamount (ANS) reflect the secondary emplacement of the seamount peaks in off-ridge environment, (iii) that the emplacement of the Ninetyeast Ridge north of 2°N occurred in an off-ridge environment as indicated by higher Te values (25-30 km). Furthermore, the admittance analysis of geoid and bathymetry revealed that the admittance signatures at wavelengths >800 km are compensated by processes related to upper mantle convection.

  6. Experimental Studies of Crystal Structures and Elasticity in the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Shim, S.; Shieh, S. R.; Speziale, S.

    2001-12-01

    In evaluating the role of the deep mantle in controlling the Earth's structure, dynamics, and evolution, it is essential to understand the physical properties of the constituent minerals. Here we summarize the results of experimental investigations into both the crystal structures and elastic properties of deep mantle minerals. Using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, we have investigated phase transitions in the Mg2SiO4, MgSiO3, CaSiO3 and SiO2 systems to pressure-temperature conditions corresponding to depths as great as 2300 km in the mantle. For MgSiO3 perovskite, our results have confirmed the stability of this material to 106 GPa. However, present results cannot rule out a possible phase transformation to another perovskite structure above 83 GPa. In the case of SiO2, the transformation from stishovite to the CaCl2 structure is readily observed near 50 GPa under in situ conditions. Only minor amounts of SiO2 in the PbO2 structure have been detected in studies up to 78 GPa. A complementary study of stishovite by radial x-ray diffraction shows that the strength of this material is dramatically reduced in the vicinity of the stishovite-CaCl2 phase transition near 50 GPa. Thus, this phase transition appears to be associated with dramatic changes in both elastic and rheological properties. In 1989, Duffy and Anderson produced a comprehensive analysis of the mineral elasticity data available at that time. In the succeeding 12 years, the rapid development of high-pressure ultrasonic, spectroscopic, and x-ray techniques have dramatically expanded this database. We have recently compiled an updated database in which we have critically evaluated conflicting measurements and systematically reevaluated trends in elastic properties and their derivatives as a function of composition and structure. This new database is then used to address questions concerning lower mantle bulk composition, slab buoyancy, and derivatives of seismic velocity with respect to composition (e

  7. Rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation in upper mantle flow near plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Donna; Castelnau, Olivier; Dawson, Paul; Boyce, Donald

    2016-04-01

    Observations of anisotropy provide insight into upper mantle processes. Flow-induced mineral alignment provides a link between mantle deformation patterns and seismic anisotropy. Our study focuses on the rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation (CPO), which develops during mantle flow, in order to assess whether corresponding anisotropic viscosity could significantly impact the pattern of flow. We employ a coupled nonlinear numerical method to link CPO and the flow model via a local viscosity tensor field that quantifies the stress/strain-rate response of a textured mineral aggregate. For a given flow field, the CPO is computed along streamlines using a self-consistent texture model and is then used to update the viscosity tensor field. The new viscosity tensor field defines the local properties for the next flow computation. This iteration produces a coupled nonlinear model for which seismic signatures can be predicted. Results thus far confirm that CPO can impact flow pattern by altering rheology in directionally-dependent ways, particularly in regions of high flow gradient. Multiple iterations run for an initial, linear stress/strain-rate case (power law exponent n=1) converge to a flow field and CPO distribution that are modestly different from the reference, scalar viscosity case. Upwelling rates directly below the spreading axis are slightly reduced and flow is focused somewhat toward the axis. Predicted seismic anisotropy differences are modest. P-wave anisotropy is a few percent greater in the flow 'corner', near the spreading axis, below the lithosphere and extending 40-100 km off axis. Predicted S-wave splitting differences would be below seafloor measurement limits. Calculations with non-linear stress/strain-rate relation, which is more realistic for olivine, indicate that effects are stronger than for the linear case. For n=2-3, the distribution and strength of CPO for the first iteration are greater than for n=1, although the fast seismic

  8. Petrologically-based Electrical Profiles vs. Geophysical Observations through the Upper Mantle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, F.; Massuyeau, M.; Sifre, D.; Tarits, P.

    2013-12-01

    Mineralogical transformations in the up-welling mantle play a critical role on the dynamics of mass and heat transfers at mid-ocean-ridgeS. The melting event producing ridge basalts occur at 60 km depth below the ridge axis, but because of small amounts of H2O and CO2 in the source region of MOR-basalts, incipient melting can initiate at much greater depth. Such incipient melts concentrate incompatible elements, and are particularly rich in volatile species. These juices evolve from carbonatites, carbonated basalts, to CO2-H2O-rich basalts as recently exposed by petrological surveys; the passage from carbonate to silicate melts is a complex pathway that is strongly non-linear. This picture has recently been complicated further by studies showing that oxygen increasingly partitions into garnet as pressure increases; this implies that incipient melting may be prevented at depth exceeding 200 km because not enough oxygen is available in the system to stabilize carbonate melts. The aim of this work is twofold: - We modelled the complex pathway of mantle melting in presence of C-O-H volatiles by adjusting the thermodynamic properties of mixing in the multi-component C-O-H-melt system. This allows us to calculate the change in melt composition vs. depth following any sortS of adiabat. - We modelled the continuous change in electrical properties from carbonatites, carbonated basalts, to CO2-H2O-rich basalts. We then successfully converted this petrological evolution along a ridge adiabat into electrical conductivity vs. depth signal. The discussion that follows is about comparison of this petrologically-based conductivity profile with the recent profiles obtained by inversion of the long-period electromagnetic signals from the East-Pacific-Rise. These geophysically-based profiles reveal the electrical conductivity structure down to 400 km depth and they show some intriguing highly conductive sections. We will discuss heterogeneity in electrical conductivity of the upper

  9. The crust and upper mantle of central East Greenland - implications for continental accretion and rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, Niels; Ebbing, Jörg; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    The geological evolution of the North Atlantic Realm during the past 450 Myr, which has shaped the present-day topographic, crustal and upper mantle features, was dominated by the Caledonian orogeny and the formation of the North Atlantic and associated igneous activity. The distinct high altitude-low relief landscapes that accompany the North Atlantic rifted passive margins are the focus of a discussion of whether they are remnant and modified Caledonian features or, alternatively, recently uplifted peneplains. Teleseismic receiver function analysis of 11 broadband seismometers in the Central Fjord Region in East Greenland indicates the presence of a fossil subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of hydrated mantle peridotite. This model is generally consistent with gravity and topography. It is shown that the entire structure including crustal thickness variations and sub-Moho heterogeneity gives a superior gravity and isostatic topographic fit compared to a model with a homogeneous lithospheric layer (1). The high topography of >1000 m in the western part of the area is supported by the c. 40 km thick crust. The eastern part requires buoyancy from the low velocity/low density mantle wedge. The geometry, velocities and densities are consistent with structures associated with a fossil subduction zone. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere and that significant present-day dynamic topography seems not to be required. Further, this structure is suggested to be geophysically very similar to the Flannan reflector imaged north of Scotland, and that these are the remnants of the same fossil subduction zone, broken apart and separated during the formation of the North Atlantic in the early Cenozoic (2). 1) Schiffer, C., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Ebbing, J. and Nielsen, S

  10. The Mono Arch, eastern Sierra region, California: Dynamic topography associated with upper-mantle upwelling?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A broad, topographic flexure localized east of and over the central and southern Sierra Nevada, herein named the Mono Arch, apparently represents crustal response to lithospheric and/or upper-mantle processes, probably dominated by mantle upwelling within the continental interior associated Pacific-North American plate-boundary deformation. This zone of flexure is identified through comparison between the topographic characteristics of the active Cascade volcanic arc and backarc regions with the analogous former arc and backarc in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sierra Nevada. Serial topographic profiles measured normal to the modern Cascade backarc reveal an accordance of topographic lows defined by valley floors with an average minimum elevation of ???1400-1500m for over 175km to the southeast. Although the accordance drops in elevation slightly to the south, the modern Cascade backarc region is remarkably level, and is characterized by relief up to ???750m above this baseline elevation. By contrast, serial topographic profiles over the former arc and backarc transitions of the eastern Sierra region exhibit a regional anticlinal warping defined by accordant valley floors and by a late Miocene-early Pliocene erosion surface and associated deposits. The amplitude of this flexure above regionally flat baseline elevations to the east varies spatially along the length of the former Sierran arc, with a maximum of ???1000m centred over the Bridgeport Basin. The total zone of flexure is approximately 350km long N-S and 100km wide E-W, and extends from Indian Wells Valley in the south to the Sonora Pass region in the north. Previous geophysical, petrologic, and geodetic studies suggest that the Mono Arch overlies a zone of active mantle upwelling. This region also represents a zone crustal weakness formerly exploited by the middle-to-late Miocene arc and is presently the locus of seismic and volcanic activities. This seismic zone, which lies east of the Sierra Nevada block

  11. Seismic tomography reveals the upper-mantle structure beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, B. D.; Houseman, G.; Stuart, G. W.; Hegedus, E.; Kovacs, A.; Brueckl, E. P.; Hausmann, H.; Radovanovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) aims to understand the formation of the Miocene-age extensional basins contained within the convergent arc of the Alpine-Carpathian system. To test competing models for the recent geological evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere and upper mantle, we present a new tomographic determination of P-wave velocity structure to depths of 700 km beneath this region. This model is based on inversion of seismic travel-time residuals from 97 broadband seismic stations. We include CBP data from a 15-month deployment of a high resolution network of 46 stations deployed NW-SE across the Vienna and western Pannonian basins through Austria, Hungary and Serbia, together with 10 broadband stations spread across the Pannonian basin and a further 41 permanent broadband stations. We use P-wave arrival times from 232 teleseismic events. To avoid contamination of our inversion results from crustal velocity variations, deterministic corrections are applied to our travel-time residuals using crustal velocity models obtained from controlled source experiments and sediment thickness maps. Our 3-D velocity model images the fast velocity structure of the eastern Alps down to ~350 km. Beneath the Pannonian basin the velocity variation at 300 km depth is dominated by a fast region which extends eastward from the Alpine anomaly and reaches down into the mantle transition zone (MTZ). This fast structure is limited on the North side by slow material beneath the North Carpathians. At depths greater than 450 km, below the eastern Pannonian basin, a slow anomaly extends to the base of the model. Beneath the same region Hetenyi et al. (submitted to GRL), used receiver functions from the CBP dataset, to show a localised depression of the 660 km discontinuity of up to ~40 km. We aim to address how the depression of the 660 km discontinuity and its associated density and velocity variations affect our tomographic images. Our results will help to provide

  12. A comparison of peridotites from the Molloy Deep and the Gakkel Ridge with mantle xenolites from Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. E.; Amundsen, H. E. F.; Snow, J. E.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    Along the Arctic ridges, mantle peridotites are tectonically exposed in the Molloy Deep and along the Gakkel Ridge. In the Arctic region, mantel peridotites are also present as xenolites in Quaternary volcanoes in the Bockfjord area on Spitsbergen -- approximately 150 km east of the Molloy Deep. These volcanic centres contain up to 15--20% of xenolites that comprise: Cr-diopside lherzolites, wehrlites, meta-pyroksenites and granulites. The Sr and Nd isotopic composition of clinopyroxenes from lherzolite xenolites have been analysed and compared with the isotopic composition of clinopyroxenes extracted from mantle peridotites from the Molloy Deep and the Gakkel Ridge, as well as with the isotopic compositions of basalts dredged from the Mohns and the Knipovich Ridges. Preliminary results show that a group of lherzolite xenolites from Spitsbergen have Sr-Nd isotopic compositions similar to the enriched end member of the Mohns-Knipovich trend. Other xenolites show much more depleted Nd-isotopic compositions. These xenolites have Sm-Nd model ages ranging from 900 Ma to 1700 Ma suggesting that parts of the sub-continental mantle in the region experienced Precambrian melt extraction. The peridotites from the Molloy Deep have similar Nd-isotopic compositions as the least depleted mantle xenolites from Spitsbergen, and plot also at the enriched end of the Mohns-Knipovich trend. The peridotites analysed from the Gakkel Ridge show, however, significantly higher 143Nd/144Nd ratios than the peridotites from the Molloy Deep.

  13. Transition Zone Anisotropy Beneath Deep Slabs and the Transport of Water into the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J. M.; Pemberton, A.

    2014-12-01

    To first order, the Earth exhibits seismic anisotropy (the variation of wave speed with direction) only in the uppermost and lowermost mantle, as well as the inner core. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that it is also present in the transition zone (TZ) and uppermost lower mantle (LM). We use the method of 'source-side' shear wave splitting to observe anisotropy in the regions of deep earthquakes distributed globally. This technique removes the effects of anisotropy near well-characterised receiver stations to infer the splitting at the source, allowing us to probe the midmantle where slabs appear to be impinging on the LM. Over 130 observations, mainly beneath South America, Tonga and Japan, are made for earthquakes 200-650 km deep. They show shear wave splitting with mean delay time 1.0 s, but there is no trend of decreasing—or increasing—δt with depth. Because of the distribution of circum-Pacific deep earthquakes, our data are only sensitive to anisotropy in the sub-slab region and the slab itself. Our observations reveal a consistent pattern: the data are best fit with a style of anisotropy which has a rotational symmetry axis pointing upwards along the slab. This pattern of anisotropy is typical of approximately uniaxial flattening of material which develops a lattice preferred orientation (LPO) by dislocation creep. This is consistent with the expected mechanics of slab sinking and supported by the P-axes of moment tensor solutions for the events we analyse. Because the amount of anisotropy does not appear to be related to the depth, we can confine the source region to either the slab itself, or the top of the LM. The amount of anisotropy makes it unlikely that MgSiO3-perovskite in the LM is the source, as it would require a high-strain layer over 1500~km thick. Dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases which are known to become stable at the base of the TZ (the so-called 'alphabet' phases; such as D and superhydrous B), do however

  14. Density of alkaline magmas at crustal and upper mantle conditions by X-ray absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, R.; Malfait, W.; Petitgirard, S.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2011-12-01

    Silicate melts are essential components of igneous processes and are directly involved in differentiation processes and heat transfer within the Earth. Studies of the physical properties of magmas (e.g., density, viscosity, conductivity, etc) are however challenging and experimental data at geologically relevant pressure and temperature conditions remain scarce. For example, there is virtually no data on the density at high pressure of alkaline magmas (e.g., phonolites) typically found in continental rift zone settings. We present in situ density measurements of alkaline magmas at crustal and upper mantle conditions using synchrotron X-ray absorption. Measurements were conducted on ID27 beamline at ESRF using a panoramic Paris-Edinburgh Press (PE Press). The starting material is a synthetic haplo-phonolite glass similar in composition to the Plateau flood phonolites from the Kenya rift [1]. The glass was synthesized at 1673 K and 2.0 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus at ETH Zurich and characterized using EPMA, FTIR and density measurements. The sample contains less than 200 ppm water and is free of CO2. Single-crystal diamond cylinders (Øin = 0.5 mm, height = 1 mm) were used as sample containers and placed in an assembly formed by hBN spacers, a graphite heater and a boron epoxy gasket [2]. The density was determined as a function of pressure (1.0 to 3.1 GPa) and temperature (1630-1860 K) from the X-ray absorption contrast at 20 keV between the sample and the diamond capsule. The molten state of the sample during the data collection was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Pressure and temperature were determined simultaneously from the equation of state of hBN and platinum using the the double isochor method [3].The results are combined with available density data at room conditions to derive the first experimental equation of state (EOS) of phonolitic liquids at crustal and upper mantle conditions. We will compare our results with recent reports of the

  15. Silicon Grain Boundary Diffusion in Forsterite and Implications to Upper Mantle Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, H.; Koizumi, S.; Sakamoto, N.; Hashiguchi, M.; Yurimoto, H.; Marquardt, K.; Miyajima, N.; Yamazaki, D.; Katsura, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plastic deformation of minerals in the Earth's interior is controlled by diffusion creep (including Coble creep and Nabarro-Herring creep) and dislocation creep. Diffusion creep makes Newtonian rheology and seismic isotropy, whereas dislocation creep makes non-Newtonian rheology and seismic anisotropy. Determination of the dominant creep mechanism in the Earth's interior is thus essential to understand the geodynamics. Experimental deformation studies on olivine suggested that the dominant creep mechanism in the upper mantle changes from dislocation to diffusion creep at 200-300 km depth [1, 2]. However, those studies may misunderstood the creep rate due to experimental difficulties [3, 4]. It is necessary to independently examine the creep mechanisms in the upper mantle. Coble diffusion creep in olivine is controlled by Si grain-boundary diffusion, whereas dislocation and Nabarro-Herring diffusion creeps are controlled by Si lattice diffusion. We have already reported Si lattice diffusion rate in iron-free olivine [3, 4]. In this study, we systematically measured Si grain boundary diffusion rate in forserite aggregates at 1 atm -13 GPa, 1100-1600 K, and bulk water content from <1 up to ~500 wt. ppm using multi-anvil apparatus and ambient pressure gas-mixing furnace. The diffusion profiles, water contents before and after diffusion, and microstructures of the samples were analyzed by SIMS, FT-IR, and TEM, respectively. The activation energy, activation volume, and water content exponent for Si grain boundary diffusion are found to be 245±10 kJ/mol, 1.8±0.2 cm3/mol, and 0.22±0.05, respectively. Our results suggest that 1) pressure does not change the dominant creep mechanism; 2) Coble creep dominates at low temperature whereas dislocation or Nabarro-Herring creep does at high temperature; (3) water effect on olivine creeps are all small. Dislocation creep dominates the entire asthenosphere, namely, the creep mechanism transition at 200-300 km depth does not occur

  16. Sound velocities of δ-AlOOH up to core-mantle boundary pressures with implications for the seismic anomalies in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashino, Izumi; Murakami, Motohiko; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies show that δ-AlOOH is stable up to the base of the mantle. This phase is, therefore, a possible carrier and host of water in the deep mantle. To uncover the physical properties of δ-AlOOH under deep mantle pressure conditions, we have conducted high-pressure acoustic wave velocity measurements of δ-AlOOH by using Brillouin spectroscopy combined with high-pressure Raman spectroscopic measurements in a diamond anvil cell up to pressures of 134 GPa. There is a precipitous increase by ~14% in the acoustic velocities of δ-AlOOH from 6 to 15 GPa, which suggests that pressure-induced O-H bond symmetrization occurs in this pressure range. The best fit values for the high-pressure form of δ-AlOOH of K0 = 190 (2) (GPa), G0 = 160.0 (9) (GPa), (∂K/∂P)0 = K0' = 3.7 (1), and (∂G/∂P)0 = G0' = 1.32 (1) indicate that δ-AlOOH has a 20-30% higher VS value compared to those of the major constituent minerals in the mantle transition zone, such as wadsleyite, ringwoodite, and majorite. On the other hand, the VS of δ-AlOOH is ~7% lower than that of Mg-bridgmanite under lowermost mantle pressure conditions because of the significantly lower value of the pressure derivative of the shear modulus. By comparing our results with seismic observations, we can infer that δ-AlOOH could be one of the potential causes of a positive VS anomaly observed at ~600 km depth beneath the Korean peninsula and a negative VS jump near 2800 km depth near the northern margin of the large low-shear-velocity province beneath the Pacific.

  17. Spin crossover and iron-rich silicate melt in the Earth's deep mantle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, K.; Nomura, R.; Ozawa, H.; Tateno, S.; Hernlund, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    spin crossover of iron in silicate melt. These results imply that (Mg,Fe)SiO3 liquid becomes more dense than coexisting solid at ~1800-km depth in the lower mantle. Soon after Earth's formation, the heat dissipated by accretion and internal differentiation could have produced a dense melt layer up to ~1,000 km in thickness. We also infer that (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite is on the liquidus at deep mantle conditions, and predict that fractional crystallization of dense magma would have evolved toward a Fe-rich/Si-poor composition, consistent with seismic inferences of structures in the CMB region.

  18. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Changbai volcano: Insight into deep slab dehydration and hot upwelling near the 410 km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhu, Hongxiang; Zhao, Dapeng; Liu, Cai; Feng, Xuan; Liu, Ting; Ma, Jincheng

    2016-08-01

    We study the detailed mantle transition zone structure beneath the active Changbai intraplate volcano in Northeast China by using a receiver-function method. A total of 3005 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 70 broadband stations are obtained by using a common-conversion-point stacking method. For conducting the time-to-depth conversion, we use a three-dimensional velocity model of the study region so as to take into account the influence of structural heterogeneities. Our results reveal significant depth variations of the 410, 520, and 660 km discontinuities. A broad depression of the 410 km discontinuity and a low-velocity anomaly are revealed beneath the Changbai volcano, which may reflect a large-scale hot mantle upwelling around the 410 km discontinuity with a positive Clapeyron slope. The 520 km discontinuity is identified clearly, and its uplift occurs above the stagnant Pacific slab. We also find a prominent depression of the 660 km discontinuity, which is elongated along the trend of deep earthquake clusters in a range of 39°N-44°N latitude, and the depression area has a lateral extent of about 400 km. Because the 520 and 660 km discontinuities correspond to positive and negative Clapeyron slopes, respectively, we think that the 520 uplift and the 660 depression are caused by the cold subducting Pacific slab. A part of the Pacific slab may have penetrated into the lower mantle and so caused the large-scale 660 depression in front of the deep earthquake clusters. Our results also reveal a part of the upper boundary of the subducting Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone.

  19. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath The Arabian Peninsula From body and Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). The P- and S wave models were inverted from 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes, respectively. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. Surface wave tomography is being performed using fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured across the SANDSN. Preliminary phase velocity maps will be provided and compared to the body wave tomographic results.

  20. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2005-08-30

    We report the estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a partial data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). This study builds on previous work by Benoit et al. (2003) following the methods of VanDecar and Crosson (1990) and VanDecar (1991). Data were collected from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by KACST. The network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment. This study shows the inverted P- and S-wave models computed with the combined data with all three different seismic networks (KASCST, IRIS, and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL experiment) with best coverage beneath the Arabian Shield. Tomographic images reveal low velocity features in the upper mantle along a north-south line from the southern Asir region to the northeastern portion of the Arabian Shield.

  1. Upper mantle structure of the southern Arabian margin: insights from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Boschi, Lapo; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham W.; Khanbari, Khaled; El Hussain, Issa

    2015-04-01

    We image the lithospheric and upper asthenospheric structure beneath the central and eastern parts of the northern Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin with 59 broadband stations to evaluate the role of transform fault zones on the evolution of magma-poor continental margins. We use teleseismic tomography to compute a relative P wave velocity model in eastern Yemen and southern Oman down to 400 km depth. Our model shows low velocity anomalies located in the vicinity of five major fracture zones and regions of recent volcanism. These low velocity anomalies are likely caused by localized asthenospheric upwelling and partial melting, caused by small-scale convection promoted by gradients in LAB (lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) topography near the fracture zones. In addition, low velocities underlie regions of elevated topography in between major sedimentary basins. We suggest locally buoyant mantle creates uplift and dynamic topography on the rift mar- gin that impacts the course of seasonal rivers and the sedimentation at the mouth of those rivers. Our new P wave velocity model suggests that the dynamic topography and recent volcanism in the central and eastern Gulf of Aden could be due to small-scale convection at the edge of the Arabian plate and/or in the vicinity of fracture zones.

  2. The upper mantle beneath the Cascade Range: A comparison with the Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walck, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Seismograms from 22 earthquakes along the northeast Pacific rim recorded in southern California form the data set for investigation of the upper mantle beneath the Cascade Range-Juan de Fuca region, a transitional area encompassing both very young ocean floor and a continental margin. These data consist of 853 seismograms (6 deg delta 42 deg) which produce 1068 travel times and 40 ray parameter estimates. These data are compared directly to another large suite of records representative of structure beneath the Gulf of California, an active spreading center. The spreading center model, GCA, was used as a starting point in WKBJ synthetic seismogram modeling and perturb GCA until the northeast Pacific data are matched. Application of wave field continuation to these two groups of data provides checks on model's consistency with the data as well as an estimate of the resolvability of differences between the two areas. Differences between the models derived from these two data sets are interpretable in terms of lateral structural variation beneath the two regimes.

  3. Titanium-hydroxyl defect-controlled rheology of the Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Cline, Christopher J.; David, Emmanuel C.; Berry, Andrew J.; Jackson, Ian

    2016-10-01

    Experiments were conducted with hydrous olivine to investigate the defect responsible for the influence of water (hydrogen structurally incorporated as hydroxyl) on the olivine rheology. Solution-gelation derived Fo90 olivine doped with nominally 0.04-0.1 wt.% TiO2 was first hot-pressed and then deformed in platinum capsules at 300 MPa confining pressure and temperatures from 1200- 1350°C. The water content