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Sample records for deep venous thrombophlebitis

  1. Deep venous thrombophlebitis following aortoiliac reconstructive surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.K.; McCabe, C.J.; Abbott, W.M.; Brewster, D.C.; Moncure, A.C.; Reidy, N.C.; Darling, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    One hundred patients undergoing elective aortic surgery were scanned prospectively for development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The incidence of DVT in this population was 13%. Eleven patients showed only calf vein thrombosis on venography, whereas two had occlusive iliofemoral thrombus. The correlation between venous Doppler ultrasound and venography was 80%. More importantly, Doppler examination correctly identified both patients with occlusive thrombus. Fibrinogen scanning was associated with a false-positive rate of 31%. Only one patient suffered a nonfatal pulmonary embolus. Fibrinogen scanning has an unacceptably high false-positive rate; however, Doppler ultrasound will identify significant occlusive thrombus without a high false-positive rate. The low incidence of pulmonary emboli does not warrant such definitive measures as prophylactic vena caval interruption.

  2. Thrombophlebitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... clots from forming, most often only prescribed when deep veins are involved Medicines such as ibuprofen to ... prescribe medicine to prevent thrombophlebitis. Alternative Names Phlebitis; Deep vein thrombosis - thrombophlebitis Images Deep venous thrombosis, iliofemoral ...

  3. Pitfalls in establishing the diagnosis of deep venous thrombophlebitis by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Kimball, D.A.; Ponto, J.A.; Bricker, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Forty-seven /sup 111/In-platelet scintigraphs (In-PS) were analyzed retrospectively to identify sources of diagnostic error and to optimize the diagnostic criteria for active deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT). The results of In-PS were compared with contrast venography, additional diagnostic studies, and clinical outcome. Three patterns of platelet localization emerged as the best predictors of active DVT: (a) focal or (b) linear 4-hr localization, or (c) an asymmetric blood-pool pattern on 4-hr imaging that evolved into a focal or linear pattern by 16 to 24 hr. All false-positive studies had abnormal patterns confined to the inguinal region at 24 hr. All patients with false-negative studies had received heparin between 4 and 24 hr. The potential pitfalls encountered in the evaluation of the iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins are reviewed and the importance of delayed imaging in selected cases is emphasized.

  4. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  5. [Suppurative thrombophlebitis central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Ramos Martínez, A; Sánchez Romero, I; Saura Lorente, P A; Parajón Díaz, A

    2008-06-01

    Suppurative thrombophlebitisis a very infrequent complication of the central venous catheterization. The majority of the cases are produced by species of staphylococci. A 22-year-old colombian-woman, student, without toxic habits was admitted because of temporary left astrocytoma (grade II). Nine days after implementing a catheter in the right subclavian vein she presented high fever (39.5 degrees C), shivers, progressive right side neck swelling and odinofagia. She had leukocytosis (26,300 cells/microl) and normal cerebrospinal fluid. After withdrawing the catheter, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the tip of the catheter and in four bottles of blood cultures. A neck CT demonstrated expansion and absence of contrast in the right internal jugular vein. The patient evolved satisfactorily with cloxacillin, gentamycin and low molecular weight heparin.

  6. Superficial thrombophlebitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risks for thrombophlebitis include: Cancer or liver disease Deep vein thrombosis Disorders that involve increased blood clotting ( ... Possible problems may include the following: Infections ( cellulitis ) Deep vein thrombosis When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  7. Clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins at legs.

    PubMed

    Jerkic, Zoran; Karic, Alen; Karic, Amela

    2009-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis is a common disorder until recently it was considered as benign disorder. Also it is associated with varicose vein at legs and it was treated effectively with conservative methods, walking and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Aims of our investigation were: determine frequency of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis at legs in patient with and without superficial thrombophlebitis, determine correlation between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis regardless of localization of superficial thrombophlebitis in superficial veins of legs and determine adequacy and safety vein phlebography in early diagnosis clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis. Using flebography in prospective study was evaluated incidence of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in 92 patients with varicose veins at legs. By phlebograpy in patients with varicose veins at legs and superficial thrombophlebitis at legs and without clinical signs of DVT at legs of the 49 patients we detected DVT in 12 patients (24, 48%), in three male and nine female. We detected localization of DVT in ilijacofemoral junction in 4,08% patients, although localization of DVT in femoropopliteal region was observed in 6, 12% patients and localization in crural region was in 14.28% patients. Localization of DVT at legs was detected in iliac vein in 16.66% patients, in femoral vein in 25% patients, popliteal vein 8.33% patients, anterior tibial vein 16.66%, posterior tibial vein in 25% and crural veins 8.33% patients. Also we deduced significant difference between two group of patients (chi2 = 10, 76). Such result proves thesis that in most patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins is possibility of developing of DVT.

  8. Diagnosing Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, D. Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Patients often present with unexplained lower limb pain and swelling. It is important to exclude deep venous thrombosis in the diagnosis because of the threat of sudden death. Simple clinical diagnosis is unacceptable, and noninvasive tests should be used initially. Serial testing detects proximal extension of isolated calf thrombi. Multiple diagnostic modalities are employed to diagnose a new deep venous thrombosis in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. PMID:21221369

  9. Deep venous thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315257 . Kline JA. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 88. ... Instructions Deep vein thrombosis - discharge ...

  10. Efficacy of noninvasive modalities of diagnosis of thrombophlebitis

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, R.W.; Klatte, E.C.; Park, H.M.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Bendick, P.J.; Dilley, R.S.; Glover, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    In a blind prospective study of 158 limbs, Doppler ultrasound, pneumoplethysmography, and radionuclide venography (RNV) using /sup 99/mTc-MAA were compared to phlebography as methods of detecting thrombophlebitis. All three noninvasive modalities were very insensitive to isolated thrombus below the knee. In patients with extension of thrombus above the knee and isolated thrombus in the deep veins of the upper limb, Doppler ultrasound had a sensitivity of 81% and RNV had a sensitivity of 77%. All of the noninvasive modalities were found to be dependent on venous occlusion. Overall, pneumoplethysmography had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 96%, compared with 56% and 91%, respectively, for Doppler ultrasound and 51% and 84% for RNV. Based on these findings, phlebography would still seem to be the modality of choice in the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis.

  11. A review of the birth control pill and its relationship to thrombophlebitis.

    PubMed

    Julsrud, M E

    1979-06-01

    A perspective study by the Royal College of General Practitioners reported that the risk of developing deep venous thrombosis of the legs in women taking oral contraceptives was 5.66 times higher than women not on medication. Estrogen-progestogen compounds are highly potent hormones that produce alterations in metabolic and endocrine functions. Clinical examination of the leg is the most reliable method of determining the earliest indication of thrombophlebitis even with the latest diagnostic tools of venography. The key to diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism, which often occurs with patients with thrombophlebitis, is a patient's complaint of leg pains. Those who have undergone surgery, especially abdominal and pelvic, are bedridden, and those who are taking oral contraceptives are at risk of thrombophlebitis. Deep thrombophlebitis of the leg is not recognized clinically in 50-80% of those with venographically documented thrombophlebitis because the signs and symptoms are so protean. Treatment with heparin and leg bandages is most common. Heparin is often followed with coumarin therapy. Some methods of diagnosis are calf tenderness, edema, skin temperature, Homan's Sign, Lowenberg's Sign, Pratt's Sign, cyanosis, systemic signs, and contrast venogram.

  12. Management of superficial vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis: status and expert opinion document.

    PubMed

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Agus, G; Georgiev, M; Errichi, B M; Marinucci, R; Errichi, S; Filippini, A; Pellegrini, L; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Cipollone, G; Lania, M; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Bavera, P; Fano, F; Dugall, M; Adovasio, R; Gallione, L; Del Boccio, G; Cornelli, U; Steigerwalt, R; Acerbi, G; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Hosoi, M; Stuard, S; Corsi, M; Di Ciano, L; Simeone, E; Collevecchio, G; Grossi, M G; Di Giambattista, F; Carestia, F; Zukowski, A

    2007-01-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis is characterized by clotting of superficial veins (ie, following direct trauma) with minimal inflammatory components. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a minimally thrombotic process of superficial veins associated with inflammatory changes and/or infection. Treatments generally include analgesics, elastic compression, anti-inflammatory agents, exercise and ambulation, and, in some cases, local or systemic anticoagulants. It is better to avoid bed rest and reduced mobility. Topical analgesia with nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory creams applied locally to the superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis area controls symptoms. Hirudoid cream (heparinoid) shortens the duration of signs/symptoms. Locally acting anticoagulants/antithrombotics (Viatromb, Lipohep, spray Na-heparin) have positive effects on pain and on the reduction in thrombus size. Intravenous catheters should be changed every 24 to 48 hours (depending on venous flow and clinical parameters) to prevent superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis and removed in case of events. Low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis and nitroglycerin patches distal to peripheral lines may reduce the incidence of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis in patients with vein catheters. In case of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis, vein lines should be removed. In neoplastic diseases and hematological disorders, anticoagulants may be necessary. Exercise reduces pain and the possibility of deep vein thrombosis. Only in cases in which pain is very severe is bed rest necessary. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis should be established in patients with reduced mobility. Antibiotics usually do not have a place in superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis unless there are documented infections. Prevention of superficial vein thrombosis should be considered on the basis of patient's history and clinical evaluation.

  13. [Deep venous thrombosis related to cranioencephalic injury].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Baña, R M; Rossi López, R E; Romero López, J; Pareja Grande, J A; González-Elipe, J

    1989-09-01

    The clinical onset of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is very variable and the causes that may lead to its development are also quite numerous. Although characteristic CT diagnostic signs have been described, in most cases only nonspecific findings are present and angiography is required to confirm the diagnosis. The prognosis is variable. Classically, the mortality is high when the deep venous system is involved. We report a male with CVT involving Galen's vein and its major tributary vessels, who had a favorable outcome with heparin therapy and drugs for cerebral edema. We discuss the etiologic factors in this patient, the characteristic neuroradiologic findings, and their evolution during the course of therapy.

  14. Variability in the Management of Superficial Venous Thrombophlebitis across Practitioners Based in North America and the Global Community

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jennifer A.; Desai, Sapan S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to compare management patterns of patients with SVT among healthcare practitioners based in North America versus those in the global community. Methods. A 17-question, multiple choice survey with questions regarding SVT diagnosis and management strategies was provided to practitioners who attended the American Venous Forum (AVF) meeting in 2011. Results. There were 487 practitioners surveyed with 365 classified as North American (US or Canada) and 122 (56 Europe, 25 Asia, 11 South America, and 7 Africa) representing the global community. The key difference seen between the groups was in the initial imaging study used in patients presenting with SVT (P = 0.046) and physicians in the US ordered fewer bilateral duplex ultrasounds and more unilateral duplex ultrasounds (49.6% versus 58.2%, 39.7% versus 34.4%). In the US cohort, phlebologists and vascular surgeons constituted 82% (n = 300) of the specialties surveyed. In the global community, SVT was managed by phlebologists or vascular surgeons 44% (n = 54) of the time. Surgical management was highly variable between groups. Conclusion. There is currently no consensus between or among practitioners in North America or globally as to the surgical management of SVT, duration of follow-up, and anticoagulation parameters. PMID:25371819

  15. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M B

    1997-02-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper extremity is a relatively uncommon but important cause of morbidity, especially in young active persons. The causes of upper extremity DVT may be categorized as catheter-related, spontaneous (effort-related) and miscellaneous (e.g., trauma, intravenous drug use). Diagnosis is based on clinical history and confirmed by either duplex ultrasonography or contrast venography. Significant controversy surrounds the optimal management of upper extremity DVT. Treatment options include conservative therapy, anticoagulation, catheter-directed thrombolysis and surgical intervention to remove intravascular clot or revise the anatomy of the costoclavicular space. Early aggressive treatment of active young patients may decrease long-term morbidity.

  16. Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, G.S.; Cronan, J.J.; Tupper, T.B.; Messersmith, R.N.; Denny, D.F.; Lee, C.H.

    1987-02-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and /sup 133/Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, a significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis.

  17. [Deep venous thrombosis in an amputation stump].

    PubMed

    Baars, E C T; Ettema, H B; Fritschy, W M

    2007-09-15

    A 34-year-old patient underwent a knee exarticulation amputation and developed symptoms of pain, redness and swelling of the stump in combination with a feeling of tightness in the chest. These symptoms were first attributed to muscle pain and exertion but further examination revealed deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the stump and a pulmonary embolism for which he was treated with nadroparine and acenocoumarol. Shortly after treatment he could resume the use of the prosthesis. A DVT in the amputation stump is not frequently encountered, but is a serious complication that can, together with a pulmonary embolism, be life threatening. The literature mentions an incidence ranging from 0-12%. Physical examination is often not conclusive and further examination of the patient with duplex scanning is necessary, with a ventilation-perfusion scan if a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Patients with a lower extremity amputation have a higher risk of developing a DVT because of immobility and increased venous pooling in the residual limb. Symptoms of a red, swollen, warm and painful stump should trigger the physician to suspect a DVT.

  18. [Acute superficial thrombophlebitis--modern diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Marković, M D; Lotina, S I; Davidović, L B; Vojnović, B R; Kostić, D M; Cinara, I S; Svetković, S D

    1997-01-01

    Acute superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is one of the most common vascular diseases affecting the population. Although it is generally considered as a benign disease, it can be extended to the deep venous system and pulmonary embolism. We examined 50 patients (22 males and 28 females), mean age 52.5 years. These patients were surgically treated due to acute superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs that affected great saphenous vein above the knee. The diagnosis was made by palpable subcutaneous cords in the course of great saphenous vein or its tributaries in association with tenderness, erythema and oedema. Of these 50 patients, 26 were examined by duplex ultrasonography before the operation. In 20 patients duplex scanning confirmed that the process was greater than we supposed after clinical examination (77%) and in 6 patients there were no differences (23%) (Figures 1 and 2). The operation included crossectomy, ligation and resection of the proximal part of the great saphenous vein. Intraoperative findings in 38 patients showed that the level of the phlebitic process was higher than the clinical level (76%). There was no difference in 12 patients (24%). Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were noted in 14 patients (28%) (Tables 1 and 2). Both complications were found in two patients, and 12 had one of these complications. Generally, there were 12 patients with deep venous thrombosis and 4 patients with pulmonary embolism. Only in one patient deep venous thrombosis appeared postoperatively, while all other complications occurred before surgical intervention (Scheme 1 and Table 3). The most common risk factor was the presence of varicose veins (86%). Obesity, age over 60 years, cigarette smoking are listed in decreasing order of frequency. Patients under 60 years were more likely to have complications while older patients usually followed a benign clinical course (Tables 4 and 5). There was no intrahospital mortality. Average

  19. Venous ulcer: epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Abbade, Luciana P Fernandes; Lastória, Sidnei

    2005-06-01

    This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and current therapeutic options for venous ulcer. Venous ulcer is a severe clinical manifestation of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). It is responsible for about 70% of chronic ulcers of the lower limbs. The high prevalence of venous ulcer has a significant socioeconomic impact in terms of medical care, days off work and reduced quality of life. Long-term therapeutics are needed to heal venous ulcers and recurrence is quite common, ranging from 54 to 78%. Thrombophlebitis and trauma with long-term immobilization predisposing to deep venous thrombosis are important risk factors for CVI and venous ulcer. The most recent theories about pathogenesis of venous ulcer have associated it with microcirculatory abnormalities and generation of an inflammatory response. Management of venous leg ulcers is based on understanding the pathogenesis. In recent years novel therapeutic approaches for venous ulcers have offered valuable tools for the management of patients with this disorder.

  20. Management of deep venous thrombosis in the pregnant female.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J C; Estrada, F P; Orr, R M

    1990-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities is an uncommon but dreaded complication of pregnancy which can present diagnostic and therapeutic problems to the treating physician. From January 1, 1985, to December 31, 1988, 7867 deliveries were performed at St. Luke's Hospital. Five of these patients were pregnant women who were treated for deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities. The women were either in their second or third trimester of pregnancy. The clinical diagnosis in each case was confirmed with duplex ultrasonography. Each patient was treated with 7 to 10 days of intravenous heparin therapy and then discharged on subcutaneous heparin therapy. There were no bleeding complications related to the heparin therapy. No patient developed a pulmonary embolism. Each patient delivered a normal child. The only complication was a heparin induced rash in one patient which resolved when a different preparation of heparin was used. The management of deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy is discussed.

  1. Radiological evaluation of the chronic venous stasis syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Train, J.S.; Schanzer, H.; Peirce, E.C. II; Dan, S.J.; Mitty, H.A.

    1987-08-21

    Chronic venous stasis is an extremely complex clinical syndrome of pain and changes in the skin that can involve the superficial, deep, and perforating veins. This syndrome is commonly referred to as the postphlebitic syndrome, implying that thrombophlebitis is its sole etiology. To test this hypothesis, the authors performed ascending venography on 51 limbs of patients with the chromic venous stasis syndrome and demonstrated that 32 had no radiological evidence of recent or old thrombophlebitis. Instead, they had normal-appearing veins, suggesting primary incompetence of the deep and/or perforating venous valves rather than thrombophlebitis as the etiology. Since various operations have recently been proposed to correct or bypass malfunctioning valves, precise demonstration of pathological change is required to choose the appropriate procedure and to evaluate results. Descending venograms were combined with the ascending studies in 42 limbs for this purpose. In addition to outlining the abnormalities responsible for chronic venous stasis syndrome in individual cases, interesting conclusions regarding the syndrome itself were reached.

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Spontaneous Lumbar Venous Retroperitoneal Hematoma in Setting of Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report and Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Joseph; Chapman, Todd; Scott, Ryan; Kalinkin, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hematoma is rare and benefits from a systematic approach to prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of such bleeds is based upon patient stability, the cause (spontaneous or posttraumatic), and source (arterial or venous). Herein, the authors describe a diagnostic and management algorithm for retroperitoneal hemorrhage with an example of a rare lumbar venous bleed under the complicated clinical setting of deep venous thrombosis. PMID:27795865

  3. Management of Cavoatrial Deep Venous Thrombosis: Incorporating New Strategies.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mohamed A; De Silva, Gayan S; Ramaswamy, Raja S; Sanchez, Luis A

    2017-03-01

    Cavoatrial deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is diagnosed with increasing prevalence. It can be managed medically with anticoagulation or with directed interventions aimed to efficiently reduce the thrombus burden within the target venous segment. The type of management chosen depends greatly on the etiology and chronicity of the thrombosis, existing patient comorbidities, and the patient's tolerance to anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents. In addition to traditional percutaneous catheter-based pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, other catheter-based suction thrombectomy techniques have emerged in recent years. Each therapeutic modality requires operator expertise and a coordinated care paradigm to facilitate successful outcomes. Open surgical thrombectomy is alternatively reserved for specific patient conditions, including intolerance of anticoagulation, failed catheter-based interventions, or acute emergencies.

  4. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, A.M.; Turbiner, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism.

  5. Facial vein thrombophlebitis: an uncommon complication of sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Cotes, Claudia; Riascos, Roy; Swischuk, Leonard E

    2015-07-01

    Facial vein thrombophlebitis is an uncommon complication of sinusitis. In cases where periorbital swelling complicating sinusitis is diagnosed, clinical findings of swelling and erythema extending beyond the orbital region into the cheek should alert the physician about this unusual complication and the need for further contrast-enhanced imaging and venography. The radiologist must be particularly careful in the evaluation of vascular structures of the face and neck in these children. CT and MRI with contrast material and MR venography are studies that clearly demonstrate the vascular anatomy and possible complications. However, MR venography confirms flow abnormalities within the venous system with the advantage of avoiding radiation exposure to the pediatric patient.

  6. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  7. Chronic Stress Facilitates the Development of Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Yang, Fei; Sun, Pei-Wen; Zhu, Chen-Jie; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The increasing pressure of modern social life intensifies the impact of stress on the development of cardiovascular diseases, which include deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Renal sympathetic denervation has been applied as one of the clinical approaches for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. In addition, the close relationship between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented. The present study is designed to explore the mechanism by which the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress affect the blood coagulation system in the development of DVT. Chronic foot shock model in rats was applied to mimic a state of physiological stress similar to humans. Our results showed that chronic foot shock procedure could promote DVT which may be through the activation of platelets aggregation. The aggravation of DVT and activation of platelets were alleviated by renal sympathetic denervation or antioxidant (Tempol) treatment. Concurrently, the denervation treatment could also reduce the levels of circulating oxidation factors in rats. These results demonstrate that both the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress contribute to the development of DVT in response to chronic stress, which may provide novel strategy for treatment of clinic DVT patients.

  8. Late deep venous thrombosis and delayed weightbearing after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Buehler, K O; D'Lima, D D; Petersilge, W J; Colwell, C W; Walker, R H

    1999-04-01

    One hundred ninety-nine patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty and used in hospital pneumatic compression stockings and aspirin as thromboembolic prophylaxis were screened for deep venous thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography on the fourth postoperative day. Of the initial 98 patients, 21 underwent noncemented arthroplasty, maintained touchdown weightbearing for 6 weeks after surgery, and then began progressive partial weightbearing. Of the subsequent 101 patients, 28 underwent noncemented arthroplasty and began progressive weightbearing immediately after surgery. All other patients underwent hybrid arthroplasty and began weightbearing to tolerance immediately after surgery. After duplex screening examination, patients with proximal deep venous thrombosis were given anticoagulation therapy, and patients with negative study results were observed clinically. The relative risk of proximal deep venous thrombosis after noncemented arthroplasty using delayed weightbearing was compared with that after noncemented arthroplasty using immediate progressive weightbearing. Of patients with noncemented arthroplasty, the prevalence of proximal deep venous thrombosis was significantly lower in those using progressive weightbearing immediately after surgery (none) than in those using delayed weightbearing rehabilitation (19%). This study showed that patients undergoing noncemented total hip arthroplasty with delayed weightbearing rehabilitation risk greater potential for deep venous thrombosis after hospital discharge. This study suggests consideration for continued thromboembolic prophylaxis or routine deep venous thrombosis surveillance, or both measures, after hospital discharge, unless more rapid progression of weightbearing is allowed.

  9. Septic thrombophlebitis: percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapies.

    PubMed

    Kar, Subrata; Webel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Suppurative thrombophlebitis (Lemierre's syndrome) of the internal jugular vein is a rare and sometimes fatal complication. It commonly occurs from oropharyngeal infections, peripheral lines, complications from dental procedures, gingivitis, or central venous catheterizations. Empiric antibiotics are the initial treatment of choice followed by thrombolytics or surgical thrombectomy in refractory cases. We present a case of septic thrombophlebitis of the right internal jugular vein from a peripherally inserted central venous catheter. We also review the current percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolytics therapies for such a rare disorder. Mechanical thrombectomy includes rotational thrombectomy or rheolytic therapies. Devices include the Amplatz thrombectomy device (Microvena), the Arrow-Trerotola Percutaneous thrombolytic device (Arrow), and the Cragg-Casteneda thrombolytic brush (Microtherapeutics). Rheolytic therapies include Angiojet, the Hydrolyzer, and the Oasis Thrombectomy System. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy techniques include rotational fragmentation, aspiration or suction thrombectomy, and hydrodynamic thrombectomy. AngioJet catheters may be used for percutaneous embolectomy in conjunction with pulse spray techniques, which instill thrombolytics locally. Thrombolytics include streptokinase, urokinase, and recombinant-tissue plasminogen activator. Mechanical thrombectomy combined with thrombolytics provide optimal treatment results secondary to their complementary effects. Therefore, patients who are refractory to standard medical therapy and considered poor surgical candidates may benefit from combined percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy with thrombolytics to achieve superior results if no contraindications exist for thrombolytics.

  10. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  11. A Possible Association of Diindolylmethane with Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Moualla, Maan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane is available as a supplement in the United States for “cancer prevention” and “augmentation of physical fitness.” A derivative of indole-3-carbinol found in plants, diindolylmethane, binds to receptors associated with the sex steroid pathways and has unclear effects on estrogen and androgen physiology. We present a patient who had been taking diindolylmethane and developed right lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and bilateral pulmonary embolism. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old man presented with swelling, erythema, and warmth of his right lower extremity for three to four weeks. He had been taking diindolylmethane one tablet daily for three to four months. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism included tobacco use, personal history of possible pulmonary embolism, body mass index, and age. Imaging studies found extensive deep venous thrombosis in his right lower extremity and bilateral pulmonary embolism with probable right middle lobe infarction. Follow-up imaging showed chronic deep venous thrombosis in his right lower extremity. Discussion. As suggested in this single case, patients who take diindolylmethane may be at greater risk for venous thromboembolism. Further reports and studies are necessary in order to elucidate this possible association. Clinicians should question patients about supplements in the setting of venous thromboembolism. PMID:28050169

  12. Chronic deep venous obstruction: definition, prevalence, diagnosis, management.

    PubMed

    Neglén, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Ilio-caval venous obstruction has an important role in the expression of symptomatic chronic venous disease regardless of aetiology. The presence of obstruction has been more or less previously ignored and emphasis placed on reflux alone. Stenting of the ilio-femoral veins guided by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can now be performed with low morbidity and mortality using appropriate technique. Current diagnostic modalities do not allow a definitive assessment of haemodynamically critical venous obstruction, which hampers selection of limbs for treatment. The diagnosis must be based on morphological studies (preferably IVUS) in patient selected with specific history, signs and symptoms. A high index of suspicion and generous use of morphological investigations are critical in the initial recognition of venous outflow obstruction. Stenting of the ilio-femoral vein appears to be durable with a substantial improvement in limb pain and swelling, high rate of ulcer healing, enhanced quality of life and decreased disability. The beneficial clinical outcome occurs regardless of the presence of remaining reflux, adjunct saphenous procedures or aetiology of obstruction.

  13. Simple, hybrid deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolus prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ward, W G; Olin, M D

    1999-01-01

    A 7.1% deep venous thrombosis rate followed total hip arthroplasty in 56 patients using a hybrid prophylactic regimen against deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus. There were no bleeding complications, no symptomatic pulmonary emboli, and no unexplained deaths. The regimen consisted of an initial loading dose of warfarin, usually 10 mg, the night of surgery followed by 2.5 mg/day for 3 weeks, with dosage adjustments only in cases of over-anticoagulation. This regimen was combined with elevated sling suspension of the operative leg, bilateral pedal intermittent pneumatic compression devices, and early mobilization. This prophylactic regimen is simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and compatible with an early hospital discharge.

  14. Acquired and Heritable Thrombophilia in Indian Patients With Pediatric Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT).

    PubMed

    Pai, Navin; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2014-09-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children is more often associated with underlying pathological conditions than with hereditary thrombophilia. The present study is a retrospective analysis of thrombophilia in 285 pediatric patients with venous thrombosis at different sites. Four common thrombophilia markers, that is protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, and factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, were analyzed. Thrombosis in hepatic and portal veins was more common in pediatric patients (73%) when compared to other sites (27%). Overall, hereditary thrombophilia accounted for 15.5% of the patients with venous thrombosis. The FVL mutation, which was the major causative factor in Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis cases in the adult group, was not a major contributing factor in pediatric group, that is, 1.8% of the patients. In conclusion, the risk factors for venous thrombosis vary in different age groups.

  15. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed Ganeshan, Arul; Nazir, Sheraz; Uberoi, Raman

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  16. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Sista, Akhilesh K.; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26101920

  17. Role of Color Flow Ultrasound in Detection of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Shelan Hakeem; AL-Najjar, Salwa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs is one of the most causes for the majority of death caused by pulmonary embolism. Many medical and surgical disorders are complicated by DVT. Most venous thrombi are clinically silent. B-mode and color Doppler imaging is needed for early diagnosis of DVT to prevent complications and squeal of…

  18. [Risk of deep venous thrombosis during an air flight: prevention and counselling at the counter].

    PubMed

    Zawieja, P; Orecchioni, A-M; Métais, P; Touze, J-É

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide air traffic reaches about 2.3 billion passengers per year. The increasing number of persons at thrombo-embolic risk, together with potentially severe or fatal complications of deep venous thrombosis, suggests community pharmacists can give basic preventive advice to persons identified as at risk.

  19. Arterial complications, venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Rob Paulus Augustinus; Reijman, Max; Janssen, Daan Martijn; van Mourik, Jan Bernardus Antonius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize the current knowledge on vascular complications and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar medical literature databases were searched up to November 10, 2015. Any arthroscopic surgical method of primary or revision intra-articular ACL reconstruction of all graft types in humans was included. A risk of bias assessment was determined. RESULTS Fourty-seven studies were included in the review. Pseudaneurysms were the most frequently reported arterial complication after ACL reconstruction, irrespective of graft type or method of graft fixation with an incidence of 0.3%. The time to diagnosis of arterial complications after ACL reconstruction varied from days to mostly weeks but even years. After ACL reconstruction without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 9.7%, of which 2.1% was symptomatic. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 0.1%. Tourniquet time > 2 h was related to venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is indicated in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSION After ACL reconstruction, the incidence of arterial complications, symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism was 0.3%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. Arterial complications may occur with all types of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, methods of graft fixation as well as any type of graft. Patients considered to be at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism should routinely receive thromboprophylaxis after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27672574

  20. Popliteal cysts and deep venous thrombosis: Tc-99m red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, G.O.; Brand, C.A.; Ada, A.; Wong, C.

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-four patients who clinically were suspected of having deep venous thrombosis (DVT) underwent Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) venography followed by contrast venography. The sensitivity (88%) and specificity (94%) of Tc-99m RBC venography of DVT confirmed findings of previous studies. Twenty-four patients who had proved popliteal cysts and swollen calves also were examined using Tc-99m RBC venography. Large cysts showed lack of DVT features, photon deficient cold areas in the popliteal fossa, and diversion of venous flow around the photon deficient area. These features were seen in 25% of the study population (six patients), and assisted in the distinction between the two conditions.

  1. Deep venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing inguinal lymph node dissection for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeit, J.M.; Lowry, S.F.; Line, B.R.; Jones, D.C.; Brennan, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with clinical Stage I, II, and III melanoma undergoing staging and therapeutic inguinal lymph node dissection. The ability of two noninvasive methods of surveillance, the phleborheograph (PRG) and the /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan to detect deep venous thrombosis was determined by comparison with prospective bilateral lower extremity venograms. In addition, the therapeutic impact, both beneficial and detrimental, of low dose heparin, 5000 units administered subcutaneously two hours prior to and every eight hours after operation was determined in a double blind study. The sensitivity of the PRG and /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan were both 20%. There were five deep venous thrombi, and two pulmonary emboli for a combined incidence of DVT of 13.6% for the entire patient population. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the two groups. The heparin-treated patients had an increased total volume (796 +/- 516 versus 388 +/- 208 ml; p less than 0.05), and duration of wound drainage (9 +/- 4 versus 13 +/- 6 days; p less than 0.05).

  2. Deep venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing inguinal lymph node dissection for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeit, J.M.; Lowry, S.F.; Line, B.R.

    1981-11-01

    Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with clinical Stage I, II, and III melanoma undergoing staging and therapeutic inguinal lymph node dissection. The ability of two noninvasive methods of surveillance, the phleborheograph (PRG) and the /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan to detect deep venous thrombosis was determined by comparison with prospective bilateral lower extremity venograms. In addition, the therapeutic impact, both beneficial and detrimental, of low dose heparin, 5000 units administered subcutaneously two hours prior to and every eight hours after operation was determined in a double blind study. The sensitivity of the PRG and /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan were both 20%. There were five deep venous thrombi, and two pulmonary emboli for a combined incidence of DVT of 13.6% for the entire patient population. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the two groups. The heparin-treated patients had an increased total volume (796 +/- 516 versus 388 +/- 208 ml; p < 0.05), and duration of wound drainage (9 +/- 4 versus 13 +/- 6 days; p < 0.05).

  3. Fatal Peripheral Candidal Suppurative Thrombophlebitis in a Postoperative Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk-Kyung; Nam, So-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of fatal fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis, caused by Candida albicans, which was disseminated to the blood, lungs, eyes, and spine. Clinical suspicion and aggressive management are important in managing fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis. Early clinical suspicion is important in managing fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis, and radical excision of the affected veins, recognition of metastatic foci, and use of systemic antifungal agents are essential to avoid septic shock and death. PMID:19119456

  4. Deep venous thrombosis: The valve cusp hypoxia thesis and its incompatibility with modern orthodoxy.

    PubMed

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The valve cusp hypoxia thesis (VCHT) of the aetiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was adumbrated in this journal in 1977 and fully articulated in 2008, the original hypothesis having been strongly corroborated by experiments published in 1981 and 1984. It presents a unitary account of the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and embolism that is rooted in the pathophysiological tradition of Hunter, Virchow, Lister, Welch and Aschoff, a tradition traceable back to Harvey. In this paper we summarise the thesis in its mature form, consider its compatibility with recent advances in the DVT field, and ask why it has not yet been assimilated into the mainstream literature, which during the past half century has been dominated by a haematology-orientated 'consensus model'. We identify and discuss seven ways in which the VCHT is incompatible with these mainstream beliefs about the aetiology of venous thrombosis, drawing attention to: (1) the spurious nature of 'Virchow's triad'; (2) the crucial differences between 'venous thrombus' and 'clot'; the facts that (3) venous thrombi form in the valve pockets (VVPs), (4) DVT is not a primarily haematological condition, (5) the so-called 'thrombophilias' are not thrombogenic per se; (6) the conflict between the single unitary aetiology of DVT and the tacit assumption that the condition is 'multicausal'; (7) the inability of anticoagulants to prevent the initiation of venous thrombogenesis, though they do prevent the growth of thrombi to clinically significant size. In discussing point (7), we show that the VCHT indicates new approaches to mechanical prophylaxis against DVT. These approaches are then formulated as experimentally testable hypotheses, and we suggest methods for testing them preclinically using animal trials.

  5. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients with Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Delomez, Maxence; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Willoteaux, Serge; Bauchart, Jean-Jacques; D'Othee, Bertrand Janne; Asseman, Philippe; Perez, Nessim; Thery, Claude

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To report our experience with mechanical thrombectomy in proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT).Methods: Eighteen patients with a mean ({+-} SD) age of 37.6 {+-} 16.1 years who presented with DVT in the iliac and femoral vein (n = 3), inferior vena cava (n = 5), or inferior vena cava and iliac vein (n = 10), were treated with the Amplatz Thrombectomy Device after insertion of a temporary caval filter.Results: Successful recanalization was achieved in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Overall, the percentage of thrombus removed was 66 {+-} 29%: 73 {+-} 30% at caval level and 55 {+-} 36% at iliofemoral level. Complementary interventions (seven patients) were balloon angioplasty (n = 2), angioplasty and stenting (n = 2), thrombo-aspiration alone (n = 1), thrombo-aspiration, balloon angioplasty, and permanent filter (n = 1), and permanent filter alone (n = 1). There was one in-hospital death. Follow-up was obtained at a mean of 29.6 months; three patients had died (two cancers, one myocardial infarction); 10 had no or minimal sequelae; one had post-phlebitic limb.Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy is a potential therapeutic option in patients presenting with proximal DVT.

  6. Compressive hematoma and deep arteriovenous malformation: Emergency endovascular occlusion via a venous approach with surgical evacuation of the hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Yves; Sachet, Marina; Cattet, Florian; Lonjon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Compressive hematoma associated with deep arterio-venous malformation is a difficult surgery. Arterial presurgical embolization is often indicated but rarely effective. Endovascular occlusion via a venous approach is a technique that has recently been undertaken successfully to treat certain types of sub-pial vascular malformation. The venous endovascular approach has succeeded in a 20-year-old man of who presented with a compressive hematoma due to rupture of a deep arteriovenous malformation. By fully endovascular occlusion, the surgery consisted of surgical removal of the hematoma, with reduced cortical damage. PMID:26825136

  7. Compressive hematoma and deep arteriovenous malformation: Emergency endovascular occlusion via a venous approach with surgical evacuation of the hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sedat, Jacques; Chau, Yves; Sachet, Marina; Cattet, Florian; Lonjon, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Compressive hematoma associated with deep arterio-venous malformation is a difficult surgery. Arterial presurgical embolization is often indicated but rarely effective. Endovascular occlusion via a venous approach is a technique that has recently been undertaken successfully to treat certain types of sub-pial vascular malformation. The venous endovascular approach has succeeded in a 20-year-old man of who presented with a compressive hematoma due to rupture of a deep arteriovenous malformation. By fully endovascular occlusion, the surgery consisted of surgical removal of the hematoma, with reduced cortical damage.

  8. A Rare Occurrence of Simultaneous Venous and Arterial Thromboembolic Events – Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism as Initial Presentation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyal, Aditya S.; Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kataria, Babita; Garg, Abhilasha

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukemia has been attributed to various factors, including hereditary, radiation, drugs, and certain occupational exposures. The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolism events is well established. Here, we present a case of a 70-year-old Indian man who had presented with arterial and venous thrombosis, and the patient was later diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our case, the patient presented with right lower limb deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism four months prior to the diagnosis of APL. Although thromboembolic event subsequent to the diagnosis of malignancy, and especially during the chemotherapy has been widely reported, this prior presentation with simultaneous occurrence of both venous and arterial thromboembolism has rarely been reported. We take this opportunity to state the significance of a complete medical evaluation in cases of recurrent or unusual thrombotic events. PMID:26949347

  9. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis via Small Saphenous Veins for Treating Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Xiao-dong; Gao, Peng; Yu, Ji-Xiang; Li, Yu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Meng, Ran-ran

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little data comparing catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) via small saphenous veins vs. systematic thrombolysis on complications and efficacy in acute deep venous thrombosis patients. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of CDT via the small saphenous veins with systematic thrombolysis for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Material/Methods Sixty-six patients with acute DVT admitted from June 2012 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups: 27 patients received systemic thrombolysis (ST group) and 39 patients received CDT via the small saphenous veins (CDT group). The thrombolysis efficiency, limb circumference differences, and complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in the 2 groups were recorded. Results The angiograms demonstrated that all or part of the fresh thrombus was dissolved. There was a significant difference regarding thrombolysis efficiency between the CDT group and ST group (71.26% vs. 48.26%, P=0.001). In both groups the postoperative limb circumference changes were higher compared to the preoperative values. The differences between postoperative limb circumferences on postoperative days 7 and 14 were significantly higher in the CDT group than in the ST group (all P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative PTS in the CDT group (17.9%) was significantly lower in comparison to the ST group (51.85%) during the follow-up (P=0.007). Conclusions Catheter-directed thrombolysis via the small saphenous veins is an effective, safe, and feasible approach for treating acute deep venous thrombosis. PMID:27552357

  10. The use of intravenous cannulae and the occurrence of thrombophlebitis.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, P J; de Herder-Swinkels, J M; Moffie, B G; van den Berg, W H; Hermans, J

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of thrombophlebitis in a coronary care unit was studied in relation to the use of short plastic intravenous cannulae. The incidence of thrombophlebitis was 51% in cases where cannulae were used for continuous infusion of glucose 5% and 13% for cannulae which were locked after the injection of heparin. Only one case of infectious thrombophlebitis was seen. The other cases of thrombophlebitis had a chemical or mechanical aetiology. Replacement of glucose 5% by a NaCl 0.9% solution for continuous infusion reduced the incidence of thrombophlebitis to 33%. Heparin-locked cannulae, to provide rapid access to the patient's circulation, proved to be a safe alternative to continuous infusion.

  11. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  12. Diagnostic methods for deep vein thrombosis: venous Doppler examination, phleborheography, iodine-125 fibrinogen uptake, and phlebography

    SciTech Connect

    Comerota, A.J.; White, J.V.; Katz, M.L.

    1985-10-08

    Since clinical diagnosis of DVT is often inaccurate, it has become accepted that an objective means of diagnosing clot in the deep venous system becomes critically important in the management of these patients. The venous Doppler examination monitors the velocity of blood flowing through a particular vein. Doppler probes in the 5 to 10 mHz range are routinely used. Respiratory variation is a normal finding due to a diminished flow signal during inspiration, followed by a progressive increase in flow signal during expiration. Characteristics of the spontaneous flow signals are the most important part of interpreting the venous Doppler examination. In addition, the response to distal or proximal compression (augmentation) adds important information to the interpretation; however, the response during any augmentation maneuver depends on the rapidity of compression, the force of compression, the quantity of blood in the veins at the time of compression, and the distance between the Doppler probe and the compression point. Phleborheography is a six-channel volumetric plethysmographic technique that monitors volume changes in the lower extremities associated with respiration and foot and calf compression.

  13. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  14. Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Keon Sik

    2014-07-01

    We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented.

  15. The use of micro-/milli-fluidics to better understand the mechanisms behind deep venous thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Zoe; Alexiadis, Alessio; Brill, Alexander; Nash, Gerard; Vigolo, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and painful condition in which blood clots form in deep veins (e.g., femoral vein). If these clots become unstable and detach from the thrombus they can be delivered to the lungs resulting in a life threatening complication called pulmonary embolism (PE). Mechanisms of clot development in veins remain unclear but researchers suspect that the specific flow patterns in veins, especially around the valve flaps, play a fundamental role. Here we show how it is now possible to mimic the current murine model by developing micro-/milli-fluidic experiments. We exploited a novel detection technique, ghost particle velocimetry (GPV), to analyse the velocity profiles for various geometries. These vary from regular microfluidics with a rectangular cross section with a range of geometries (mimicking the presence of side and back branches in veins, closed side branch and flexible valves) to a more accurate venous representation with a 3D cylindrical geometry obtained by 3D printing. In addition to the GPV experiments, we analysed the flow field developing in these geometries by using computational fluid dynamic simulations to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms behind DVT. ZS gratefully acknowledges financial support from the EPSRC through a studentship from the Sci-Phy-4-Health Centre for Doctoral Training (EP/L016346/1).

  16. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism. Sitting still for a long time can make ...

  17. Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis with fatal pulmonary thromboembolism caused by benign pelvic space-occupying lesions--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Hannah; Byard, Roger W

    2012-05-01

    Venous stasis predisposes to thrombosis. One hundred and sixty cases of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed to determine how many cases had deep venous thromboses associated with venous blood flow reduction caused by external pressure from benign pelvic masses. Three cases were identified, representing 2% of cases overall (3/160): a 44-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma (1048 g); a 74-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 1 L of urine); and a 70-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 3 L of urine). Although a rare cause of fatal deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, space-occupying pelvic lesions can lead to extrinsic pressure on adjacent veins reducing blood flow and causing stasis and thrombosis. Individuals with large pelvic masses may, therefore, be at increased risk of pulmonary thromboembolism from deep venous thrombosis, particularly in the presence of concurrent risk factors such as immobility, thrombophilias, malignancy, and significant cardiopulmonary disease.

  18. Active Ankle Movements Prevent Formation of Lower-Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis After Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Guan, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Rui; Li, Bin; Ning, Bo; Su, Wei; Sun, Tao; Li, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the preventive value of active ankle movements in the formation of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), attempting to develop a new method for rehabilitation nursing after orthopedic surgery. Material/Methods We randomly assigned 193 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the lower limbs into a case group (n=96) and a control group (n=97). The control group received routine nursing while the case group performed active ankle movements in addition to receiving routine nursing. Maximum venous outflow (MVO), maximum venous capacity (MVC), and blood rheology were measured and the incidence of DVT was recorded. Results On the 11th and 14th days of the experiment, the case group had significantly higher MVO and MVC than the control group (all P<0.05). The whole-blood viscosity at high shear rate and the plasma viscosity were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group on the 14th day (both P<0.05). During the experiment, a significantly higher overall DVT incidence was recorded in the control group (8 with asymptomatic DVT) compared with the case group (1 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.034). During follow-up, the case group presented a significantly lower DVT incidence (1 with symptomatic DVT and 4 with asymptomatic DVT) than in the control group (5 with symptomatic DVT and 10 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.031). Conclusions Through increasing MVO and MVC and reducing blood rheology, active ankle movements may prevent the formation of lower-extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27600467

  19. Effects of walking in deep venous thrombosis: a new integrated solid and fluid mechanics model.

    PubMed

    López, Josep M; Fortuny, Gerard; Puigjaner, Dolors; Herrero, Joan; Marimon, Francesc; Garcia-Bennett, Josep

    2016-08-09

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease. Large thrombi in venous vessels cause bad blood circulation and pain; and when a blood clot detaches from a vein wall, it causes an embolism whose consequences range from mild to fatal. Walking is recommended to DVT patients as a therapeutical complement. In this study the mechanical effects of walking on a specific patient of DVT were simulated by means of an unprecedented integration of 3 elements: a real geometry, a biomechanical model of body tissues, and a computational fluid dynamics study. A set of computed tomography images of a patient's leg with a thrombus in the popliteal vein was employed to reconstruct a geometry model. Then a biomechanical model was used to compute the new deformed geometry of the vein as a function of the fiber stretch level of the semimembranosus muscle. Finally, a computational fluid dynamics study was performed to compute the blood flow and the wall shear stress (WSS) at the vein and thrombus walls. Calculations showed that either a lengthening or shortening of the semimembranosus muscle led to a decrease of WSS levels up to 10%. Notwithstanding, changes in blood viscosity properties or blood flow rate may easily have a greater impact in WSS.

  20. Sonographic and Clinical Features of Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis in Critical Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Blaivas, Michael; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Nanas, Serafim; Poularas, John; Wachtel, Mitchell; Cohen, Rubin; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Background-Aim. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is an increasingly recognized problem in the critically ill. We sought to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for UEDVT, and to characterize sonographically detected thrombi in the critical care setting. Patients and Methods. Three hundred and twenty patients receiving a subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheter (CVC) were included. When an UEDVT was detected, therapeutic anticoagulation was started. Additionally, a standardized ultrasound scan was performed to detect the extent of the thrombus. Images were interpreted offline by two independent readers. Results. Thirty-six (11.25%) patients had UEDVT and a complete scan was performed. One (2.7%) of these patients died, and 2 had pulmonary embolism (5.5%). Risk factors associated with UEDVT were presence of CVC [(odds ratio (OR) 2.716, P = 0.007)], malignancy (OR 1.483, P = 0.036), total parenteral nutrition (OR 1.399, P = 0.035), hypercoagulable state (OR 1.284, P = 0.045), and obesity (OR 1.191, P = 0.049). Eight thrombi were chronic, and 28 were acute. We describe a new sonographic sign which characterized acute thrombosis: a double hyperechoic line at the interface between the thrombus and the venous wall; but its clinical significance remains to be defined. Conclusion. Presence of CVC was a strong predictor for the development of UEDVT in a cohort of critical care patients; however, the rate of subsequent PE and related mortality was low. PMID:22655181

  1. Hypereosinophilic syndrome presenting with multiple organ infiltration and deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Su-jun; Wei, Wei; Chen, Jiang-tao; Tan, Ye-hui; Yu, Cheng-bao; Litzow, Mark Robert; Liu, Qiu-ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) can be fatal, particularly when eosinophils infiltrate vital organs and/or if extensive thrombosis develops. However there are no standard recommendations for the use of anticoagulant therapy of HES in the setting of thrombosis. Methods: We herein present a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with marked peripheral eosinophilia with symptoms of multi-organ infiltration and extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT). In this case, evaluation was carried out before the diagnosis was established, and timely standard-dose corticosteroids combined with a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy were carried out. Results: These measures resulted in a rapid response and long-term disease control. Conclusion: Although there are no data to support which anticoagulant is preferred in this setting, this case indicates that the new oral anticoagulants may play an important role in the treatment of thrombosis in HES. PMID:27583887

  2. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Deep Venous Thrombosis: Advanced Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Gerard J.

    2011-06-15

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often managed with a health care pathway that funnels patients to anticoagulation therapy alone. This 'usual treatment' is designed to stop propagation and embolisation of venous thrombus but not remove it. Surgical thrombectomy was once the only option in severe cases in which limbs were threatened, but thrombus removal is no longer restricted to emergency cases. Interventional radiologists are now using advanced endovascular techniques to achieve thrombus removal in a minimally invasive manner in a very short treatment time, thereby quickly restoring patency, relieving acute symptoms, and potentially limiting the subsequent development of postthrombotic syndrome when followed with anticoagulation and compression regimens. This article provides an overview of the interventions available for treating DVT. One of the newer 'single-session' techniques is isolated pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, which is described here in detail with supporting cases.

  3. Quantitative ultrasound venous valve movement: early diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhd Suberi, Anis Azwani; Wan Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani; Tomari, Razali; Ibrahim, Nabilah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of computer aided system for the early diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). Normally, patients are diagnosed with DVT through ultrasound examination after they have a serious complication. Thus, this study proposes a new approach to reduce the risk of recurrent DVT by tracking the venous valve movement behaviour. Inspired by image processing technology, several image processing methods namely, image enhancement, segmentation and morphological have been implemented to improve the image quality for further tracking procedure. In segmentation, Otsu thresholding provides a significant result in segmenting valve structure. Subsequently, morphological dilation method is able to enhance the region shape of the valve distinctly and precisely. Lastly, image subtraction method is presented and evaluated to track the valve movement. Based on the experimental results the normal range of valve velocity lies within the range of blood flow velocity (Vb) and occasionally may result in higher values.

  4. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Levi; Lawrence, Matthew; Speicher, Matthew; Frumkin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins) can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT) often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS), a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1) propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS) is unavailable; and (2) summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation. PMID:27429688

  5. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging of deep venous flow during muscular exercise—preliminary experience

    PubMed Central

    Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Voit, Dirk; Dahm, Johannes; Frahm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background The accurate assessment of peripheral venous flow is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) which is a major cause of post-thrombotic syndrome or even death due to pulmonary embolism. The aim of this work is to quantitatively determine blood flow in deep veins during rest and muscular exercise using a novel real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for velocity-encoded phase-contrast (PC) MRI at high spatiotemporal resolution. Methods Real-time PC MRI of eight healthy volunteers and one patient was performed at 3 Tesla (Prisma fit, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a flexible 16-channel receive coil (Variety, NORAS, Hoechberg, Germany). Acquisitions were based on a highly undersampled radial FLASH sequence with image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion at 0.5×0.5×6 mm3 spatial resolution and 100 ms temporal resolution. Flow was assessed in two cross-sections of the lower leg at the level of the calf muscle and knee using a protocol of 10 s rest, 20 s flexion and extension of the foot, and 10 s rest. Quantitative analyses included through-plane flow in the right posterior tibial, right peroneal and popliteal vein (PC maps) as well as signal intensity changes due to flow and muscle movements (corresponding magnitude images). Results Real-time PC MRI successfully monitored the dynamics of venous flow at high spatiotemporal resolution and clearly demonstrated increased flow in deep veins in response to flexion and extension of the foot. In normal subjects, the maximum velocity (averaged across vessel lumen) during exercise was 9.4±5.7 cm·s−1 for the right peroneal vein, 8.5±4.6 cm·s−1 for the right posterior tibial vein and 17.8±5.8 cm·s−1 for the popliteal vein. The integrated flow volume per exercise (20 s) was 1.9, 1.6 and 50 mL (mean across subjects) for right peroneal, right posterior tibial and popliteal vein, respectively. A patient with DVT presented with

  6. Endovascular Thrombolysis Using Monteplase for Non-chronic Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Yoshimatsu, Rika Tanaka, Osamu Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of endovascular thrombolysis using monteplase for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Between December 2005 and October 2009, at our institution nine endovascular thrombolysis treatments with monteplase were performed for symptomatic DVT in eight patients (6 women, 2 men; mean age, 56 (range, 15-80) years). In all, systemic anticoagulation administered by the peripheral intravenous route with heparin and/or thrombolysis with urokinase followed by anticoagulation with orally administered warfarin had been performed, and subsequently six endovascular treatments without monteplase were administered. However, DVT persisted, and endovascular treatments with monteplase were tried. In six (67%) of the nine procedures, DVT completely or almost completely disappeared after endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase. Mean dose of monteplase used was 2,170,000 IU. There was only one procedure-related complication. In one patient, just after thrombolysis with monteplase, bleeding at the puncture site and gingival bleeding occurred. Bleeding was stopped by manual astriction only. Endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase may be an effective treatment for DVT, even in cases resistant to traditional systemic anticoagulation and thrombolysis and endovascular procedures without monteplase.

  7. Risk factors for deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs in postoperative neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Zongxue; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Jinjun; Jiang, Guixi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To detect the risk factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients after neurosurgery. Methods: Three hundred and seventy-six patients treated in the department of neurosurgery of our hospital from February 2013 to November 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical data including age, gender, hospital stay, operation time, occupation type, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking status, drinking status, postoperative exercises, malignant tumor, and postoperative hormone or dehydrating agent were collected. Results: In this study, 52 patients were included in the DVT group and 295 patients in the Non-DVT group. There was significant difference in age, hypertension, occupation type, malignant tumors, operation time, smoking status, and postoperative exercises between the two groups (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in gender, drinking status, coronary heart disease, diabetes, hospital stay, and postoperative hormone or dehydrating agent (p>0.05). In multivariate analysis, age, malignant tumor, hypertension were independent risk factors, while physical labour and postoperative exercises were protective factor for DVT. Conclusion: The postoperative patients with older age, malignant tumor or hypertension should be paid high attention to prevent DVT, and postoperative exercises should be selected as precautionary measures. PMID:27882003

  8. Comparison of duplex ultrasonography and venography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D C; Grasty, M S; Stebbings, W S; Nockler, I B; Lewars, M D; Levison, R A; Wood, R F

    1991-05-01

    Sixty-five patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 68 limbs were entered consecutively into a study to compare venography with duplex ultrasonography scanning. Both tests were performed on 64 limbs, venography being contraindicated in four. Overall, duplex scanning correctly identified 86 per cent of DVTs diagnosed on venography and correctly excluded 80 per cent with negative venograms. Nearly all errors arose in the diagnosis of calf DVT. In the femoral vein duplex scanning had a specificity of 100 per cent and a sensitivity of 95 per cent. In addition, duplex scanning provided data on the limb not undergoing venography. Of 55 limbs that underwent bilateral duplex scanning, five had thrombus in the femoropopliteal segment and a negative contralateral venogram. In addition, three Baker's cysts were diagnosed. Duplex scanning can be used in patients in whom venography is contraindicated and may also provide information about the contralateral limb. We regard femoropopliteal duplex scanning as sufficiently accurate that treatment can be initiated on the basis of the scan. Duplex scanning should replace venography as the standard method of diagnosing femoropopliteal DVT; radiographic studies should now be required only when the scan result is in doubt.

  9. Incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis after veno-venous ECMO.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Jay; Tabatabai, Ali; Rector, Raymond; Dolly, Katelyn; Kufera, Joseph; Lee, Eugenia; Kon, Zachary; Sanchez, Pablo; Pham, Si; Herr, Daniel L; Mazzeffi, Michael; Rabinowitz, Ronald P; OʼConnor, James V; Stein, Deborah M; Scalea, Thomas M

    2017-02-13

    Limited literature regarding the incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis (CaDVT) following veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of post decannulation CaDVT and identify any associated risk factors. Forty eight patients were admitted between August 2014 and January 2016 to the Lung Rescue Unit were included in the study. Protocolized anticoagulation levels (partial thromboplastin time 45-55 second) and routine post decannulation DVT screening were in place during the study period. Forty-one (85.4%) patients had CaDVT. Of those with CaDVT, 31 (76%) patients were treated with full anti-coagulation therapy. 34 (76%) patients with right internal jugular cannulation had CaDVT at cannula site. Twenty-five (61%) patients had CaDVT in the lower extremity. (18 associated right femoral vein cannulation; 7 left femoral vein cannulation) 18 (44%) patients had both upper and lower extremity CaDVT. Overall, patients with CaDVT tended to be older, have a higher body mass index (BMI) and on ECMO longer (p=NS). Mean PTT during time on ECMO between patients that did and did not have CaDVT did not differ. No clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism was seen.

  10. Desmoid Fibromatosis Presenting as Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lisa M.; Neuhaus, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 40 Final Diagnosis: Desmoid fibromatosis Symptoms: Discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgery and radiotherapy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common, serious cardiovascular event. Predisposing factors include genetic disorders, immobility, and underlying malignancy. Soft tissue tumors are by contrast rare, but should be included in the differential etiology of DVT, especially when the patient is young and has few thrombotic risk factors. Case Report: We present a 40-year-old patient whose initial diagnosis was spontaneous DVT of the lower leg, treated conventionally. Subsequently, he developed progressive calf swelling, which was diagnosed as multifocal desmoid fibromatosis, a rare and complex soft tissue tumor. Conclusions: DVT is common but soft tissue tumors are rare. The disparity in incidence of these very distinct pathologies may contribute to late diagnosis of occult soft tissue pathology. We discuss the incidence, etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and best management of both desmoid fibromatosis and DVT, which may co-exist in a causative way. PMID:27994217

  11. A short course of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent deep venous thrombosis after elective total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gallay, Steve; Waddell, James P.; Cardella, Piera; Morton, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a short course of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) in the prevention of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after elective total hip replacement. Design A prospective cohort study. Follow-up was a minimum of 3 months. Setting An acute-care hospital with a large-volume practice of elective total joint replacement. Patients A prospective group of 150 patients who required primary total hip arthroplasty and a historic control group of 150 patients. All patients were treated with compression stockings, indomethacin and early mobilization. The treatment group received low-molecular-weight heparin, 30 mg every 12 hours for 5 days postoperatively; the control group received no specific anticoagulant therapy. Interventions Total hip replacement. Doppler venography on postoperative day 5 and 2 to 5 days later if required. Main outcome measures Presence or absence of deep venous thrombosis. Wound hemorrhage, transfusion rate, number of units of blood transfused and changes in the hemoglobin level. Results The incidence of proximal deep venous thrombosis (popliteal vein to common iliac vein) was 0% in the treatment group versus 4% in the control group. There was no difference in bleeding or number of transfusions required. There was, however, a significant (p = 0.005) drop in hemoglobin level in the treatment group. Conclusions A short course of low-molecular-weight heparin provides effective protection against proximal deep venous thrombosis without significantly increasing the risk to the patient. The treatment is compatible with early patient discharge and the pharmacologic prevention of heterotopic ossification after total joint replacement. PMID:9126125

  12. Comparison of skin and muscle biopsies before and after pentoxifylline treatment in patients with leg ulcers due to deep venous incompetence.

    PubMed

    Angelides, N S; von der Ahe, C W; Themistocleus, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the possible mechanisms by which deep venous insufficiency and venous hypertension are associated with trophic skin changes and ulceration and to explain the therapeutic effect of Pentoxifylline in patients with leg ulcers due to deep venous incompetence. Twenty patients were included in this pilot study. They were graded into two groups: group 1, included 10 patients (5 F and 5 M) with deep venous incompetence and normal arteries; group 2, included 10 patients (1 F and 9 M) with deep venous incompetence and moderate arterial disease. Skin and muscle biopsies were carried out before and after the oral administration of 1,200 mg of Pentoxifylline daily (400 mg t.d.s). The following parameters were investigated by means of light microscopy and immunofluorescence tests: engorgement of venous stroma; decrease of intimal elastica; hyaline degeneration; floccular degeneration; pericapillary fibrin deposits and fibrin degradation products; inflammation and fat necrosis; myofibril degeneration; fibrous scar; regeneration and reconstitution of muscle fibres. The results indicated that local inflammation at the ulcer's area cause accumulation of white blood cells in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid, where there is also accumulation of fibrinogen. These changes may lead to chronic tissue ischaemia and ulceration. The known favourable effect of Pentoxifylline on red cells and leucocyte function as well as its lowering effect on plasma fibrinogen level, may be responsible for the observed therapeutic effect of Pentoxifylline on venous leg ulcers.

  13. Venous Thromboembolism—Incidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Tertiary Care Experience in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naeem Sultan; Nawaz, Ahmad; Junaid, Montasir; Kazi, Maliha; Akhtar, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is seen with morbidity and mortality in various surgical specialties, scarce data are available in the head and neck surgery domain. Objective We aim to determine the incidence of VTE in patients receiving surgery for head and neck cancer. Methods Four hundred thirteen patients who underwent head and neck surgery procedures between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients with head and neck surgery had received thromboprophylaxis (i.e., compression stockings and subcutaneous heparin). Patient demographics, operating time, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. The incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) during the initial postoperative hospitalization was assessed. Results Twelve patients were identified who developed VTE. Three patients developed DVT, and nine developed PE. The incidence of DVT and PE was 0.72 and 2.17%, respectively. Interestingly, all of these patients had undergone excision of extensive head and neck cancers accompanied by a reconstructive procedure. Patients who developed PE had a longer hospital stay compared with those who only had DVT. There were overall three mortalities in the nine patients who developed PE. Conclusion Although VTE has a low incidence, it is a known complication of extensive head and neck surgeries with life-threatening outcomes. We recommend early mobilization and physiotherapy with the possible aid from appropriate mechanical and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. PMID:26157492

  14. Long-term prognostic analysis of early interventional therapy for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Zongxue; Wang, Jinjun; Chen, Xiao; Li, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the long-term prognostic value of early interventional therapy for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LDVT). In total, 85 patients diagnosed with LDVT for the first time were consecutively selected (identified course of disease was <3 months), and were divided into the control group with 43 cases and the observation group with 42 cases according to different therapeutic methods. The control group received anticoagulation therapy and thrombolysis, or integrated surgical thrombectomy, a conventional open operation, while the observation group received comprehensive treatment, combining endovascular catheter-directed thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The therapeutic effects were compared. After treatment, the differences in circumference of the thigh and shank between the affected and unaffected extremities, and vein dysfunction score of the two groups were decreased compared with before treatment. In addition, the above indexes of the observation group were significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). The clinical effective rate and effective extent of the observation group were higher than those of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The occurrence rate of post-thrombotic syndrome in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, and there was no difference in comparison of grading. The recurrence rate and restenosis rate of the observation group were lower than in the control group, while the patency rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, early catheter-directed invention of thrombolysis with thrombectomy for LDVT has good clinical effect in the short-term and long-term. PMID:28105087

  15. Management of Venous Thromboembolisms: Part I. The Consensus for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Han; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Pao-Yen; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Chien-Lung; Lee, Chung-Yi; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Yeh, Hung-I; Chiang, Chern-En; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, San-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially catastrophic condition because thrombosis, left untreated, can result in detrimental pulmonary embolism. Yet in the absence of thrombosis, anticoagulation increases the risk of bleeding. In the existing literature, knowledge about the epidemiology of DVT is primarily based on investigations among Caucasian populations. There has been little information available about the epidemiology of DVT in Taiwan, and it is generally believed that DVT is less common in Asian patients than in Caucasian patients. However, DVT is a multifactorial disease that represents the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, and the majority of patients with incident DVT have either inherited thrombophilia or acquired risk factors. Furthermore, DVT is often overlooked. Although symptomatic DVT commonly presents with lower extremity pain, swelling and tenderness, diagnosing DVT is a clinical challenge for physicians. Such a diagnosis of DVT requires a timely systematic assessment, including the use of the Wells score and a D-dimer test to exclude low-risk patients, and imaging modalities to confirm DVT. Compression ultrasound with high sensitivity and specificity is the front-line imaging modality in the diagnostic process for patients with suspected DVT in addition to conventional invasive contrast venography. Most patients require anticoagulation therapy, which typically consists of parenteral heparin bridged to a vitamin K antagonist, with variable duration. The development of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants has revolutionized the landscape of venous thromboembolism treatment, with 4 agents available,including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban. Presently, all 4 drugs have finished their large phase III clinical trial programs and come to the clinical uses in North America and Europe. It is encouraging to note that the published data to date regarding Asian patients indicates that such new therapies are safe and

  16. Radiolabeled tirofiban – a potential radiopharmaceutical for detection of deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Darkovska-Serafimovska, Marija; Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Djorgoski, Icko; Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Zdravkovska, Milka; Balkanov, Trajan; Ugresic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using 99mtechnetium (99mTc)-labeled tirofiban (a reversible antagonist of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) for detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in rats without causing an antiplatelet effect. Methods The ability of in vitro tirofiban to inhibit adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was evaluated using optical aggregometer. Binding of 99mTc-tirofiban to platelets was evaluated. Serum levels of unlabeled (a validated high performance liquid chromatography method) and 99mTc-tirofiban after single intravenous injection were evaluated in male Wistar rats with or without induced DVT (femoral vein ligation model), and the rats were also subjected to whole body scintigraphy. Results Tirofiban in vitro inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner (10 nM to 2 μM), but only if it is added before ADP and not after ADP. 99mTc labeling did not affect the ability of tirofiban to bind to either human or rat platelets, nor did it affect tirofiban pharmacokinetics in intact rats or in animals with induced DVT. When 99mTc-tirofiban was injected to rats after induction of DVT, at a molar dose lower than the one showing only a weak antiaggregatory effect in vitro, whole body scintigraphy indicated localization of 99mTc-tirofiban around the place of the induced DVT. Conclusion 99mTc labeling of tirofiban does not affect its ability to bind to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa or its in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats, either intact or with DVT. A low, nonantiaggregatory dose of 99mTc-tirofiban may be used to visualize DVT at an early stage. PMID:27713618

  17. [A mathematical analysis of strain-gauge curves in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Alvarez Sánchez, J A; Charles-Edouard Otrante, D; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutierrez Jiménez, O

    1991-01-01

    The plethysmographic strain gauge venous outflow curves were studied by means of an exponential function. The parameters analyzed made possible the establishment of differences between patients with and without DVT.

  18. Deep venous thrombosis and inferior vena cava agenesis causing double crush sciatic neuropathy in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Kara, Murat; Ozçakar, Levent; Eken, Güneş; Ozen, Gülsen; Kiraz, Sedat

    2008-12-01

    We report here the case of a 18-year-old young man with Behçet's disease who had suffered deep venous thrombosis of the right femoral and popliteal veins. Consequently, right sciatic nerve injury, drop foot and tightness of the achilles tendon also ensued. The clinical scenario was further challenged by demonstration of the agenetic inferior vena cava and epidural vein dilatations compressing the lumbar nerve roots. To the best notice of the authors, this is the first patient encompassing all these complications in the literature concerning Behçet's disease.

  19. [Diagnosing venous and venous/arterial ulcers].

    PubMed

    Perceau, Géraldine

    2012-01-01

    A venous ulcer can be diagnosed on the basis of elements arising from the questioning and the clinical examination of the patient. A venous Doppler ultrasound can specify the type of reverse flow (superficial and/or deep). Measuring the ankle brachial pressure index helps to eliminate or confirm any arterial involvement. Depending on the systolic pressure index, the ulcer will be considered as purely venous, mixed (arterial-venous) or predominantly arterial.

  20. Treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis. A comparative trial between placebo, Hirudoid cream and piroxicam gel.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D; Brunkwall, J; Jensen, N; Persson, N H

    1990-01-01

    A prospective randomized trial on the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis has been performed in 68 patients randomized to either Hirudoid cream, piroxicam gel or placebo. Both spontaneous and infusion thrombophlebitis were included. Treatment effect was evaluated using the status of thrombophlebitis, the thrombophlebitic area, pain intensity with a visual analogue scale, and side effects were registered. Both in the treatment groups and the placebo group there was a significant decrease of signs and symptoms during the treatment period. There was no statistical difference between the treatment groups and no difference between spontaneous and infusion thrombophlebitis.

  1. [Deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy: risk factors and possibilities for prevention].

    PubMed

    Heilmann, L; Hojnacki, B; Fischer, W M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of acute venous thrombosis in pregnancy (0.64%) were studied. Concomitant pulmonary embolism was documented in 0.23%. Prophylactic heparinization was performed in 32 gravidae. In the acute thrombosis group therapy was instituted in the 26th week, and in the prophylaxis group in the 20th week of pregnancy. Recurrent thromboses after cesarean section occurred in 4.5% of the patients with acute venous thrombosis and in 5.6% of those in the prophylaxis group. Reduced red blood cell deformability, low antithrombin III and high leukocyte count were identified as risk factors. Heparinization did not prevent increased red blood cell aggregation and plasma viscosity at birth. Rheologic factors played only a secondary role in the prophylaxis group. Prophylactic heparinization in pregnancy is currently the only means of reducing the thrombosis recurrence rate in patients with a history of thromboembolism.

  2. Different characteristics and prognostic impact of deep-vein thrombosis / pulmonary embolism and intraabdominal venous thrombosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seyoun; Lee, Keun-Wook; Bang, Soo-Mee; Kim, Sujung; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Doyeun; Lee, Jong Seok

    2011-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic implications of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Asian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Differences in clinical characteristics and prognostic impact between extremity venous thrombosis (or deep-vein thrombosis; DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE) and intra-abdominal venous thrombosis (IVT) were also evaluated. For this study, consecutive CRC patients (N = 2,006) were enrolled and analyses were conducted retrospectively. VTEs were classified into two categories (DVT/PE and IVT). Significant predictors of developing VTEs were advanced stage and an increased number of co-morbidities. The two-year cumulative incidence of DVT/PE was 0.3%, 0.9% and 1.4% in stages 0~1, 2 and 3, respectively; this incidence range of DVT/PE in Asian patients with loco-regional CRC was lower than in Western patients. However, the two-year incidence (6.4%) of DVT/PE in Asian patients with distant metastases was not lower than in Western patients. Although 65.2% of patients with DVT/PE were symptomatic, only 15.7% of patients with IVT were symptomatic. During chemotherapy, DVT/PE developed more frequently than IVT. Only DVT/PE had a negative effect on survival; IVT had no prognostic significance. In conclusion, despite the low incidence of DVT/PE in Asian patients with loco-regional CRC, the protective effect of Asian ethnicity on VTE development disappears as tumour stage increases in patients with distant metastases. Considering different clinical characteristics and prognostic influences between DVT/PE and IVT, the treatment approach should be also different.

  3. Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement During Treatment for Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Kato, Takeharu; Iida, Shigeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF) implantation to prevent pulmonary embolism during intravenously administered thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy and interventional radiological therapy for occlusive or nonocclusive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity. Methods. We evaluated placement of 55 GTFs in 42 patients with lower extremity DVT who had undergone various treatments including those utilizing techniques of interventional radiology. Results. Worsening of pulmonary embolism in patients with existing pulmonary embolism or in those without pulmonary embolism at the time of GTF insertion was avoided in all patients. All attempts at implantation of the GTF were safely accomplished. Perforation and migration experienced by one patient was the only complication. Mean period of treatment for DVT under protection from pulmonary embolism by the GTF was 12.7 {+-} 8.3 days (mean {+-} SD, range 4-37 days). We attempted retrieval of GTFs in 18 patients in whom the venous thrombus had disappeared after therapy, and retrieval in one of these 18 cases failed. GTFs were left in the vena cava in 24 patients for permanent use when the DVT was refractory to treatment. Conclusion. The ability of the GTF to protect against pulmonary embolism during treatment of DVT was demonstrated. Safety in both placement and retrieval was clarified. Because replacement with a permanent filter was not required, use of the GTF was convenient when further protection from complicated pulmonary embolism was necessary.

  4. Improved external valvuloplasty, intravenous laser photocoagulation and local sclerotheraphy treatment of primary deep venous valvular insufficiency: long term result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-xi; Han, Li-na; Gu, Ying; Liang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhao, Wen-guang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to report long-term follow-up of improved external vulvuloplasty, intravenous laser photocoagulation and local sclerotherapy treatment of primary deep venous valvular insufficiency in eight hundred and seventy-two patients from Nov. 2000 to May 2006. Patients were evaluated clinically and with duplex ultrasound at 1, 3, and 12 months, and yearly thereafter until the fifth year to assess treatment efficacy and adverse reactions. Successful occlusion of the great saphenous vein and absence of deep vein reflux on color Doppler imaging, were noted in 956 limbs of 852 cases( 1 month follow-up), 946 limbs of 842 cases (6 month to 1 year follow-up), 717 of 626 (1~2 year follow-up), 501 of 417 (2~3 year follow-up), 352 of 296 (3~5year follow-up), 142 of 106 (5 year follow-up) after initial treatment. The cumulative total number of recurrence of reflux was fifteen cases. The respective competence rate was 95.18%, 96.23%, 94.23%, 95.25%, 94.23% and 94.12%. Of note, all recurrence occurred before 9 months, with the majority noted before 3 months. Bruising was noted in 0.7% of patients, tightness along the course of treated vein in 1.0% of limbs. There have been no paresthesia of cases, skin burns and deep vein thrombosis.

  5. Dysgenesis of the inferior vena cava associated with deep venous thrombosis and a partial Protein C deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, Howard; Borgstein, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Dysgenesis of the inferior vena cava is rare but it is being increasingly diagnosed by cross-sectional imaging techniques. Patients are usually asymptomatic with abnormalities detected incidentally. An 11 year old boy presented with a 10 day history of fever, vomiting and abdominal pain, which progressed to his back and lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging, computerised tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed the absence of a suprarenal inferior vena cava with bilateral superficial femoral vein thrombi extending cranially to the end of the aberrant inferior vena cava. Haematological testing revealed a partial Protein C deficiency. The presenting clinical picture in this case is unique within the English literature and highlights that deep venous thrombosis associated with inferior vena cava dysgenesis may not present with typical symptoms in children. Early use of advanced imaging modalities would expedite diagnosis and subsequent treatment. PMID:24421930

  6. Predictors for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with primary lower limb deep venous thrombosis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadeem A; Sophie, Ziad; Zafar, Farhan; Soares, Delvene; Naz, Iram

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Post-thrombotic syndrome is a common and debilitating sequelae of lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Very little awareness is present about the risk factors and about the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition. Objective The objective of this study is to identify the predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome after lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Materials and methods A case-control study was conducted on all adult patients who were admitted with lower limb deep venous thrombosis at our institution from January 2005 to June 2012. These patients were scheduled for a research clinic visit, which included informed consent, data collection, and physical examination. Patients found to have post-thrombotic syndrome served as cases and those without post-thrombotic syndrome served as controls. Villalta scoring system was used to diagnose the post-thrombotic syndrome and then to assess the severity of the condition in both the groups. Cox regression risk factor analysis was performed to identify the predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome. Results Out of the 125 patients examined, 49 were found to have post-thrombotic syndrome. Risk factors found to be significant were body mass index of more than 35 kg/m(2) ( n = 13, p = 0.003), history of immobilization ( n = 19, p = 0.003), one or more hypercoagable disorders ( n = 32, p = 0.02), iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis ( n = 18, p = 0.001), complete obstruction on ultrasound ( n = 26, p = 0.016), unstable range of international normalized ratio ( n = 23, p = 0.041) and non-compliance for the use of compressions stockings ( n = 14, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, one or more hypercoagable disorder, iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, and non-compliance to the use of compression stockings were found to be independent risk factors for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion One or more hypercoagable disorders, iliofemoral

  7. The effect of graduated compression stockings on blood velocity in the deep venous system of the lower limb in the postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, R; Calderwood, C J; Greer, I A

    2007-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the UK and is also a major cause of long-term morbidity. Recent UK national guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis, which includes the use of graduated compression stockings (GCS), for high-risk women to reduce the risk of VTE in both the antenatal and postpartum period. This study of 17 women examined the effects of GCS on the deep venous system in the immediate postpartum period and found a statistically significant reduction in the diameter of the common femoral vein (CFV) (pre- versus post stocking diameter: mean 10.39 mm [SD 2.09] versus mean 9.69 mm [SD 1.99]) and an increase in the rate of blood velocity in the CFV (pre- versus post stocking velocity: mean 10.0 cm/s [SD 2.7] versus 13.9 cm/s [SD 4.2]) 30 minutes after application of thigh length GCS in women 1 or 2 days following a singleton vaginal delivery at term. This confirms reduction in venous stasis in the deep venous system in the immediate postpartum woman by the use of GCS, supporting their use in improving venous function in this context.

  8. Jugular thrombophlebitis in horses: A review of fibrinolysis, thrombus formation, and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; de Lacerda Neto, José Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophlebitis of the jugular vein is commonly observed in horses, particularly during intensive care, and leads to local and systemic inflammatory responses as well as head and neck circulatory impairment. Thrombolytic therapy is widely used in human practice with the aim of thrombus dissolution and recanalization of the injured vessels. There are similarities between human and horse coagulation and fibrinolytic processes. This review examines the fibrinolytic system, thrombus formation, and the clinical management of jugular thrombophlebitis, including thrombolytic therapy. There is evidence that early regional thrombolytic therapy for jugular thrombophlebitis in horses may be effective to achieve sustained recanalization. PMID:23814304

  9. Clinical application of sonoelastography in thyroid, prostate, kidney, pancreas, and deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Arash; Barr, Richard G; Dhyani, Manish; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the clinical applications of current ultrasound elastography methods in non-hepatic conditions including thyroid nodules, prostate cancer, chronic kidney disease, solid renal lesions, pancreatic lesions, and deep vein thrombosis. Pathophysiology alters tissue mechanical properties via ultrastructural changes including fibrosis, increased cellularity, bleeding, and necrosis, creating a target biomarker, which can be imaged qualitatively or quantitatively with US elastography. US elastography methods can add information to conventional US methods and improve the diagnostic performance of conventional US in a range of disease processes.

  10. Testosterone therapy, thrombophilia, and hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus, an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Friedman, Joel; Hafeez, Ahsan; Hassan, Atif; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Our hypothesis was that testosterone therapy (TT) interacts with previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, leading to hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis (DVT)-pulmonary emboli (PE). We determined the prevalence of DVT-PE associated with TT 147 men hospitalized in the last 12 months for DVT-PE. Of the 147 men, 2 (1.4%) had TT before and at the time of their DVT-PE. Neither had risk factors for thrombosis. Neither smoked. Case #1 (intramuscular T 50mg/week) had 2 PE, 6 and 24 months after starting TT. DVT-PE in case #2 (T gel 100mg/day) occurred 24 months after starting T. Both men were found to have previously undiagnosed familial thrombophilia (protein S deficiency, homocysteinemia, high Factor VIII). In case #2, on 100mg T gel/day, serum estradiol was high, 51 pg/ml (upper normal limit 42.6 pg/ml). At least 1.4% of men hospitalized for DVT-PE were on TT and had previously undiagnosed thrombophilia, suggesting a thrombotic interaction between exogenous T and thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Given the increasing use of TT, our preliminary findings should facilitate design of a much-needed, multi-center, prospective study of pro-thrombotic interactions between T therapy and thrombophilia for subsequent thrombotic events including DVT-PE.

  11. Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Venous Thromboembolism following TKA in Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was designed to compare the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). All studies directly comparing the post-TKA incidence of DVT and/or VTE in patients with RA and OA were included. For all comparisons, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for binary outcomes. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that the combined rates of asymptomatic and symptomatic DVT did not differ significantly in the RA and OA groups (1065/222,714 [0.5%] vs. 35,983/6,959,157 [0.5%]; OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.57 to 1.02; P = 0.07). The combined rates of asymptomatic and symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) after TKA were significantly lower in the RA than in the OA group (1831/225,406 [0.8%] vs. 63,953/7,018,721 [0.9%]; OR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.93; P = 0.008). Conclusiviely, the DVT rates after primary TKA were similar in RA and OA patients. In contrast, the incidence of VTE (DVT plus PE) after primary TKA was lower in RA than in OA patients, despite patients with RA being at theoretically higher risk of thrombi due to chronic inflammation. PMID:27911916

  12. Platelet adhesiveness and fibrinolysis after recent cerebro-vascular accidents and their relationship with subsequent deep venous thrombosis of the legs.

    PubMed

    Warlow, C P; Rennie, J A; Ogston, D; Douglas, A S

    1976-08-31

    In fifteen patients with a cerebro-vascular accident resulting in an acute hemiplegia there was a subsequent rise in the platelet count and plasma fibrinogen level. There were no significant alterations in platelet adhesiveness, plasminogen activator, plasminogen, FR-antigen and haematocrit. Patients diagnosed as developing deep venous thrombosis with the 125I-fibrinogen technique had a significantly lower platelet adhesiveness and plasminogen level than those who were not.

  13. Increased soluble P-selectin levels following deep venous thrombosis: cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Blann, A D; Noteboom, W M; Rosendaal, F R

    2000-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with coagulation abnormalities, but evidence of excess platelet activity is scant. Soluble P-selectin is a marker of platelet activity, with high levels being found in patients with thrombotic disease. We measured soluble P-selectin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma from 89 patients with objectively confirmed DVT and in 126 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects, and found higher levels in the patients (P = 0.011). Taking the risk of DVT with a level of soluble P-selectin < 238 ng/ml to be 1, the relative risk of DVT with a soluble P-selectin level >238 ng/ml was 2.1 (95% CI 1. 2-3.6). These high levels may be a reflection of a generalized hypercoagulable state that, with factors such as the presence of persistent thrombin generation, could be responsible for excess platelet activation.

  14. [Thrombophlebitis in an Elderly Japanese Woman Treated with Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Hiroyuki; Hayami, Ryosuke; Tsuneizumi, Michiko; Nakagami, Kazuhiko

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we report the rare case of an elderly woman who developed thrombophlebitis after being treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer. She visited our department with a lump in her left breast. She underwent core needle biopsy, and she was diagnosed with breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, ER- and PgR-positive, HER2-negative). We chose hormonal therapy because surgical treatment was deemed too invasive considering her general status. She was administered tamoxifen (20 mg/day) instead of an aromatase inhibitor in consideration of her osteoporosis. Six months after initiating tamoxifen therapy, she exhibited swelling in her left leg. Computed tomography and ultrasound revealed thrombophlebitis in her left femoral vein. She stopped taking tamoxifen and started warfarin potassium as thrombolytic therapy, after which thrombophlebitis was relieved. Advanced age may be a risk factor for thrombophlebitis associated with tamoxifen treatment; therefore, precautions should be taken accordingly.

  15. Young's modulus reconstruction for elasticity imaging of deep venous thrombosis: animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Xie, Hua; Kim, Kang; Rubin, Jonathan M.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wakefield, T. W.; Myers, D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2004-04-01

    Recently, it was suggested that ultrasound elasticity imaging can be used to age deep vein thrombosis (DVT) since blood clot hardness changes with fibrin content. The main components of ultrasound elasticity imaging are deformation of the object, speckle or internal boundary tracking and evaluation of tissue motion, measurement of strain tensor components, and reconstruction of the spatial distribution of elastic modulus using strain images. In this paper, we investigate a technique for Young's modulus reconstruction to quantify ultrasound elasticity imaging of DVT. In-vivo strain imaging experiments were performed using Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically induced clots in the inferior vena cavas (IVC). In this model, the clot matures from acute to chronic in less than 10 days. Therefore, nearly every 24 hours the strain imaging experiments were performed to reveal temporal transformation of the clot. The measured displacement and strain images were then converted into maps of elasticity using model-based elasticity reconstruction where the blood clot within an occluded vein was approximated as a layered elastic cylinder surrounded by incompressible tissue. Results of this study demonstrate that Young's modulus gradually increases with clot maturity and can be used to differentiate clots providing a desperately needed clinical tool of DVT staging.

  16. [Sequence of venous blood flow alterations in patients after recently endured acute thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins based on the findings of ultrasonographic duplex scanning].

    PubMed

    Tarkovskiĭ, A A; Zudin, A M; Aleksandrova, E S

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence of alterations in the venous blood flow to have occurred within the time frame of one year after sustained acute thrombosis of the lower-limb deep veins, which was carried out using the standard technique of ultrasonographic duplex scanning. A total of thirty-two 24-to-62-year-old patients presenting with newly onset acute phlebothrombosis were followed up. All the patients were sequentially examined at 2 days, 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after the manifestation of the initial clinical signs of the disease. Amongst the parameters to determine were the patency of the deep veins and the condition of the valvular apparatus of the deep, superficial and communicant veins. According to the obtained findings, it was as early as at the first stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations after the endured thrombosis, i. e., during the acute period of the disease, that seven (21.9%) patients were found to have developed valvular insufficiency of the communicant veins of the cms, manifesting itself in the formation of a horizontal veno-venous reflux, and 6 months later, these events were observed to have occurred in all the patients examined (100%). Afterwards, the second stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations was, simultaneously with the process of recanalization of the thrombotic masses in the deep veins, specifically characterized by the formation of valvular insufficiency of the latter, manifesting itself in the form of the development of a deep vertical veno-venous reflux, which was revealed at month six after the onset of the disease in 56.3% of the examined subjects, to be then observed after 12 months in 93.8% of the patients involved. Recanalization of thrombotic masses was noted to commence 3 months after the onset of thrombosis in twelve (37.5%) patients, and after 12 months it was seen to ensue in all the patients (100%), eventually ending in complete restoration of the patency of the affected

  17. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  18. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Malaponte, Grazia; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients.

  19. Prevention of recurrent deep venous thrombosis with sulodexide: the SanVal registry.

    PubMed

    Errichi, B M; Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Marinucci, R; Ricci, A; Ippolito, A; Brandolini, R; Vinciguerra, G; Dugall, M; Felicita, A; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ruffini, M; Acerbi, G; Bavera, P; Renzo, A Di; Corsi, M; Scoccianti, M; Hosoi, M; Lania, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevention of recurrent deep vein thrombosis (R-DVT) with an oral antithrombotic agent (sulodexide) in moderate to high-risk subjects. A group of 405 patients was included into the multicenter registry. Both compression and an exercise program were used as well as a risk-factors control plan. After diagnosis of DVT, patients were treated with oral anticoagulants for 6 months. At the end of this period a coagulation study was made and patients started treatment with oral sulodexide capsules for a period of 24 months. The femoral, popliteal, tibial, and superficial veins were scanned with high-resolution ultrasound at inclusion;scans were repeated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Of the 405 subjects included into the registry 178 in the control group (mean age 52.2; SD 11; M:F=90:88) and 189 in the treatment group (mean age 53.2; SD 10.3; M:F=93:96) completed the analysis period of 24 months. At 6 and 12 months the incidence of R-DVT was lower (p<0.05) in the treatment group. At 24 months the global incidence of R-DVT was 17.9% in the control group and 7.4% in the sulodexide group (p<0.05), 2.42 times lower than in controls. The 2 groups were comparable for age and sex distribution and for the localization of the thrombi at inclusion. Also the 2 groups of dropouts were comparable. In the control group there were 32 recurrent DVTs and 24 subjects lost to follow-up (total of 56) of 202 included subjects (27.7%) in comparison with 28 failures (14 recurrent DVTs and 14 lost subjects) of 203 subjects (13.8%) in the treatment group. This difference was statistically significant. In this analysis the incidence of DVT in controls was 2.07 times higher than in the treatment group subjects. In conclusion sulodexide was effective in reducing recurrent thrombotic events in high-risk subjects.

  20. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective.

  1. Prevalence of JAK2V617F mutation in deep venous thrombosis patients and its clinical significance as a thrombophilic risk factor: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Sharma, Amit; Sazawal, Sudha; Ahuja, Ankur; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism is known to be a complex interaction of genetic and acquired factors leading to thrombosis. JAK2V617F mutation is believed to contribute to a thrombophilic phenotype, possibly through enhanced leukocyte-platelet interactions in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Several studies have focused on the importance of screening for JAK2V617F mutation in patients with splanchnic venous thrombosis (VT) for the detection of nonovert MPNs. The role of JAK2V617F mutation in VT outside the splanchnic region is still widely unsettled. The primary aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of JAK2V617F mutation in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), its clinical significance as a prothrombotic risk factor, and its possible interactions with other genetic thrombophilic risk factors. A total of 148 patients with idiopathic, symptomatic DVT were evaluated. Median age of presentation was 32 years (range 15-71 years) with a sex ratio of 1.3:1. Overall, the most common genetic prothrombotic factor was factor V Leiden mutation, found in 10.8% (16 of 148) of patients who also showed strong association with increased risk of thrombosis (odds ratio 5.94, confidence interval 1.33-26.4, P = .019). Deficiencies in protein C, protein S, and antithrombin were seen in 8 (5.4%), 10 (6.7%), and 8 (5.4%) patients, respectively. It was observed that the frequency of JAK2V617F mutation was lower in Indian patients, and it also showed weaker association with risk of thrombosis, at least in cases of venous thrombosis outside the splanchnic region.

  2. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. RESULTS All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. CONCLUSION Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention. PMID:27559713

  3. [Internal jugular thrombophlebitis: complications of the cervical oncological surgery. A case report].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Marcos, C A; Noval Menéndez, J; Alfonso Megido, J; Domínguez Iglesias, F; Hevia Llama, R; Ramos Barriga, M A

    1995-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis is an infrequent complications, associated in the past to pharyngeal and amygdaline infections but related today to the use of catheters and intravenous drugs. The present paper reports the case of a patient who underwent total laryngectomy and functional neck dissection, developing recurrent neumonias and sepsis in the postoperative period which were secondary to an homolateral jugular thrombophlebitis. A physical exploration with no findings and the poor resolution of CT scan and ultrasound due to postsurgical alterations, lead to a late diagnosis and fatal evolution, in spite of the medical and surgical treatment.

  4. The use of indium-111 labeled platelet scanning for the detection of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in a high risk population

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.S.; Rae, J.L.; Ryan, N.L.; Edwards, C.; Fortune, W.P.; Lewis, R.J.; Reba, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Five hundred indium-111 labeled platelet imaging studies (387 donor and 113 autologous) were performed postoperatively in 473 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, total knee replacement, or internal fixation of a hip fracture to detect occult deep venous thrombosis. All patients had been anticoagulated prophylactically with aspirin, warfarin sodium (Coumadin), or dextran. Thirty-four possible cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis were identified in 28 asymptomatic patients. To verify the scan results, 31 venograms were performed in 25 patients (three refused). In 21 of 31 cases, totally occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, partially occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, no thrombus was seen. No patient who had a negative scan nor any patient who had a verified positive scan (and received appropriate heparin therapy) subsequently developed symptoms or signs of pulmonary embolism. One hundred forty-one indium study patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography/impedance plethysmography (Doppler/IPG) as a comparative non-invasive technique. In 137 cases, the results of the indium study and Doppler/IPG studies were congruent. The indium study had no false negative results that were detected by Doppler/IPG. No patient had any clinically evident toxicity. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scanning is a safe, noninvasive means for identifying DVT in high risk patients.

  5. Risk Factors for Deep Venous Thrombosis Following Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery: An Analysis of 56,000 patients

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Paul S.; White-Dzuro, Gabrielle A.; Greenberg, Sarah E.; VanHouten, Jacob P.; Avilucea, Frank R.; Obremskey, William T.; Sethi, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are recognized as major causes of morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients. Despite the high incidence of these complications following orthopaedic trauma, there is a paucity of literature investigating the clinical risk factors for DVT in this specific population. As our healthcare system increasingly emphasizes quality measures, it is critical for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the clinical factors that increase the risk of DVT following orthopaedic trauma. Objectives: Utilizing the ACS-NSQIP database, we sought to determine the incidence and identify independent risk factors for DVT following orthopaedic trauma. Patients and Methods: Using current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for orthopaedic trauma procedures, we identified a prospective cohort of patients from the 2006 to 2013 ACS-NSQIP database. Using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests where appropriate, patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative factors were compared between patients who developed a DVT within 30 days of surgery and those who did not. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and identify independent risk factors for DVT. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: 56,299 orthopaedic trauma patients were included in the analysis, of which 473 (0.84%) developed a DVT within 30 days. In univariate analysis, twenty-five variables were significantly associated with the development of a DVT, including age (P < 0.0001), BMI (P = 0.037), diabetes (P = 0.01), ASA score (P < 0.0001) and anatomic region injured (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified several independent risk factors for development of a DVT including use of a ventilator (OR = 43.67, P = 0.039), ascites (OR = 41.61, P = 0.0038), steroid use (OR = 4.00, P < 0.001), and alcohol use (OR = 2.98, P = 0.0370). Compared to patients with upper extremity trauma, those with lower

  6. Deep venous thrombosis of the neck and pulmonary embolism in patients with a central venous catheter admitted to cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac surgery: a prospective study of 815 patients.

    PubMed

    Frizzelli, Rino; Tortelli, Ornella; Di Comite, Vincenzo; Ghirardi, Redenta; Pinzi, Claudio; Scarduelli, Cleante

    2008-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are widely used for therapeutic purposes and to measure hemodynamic variables that cannot be recorded from a peripheral vein. However, the method can involve complications. In cardiac surgery, CVCs are electively placed in the right internal jugular vein but there is little information on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in catheterized veins (CVC-related DVT) or on secondary pulmonary embolism (PE). The impact of CVC-related DVT and PE in cardiac surgery and measures to prevent PE were assessed. We used ultrasonography (US) to check the point of insertion of CVC in 815 patients in the intensive cardiac rehabilitation unit after heart surgery. In this series, 386 patients (48%) had CVC-related DVT; those already receiving anticoagulant, and considered at low risk, continued that therapy, while those taking an antiplatelet agent (aspirin 100 mg daily) but deemed at high risk of PE from the US findings were given an anticoagulant instead. Only patients with CVC-related DVT at low risk of PE continued taking aspirin. At 3 months, there were no cases of PE among patients receiving an anticoagulant, but six on antiplatelet had non-fatal PE. The prevalence of PE in the whole series of 815 patients was 0.7%. CVC-related DVT is a frequent complication of heart surgery. Anticoagulant therapy started early does not prevent thrombus formation but probably prevents PE, whereas antiplatelet gives no such protection. Sonographic screening of the CVC removal in intensive care unit may be useful for avoiding PE after CVC-related DVT.

  7. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a comparison with nonparalyzed patients immobilized due to spinal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, P.; Kammonen, M.; Rokkanen, P.; Boestman, O.L.; Lalla, M.; Laasonen, E.

    1985-06-01

    The occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was studied in the series of 23 consecutive patients with acute spinal cord injury and 14 immobilized patients with spinal fractures without paralysis. The incidence of DVT in paralyzed patients was 100% as detected by the /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen test and confirmed by contrast venography, and 64% as detected by repeated clinical examinations and confirmed by contrast venography. The respective incidence of DVT in nonparalyzed patients with spinal fractures was 0%. The diagnosis of DVT was reached earlier with the radiofibrinogen test than with the clinical followup (5 days vs. 25 days). Two of the 23 paralyzed patients (9%) developed nonfatal clinical pulmonary embolism (PE). There were no differences in the values of routine coagulation tests. The result justifies prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in all cases of spinal cord injury during the acute post-traumatic phase.

  8. D-dimer is not elevated in asymptomatic high altitude climbers after descent to 5340 m: the Mount Everest Deep Venous Thrombosis Study (Ev-DVT).

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Feldman, Joanne; Becker, Robert J; Williams, Sarah R; Weiss, Eric A; Deloughery, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to determine the prevalence of elevated D-dimer, a marker for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), in asymptomatic high altitude climbers. On-site personnel enrolled a convenience sample of climbers at Mt. Everest Base Camp (Nepal), elevation 5340 m (17,500 ft), during a single spring climbing season. Subjects were enrolled after descent to base camp from higher elevation. The subjects completed a questionnaire to evaluate their risk factors for DVT. We then performed a D-dimer test in asymptomatic individuals. If the D-dimer test was negative, DVT was considered ruled out. Ultrasound was available to perform lower-extremity compression ultrasounds to evaluate for DVT in case the D-dimer was positive. We enrolled 76 high altitude climbers. None had a positive D-dimer test. The absence of positive D-dimer tests suggests a low prevalence of DVT in asymptomatic high altitude climbers.

  9. Microcirculatory efficacy of topical treatment with aescin + essential phospholipids gel in venous insufficiency and hypertension: new clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Dugall, M

    2004-01-01

    Aescin + essential phospholipids (AEPL) topical gels are used for local treatment of venous and microcirculatory alterations (varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency). Bruises, swelling, thrombophlebitis, and contusions are effectively treated with AEPL. Active ingredients are escinate and essential phospholipids (EPL). The aim of this new study was the evaluation of the efficacy of the effects of AEPL gel on the microcirculation in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency, venous hypertension (CVH), and venous microangiopathy. Patients were assessed measuring skin flux with laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). After 2 weeks of local treatment, all individual values (100%) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), indicating an improvement in the microcirculation. In all treated patients, flux decreased at least 30% (indicating a decrease in the level of venous microangiopathy) (p < 0.05). Considering these observations, topical treatment with AEPL in areas of venous microangiopathy is beneficial, can prevent ulceration, and improves the skin healing processes.

  10. Microcirculatory efficacy of topical treatment with aescin + essential phospholipids gel on transcutaneous PO2 in venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Ippolito, E; Ricci, A; Ruffini, M; Dugall, M

    2004-01-01

    A gel including aescin, essential phospholipids (EPL), and heparin (EG) has been used for many years for local treatment of venous, microcirculatory alterations (varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency). Bruises, swelling, thrombophlebitis, and contusions are effectively treated with this compound. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of the effects of an AEPL (aescin+EPL) gel on the microcirculation in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency, venous hypertension (CVH), and venous microangiopathy. Transcutaneous PO(2) was measured at the perimalleolar region. After 2 weeks of treatment, all individual values (100%) were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In all patients, PO(2) increased, indicating a decrease in level of venous microangiopathy. Considering transcutaneous skin PO(2), treatment with AEPL in areas of venous microangiopathy is beneficial in the prevention of ulceration and improves skin healing.

  11. Low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis: a suitable monitoring in elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Mahé, Isabelle; Drouet, Ludovic; Chassany, Oliver; Grenard, Anne-Sophie; Caulin, Charles; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring of anti-Xa activity (aXa) levels is not routinely required in patients receiving enoxaparine at prophylactic dosages, since aXa is supposed to stay below the manufacturer's recommended range in patients treated for venous thrombosis (0.5-1 IU/ml). In order to aXa in elderly subjects receiving prophylactic enoxaparin, 68 consecutive patients (mean age 82.5 +/- 10.7 years) hospitalized in a medical department receiving 4000 IU enoxaparin daily subcutaneously for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease were studied. After the first injection of enoxaparin, the aXa of 57.4% patients was superior to 0.5 IU/ml while 69.4% had an aXa higher than 0.5 after 8.4 +/- 1.2 days. A negative relationship between aXa and body weight and a trend towards a positive correlation between aXa and age but not with creatinine clearance were noted. Our findings question the opportunity to monitor aXa in elderly patients receiving 4000 IU enoxaparin as antithrombotic prophylaxis.

  12. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, /sup 125/I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references.

  13. Role of IVC Filters in Endovenous Therapy for Deep Venous Thrombosis: The FILTER-PEVI (Filter Implantation to Lower Thromboembolic Risk in Percutaneous Endovenous Intervention) Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, Mohsen; Bay, Curt; Skrocki, Laura; Lawson, David; Mazdeh, Shahnaz

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of and recommend indications for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter implantation during percutaneous endovenous intervention (PEVI) for deep venous thrombosis (DVT).BackgroundPEVI has emerged as a powerful tool in the management of acute proximal DVT. Instrumentation of extensive fresh thrombus is potentially associated with iatrogenic pulmonary embolism (PE). The true frequency of this complication has not been studied in a randomized fashion. We evaluated IVC filter implantation during PEVI for DVT. Methods: A total of 141 patients with symptomatic proximal DVT undergoing PEVI for symptomatic DVT were randomized to receive an IVC filter (70 patients) or no filter (71 patients; control group). The anticoagulation and PEVI regimen were similar between the two groups. Patients with development of symptoms suggestive of PE underwent objective testing for PE. Results: PE developed in 1 of the 14 symptomatic patients in the filter group and 8 of the 22 patients in the control group (P = 0.048). There was no mortality in any group. Three patients (4.2%) in the control group had transient hemodynamic instability necessitating resuscitory efforts. Predictors of iatrogenic PE were found to be PE at admission; involvement of two or more adjacent venous segments with acute thrombus; inflammatory form of DVT (severe erythema, edema, pain, and induration); and vein diameter of {>=}7 mm with preserved architecture. Conclusions: IVC filter implantation during PEVI reduces the risk of iatrogenic PE by eightfold without a mortality benefit. A selective approach may be exercised in filter implantation during PEVI.

  14. Prognostic significance of residual venous obstruction in patients with treated unprovoked deep vein thrombosis: a patient-level meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Donadini, Marco P; Ageno, Walter; Antonucci, Emilia; Cosmi, Benilde; Kovacs, Michael J; Le Gal, Grégoire; Ockelford, Paul; Poli, Daniela; Prandoni, Paolo; Rodger, Marc; Saccullo, Giorgia; Siragusa, Sergio; Young, Laura; Bonzini, Matteo; Caprioli, Monica; Dentali, Francesco; Iorio, Alfonso; Douketis, James D

    2014-01-01

    Residual venous obstruction (RVO) could improve the stratification of the risk of recurrence after unprovoked deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but results from clinical studies and study-level meta-analyses are conflicting. It was the objective of this analysis to determine if RVO is a valid predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a first unprovoked DVT who had received at least three months of anticoagulant therapy. Individual patient data were obtained from the datasets of original studies, after a systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library), supplemented by manual reviewing of the reference lists and contacting content experts. A multivariate, shared-frailty Cox model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for recurrent VTE, including, as covariates: RVO; age; sex; anticoagulation duration before RVO assessment; and anticoagulation continuation after RVO assessment. A total of 2,527 patients from 10 prospective studies were included. RVO was found in 1,380 patients (55.1%) after a median of six months from a first unprovoked DVT. Recurrent VTE occurred in 399 patients (15.8%) during a median follow-up of 23.3 months. After multivariate Cox analysis, RVO was independently associated with recurrent VTE (HR = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.65). The association was stronger if RVO was detected early, i.e. at three months after DVT (HR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.11-4.25), but non-significant if detected later, i.e. >6 months (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.87-1.61). In conclusion, after a first unprovoked DVT, RVO is a weak overall predictor of recurrent VTE. The association is stronger if RVO is detected at an earlier time (3 months) after thrombosis.

  15. CT venography for deep venous thrombosis: can it predict catheter-directed thrombolysis prognosis in patients with iliac vein compression syndrome?

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Woo; Jae, Hwan Jun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Min, Sang-Il; Min, Seung-Kee; Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of CT venography for catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Among the 201 consecutive patients treated in our interventional suite for DVT from January 2001 to June 2013, 48 IVCS patients (12 men, 36 women) who underwent pre-procedural CT venography, CDT with stenting, and follow-up imaging were analyzed. To identify possible determinants of 6-month patency, CT venography was evaluated with Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analyses. Based on the analyses, image-based criteria were established and compared to the current symptom duration-based approach by receiver-operating-characteristic curve analyses and the McNemar test. Recoiling of external iliac vein (EIV) diameter (<120 %) [hazard ratio (HR) 28.652, p = .007] and severe rim enhancement (HR 20.545, p = .016) were significant risk factors for venous occlusion within 6 months of CDT. The dual-parameter image-based criteria were significantly superior to the current symptom duration-based approach in terms of area under the curve value (p = .010) and predictive accuracy (p = .031). With a 2-point cut-off, the proposed criteria demonstrated a 66.7 % sensitivity, 100.0 % specificity, and 92.9 % predictive accuracy for identifying non-responders of CDT. CT venography may be useful in assessing CDT prognoses in IVCS patients, particularly to identify non-responders who demonstrate recoiling of EIV diameter and rim enhancement on CT venography.

  16. Catheter-directed thrombolysis in management of postpartum lower limb deep venous thrombosis – A case series

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, B.C.; Patra, Soumya; Nagesh, C.M.; Reddy, Babu; Manjunath, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem in pregnancy and postpartum period. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is safe and effective in the management of symptomatic DVT. Value of CDT in postpartum DVT is not fully evaluated. We describe five patients presenting with acute iliofemoral DVT in their early postpartum period who were treated with mechanical thromboaspiration and CDT. The CDT was done using streptokinase infusion and unfractionated heparin. Percutaneous angioplasty was done in patients with symptomatic residual lesion following thrombolysis. Patients were discharged with oral anticoagulant and compression stockings. This approach was successful in all five cases. Percutaneous endovascular therapy using CDT, mechanical thromboaspiration, and balloon angioplasty is safe and effective in iliofemoral DVT in postpartum period. PMID:26995437

  17. Endothelial cell protein C receptor gene 6936A/G and 4678G/C polymorphisms as risk factors for deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zoheir, Naguib; Eldanasouri, Nabiel; Abdel-Aal, Asmaa A; Hosny, Karim Adel; Abdel-Ghany, Wafaa M

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) enhances the generation of activated protein C by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) is present in plasma. Two polymorphisms in the EPCR gene (6936A/G and 4678G/C) have been reported to influence the risk of venous thromboembolism. We aimed to investigate the relation between EPCR gene polymorphisms (6936A/G and 4678C/G) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and their relations to sEPCR level. This study involved 90 patients with DVT and 90 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of sEPCR were measured in 45 cases of the primary DVT by ELISA. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used for detection of EPCR polymorphisms (6936A/G and 4678G/C). Regarding 6936A/G, our results demonstrated that mutant genotypes (AG, GG) were associated with an increased risk for DVT [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 4.125, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.198-7.740] as well as its mutant allele G (P < 0.001, OR 2.549, 95% CI 1.601-4.061). The mutant genotypes were associated with increased levels of sEPCR. Although in 4678G/C, our results demonstrated that the mutant genotype (CC) was considered as a protective factor against DVT (P = 0.014, OR 0.289, 95% CI 0.108-0.776) as well as its mutant allele C (P = 0.02, OR 0.600, 95% CI 0.388-0.927), but it had no effect on sEPCR level. Our data suggest that 6936A/G polymorphism is a risk factor for DVT and is associated with elevated plasma levels of sEPCR, while 4678G/C polymorphism plays a role in protection against DVT.

  18. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

  19. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile.

  20. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration.

  1. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of transdermal glyceryltrinitrate in the treatment of infusion-related thrombophlebitis.

    PubMed Central

    Berrazueta, J. R.; Poveda, J. J.; Ochoteco, J.; Amado, J. A.; Puebla, F.; Salas, E.; Sarabia, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out a prospective double-blind randomized study in 40 patients with infusion-related thrombophlebitis. Twenty-two patients were included in the glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) ointment group and 18 patients in the control heparinoid group. Pain was assessed by an analogue scale. At 48 hours the analgesic index was 84.6 +/- 18 units with GTN and 49 +/- 45 units with heparinoid ointment (P < 0.01). Faster relief of oedema was also observed in the GTN-treated group. All signs of thrombophlebitis were relieved in less than 4 days in the GTN group compared with 9 days in the controls (P < 0.005). We conclude that transdermal GTN is useful therapy for infusion-related thrombophlebitis showing evidence of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. PMID:8383319

  2. Cannula thrombophlebitis: a study in volunteers comparing polytetrafluoroethylene, polyurethane, and polyamide-ether-elastomer cannulae.

    PubMed

    Larsson, N; Stenberg, K; Linder, L E; Curelaru, I

    1989-04-01

    Cannulae made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE: n = 11), thermoplastic polyether-urethane (TPEU: n = 11), and a new test material, polyamide-ether-elastomer (XLON: n = 10) were inserted into the veins of the dorsum of the hand in 32 healthy volunteers (10 women and 22 men), 21-50 years old. The cannulae were intended to be left in place for 5 days. No infusion was given and the dressings were not exchanged. The resulting thrombophlebitis, defined as two or more of the symptoms pain, redness, oedema and hardness, was estimated on a scale which took into account the incidence, location, intensity, and duration of the symptoms. Except for one volunteer in the XLON group, all the volunteers developed thrombophlebitis, generally observed on the third day of cannulation, and being more frequent and intense over the cannulae (P less than 0.001) and at the tip (P less than 0.01) than at the insertion sites. Pain and oedema were, on the whole, the most frequent and severe symptoms during the period of indwelling. After withdrawal, hardness was the most intense, and together with pain, the most long-lasting (up to 10 days) symptom. The differences between the materials in thrombophlebitis incidence and intensity were statistically significant only when each symptom was analysed separately. Thus, the PTFE cannulae caused more pain and hardness (probably because of greater platelet adhesion and a relatively greater stiffness), while the TPEU and XLON cannulae produced more periphlebitis (redness and oedema), probably because of potentially irritant and antigenic substances leaking from them (polyurethane oligomers and polyamide/polyethyleneglycol oligomers).

  3. Imaging of venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Suvranu; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Gupta, Rajiv; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Venous compression syndromes are a unique group of disorders characterized by anatomical extrinsic venous compression, typically in young and otherwise healthy individuals. While uncommon, they may cause serious complications including pain, swelling, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. The major disease entities are May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), variant iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS)/Paget-Schroetter syndrome, nutcracker syndrome (NCS), and popliteal venous compression (PVC). In this article, we review the key clinical features, multimodality imaging findings, and treatment options of these disorders. Emphasis is placed on the growing role of noninvasive imaging options such as magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and tailored intervention. PMID:28123973

  4. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 Is a Valuable Marker for the Prediction of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Tumor Metastasis in Patients with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wufeng

    2017-01-01

    Activation of blood coagulation contributes to cancer progression. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) is the main inhibitor of extrinsic coagulation pathway. The aim of this study is to assess the predicting significance of TFPI-1 for thrombotic complication and metastasis in lung cancer patients. Total of 188 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were included in this study. Plasma TFPI-1, D-dimer (D-D), antithrombin (AT), Fibrinogen (Fbg), and coagulating factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) were measured. In NSCLC patients, significantly decreased TFPI-1 and AT and increased D-D, Fbg, and FVIII:C levels were observed, and there was a significant correlation between TFPI-1 and other hemostatic parameters (P < 0.001, resp.). NSCLC patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or metastasis had significantly lower TFPI-1 levels than those without DVT or metastasis (P < 0.01, resp.). Multivariate regression revealed that TFPI-1 acted as a predictor for DVT or tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients [OR: 4.15 or 3.28, P < 0.05, resp.]. The area under ROC curve of TFPI-1 was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.842~0.967) or 0.828 (95% CI, 0.742~0.915) for predicting DVT or metastasis (P < 0.001, resp.). The optimal point of TFPI-1 was 57.7 or 54.3 ng/mL for predicting DVT or metastasis, respectively. Combination of TFPI-1 and D-D measurements can improve the predicting power for DVT or metastasis in NSCLC patients. Our findings suggested that TFPI-1 was a valuable predictor of DVT and tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients. PMID:28246607

  5. Rivaroxaban: a review of its use in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism and the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Burness, Celeste B; Perry, Caroline M

    2014-02-01

    Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, is approved for the initial treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), as well as the prevention of recurrent DVT and PE. It is administered at a fixed oral dose and does not require routine coagulation monitoring. In the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE trials, in over 8,000 patients with DVT and/or PE, a single-drug approach with rivaroxaban was shown to be noninferior to standard therapy consisting of subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium overlapping with and followed by an oral dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonist (enoxaparin-VKA) with regard to the incidence of symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after 3, 6 or 12 months of treatment. Rivaroxaban was generally well tolerated in patients with DVT or PE, with no significant between-group differences in clinically relevant bleeding between the rivaroxaban and enoxaparin-VKA groups. Notably, rivaroxaban was associated with a significantly lower rate of major bleeding compared with enoxaparin-VKA when EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE data were pooled. Pharmacoeconomic analyses indicated that rivaroxaban may be a cost-effective alternative to enoxaparin-VKA for the treatment of DVT or PE and prevention of recurrent VTE. Extended prophylaxis with rivaroxaban reduced the incidence of symptomatic recurrent VTE to a greater extent than placebo in the EINSTEIN-Extension trial, but was associated with a non-significant increase in the risk of clinically relevant bleeding compared with placebo. In conclusion, rivaroxaban is a reasonable alternative to standard therapy for the treatment of DVT and PE, and as extended thromboprophylaxis.

  6. Risk factors and presentation of deep venous thrombosis among Asian patients: a hospital-based case-control study in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Koh, Woon-Puay; Chao, Alexandre K H

    2007-07-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is perceived to occur less frequently among Asians than Caucasians, although the reason for this has not been fully understood. Hence, there may be differences in risk factors and presentations among Asian patients compared to their Caucasian counterparts. This study examined the association of classical risk factors and presentations among Asian patients with DVT. We retrospectively reviewed 862 symptomatic patients referred to the vascular diagnostic laboratory in a hospital for suspected DVT over a 30-month period. Two hundred and seventy-seven patients (32.1%) tested positive for DVT on duplex ultrasound. After adjusting for age and gender, ethnicity was not a statistically significant demographic factor associated with DVT. Two hundred and seventy-one patients diagnosed as having DVT on ultrasound were matched for age, gender, and ethnicity to negative controls to study the significance of risk factors and presenting symptoms or signs. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for DVT included immobility (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.63-4.15], malignancy (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.01-3.10), and a history of thrombophilia (OR = 9.95, 95% CI 1.26-78.87). The significant forms of DVT presentation were limb swelling (OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.41-4.54) and pulmonary embolism (OR = 11.45, 95% CI 3.23-40.59). Fever of more than 37.5 degrees C was a negative predictive factor (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.76). This study shows that the common risk factors of DVT such as surgery and fractures do not affect Asians as much as Caucasians. Instead, thrombophilia and underlying malignancy are prominent risk factors among Asians. Diagnosis of DVT in Asians based on clinical grounds can also be problematic as few presentations are specific.

  7. Venous Sampling

    MedlinePlus

    ... parts of the body, including: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) , in which blood samples are taken from the ... for a few days before the procedure. For AVS, you will be asked to stop taking certain ...

  8. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  9. Intestinal Infarction Caused by Thrombophlebitis of the Portomesenteric Veins as a Complication of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis After Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed. PMID:26091450

  10. CORRIGENDUM to Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Owing to errors made by the authors, Charles J. Glueck, Kevin Lee, Marloe Prince, Vybhav Jetty, Parth Shah, and Ping Wang, the following article contains errors. Glueck CJ, Lee K, Prince M, et al. Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep. 2016;4(3):1-6. doi: 10.1177/2324709616661833 PMID:28321420

  11. [Chronic venous insufficiency in postthrombotic syndrome and varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jürg; Mayer, D; Amann, B; French, L E; Läuchli, S; Hofer, T; Ramelet, A-A; Jeanneret, Ch

    2010-10-06

    Venous disorders have a high prevalence and require approximately 1% of health budgets of industrialized countries. The postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is defined by subjective symptoms and morphologic trophical skin changes following deep venous thrombosis. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in risk situations, easy availability of diagnostic tools (D-dimers, colour-coded duplex sonography) and early detection of deep venous thrombosis, as well as immediate therapeutic anticoagulation along with leg compression during the acute phase and over a two year period of time significantly reduce the incidence of PTS. Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) includes trophical skin and soft tissue pathologies of the lower leg due to venous hypertension in the distal venous system of the lower extremity. Roughly, two main causes can be distinguished. (A) Deep venous insufficiency (A1 in postthrombotic syndrome; A2 in primary deep venous insufficiency) and (B) superficial venous reflux, usually varicose veins. Compression therapy, surgical ablation of superficial venous reflux, and tangential ablation with split skin graft (shave treatment) of refractory venous ulcers are the mainstays in the treatment of CVI.

  12. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  13. Venous thromboembolic disease after hybrid hip arthroplasty with negative duplex screening.

    PubMed

    Beuhler, K O; D'Lima, D D; Colwell, C W; Otis, S M; Walker, R H

    1999-04-01

    Postoperative duplex ultrasonography screening after total hip arthroplasty has been shown to identify patients who may require treatment or additional monitoring for venous thromboembolic disease. The potential for manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease subsequent to screening remains a concern. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic venous thromboembolic disease after total hip arthroplasty and after inhospital prophylaxis, inhospital screening with negative results for proximal deep venous thrombosis, and no posthospitalization venous thromboembolic disease prophylaxis. One hundred fifty patients undergoing primary hybrid total hip arthroplasty and using pneumatic compression stockings and aspirin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic disease were screened for deep venous thrombosis with duplex ultrasonography on the fourth day after surgery. Duplex ultrasonography screening revealed 17 (11.3%) patients with asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis. In response to duplex ultrasonography screening, these patients with proximal deep venous thrombosis received therapeutic anticoagulation. Of 133 patients with a duplex screen with negative results for proximal deep venous thrombosis, 131 (98.5%) continued to have no symptoms of venous thromboembolic disease and two (1.5%) began to have symptoms for venous thromboembolic disease (one with proximal deep venous thrombosis, one with nonfatal pulmonary embolism) during 12 months of clinical followup after total hip arthroplasty. The overall prevalence of venous thromboembolic disease requiring anticoagulation was 19 of 150 (12.6%) patients. The remaining 131 (87.4%) were not exposed to the risks of postoperative anticoagulation and did not have subsequent symptomatic venous thromboembolic disease.

  14. Duplex evaluation of venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Labropoulos, Nicos; Leon, Luis R

    2005-03-01

    Duplex ultrasound is the most useful examination for the evaluation of venous valvular incompetence. Multi-frequency 4 to 7-MHz linear array transducers are typically used for this assessment of superficial and deep reflux. The examination is done with the patient standing and manual compression maneuvers are used to initiate reflux. Automatic rapid inflation and deflation cuffs may be used when a standard stimulus is needed. Cutoff values for reflux have been defined. Perforating veins must be identified and flow direction during compression recorded. When ulcers are present, duplex ultrasound is used to investigate veins of the ulcerated legs. Venous outflow obstruction is also studied by duplex ultrasound and chronic changes in deep and superficial veins following deep venous thrombosis noted. The main drawback in evaluation of chronic obstruction is inability to quantify hemodynamic significance. Anatomic variations in superficial and deep veins are common and their identification is necessary. Reporting results of duplex ultrasound studies must take into consideration the proper classification of venous disease as well as the new anatomic terms that have been accepted.

  15. Lower extremity venous reflux

    PubMed Central

    Baliyan, Vinit; Tajmir, Shahein; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Venous incompetence in the lower extremity is a common clinical problem. Basic understanding of venous anatomy, pathophysiologic mechanisms of venous reflux is essential for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. The complex interplay of venous pressure, abdominal pressure, venous valvular function and gravitational force determine the venous incompetence. This review is intended to provide a succinct review of the pathophysiology of venous incompetence and the current role of imaging in its management. PMID:28123974

  16. [NHG guideline 'Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus'].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jip; Lucassen, Wim A M; Geersing, Geert-Jan; Burgers, Jako S; Wiersma, Tjerk

    2015-01-01

    The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners (Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap [NHG]) guideline 'Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus' includes recommendations for the treatment of patients with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and thrombophlebitis, and for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE). The general practitioner (GP) can exclude the presence of DVT or PE in some patients by using a decision rule and a D-dimer test. When using D-dimer test as a point-of-care test, meticulous care is essential during the test procedure and storage of blood. The GP can treat many patients with DVT; the NHG guideline does not advise use of direct oral anticoagulants. In the case of an isolated DVT in the calf, treatment with anticoagulants or ultrasound follow-up can be chosen in consultation with the patient or on the basis of regional agreements. In the case of patients with superficial thrombophlebitis, a wait-and-see approach is usually sufficient.

  17. Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant

    PubMed Central

    Glueck, Charles J.; Lee, Kevin; Prince, Marloe; Jetty, Vybhav; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: When exogenous testosterone or treatments to elevate testosterone (human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG] or Clomid) are prescribed for men who have antecedent thrombophilia, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism often occur and may recur despite adequate anticoagulation if testosterone therapy is continued. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old white male was referred to us because of 4 thrombotic events, 3 despite adequate anticoagulation over a 5-year period. We assessed interactions between thrombophilia, exogenous testosterone therapy, and recurrent thrombosis. In 2009, despite low-normal serum testosterone 334 ng/dL (lower normal limit [LNL] 300 ng/dL), he was given testosterone (TT) cypionate (50 mg/week) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG; 500 units/week) for presumed hypogonadism. Ten months later, with supranormal serum T (1385 ng/dL, upper normal limit [UNL] 827 ng/dL) and estradiol (E2) 45 pg/mL (UNL 41 pg/mL), he had a pulmonary embolus (PE) and was then anticoagulated for 2 years (enoxaparin, then warfarin). Four years later, on TT-HCG, he had his first deep venous thrombosis (DVT). TT was stopped and HCG continued; he was anticoagulated (enoxaparin, then warfarin, then apixaban, then fondaparinux). One year after his first DVT, on HCG, still on fondaparinux, he had a second DVT (5/315), was anticoagulated (enoxaparin + warfarin), with a Greenfield filter placed, but 8 days later had a second PE. Thrombophilia testing revealed the lupus anticoagulant. After stopping HCG, and maintained on warfarin, he has been free of further DVT-PE for 9 months. Conclusion: When DVT-PE occur on TT or HCG, in the presence of thrombophilia, TT-HCG should be stopped, lest DVT-PE reoccur despite concurrent anticoagulation. PMID:27536705

  18. Factors related to venous ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Maksimovic, Milos; Radak, Djordje

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors related to venous ulceration. Patients with venous ulceration (278 patients) were compared with 1401 patients in other categories of clinical classification of venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiological [CEAP]). Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. According to multivariate analyses, risk factors for venous ulceration were age, male sex, personal history of superficial and deep venous thrombosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, skeletal or joint disease in the legs and emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher body mass index and physical inactivity, parental history of ankle ulcer as well as reflux in deep and perforator veins, deep obstruction, and combination of reflux and obstruction. It seems reasonable to pay special attention to patients in whom the postulated risk factors for venous ulceration are present.

  19. Anatomy of the foot venous pump: physiology and influence on chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Uhl, J-F; Gillot, C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the location of the venous foot pump using an anatomical study. Four hundred cadaveric feet were injected with green neoprene latex followed by a dissection. A coloured segmentation of the venous system was achieved. The Lejars' concept of the venous sole of the foot is incorrect: the true blood venous reservoir of the foot is located deeply in the plantar veins, between the plantar muscles. The medial and mostly lateral plantar veins converge into the plexus shaped calcaneal crossroad, where the blood is ejected upwards into the two posterior tibial veins. In addition, the several medial perforators of the foot directly connect the deep system (medial plantar veins) to the superficial venous system (medial marginal vein). This forms a true 'medial functional unit' which is unique in the limb given its directional flow is from deep to superficial. In conclusion, the plantar veins play an important role in the physiology of the venous return since a venous reservoir of 25 mL of blood is mobilized upwards with each step during walking. Therefore, the impairment of the foot pump by a static foot disorder should be considered as an important risk factor for chronic venous disease, and should be evaluated and corrected in any patient with venous insufficiency.

  20. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion.

  1. Developmental Venous Anomaly: Benign or Not Benign

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Rie; SRIVATANAKUL, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), previously called venous angiomas, are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformations. However, DVA is considered to be rather an extreme developmental anatomical variation of medullary veins than true malformation. DVAs are composed of dilated medullary veins converging centripetally into a large collecting venous system that drains into the superficial or deep venous system. Their etiology and mechanism are generally accepted that DVAs result from the focal arrest of the normal parenchymal vein development or occlusion of the medullary veins as a compensatory venous system. DVAs per se are benign and asymptomatic except for under certain unusual conditions. The pathomechanisms of symptomatic DVAs are divided into mechanical, flow-related causes, and idiopathic. However, in cases of DVAs associated with hemorrhage, cavernous malformations (CMs) are most often the cause rather than DVAs themselves. The coexistence of CM and DVA is common. There are some possibilities that DVA affects the formation and clinical course of CM because CM related to DVA is generally located within the drainage territory of DVA and is more aggressive than isolated CM in the literature. Brain parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVA and cerebral varix have also been reported. These phenomena are considered to be the result of venous hypertension associated with DVAs. With the advance of diagnostic imagings, perfusion study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that some DVAs have venous congestion pattern. Although DVAs should be considered benign and clinically silent, they can have potential venous hypertension and can be vulnerable to hemodynamic changes. PMID:27250700

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lauren; Seraj, Samina

    2010-04-15

    Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, and intracellular edema. The primary risk factors for venous ulcer development are older age, obesity, previous leg injuries, deep venous thrombosis, and phlebitis. On physical examination, venous ulcers are generally irregular, shallow, and located over bony prominences. Granulation tissue and fibrin are typically present in the ulcer base. Associated findings include lower extremity varicosities, edema, venous dermatitis, and lipodermatosclerosis. Venous ulcers are usually recurrent, and an open ulcer can persist for weeks to many years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant change. Poor prognostic factors include large ulcer size and prolonged duration. Evidence-based treatment options for venous ulcers include leg elevation, compression therapy, dressings, pentoxifylline, and aspirin therapy. Surgical management may be considered for ulcers that are large in size, of prolonged duration, or refractory to conservative measures.

  3. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-01

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates.

  4. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Potential Targets in the Venous Dilation Associated with Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Kucukguven, Arda; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Varicose veins (VVs) are a common venous disease of the lower extremity characterized by incompetent valves, venous reflux, and dilated and tortuous veins. If untreated, VVs could lead to venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and chronic venous leg ulcers. Various genetic, hormonal and environmental factors may lead to structural changes in the vein valves and make them incompetent, leading to venous reflux, increased venous pressure and vein wall dilation. Prolonged increases in venous pressure and vein wall tension are thought to increase the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Members of the MMPs family include collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type MMPs and others. MMPs are known to degrade various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs may also affect the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, causing changes in the vein relaxation and contraction mechanisms. ECs injury also triggers leukocyte infiltration, activation and inflammation, which lead to further vein wall damage. The vein wall dilation and valve dysfunction, and the MMP activation and superimposed inflammation and fibrosis would lead to progressive venous dilation and VVs formation. Surgical ablation is an effective treatment for VVs, but may be associated with high recurrence rate, and other less invasive approaches that target the cause of the disease are needed. MMP inhibitors including endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) and pharmacological inhibitors such as zinc chelators, doxycycline, batimastat and marimastat, have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. However, MMP inhibitors may have side effects especially on the musculoskeletal system. With the advent of new genetic and pharmacological tools, specific MMP inhibitors with fewer undesirable effects could be useful to retard the progression and prevent the recurrence of VVs. PMID:23316963

  6. Patterns of venous reflux and obstruction in patients with skin damage due to chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Labropoulos, Nicos; Patel, Parag J; Tiongson, Jay E; Pryor, Landon; Leon, Luis R; Tassiopoulos, Apostolos K

    2007-01-01

    Identified were characteristics of individuals with skin damage related to chronic venous disease. Patients with chronic venous disease (n = 164) were evaluated with duplex ultrasound imaging and were placed in classes 4, 5, and 6 according to the CEAP classification. Their findings were compared with 100 class 2 controls. The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis was higher in the study group (23.7%) versus controls (5.1%; P < .0001), as was the prevalence of deep, perforator, and combined patterns of disease (P < .0001, P < .0007, and P < .0001). The mean duration of disease in controls 2 was shorter compared with the study group (P = .0019). The prevalence of reflux and obstruction within the study group was higher than in controls (P = .0021). Skin changes accurately reflect severity of chronic venous disease. Superficial and perforator vein reflux is the major cause of disease.

  7. Intestinal Infarction Caused by Thrombophlebitis of the Portomesenteric Veins as a Complication of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis After Appendectomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed.

  8. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis Is a Safe and Alternative Therapeutic Approach in the Management of Postpartum Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Nagesh, C M; Reddy, Babu; Manjunath, C N

    2015-12-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem in pregnancy and postpartum period. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is safe and effective in management of symptomatic DVT. Value of CDT in postpartum DVT is not fully evaluated. We describe five patients presenting with acute iliofemoral DVT in their early postpartum period who were treated with mechanical thromboaspiration and CDT. The CDT was done using streptokinase infusion and unfractionated heparin. Percutaneous angioplasty was done in patients with symptomatic residual lesion following thrombolysis. Patients were discharged with oral anticoagulant and compression stockings. This approach was successful in all four cases. Percutaneous endovascular therapy using CDT, mechanical thromboaspiration, and balloon angioplasty is safe and effective in iliofemoral DVT in postpartum period.

  9. Venous syndromes and pulmonary embolism in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gladman, D D; Urowitz, M B

    1980-08-01

    Deep vein thrombophlebitis (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE) have been uncommonly reported manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This may be partly due to their being masked by other more familiar lesions of the lungs and extremities in SLE. We have identified 17 patients with SLE from a population of 180 being followed up prospectively who had 21 attacks of DVT and/or PE. Of the total of 21 episodes the SLE was considered to be active in 14, inactive in 6, and variable in a patient with recurring phlebitis. The incidence of hyperlipidaemia, smoking history, and use of birth control medication or corticosteroids was not higher in these patients. These clinical findings thus constitute additional features of SLE occurring in about 9% of patients and may be significance for morbidity and mortality.

  10. Venous ulcers of the lower limb: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sasanka S.

    2012-01-01

    Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein. PMID:23162226

  11. Venous ulcers of the lower limb: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sasanka S

    2012-05-01

    Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein.

  12. A study on the safety, efficacy, and efficiency of sulodexide compared with acenocoumarol in secondary prophylaxis in patients with deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cirujeda, J Lasierra; Granado, P Coronel

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to study the safety and efficacy of a fixed dosage of sulodexide compared to adjusted dosages (INR) of acenocoumarol as secondary prophylaxis in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in lower limbs. An economic evaluation based on the criteria of use in normal clinical practice was also performed. One hundred and fifty patients of both sexes were included, all over 18 years of age and diagnosed with proximal DVT of the lower limbs by color echo-Doppler, and with clinical evolution of less than 1 month. The patients were initially treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and urokinase in accordance with the established protocol. They were then randomized to continue treatment with acenocoumarol and INR adjustments every 30 days, or with sulodexide. Treatment was extended for 3 months with monthly follow-up visits and a final visit at 3 months posttreatment. No differences between the groups were detected concerning demographic or basal characteristics in clinical evolution or adverse reactions. In the group treated with sulodexide, no major/minor hemorrhagic complications were detected. On the other hand, in the acenocoumarol group, 1 major hemorrhage and 9 minor hemorrhages were produced (13.3%), reaching statistical difference in relation to the sulodexide group (p = 0.014; CI from 95% of 4.7% to 19.4%). Regarding the economic impact, treatment costs with sulodexide are much less than those with acenocoumarol, the data confirmed by the sensitivity analyses performed. The results prove the efficacy, safety, and efficiency of sulodexide as a secondary prophylaxis in thromboembolic disease, avoiding hemorrhagic risks and the monitoring of patients, and providing significant savings to the health system.

  13. Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P

    2014-03-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products.

  14. Venous Thromboembolism Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, R.W.; Hsieh, T.J.; Aubut, JA. L.; Eng, J.J.; Krassioukov, A.; Tu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the published literature on the treatment of deep venous thromboembolism post-spinal cord injury (SCI). Data Sources MEDLINE/Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles addressing the treatment of deep venous thromboembolism post-SCI. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale, while non-RCTs were assessed using the Downs and Black evaluation tool. Study Selection Studies included RCTs, non-RCTS, cohort, case-control, case series, pre-post, and postinterventional studies. Case studies were included only when no other studies were available. Data Extraction Data extracted included demographics, the nature of the study intervention, and study results. Data Synthesis Levels of evidence were assigned to the interventions using a modified Sackett scale. Conclusions Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies examined various pharmacologic interventions for the treatment or prevention of deep venous thrombosis in SCI patients. There was strong evidence to support the use of low molecular weight heparin in reducing venous thrombosis events, and a higher adjusted dose of unfractionated heparin was found to be more effective than 5000 units administered every 12 hours, although bleeding complication was more common. Nonpharmacologic treatments were also reviewed, but again limited evidence was found to support these treatments. PMID:19236977

  15. ASSESSMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN ANIMAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SP, Grover; CE, Evans; AS, Patel; B, Modarai; P, Saha; A, Smith

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro computed tomography and high frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. PMID:26681755

  16. Prevention and treatment of venous ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Negus, D.

    1985-01-01

    Venous ulcers are related to incompetence of the direct calf and ankle perforating veins, the majority of which follow deep vein thrombosis. Prevention of the latter by intravenous micro-dose heparin (1 unit/kg/hour) is effective, safe and inexpensive. Its efficacy has been proved in two controlled clinical trials. Venous ulcers have been treated by perforating vein ligation, with saphenous ligation and stripping where necessary, and with the addition of permanent knee-length elastic compression stockings in patients with femoro-popliteal incompetence. This regimen has achieved a 92% long-term success rate in patients without rheumatoid arthritis. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3890671

  17. Sulodexide in the treatment of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Giuseppe Maria

    2012-04-01

    Chronic venous disease encompasses a range of venous disorders, including those involving the lower limbs resulting from venous hypertension. The spectrum of chronic venous disease signs and symptoms shows variable severity, ranging from mild (aching, pain, and varicose veins) to severe (venous ulcers). The pathophysiology of chronic venous disease is characterized by venous hypertension, which triggers endothelial dysfunction and inflammation leading to microcirculatory and tissue damage, and eventually to varicose veins and venous ulcers. Sulodexide is an orally active mixture of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides with established antithrombotic and profibrinolytic activity. The agent is used in the treatment of a number of vascular disorders with increased risk of thrombosis, including intermittent claudication, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and post-myocardial infarction. Sulodexide differs from heparin because it is orally bioavailable and has a longer half-life and a smaller effect on systemic clotting and bleeding. An increasing body of preclinical evidence shows that sulodexide also exerts anti-inflammatory, endothelial-protective, and pleiotropic effects, supporting its potential efficacy in the treatment of chronic venous disease. Clinical studies of sulodexide have shown that the agent is associated with significant improvements in the clinical signs and symptoms of venous ulcers, and is therefore a recommended therapy in combination with local wound care and bandages for patients with persistent venous leg ulcers. Preliminary evidence supports the use of sulodexide in the prevention of recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Sulodexide was generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials, without hemorrhagic complications. Sulodexide therefore appears to be a favorable option for the treatment of all stages of chronic venous disease and for the prevention of disease progression.

  18. Venous thromboembolic disease in colorectal patients.

    PubMed

    McNally, Michael P; Burns, Christopher J

    2009-02-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease, which includes deep vein thromboses as well as pulmonary emboli, can be a significant complication in the postoperative patient. In particular, colorectal patients often carry a higher risk for venous thromboembolism when compared with patients undergoing other operative procedures. Features unique to colorectal patients are the high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy. Typically, these patients will undergo lengthy pelvic procedures, which also contribute to a cumulative risk of venous thrombosis. It is critical that all patients and the proposed operative procedure are appropriately risk stratified. Risk stratification allows for easier implementation of an appropriate prophylactic strategy. There are a wide range of safe and effective mechanical and pharmacologic measures available. The authors provide very specific recommendations, but note that clinical judgment plays a significant role.

  19. Multiple venous thrombosis complicating central venous cannulation in a non cancer patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ce; Menkiti, Id; Desalu, I; Thomas, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a common procedure for critically ill patients. Like all procedures, it has its complications, one of which is thrombosis. Reports of thrombosis are commoner among cancer patients. We present a 37 year old non cancer patient who developed thrombi in both right and left internal jugular veins, 10 and 13 days respectively after insertion of central venous catheter. This was detected by ultrasound scans of the neck while attempting re-cannulation for parenteral feeding. She also had left lower limb deep venous thrombosis, confirmed by doppler scan, which was managed with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin. The patient was subsequently treated with streptokinase. A repeat scan of the internal jugular veins 4 days after thrombolysis revealed a reduction in size of the thrombi. Symptoms of deep venous thrombosis improved and she was transferred to the wards where she made remarkable improvement. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of ultrasound guided-central line insertion in patients who have had central venous lines inserted previously in order to detect thrombi.

  20. Management of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Finks, Shannon W.; Trujillo, Toby C.; Dobesh, Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review clinical data on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) used in the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as practical considerations when using these products. Data Sources: Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for VTE, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and relevant drug international nonproprietary names were conducted. Additional online searches were conducted for prescribing information. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Relevant articles on dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban for the management of VTE compared with oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs; published between 1966 and December 2015) were reviewed and summarized, together with information on dosing, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and drug-drug interactions. Data Synthesis: The DOACs have the potential to circumvent many of the disadvantages of VKAs. At a minimum, they greatly increase the available therapeutic options, thus providing a greater opportunity for clinicians to select a management option that best fits the needs of individual patients. Despite the significant advance that DOACs represent, they are not without risk and require careful consideration of a number of clinical issues to optimize safety and efficacy. Conclusions: The emergence of DOACs for the management of thromboembolic disorders represents a paradigm shift from oral VKAs. The DOACs provide similar efficacy and improved safety in selected patients as compared with VKAs. Clinicians treating VTE need to be familiar with the intricacies involved in using these agents, including the appropriate dose selection for the relevant indication, avoidance of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, and consideration of dose adjustments in specific clinical situations, such as organ dysfunction. PMID:26917821

  1. Outcome of venous stenting following catheter directed thrombolysis for acute proximal lower limb venous thrombosis: a prospective study with venous Doppler follow-up at 1-year.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Reddy, Babu; Nagesh, C M; Agarwal, Naveen; Manjunath, C N

    2015-10-01

    Functional outcome of venous stent placement for the management of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) following catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess immediate and intermediate term outcomes among patients treated with venous stenting following CDT in patients with proximal lower limb DVT. Thirty consecutive patients aged between 20-70 years with proximal lower limb DVT formed the study group. The mean duration of CDT done with streptokinase was 4.5 ± 1.3 days. Patients with residual venous obstruction and/or large clot burden were treated further with venous angioplasty and/or stenting. Primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety, efficacy and patency of venous stenting in the management of incomplete result following CDT. After 12 months, post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) was assessed clinically using Villalta scale and deep venous patency was assessed through duplex ultrasound. We studied 8 (5 female and 3 male) patients with 9 (3 left and 6 right) limb involvement and 13 stent (4 balloon expandable and 9 self expandable) placement. All patients improved clinically immediately following venous stenting. Technical success was achieved in all patients. One patient developed pulmonary embolism during course of hospital stay. One patient had stent thrombosis and PTS and another patient died due to carcinoma breast during follow-up. Deep venous stenting is an effective mode of treatment in proximal acute lower limb DVT with high late patency rate up to 1-year.

  2. Large plaque-like glomuvenous malformation (glomangioma) simulating venous malformation.

    PubMed

    Vercellino, N; Nozza, P; Oddone, M; Bava, G L

    2006-07-01

    Glomuvenous malformations and venous malformations are vascular lesions that can be distinguished on the basis of clinical and pathological features. A vascular lesion of the skin and superficial and deep soft tissues of a lower limb in a 5-year-old child is described. The clinical and radiological features, including skeletal muscle involvement, were typical of venous malformation, whereas the histopathological features were those of a glomuvenous malformation. The clinical and histopathological features are briefly discussed.

  3. Modified closed chamber sutureless technique for anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Karunakaran, Jayakumar; Dharan, Baiju Sashidhar

    2017-01-01

    Visibility continues to be a major problem during repair of obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) resulting in frequent use of deep hypothermia and low flow bypass. Sutureless technique for primary repair of anomalous pulmonary venous connection is fast becoming popular. In this described modification of sutureless technique through the lateral approach, the left atrium is marsupialized around the common pulmonary venous chamber, except on the right lateral aspect, providing a bloodless field with minimal retraction of heart facilitating the surgery at mild hypothermia. This technique can be particularly useful in small confluence obstructed TAPVC and in mixed TAPVC. PMID:28163429

  4. Dealing with the venous congestion of free flaps: venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Koray; Kankaya, Yüksel; Uysal, Afşin; Koçer, Uğur

    2008-11-01

    For head and neck reconstruction after tumor ablation surgery, free flaps are mostly the chosen treatment modality for most of the centers. Coping with venous insufficiency and increasing venous outflow of the flap during this process increases the success rate. To increase venous outflow, triple-lumen central venous catheter is inserted to one of the donor veins of the flap that has venous insufficiency and one intact vein anastomosis.

  5. Venous angiomata: treatment with sclerosant foam.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Bergan, John J; Yamada, Clayton; Mekenas, Lisa

    2005-07-01

    Venous angiomata, or venous malformations, are often present at birth, although they may not be evident until later. They consist of a spongy tangle of veins, and these lesions usually vary in size. Treatment of venous angiomata is often requested for cosmetic reasons, but painful ulcerations, nerve compression, functional disability can command care. This presentation describes management using sclerosant foam as the treating agent. During a 30-month period ending March 2004, 1,321 patients were investigated for venous disorders at the Vein Institute of La Jolla. Fourteen (incidence 1%) were found to have venous angiomata (: nine women). The age range was 15-76 years (mean 30.8 +/- 18.6). Lesions were classified by the Hamburg system and were primarily venous, extratruncular in 12 patients and combined extratruncular and truncular in two patients. Eight patients, three males, had manifestations of lower extremity Klippel-Trenaunay (syndrome; six had only venous angiomas. Only 10 of the 14 patients were treated. All patients were studied by Doppler duplex examination. Selected lesions were chosen for helical computed tomographic studies. Magnetic resonance venography was also used to image the lesions, define the deep circulation, note connections with normal circulation, identify vessels for therapeutic access, and determine infiltration of the lesion into adjacent soft tissue. Foam was produced by the Tessari two syringes one three-way stopcock teclinique, with the air to Polidocanol ratio being 4 or 5 to 1. This was used at 1% or 2% concentration, specific for each patient. The SonoSite 190 plus Duplex Doppler was used for ultrasound guidance, whenever deep access was required and to monitor progress and effects of treatment. A goal was set for each patient before treatment was begun. Ten patients were treated, and four await treatment. The mean number of treatments was 3.6 +/- 2.8 (range 1-10). A primary goal of pain-free healing was set in patients with

  6. [Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)].

    PubMed

    Renner, R; Simon, J

    2009-10-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is an important and frequent disease for dermatologists, phlebologists and general practitioners. There are various hypotheses for the ethiopathology in CVI, e. g. hormone receptors and impairments concerning the venous contraction or relaxation of the vessel wall and the venous valves might play an important role. At the moment, colour doppler-duplex sonography seems to be the diagnostic method of choice. Modern therapeutic options include compression systems alone or in combination with topical or systemic treatment including minimal invasive methods like endovenous laser or radiofrequency obliteration or foam sclerotherapy.

  7. Venous thromboembolism in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Clifford M

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increasing in the pediatric population. Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have an increased risk of thrombosis due to central venous catheters (CVCs), as well as acquired thrombophilia secondary to inflammation, or deficiencies of anticoagulant proteins due to vitamin K deficiency and/or liver dysfunction. CVC-associated thrombosis commonly results in line occlusion, but may develop into serious life-threatening conditions such as deep venous thrombosis (DVT), superior vena cava syndrome or pulmonary embolism (PE). Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) may be a long complication. Local occlusion of the catheter tip may be managed with instillation of thrombolytics (such as tPA) within the lumen of the catheter; however, CVC-associated thrombosis involving the proximal veins is most often is treated with systemic anticoagulation. Initial treatment with heparin is a standard approach, but thrombolytic therapy, which may carry higher bleeding risks, should be considered for life and limb threatening episodes of VTE. Recommended duration of anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or warfarin ranges from 3 to 6 months for major removable thrombotic risks; longer anticoagulation is considered for recurrent thrombosis, major persistent thrombophilia, or the continued presence of a major risk factor such as a CVC. While CVCs are the most common risk for development of VTE in children, studies have not demonstrated a clear benefit with routine use of systemic thromboprophylaxis. The incidence and risk factors of VTE in CF patients will be reviewed and principles of diagnosis and management will be summarized.

  8. Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your doctor. Do not ignore these symptoms. Risk Factors The most important factors leading to the development of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins include: • Family history • Increasing ...

  9. Venous ulcer review

    PubMed Central

    Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869

  10. Necrotizing Fasciitis on the Right Side of the Neck with Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis and Septic Emboli: A Case of Lemierre’s-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Dang; YAACOB, Yazmin; HAMID, Hamzaini; MUDA, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre’s syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS. PMID:24643401

  11. [Disseminated arterial occlusions revealing bilateral venous thrombosis with paradoxical embolisms].

    PubMed

    Elsendoorn, A; Desport, E; Vialle, R; Frat, J-P; Bridoux, F; Touchard, G

    2009-06-01

    Paradoxical embolism is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical triad associates deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, arterial embolism, and intracardiac communication with right-to-left shunt. The intracardiac communication is generally related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a 75-year-old patient, who presented with bilateral deep venous thrombosis of the legs, complicated by massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolisms through a PFO. This resulted in cerebral, mesenteric, splenic and bilateral kidney infarctions. A promptly initiated anticoagulant treatment allowed a favourable outcome.

  12. [Role of blood refluxes in the genesis of venous trophic disorders in patients with chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Sukovatykh, B S; Belikov, L N; Akatov, A L; Itinson, A I; Sukovatykh, M B

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed the results of a comprehensive examination of 120 patients with class C6 chronic venous insufficiency according to the CEAP classification, and open trophic ulcers. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups. Group One comprised a total of 75 patients with varicosity, and Group Two consisted of 45 patients with post-thrombotic disease. The localization, intensity and length of the refluxes of blood in the venous system of the affected extremity were determined by means of ultrasonographic angioscanning. Examining the patients with varicosity revealed that in 81.4% the main haemodynamic factor leading to development of the ulcer was a high-intensity, total-subtotal blood reflux along the superficial veins, and in 9.3% - high-intensity superficial and deep refluxes of blood. We failed to determine the blood reflux priority in 9.3% of patients. The trophic ulcers had developed under the effect of low-intensity refluxes of blood in the superficial, deep and perforating veins in elderly patients on the background of heart failure. The most damaging influence on the microcirculatory bed in patients with post-thrombotic disease with recanalization of deep veins is exerted by a high-intensity total reflux of blood in the popliteal and talocrural segments of the venous system of the lower extremities, which was revealed in 68.9% of patients. The developing pathological flow of blood from the muscular-venous pump of the cms into the deep veins of the foot induces perforating insufficiency on the foot and crus, thus creating two zones of venous hypertension above and beneath the ankle. The major factor of trophic ulcers development in patients with segmental obliteration (17.8%) and insufficient recanalization of deep veins (13.3%) was venous hypertension in the distal portions of the affected extremity. Blood refluxes in deep veins of the ankle were of a low-intensity pattern, and played an auxiliary role in development of trophic disorders.

  13. [Homocysteine and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Monnerat, C; Hayoz, D

    1997-09-06

    Congenital homocysteinuria is a rare inherited metabolic disorder with early onset atherosclerosis and arterial and venous trombosis. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is more frequently encountered and is recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Several case-control studies demonstrate an association between venous thromboembolism and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. A patient with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia has a 2-3 relative risk of developing an episode of venous thromboembolism. The occurrence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in heterozygotes for the mutation of Leiden factor V involves a 10-fold increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism. The biochemical mechanism by which homocysteine may promote thrombosis is not fully recognized. Homocysteine inhibits the expression of thrombomodulin, the thrombin cofactor responsible for protein C activation, and inhibits antithrombin-III binding. Treatment with folic acid reduces the plasma level of homocysteinemia, but no study has demonstrated its efficacy in reducing the incidence of venous thromboembolism or atherosclerosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be included in the screening of abnormalities of hemostasis and thrombosis in patients with idiopathic thromboembolism, and mild hyperhomocysteinemia may justify a trial of folic acid.

  14. [Definition, classification and diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency - part II].

    PubMed

    Kasperczak, Jarosław; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Breborowicz, H Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Venous insufficiency can be defined as a fixed venous outflow disturbance of the limbs. It is caused by the malfunction of the venous system, that may or may not be associated with venous valvular insufficiency and may involve the superficial or deep venous system of the lower limbs, or both. The CEAP scale includes clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic aspects and has been used in the assessment of venous insufficiency Clinical classification comprises of 7 groups. It takes into account the appearance of the skin of the lower limbs, presence of edema, teleangiectasis and varicose ulcers. CLINICAL GRADING: Group C0 - no visible changes in the clinical examination; Group C1 - telangiectasis, reticular veins, redness of the skin around the ankles; Group C2 - varicose veins, Group C3 - the presence of edema without skin changes; Group C4 - lesions dependent of venous diseases (discoloration, blemishes, lipodermatosclerosis); C5 Group - skin changes described above with signs of healed venous ulcers; Group C6 - skin lesions such as in groups C1 to C4 plus active venous ulcers. ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION INCLUDES: Ec - congenital defects of the venous system, Ep - primary pathological changes of the venous system, without identification of their causes; Es - secondary causes of venous insufficiency of known etiology (post-thrombotic, post-traumatic, etc.). There are many methods of assessing the venous system. One of the most accurate methods is an ascending phlebography which is especially useful in determining detailed anatomy of the venous system, venous patency and identification of perforans veins. The second method may be a descending phlebography useful in determining the venous reflux and morphology of venous valves. Another radiological method is varicography in which the injection of the contrast medium directly into the veins is performed. It is especially useful in the ,,mapping" of venous connections. Trans-uterine phlebography when contrast

  15. [Venous thrombosis of atypical location in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Campos Balea, Begoña; Sáenz de Miera Rodríguez, Andrea; Antolín Novoa, Silvia; Quindós Varela, María; Barón Duarte, Francisco; López López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that frequently occurs in patients with neoplastic diseases. Several models have therefore been developed to identify patient subgroups diagnosed with cancer who are at increased risk of developing VTE. The most common forms of thromboembolic episodes are deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, venous thrombosis is also diagnosed in atypical locations. There are few revisions of unusual cases of venous thrombosis. In most cases, VTE occurs in the upper limbs and in the presence of central venous catheters, pacemakers and defibrillators. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy who developed a thrombosis in the upper limbs (brachial and axillary).

  16. A failure of preoperative duplex imaging to diagnose a lower extremity venous aneurysm in a patient with severe chronic venous insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Roy Wesley; Parkerson, Godfrey Ross; Ottinger, Mary; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Park, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We present a case of recurrent bilateral lower extremity venous stasis ulcers in association with a superficial venous aneurysm at the right saphenofemoral junction that was misdiagnosed on preoperative duplex scanning. Methods: A 53-year-old female presented to our clinic with 6-year history of bilateral lower extremity venous stasis ulcers. Her past medical history was significant for refractory venous stasis ulcers of the bilateral lower extremities present for 6 years and morbid obesity. Results: Preoperative venous duplex demonstrated severe venous insufficiency of the superficial and deep systems, but a venous aneurysm was not appreciated. During the high ligation of the right saphenofemoral junction, a 3 × 4 × 5 cm aneurysm was encountered. Repair consisted of aneurysm resection, high ligation of the greater saphenous vein, dissociation of the great saphenous and anterior saphenous veins, and stab phlebectomy of large varicose veins of the thigh and lower leg. The patient recovered uneventfully and experienced complete healing of the venous stasis ulcer in several weeks. Conclusion: Superficial venous aneurysms of the lower extremity are rare and can be often missed on preoperative duplex ultrasound imaging. Large diameter measurements of the proximal greater saphenous vein and obesity increase the risk of misdiagnosing venous aneurysms with duplex imaging; therefore, clinical suspicion must remain high. These aneurysms can be associated with significant symptoms for which repair is indicated. PMID:28255445

  17. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  18. The jugular venous pressure revisited

    PubMed Central

    CHIACO, JOHN MICHAEL S. CHUA; PARIKH, NISHA I.; FERGUSSON, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the jugular venous pressure is often inadequately performed and undervalued. Here, we review the physiologic and anatomic basis for the jugular venous pressure, including the discrepancy between right atrial and central venous pressures. We also describe the correct method of evaluating this clinical finding and review the clinical relevance of the jugular venous pressure, especially its value in assessing the severity and response to treatment of congestive heart failure. Waveforms reflective of specific conditions are also discussed. PMID:24085809

  19. Venous oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation.

  20. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  1. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg – a condition often referred to as deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation ... leg. This condition is often referred to as deep vein thrombosis or DVT. These clots may break ...

  2. Contribution of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia to the pathogenesis of postthrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kreidy, Raghid

    2015-01-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis. This study aims to assess the role of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of PTS. A series of 206 patients diagnosed with lower extremity venous thrombosis were retrospectively reviewed. The PTS was observed in 30.58% of the patients. Recurrent venous thrombosis was identified in 3.4% of the patients without PTS and in 33.3% of patients with PTS (P < .001). Inherited thrombophilia alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis was more commonly detected when PTS was moderate to severe (P = .04 and <.001) or severe (P < .001). Recurrent venous thrombosis increases the incidence of PTS significantly. The severity of PTS raises when an underlying thrombophilia is present either alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis.

  3. Insights from venous oxygen profiles: oxygen utilization and management in diving California sea lions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Ponganis, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The management and depletion of O2 stores underlie the aerobic dive capacities of marine mammals. The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presumably optimizes O2 store management during all dives, but approaches its physiological limits during deep dives to greater than 300 m depth. Blood O2 comprises the largest component of total body O2 stores in adult sea lions. Therefore, we investigated venous blood O2 depletion during dives of California sea lions during maternal foraging trips to sea by: (1) recording venous partial pressure of O2 (P(O2)) profiles during dives, (2) characterizing the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of sea lion Hb and (3) converting the P(O2) profiles into percent Hb saturation (S(O2)) profiles using the dissociation curve. The O2-Hb dissociation curve was typical of other pinnipeds (P50=28±2 mmHg at pH 7.4). In 43% of dives, initial venous S(O2) values were greater than 78% (estimated resting venous S(O2)), indicative of arterialization of venous blood. Blood O2 was far from depleted during routine shallow dives, with minimum venous S(O2) values routinely greater than 50%. However, in deep dives greater than 4 min in duration, venous S(O2) reached minimum values below 5% prior to the end of the dive, but then increased during the last 30-60 s of ascent. These deep dive profiles were consistent with transient venous blood O2 depletion followed by partial restoration of venous O2 through pulmonary gas exchange and peripheral blood flow during ascent. These differences in venous O2 profiles between shallow and deep dives of sea lions reflect distinct strategies of O2 store management and suggest that underlying cardiovascular responses will also differ.

  4. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Volume 16, Number 8, August 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    myocardial infarction ; stroke; burn; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; venous injury; venous... infarction 451.1 Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, of deep vessels oflower extremities 451.11 Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, femoral vein (deep...ct ob er Ja nu ar y A pr il Ju ly O ct ob er Ja nu ar y A pr il Ju ly O ct ob er Ja nu ar y A pr il Ju ly N um be r o f c om pl et ed fo rm s

  5. Doppler ultrasound study and venous mapping in chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    García Carriazo, M; Gómez de las Heras, C; Mármol Vázquez, P; Ramos Solís, M F

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is very prevalent. In recent decades, Doppler ultrasound has become the method of choice to study this condition, and it is considered essential when surgery is indicated. This article aims to establish a method for the examination, including venous mapping and preoperative marking. To this end, we review the venous anatomy of the lower limbs and the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and explain the basic hemodynamic concepts and the terminology required to elaborate a radiological report that will enable appropriate treatment planning and communication with other specialists. We briefly explain the CHIVA (the acronym for the French term "cure conservatrice et hémodynamique de l'insuffisance veineuse en ambulatoire"=conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency) strategy, a minimally invasive surgical strategy that aims to restore correct venous hemodynamics without resecting the saphenous vein.

  6. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  7. Septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein with bacteraemia caused by Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus intermedius as a complication of diverculitis.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2013-02-05

    A 68-year-old Japanese man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital because of fever and haematemesis. On day 3, his blood culture became positive for Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci, and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed acute septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein with caecal diverculitis. Antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin-sulbactam and anticoagulant therapy were started and the blood culture grew Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus intermedius. On hospital day 7, the patient's condition began to improve in response to the therapy, therefore, the ampicillin-sulbactam and anticoagulant therapy was continued for 42 days. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 45. B fragilis bacteraemia of unknown source should caution the physician to search for an intra-abdominal focus, such as thrombosis of the portal vein or mesenteric vein.

  8. Venous hemodynamic changes in lower limb venous disease: the UIP consensus according to scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung B; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Myers, Kenneth; Meissner, Mark; Kalodiki, Evi; Allegra, Claudio; Antignani, Pier L; Bækgaard, Niels; Beach, Kirk; Belcaro, Giovanni; Black, Stephen; Blomgren, Lena; Bouskela, Eliete; Cappelli, Massimo; Caprini, Joseph; Carpentier, Patrick; Cavezzi, Attilio; Chastanet, Sylvain; Christenson, Jan T; Christopoulos, Demetris; Clarke, Heather; Davies, Alun; Demaeseneer, Marianne; Eklöf, Bo; Ermini, Stefano; Fernández, Fidel; Franceschi, Claude; Gasparis, Antonios; Geroulakos, George; Gianesini, Sergio; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Gloviczki, Peter; Huang, Ying; Ibegbuna, Veronica; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kistner, Robert; Kölbel, Tilo; Kurstjens, Ralph L; Labropoulos, Nicos; Laredo, James; Lattimer, Christopher R; Lugli, Marzia; Lurie, Fedor; Maleti, Oscar; Markovic, Jovan; Mendoza, Erika; Monedero, Javier L; Moneta, Gregory; Moore, Hayley; Morrison, Nick; Mosti, Giovanni; Nelzén, Olle; Obermayer, Alfred; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Parsi, Kurosh; Partsch, Hugo; Passariello, Fausto; Perrin, Michel L; Pittaluga, Paul; Raju, Seshadri; Ricci, Stefano; Rosales, Antonio; Scuderi, Angelo; Slagsvold, Carl E; Thurin, Anders; Urbanek, Tomasz; M VAN Rij, Andre; Vasquez, Michael; Wittens, Cees H; Zamboni, Paolo; Zimmet, Steven; Ezpeleta, Santiago Z

    2016-06-01

    There are excellent guidelines for clinicians to manage venous diseases but few reviews to assess their hemodynamic background. Hemodynamic concepts that evolved in the past have largely remained unchallenged in recent decades, perhaps due to their often complicated nature and in part due to emergence of new diagnostic techniques. Duplex ultrasound scanning and other imaging techniques which evolved in the latter part of the 20th century have dominated investigation. They have greatly improved our understanding of the anatomical patterns of venous reflux and obstruction. However, they do not provide the physiological basis for understanding the hemodynamics of flow, pressure, compliance and resistance. Hemodynamic investigations appear to provide a better correlation with post-treatment clinical outcome and quality of life than ultrasound findings. There is a far better prospect for understanding the complete picture of the patient's disability and response to management by combining ultrasound with hemodynamic studies. Accordingly, at the instigation of Dr Angelo Scuderi, the Union Internationale de Phlebologie (UIP) executive board commissioned a large number of experts to assess all aspects of management for venous disease by evidence-based principles. These included experts from various member societies including the European Venous Forum (EVF), American Venous Forum (AVF), American College of Phlebology (ACP) and Cardiovascular Disease Educational and Research Trust (CDERT). Their aim was to confirm or dispel long-held hemodynamic principles and to provide a comprehensive review of venous hemodynamic concepts underlying the pathophysiology of lower limb venous disorders, their usefulness for investigating patients and the relevant hemodynamic changes associated with various forms of treatment. Chapter 1 is devoted to basic hemodynamic concepts and normal venous physiology. Chapter 2 presents the mechanism and magnitude of hemodynamic changes in acute deep vein

  9. Unusual venous sinuses.

    PubMed

    Srijit, D; Shipra, P

    2007-01-01

    The dural venous sinuses lie in between the two layers of the dura mater. The dural venous sinuses are important, because they receive blood from the brain and the cranial bones. All sinuses are related to the inner surface of the skull, except for the inferior sagittal and the straight sinus. The sinuses related to the inner surface of the skull produce impressions on it. During routine ostelogical teaching for undergraduate medical students, we observed an unusual oblique sinus, which connected the right and the left transverse sinuses. This unusual oblique sinus measured 2 cm and had a course from the right to the left side. The superior sagittal sinus turned onto the right but at a much higher level than the left transverse sinus. Although these sinuses communicated with each other, the normal position of the confleunce of the sinus (meeting point of superior sagittal sinus, right and left transverse sinus and the occipital sinus) was not seen. The impression meant for the posterior lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere was distinctly greater than that of the right side. The presence of such an anomaly suggests a possible developmental defect or handedness of the individual. The knowledge of the anatomical variations of the dural venous sinuses may have great clinical implications during venography, shunt surgeries and also helpful for neurologists and radiologists in addition to academic interest (Fig. 2, Ref 10) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  10. [Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].

    PubMed

    Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings

  11. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  12. Compression therapy for venous disease.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Robert R; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I

    2017-03-01

    For centuries, compression therapy has been utilized to treat venous disease. To date it remains the mainstay of therapy, particularly in more severe forms such as venous ulceration. In addition to mechanisms of benefit, we discuss the evidence behind compression therapy, particularly hosiery, in various forms of venous disease of the lower extremities. We review compression data for stand-alone therapy, post-intervention, as DVT prevention, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcer disease. We also review the data comparing compression modalities as well as the use of compression in mixed arteriovenous disease.

  13. Orbital venous pattern in relation to extraorbital venous drainage and superficial lymphatic vessels in rats.

    PubMed

    Maloveska, Marcela; Kresakova, Lenka; Vdoviakova, Katarina; Petrovova, Eva; Elias, Mario; Panagiotis, Artemiou; Andrejcakova, Zuzana; Supuka, Peter; Purzyc, Halina; Kissova, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the normal and variant anatomy of extraorbital and intraorbital venous drainage together with retroorbital communication, and determine the lymphatic drainage from the superficial orbital region with a potential outlet of lymphatic vessel into the venous bloodstream. The study of the venous system was carried out on 32 Wistar rats by using corrosion casts methods and radiography, while the lymphatic system was studied in 12 Wistar rats following ink injection. Superficially, orbital veins are connected with extraorbital veins running through angular vein of the eye and the superficial temporal vein, and via the pterygoid plexus with the maxillary vein, which provide readily accessible communication routes in the spread of infection. The extent of intraorbital and periorbital venous drainage was ensured by the dorsal and ventral external ophthalmic vein through the infraorbital vein, which together formed the principal part of the ophthalmic plexus. Venous drainage of the eyeball was carried out mainly by the vortex veins, ciliary veins and internal ophthalmic vein. The highest variability, first presented by differences in structural arrangement and formation of anastomoses, was observed within the ventral external ophthalmic vein (22 cases) and the medial vortex vein (10 cases). Four vortex veins, one vein in each quadrant of the eye, were observed in rats. The vortex vein located on the ventral side of the eyeball was occasionally found as two veins (in four cases) in the present study. The lymphatic vessel from the lower eyelid entered into the mandibular lymph centre, and from the upper eyelid entered into the superficial cervical lymph centre, but both drained into the deep cranial cervical lymph node. The direct entry of lymph entering the veins without passing through lymph nodes was not observed.

  14. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in cancer: novel findings from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS).

    PubMed

    Königsbrügge, Oliver; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2014-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in patients with cancer and contributes to elevated morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for the occurrence of VTE events in patients with cancer have been investigated in numerous clinical studies. For now more than 10 years, the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS) has focused on the identification of parameters predictive of future VTE occurrence. CATS has contributed to new findings, which may help identify patients at high risk of developing VTE, by means of biomarkers (such as D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, soluble P-selectin, platelet count, coagulation factor VIII activity, thrombin generation potential, etc.). The association of tissue factor bearing microparticles and the mean platelet volume with the risk of VTE was also elaborately investigated in the framework of CATS. More recently CATS has researched clinical and clinicopathologic parameters which contribute to identification of patients at risk of VTE. The type of cancer is one of the most important risk factor for VTE occurrence. Also the stage of cancer and the histological grade of a tumor have been found to be associated with the occurrence of cancer-related VTE. In further investigations, venous diseases including a history of previous VTE, a history of superficial thrombophlebitis and the presence of varicose veins, have been associated with the risk of VTE in CATS.

  15. [Promoting venous return in plaster cast by AV impulse system. A preclinical study].

    PubMed

    Bulitta, C; Kock, H J; Hanke, J; Sievers, K W; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1996-08-01

    A new pneumatic compression pump--the AV-impulse system--causes increased return of venous blood from the lower limbs to the heart and increases total blood flow in the lower limbs by emptying the plantar venous plexus. Up to date there exist no experiences with using this system in plaster cast. We studied the maximum venous blood flow, the venous blood flow per minute and the venous diameters above the popliteal and femoral vein by duplexsonography in 12 lower limbs of 6 healthy persons before and after applying below-the-knee plaster casts. After applying the plaster cast we observed a slight increase in venous diameter (p = 0.02). By using the AV-impulse-system we observed a significant increase in maximum venous blood flow and venous blood flow per minute (p < 0.05). We demonstrated a significant increase of venous blood return in the deep veins of the lower limbs after applying a lower limb plaster cast by using the AV-impulse-system. These results indicate the possible benefit of using the AV-impulse-system as a physical method of thromboprophylaxis in orthopaedic and trauma patients with plaster cast immobilisation of the leg.

  16. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  17. Venous thromboembolism and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    D’Uva, Maristella; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Strina, Ida; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been studied extensively. Although the first studies were focused only on the association between thrombophilia and RPL, subsequent studies underlined also a potential role of antithrombotic treatment to prevent vascular complication such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered also for pregnant subjects carriers of molecular thrombophilia or that previously experienced VTE, in order to prevent VTE during pregnancy, while antithrombotic treatment for VTE should be performed during all pregnant periods. PMID:22282678

  18. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography used as a "one-stop shop'' imaging procedure for venous thromboembolism: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Obernosterer, Andrea; Aschauer, Manuela; Portugaller, Horst; Köppel, Herwig; Lipp, Rainer W

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis are individual manifestations of a single entity, venous thromboembolic disease. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of 3-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography used as an "one-stop shop'' imaging procedure visualizing both the pulmonary arteries and the deep lower venous system within a single investigation. The inclusion criterion was a proven or excluded venous thromboembolism. Diagnosis was based on an imaging work-up for pulmonary embolism including either perfusion lung scan or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography, or both, and an imaging work-up for deep venous thrombosis including either venous color-coded duplex sonography or ascending phlebography, or both. A gadolinium-enhanced "one-stop shop'' magnetic resonance angiography was performed within 24 hours of completed diagnostic imaging work-up for pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in 20 patients. Results of pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography were concordant with perfusion lung scan and/or computed tomography in 90% of patients. Magnetic resonance angiography results of the deep lower venous system were concordant with venous duplex sonography and/or phlebography in 75% of patients and seemed to be more precise in 25% of patients. The "one-stop shop'' imaging procedure using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography was feasible and proved to offer a reliable and rapid diagnostic approach in thromboembolic disease, sparing patients' exposure to ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast media.

  19. The characteristics of healthy adults with hardly palpable vein--Relations between easy venous palpation and physical factors.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Mika; Matsumura, Yuko; Sasaki, Shinsuke; Murakami, Naoki; Mori, Masaharu; Ogino, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate relations between ease of venous palpation and various venous factors, and to elucidate characteristics of hardly palpable veins. Healthy adult volunteers (n = 110) were enrolled. The ease of venous palpation was scored from 0: impalpable to 3: well palpable. Venous factors, namely venous depth, elevation, area and minimal pressure that starts to collapse vein, were measured using an ultrasonography before and after tourniquet inflation at 60 mmHg for 60 s. Tourniquet inflation significantly increased the venous area and venous palpation score. The four venous factors correlated significantly with venous palpation score with the following correlation coefficient: Depth (r = -0.542), Elevation (0.486), area (0.258) and start-to-collapse pressure (-0.220). The characteristics of hardly palpable veins were small size, deep location and little elevation. Although vasodilatation facilitated venous palpation, venous depth and elevation were also important and should be included in future studies in which vasodilatation methods are evaluated.

  20. Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, J D; Mannello, F

    2014-06-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a debilitating condition with a prevalence between 60-70%. The disease pathophysiology is complex and involves genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with individuals developing visible telengiectasias, reticular veins, and varicose veins. Patient with significant lower extremity symptoms have pain, dermal irritation, swelling, skin changes, and are at risk of developing debilitating venous ulceration. The signature of CVD is an increase in venous pressure referred to as venous hypertension. The various symptoms presenting in CVD and the clinical signs that are observed indicate that there is inflammation, secondary to venous hypertension, and it leads to a number of inflammatory pathways that become activated. The endothelium and glycocalyx via specialized receptors are critical at sensing changes in shear stress, and expression of adhesion molecules allows the activation of leukocytes leading to endothelial attachment, diapedisis, and transmigration into the venous wall/valves resulting in venous wall injury and inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues. There is a complex of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and proteinases, produced by activated leukocytes, that are expressed and unbalanced resulting in an environment of persistent inflammation with the clinical changes that are commonly seen, consisting of varicose veins to more advanced presentations of skin changes and venous ulceration. The structural integrity of protein and the extracellular matrix is altered, enhancing the progressive events of CVD. Work focusing on metabolic changes, miRNA regulation, inflammatory modulation and the glycocalyx will further our knowledge in the pathophysiology of CVD, and provide answers critical to treatment and prevention.

  1. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  2. Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you experience these signs or symptoms seek medical attention right away. How are DVTs and PEs diagnosed? The easiest and most reliable method for diagnosing deep vein thrombosis is an ultrasound ...

  3. Mesenteric venous thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Deep Vein Thrombosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  4. [Present and future in the management of venous vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Gavorník, Peter; Dukát, Andrej; Gašpar, Ľudovít; Gavorníková, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence and the incidence of chronic and acute venous vascular disease has been shown to be globally very high, in both industrialized and developing countries. Chronic venous diseases of lower extremities are being an integral part of the third millennium's deadly angiopandemy, at the present time. The rate of the most severe cases with advanced stage of venous failure is approximately twice as high in the population (2.1 %) as has been assumed so far. Among venoactive drugs (VAD), micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) of diosmin hesperidin remains the agent with the highest degree of recommendation and it also indicated to pharmacotherapeutical support of leg ulcer healing, along with sulodexide and pentoxifylline. Compressive sclerotherapy, liquid or foam, is a safe and effective invasive method to treat telangiectasias, reticular varicose veins and subcutaneous varicose veins. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) represent one of the therapeutic and preventive options of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with a limitation in patients with malignant conditions and in pregnancy. The most effective is triple simultaneous pharmaco-kinezio-mechano-phlebothromboemboloprophylaxis. Superficial vein thromboses longer than 5 cm are indicated to anticoagulant therapy too.

  5. Extra-abdominal venous thromboses at unusual sites.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ida; De Stefano, Valerio

    2012-09-01

    Venous thrombosis typically involves the lower extremities. Rarely, it can occur in cerebral, splanchnic, or renal veins, with a frightening clinical impact. Other rare manifestations are upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis, that can complicate with pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, and retinal vein occlusion, significantly affecting the quality of life. This review is focused on venous thromboses at unusual extra-abdominal sites. Local infections or cancer are frequent in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis is mostly due to catheters or effort-related factors. Common risk factors are inherited thrombophilia and oral contraceptive use. Acute treatment is based on heparin; in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis, local or systemic fibrinolysis should be considered in case of clinical deterioration. Vitamin-K antagonists are recommended for 3-6 months; indefinite anticoagulation is suggested for recurrent thrombosis or unprovoked thrombosis and permanent risk factors. However, such recommendations mainly derive from observational studies; there are no data about long-term treatment of retinal vein occlusion.

  6. D-dimer testing and acute venous thromboembolism. A shortcut to accurate diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Philbrick, J T; Bachhuber, T L; Humphries, J E

    1996-05-13

    D-dimer fragments can be measured easily in plasma and whole blood, and the presence or absence of D-dimer could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of venous thromboembolism. We systematically reviewed the English literature for articles that compared D-dimer results with those of other tests for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Twenty-nine studies were selected for detailed review, and we noted wide variability in assay performance, heterogeneity among subjects, and failure to define absence or presence of venous thromboembolism by a comprehensive criterion standard for diagnosis. These methodologic problems limit the generalizability of the published estimates of D-dimer accuracy for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and the clinical utility of this potentially important test remains unproved.

  7. Conceptual design of a combined device for normothermia and venous compression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z C; Yost, W F

    2000-04-01

    Hypothermia and venous thrombosis can cause complications during perioperative and postoperative periods which can even be fatal to patients' conditions. Separative devices have currently been used to prevent those two problems. The device proposed here is to combine in a simple unobtrusive fashion the desirable effects of both temperature control and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in perioperative patients. A design chart of the new device is provided and design issues are addressed.

  8. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    de Franciscis, Stefano; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Longo, Paola; Buffone, Gianluca; Molinari, Vincenzo; Stillitano, Domenico M; Gallelli, Luca; Serra, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is the major cause of chronic wounds of lower extremities, and is a part of the complex of chronic venous disease. Previous studies have hypothesised that several thrombophilic factors, such as hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), may be associated with chronic venous ulcers. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of HHcy in patients with venous leg ulcers and the effect of folic acid therapy on wound healing. Eighty-seven patients with venous leg ulcers were enrolled in this study to calculate the prevalence of HHcy in this population. All patients underwent basic treatment for venous ulcer (compression therapy ± surgical procedures). Patients with HHcy (group A) received basic treatment and administered folic acid (1·2 mg/day for 12 months) and patients without HHcy (group B) received only basic treatment. Healing was assessed by means of computerised planimetry analysis. The prevalence of HHcy among patients with chronic venous ulcer enrolled in this study was 62·06%. Healing rate was significantly higher (P < 0·05) in group A patients (78·75%) compared with group B patients (63·33%). This study suggests a close association, statistically significant, between HHcy and CVU. Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid seems to expedite wound healing. Despite these aspects, the exact molecular mechanisms between homocysteine and CVU have not been clearly defined and further studies are needed.

  9. [Functional insufficiency of the venous valve apparatus and venous return from the lower extremities in humans during the standing test].

    PubMed

    Modin, A Iu

    2006-01-01

    The studies were performed with participation of 16 normal subjects with the US Doppler evidence of functional insufficiency of the deep vein valves in a lower extremity. Valve insufficiency was of the latent clinical form without symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. Functioning of the contralateral leg venous valves was normal in all subjects. Linear velocities of blood flow in the femoral vein in both extremities in the horizontal and vertical position were compared. In the horizontal position, outflow from the deep vein with valve disfunction was 1.5 times (p<0.01) higher comparing with the other leg as the control. In vertical subjects, outflow from the compromised vein was, on the contrary, reduced almost by half as compared with the healthy leg. These features of local phlebohemodynamics at the outlet of insufficient vein appear to determine the intensity of passive mechanic blood redistribution driven by the gravity.

  10. Paradoxical Thromboembolism/ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction via a Patent Foramen Ovale in Sub-Massive Pulmonary Embolism Following an Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis: Is It Time for a Change in the Standard of Care?

    PubMed Central

    Tukaye, Deepali Nivas; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this case study is to discuss a rare case of proven paradoxical thromboembolism captured in-transit. A 23-year-old female with a diagnosis of right internal jugular deep vein thrombus who developed acute onset chest pain, dyspnea and hypotension, was selected for the study. Sub-massive PE and STEMI were diagnosed. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular (LV) mass moving across the aortic valve. Soon after, the patient developed numbness of right extremities with non-palpable pulses. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed absent LV mass, PFO, left atrial mass entering through the PFO and emboli in bilateral pulmonary arteries. We report a case of sub-massive PE and paradoxical proven coronary and upper extremity embolism, captured in-transit, following destabilization of an UEDVT in a patient with PFO.

  11. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Venous Thromboembolism in Children: A Review of Published Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, E. Vincent S.; Raffini, Leslie J.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially preventable condition in children. In adults, pharmacologic prophylaxis has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in distinct patient cohorts. However, pediatric randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacologic prophylaxis against thrombosis associated with central venous catheters, the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in children. Despite the lack of supporting evidence, hospital-based initiatives are being undertaken to try to prevent venous thromboembolism in children. In this study, we sought to review the published guidelines on the prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized children. We identified five guidelines, all of which were mainly targeted at adolescents and used various risk-stratification approaches. In low-risk children, ambulation was the recommended prevention strategy, while mechanical prophylaxis was recommended for children at moderate risk and pharmacologic and mechanical prophylaxis were recommended for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of these strategies has not been proven. In order to determine whether venous thromboembolism can be prevented in children, innovative clinical trial designs are needed. In the absence of these trials, guidelines can be a source of valuable information to inform our practice. PMID:28184368

  12. Case report: central venous catheterization via internal jugular vein with associated formation of perioperative venous thrombosis during surgery in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kimito; Mimami, Kimito; Iida, Miki; Iida, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis during supine surgery in the prone position is presented. A 76-year-old woman was scheduled for elective surgery to repair a broken lumbar instrument. A single-lumen CVC was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Surgery was performed in the prone position, with the patient's face directed downward in the standard median position (i.e., no rotation), but with slight forward flexion at the neck. After the surgery, the external jugular vein was dilated, and a postoperative X-ray revealed an infiltrative shadow in the right thoracic cavity. Because cervical echography showed dilated cervical veins with a "moyamoya-type" echo, possibly indicating a thrombus, contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed, revealing a venous thrombus in the right internal jugular vein. An internal jugular venous-velocity measurement suggested that her slightly flexed neck position and her prone position during surgery may have kinked the internal jugular vein, causing engorgement with venous blood. The presence of the internal jugular venous catheter may have created thrombogenic conditions. A patient's position during surgery can reduce deep venous-flow velocity, and venous blood may stagnate, contributing greatly to thrombogenicity. We should consider a patient's position during surgery as a risk factor for thrombus formation, and a careful preoperative evaluation should be made as to which route should be chosen for CVC.

  13. Venous complications of pancreatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

    2015-01-31

    Pancreatitis is notorious to cause vascular complications. While arterial complications include pseudoaneurysm formation with a propensity to bleed, venous complications can be quite myriad. Venous involvement in pancreatitis often presents with thrombosis. From time to time case reports and series of unusual venous complications associated with pancreatitis have, however, been described. In this article, we review multitudinous venous complications in the setting of pancreatitis and propose a system to classify pancreatitis associated venous complications.

  14. Inflammation in chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, J D

    2013-03-01

    Chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) occur in approximately 1% of the general population. Risk factors for chronic venous disease (CVD) include heredity, age, female sex and obesity. Although not restricted to the elderly, the prevalence of CVD, especially leg ulcers, increases with age. CVD has a considerable impact on health-care resources. It has been estimated that venous ulcers cause the loss of approximately two million working days and incur treatment costs of approximately $3 billion per year in the USA. Overall, CVD has been estimated to account for 1-3% of the total health-care budgets in countries with developed health-care systems. The pathophysiology of dermal abnormalities in CVU is reflective of a complex interplay that involves sustained venous hypertension, inflammation, changes in microcirculation, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, resulting in altered cellular function and delayed wound healing.

  15. Anticoagulation Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, David K

    2004-01-01

    Context On the basis of theoretical rationale, heparoids and vitamin K antagonists are prescribed to prevent complications of venous thromboembolism (VTE, including pulmonary emboli [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]). They have been employed as the standard of care for treatment of VTE for over 40 years. Objective Critique the evidence supporting the efficacy of anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE in reducing morbidity and/or mortality. Data Sources This includes a search of reference lists and Medline. Study Selection This includes studies concerning the diagnosis and incidence of PE and DVT, efficacy of anticoagulants in preventing complications, risks of anticoagulant therapy, and the costs of diagnosis and the treatment of VTE. Data Extraction I analyzed references cited in reviews and meta-analyses of VTE, and from Medline searches concerning diagnosis and treatment. The data quality and validity of studies depended on the consistency of findings and statistical significance of the data. Data Synthesis No placebo-controlled trials of anticoagulants as treatment of PE with objective criteria for diagnosis have been published. Three randomized trials of anticoagulants vs no anticoagulants in DVT showed no benefit with heparin and vitamin K antagonists (combined all-cause mortality: anticoagulants = 6/66, un-anticoagulated controls = 1/60, P = .07). No placebo-controlled trials of low-molecular-weight heparins or thrombolytic drugs have been done; therefore, their efficacy in VTE depends entirely on randomized comparisons with unfractionated heparin. They have not been proven safer or more efficacious than unfractionated heparin. Thrombolysis causes more major and fatal bleeds than heparin and is no more effective in preventing PE. Diagnosing and treating VTE patients in the United States with anticoagulants costs $3.2 to $15.5 billion per year (1992 dollars). Bleeding and complications of angiography cause 1017-3525 deaths annually. Conclusion

  16. Epidemiology of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Evans, C; Fowkes, F G R

    2008-01-01

    Chronic venous disease of the legs occurs commonly in the general population in the Western world. Estimates of the prevalence of varicose veins vary widely from 2-56% in men and from 1-60% in women. These variations reflect differences in variability of study populations including age, race and gender, methods of measurement and disease definition. Definitions of chronic venous disease may rely on reports of varicose veins by study participants, based on self-diagnosis or recall of a diagnosis, or on a standardized physical examination. Venous ulceration is less common, affecting approximately 0.3% of the adult population. Age and pregnancy have been established as risk factors for developing varicose veins. Evidence on other risk factors for venous disease is inconclusive. Prolonged standing has been proposed, but results of studies should be interpreted with caution given the difficulty in measuring levels of posture. Obesity has been suggested as a risk factor in women, but appears to be an aggravating factor rather than a primary cause. Other postulated risk factors include dietary intake and smoking, but evidence is lacking. Longitudinal studies using standardized methods of evaluation are required before the true incidence of chronic venous disease and associated risk factors can be determined.

  17. Color-Doppler sonography in chronic venous insufficiency: what the radiologist should know.

    PubMed

    Cina, Alessandro; Pedicelli, Alessandro; Di Stasi, Carmine; Porcelli, Alessandra; Fiorentino, Alessandro; Cina, Gregorio; Rulli, Francesco; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a pathologic condition caused by valvular incompetence, with or without associated venous outflow obstruction, which may affect both the superficial and the deep venous system, causing venous hypertension and stasis. The most common form of CVI is primary varicose veins due to the insufficiency of the saphenous system. Color-Doppler sonography (CDS) is actually the main diagnostic technique of imaging for CVI. In this article, we describe the anatomy, the technique, and the information necessary to the radiologist to perform CDS in chronic venous insufficiency. The knowledge of the venous anatomy is the cornerstone for an adequate sonographic examination. The venous network in the lower extremities is divided into three systems: superficial, deep, and perforating veins. Deep veins are "comitantes" to the corresponding arteries and run under the muscular fascia. Superficial veins course into the subcutaneous fat, superficially to the deep muscular fascia; the main superficial veins are the greater and lesser saphenous and their tributaries. Connection between the saphenous veins are defined as communicating veins. Superficial and deep veins are connected by perforating veins, with flow directed, under normal circumstances, from the superficial to the deep system. The main perforating are the Hunter in the mid thigh, the Dodd in the lower thigh, the Boyd in the upper calf, and the Cockett's in the middle and lower calf. Sonographic examination must be performed in the upright and supine position. Compression sonography and color and PW Doppler are systematically employed to assess the absence of deep venous thrombosis. Femoro-popliteal veins are evaluated with color and PW Doppler for valvular insufficiency with reflux by performing Valsalva maneuver and calf compression. The sapheno-femoral and sapheno-popliteal junctions are examined to identify type of junction, continence, accessory saphenous, and incompetent collaterals

  18. Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?

    PubMed

    Corno, Antonio F

    2007-06-01

    In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton.

  19. Infection and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Surgery: What Is the Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Monn, M. Francesca; Hui, Xuan; Lau, Brandyn D.; Streiff, Michael; Haut, Elliott R.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Efron, Jonathan E.; Gearhart, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence demonstrating an association between infection and venous thromboembolism. We recently identified this association in the postoperative setting; however, the temporal relationship between infection and venous thromboembolism is not well defined OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the temporal relationship between venous thromboembolism and postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data for patients undergoing colorectal surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project 2010 database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measures were the rate and timing of venous thromboembolism and postoperative infection among patients undergoing colorectal surgery during 30 postoperative days. RESULTS Of 39,831 patients who underwent colorectal surgery, the overall rate of venous thromboembolism was 2.4% (n = 948); 729 (1.8%) patients were diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis, and 307 (0.77%) patients were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Eighty-eight (0.22%) patients were reported as developing both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Following colorectal surgery, the development of a urinary tract infection, pneumonia, organ space surgical site infection, or deep surgical site infection was associated with a significantly increased risk for venous thromboembolism. The majority (52%–85%) of venous thromboembolisms in this population occurred the same day or a median of 3.5 to 8 days following the diagnosis of infection. The approximate relative risk for developing any venous thromboembolism increased each day following the development of each type of infection (range, 0.40%–1.0%) in comparison with patients not developing an infection. LIMITATIONS We are unable to account for differences in data collection, prophylaxis, and venous thromboembolism surveillance between hospitals in the database

  20. Single Superficial versus Dual Systems Venous Anastomoses in Radial Forearm Free Flap: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shuang; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Duan, Wei-Yi; Liu, Fa-Yu; Huang, Dong-Hui; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has been widely used with increasing frequency in head and neck reconstruction following extirpative surgery. The controversy of the venous anastomoses patterns still exists. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between the venous anastomoses patterns and venous compromise. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases were searched for studies reporting the different venous anastomoses patterns of the RFFF. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects models. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also assessed. Results 6 studies with 992 cases were included in this meta-analysis. The dual anastomosis group tended to have a lower incidence of venous compromise (RR = 1.39). However, the difference was not statistically significant (95%CI: 0.59, 3.24). Conclusions This meta-analysis indicated that performing dual venous anatomoses consisting of superficial and deep systems conferred a tendency of the reduction with regard to venous compromise. PMID:26270854

  1. Treatment of Pelvic Venous Spur (May-Thurner Syndrome) with Self-Expanding Metallic Endoprostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, Christoph A.; Schoch, Eric; Stuckmann, Gerd; Largiader, Jon; Wigger, Pius; Schoepke, Wolfdietrich; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: The application of self-expanding metallic endoprostheses (stents) to treat symptomatic pelvic venous spurs as an alternative to surgery. Methods: Wallstents with a diameter from 14 to 16 mm and one Cragg stent were placed in the left common iliac vein of eight patients (seven women, one man; mean age 42 years) with a symptomatic pelvic venous spur (left deep venous thrombosis or post-thrombotic leg swelling). Four patients had surgical thrombectomy prior to stent placement. Results: Technical success with immediate reduction of left leg circumference was achieved in all eight patients. A primary patency rate of 100% was observed during an average follow-up of 3 years (range 10-121 months). There were no procedural or stent-related complications. Conclusion: The percutaneous transfemoral placement of self-expanding metallic stents is an effective minimally invasive alternative to surgery in the treatment of symptomatic pelvic venous spur.

  2. Brachial insertion of fully implantable venous catheters for chemotherapy: complications and quality of life assessment in 35 patients

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Igor Yoshio Imagawa; Krutman, Mariana; Nishinari, Kenji; Yazbek, Guilherme; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Bomfim, Guilherme André Zottele; Cavalcante, Rafael Noronha; Wolosker, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To prospectively evaluate the perioperative safety, early complications and satisfaction of patients who underwent the implantation of central catheters peripherally inserted via basilic vein. Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with active oncologic disease requiring chemotherapy were prospectively followed up after undergoing peripheral implantation of indwelling venous catheters, between November 2013 and June 2014. The procedures were performed in the operating room by the same team of three vascular surgeons. The primary endpoints assessed were early postoperative complications, occurring within 30 days after implantation. The evaluation of patient satisfaction was based on a specific questionnaire used in previous studies. Results In all cases, ultrasound-guided puncture of the basilic vein was feasible and the procedure successfully completed. Early complications included one case of basilic vein thrombophlebitis and one case of pocket infection that did not require device removal. Out of 35 patients interviewed, 33 (94.3%) would recommend the device to other patients. Conclusion Implanting brachial ports is a feasible option, with low intraoperative risk and similar rates of early postoperative complications when compared to the existing data of the conventional technique. The patients studied were satisfied with the device and would recommend the procedure to others. PMID:28076593

  3. Pharmacological prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism.

    PubMed

    Flute, P T

    1976-02-07

    The pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is briefly discussed as a basis for the understanding of preventive measures used in this condition. Prophylaxis in venous thrombosis is then reviewed with emphasis on pharmacological treatment, and more particularly on heparin.

  4. Venous Thromboembolism – Current Diagnostic and Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Bosevski, Marijan; Srbinovska-Kostovska, Elizabeta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, known as venous thromboembolism (VTE), are associated with a high proportion of morbidity and mortality. AIM: Aim of this review is to emphasise current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for VTE. RESULTS: No differences have been noticed in European and American guidelines in diagnostic approach of this disorder. Today there is enough clinical information for the use of heparin (either, unfractionated or low molecular) and vitamin K antagonists in the treatment of acute and chronic phases of VTE. Novel oral anticoagulants seem to have some advantages in the treatment of this disorder. Rivaroxaban has been approved widespread, for use as a single-drug approach of VTE. CONCLUSION: Both guidelines are almost similar and good basis for evidence-based treatment of this disorder. PMID:27703586

  5. [Anticoagulant treatment of thrombo-embolic venous disease].

    PubMed

    Pinède, Laurent; Ninet, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The curative anticoagulant treatment of venous thromboembolism is non fractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin, secondly substituted by oral anticoagulant therapy. Early mobilisation and elastic contention should be systematically prescribed. Low molecular weight heparin once or twice a day and early substitution by vitamin K antagonist allow an ambulatory treatment for deep vein thrombosis. It is still recommended a hospital management for patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism. It is necessary to tailor the duration of anticoagulation individually according to the extension of venous thromboembolism and the presence (or absence) of risk or triggering factors. Bleeding is the major risk of anticoagulant therapy, particularly the vitamin K antagonists, justifying patient's education, adapted and regular biological surveillance, co-ordinated care approach with practical recommendations, patient's self-monitoring.

  6. Preventing venous ulcer recurrence: a review.

    PubMed

    Vowden, Kathryn R; Vowden, Peter

    2006-03-01

    This review article examines the available evidence on both the primary and secondary prevention of venous ulceration, exploring both the individual, social and financial implications of system failures that allow patients to remain at increased risk of recurrent ulceration. The role of both venous disease assessment and corrective superficial venous surgery are discussed in the light of recently published randomised controlled studies on the role of superficial venous surgery as both an adjunct to ulcer healing and ulcer prevention.

  7. Common femoral endovenectomy in conjunction with iliac vein stenting to improve venous inflow in severe post-thrombotic obstruction.

    PubMed

    Verma, Himanshu; Tripathi, Ramesh K

    2017-01-01

    Post-thrombotic syndrome secondary to iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis is a significant contributor to advanced chronic venous insufficiency. Iliac vein stenting is a standard procedure to treat iliocaval obstruction. In cases with obstruction extending across the groin, venous inflow for an iliac vein stent may be poor and compromise results of iliac vein stenting. Treatment options include extension of stents across the inguinal ligament that may have limitations in improving inflow only from only one vessel. Endovenectomy in this scenario becomes an attractive option with or without iliac vein stenting to provide outflow to the profunda vein, which otherwise is "axially transformed" in chronic iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. We describe a technique of endovenectomy in combination with iliac vein stenting to establish a patent outflow tract for profunda and femoral veins. Accompanying also is a video demonstration of endovenectomy that will help viewers understand more technical aspects of the procedure.

  8. [Venous thromboembolic disease and oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Overgaard, K; Hauch, O; Lidegaard, O

    1986-09-08

    Ever since 1961, there has been discussion on possible thromboembolic effects from the use of oral contraceptives. The purpose of this Danish study was to determine if birth-control pill users did have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTD), including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In previous research, morbidity from VTD has been found to show a great variance, as high as 1/330 woman years in 1 study to as low as 1/5,000 woman years in another. In these studies no significant difference was found between users and non-users of oral contraceptives. Only in 1 study was there found to be increased morbidity from VTD among pill users: 1/5,200 woman years, compared with 1/35,000 woman years for non-pill users. As a possible explanation of the pill's effect, several studies have demonstrated a rise in certain coagulation factors, increased fibrinogen and lowered antithrombin III. In the present study, medical records of all women aged 34 or under who had been referred to a Copenhagen hospital between 1981 and 1983 for treatment of phlebographic-or lungescintographic-confirmed VTD were investigated. After controlling for exclusion factors, there remained 35 test subjects between the ages of 16 and 34 (median age 22). Of the 22 cases of known etiology, 16 suffered from iatrogenic VTD. Of 13 women who suffered from VTD of unknown etiology, 69% were pill users, compared with only 29% (a significant difference) in a background-population interview study conducted in Denmark during 1983. With a known disposition to VTD, oral-contraceptive usage meant a relative risk of 0.9 for developing the disease, which figure conforms well with other cited research (in which the risk factor varied from 0.4 to 3.8).

  9. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  10. Venous ulceration, fibrinogen and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of long and short-term venous hypertension upon lymph fibrinogen concentrations was studied in an attempt to explain the peri-capillary deposition of fibrin reported in patients with post-phlebitic syndromes. The clearance of radioactive fibrinogen/thrombin clots from the subcutaneous tissues of rats and human volunteers was also studied. Both long- and short-term venous hypertension were found to increase fibrinogen transport across the interstitial space by more than 600%. Not only was there evidence of fibrinolytic activity in the lymph but after long-term venous hypertension alpha 2 antiplasmin activity was also detectable. Skin biopsies from the venous hypertensive ankles showed deposition of interstitial fibrin. The clearance of radioactive fibrinogen/thrombin clots from the subcutaneous tissues of the rat was found to be delayed if the rats were given epsilon amino caproic acid but it could not be increased with stanozolol. In human subjects it was found that patients with lipodermatosclerosis had delayed clot clearance and retarded blood fibrinolytic activity when compared with normal volunteers and patients with uncomplicated varicose veins. The principle cause why tall men are more subject to ulcers than short men, Dr Young conceived to be then length of the column of blood in their veins; which by its pressure, renders the legs less able to recover when hurt by any violence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:6742738

  11. Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Saettele, Megan R.; Morelli, John N.; Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C.

    2013-12-15

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

  12. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... possible. How Can Athletes Reduce the Likelihood of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism? Preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in athletes are ...

  13. Anatomical basis of central venous catheter fracture.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark O

    2008-03-01

    Central venous catheter fracture is a rare complication of long-term indwelling subclavian venous access. Subclavian vein access has been the recommended approach for placing central venous catheters. The anatomical landmark method for subclavian access remains a highly successful and nonequipment-dependent method for rapid central access. More recently, the internal jugular vein approach has emerged as the preferred route for long-term central venous access. However, variations in internal jugular vein anatomy make the landmark method less reliable. Use of two-dimensional real-time ultrasound during internal jugular vein access is associated with better success, a lower complication rate, and faster access. A case of central venous catheter fracture initiated an internal review of long-term central venous access procedures. We have converted to a predominantly internal jugular vein approach. This case report and literature review may assist other physicians and institutions in re-evaluating long-term central venous access protocols.

  14. Case of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unusual Venous Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  15. Serratus anterior venous tributary as a second outflow vein in latissimus dorsi free flaps.

    PubMed

    Goh, Terence; Tan, Bien-Keem; Ong, Yee-Siang; Chew, Winston

    2011-10-01

    The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is a large and reliable myocutaneous flap with a consistently long vascular pedicle. However, the limitation of the thoracodorsal pedicle is that it has only one draining vein for anastomosis. We describe a simple technique of recruiting the tributary vein to the serratus anterior and using it as a second draining vein to alleviate congestion in lower limb reconstruction. The serratus anterior venous tributary segment is cut back to an avalvular segment which averages 5 mm in length. Provision of an additional venous outflow to the flap enabled a second venous anastomosis to the short saphenous vein (N = 1), the long saphenous vein (N = 2), a deep vein (N= 1), and to a deep vein via a vein graft (N = 1), respectively. Five patients with degloving injury of the lower extremity of sizes 150 cm(2) (10 × 15 cm) to 260 cm(2) (10 × 26 cm) underwent successful reconstruction using the LD muscle flap with the serratus anterior tributary vein as a second outflow vein. This serratus anterior venous tributary serves as a useful second outflow channel for alleviating venous congestion during lower limb reconstructive surgery and should be routinely preserved as a lifeboat.

  16. [Anticoagulant treatment of venous thromboembolic disease: optimal duration of antivitamin K therapy. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pinède, L; Ninet, J; Boissel, J P; Pasquier, J

    1994-12-10

    Every clinician managing a patient with venous thromboembolism of the lower limbs is faced with two opposing problems: first the risk of antivitamin K induced haemorrhage requires adequate but not excessive hypocoaguability of limited duration (international normalized ratio between 2 and 3); second the threat of recurrence requiring an adequate level of hypocoaguability of sufficient duration. Recently reported clinical data have greatly changed management attitudes. Current recommendations favour a 6 week regimen of antivitamin K for distal venous thrombosis in patients with thromboembolism of lower limb veins without any other aggravating factor and a 12 week regimen for proximal vein thrombosis or pulmonary emboli, although the therapeutic efficacity and risk remain to be demonstrated with precision. In France, we are conducting a multicentric controlled study with sufficient power (1800 patients) comparing parallel groups of patients: those with distal deep venous thrombosis treated 6 versus 12 week regimens, those with proximal deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary emboli treated 12 versus 24 week regimens. The "DOTAVK" study (Durée Optimale du Traitement Antivitamine K) involves patients with first time venous thrombosis or pulmonary emboli and no underlying neoplasia or coagulation disease. The two criteria of outcome are haemorrhage complications and thromboembolic recurrence during treatment and the first year after treatment withdrawal.

  17. Risk factors, management and primary prevention of thrombotic complications related to the use of central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2012-09-01

    An adequate vascular access is of importance for the treatment of patients with cancer and complex illnesses in the intensive, perioperative or palliative care setting. Deep vein thrombosis and thrombotic occlusion are the most common complications attributed to central venous catheters in short-term and, especially, in long-term use. In this review we will focus on the risk factors, management and prevention strategies of catheter-related thrombosis and occlusion. Due to the lack of randomised controlled trials, there is still controversy about the optimal treatment of catheter-related thrombotic complications, and therapy has been widely adopted using the evidence concerning lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Given the increasing use of central venous catheters in patients that require long-term intravenous therapy, the problem of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis can be expected to increase in the future. We provide data for establishing a more uniform strategy for preventing, diagnosing and treating catheter-related thrombotic complications.

  18. Venous thromboembolism: a review of risk and prevention in colorectal surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, David

    2006-10-01

    Hospitalization for surgery has a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, a condition that encompasses both deep-vein thrombosis and its potentially fatal complication, pulmonary embolism. Colorectal surgery implies a specific high risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications relative to other general surgery. This may be a result of pelvic dissection, the perioperative positioning of these patients, or the presence of additional risk factors common to this patient group, such as cancer, advanced age, or inflammatory bowel disease. The potential impact of venous thromboembolism and the need for effective thromboprophylaxis often are underestimated in these patients. Recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in colorectal surgery patients are based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for thrombosis prevention in general surgery patients, with treatment stratified according to the type of surgery and additional venous thromboembolism risk factors present. Prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin is recommended for colorectal surgery patients classified as moderate to high risk. The small number of studies focusing specifically on colorectal patients, or on cancer or abdominal surgery patients with a colorectal subgroup, has shown that both low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin can effectively reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism. Low-molecular-weight heparin has the practical advantage of once-daily administration and shows a lower risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This review will assess the risk of venous thromboembolism in colorectal surgery patients and discuss current evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for prevention of venous thromboembolism.

  19. An enlarged intramuscular venous malformation in the femoral region successfully treated with complete resection

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takuo; Ogata, Dai; Miyano, Kyohei; Tsuchida, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intramuscular venous malformations have been previously described as intramuscular hemangiomas, and various therapies have been applied for their treatment. This condition is relatively rare, and therefore, physicians often struggle to determine the appropriate therapy. We presented a case of an enlarged intramuscular venous malformation relapsed after surgery successfully treated with complete resection. Presentation of case We presented a case of an enlarged intramuscular venous malformation with postoperative recurrence successfully treated with complete resection. A 63-year-old woman presented with a subcutaneous mass in the right distal thigh. She experienced swelling in the right thigh 19 years previously and was diagnosed with a venous aneurysm. Three-dimensional CT angiography confirmed the presence of an irregular vessel assumed to be the feeding vessel, which was dendritically branched from the deep femoral artery. We performed surgical complete resection. Her pain and gait disturbance improved after surgery, and she has not experienced recurrence of the mass for the past 2 years. Discussion Conservative therapy is initially used for venous malformations. Sclerotherapy, laser therapy, or surgical resection is considered after low-dose aspirin therapy, in combination with the use of compressive garments. Surgical resection is indicated for completely resectable lesions and is appropriate for large lesions in terms of cosmetic benefit. However, partial resection may result in excessive bleeding or postoperative recurrence. Conclusion The therapy for venous malformations should be decided based on the degree of disability in daily living, adjacent tissue damage, and cosmetic concerns after appropriate differential diagnostic investigations and biopsy. PMID:26945489

  20. Evaluation of the time course of vascular responses to venous congestion in the human lower limb.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Mark A; Brown, Margaret D

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the time course of changes in blood flow to the lower leg in response to venous distension--the veni-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response--in 31 healthy males. During a 5-min period of venous distension (thigh cuff pressure 50 mm Hg), calf blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) decreased more rapidly (within 30 s) compared to skin perfusion (after 2 min, Laser Doppler flowmetry), consistent with disparate filling times of superficial and deeper veins and a greater increase in deep vein volume. On completion of venous filling, vascular resistance in the skin was unchanged from baseline, implying that the reduction in perfusion was solely the result of reduced perfusion pressure. For the whole calf, vascular resistance was unchanged after 1 min but decreased thereafter by 35-45% from baseline, indicating adjustment of pre- or post-capillary resistances to maintain flow. Repeated plethysmographic flow measurements assisted the decrease in resistance, most likely by intermittent compression of the thigh cuff acting to displace blood volume centrally and alleviate congestion. These findings do not support an active veni-arteriolar vasoconstrictor mechanism in response to venous distension alone in the lower leg, and provide evidence of dynamic flow adjustments that should be acknowledged during procedures that involve prolonged periods of venous congestion.

  1. Association Between Venous Angioarchitectural Features of Sporadic Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Matthew D.; Cooke, Daniel L.; Nelson, Jeffrey; Guo, Diana E.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Higashida, Randall T.; Halbach, Van V.; Lawton, Michael T.; Kim, Helen; Hetts, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious outcome for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This study examines associations between venous characteristics of these lesions and intracranial hemorrhage. Materials and Methods Statistical analysis was performed on a prospectively maintained database of brain AVMs evaluated at an academic medical center. DSA, CT, and MRI studies were evaluated to classify lesion side, drainage pattern, venous stenosis, number of draining veins, venous ectasia, and venous reflux. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify association of these angiographic features with intracranial hemorrhage of any age at initial presentation. Results Exclusively deep drainage (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.87–6.26, p<0.001) and a single draining vein (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26–3.08, p=0.002) were associated with hemorrhage, whereas venous ectasia (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34–0.78, p=0.002) was inversely associated with hemorrhage. Conclusion Analysis of venous characteristics of brain AVMs may help determine their prognosis and thereby identify lesions most appropriate for treatment. PMID:25634722

  2. Venous thromboembolic disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fennerty, A

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with cancer. Patients have a 5–6‐fold increase in the risk for a venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population, increasing to 6–7‐fold for some cancers. Prophylaxis for VTE should be considered whenever additional risk factors intervene. About 10% of patients with an idiopathic VTE will harbour an occult cancer. Half of these can probably be detected after a focused history, examination, routine blood tests and a chest x ray. The remaining cases may be diagnosed with an intensive screening protocol. About 60% of patients diagnosed on screening will have early disease, but we do not know whether screening improves the outcome. Evidence suggests that patients with cancer and a VTE should be treated with low‐molecular‐weight heparin, and treatment continued until the cancer is cured. PMID:17068274

  3. Guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia Wei; Mai, Hua Ming; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yan An; Fan, Xin Dong; Su, Li Xin; Qin, Zhong Ping; Yang, Yao Wu; Jiang, Yin Hua; Zhao, Yi Fang; Suen, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Venous malformation is one of the most common benign vascular lesions, with approximately 40% of cases appearing in the head and neck. They can affect a patient’s appearance and functionality and even cause life-threatening bleeding or respiratory tract obstruction. The current methods of treatment include surgery, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or a combined. The treatment of small and superficial venous malformations is relatively simple and effective; however, the treatment of deep and extensive lesions involving multiple anatomical sites remains a challenge for the physicians. For complex cases, the outcomes achieved with one single treatment approach are poor; therefore, individualized treatment modalities must be formulated based on the patient’s condition and the techniques available. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatments have been adapted to achieve the most effective results. In this paper, based on the national and international literature, we formulated the treatment guidelines for head and neck venous malformations to standardize clinical practice. The guideline will be renewed and updated in a timely manner to reflect cutting-edge knowledge and to provide the best treatment modalities for patients. PMID:23724158

  4. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. Methods An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords “coffee” AND “venous thromboembolism” OR “deep vein thrombosis” OR “pulmonary embolism” in “Title/Abstract/Keywords”, with no language and date restriction. Results According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ≥5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Conclusions Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:26244139

  5. Venous thromboembolism at uncommon sites in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Pergantou, Helen; Avgeri, Maria; Komitopoulou, Anna; Xafaki, Panagiota; Kapsimali, Zoey; Mazarakis, Michail; Adamtziki, Eftychia; Platokouki, Helen

    2014-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the data of 24 children (whereof 11 neonates), with non-central venous line-related and nonmalignancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) at uncommon sites, referred to our Unit from January 1999 to January 2012. Thirty patients who also suffered deep vein thrombosis, but in upper/low extremities, were not included in the analysis. The location of rare site VTE was: portal (n=7), mesenteric (n=2) and left facial vein (n=1), spleen (n=3), lung (n=3), whereas 10 neonates developed renal venous thrombosis. The majority of patients (91.7%) had at least 1 risk factor for thrombosis. Identified thrombophilic factors were: antiphospholipid antibodies (n=2), FV Leiden heterozygosity (n=6), MTHFR C677T homozygosity (n=4), protein S deficiency (n=2), whereas all neonates had age-related low levels of protein C and protein S. All but 6 patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by warfarin in 55% of cases, for 3 to 6 months. Prolonged anticoagulation was applied in selected cases. During a median follow-up period of 6 years, the clinical outcome was: full recovery in 15 patients, evolution to both chronic portal hypertension and esophageal varices in 2 children, and progression to renal failure in 7 of 10 neonates. Neonates are greatly vulnerable to complications after VTE at uncommon sites, particularly renal. Future multicentre long-term studies on neonatal and pediatric VTE at unusual sites are considered worthwhile.

  6. [Treatment of venous thromboembolic disease in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Farge-Bancel, D; Florea, L; Bosquet, L; Debourdeau, P

    2008-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease, as defined by the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, occurs among 4 to 20% of patients with cancer and is a leading cause of death among these patients. Use of classical anticoagulation to treat VTE in a cancer patient is associated with a higher risk of major bleeding and of VTE recurrence as compared to noncancer patients. Updated comprehensive and systematic review of current data from the medical literature allows to reconsider the classical approach used for anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients and to implement adapted recommendations. In 2008, the use of daily subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for at least three to six months is recommended as first line therapy to treat VTE disease in cancer patients. If LMWH are contra-indicated (renal insufficiency), other therapeutic approaches are warranted, such as use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) with early introduction of anti-vitamin K for at least three months or venous cava filter in case of absolute contra-indications to anticoagulation. VTE prophylaxis in cancer patients relies on the same therapeutic approaches as currently used for noncancer patients at high risk of VTE. The definition of more specific prophylactic approaches for patients with cancer considered at higher risks of VTE, will be the subject of many clinical trials in the forthcoming years.

  7. Varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H

    2009-11-01

    Varicose veins are a very frequent disorder with prevalence in our adult population between 14% for large varices and 59% for small teleangiectasias. Subjective symptoms may be very non-specific. The term "chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)" defines functional abnormalities of the venous system producing advanced symptoms like oedema, skin changes or leg ulcers. Both entities, varicose veins and CVI, may be summarized under the term "chronic venous disorders" which includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system. A classification system to describe chronic venous disorders regarding clinical appearance, etiology, anatomical distribution and pathophysiology has been proposed under the acronym of CEAP. The revised version of the CEAP classification contains also definitions of clinical signs and suggests three levels of apparative investigations adjusted to the clinical stage. Concerning the etiology of venous disorders controversial theories exist leading to different therapeutic concepts. As a matter of fact there is a vicious circle between structural changes in valves and venous wall and hemodynamic forces leading to reflux and venous hypertension. Different methods for treating varicose veins are available producing satisfactory early outcome in most cases, but followed by a high recurrence rate after years. Chronic venous insufficiency requires "chronic management". Compression therapy by bandages for initial treatment of severe stages and maintenance therapy using medical compression stockings is essential. In addition correction of venous refluxes by surgery or endovenous procedures including echo-guided foam sclerotherapy should be considered in every single case.

  8. [Bases of central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Schmalz-Ott, Stéphane; Monti, Matteo; Vollenweider, Peter

    2008-10-29

    Central venous catheterization is a frequently performed procedure in internal medicine units. Residents in training frequently share the same questions, doubts and fears about this procedure : "Should I perform a subclavian catheterization in a patient with mild thrombopenia?"; "Which site has the lesser complication rate?"; "After how long does a catheter need to be replaced?". This mini-review of the current literature tries to answer this and other questions.

  9. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  10. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  11. [Venous leakage impotence: anatomical and physiological considerations upon gravity cavernosometry and radio-fluorographic cavernosography].

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Peracchia, G; Passari, A; Ferrozzi, F; Cortellini, P

    1995-01-01

    We performed gravity cavernosometry and radio-fluoro-graphic cavernosography with pharmacological intracavernous injection in 15 patients with erectile dysfunction. On the basis of cavernosographyc findings, in the 15 patients leak sites visualized included deep dorsal vein in all 15 patients leak sites visualized included deep dorsal vein in all 15 patients (100%), cavernous veins in 7 (46,6%), glans in 4 (26,6%) and corpus spongiosum in 3 (20%). Aberrant veins documented in 4 patients (26,6%): communicating with the saphenous vein in 2 (13,3%), with scrotal veins and femoral vein in 1 (6,6%). Deep dorsal vein leakage as the only venous site was find in 2 patients (13.3%), 9 (60%) had leakage through 2 venous sites, 3 (20%) had leakage through 3 venous sites and 1 (6,6%) had leakage through 4 venous sites. Correlations among hemodynamic and radiographic observations allowed the identification of 2 types of cavernosometric findings. While type I developed an high intracavernous pressure during gravity infusion, an high intracavernous pressure was not observed in type 2. The FCG by the digital radio-fluoro-graphic digital system permit the possibility of sottraction and rielaboration of images and reduces examination and radiation time. The gravity FCM is simple, not expensive and respect the physiological intracavernous pressure.

  12. Venous thromboembolism: use of graduated compression stockings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Figueroa, Gloria Patricia; Ojo, Omorogieva

    This article aims to review the use of graduated compression stockings in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This is particularly important owing to the increasing number of people who die from hospital-acquired VTE and deep vein thrombosis. In addition, there is the need to raise awareness among nurses and other health professionals on the overall impact of VTE, and the number of patients with a range of conditions including cancer who may be at risk of developing VTE. Graduated compression stockings, when used alone, have been found to be effective in preventing VTE in a number of patients in hospital and community settings. However, there is evidence that when used together with other preventative measures such as pharmacological prophylaxis are more effective than graduated compression stockings alone. It is also important that the correct size of graduated compression stocking is used and how they are applied as these may have a significant impact on VTE. The role of the nurse in thromboprophylaxis and implications for practice are discussed.

  13. Misplaced central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch exposed during dissection before sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Eun; Jee, Daelim

    2008-11-01

    Subclavian vein catheterization rarely results in misplacement of the central venous catheter (CVC) into the jugular venous arch (JVA). We present a case of misplacement of the CVC into the JVA during cardiac surgery.

  14. Drug treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulceration: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, T R; Scurr, J H; Smith, P D

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of venous insufficiency and venous ulceration has for many years relied on established principles of compression and limb elevation. Drug treatment has been of little benefit. In recent years, a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying skin damage in venous disease has allowed more rational pharmacotherapeutic approaches to be made. This review examines these, with special reference to current theories of the cause of venous ulceration. PMID:2061904

  15. Doppler ultrasound venous mapping of the lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    Galeandro, Aldo Innocente; Quistelli, Giovanni; Scicchitano, Pietro; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Caputo, Paola; Carbonara, Rosa; Galgano, Giuseppe; Ciciarello, Francesco; Mandolesi, Sandro; Franceschi, Claude; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Background The study aim was to test the accuracy (intra and interobserver variability), sensitivity, and specificity of a simplified noninvasive ultrasound methodology for mapping superficial and deep veins of the lower limbs. Methods 62 consecutive patients, aged 62 ± 11 years, were enrolled. All underwent US-examinations, performed by two different investigators, of both legs, four anatomical parts, and 17 veins, to assess the interobserver variability of evaluation of superficial and deep veins of the lower limbs. Results Overall the agreement between the second versus the first operator was very high in detecting reflux (sensitivity 97.9, specificity 99.7, accuracy 99.5; P = 0.80 at McNemar test). The higher CEAP classification stages were significantly associated with reflux (odds ratio: 1.778, 95% confidence interval: 1.552–2.038; P < 0.001) as well as with thrombosis (odds ratio: 2.765, 95% confidence interval: 1.741–4.389; P < 0.001). Thus, our findings show a strict association between the symptoms of venous disorders and ultrasound evaluation results for thrombosis or reflux. Conclusion This study demonstrated that our venous mapping protocol is a reliable method showing a very low interobserver variability, which makes it accurate and reproducible for the assessment of the morphofunctional status of the lower limb veins. PMID:22371652

  16. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  17. The Impact of Central Venous Catheters on Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Jaffray, Julie; Bauman, Mary; Massicotte, Patti

    2017-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs. non-tunneled vs. peripherally inserted vs. implanted), catheter material, insertion technique, or insertion location lead to an increased VTE risk. The patient populations who were found to be most at risk for CVC-VTE were those with cancer, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal failure, systemic infection, intensive care unit admission, or involved in a trauma. Both mechanical and pharmacological prophylactic techniques have been shown to be successful in preventing VTE in adult patients, but studies in children have yet to be performed or are underpowered. In order to better determine true CVC-VTE risk factors and best preventative techniques, an increase in large, prospective pediatric trials needs to be performed. PMID:28168186

  18. The Impact of Central Venous Catheters on Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Jaffray, Julie; Bauman, Mary; Massicotte, Patti

    2017-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs. non-tunneled vs. peripherally inserted vs. implanted), catheter material, insertion technique, or insertion location lead to an increased VTE risk. The patient populations who were found to be most at risk for CVC-VTE were those with cancer, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal failure, systemic infection, intensive care unit admission, or involved in a trauma. Both mechanical and pharmacological prophylactic techniques have been shown to be successful in preventing VTE in adult patients, but studies in children have yet to be performed or are underpowered. In order to better determine true CVC-VTE risk factors and best preventative techniques, an increase in large, prospective pediatric trials needs to be performed.

  19. The clinico-radiological spectrum of masseteric venous malformation: Case report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Kavita; Umarji, Hemant R; Kadam, Sonali; Agrawal, Neeraj

    2016-11-01

    Due to its location, intra-masseteric venous malformation often mistaken for a parotid swelling and clinical examination alone frequently underestimates the deep extension of the lesion and rarely gives accurate pre-operative diagnosis. But once it is diagnosed, the feasibility of the treatment and the plan of approach depend on accurate delineation of the extent, size and location of the lesion. Therefore, complimentary radiographic studies are essential for its management. In this case report, typical features of venous malformation within the masseter muscle, including clinical findings (turkey wattle sign) and imaging are presented. Ultrasonography and CT scan were non-contributory in the diagnosis, while on MRI, masseteric venous malformations have a typical appearance that allowed early identification, patient education and its management.

  20. Venous Access Devices: Clinical Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Matey, Laurl; Camp-Sorrell, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Nursing management of venous access devices (VADs) requires knowledge of current evidence, as well as knowledge of when evidence is limited. Do you know which practices we do based on evidence and those that we do based on institutional history or preference? This article will present complex VAD infection and occlusion complications and some of the controversies associated with them. Important strategies for identifying these complications, troubleshooting, and evaluating the evidence related to lack of blood return, malposition, infection, access and maintenance protocols, and scope of practice issues are presented. PMID:28083553

  1. Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access

    SciTech Connect

    Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio

    2011-12-15

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

  2. Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis Mainly Related to Iliofemoral Venous Obstruction by External Tumor Compression in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Tzu-Yao; Hsu, Hui-Ching; Wen, Min-Sheng; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Hung, Yu-Hsin; Liaw, Chuang-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background To study iliofemoral venous thrombosis related to iliofemoral venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods In this case series study, 829 cancer patients were surveyed for iliofemoral obstruction/thrombosis within 10 years. The criteria for inclusion were: (1) presence of unilateral lower-extremity swelling; (2) computed tomography (CT) scans showing a tumor with external compression of the iliac or femoral vein, and (3) duplex ultrasound scans showing venous thrombosis or venous flow insufficiency over a femoral vein or saphenous vein. Results Sixty-three patients (8%) developed an iliofemoral venous obstruction. The presence of iliofemoral venous thrombosis was detected in 21 of these patients (33%). The rate of iliofemoral venous thrombosis was significantly higher in patients with an invasion of the inguinal region, D-dimer levels >3,000 ng/ml, gastrointestinal cancer, or invasion of the inguinal lymph nodes. However, none of our patients with iliofemoral venous thrombosis had a detection of iliofemoral venous obstruction. Improved lower-extremity swelling was reported in 84% of the patients following combination therapy involving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and systemic therapy. Conclusion Patients with an iliofemoral venous thrombosis mainly had iliofemoral venous obstruction by external tumor compression. Combination therapy with LMWH and systemic therapy were mandatory for these patients. PMID:27990113

  3. Stent Placement on Fresh Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schuermann, Karl

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To report on the efficacy of fixing fresh venous thrombus to the venous wall by stent placement. Methods: Seven patients underwent stenting to treat acute venous thrombosis. In two patients, the hemodialysis fistula was thrombosed with the thrombus extending into the brachial veins. In three patients, the hemodialysis fistula was patent but massive swelling of the ipsilateral arm was caused by proximal venous thrombosis. Two patients presented with iliac venous thrombosis within stented pelvic veins. Stent placement was preceded by other mechanical thrombectomy methods in all cases. Results: Attachment of thrombus to the venous wall was successful in all cases treated. Acute rethrombosis did not occur. Follow-up patency in dialysis patients was 7.2 {+-} 2.1 months. One patient had rethrombosis of the dialysis graft 3 months after primary treatment. Three patients developed restenosis within a mean period of 7.7 months. One shunt remained patent for 10 months with no event of reobstruction during follow-up. In both patients with iliac stent placement, the vein remained patent over a follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: Stenting fresh venous thrombus can achieve immediate venous patency. It may be used as an alternative approach when all other percutaneous methods fail. Frequent restenosis within stented veins limits its use to very selected cases.

  4. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  5. Heritability of chronic venous disease

    PubMed Central

    Krusche, Petra; Wolf, Andreas; Krawczak, Michael; Timm, Birgitt; Nikolaus, Susanna; Frings, Norbert; Schreiber, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins without skin changes have a prevalence of approximately 20% in Northern and Western Europe whereas advanced chronic venous insufficiency affects about 3% of the population. Genetic risk factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of both these chronic venous diseases (CVD). We evaluated the relative genetic and environmental impact upon CVD risk by estimating the heritability of the disease in 4,033 nuclear families, comprising 16,434 individuals from all over Germany. Upon clinical examination, patients were classified according to the CEAP guidelines as either C2 (simple varicose veins), C3 (oedema), C4 (skin changes without ulceration), C5 (healed ulceration), or C6 (active ulcers). The narrow-sense heritability (h2) of CVD equals 17.3% (standard error 2.5%, likelihood ratio test P = 1.4 × 10−13). The proportion of disease risk attributable to age (at ascertainment) and sex, the two main risk factors for CVD, was estimated as 10.7% (Kullback–Leibler deviance R2). The heritability of CVD is high, thereby suggesting a notable genetic component in the aetiology of the disease. Systematic population-based searches for CVD susceptibility genes are therefore warranted. PMID:20354728

  6. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K. A.; Roecker, L.; Gauer, O. H.; Krause, R.; Wicke, H. J.; Leach, C.; Landry, R.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether the body fluid shift from the lower limbs toward the head that occurs during spaceflight leads to lasting increases of venous pressure in the upper body, venous pressure and hematocrit measurements were made on four astronauts before flight and 1 and 12 hours after recovery and compared with measurements in space. During the mission the hematocrit was elevated and the venous pressure lowered by 1 to 8 centimeters of water as compared with the preflight data. One hour after landing the hematocrit decreased, indicating a hemodilution, venous pressures were unexpectedly high, and a body weight loss of 4 to 5 percent was observed. Twelve hours later the venous pressures were the lowest recorded during the study. The fluid shift apparently takes place during the first several hours of spaceflight. Thereafter, the pressure in the peripheral veins and the central circulation is lower than that measured before flight.

  7. Cervical venous reflux in dynamic brain scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hayt, D B; Perez, L A

    1976-01-01

    Cervical venous reflux, shown by dynamic brain scintigraphy, was investigated through three avenues of approach: (A) by reviewing 371 randomly chosen routine dynamic intracerebral bloodflow studies to estimate its incidence; (B) by correlative positive-contrast superior venacavography in patients with characteristic cervical venous reflux; and (C) by performing dynamic brain scintigraphy while utilizing various positional and physiologic maneuvers to attempt to produce cervical venous reflux in patients who did not exhibit this phenomenon on earlier examination. Although any obstruction of the superior vena cava or a properly timed Valsalva maneuver in selected patients can produce the scintigraphic picture of cervical venous reflux, in most cases it is a normal phenomenon due to incompetent or absent cervical venous valves.

  8. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.

  9. Duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive

    2003-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is indicated while in the hospital after major surgery. There is evidence that the prevalence of asymptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, detected by routine venography after major orthopedic surgery, is lower at hospital discharge in patients who have received 10 days rather than 5 days of prophylaxis. This observation supports the current American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommendation for a minimum of 7 to 10 days of prophylaxis after hip and knee replacement, even if patients are discharged from the hospital within 7 days of surgery. As risk of VTE persists for up to 3 months after surgery, patients at high risk for postoperative VTE may benefit from extended prophylaxis (eg, an additional 3 weeks after the first 7 to 10 days). Extended prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reduces the frequency of postdischarge VTE by approximately two thirds after hip replacement; however, the resultant absolute reduction in the frequency of fatal pulmonary embolism is small (ie, estimated at 1 per 2,500 patients). Indirect evidence suggests that, compared with LMWH, efficacy of extended prophylaxis after hip replacement is greater with fondaparinux, similar with warfarin, and less with aspirin. Extended prophylaxis is expected to be of less benefit after knee than after hip replacement. In keeping with current ACCP recommendations, at a minimum, extended prophylaxis should be used after major orthopedic surgery in patients who have additional risk factors for VTE (eg, previous VTE, cancer). If anticoagulant drug therapy is stopped after 7 to 10 days, an additional month of prophylaxis with aspirin should be considered.

  10. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amitesh; Mrigpuri, Parul; Faye, Abhishek; Bandyopadhyay, Debdutta; Singla, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB) is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases. PMID:28144063

  11. H1N1-Induced Venous Thromboembolic Events? Results of a Single-Institution Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Dimakakos, Evangelos; Vathiotis, Ioannis; Papaspiliou, Aggeliki; Panagiotarakou, Meropi; Manolis, Emmanouil; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of 7 cases with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed novel influenza A H1N1 virus (pH1N1) infection who developed venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) while being hospitalized for influenza pneumonia. Pulmonary embolism (PE) without deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was observed in 6 of 7 cases (85.7%); PE with underlying DVT was found in 1 patient (14.3%). PMID:28018924

  12. Presumed Pulmonary Embolism Following Power-Pulse Spray Thrombectomy of Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jason; Georgiades, Christos S.; Hong, Kelvin; Kim, Hyun S.

    2006-08-15

    To achieve more effective thrombolysis in a shorter treatment time, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been increasingly used in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The power-pulse spray is a new technique to combine chemical and rheolytic effects on clots. We present a case of presumed pulmonary embolism following power-pulse spray treatment for upper extremity DVT which necessitated resuscitation and intubation. The power-pulse spray technique should be used with caution when treating DVT.

  13. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  14. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. [Mechanical complication of central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Koja, Hiroki; Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure with a high success rate. However, life-threatening complications are occasionally caused by mechanical injury during the catheterization process. Therefore, surgeons should have sufficient knowledge of the potential complications and the effective use of preventative measures when performing catheterization. We herein review and discuss the mechanical complications previously reported to have occurred in association with central venous catheterization. Comprehensive knowledge about various complication-inducing factors, the ability to make a quick and accurate diagnosis of such complications, and sufficient skill to prevent worsening of these complications can thus help patients from suffering lethal complications due to central venous catheterization.

  19. Measurement of venous compliance (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirsk, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The prime objective of this International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) investigation is to measure the bulk compliance (distensibility) of the veins in the lower leg before, during, and after spaceflight. It is of particular interest whether venous compliance over the range of both positive and negative transmural pressures (various states of venous distention and collapse) changes throughout the duration of spaceflight. Information concerning the occurrence and character of compliance changes could have implications for the design of improved antigravity suits and further the understanding of inflight and postflight venous hemodynamics.

  20. Quality of life in patients with venous stasis ulcers and others with advanced venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tracz, Edyta; Zamojska, Ewa; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Zaborski, Daniel; Grzesiak, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life (QoL) in patients with advanced venous insufficiency (including venous stasis ulcers, skin discoloration, stasis eczema, and lipodermatosclerosis) assessed using the Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological (CEAP) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) classifications is presented. Also, disease features such as: intensity of pain, edema and inflammatory response that exerted the most profound effect on different domains of QoL are reported. The global QoL in patients with lower leg venous ulcerations was relatively similar to that observed in other patients with chronic venous insufficiency. The presence of venous ulcerations was associated with lower QoL in a Physical domain. Significant correlations were found between pain intensity and the values of Physical, Physiological, Level of Independence and Environmental domains, between edema intensity and Social domain as well as between the intensity of inflammatory response and Physical and Spiritual domains.

  1. Asian venous thromboembolism guidelines: prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Liew, N C; Chang, Y H; Choi, G; Chu, P H; Gao, X; Gibbs, H; Ho, C O; Ibrahim, H; Kim, T K; Kritpracha, B; Lee, L H; Lee, L; Lee, W Y; Li, Y J; Nicolaides, A N; Oh, D; Pratama, D; Ramakrishnan, N; Robless, P A; Villarama-Alemany, G; Wong, R

    2012-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is under-utilized in Asia because of the misconception that its incidence is lower in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. The available data on VTE in Asia is limited due to the lack of well-designed multicenter randomized controlled trials as well as non-standardized research designs, making data comparison difficult. Emerging data indicates that the VTE incidence is not low in Asia, and is comparable to that reported in the Western literature in some instances. There is also a trend towards increasing incidence of VTE, as demonstrated by a number of hospital-based studies in Asia. This could be attributed to lifestyle changes, ageing population, increasing awareness of VTE and wider availability of Duplex ultrasound. The risk of VTE in hospitalized patients remain the same in Asians and Caucasians, even though there may be factors that are inherent to patients in Asia that influence the slight variation in incidence. The utilization rate of VTE prophylaxis remains suboptimal in Asia. The Asian Venous Thrombosis Forum (AVTF) comprises participants from various countries such as China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and experts from Australia and Europe. The forum evaluated the available data on VTE from the Asian region and formulated guidelines tailored to meet the needs of the region. We recommend that serious considerations are given to VTE prophylaxis especially in the at-risk group and a formal hospital policy be established to facilitate the implementation. On admission to the hospital, we recommend assessing the patients for both VTE and bleeding risk. We recommend mechanical prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of bleeding and utilizing it as an adjunctive measure in combination with pharmacological prophylaxis in patients with high risk of VTE. For patients undergoing general or gynecological surgery and with moderate risk for VTE, we recommend

  2. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  3. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  4. Venous function in the leg after postoperative thrombosis diagnosed with /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhagen, A.; Bergqvist, D.; Hallboeoek, T.; Efsing, H.O.

    1983-02-01

    The /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) has been widely used in the past decade to detect postoperative thrombosis. FUT has been shown to correlate well with phlebography, and positive FUT is associated with a high frequency of pulmonary embolism. The long-term venous function of the leg after FUT-detected postoperative thrombosis, however, is inadequately documented. In 179 patients who had been studied after operation with FUT, a follow-up evaluation of FUT as an indicator of risk for development of deep venous insufficiency was made four to five years later. The patients replied to a questionnaire, were clinically examined, and underwent venous strain-gauge plethysmography, venous pressure measurement, and, in some cases, phlebography. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the parameters between legs that had been FUT-positive and those that were FUT-negative at the time of the operation. The frequency of deep venous insufficiency thus was equal in FUT-positive and FUT-negative legs. It was also independent of the site of FUT-detected thrombus in the leg.

  5. Clinical Aspects of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Experiences in Two Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Hyun Taek; Jun, Hyo Sub; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Kim, Ji Hee; Oh, Jae Keun; Song, Joon Ho; Cho, Byung Moon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare condition for which few clinical reviews have been conducted in Korea. Our aim was to investigate, risk factors, clinical presentations/courses, and outcomes of 22 patients treated for CVT at two centers. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted, selecting 22 patients diagnosed with and treated for CVT at two patient care centers over a 10-year period (January 1, 2004 to August 31, 2015). Patient data, pathogenetic concerns (laboratory findings), risk factors, locations, symptoms, treatments, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Results Mean patient age at diagnosis was 54.41 ± 16.19. Patients most often presented with headache (40%), followed by seizure (27%) and altered mental status (18%). Focal motor deficits (5%), visual symptoms (5%), and dysarthria (5%) were less common. Important predisposing factors in CVT included prothrombotic conditions (35%), infections (14%), hyperthyroidism (18%), trauma (14%), and malignancy (4%). By location, 9 patients (40%) experienced thrombosis of superior sagittal sinus predominantly, with involvement of transverse sinus in 20 (90%), sigmoid sinus in 12 (40%), and the deep venous system in 5 (23%). Treatment generally consisted of anticoagulants (63%) or antiplatelet (23%) drugs, but surgical decompression was considered if warranted (14%). Medical therapy in CVT yields good functional outcomes. Conclusion Mean age of patients with CVT in our study exceeded that reported in Europe or in America and had difference in risk factors. Functional outcomes are good with use of antithrombotic medication, whether or not hemorrhagic infarction is evident. PMID:27847760

  6. Clinical presentation and outcome of venous thromboembolism in COPD.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, L; Quenet, S; Mismetti, P; Hernández, L; Martín-Villasclaras, J J; Tolosa, C; Valdés, M; Barrón, M; Todolí, J A; Monreal, M

    2012-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a moderate risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but neither the clinical presentation nor the outcome of VTE in COPD patients is well known. The clinical presentation of VTE, namely pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and the outcome at 3 months (death, recurrent VTE or bleeding) were compared between 2,984 COPD patients and 25,936 non-COPD patients included in the RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) registry. This ongoing international, multi-centre registry includes patients with proven symptomatic PE or DVT. PE was the more frequent VTE presentation in COPD patients (n = 1,761, 59%). PE presentation was more significantly associated with COPD patients than non-COPD patients (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.49-1.80). During the 3-month follow-up, mortality (10.8% versus 7.6%), minor bleeding (4.5% versus 2.3%) or first VTE recurrences as PE (1.5% versus 1.1%) were significantly higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients. PE was the most common cause of death. COPD patients presented more frequently with PE than DVT. It may explain the worse prognosis of COPD patients, with a higher risk of death, bleeding or VTE recurrences as PE compared with non-COPD patients. Further therapeutic options are needed.

  7. Fibrinogen and red blood cells in venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Maria M; Walton, Bethany L; Byrnes, James R; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2014-05-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively termed venous thromboembolism (VTE), affect over 1 million Americans each year. VTE is triggered by inflammation and blood stasis leading to the formation of thrombi rich in fibrin and red blood cells (RBCs). However, little is known about mechanisms regulating fibrin and RBC incorporation into venous thrombi, or how these components mediate thrombus size or resolution. Both elevated circulating fibrinogen (hyperfibrinogenemia) and abnormal fibrin(ogen) structure and function, including increased fibrin network density and resistance to fibrinolysis, have been observed in plasmas from patients with VTE. Abnormalities in RBC number and/or function have also been associated with VTE risk. RBC contributions to VTE are thought to stem from their effects on blood viscosity and margination of platelets to the vessel wall. More recent studies suggest RBCs also express phosphatidylserine, support thrombin generation, and decrease fibrinolysis. RBC interactions with fibrin(ogen) and cells, including platelets and endothelial cells, may also promote thrombus formation. The contributions of fibrin(ogen) and RBCs to the pathophysiology of VTE warrants further investigation.

  8. Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Suissa, Samy; Rietbrock, Stephan; Katholing, Anja; Freedman, Ben; Cohen, Alexander T; Handelsman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with use of testosterone treatment in men, focusing particularly on the timing of the risk. Design Population based case-control study Setting 370 general practices in UK primary care with linked hospital discharge diagnoses and in-hospital procedures and information on all cause mortality. Participants 19 215 patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism (comprising deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and 909 530 age matched controls from source population including more than 2.22 million men between January 2001 and May 2013. Exposure of interest Three mutually exclusive testosterone exposure groups were identified: current treatment, recent (but not current) treatment, and no treatment in the previous two years. Current treatment was subdivided into duration of more or less than six months. Main outcome measure Rate ratios of venous thromboembolism in association with current testosterone treatment compared with no treatment were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for comorbidities and all matching factors. Results The adjusted rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.66) for current versus no testosterone treatment. In the first six months of testosterone treatment, the rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.63 (1.12 to 2.37), corresponding to 10.0 (1.9 to 21.6) additional venous thromboembolisms above the base rate of 15.8 per 10 000 person years. The rate ratio after more than six months’ treatment was 1.00 (0.68 to 1.47), and after treatment cessation it was 0.68 (0.43 to 1.07). Increased rate ratios within the first six months of treatment were observed in all strata: the rate ratio was 1.52 (0.94 to 2.46) for patients with pathological hypogonadism and 1.88 (1.02 to 3.45) for those without it, and 1.41 (0.82 to 2.41) for those with a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism and 1.91 (1

  9. Spontaneous thrombosis of developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with venous infarct and acute cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Kalapos, Paul; Vijay, Kanupriya

    2014-08-01

    Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), formally known as venous angioma, is a congenital anatomic variant of the venous drainage of the brain. Although they typically have a benign clinical course and a low symptomatic rate, thrombosis of a drainage vein may occur, leading to potentially debilitating complications. We report a unique case of spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly with cerebellar infarct in a 61-year-old man who presented with acute onset cerebellar ataxia. DVA thrombosis was well-depicted on CT and MR studies. Patient was put on anticoagulant therapy and complete recanalization was seen on follow-up imaging.

  10. Links between arterial and venous disease.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, P

    2007-09-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between arterial and venous disease. According to the results of recent studies, atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) share common risk factors, including age, obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis has the potential to promote the development of thrombotic disorders in the venous system. Another scenario assumes that the two clinical conditions are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with VTE of unknown origin are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerotic complications, than patients with secondary VTE and matched control individuals. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice.

  11. [Emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air].

    PubMed

    Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young

    2015-02-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.

  12. New anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar dos Santos; Júnior, José Leonidas Alves; Gavilanes, Francisca; Prada, Luis Felipe; Morinaga, Luciana Kato; Souza, Rogerio

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease, surpassed only by acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The spectrum of VTE presentations ranges, by degree of severity, from deep vein thrombosis to acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Treatment is based on full anticoagulation of the patients. For many decades, it has been known that anticoagulation directly affects the mortality associated with VTE. Until the beginning of this century, anticoagulant therapy was based on the use of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists, warfarin in particular. Over the past decades, new classes of anticoagulants have been developed, such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors, which significantly changed the therapeutic arsenal against VTE, due to their efficacy and safety when compared with the conventional treatment. The focus of this review was on evaluating the role of these new anticoagulants in this clinical context. PMID:27167437

  13. [Current and future diagnostic strategies in venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Gabriel Botella, F; Labiós Gómez, M; Brasó Aznar, J V; Llavador Ros, G; Bort Martí, J

    1999-08-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TD), which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the most common acute cardiovascular condition after ischemic cardiopathy and stroke. It is often difficult to diagnose, as it is well-known that half of PE episodes appear are recognized while the patient is still alive and which appear in 30-40% of symptomatic patients. Nonetheless, there are two well-differentiated phases in the diagnosis of TD: the suspicion, and the diagnosis. The first is very important, and is within the competence of any physician. The second can be ratified when carrying out specific tests. We have developed successive steps in the two phases of diagnosis, we critically review the distinct parts currently implicated in the strategic diagnosis of TD. Finally, we analyze the new diagnostic techniques to substitute, possibly, angiography in many cases, and perhaps to include ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) pulmonary gammagraphy, once become generally available.

  14. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  15. Microcirculation and venous ulcers: a review.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Schönbein, Geert W Schmid; Bergan, John J

    2005-11-01

    Recent histological and immunocytochemical analyses of venous leg ulcers suggest that lesions observed in the different stages of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) may be related to an inflammatory process. This inflammatory process leads to fibrosclerotic remodeling of the skin and then to ulceration. The vascular network of the most superficial layers of the skin appears to be the target of the inflammatory reaction. Hemodynamic forces such as venous hypertension, circulatory stasis, and modified conditions of shear stress appear to play an important role in an inflammatory reaction accompanied by leukocyte activation which clinically leads to CVI: venous dermatitis and venous ulceration. The leukocyte activation is accompanied by the expression of integrins and by synthesis and release of many inflammatory molecules, including proteolytic enzymes, leukotrienes, prostaglandin, bradykinin, free oxygen radicals, cytokines, and possibly other classes of inflammatory mediators. The inflammatory reaction perpetuates itself, leading to liposclerotic skin and subcutaneous tissue remodeling. In light of the mechanisms of venous ulcer formation cited above, therapy in the future might be directed against leukocyte activation in order to diminish the magnitude of the inflammatory response. With this in mind, the attention of many investigators has been drawn to two different drugs with an anti-inflammatory effect: pentoxifylline and flavonoids.

  16. Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Houlind, Kim; Christensen, Johnny; Hallenberg, Christian; Jepsen, Jørn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5), the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3), or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2) depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted. PMID:24358432

  17. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kasatkin, A. A. Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L.

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  18. We still go for the jugular: implications of the 3SITES central venous catheter study for nephrology.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Christina M; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The 3SITES study randomly assigned a nontunneled central venous catheter site in over 3000 adults treated in intensive care units. The subclavian site was associated with a lower rate of short-term complications, including catheter-related bloodstream infection and deep venous thrombosis, compared to the femoral or internal jugular site. Nephrologists should be aware of this study and should continue to advocate for alternatives to subclavian vein catheter placement in patients with chronic kidney disease who are expected to require arteriovenous access for dialysis in the future.

  19. Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy with Stent Placement: Rapid and Effective Treatment for Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens with Impending Venous Gangrene

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Tercan, Fahri; Ozkan, Ugur

    2008-01-15

    Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of acute deep vein thrombosis. It is an emergency and delay in treatment may cause death or loss of the patient's limb. Surgical thrombectomy is the recommended treatment in venous gangrene. Catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis has been reported as successful, but it may require a lengthy infusion. Manual aspiration thrombectomy may clear the entire thrombus with no need for thrombolytic administration and provide rapid and effective treatment for patients with phlegmasia cerulea dolens with impending venous gangrene.

  20. The damage to a person caused by venous thromboembolism in the civil responsibility.

    PubMed

    Di Blasi, A; Di Blasi, L; Manferoce, O; Napoli, P

    2000-01-01

    The venous thromboembolism can clinically show itself as deep venous thrombosis or as pulmonary embolism. Both serious and potentially fatal, for this high incidence, they assume importance in social economic sphere. The authors take into account the medicolegal diagnostics methodology of the deep venous thrombosis and of the pulmonary embolism, the traumatic and post traumatic etiology, to determine the connection of causality and the estimating parameters of the damage to a person in the sphere of civil responsibility. To attain to a certain diagnosis of thromboembolism, since its difficult cause of paucisymtomaticity or asymtomaticity of the pathology after an attentive evaluation of symptoms, clinic manifestations and factors of risk, it can't be disregarded to utilize scientific diagnostic criteria, and instrumental ascertainments, serial too, helped by conventional means of standardization, such as the new American system of classification CEAP. The following phases of medicolegal ascertainment consist in identifying the causal connection between disease and event and in estimating of the damage to a person, with rigorous and objective methodology and using tabular orientation guides, that have to indicate the percentage incidence of the undergone disablement on the person's validity for indemnity. It is showed the particular delicacy of the medical examiner's evaluation in thromboembolic disease, in the sphere of civil responsibility, both for the difficulties of the diagnostic identification of the deep venous thrombosis, and of the pulmonary embolism, and for the determination of the connection of causality with traumatic events and with following operation of orthopedics-traumatology and neurosurgery (sector on which the most difficult problems of professional responsibility can connect) and finally for the real evaluation of the consequent damage to a persons, in order to its indemnity.

  1. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  2. Venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer.

    PubMed

    Seddighzadeh, Ali; Shetty, Ranjith; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2007-09-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). To further define the demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors of VTE in these patients, we analyzed a prospective registry of 5,451 patients with ultrasound confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from 183 hospitals in the United States. Cancer was reported in 1,768 (39%), of whom 1,096 (62.0%) had active cancer. Of these, 599 (54.7%) were receiving chemotherapy, and 226 (20.6%) had metastases. Lung (18.5%), colorectal (11.8%), and breast cancer (9.0%) were among the most common cancer types. Cancer patients were younger (median age 66 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.0001), were more likely to be male (50.4% vs. 44.5%; p = 0.0005), and had a lower average body mass index (26.6 kg/m(2) vs. 28.9 kg/m(2); p < 0.0001). Cancer patients less often received VTE prophylaxis prior to development of DVT compared to those with no cancer (308 of 1,096, 28.2% vs. 1,196 of 3,444, 34.6%; p < 0.0001). For DVT therapy, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as monotherapy without warfarin (142 of 1,086, 13.1% vs. 300 of 3,429, 8.7%; p < 0.0001) and inferior vena caval filters (234 of 1,086, 21.5% vs. 473 of 3,429, 13.8%; p < 0.0001) were utilized more often in cancer patients than in DVT patients without cancer. Cancer patients with DVT and neurological disease were twice as likely to receive inferior vena caval filters than those with no cancer (odds ratio 2.17, p = 0.005). In conclusion, cancer patients who develop DVT receive prophylaxis less often and more often receive filters than patients with no cancer who develop DVT. Future studies should focus on ways to improve implementation of prophylaxis in cancer patients and to further define the indications, efficacy, and safety of inferior vena caval filters in this population.

  3. Pharmacologic treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Dormandy, J A

    1995-01-01

    In terms of prevalence, total cost and morbidity, venous leg ulcers are probably by far the most important type of ulcerations in the leg. The macrocirculatory defect leading to a raised ambulatory venous pressure is now accepted as a common initial pathologic pathway. Most current treatment modalities, such as surgery or external compression, are designed to control the macrovascular defect. However, it is the microcirculatory consequences of the venous hypertension that give rise to the trophic skin changes and ultimately to ulceration. At this microcirculatory level, pharmacotherapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The microcirculatory pathophysiologic changes include decreased fibrinolytic activity, elevated plasma fibrinogen, microcirculatory thrombi, and inappropriate activation of the white blood cells. The oxidative burst from the activated white cells probably plays a key role by releasing locally leukocyte-derived free radicals, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, platelet-activating factor, and a number of other noxious mediators. An important additional component in recalcitrant venous ulcers is co-existing arterial disease, which is probably present in 15-20% of cases. Decreased arterial perfusion pressure will further aggravate the ischemic changes caused by the venous hypertension. Pentoxifylline downregulates leukocyte activation, reduces leukocyte adhesion, and also has fibrinolytic effects. A number of clinical studies have therefore been carried out to examine the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline in treatment of venous leg ulcers. Probably the largest published placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study was reported in 1990. In this study, 80 patients received either pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally or matching placebo for 6 months or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner. Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with pentoxifylline

  4. Mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: Case report with bilateral venous collectors.

    PubMed

    Cayre, Raul O; Civetta, Julio D; Roldan, Alberto O; Rousseau, Juan J; Knudson, Ole A; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam M

    2003-01-01

    We present a case report of a 3-month-old boy with a mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. The patient had situs solitus, small atrial septal defect, and 2 separate venous collectors. The right pulmonary veins drained through a right-sided venous collector into the coronary sinus. The left-sided pulmonary veins drained through the left-sided venous collector directly into the right superior vena cava. The use of the echocardiogram and Doppler color flow mapping to establish a detailed morphologic analysis, the sites of connection, and the presence of pulmonary venous obstructions as well as the value of this information to facilitate a successful surgical repair are discussed.

  5. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant.

  6. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a survey of Canadian orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Michael; Anderson, David R.; Nagpal, Seema; O’Brien, Bernie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the pharmacologic and physical modalities used by orthopedic surgeons in Canada to prevent venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Design Mail survey sent to all members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association. Setting A nation-wide study. Methods A total of 828 questionnaires, designed to identify the type and frequency of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism that were used after hip and knee arthroplasty were mailed to orthopedic surgeons. Outcome measures Demographic data and the frequency and type of thromboprophylaxis. Results Of the 828 surveys mailed 445 (54%) were returned, and 397 were included in this analysis. Of the respondents, 97% used prophylaxis routinely for patients who undergo total hip or knee arthroplasty. Three of the 397 (0.8%) did not use any method of prophylaxis. Warfarin was the most common agent used (46%), followed by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (36%). Combination therapy with both mechanical and pharmacologic methods were used in 39% of patients. Objective screening tests were not frequently performed before discharge. Extended prophylaxis beyond the duration of hospitalization was used by 36% of physicians. Conclusion Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with warfarin or LMWH has become standard care after total hip or knee arthroplasty in Canada. PMID:10593248

  7. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance.

  8. Venous Malformation: update on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis & management

    PubMed Central

    Dompmartin, Anne; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss the current knowledge on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management of venous malformations. Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular anomalies. They are simple, sporadic or familial (cutaneo-mucosal venous malformation or glomuvenous malformations), combined (e.g. capillaro-venous, capillaro-lymphaticovenous malformations) or syndromic (Klippel-Trenaunay, Blue Rubber Bleb Naevus and Maffucci). Genetic studies have identified causes of familial forms and of 40% of sporadic VMs. Another diagnostic advancement is the identification of elevated D-dimer level as the first biomarker of venous malformations within vascular anomalies. Those associated with pain are often responsive to Low Molecular Weight Heparin which should also be used to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to intervention, especially if fibrinogen level is low. Finally, development of a modified sclerosing agent, ethylcellulose–ethanol, has improved therapy. It is efficient and safe, and widens indications for sclerotherapy to sensitive and dangerous areas such as hands, feet and periocular area. PMID:20870869

  9. [Venous malformations: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Casanova, D; Boon, L-M; Vikkula, M

    2006-01-01

    Venous malformations (VM) are localized defects of blood vessels that are due to vascular dysmorphogenesis. These slow-flow lesions can affect any tissue or organ. Clinically, a cutaneous VM is characterized by a bluish mass that is compressible on palpation. Phleboliths are commonly present. Symptoms depend on location and size. VM are often sporadic and isolated, however, they can be associated with other malformations and be part of a syndrome; Klippel-Trenaunay (capillary-lymphatico-venous malformation with limb hypertrophy) is the most common. Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is another type of venous anomaly. In contrast to VM, GVM is often painful on palpation and not compressible. Clinical diagnosis of VM is often made in the presence of a bluish cutaneous lesion: however, other lesions can mimick VM. The most frequent anomalies are a blue naevus, a hemorrhagic lymphatic malformation, a sub-cutaneous hemangioma or even the presence of dilated superficial normal veins due to underlying venous stenoses. This chapter will detail the clinical characteristics of venous anomalies and their differential diagnosis.

  10. Fatal bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following single digit replantation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anderson S M; Fok, Margaret W M; Fung, Boris K K

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism in hand surgery is rare. There is no report in the literature on postoperative mortality from venous thromboembolism following microsurgery in upper limbs. We report the case of a 56-year-old Chinese man who died from pulmonary embolism as a result of bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis following prolonged surgery under general anaesthesia after replantation of a finger. This case raises awareness of the need for precautions against venous thromboembolism following prolonged microsurgery and identification of high-risk patients.

  11. Capillo-venous flow in the brain: significance of intravascular RBC aggregation for venous flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Minoru; Tanahashi, Norio; Takeda, Hidetaka; Schiszler, Istvan; Osada, Takashi; Unekawa, Miyuki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2006-01-01

    Despite numerous reports on the regulation of cerebral arterial blood flow, little work has been done on that of the capillary and venous system. We have examined capillo-venous blood flow in the rat intraparenchymal cerebral cortex, employing a high-speed video confocal fluorescence microscope and our own software (KEIOIS-2) to track individual RBCs and to document velocity changes in single capillaries and veins. We found temporal and spatial heterogeneous changes in capillary RBC density (hematocrit), RBC recruitment, oscillation of capillary flow or vasomotion, and capillary density unrelated to arteriolar diametric changes. In veins, blood flow was also quite variable in time and space, and at a high frame rate venous blood per se was observed as a moving column of amorphous RBC aggregates with irregular edges; we believe this is the first report of such an observation under physiological conditions. The formation of such intravascular RBC aggregates would enforce slowing of blood flow and vice versa: RBC aggregation was in turn entirely flow-dependent. In rapid venous flow, RBCs appeared as a straight gathering of individually separated and dispersed cells. At capillo-venous junctions, an "RBC pouring" process appeared to occur, with RBCs either being sucked up from the capillary, merging, or being held back in the capillary. Changes in venous blood viscosity due to RBC aggregation are likely to be involved in this process. These findings suggest that the capillo-venous junction somehow participates in the regulation of appropriate tissue capillary flow in toto.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  13. Infections associated with the central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Drasković, Biljana; Fabri, Izabella; Benka, Anna Uram; Rakić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are of an essential importance to critically ill patients who require long-term venous access for various purposes. Their use made the treatment much easier, but still they are not harmless and are prone to numerous complications. Catheter infections represent the most significant complication in their use. The frequency of infections varies in different patient care settings, but their appearance mostly depends on the patient's health condition, catheter insertion time, localization of the catheter and type of the used catheter. Since they are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and related to significant number of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, it is very important that maximal aseptic precautions are taken during the insertion and the maintenance period. Prevention of infection of the central venous catheters demands several measures that should be applied routinely.

  14. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research.

  15. Deep learning.

    PubMed

    LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-28

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  16. Deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  17. Deep earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

  18. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    PubMed Central

    du Breuil, Anne L.; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses. PMID:27800207

  19. Thrombolytic therapy for central venous catheter occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Reiss, Ulrike; Wilimas, Judith A.; Metzger, Monika L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Howard, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term central venous catheters have improved the quality of care for patients with chronic illnesses, but are complicated by obstructions which can result in delay of treatment or catheter removal. Design and Methods This paper reviews thrombolytic treatment for catheter obstruction. Literature from Medline searches using the terms “central venous catheter”, “central venous access device” OR “central venous line” associated with the terms “obstruction”, “occlusion” OR “thrombolytic” was reviewed. Efficacy of thrombolytic therapy, central venous catheter clearance rates and time to clearance were assessed. Results Alteplase, one of the current therapies, clears 52% of obstructed catheters within 30 min with 86% overall clearance (after 2 doses, when necessary). However, newer medications may have higher efficacy or shorter time to clearance. Reteplase cleared 67–74% within 30–40 min and 95% of catheters overall. Occlusions were resolved in 70 and 83% of patients with one and 2 doses of tenecteplase, respectively. Recombinant urokinase cleared 60% of catheters at 30 min and 73% overall. Alfimeprase demonstrated rapid catheter clearance with resolution in 40% of subjects within 5 min, 60% within 30 min, and 80% within 2 h. Additionally, urokinase prophylaxis decreased the incidence of catheter occlusions from 16–68% in the control group to 4–23% in the treatment group; in some studies, rates of catheter infections were also decreased in the urokinase group. Conclusions Thrombolytic agents successfully clear central venous catheter occlusions in most cases. Newer agents may act more rapidly and effectively than currently utilized therapies, but randomized studies with direct comparisons of these agents are needed to determine optimal management for catheter obstruction. PMID:22180420

  20. Minimally invasive treatments for venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hulsberg, Paul C.; McLoney, Eric; Partovi, Sasan; Davidson, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The management of venous compression syndromes has historically been reliant on surgical treatment when conservative measures fail. There are, however, several settings in which endovascular therapy can play a significant role as an adjunct or even a replacement to more invasive surgical methods. We explore the role of minimally invasive treatment options for three of the most well-studied venous compression syndromes. The clinical aspects and pathophysiology of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS), nutcracker syndrome, and May-Thurner syndrome are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the role that interventionalists can play in minimally invasive treatment. PMID:28123978

  1. Developmental Venous Anomaly Responsible for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramonte, R.; Bonfiglio, M.; D'Amore, A.; Chiaramonte, I.

    2013-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial movement disorder characterized by involuntary, unilateral and intermittent contractions of the facial muscles. It is one of the syndromes related to neurovascular conflict, first described by Jannetta et al. in 1979. Typically, HFS is due to pulsatile compression by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. We describe a rare case of left developmental venous anomaly in a 59-year-old man referred to us with a six-month history of left-sided HFS. We performed an MR study of the brain and cerebellopontine angles, which demonstrated a compression of the ipsilateral facial nerve by the developmental venous anomaly. PMID:23859243

  2. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in long-distance travelers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Alaklabi, Ali; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Alomi, Yousef A.; Baik, Mohammad Al; Aldahan, Salah; Schünemann, Holger; Brozek, Jan; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Darzi, Andrea J.; Waziry, Reem; Akl, Elie A.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a preventable disease. Long distant travelers are prone to variable degree to develop VTE. However, the low risk of developing VTE among long-distance travelers and which travelers should receive VTE prophylaxis, and what prophylactic measures should be used led us to develop these guidelines. These clinical practice guidelines are the result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia involving an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society). The McMaster University Guideline working group provided the methodological support. The expert panel identified 5 common questions related to the thromboprophylaxis in long-distance travelers. The corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. PMID:28042639

  3. Venous thoracic outlet compression and the Paget-Schroetter syndrome: a review and recommendations for management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J F; Winterborn, R J; Bays, S; White, H; Kinsella, D C; Watkinson, A F

    2011-10-01

    Paget Schroetter syndrome, or effort thrombosis of the axillosubclavian venous system, is distinct from other forms of upper limb deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in younger patients and often is secondary to competitive sport, music, or strenuous occupation. If untreated, there is a higher incidence of disabling venous hypertension than was previously appreciated. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with thrombolysis leads to a high rate of rethrombosis. We have established a multidisciplinary protocol over 15 years, based on careful patient selection and a combination of lysis, decompressive surgery, and postoperative percutaneous venoplasty. During the past 10 years, a total of 232 decompression procedures have been performed. This article reviews the literature and presents the Exeter Protocol along with practical recommendations for management.

  4. [Popliteal vein entrapment in patients with unspecific symptoms of venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pfister, K; Töpel, I; Steinbauer, M; Stehr, A; Kasprzak, P M

    2005-04-01

    Popliteal vein entrapment must be taken in consideration in patients with symptoms of venous insufficiency. Leg edema, swelling, calf pain, and muscle cramps are all unspecific signs. Most patients thus far have presented with deep vein thrombosis or chronic venous insufficiency. Popliteal entrapment syndrome must be taken into account in younger patients in whom predisposing factors are absent and chronic calf swelling is notable. Diagnosis is easily confirmed by noninvasive stress testing with duplex imaging and pencil Doppler probe placed over the posterior tibial artery. Additionally, digital subtraction angiography with the foot in neutral and dorsi plantarflexion is recommended for arterial entrapment. Surgery is advisable for treatment and can be done without significant morbidity. In asymptomatic patients, we suggest using the term "popliteal vein entrapment phenomenon." We describe different etiologies of popliteal vein entrapment in three cases and present a review of the literature.

  5. Venous Thoracic Outlet Compression and the Paget-Schroetter Syndrome: A Review and Recommendations for Management

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. F. Winterborn, R. J.; Bays, S.; White, H.; Kinsella, D. C.; Watkinson, A. F.

    2011-10-15

    Paget Schroetter syndrome, or effort thrombosis of the axillosubclavian venous system, is distinct from other forms of upper limb deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in younger patients and often is secondary to competitive sport, music, or strenuous occupation. If untreated, there is a higher incidence of disabling venous hypertension than was previously appreciated. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with thrombolysis leads to a high rate of rethrombosis. We have established a multidisciplinary protocol over 15 years, based on careful patient selection and a combination of lysis, decompressive surgery, and postoperative percutaneous venoplasty. During the past 10 years, a total of 232 decompression procedures have been performed. This article reviews the literature and presents the Exeter Protocol along with practical recommendations for management.

  6. Venous thromboembolism risk associated with protracted work- and computer-related seated immobility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Bridget; Cameron, Laird; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility. Design A case-control study. Participants and setting Cases were 200 patients attending venous thromboembolism clinics with a history of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism in the past six months, and controls were 200 patients treated in fracture clinic for an upper limb injury in the past six months. Main outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility in the 28 days before the index event. Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility was defined firstly as a categorical variable with at least 10 h seated in a 24-h period, including at least 2 h without getting up; and secondly as the actual time spent seated in a 24-h period. Results Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility (categorical variable) was present in 36 (18%) cases and 31 (15.5%) controls. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism, odds ratio 1.18 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.48), P = 0.67. For the mean and maximum number of hours seated in a 24-h period, the odds ratios for the association per additional hour seated with venous thromboembolism were 1.08 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.6), P = 0.02 and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.09), P = 0.08, respectively. Conclusion This study found a weak association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility, with increasing mean hours seated associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:27540486

  7. Management of venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Kokoro; Shinozaki, Eiji; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Chin, Keisho; Kuboki, Yasutoshi; Ichimura, Takashi; Ozaka, Masato; Ogura, Mariko; Fujiwara, Yoshimasa; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Fumio; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2010-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism associated with use of a central venous access system is an urgent problem in patients treated with bevacizumab (bev). We investigated the effectiveness of Doppler ultrasound imaging (DUS) in the early detection of catheter-related thrombosis for avoidance of severe venous thromboembolism. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer received either FOLFOX-4 + bev or FOLFIRI + bev. DUS was performed on the deep venous system for detection of thrombus formation during the initial cycle of treatment, followed by re-evaluation after the third cycle in patients with asymptomatic thrombus formation. All patients were followed up until treatment was interrupted. Median duration of follow-up was 484 days (range 72-574). Among 41 enrolled patients, curable symptomatic thrombosis occurred in one, and asymptomatic thrombosis in 21 (51.2%). Of 21 patients undergoing re-evaluation, thrombi remained without progression in 17 patients, and enlargement in 4 patients. In two of the patients in whom there was progression, pulmonary embolism occurred after the sixth cycle. In the asymptomatic group, no thrombi developed as far as the superior vena cava in any patient. In the cases of progression, thrombotic enlargement was observed in all the 4 patients, with decreased vascular flow in 2. Using DUS, we were able to detect asymptomatic thrombosis in the early cycles of treatment, indicating its potential in the monitoring of venous thrombi. In the event of an enlarging asymptomatic thrombosis developing into the superior vena cava along with decreased vascular flow, careful follow-up and appropriate anticoagulant therapy may be recommended without increased risk of bleeding.

  8. Deep Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popke, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the safety-related ruling by the National Federation of State High School Associations to eliminate the option of using 18-inch starting platforms in pools less than 4 feet deep may affect operators of swimming pools and the swim teams who use them. (EV)

  9. Deep Fish.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  10. Deep Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-01

    A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.

  11. Functional morphology of venous structures associated with the male and female reproductive systems in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Rommel, S A; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A

    2001-12-01

    The reproductive organs of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are surrounded by thermogenic locomotory muscles and insulating fat. Manatees are reported to maintain core body temperatures of 35.6 degrees -36.4 degrees C, temperatures known to interfere with production and maturation of viable sperm in terrestrial mammals. We describe two novel venous plexuses associated with the manatee epididymis. Each epididymis is located in a hypogastric fossa at the caudolateral extremity of the abdominal cavity. Each hypogastric fossa is lined by an inguinal venous plexus that receives cooled blood from a superficial thoracocaudal plexus. We conclude that male manatees may prevent hyperthermic insult to their reproductive tissues by feeding cooled superficial blood to venous plexuses deep within their bodies. Female manatees also possess hypogastric fossae and venous structures similar to those found in male manatees. The ovaries, uterine tubes, and distal tips of the uterine horns are located in the hypogastric fossae. We suggest that the thermovascular structures we describe also prevent hypothermic insult to female manatee reproductive tissues. The venous structures in manatees are functionally similar to structures associated with reproductive thermoregulation in cetaceans and phocid seals. Thus, these thermovascular structures appear to be convergent morphological adaptations that occur in three clades of diving mammals with independent evolutionary histories.

  12. Recommendations for the medical management of chronic venous disease: The role of Micronized Purified Flavanoid Fraction (MPFF).

    PubMed

    Bush, Ronald; Comerota, Anthony; Meissner, Mark; Raffetto, Joseph D; Hahn, Steven R; Freeman, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    Scope A systematic review of the clinical literature concerning medical management of chronic venous disease with the venoactive therapy Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction was conducted in addition to an investigation of the hemodynamics and mechanism of chronic venous disease. Methods The systematic review of the literature focused on the use of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction (diosmin) which has recently become available in the US, in the management of chronic venous disease. The primary goal was to assess the level of evidence of the role of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction in the healing of ulcers, and secondarily on the improvement of the symptoms of chronic venous disease such as edema. An initial search of Medline, Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar databases was conducted. The references of articles obtained in the primary search, including a Cochrane review of phlebotonics for venous insufficiency, were reviewed for additional studies. Studies were included if patients had a diagnosis of chronic venous disease documented with Doppler and Impedance Plethysmography. Studies excluded were those that had patients with arterial insufficiency (Ankle Brachial Index < .6), comorbidity of diabetes, obesity, rheumatological diseases, or if other causes of edema were present (congestive heart failure, renal, hepatic or lymphatic cause), or if the patient population had recent surgery or deep vein thrombosis, or had been using diuretics (in studies of edema). Other elements of the study design were to note specifically the type of compression therapy used in conjunction with Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction. Results The literature review yielded 250 abstracts, 65 of which met criteria for further review and 10 papers were selected for consideration in the systematic review. Conclusion In summary, the general level of evidence supports the recommendation that the use of medical therapy with Micronized Purified

  13. Venous leg ulcer treatment and practice--part 1: the causes and diagnosis of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, S; Rigby, A J; Anand, S C

    2007-01-01

    This article, the first of a series of four on venous leg ulceration, discusses theories relating to the pathophysiology underlying the condition, and the range of diagnostic procedures undertaken to establish that ulceration is of venous origin.

  14. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  15. Serendipitous detection of an errant central venous catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Romdall, K.; Griep, R.

    1985-09-01

    The inappropriate placement of a patient's central venous catheter in the pleural space by the serendipitous injection of Tc-99m labeled red blood cells through the catheter during a GI bleeding study was discovered. Position and patency of central venous lines can be incidentally evaluated by using existing central venous catheters for administration of radiopharmaceuticals during radionuclide imaging studies.

  16. Nonclinical aspects of venous thrombosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Struble, Evi; Harrouk, Wafa; DeFelice, Albert; Tesfamariam, Belay

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state which carries an excess risk of maternal venous thrombosis. Endothelial injury, alterations in blood flow and activation of the coagulation pathway are proposed to contribute to the hypercoagulability. The risk for thrombosis may be accentuated by certain drugs and device implants that directly or indirectly affect the coagulation pathway. To help ensure that these interventions do not result in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes during pregnancy, gravid experimental animals can be exposed to such treatments at various stages of gestation and over a dosage range that would identify hazards and inform risk assessment. Circulating soluble biomarkers can also be evaluated for enhancing the assessment of any increased risk of venous thrombosis during pregnancy. In addition to traditional in vivo animal testing, efforts are under way to incorporate reliable non-animal methods in the assessment of embryofetal toxicity and thrombogenic effects. This review summarizes hemostatic balance during pregnancy in animal species, embryofetal development, biomarkers of venous thrombosis, and alterations caused by drug-induced venous thrombosis.

  17. [Chronic venous disease. A state of art].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2010-01-24

    Chronic venous disease affecting one-third of the European population has a considerable socioeconomic impact. There is increasing evidence, that the structural remodelling of the vein wall is caused by two etiological factors: the disturbed flow patterns in cosequence of the high venous pressure and a progressive inflammatory cascade. In the microcirculation the trapping of the white cells and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction lead to skin changes and leg ulcer. The CEAP classification has been adopted world-wide to faciliate the uniform communication and the description of all classes of the disease. For the practising physician the duplex scan is a valuable instrument to provide correct diagnosis and to guide the treatment. This ultrasound technique gives lot of useful information about the venous system of the lower leg, helps to identify the presence and sites of the reflux and the potential occlusion of the proximal veins. The possible treatments are the followings: conservative basis therapy - including compression, venoactive drugs, venous excersises, giving advice to patients and health care - as well as surgery and sclerotherapy. New promising therapeutic procedures, such as endovenous operations with radiofrequency or laser and foam sclerotherapy are spreading rapidly all over the world.

  18. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P.; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  19. Lymphatic and venous function in lipoedema.

    PubMed

    Harwood, C A; Bull, R H; Evans, J; Mortimer, P S

    1996-01-01

    Lipoedema is a common but infrequently recognized condition causing bilateral enlargement of the legs in women. Although generally considered to be the result of an abnormal deposition of subcutaneous fat with associated oedema, the precise mechanisms responsible for oedema formation have yet to be fully established. In order to evaluate the possible role of lymphatic or venous dysfunction in the pathogenesis of lipoedema, 10 patients were investigated by photoplethysmography (venous function) and quantitative lymphoscintigraphy (lymphatic function). The results were compared with those from patients with primary lymphoedema and those from healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated minor abnormalities of venous function in only two patients. One patient had moderately impaired lymphatic function in both legs and seven patients had a marginal degree of impairment in one or both legs. However, in none of these cases did the impairment attain the low levels seen in true lymphoedema. Lipoedema appears to be a distinct clinical entity best classified as a lipodystrophy rather than a direct consequence of any primary venous or lymphatic insufficiency.

  20. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment. PMID:27047885

  1. [Femoral venous catheter: an unusual complication].

    PubMed

    Garcia, P; Mora, A; Trambert, P; Maler, E; Courant, P

    2000-08-01

    We report an erratic course of a venous femoral catheter which was in the abdominal cavity in a patient with an haemoperitoneum and an hepatic injury. This complication led to an inefficiency of the transfusion and a worsening of the haemoperitoneum.

  2. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    PubMed

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack

  3. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment.

  4. Advanced imaging in acute and chronic deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karande, Gita Yashwantrao; Sanchez, Yadiel; Baliyan, Vinit; Mishra, Vishala; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) affecting the extremities is a common clinical problem. Prompt imaging aids in rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment. While ultrasound (US) remains the workhorse of detection of extremity venous thrombosis, CT and MRI are commonly used as the problem-solving tools either to visualize the thrombosis in central veins like superior or inferior vena cava (IVC) or to test for the presence of complications like pulmonary embolism (PE). The cross-sectional modalities also offer improved visualization of venous collaterals. The purpose of this article is to review the established modalities used for characterization and diagnosis of DVT, and further explore promising innovations and recent advances in this field. PMID:28123971

  5. Characterizing the Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients After Central Venous Line Placement

    PubMed Central

    Eades, Shannan; Turiy, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the apparent increase in venous thromboembolism noted in the pediatric population, it is important to define which children are at risk for clots and to determine optimal preventative therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for venous thromboembolism in pediatric patients with central venous line placement. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study. Control subjects were patients aged 0 to 18 years who had a central venous line placed. Case subjects had a central line and a radiographically confirmed diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Presence of multiple comorbidities, particularly the presence of a congenital heart defect (34.7% case vs. 14.7% control; p < 0.005), was found to put pediatric patients at increased risk for thrombosis. Additionally, the administration of parenteral nutrition through the central line (34.7% case vs. 18.7% control; p = 0.03) and location of the line increased the risk for clot formation. CONCLUSIONS: With increased awareness of central venous line–related thromboembolism, measures should be taken to reduce the number and duration of central line placements, and further studies addressing the need for thromboprophylaxis should be conducted. PMID:26472949

  6. Partial aortic occlusion and cerebral venous steal: venous effects of arterial manipulation in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and "luxury perfusion" in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifested by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution analogous to positive end-expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs.

  7. Sequential venous anastomosis design to enhance patency of arterio-venous grafts for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kabinejadian, Foad; Su, Boyang; Ghista, Dhanjoo N; Ismail, Munirah; Kim, Sangho; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2017-01-01

    Arterio-venous grafts (AVGs), the second best option as long-term vascular access for hemodialysis, face major issues of stenosis mainly due to development of intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis which is linked to unfavorable hemodynamic conditions. We have investigated computationally the utility of a coupled sequential venous anastomotic design to replace conventional end-to-side (ETS) venous anastomosis, in order to improve the hemodynamic environment and consequently enhance the patency of AVGs. Two complete vascular access models with the conventional and the proposed venous anastomosis configurations were constructed. Three-dimensional, pulsatile blood flow through the models was simulated, and wall shear stress (WSS)-based hemodynamic parameters were calculated and compared between the two models. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed anastomotic design provides: (i) a more uniform and smooth flow at the ETS anastomosis, without flow impingement and stagnation point on the artery bed and vortex formation in the heel region of the ETS anastomosis; (ii) more uniform distribution of WSS and substantially lower WSS gradients on the venous wall; and (iii) a spare route for the blood flow to the vein, to avoid re-operation in case of stenosis. The distinctive hemodynamic advantages observed in the proposed anastomotic design can enhance the patency of AVGs.

  8. Bubble generation and venous air filtration by hard-shell venous reservoirs: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S J; Willcox, T; Gorman, D F

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of five HSVRs with respect to bubble formation and venous air filtration. Salvaged clinical CPB circuits containing different HSVRs were studied by downstream Doppler monitoring under fixed flow-decreasing volume, fixed volume-increasing flow, and entrained venous air conditions. Bubbles formed in the Medtronic Maxima top entry HSVR at volumes below 800 ml and flows above 3.5 l min-1, and were incompletely removed by a membrane oxygenator and arterial line filter. Decreased bubbling was seen when the reservoir atmosphere was flushed with CO2, suggesting that these bubbles formed in a fountain at the venous inflow. The Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR formed significantly fewer bubbles at low volumes, and filtered venous air effectively. Negligible bubble formation occurred in the Sorin, Terumo, or Baxter reservoirs. The minimum recommended operating volume for the Medtronic Maxima top entry reservoir should be reset at 600 ml and this device should always be used with an arterial filter. Bubble formation is substantially reduced in the new Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR and this device is a good filter for venous air.

  9. Treatment of venous leg ulcers with sulodexide.

    PubMed

    Scondotto, G; Aloisi, D; Ferrari, P; Martini, L

    1999-11-01

    Venous ulcers are still today one of the main socioeconomic problems of medical interest in terms of prevalence, morbidity, and costs to the health service. In the past, various studies have been carried out to identify a systemic pharmacologic treatment able to accelerate venous ulcer healing times, but frequently the results have not been satisfactory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulodexide, a drug with profibrinolytic and antithrombotic activity, in accelerating venous ulcer's healing time. Ninety-four patients (32 men and 62 women), aged 72 years old on average, were randomly distributed between two groups. In the first group ("control group") a standard treatment was applied, which consisted of cleansing by washing with physiological solution and the application of elastic compression with short-extensibility, removable bandages. The second group ("sulodexide group") received the standard treatment plus sulodexide (600 lipoprotein lipase releasing units [LRU] by im route per day for 30 consecutive days, followed by 500 LRU by oral route per day for a further 30 days). After 2 months the venous ulcers were found healed in 15 patients (36%) in the control group and in 30 patients (58%) in the sulodexide group (p = 0.03). The life table showed that the healing times were shorter in the sulodexide group in the first 2 months of treatment. Total healing times amounted to 110 days in the control group and 72 days in the sulodexide group (p = 0.08) and the results were in proportion to the initial severity of the lesion. A significant correlation was noted between ulcer healing times and severity of the initial ulcerous lesion, the duration of the ulcer, and the group the patient belonged to. No correlation was found between age, gender of the patient and the etiology of the ulcer. In conclusion sulodexide was shown effective in the treatment of venous leg ulcers, yielding healing more quickly than the standard treatment.

  10. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Community-Based Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Frederick A.; Emery, Cathy; Lessard, Darleen; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude, risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes in a population-based investigation of patients with upper, as compared to lower, extremity deep vein thrombosis diagnosed in 1999. Methods The medical records of all residents from Worcester, Massachusetts (2000 census=478,000) diagnosed with ICD-9 codes consistent with possible deep vein thrombosis at all Worcester hospitals during 1999 were reviewed and validated. Results The age-adjusted attack rate (per 100,000 population) of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis was 16 (95% CI 13, 20) compared to 91 (83,100) for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis were significantly more likely to have undergone recent central line placement, a cardiac procedure, or an intensive care unit admission than patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Although short and 1-year recurrence rates of venous thromboembolism and all-cause mortality were not significantly different between patients with upper, versus lower, extremity deep vein thrombosis, patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis were less likely to have pulmonary embolism at presentation or in follow-up. Conclusions Patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis represent a clinically important patient population in the community setting. Risk factors, occurrence of pulmonary embolism, and timing and location of venous thromboembolism recurrence differ between patients with upper as compared to lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. These data suggest that strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis need further study and refinement. PMID:17679126

  11. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting with cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Ben Sassi, Samia; Mizouni, Habiba; Nabli, Fatma; Kallel, Lamia; Kefi, Mounir; Hentati, Fayçal

    2010-01-01

    Venous infarction in the cerebellum has been reported only rarely, probably because of the abundant venous collateral drainage in this region. Bilateral occipital infarction is a rare cause of visual loss in cerebral venous thrombosis. We describe a 50-year-old woman with a history of ulcerative colitis who developed acute cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness. She had bilateral cerebellar and occipital lesions related to sigmoid venous thrombosis and achieved complete recovery with anticoagulation therapy. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be considered in cases of simultaneous cerebellar and occipital vascular lesions.

  12. Measuring venous insufficiency objectively in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Bonham, Phyllis A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a screening procedure to assess venous insufficiency with a hand-held photoplethysmography (PPG) instrument in the clinical setting. PPG is noninvasive technology that is used as part of venous assessment of the lower extremities. Although duplex ultrasound remains the industry gold standard for assessment, there are many situations in which access or expertise is not available. The measurement of venous refill time with PPG, one measure of venous insufficiency, is becoming increasingly more prevalent in research settings; however, PPG is underused in clinical settings. Rapid venous refill time venous disorders, and its measurement in clinical settings as a screening mechanism may provide useful data to augment diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. Future research is needed to establish a best-practice guideline for venous assessment in clinical settings to validate using PPG.

  13. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  14. Duration and magnitude of the postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism in middle aged women: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sweetland, Siân; Green, Jane; Liu, Bette; Berrington de González, Amy; Canonico, Marianne; Reeves, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the duration and magnitude of increased risk of venous thromboembolism after different types of surgery. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Questionnaire data from the Million Women Study linked with hospital admission and death records. Participants 947 454 middle aged women in the United Kingdom recruited in 1996-2001 and followed by record linkage to routinely collected NHS data on hospital admissions and deaths. During follow-up 239 614 admissions were for surgery; 5419 women were admitted, and a further 270 died, from venous thromboembolism. Main outcome measures Adjusted relative risks and standardised incidence rates for hospital admission or death from venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis), by time since and type of surgery. Results Compared with not having surgery, women were 70 times more likely to be admitted with venous thromboembolism in the first six weeks after an inpatient operation (relative risk 69.1, 95% confidence interval 63.1 to 75.6) and 10 times more likely after a day case operation (9.6, 8.0 to 11.5). The risks were lower but still substantially increased 7-12 weeks after surgery (19.6, 16.6 to 23.1 and 5.5, 4.3 to 7.0, respectively). This pattern of risk was similar for pulmonary embolism (n=2487) and deep venous thrombosis (n=3529). The postoperative risks of venous thromboembolism varied considerably by surgery type, with highest relative risks after inpatient surgery for hip or knee replacement and for cancer—1-6 weeks after surgery the relative risks were, respectively, 220.6 (187.8 to 259.2) and 91.6 (73.9 to 113.4). Conclusion The risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after surgery is substantially increased in the first 12 postoperative weeks, and varies considerably by type of surgery. An estimated 1 in 140 middle aged women undergoing inpatient surgery in the UK will be admitted with venous thromboembolism during the 12 weeks after

  15. Venous thromboembolism after oral and maxillofacial oncologic surgery: Report and analysis of 14 cases in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Jiannan; Yin, Xuelai; Hu, Jingzhou; Kalfarentzos, Evagelos; Zhang, Chenping

    2017-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of death in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to explore the potential risk factor of VTE in oral and maxillofacial oncological surgery. Material and Methods The data of patients who received operation in our institution were gathered in this retrospective study. A diagnosis of VTE was screened and confirmed by computer tomography angiography (CTA) of pulmonary artery or ultrasonography examination of lower extremity. Medical history and all perioperative details were analyzed. Results 14 patients were diagnosed as VTE, including 6 cases of PE, 7 cases of DVT, 1case of DVT and PE. The mean age of these patients was 62.07 years. Reconstruction was performed in 12 patients of these cases, most of which were diagnosed as malignance. Mean length of surgery was 8.74 hours, and lower extremity deep venous cannula (DVC) was performed in all these patients. Conclusions We analyzed several characters of oral and maxillofacial surgery and suggested pay attention to lower extremity DVC which had a high correlation with DVT according to our data. Key words:Venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:27918738

  16. A new top-loading venous bag provides vacuum-assisted venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Y; Lee-Sensiba, K; Beck, J; Chan, R; Salogub, M; Hall, M; Lee, T; Ganju, R; Mongero, L

    2002-09-01

    A new venous bag has been developed, prototyped, and tested. The new bag has its inlet, outlet purge, and infusion tubes extending upward from the top of the bag, and are threaded through, bonded to, and sealed within a flat rigid top plate. This design allows the bag to be hung from its top plate by its tubes. It also allows the bag to be: 1) dropped into or removed from its holder, as is done with existing hard-shell reservoirs so that its weight pulls it into the holder without the need for eyelets and hooks and 2) placed closer to the floor so that gravity drainage is facilitated. The V-Bag (VB) is easily sealed within an accompanying rigid housing. Once sealed, vacuum applied to the housing is transmitted across the flexible walls of the bag to the venous blood. Thus, vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) is obtained as it is with a hard-shell reservoir, but without any contact of air with the blood. Bench tests, using a circuit that simulated the venous side of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, showed that applying suction to the housing increased venous flow, and the fractional increase in flow was not a function of the venous cannula, but of the level of vacuum applied. In the gravity drainage mode, the bubble counts at the outlet of the V-Bag compared to two other bags were lower at any pumping condition. When used in the VAVD mode, bubble counts were two orders of magnitude lower than when using kinetically assisted venous drainage (KAVD) with a centrifugal pump. Results obtained with the VB suggest its clinical usefulness.

  17. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ≥1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ≥2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis.

  18. Deep smarts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  19. [Venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Lecumberri, Ramón; Feliu, Jesús; Rocha, Eduardo

    2006-06-03

    The association between neoplastic diseases and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is known since long time ago. The nature of this association is bidirectional. On one hand, cancer increases the incidence of venous thrombosis and, on the other hand, the hemostatic system does play a key role in the tumorigenesis process. However, despite recent advances in the field, prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in cancer patients is still a challenge, due to the complexity of this type of patients. This review is focused on some important points regarding management of VTE in cancer patients such as physiopathology, epidemiology, search for hidden malignancy, prognostic impact, prophylaxis in the medical and surgical setting, or initial and long-term treatment.

  20. Venous thromboembolism in women taking hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Monreal, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are a popular method of contraception, but their use has been associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism. In order to reduce such risk, these compounds have been changed in their dosage, chemical composition and route of administration. The absolute risk of death from pulmonary embolism in contraceptive users has been estimated to be 10.5 (95% CI: 6.2-16.6) per million woman-years. The safest option is an oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel combined with a low dose of estrogen. Identifying women at increased risk for venous thromboembolism is difficult, and greater use of thromboprophylaxis during immobility or minor surgery should be warranted. Several authors have called for all women to be screened for thrombophilia before prescription of hormonal contraceptives, but its cost-effectiveness remains uncertain.

  1. [Prevention of venous thromboembolism in musculoskeletal surgery].

    PubMed

    Pabinger-Fasching, Ingrid; Eichinger-Hasenauer, Sabine; Grohs, Josef; Hochreiter, Josef; Kastner, Norbert; Korninger, Hans Christian; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle; Marlovits, Stefan; Niessner, Herwig; Rachbauer, Franz; Ritschl, Peter; Wurnig, Christian; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Musculoskeletal surgery is associated with a high risk of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) has broadened the possibilities for prevention of venous thromboembolism in the course of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Addressing this recent development, the Austrian Societies of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery (ÖGO), Trauma Surgery (ÖGU), Hematology and Oncology (OeGHO) and of Anaesthesiology, Reanimation und Intensive Care Medicine (ÖGARI) have taken the initiative to create Austrian guidelines for the prevention of thromboembolism after total hip and knee replacement, hip fracture surgery, interventions at the spine and cases of minor orthopedic and traumatic surgery. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the DOAK and the pivotal trial data for each of the three currently available substances - apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban - are briefly presented. Separate chapters are dedicated to "anticoagulation and neuroaxial anesthesia" and "bridging".

  2. Trauma patients warrant upper and lower extremity venous duplex ultrasound surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Alonso; Tyroch, Alan H.; McLean, Susan F.; Smith, Jody; Ramos, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Background: Due to the high incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolus [PE]) after injury, many trauma centers perform lower extremity surveillance duplex ultrasounds. We hypothesize that trauma patients are at a higher risk of upper extremity DVTs (UEDVTs) than lower extremity DVTs (LEDVTs), and therefore, all extremities should be evaluated. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart and trauma registry review of Intensive Care Unit trauma patients with upper and LEDVTs detected on surveillance duplex ultrasound from January 2010 to December 2014 was carried out. Variables reviewed were age, gender, injury severity score, injury mechanism, clot location, day of clot detection, presence of central venous pressure catheter, presence of inferior vena cava filter, mechanical ventilation, and fracture. Results: A total of 136 patients had a DVT in a 5-year period: upper - 71 (52.2%), lower - 61 (44.9%), both upper and lower - 4 (2.9%). Overall, 75 (55.2%) patients had a UEDVT. Upper DVT vein: Brachial (62), axillary (26), subclavian (11), and internal jugular (10). Lower DVT vein: femoral (58), popliteal (14), below knee (4), and iliac (2). 10.3% had a PE: UEDVT - 5 (6.7%) and LEDVT - 9 (14.8%) P = 0.159. Conclusions: The majority of the DVTs in the study were in the upper extremities. For trauma centers that aggressively screen the lower extremities with venous duplex ultrasound, surveillance to include the upper extremities is warranted. PMID:28367009

  3. Numerical steady flow solutions of the lower leg venous circulation: effects of external compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullana, J.-M.; Flaud, P.

    2007-06-01

    We present a numerical model used to compute steady flow solutions of the venous circulation of the leg. The network topology is based on clinical data and the flow is assumed to be steady, incompressible, and one-dimensional. We develop a non Newtonian approach to a one-dimensional flow because the blood viscosity depends on the velocity profile, and we demonstrate theoretically the pertinence of a phenomenological law of equivalent viscosity. Clinical experiments observe hemodynamical variables (i.e. venous pressure, venous area, blood velocity) only at the accessible places. In contrast the numerical model results are not limited to particular locations but can be evaluated on every point of the network. It provides important help to the definition of a clinical protocol. The model was designed to quantify a compression level of elastic compression stockings and to plan clinical studies. We validate the numerical approach using a published clinical trial, where the diameter of superficial and deep veins were measured at different compression pressures. We show also that the viscosity variations in a bed-rest position as a consequence of the application of a European Class II compression stockings. These variations could prevent the hyper-coagulability and the stasis of the blood.

  4. Extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler in the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, P J; Visser, L H

    2012-03-01

    A new venous disorder, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been proposed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is a vascular condition characterized by an impaired cerebrospinal venous drainage due to obstructions in the main extracranial cerebrovenous outflow routes (i.e. internal jugular veins [IJV] and/or azygos veins). In this review, the studies which assessed the prevalence of CCSVI in MS by echo colour Doppler (ECD) will be discussed. The technical aspects of determination of the five CCSVI criteria: (1) reflux in the IJV and/or vertebral veins in supine and upright position, (2) reflux in the deep cerebral veins, (3) high-resolution B-mode proximal IJV stenosis, (4) flow not Doppler detectable in IJVs and/or vertebral veins (VVs) and (5) reverted postural control of the main cerebrovenous outflow pathway are described in detail. We conclude that so far there are many studies with contradictory results, and as yet a strong scientific base to support the evidence for a causative relationship of CCSVI and MS is lacking. Recent studies call into question the validity of using ECD as a proper and reliable test for the diagnosis of CCSVI. One explanation for the variety in interpretation of the individual CCSVI criteria, with the wide-ranging percentages CCSVI, could be the different methods by using ECD to determine various criteria.

  5. Compensatory dilatation of the Azygos Venous system Secondary To Superior Vena Cava Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Francesco; Pellegrino, Valeria; Antonelli, Melissa; Ripani, Umberto; Mosca, Stefano; Durì, Davide; Galzerano, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion can be clinically recognized in the acute setting when the stenosing process does not allow the development of collateral venous channels, which guarantee the venous drainage to the right heart. On the contrary, when the obstruction develops progressively, the diagnosis of SVC obstruction may remain undiagnosed. In the present case, the presence of SVC thrombosis was purely coincidental. In fact, the obstruction was first noticed on diagnostic tests performed because of the malfunction of a totally implantable Porth a Cath placed into the superior vena cava (through right subclavian access), five years before, in a patient suffering from non-Hodgkin disease. Venography is the most appropriate diagnostic methodology which reveals the presence of a dilated azygos vein as a compensatory mechanism. Comparison with computed tomography allows to confirm the diagnosis and to identify the possible causes. Dilatation of the azygos vein, secondary to superior vena cava thrombosis, although a rare event, should be taken into consideration in those patients with CVC and who present with frequent episodes of deep venous thrombosis. PMID:22470636

  6. Compensatory dilatation of the Azygos Venous system Secondary To Superior Vena Cava Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Francesco; Pellegrino, Valeria; Antonelli, Melissa; Ripani, Umberto; Mosca, Stefano; Durì, Davide; Galzerano, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion can be clinically recognized in the acute setting when the stenosing process does not allow the development of collateral venous channels, which guarantee the venous drainage to the right heart. On the contrary, when the obstruction develops progressively, the diagnosis of SVC obstruction may remain undiagnosed. In the present case, the presence of SVC thrombosis was purely coincidental. In fact, the obstruction was first noticed on diagnostic tests performed because of the malfunction of a totally implantable Porth a Cath placed into the superior vena cava (through right subclavian access), five years before, in a patient suffering from non-Hodgkin disease. Venography is the most appropriate diagnostic methodology which reveals the presence of a dilated azygos vein as a compensatory mechanism. Comparison with computed tomography allows to confirm the diagnosis and to identify the possible causes. Dilatation of the azygos vein, secondary to superior vena cava thrombosis, although a rare event, should be taken into consideration in those patients with CVC and who present with frequent episodes of deep venous thrombosis.

  7. Venous thromboembolism in systemic autoimmune diseases: A narrative review with emphasis on primary systemic vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hiromichi; Khasnis, Atul

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent multifactorial health condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Population-based epidemiological studies have revealed an association between systemic autoimmune diseases and deep venous thrombosis (DVT)/VTE. The etiopathogenesis of increased risk of VTE in systemic autoimmune diseases is not entirely clear but multiple contributors have been explored, especially in the context of systemic inflammation and disordered thrombogenesis. Epidemiologic data on increased risk of VTE in patients with primary systemic vasculitides (PSV) have accumulated in recent years and some of these studies suggest the increased risk while patients have active diseases. This could lead us to hypothesize that venous vascular inflammation has a role to play in this phenomenon, but this is unproven. The role of immunosuppressive agents in modulating the risk of VTE in patients with PSV is not yet clear except for Behçet's disease, where most of the studies are retrospective. Sensitizing physicians to this complication has implications for prevention and optimal management of patients with these complex diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology and available evidence regarding pathogenesis, and will attempt to summarize the best available data regarding evaluation and treatment of these patients.

  8. Infective Endocarditis in a Patient with Celiac Disease after Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Suryanarayan; Arobelidze, Salome; Gundelly, Parveen; Changarath Vijayan, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of infective endocarditis secondary to central venous catheters, which is termed as 'healthcare-associated infective endocarditis'. There is an increased risk of getting infective endocarditis in conditions with malnutrition and also if the tip of the central venous catheter is deep in the right atrium close to the tricuspid valve. We present a case of 31-year-old female who had all these risk factors. She was admitted to the hospital for the work up of the weight loss and was diagnosed with celiac disease. Central venous access was obtained because of poor peripheral intravenous access via the peripherally inserted central catheter which was complicated by thrombosis and removed after three days of insertion, and she was started on anticoagulation. Two weeks after being discharged, she presented to the emergency department with fever, shortness of breath, and had signs of congestive heart failure. A computed tomography of the chest for pulmonary embolism was taken and showed small clot burden pulmonary embolism and two cavitary lesions in the right lung. A transthoracic echocardiogram was taken and showed vegetation on the tricuspid valve and blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made, and she was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a total of six weeks after a long and complicated hospital stay. PMID:28348945

  9. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  10. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2016-08-10

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service.

  11. O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides systemic and local treatment in chronic venous disease and microangiopathy: an independent prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Rosaria Cesarone, Maria; Ledda, Andrea; Cacchio, Marisa; Ruffini, Irma; Ricci, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo; Di Renzo, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Corsi, Marcello; Marino Santarelli, Anna Rita; Grossi, Maria Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (HR) is used to treat chronic venous disease and signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), varicose veins, and deep venous disease. This independent prospective controlled trial (a registry study) evaluates how the efficacy of HR at the local level (perimalleolar region) can be increased by the administration of a topical HR gel. The study is based on evaluation of microcirculatory variables in patients with severe CVI (ambulatory venous pressure, > 56 mm Hg) and venous microangiopathy. Patients are treated using 1 of the following 3 regimens: oral treatment with 1 g sachets of HR (2 g/d total) plus topical HR 2% gel applied 3 times daily at the internal perimalleolar region; oral treatment only (same dosage), or light elastic compression stockings. Laser Doppler skin flux at rest, skin flux at the perimalleolar region, and transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2 are measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. A comparable group of healthy individuals without treatment is observed for 8 weeks. In the treatment groups, flux is increased, PO2 is decreased, and PCO2 is increased compared with normal skin. At 4 and 8 weeks, the improvement in skin flux (which is decreased by all measurements), the increase in PO2, and the decrease in PCO2 (indicating microcirculatory improvement) are statistically significantly greater in the combined oral plus topical treatment group (P < .05). No adverse effects, tolerability problems, or compliance issues are noted. These results indicate an important role of HR in the treatment and control of CVI and venous microangiopathy.

  12. Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Malec, Lynn; Young, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Given the increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric patients, which has been associated with increased survival of medically complex patients and increased use of invasive supportive measures, it is important to understand treatment options and unique aspects of anticoagulant use in children. The objective of this mini-review is to outline the goals of treatment, treatment options, and adverse events associated with the use of anticoagulants in pediatric patients with VTE. PMID:28293549

  13. Venous malformations: clinical diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Behravesh, Sasan; Yakes, Wayne; Gupta, Nikhil; Naidu, Sailendra; Chong, Brian W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Venous malformation (VM) is the most common type of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). They are present at birth and are often symptomatic, causing morbidity and pain. VMs can be challenging to diagnose and are often confused with hemangioma in terminology as well as with imaging. An accurate clinical history and cross-sectional imaging are critical for diagnosis and for devising management. This manuscript will review imaging approaches to diagnosing VMs and current treatment strategies. PMID:28123976

  14. Transpulmonary passage of venous air emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Hills, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-seven paralyzed anesthetized dogs were embolized with venous air to determine the effectiveness of the pulmonary vasculature for bubble filtration or trapping. Air doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 ml/kg min in 0.05-ml increments with ultrasonic Doppler monitors placed over arterial vessels to detect any microbubbles that crossed the lungs. Pulmonary vascular filtration of the venous air infusions was complete for the lower air doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 ml/kg min. When the air doses were increased to 0.35 ml/kg min, the filtration threshold was exceeded with arterial spillover of bubbles occurring in 50 percent of the animals and reaching 71 percent for 0.40 ml/kg min. Significant elevations were observed in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Systemic blood pressure and cardiac output decreased, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged. The results indicate that the filtration of venous bubbles by the pulmonary vasculature was complete when the air infusion rates were kept below a threshold value of 0.30 ml/kg min.

  15. [Anatomic and functional features of venous valves].

    PubMed

    Griton, P; Vanet, P; Cloarec, M

    1997-05-01

    The comparison of the venous system in the human organism, and in particular the venous valves of the lower limbs, with studies conducted in animal models helped us to understand better the mechanisms involved in adapting to the upright position and walking. We examined work conducted in several species from the horse to the dog, especially in animals who often take on an upright position such as the chimpanzee and the kangouroo, in search for structures comparable to those in man. Different types of valves can be described in man: flotting valves (bicuspid, pigeon nest valves); reinforced valves (mid-thigh); reinforcing valves (periarticular zone in the knee); finally, "flat" valves which are highly resistant formations but with little anti-back flow action. We also describe valvular structures with muscle cells found in the plantar aspect of the foot and the veins of the quadriceps muscle, these valves may have an active hematopropulsive action (Bassi). These results allowed us to identify certain common points between the structures observed in the posterior legs of certain animals and to propose models for investigating venous diseases.

  16. Revision of the venous clinical severity score: venous outcomes consensus statement: special communication of the American Venous Forum Ad Hoc Outcomes Working Group.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Michael A; Rabe, Eberhard; McLafferty, Robert B; Shortell, Cynthia K; Marston, William A; Gillespie, David; Meissner, Mark H; Rutherford, Robert B

    2010-11-01

    In response to the need for a disease severity measurement, the American Venous Forum committee on outcomes assessment developed the Venous Severity Scoring system in 2000. There are three components of this scoring system, the Venous Disability Score, the Venous Segmental Disease Score, and the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS). The VCSS was developed from elements of the CEAP classification (clinical grade, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology), which is the worldwide standard for describing the clinical features of chronic venous disease. However, as a descriptive instrument, the CEAP classification responds poorly to change. The VCSS was subsequently developed as an evaluative instrument that would be responsive to changes in disease severity over time and in response to treatment. Based on initial experiences with the VCSS, an international ad hoc working group of the American Venous Forum was charged with updating the instrument. This revision of the VCSS is focused on clarifying ambiguities, updating terminology, and simplifying application. The specific language of proven quality-of-life instruments was used to better address the issues of patients at the lower end of the venous disease spectrum. Periodic review and revision are necessary for generating more universal applicability and for comparing treatment outcomes in a meaningful way.

  17. Venous ulcers of the lower extremity: Definition, epidemiology, and economic and social burdens.

    PubMed

    Lal, Brajesh K

    2015-03-01

    Venous ulcer is a common vascular condition affecting 1% of the population, and a prevalence that increases with age. Venous ulcer is defined by the American Venous Forum as "a full-thickness defect of skin, most frequently in the ankle region, that fails to heal spontaneously and is sustained by chronic venous disease, based on venous duplex ultrasound testing." The economic and social burden of this condition is significant to both the affected individual and the health care system. The recurrent nature of venous ulcers underscore the need for treatment of the underlying pathophysiology, that is, ambulatory venous hypertension produced by venous valve reflux alone or in conjunction with venous obstruction.

  18. Venous thromboembolism after radical cystectomy: Experience with screening ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Katie M.; Parker, William; Stephany, Heidi; Redger, Kirk; Mirza, Moben; Lopez-Corona, Ernesto; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Eugene K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To detect the incidence of immediate postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) using screening lower extremity ultrasonography (US) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) and to determine the rate of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) after RC and identify risk factors for venous thromboembolic (VTE) events in a RC population. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective review of prospective data collected on patients who underwent RC between July 2008 and January 2012. These patients underwent screening US at 2/3 days after RC to determine the rate of asymptomatic DVT. A chart review was completed to identify those who had a symptomatic PE. Univariate and multivariable analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with DVT, PE and total VTE events. Results In all, 221 patients underwent RC and asymptomatic DVT was identified in 21 (9.5%) on screening US. Nine (4.5%) developed symptomatic PE at a median of 9 days, of which no patients had positive lower extremity US postoperatively. Increased length of hospital stay, increased estimated blood loss, and lower body mass index were linked to risk of PE, and only a previous history of DVT was associated with postoperative DVT. Conclusion Patients who undergo RC are at high-risk for thromboembolic events and multimodal prophylaxis should be administered. Clinicians should be especially vigilant in those who demonstrate factors associated with higher risk for VTE events. PMID:26966592

  19. Biomarkers for prediction of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pabinger, Ingrid; Thaler, Johannes; Ay, Cihan

    2013-09-19

    Cancer patients are at increased risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The incidence among different groups of cancer patients varies considerably depending on clinical factors, the most important being tumor entity and stage. Biomarkers have been specifically investigated for their capacity of predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) during the course of disease. Parameters of blood count analysis (elevated leukocyte and platelet count and decreased hemoglobin) have turned out to be useful in risk prediction. Associations between elevated levels and future VTE have been found for d-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and soluble P-selectin and also for clotting factor VIII and the thrombin generation potential. The results for tissue factor-bearing microparticles are heterogeneous: an association with occurrence of VTE in pancreatic cancer might be present, whereas in other cancer entities, such as glioblastoma, colorectal, or gastric carcinoma, this could not be confirmed. Risk assessment models were developed that include clinical and laboratory markers. In the high-risk categories, patient groups with up to a >20% VTE rate within 6 months can be identified. A further improvement in risk stratification would allow better identification of patients for primary VTE prevention using indirect or novel direct anticoagulants.

  20. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented.

  1. [Risk factors for the development of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs during pregnancy--part 1].

    PubMed

    Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Kasperczak, Jarosław; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H

    2012-12-01

    , adhesion molecules, and reduce platelet response, i.e. the aggregation and adhesion in the presence of monocytes. Estradiol increases the production, activity and bioavailability of nitric oxide, a molecule with a strong vasodilating effect. Additionally adverse affects may appear due to short intervals between pregnancies, genetics, presence of venous thrombosis or venous insufficiency in the superficial and deep system in anamnesis. Caesarean section is also a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Family factors are associated with inheritance of the formation of varicose changes and venous insufficiency in both ways, dominant and recessive, and also sex-related. Among other factors affecting the development of venous insufficiency during pregnancy the following can be distinguished: type of work (standing, sitting, in forced positions and vibration), interval between pregnancies (determining the possibility of regeneration of physiological regeneration of the system). In case of women who were pregnant more than once, the risk of developing varicose veins and other venous insufficiency is doubled.

  2. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  3. Venous free flaps for the treatment of skin cancers of the digits.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Ung; Kim, Kiwan; Kwon, Sung Tack

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular reconstruction using distant free flaps is often required after excision of skin cancers of the digits. The delivered flaps should be chosen with many factors taken into consideration, especially in the digits, in which a very thin, pliable, and durable flap is required to maintain both function and cosmetic appearance. Free flaps, such as perforator flaps, however, for distal or small defects of the hand after excision of skin cancer, require the sacrifices of the main arterial pedicle with deep dissection and exhibit potential limitations regarding flap size and location of the defect. Instead, arterialized venous free flap could be used as an alternative reconstructive method for skin cancers of the digits. Twelve soft tissue defects of the digits after excision of skin cancers (5 cases of malignant melanoma and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma) were reconstructed using arterialized venous free flaps from January 2009 to May 2011. The flaps ranged in size from 1 × 1.5 cm to 5 × 7 cm. The flaps completely survived in 9 cases. Partial necrosis developed in 3 cases; however, skin graft was necessary only for 1 case. There were no recurrences or metastases for at least 20 months after the last case. Recently in cases of noninvasive or low-grade skin cancer of the hand, the concept of "preservative surgery" has been a higher priority compared with functional and esthetic aspects. Particularly in cases of reconstruction of a small-sized fingertip defect as 1 functional unit, arterialized venous free flaps offer several advantages, such as thinness and color similar to the hand, technical ease with a short operative time, long vascular pedicle, less donor site morbidity with no sacrifice of a major vessel, applicable to any site, and modifiable to the appropriate size and shape. Arterialized venous free flap could serve as a useful and reliable method for soft tissue reconstruction after excision of skin cancers in the digits.

  4. Clinical features of venous insufficiency and the risk of venous thrombosis in older people.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Marissa J; Karasu, Alev; Blom, Jeanet W; Cushman, Mary; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Venous thrombosis is common in older age, with an incidence of 0·5-1% per year in those aged >70 years. Stasis of blood flow is an important contributor to the development of thrombosis and may be due to venous insufficiency in the legs. The risk of thrombosis associated with clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, obtained with a standardized interview was assessed in the Age and Thrombosis Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly (AT-AGE) study. The AT-AGE study is a case-control study in individuals aged 70 years and older (401 cases with a first-time venous thrombosis and 431 control subjects). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex and study centre. Varicose veins and leg ulcer were associated with a 1·6-fold (95% CI 1·2-2·3) and 3·3-fold increased risk of thrombosis (95% CI 1·6-6·7), respectively, while the risk was increased 3·0-fold (95% CI 2·1-4·5) in the presence of leg oedema. The risk of thrombosis was highest when all three risk factors occurred simultaneously (OR: 10·5; 95% CI 1·3-86·1). In conclusion, clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, are risk factors for venous thrombosis in older people.

  5. [Myelopathies in impairment of extravertebral venous blood circulation].

    PubMed

    Tsuladze, I I; Dreval', O N; Kornienko, V N

    2009-01-01

    Development of myelopathies of venous genesis is based on venous hypertension inside vertebral canal which was initially described by J. Aboulker. According to anatomical and functional features of epidural venous system, two factors contribute in development of venous congestion: decreased outflow and increased inflow. Clinical manifestation is presented by spastic movement disorders. Morphological study performed in 18 cadavers allowed to discover so called 'narrow areas' which cause impaired circulation through large feeders of caval veins, which can be discovered by selective phlebography. Main phlebographic features include stenosis, compression, atresia, thrombosis and retrograde flow towards epidural venous plexus. We examined 58 patients with spastic para- and tetraparesis of unknown nature. Phlebographic signs of venous dyscirculation were revealed in 34 cases. 28 surgical operations were performed: 24 on feeders of vena cava superior and 4 on feeders of vena cava inferior. In 18 cases we obtained satisfactory results. This investigation should be continued.

  6. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-01-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. PMID:25059735

  7. Microparticles: new light shed on the understanding of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Qi, Xiao-long; Xu, Ming-xin; Mao, Yu; Liu, Ming-lin; Song, Hao-ming

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane fragments shed primarily from blood and endothelial cells during either activation or apoptosis. There is mounting evidence suggesting that microparticles perform a large array of biological functions and contribute to various diseases. Of these disease processes, a significant link has been established between microparticles and venous thromboembolism. Advances in research on the role of microparticles in thrombosis have yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms, diagnoses and therapeutic targets of venous thromboembolism. In this review, we discuss the definition and properties of microparticles and venous thromboembolism, provide a synopsis of the evidence detailing the contributions of microparticles to venous thromboembolism, and propose potential mechanisms, by which venous thromboembolism occurs. Moreover, we illustrate a possible role of microparticles in cancer-related venous thromboembolism. PMID:25152025

  8. Deep blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  9. Incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism after laparoscopic versus open colorectal cancer surgery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guoce; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yao, Weiwei; Li, Huashan

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically compare the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) in patients with colorectal cancer after laparoscopic surgery and conventional open surgery. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. Eleven randomized control trials involving 3058 individuals who reported VTE outcomes were identified, of whom 1677 were treated with laparoscopic therapy and 1381 underwent open surgery. The combined results of the individual trials showed no statistically significant difference in the odds ratio for overall VTE (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.23, P=0.18), as well as in subgroups of deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulant prophylaxis between these 2 approaches. In conclusion, laparoscopic resection could achieve similar outcomes in terms of the incidence of VTE, which are associated with long-term benefits of the patients.

  10. Systemic venous atrium stimulation in transvenous pacing after mustard procedure

    PubMed Central

    Puntrello, Calogero; Lucà, Fabiana; Rubino, Gaspare; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Gelsomino, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young woman corrected with a Mustard procedure undergoing successful transvenous double chamber pacemaker implantation with the atrial lead placed in the systemic venous channel. The case presented demonstrates that, when the systemic venous atrium is separate from the left atrial appendage, the lead can be easily and safely placed in the systemic venous left atrium gaining satisfactory sensing and pacing thresholds despite consisting partially of pericardial tissue. PMID:25276305

  11. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su

    2015-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  12. Fibrinogen, red blood cells, and factor XIII in venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Walton, B L; Byrnes, J R; Wolberg, A S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Among cardiovascular causes of death, venous thrombosis (VT) is ranked third most common in the world. Venous thrombi have high red blood cell and fibrin content; however, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to venous thrombus composition and stability are still poorly understood. This article reviews biological, biochemical, and biophysical contributions of fibrinogen, factor XIII, and red blood cells to VT, and new evidence suggesting interactions between these components mediate venous thrombus composition and size.

  13. Incidence, clinical characteristics, and timing of objectively diagnosed venous thromboembolism during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gherman; Goodwin; Leung; Byrne; Montoro

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence, timing, and associated clinical characteristics of objectively diagnosed pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE).Methods: A retrospective review of VTE cases occurring between 1978 and 1996 was performed. Cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were identified by ICD-9 discharge diagnosis code and review of antepartum and coagulation laboratory databases. Study inclusion criteria required the objective diagnosis of VTE with either Doppler ultrasound, impedance plethysmography, pulmonary angiography, ventilation-perfusion scanning, or CT/MRI.Results: Among 268,525 deliveries there were 165 (0.06%) episodes of VTE (1/1627 births). There were 127 cases of DVT and 38 cases of PE. Only 14% (23/165) had a prior history of DVT or PE. Most DVTs occurred in the left leg (104/127, 81.9%). Nearly three quarters of the DVTs (95/127, 74.8%) occurred in the antepartum period. Among the antepartum DVT cases, half were detected prior to 15 weeks of gestation (47/95, 49.5%), with only 28 cases occurring after 20 weeks (P <.0001). The majority of the PEs occurred in the postpartum period (23/38, 60.5%). There were only 3 maternal deaths due to PE, all associated with cesarean section. Only 1 patient developed PE while on heparin therapy for DVT while 11 others had complications attributable to heparin use.Conclusion: Most pregnancy-related VTE occurs in the antepartum period. The risk of deep venous thrombosis appears to begin early in pregnancy, even before the second trimester. The highest risk period for pulmonary embolism is after cesarean delivery. Maternal complications of heparin anticoagulation during pregnancy are rare.

  14. Impact of the calf perforators on the venous hemodynamics in primary varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Recek, C

    2006-12-01

    The hemodynamic significance of the calf perforating veins continues to be the point of controversy. The conception that incompetent perforating veins cause hemodynamic disturbance and are responsible for the formation of leg ulceration has still many adherents prefering perforator surgery, whereas others reject any causal relation between large, incompetent perforators and severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency. In this study well documented facts concerning the impact of the calf perforators on the venous hemodynamics are reviewed. There is a bidirectional flow within calf perforators in healthy subjects enabling a quick equilibration of pressure changes produced during calf muscle contractions and relaxations, so that recordings of the mean pressure display identical values in superficial and deep veins of the lower leg, a feature typical of conjoined vessels. In cases with saphenous reflux, the bidirectional flow within calf perforators has a distinct inward vector directed to the deep veins; this inward component is the more pronounced, the larger the saphenous reflux is. Incompetent calf perforators do not cause ambulatory venous hypertension, exactly the opposite happens: the high hydrostatic pressure found in the quiet standing position drops significantly during ambulation, as soon as the saphenous reflux is interrupted. In primary varicose veins calf perforators can not become the source of reflux because they are situated at the lower pole of the ambulatory pressure gradient, which occurs between thigh and lower leg veins during ambulation. The size of the calf perforators is determined by the amount of saphenous reflux. When the saphenous reflux is abolished (e.g. by high ligation), the enlarged calf perforators diminish.

  15. Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Bernardine H; de Bastos, Marcos; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, and ScienceDirect up to 22 April 2013. Review methods Observational studies that assessed the effect of combined oral contraceptives on venous thrombosis in healthy women. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported. The requirement for crude numbers did not allow adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 1.9 and 3.7 per 10 000 woman years, in line with previously reported incidences of 1-6 per 10 000 woman years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene, desogestrel, and levonorgestrel, with higher doses being associated with higher thrombosis risk. Conclusion All combined oral contraceptives investigated in this analysis were

  16. Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Chintu, Manohar R; Chinnappa, Shammikumar; Bhandari, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    We describe the identification of a rare, left-sided, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection during routine central venous catheterization. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature to describe this anomaly in a hemodialysis patient. A young man had anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung and left innominate vein. Our case demonstrates the importance of routine fluoroscopy during insertion of central venous catheters to detect these anomalies and minimize complications. PMID:19183765

  17. Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Chintu, Manohar R; Chinnappa, Shammikumar; Bhandari, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    We describe the identification of a rare, left-sided, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection during routine central venous catheterization. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature to describe this anomaly in a hemodialysis patient. A young man had anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung and left innominate vein. Our case demonstrates the importance of routine fluoroscopy during insertion of central venous catheters to detect these anomalies and minimize complications.

  18. Defining Incidence and Risk Factors of Venous Thromboemolism after Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Aslam; Spolverato, Gaya; Kim, Yuhree; Lucas, Donald L.; Lau, Brandyn; Weiss, Matthew; Johnston, Fabian M.; Kheng, Marian; Hirose, Kenzo; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Haut, Elliott; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among patients undergoing hepatic surgery is poorly defined, leading to varied use of VTE prophylaxis among surgeons. We sought to define the incidence of VTE after liver surgery and identify risk factors associated with VTE. Methods Incidence of VTE and associated risk factors within 90 days of hepatic resection between 2006 and 2012 at a major academic center was analyzed. Risk factors for VTE were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 599 patients were included in the study cohort; 30 (5.0 %) had a prior history of VTE. The indications for surgery were malignant (90.8 %) and benign lesions (9.2 %). The majority of patients underwent a minor hepatectomy (<3 Couinaud segments; n =402, 67.1 %) while 195 (32.6 %) patients underwent a major hepatectomy (≥3 Couinaud segments). Three hundred seven (51.3 %) patients were started on VTE chemoprophylaxis preoperatively with 407 (67.8 %) patients receiving VTE chemoprophylaxis within 24 h of surgery. Twenty-eight (4.7 %) patients developed VTE; 20 (3.3 %) had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 11 (1.8 %) had pulmonary embolism (PE), and three (0.5 %) developed both DVTand PE. Among the VTE patients, 23 (82.1 %) had received VTE chemoprophylaxis. On multivariate analyses, history of VTE (odds ratio [OR] 4.51, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.81–17.22, P =0.03), prolonged operative time (OR 1.17 per additional hour, 95 % CI 1.04–1.32, P =0.009), and increased length of stay (LOS) (OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.02–1.12, P =0.01) were independent risk factors for VTE. Conclusion VTE within 90 days of hepatic resection is common, occurring in nearly one in 20 patients. Most VTE events occurred among patients who received current best practice prophylaxis for VTE. More aggressive strategies to identify and reduce the risk of VTE in patients at highest risk of VTE, including those with a history of VTE, extended operative time, and prolonged LOS

  19. The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE.

  20. Daily nursing care on patients undergoing venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a challenging procedure!

    PubMed

    Redaelli, Sara; Zanella, Alberto; Milan, Manuela; Isgrò, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Pesenti, Antonio; Patroniti, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    Daily nursing in critical care patients may alter vital parameters, especially in the most critically ill patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of daily nursing on patients undergoing venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) for severe respiratory failure. Daily nursing was performed following defined phases (sponge bath, elevation with scooping stretcher, change position of endotracheal tube, dressing replacement). We recorded physiological and ECMO parameters before and during daily nursing in 5 patients for several days (total: 25 daily nursing) and adverse events: desaturation, hypertension, reduction of mixed venous oxygen saturation, arterial oxygen saturation or ECMO blood flow and elevation in minute ventilation. Sedative drug dosage and additional bolus were recorded. Daily nursing was performed in 92 % of cases (23/25), with a minimum of two adverse events per daily nursing. Hypertension and tachycardia were mostly recorded at the beginning, while desaturation, reduction in mixed venous oxygen saturation and blood flow were recorded during elevation with scooping stretcher. Increase in minute ventilation was frequent in spontaneous breathing patients. Additional bolus of sedation was required before and/or during nursing. Daily nursing significantly alters physiologic parameters; thus, it should be performed only when physicians are readily available to treat adverse events.

  1. Risk factors and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Storti, S; Crucitti, P; Cina, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last 20 years within the clinical research on venous thromboembolism a major objective was to identify and develop increasingly effective and safe methods of prevention. This trend is justified by the high incidence of thromboembolism as well as by the relevant mortality for acute pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic sequels of difficult treatment. A significant contribution to the rational application of methods of prevention was given by the knowledge of risk factors. Together with acquired risks, as surgery, age, malignant tumors, in the last 30 years some conditions of thrombophilia were identified. They are caused by deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors (antithrombin III, protein C, protein S) or other alteration of the anticoagulation system as resistance to activated protein C or antiphospholipid antibodies. The primary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism is aimed at the prevention of thrombosis by pharmacologic methods able to oppose the procoagulant alterations while avoiding hemorrhagic complications. The physical methods tend to reduce the stasis in the veins of the lower extremities. Subcutaneous calcium heparin at the dose of 5000 U twice or three times a day is the most common pharmacologic method used. It was shown to be safe and effective especially in postoperative prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in general surgery. More recently, low molecular weight heparin fractions have been introduced. As compared to standard heparin they have the advantage of a single daily dose and a better efficacy in some groups of patients, as those undergoing hip replacement. Among the substances under clinical experimentation, dermatan sulfate seems promising. Most common physical prevention methods consist in the use of elastic graduated compression stockings and systems of intermittent pneumatic calf compression. The former can be used also in presence of a hemorrhagic risk as in neurosurgery. The latter have shown a good efficacy in increasing flow

  2. Endovascular treatment of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy using US-guided percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gedikoglu, Murat; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to describe ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy in pregnant women with iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This study included nine pregnant women with acute and subacute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, who were severe symptomatic cases with massive swelling and pain of the leg. Patients were excluded from the study if they had only femoropopliteal deep vein thrombosis or mild symptoms of deep vein thrombosis. US-guided percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy was applied to achieve thrombus removal and uninterrupted venous flow. The treatment was considered successful if there was adequate venous patency and symptomatic relief. RESULTS Complete or significant thrombus removal and uninterrupted venous flow from the puncture site up to the iliac veins were achieved in all patients at first intervention. Complete relief of leg pain was achieved immediately in seven patients (77.8%). Two patients (22.2%) had a recurrence of thrombosis in the first week postintervention. One of them underwent a second intervention, where percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy was performed again with successful removal of thrombus and establishment of in line flow. Two patients were lost to follow-up after birth. None of the remaining seven patients had rethrombosis throughout the postpartum period. Symptomatic relief was detected clinically in these patients. CONCLUSION Endovascular treatment with US-guided percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy can be considered as a safe and effective way to remove thrombus from the deep veins in pregnant women with acute and subacute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. PMID:27801353

  3. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zamboni, P; Galeotti, R; Menegatti, E; Malagoni, A M; Tacconi, G; Dall’Ara, S; Bartolomei, I; Salvi, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: The extracranial venous outflow routes in clinically defined multiple sclerosis (CDMS) have not previously been investigated. Methods: Sixty-five patients affected by CDMS, and 235 controls composed, respectively, of healthy subjects, healthy subjects older than CDMS patients, patients affected by other neurological diseases and older controls not affected by neurological diseases but scheduled for venography (HAV-C) blindly underwent a combined transcranial and extracranial colour-Doppler high-resolution examination (TCCS-ECD) aimed at detecting at least two of five parameters of anomalous venous outflow. According to the TCCS-ECD screening, patients and HAV-C further underwent selective venography of the azygous and jugular venous system with venous pressure measurement. Results: CDMS and TCCS-ECD venous outflow anomalies were dramatically associated (OR 43, 95% CI 29 to 65, p<0.0001). Subsequently, venography demonstrated in CDMS, and not in controls, the presence of multiple severe extracranial stenosis, affecting the principal cerebrospinal venous segments; this provides a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) with four different patterns of distribution of stenosis and substitute circle. Moreover, relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive courses were associated with CCSVI patterns significantly different from those of primary progressive (p<0.0001). Finally, the pressure gradient measured across the venous stenosies was slightly but significantly higher. Conclusion: CDMS is strongly associated with CCSVI, a scenario that has not previously been described, characterised by abnormal venous haemodynamics determined by extracranial multiple venous strictures of unknown origin. The location of venous obstructions plays a key role in determining the clinical course of the disease. PMID:19060024

  4. Venous Thromboembolism and Prognosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Alok A.

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of malignancy, and its incidence has increased markedly in recent years. VTE itself can directly lead to patient mortality, and is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. Furthermore, emerging data suggest that activation of coagulation in malignancy is integrally linked with tumor biology, particularly with angiogenesis. The development of the clinical hypercoagulable state is also linked with adverse prognosis in patients with cancer, including patients receiving systemic chemotherapy. This review focuses on the clinical evidence documenting a link between VTE and adverse short-term and long-term prognosis in patients with cancer. PMID:20097409

  5. Umbilical venous catheterization gone wrong: Hepatic complications

    PubMed Central

    Sherwani, Poonam; Vire, Adweta; Anand, Rama; Jajoo, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic complications of malposition of umbilical venous catheter (UVC) are uncommon and occur due to extravasation of hypertonic fluids and the blood products in the liver tissue. Various hepatic complications include thrombosis of hepatic vessels, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fluid collections, and hematoma, with the intraparenchymal liver lesions seen along the course of ductus venosus. Radiologists must be aware of these complications and their imaging findings, as the timely recognition and immediate management can prevent the fatal outcome. Here, we present a rare case of intraparenchymal liver lesions associated with malposition of UVC in a preterm baby. PMID:27081222

  6. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Meppiel, Elodie; Crassard, Isabelle; de Latour, Régis Peffault; de Guibert, Sophie; Terriou, Louis; Chabriat, Hugues; Socié, Gérard; Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by hemolytic anemia, marrow failure, and a high incidence of life-threatening venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous system is the second most frequent location of thrombosis after hepatic veins. However, data about PNH-related cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are very scarce because of the rarity of both the disorders. We report a French study about PNH patients with CVT. Patients were recruited retrospectively, from the Société Française d’Hématologie (SFH) registry of 465 patients with PNH; the Lariboisière registry of 399 patients with CVT; and a direct contact with 26 French Hematology Units. We review cases reported since 1938 in the English and French language literature. We then compared patients of our series with cases from the literature, with non-PNH-related CVT cases from Lariboisière registry, and with PNH patients without CVT from SFH registry. Fifteen patients were included between 1990 and 2012. Most patients were women (12/15) and half of them presented associated hormonal venous thrombosis risk factors. Three patients had concomitant hepatic vein thrombosis. CVT was the first manifestation of PNH in 4 patients. No major difference in CVT characteristics was found compared with non-PNH-related CVT cases, except for a younger age at diagnosis in PNH patients (P < 0.001). All patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. One death occurred in acute stage. All surviving patients were independent 1 year after. Median survival time was 9 years. Recurrent thrombosis rate was 50% at 6 years, occurring in patients that did not have bone marrow transplantation or eculizumab therapy. Cases of death were mainly related to hepatic vein thrombosis. Prognosis of CVT was good in our series. However, these patients have a poor long-term prognosis due to PNH disease by itself. PNH treatment should be proposed as soon as possible to

  7. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  8. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs Preventing ... Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep vein ...

  9. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  10. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb secondary to lumbar discal hernia compression: a rarity? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Di Cello, P; Izzo, S; Pugliese, F; Di Poce, I; Orsini, A; Izzo, L; Mazzone, G; Biancucci, F; Sinaimeri, G; Valabrega, S; Almansour, M; Izzo, P

    2016-01-01

    This case report is about a 70-years-old female patient, suffering from discal hernia, with compression of the iliac vein, that led to the formation of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs. The angio-CT scan revealed the starting point of the L4- L5 compression where a voluminous discal hernia caused deep vein thrombosis, with the involvement the femoro-popliteal venous axis. Blood samples and PET-CT scans excluded other possible etiologic factors. This case demonstrates how a voluminous discal hernia can cause venous thrombosis.

  11. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb secondary to lumbar discal hernia compression: a rarity? Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    DI CELLO, P.; IZZO, S.; PUGLIESE, F.; DI POCE, I.; ORSINI, A.; IZZO, L.; MAZZONE, G.; BIANCUCCI, F.; SINAIMERI, G.; VALABREGA, S.; ALMANSOUR, M.; IZZO, P.

    2016-01-01

    This case report is about a 70-years-old female patient, suffering from discal hernia, with compression of the iliac vein, that led to the formation of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs. The angio-CT scan revealed the starting point of the L4–L5 compression where a voluminous discal hernia caused deep vein thrombosis, with the involvement the femoro-popliteal venous axis. Blood samples and PET-CT scans excluded other possible etiologic factors. This case demonstrates how a voluminous discal hernia can cause venous thrombosis. PMID:27734797

  12. [Umbilical and peripherally inserted venous central catheterization of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Bouissou, A; Rakza, T; Storme, L; Lafarghe, A; Fily, A; Diependaele, J-F; Dalmas, S

    2008-09-01

    Umbilical venous and peripherally inserted venous central catheters are widely used to perfuse low-weight preterm and term newborns in intensive care units. This catheter must be inserted carefully and monitored rigorously to prevent complications. This paper develops today's knowledge on the use and complications in the newborn population.

  13. Spontaneous Intrahepatic Portal Venous Shunt: Presentation and Endovascular Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Nakul; Sabbah, Nathanael; Contractor, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous intrahepatic portal venous shunts are rare with only few case reports published. Treatments using various endovascular techniques have been described, although no single technique has been shown to be preferred. We present a patient who was referred for treatment of a spontaneous portal venous shunt and describe our treatment approach and present a review on previously reported cases.

  14. [Extensive mesenteric venous thrombosis treatment by regional thrombolysis].

    PubMed

    Espeel, B; Gérard, C; Mansvelt, B; Bertrand, C; Vermonden, J

    2005-03-01

    Two cases of mesenteric venous thrombosis with portal extension are reported. The first patient was treated right away by local intra-arterial thrombolysis, the second one benefited from local venous thrombolysis immediately after intestinal resection. No significant complication was observed.

  15. A Rare Case of Popliteal Venous Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Roberto; Chiappa, Roberto; Gaspari, Eleonora; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 21-year-old man with a popliteal venous aneurysm of the left popliteal fossa, with local symptoms and pain during palpation. Early diagnosis is fundamental in order to prevent the thromboembolic events or other major complications. Duplex scanning, Computed Tomography scanning, and Magnetic Resonance imaging are considered to be important non-invasive diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of PVA. The Angio Computed Tomography acquisition confirmed a 36 mm × 17 mm oval mass in the left popliteal fossa continuous with the popliteal veins. This lesion had presented contrast enhancement only in delayed acquisition (180 sec) and so appeared to be a true venous aneurysm and no arterial. The PVA was repaired surgically via a posterior approach to the popliteal fossa. A 4 × 2 aneurysm was identified. In the same time open tangential aneurysmectomy and lateral vein reconstruction were realised. This case is interesting because the Angio Computed Tomography study, in delayed acquisition, has allowed a correct diagnostic assessment of PVA and the surgical treatment. PMID:20224754

  16. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  17. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  18. Image Findings in Brain Developmental Venous Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are benign anatomic variations; therefore, they are usually discovered incidentally. The aim of this article was to describe radiological findings of DVAs. Methods A retrospective search for DVAs of the brain was performed in 1899 patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement between January 1, 2005 and April 25, 2011. We also reviewed the results of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography, and transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) studies performed in patients with DVAs. Results Thirty-two DVAs were identified in 31 of the 1899 patients (1.63%). These 31 patients underwent five enhanced CTs, three MRAs, two CT angiographies, and two TFCAs. Thirty of the 32 DVAs were supratentorial (ST) and two were infratentorial (IT). All enhanced MRI studies exhibited excellent resolution of DVAs. All DVAs had only one draining vein. The venous drainage system was an IT vein in three DVAs and an ST vein in 29 DVAs. Two out of five enhanced CTs presented good visualization of the draining vein. None of the MRAs, including the source image, revealed the presence of DVAs. The two CT angiographies exhibited good resolution of DVAs. One of the two TFCAs yielded an excellent illustration of the DVA. Conclusion CT angiography and MRI with contrast enhancement yielded detailed findings of DVAs. In contrast, MRA did not identify the DVAs. Enhanced CT presented only the draining vein of DVAs. PMID:23210028

  19. Immunological aspects of chronic venous disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grudzińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a very common health problem concerning up to 1/3 of the society. Although venous hypertension and valvular incompetence have been long known to be crucial for development of the illness, its exact aetiology remains unclear. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory processes may be crucial for development of incompetent valves and vein wall remodelling. One of the most interesting theories describes “leucocyte trapping” as the mechanism responsible for elevated vein wall permeability and oxidative stress in the veins. At the same time, the cytokine profile of the blood in incompetent veins has not been thoroughly examined. Popular anti-inflammatory drugs relieve some symptoms but do not have much proved effects in prevention and treatment. We intend to summarize the existing knowledge of the immunological aspects of CVD in order to emphasize its importance for understanding the aetiology of this illness. We also wish to indicate some aspects that remain to be studied in more detail. PMID:26155174

  20. Venous thromboembolic disease in uncemented total hip replacement surgery--a one-year follow-up of 490 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, P H; Wittmann, F W; Ring, P A

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective study of the morbidity and mortality from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) in 490 consecutive patients undergoing uncemented total hip replacement was carried out in a district general hospital. Special diagnostic tests for DVT and PE were not available. Patients were followed up for one year. There were three deaths in hospital and eight further deaths during the first year, all unrelated to DVT and PE. The clinical incidence of venous thromboembolism was 2.04%. While clinical diagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease probably underestimates its incidence, the figures for mortality are accurate. With every patient accounted for one year after operation, there were no deaths attributable to PE in this series. PMID:1941855

  1. CEREBRAL VENOUS THROMBOSIS AND TURNER SYNDROME: A RARE REPORTED ASSOCIATION.

    PubMed

    Guler, A; Alpaydin, S; Bademkiran, F; Sirin, H; Celebisoy, N

    2015-01-01

    Turner Syndrome is the only known viable chromosomal monosomy, characterised by the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome. It's the most common chromosomal abnormality in females. Apart from the well known dysmorphic features of the syndrome, it has been associated with a number of vascular pathologies; mainly involving the cardiovascular, renovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular system. It seems striking that thromboembolism is not considered as a feature of the syndrome. Most of the thromboembolism cases are related to the arterial vascular system; except for some rare reported portal venous thrombosis cases, peripheral venous thrombosis cases and to the best of our knowledge a single case of cerebral venous thrombosis with Dandy Walker malformation and polymicrogyria. We herein report a cerebral venous thrombosis case with Turner Syndrome. With no other found underlying etiology, we want to highlight that Turner Syndrome, itself, may have a relationship not only with the cerebral arterial vascular system pathologies but also with the cerebral venous thrombosis.

  2. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  3. An anatomical study of the laterotrigeminal venous system.

    PubMed

    Simões, S

    1993-04-01

    The middle cranial fossa of 100 cadavers were dissected under stereoscopic loupe in order to identify and systematize the venous vessels located along the lateral margin of the trigeminal cave. The author found that at the sensitive root and trigeminal ganglion level a dural venous canal was present in most individuals examined and that the upper side of this canal communicated with the superior petrosal sinus. However, at the level of the lateral border of the intracranial segment of the mandibular nerve, venous lacunae were found to prevail, and these lacunae communicated with several other venous formations in the peritrigeminal region. The author concludes that the venous vascularization of this area constitutes a major risk in surgical interventions made in the middle cranial fossa. In addition, it is a relevant factor in the hemodynamics of the intracranial circulation.

  4. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  5. Medical and surgical therapy for advanced chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Word, Ronnie

    2010-12-01

    Venous ulceration is the most serious consequence of chronic venous insufficiency. The disease has been known for more than 3.5 millennia with wound care centers established as early as 1500 bc. Unfortunately, still today it is a very poorly managed medical condition by most physicians despite that a great deal has been learned about the pathogenesis and treatment for venous ulcerations. We find that many wound care clinics treat the wound and not the cause of the problem. In this article, we review the basic pathophysiology of advanced chronic venous insufficiency and review the most up-to-date information with regard to medical therapy and different options of surgical therapy to address the underlying venous pathology responsible for chronic ulcers.

  6. Factors That Influence Perforator Thrombosis and Predict Healing Perforator Sclerotherapy for Venous Ulceration Without Axial Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kiguchi, Misaki M.; Hager, Eric S.; Winger, Daniel G.; Hirsch, Stanley A.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Dillavou, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Refluxing perforators contribute to venous ulceration. We sought to describe patient characteristics and procedural factors that (1) impact rates of incompetent perforator vein (IPV) thrombosis with ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy (UGS) and (2) impact the healing of venous ulcers (CEAP 6) without axial reflux. METHODS Retrospective review of UGS of IPV injections from 1/2010–11/2012 identified 73 treated venous ulcers in 62 patients. Patients had no other superficial/axial reflux and were treated with standard wound care and compression. Ultrasound was used to screen for refluxing perforators near ulcer(s), and these were injected with sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol foam and assessed for thrombosis at 2 weeks. Demographic data, comorbidities, treatment details and outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariable modeling was performed to determine covariates predicting IPV thrombosis and ulcer healing. RESULTS 62 patients with active ulcers for an average of 28 months with compression therapy prior to perforator treatment had an average age of 57.1 years, were 55% male, 36% had a history of DVT and 30% had deep venous reflux. 32 patients (52%) healed ulcers, while 30 patients (48%) had non-healed ulcer(s) in mean follow-up of 30.2 months. Ulcers were treated with 189 injections, with average thrombosis rate of 54%. Of 73 ulcers, 43 ulcers healed (59%), and 30 ulcers did not heal (41%). Patients that healed ulcers had an IPV thrombosis rate of 69 % vs. 38% in patients who did not heal (P<.001). Multivariate models demonstrated male gender and warfarin use negatively predicted thrombosis of IPVs (P=.03, P=.01). Multivariate model for ulcer healing found complete IPV thrombosis was a positive predictor (P=.02), while large initial ulcer area was a negative predictor (P=.08). Increased age was associated with fewer ulcer recurrences (P=.05). Hypertension and increased follow-up time predicted increased ulcer recurrences (P=.04, P=.02). Calf

  7. Evaluating safety of tunneled small bore central venous catheters in chronic kidney disease population: A quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Gauri; El Ters, Mireille; Kremers, Walter K; Klunder, Joe L; Taler, Sandra J; Williams, Amy W; Stockland, Andrew H; Hogan, Marie C

    2016-09-20

    Introduction Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) may adversely impact future successful arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). As part of a quality improvement project, the performance of tunneled small bore tunneled central venous catheters (TSB-CVCs), as alternatives to PICCs, was evaluated. Methods A retrospective observational study, involving individuals ≥18 years of age who underwent TSB-CVC placement by Interventional Radiology at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 1/1/2010 and 8/30/2013. Findings The study cohort included 92 patients with a median age of 55 (46-67) years, who underwent 108 TSB-CVC placements. Baseline renal disease was present in 71% (77/108). Most TSB-CVCs were placed in hospitalized patients (94%; 102/108); five French in diameter (61%; 66/108) and located in an internal jugular vein (84%; 91/108). Median catheter indwelling time was 20 (11-43) days (n = 84). TSB-CVC-related bloodstream infection, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and superficial venous thrombosis (SpVT) rates per line were 0.009 (1/108), 0.018 (2/108), and 0.009 (1/108), respectively. Venous outcomes in a subgroup of 54 patients, who had documented PICC placements (n = 161) in addition to TSB-CVC (n = 58) were compared. TSB-CVC-DVT rate was lower than the PICC-DVT rate (0.017 [1/58] vs. 0.106 per line [17/161]; P = 0.04). The TSB-CVC-SpVT rate was not different from the PICC-SpVT rate (0 [0/58] vs. 0.037 [6/161] per line; P = 0.14). Discussion TSB-CVCs demonstrated an excellent safety profile in our study. These catheters should be preferentially utilized for arm vein preservation in advanced kidney disease. Their impact on future AVF success needs further evaluation.

  8. Relationship between venous pressure and tissue volume during venous congestion plethysmography in man.

    PubMed

    Christ, F; Gamble, J; Baschnegger, H; Gartside, I B

    1997-09-01

    1. Venous congestion strain-gauge plethysmography enables the non-invasive assessment of arterial blood flow, fluid filtration capacity (Kf), venous pressure (Pv) and isovolumetric venous pressure (Pvi) in man. One of the major assumptions of this technique, that cuff pressure (Pcuff) applied to the limb equals Pv at the level of the strain gauge, was tested in this study. 2. In nine healthy male volunteers (mean age, 29.3 +/- 1.2 years) the saphenous vein was cannulated with an 18-gauge catheter proximal to the medial malleolus. The subjects were supine and Pv was continuously measured during the application of small step (8-10 mmHg) increases in congestion Pcuff (up to 70 mmHg). Pcuff, changes in limb circumference and Pv were recorded by computer for off-line analysis. Since the determination of Kf is influenced by the changes in plasma oncotic pressure, venous blood samples were obtained at the start of the study, when Pcuff was raised to 30 mmHg and again to 65 mmHg and 4 min after deflation of the cuff. 3. The relationship between Pv and Pcuff was linear over the range of 10-70 mmHg (n = 9, 69 measurements, slope 0.91, r = 0.97, P < 0.001). The non-invasively measured calf Pv, based on the intercept of the relationship between the vascular compliance component (Va) and Pcuff, was 8.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg, which was not significantly different from the corrected invasively measured Pv value of 8.8 +/- 0.3 mmHg (P = 0.08). 4. Venous blood lactate and haemoglobin concentrations, as well as colloid osmotic pressure, total protein and albumin concentrations were unchanged throughout the protocol, whereas significant decreases in PO2 and blood glucose concentration were observed when Pcuff reached 65 mmHg. Assuming a constant oxygen consumption, this may suggest a reduction in tissue perfusion. 5. This study demonstrates the close correlation between Pcuff and Pv in the saphenous vein. Since the small congestion Pcuff step protocol does not cause significant increase in

  9. Improvements of venous tone with pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency: an ex vivo study on venous segments.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Luzzi, Roberta; Hosoi, M; Corsi, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the stretching and dilatation of venous segments ex vivo in subjects with primary varicose veins in comparison with comparable segments from subjects that used the supplement Pycnogenol (150 mg/d) for 3 months before surgery. Subjects with varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency voluntarily used Pycnogenol for a period of at least 3 months. The segments of veins removed with surgery (in 30 subjects that had used Pycnogenol and in 10 comparable control subjects that had not used the supplement) were compared with normal, unused vein segments harvested for bypass grafting. The segments were suspended and a weight was attached to the distal part of the veins for 3 minutes and dilated with pressurized water. Digital images were recorded; the veins were measured before and after stretching to evaluate elongation. The manipulation of the vein segment was minimal. Tests were completed within 20 minutes after harvesting the veins. All segments were 4 cm long. The stretching test indicated a significantly higher level of passive elongation in control, varicose segments (2.29; 0.65 mm) in comparison with 1.39; 0.2 mm in vein segments from Pycnogenol-using patients. The dilation test showed an average higher dilation (2.19; 0.3 mm) in control varicose veins in comparison with varicose veins from Pycnogenol-using patients (1.32; 0.7 mm) (p < 0.05). Stretching and dilatation were lower in veins from Pycnogenol-using subjects (p < 0.05). The measurement of destretching and the recovery after dilatation indicated a better tone and recovery of the original size/shape in varicose segments from patients using Pycnogenol. Varicose segments had a more significant persistent dilatation and elongation in comparison with normal vein segments. Pycnogenol seems to decrease passive dilatation and stretching and gives vein walls a greater tonic recovery and elasticity that allows the vein to recover its original shape after dynamic stresses.

  10. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after hospital discharge: transition to preventive care.

    PubMed

    Kaatz, Scott; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2011-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the common clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE), are among the most preventable complications of hospitalized patients. However, survey data repeatedly show poor rates of compliance with guideline-based preventive strategies. This has led the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to deny reimbursement for hospital readmission for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Multiple strategies and national initiatives have been developed to improve rates of VTE prophylaxis during hospitalization; however, most VTE occurs in the outpatient setting. Epidemiologic data suggest that recent surgery or hospitalization is a strong risk factor for the development of VTE and that this risk may persist for up to 6 months. These observations call into question whether VTE prophylaxis should be administered only during hospitalization or if this preventive strategy should be continued after hospital discharge. Many of the randomized trials showing efficacy of VTE prophylaxis have used longer durations of prophylaxis than are typical for current length of hospital stay, highlighting the issue of how long the duration of prophylaxis should be. Several patient groups have undergone formal testing to evaluate the risks and benefits of extended-duration VTE prophylaxis, but this issue is less clear for other categories of patients. Although there is clear consensus that most hospitalized patients should receive VTE prophylaxis, there is uncertainty about whether to continue VTE prophylaxis in the immediate post-hospital period or for an extended duration. The transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a key event in the coordination of continuity of care, but VTE-specific care transition guidance is limited. In this article, we review the evidence for both standard- and extended-duration VTE prophylaxis and discuss the difficulties in effectively maintaining VTE

  11. Syndactyly correction using a venous flap with the plantar cutaneous venous arch.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Natsuki; Matsumura, Hajime; Komiya, Takako; Imai, Ryutaro; Niyaz, Ahmatjan; Watanabe, Katsueki

    2014-01-01

    A combination of skin grafts and local flaps is widely used in the reconstruction of syndactyly of the toes. Covering the skin defect without skin grafts on the unilateral side of the toe is preferred, and for this purpose, a rotated flap from the plantar area is typically used. However, the flap can become ischemic or congested in some cases. To avoid this, we elevated a plantar flap with the plantar cutaneous venous arch using a triangular venous flap and covered the lateral side of the web in 7 cases of syndactyly. The dorsal flap was used to create the new web, and the opposite lateral side was reconstructed using a skin graft. The flap circulation was stable, the pedicle of the flap was narrow, and the flap relocation was simple. No flap in any patient showed any evidence of congestion or ischemia. Follow-up demonstrated that the new web was patent in all cases, with no evidence of contraction.

  12. Evaluation of prosthetic venous valves, fabricated by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Masaki; Kubota, Shinichiro; Tashiro, Hideo; Tonami, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) remains a major health problem worldwide. Direct venous valve surgical repair and venous segment transplantation are clinical options; however, they are highly invasive procedures. The objectives of this study were to fabricate prosthetic venous valves (PVVs) by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of CVI, and evaluate their hydrodynamic characteristics in vitro at the same locations and under the same flow conditions. The PVVs consisted of polyurethane fiber scaffolds attached to a cobalt-chromium stent. PVVs with two different valve-leaflet configurations were compared: biomimetic PVV (bPVV) and open PVV (oPVV). A balloon catheter was used to implant the devices in a poly(vinyl chloride) tube and the column outlet was set at a height of 100 cm above the test valve to simulate the elevation of the heart above a distal vein valve while standing; 50 wt% glycerin solution was used as the test fluid. The devices were evaluated for antegrade flow, effect of ankle flexion, and stagnation zones around the valve leaflets. During sudden hydrostatic backpressure, little leakage and constant peripheral pressure were observed for the devices; under forward pulsatile pressure of 0-4 mmHg, to simulate the effect of breathing, the oPVV had a higher flow rate than the bPVV. With regard to the effect of ankle flexion, the oPVV was functionless. Moreover, the stagnation zone around the oPVV valve leaflets was larger than that around the bPVV valve leaflets. These results suggest that the bPVV would be clinically suitable for percutaneous treatment of CVI.

  13. Provisional Matrix Deposition in Hemostasis and Venous Insufficiency: Tissue Preconditioning for Nonhealing Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tony J.; Broadbent, James A.; McGovern, Jacqui A.; Broszczak, Daniel A.; Parker, Christina N.; Upton, Zee

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds represent a major burden on global healthcare systems and reduce the quality of life of those affected. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the biochemistry of wound healing progression. However, knowledge regarding the specific molecular processes influencing chronic wound formation and persistence remains limited. Recent Advances: Generally, healing of acute wounds begins with hemostasis and the deposition of a plasma-derived provisional matrix into the wound. The deposition of plasma matrix proteins is known to occur around the microvasculature of the lower limb as a result of venous insufficiency. This appears to alter limb cutaneous tissue physiology and consequently drives the tissue into a ‘preconditioned’ state that negatively influences the response to wounding. Critical Issues: Processes, such as oxygen and nutrient suppression, edema, inflammatory cell trapping/extravasation, diffuse inflammation, and tissue necrosis are thought to contribute to the advent of a chronic wound. Healing of the wound then becomes difficult in the context of an internally injured limb. Thus, interventions and therapies for promoting healing of the limb is a growing area of interest. For venous ulcers, treatment using compression bandaging encourages venous return and improves healing processes within the limb, critically however, once treatment concludes ulcers often reoccur. Future Directions: Improved understanding of the composition and role of pericapillary matrix deposits in facilitating internal limb injury and subsequent development of chronic wounds will be critical for informing and enhancing current best practice therapies and preventative action in the wound care field. PMID:25785239

  14. Venous hypertension induces increased platelet reactivity and accumulation in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwu; Chen, Yujie; Huang, Yin; Li, Weimin; Jiang, Mier

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in platelet activation and rheology in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and what their impact is on this disease. Anticoagulated peripheral venous blood collected from 21 patients with CVI and 13 normal control subjects in different bodily positions was incubated either with 0.5 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or without agonist and analyzed by whole blood flow cytometry. Soluble P-selectin was analyzed in obtained sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Platelet count was determined by a whole blood analyzer. Circulating platelets were more reactive to stimulation with 0.5 mumol/L ADP in patients with CVI compared with control subjects. There was no statistically significant change in platelet activation without ADP and the level of soluble P-selectin as a function of posture. Under simulated venous hypertension, platelet accumulation was observed in patients with CVI. Patients with CVI had increased platelet reactivity and accumulation during orthostasis, suggesting this might be a contributory factor to CVI pathogenesis.

  15. Systemic Venous Inflow to the Liver Allograft to Overcome Diffuse Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lupascu, Cristian; Darius, Tom; Goffette, Pierre; Lerut, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse splanchnic venous thrombosis (DSVT), formerly defined as contraindication for liver transplantation (LT), is a serious challenge to the liver transplant surgeon. Portal vein arterialisation, cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis, and finally combined liver and small bowel transplantation are all possible alternatives to deal with this condition. Five patients with preoperatively confirmed extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis were transplanted using cavoportal hemitransposition (4x) and renoportal anastomosis (1x). Median follow-up was 58 months (range: 0,5 to 130 months). Two patients with previous radiation-induced peritoneal injury died, respectively, 18 days and 2 months after transplantation. The three other patients had excellent long-term survival, despite the fact that two of them needed a surgical reintervention for severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis is no longer an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation. Although cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis undoubtedly are life-saving procedures allowing for ensuring adequate allograft portal flow, careful follow-up of these patients remains necessary as both methods are unable to completely eliminate the complications of (segmental) portal hypertension. PMID:26539214

  16. Prevention of central venous catheter bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Walz, J Matthias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Heard, Stephen O

    2010-01-01

    The majority of nosocomial bloodstream infections in critically ill patients originate from an infected central venous catheter (CVC). Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality and increase the cost of care. The most frequent causative organisms for CRBSI are coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNSs), Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, and Candida species. The path to infection frequently includes migration of skin organisms at the insertion site into the cutaneous catheter tract, resulting in microbial colonization of the catheter tip and formation of biofilm. Evidence-based strategies for the prevention of CRBSI include behavioral and educational interventions, effective skin antisepsis coupled with maximum barrier precautions, the use of antiseptic dressings, and the use of antiseptic or antibiotic impregnated catheters. Achieving and maintaining very low rates of CRBSI requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the entire health care team, the use of novel technologies in patients with the highest risk of CRBSI, and frequent reeducation of staff.

  17. Contraception-related venous thromboembolism in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah H

    2014-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare but serious complication of combined hormonal contraception. While the absolute risk of VTE is low in adolescents, thrombotic events in contraception users younger than the age of 20 years account for 5 to 10% of total contraception-related VTE events in population studies, because of the high frequency of contraception use in adolescents. An increased risk of VTE exists not only with oral contraceptives, but also the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring. Most adolescents who experience contraception-related VTE have additional transient or inherited thrombotic risk factors at the time of VTE. Although the presence of inherited thrombophilia impacts the risk of contraception-related VTE, thrombophilia screening before contraception prescribing should be targeted only to high-risk populations. Pediatric institutions, caregivers, and young women need to be aware of the risk of VTE with estrogen-containing contraception, and maintain a high index of suspicion for this complication in women using these agents.

  18. VENOUS ULCER--A NEW THERAPEUTIC APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Popa, R F; Cazan, I; Baroi, Genoveva; Cazan, Simona; Lefter, G; Strobescu, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Trophic leg ulcer is a major health problem affecting approximately 1-2% of the population, the incidence being higher in the elderly (70-80 years). It is a multifactorial condition, but the most common cause is chronic venous insufficiency. This can be attributed to reflux in the saphenous system and calf perforator vein incompetence. These were first described by Linton, the first intervention designed to correct perforator vein incompetence bearing his name. Today Linton's operation has been abandoned due to the large unaesthetic incision and great postoperative pain. Also, ulcer healing time is long (2 months) and recurrence rate is high. Currently a series of minimally invasive procedures are used to close these perforator veins, such as ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy. The advantages of these techniques are less discomfort to the patients, low rate of complications, short hospital stay.

  19. Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Allen

    2012-12-26

    Chronic venous disease, reviewed herein, is manifested by a spectrum of signs and symptoms, including cosmetic spider veins, asymptomatic varicosities, large painful varicose veins, edema, hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis of skin, and ulceration. However, there is no definitive stepwise progression from spider veins to ulcers and, in fact, severe skin complications of varicose veins, even when extensive, are not guaranteed. Treatment options range from conservative (eg, medications, compression stockings, lifestyle changes) to minimally invasive (eg, sclerotherapy or endoluminal ablation), invasive (surgical techniques), and hybrid (combination of ≥1 therapies). Ms L, a 68-year-old woman with varicose veins, is presented. She has had vein problems over the course of her life. Her varicose veins recurred after initial treatment, and she is now seeking guidance regarding her current treatment options.

  20. Controversies in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, important advances have been made in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current diagnostic strategies rely on the sequential use of non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on the pretest clinical probability of disease. Diagnostic tests include D-dimer measurement, leg vein compression ultrasonography, chest computed tomography pulmonary angiography, or ventilation perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these strategies have been extensively validated. They have been widely implemented in clinical practice and have replaced the historical gold standard diagnostic tests (venography and pulmonary angiography). However, new challenges arise, including a lower clinical suspicion threshold and concerns on potential over-diagnosis of VTE. Moreover, the diagnostic management remains suboptimal in many subgroups of patients with suspected VTE: patients with prior VTE, pregnant women, or elderly patients.

  1. Statins and prevention of venous thromboembolism: Myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Sébastien; Cordeanu, Eléna-Mihaela; Nouri, Salah; Mirea, Corina; Stephan, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The pleiotropic effects of statins, beyond their cholesterol-lowering properties, are much debated. In primary prevention, several observational cohort and case-control studies appear to show that statins reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism by about 30%. In a single randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (JUPITER), which included 17,000 patients, rosuvastatin 20mg/day reduced the risk of venous thromboembolism by 43%. However, these patients were at low risk of venous thromboembolism, and the frequency of the event was, in principle, low. In secondary prevention, several observational studies and post-hoc analyses of randomized clinical trials have suggested that statins may prevent recurrence of venous thromboembolism. However, none of these studies had enough scientific weight to form the basis of a recommendation to use statins for secondary prevention. The putative preventive effect of statins appears to be independent of plasma cholesterol concentration and could be a pharmacological property of the statin class, although a dose-effect relationship has not been demonstrated. The mechanism through which statins might prevent venous thrombosis is thought to involve their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects or perhaps a more specific action, by blocking the degradation of antithrombotic proteins. A mechanism involving the action of statins on interactions between risk factors for atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism is supported by some studies, but not all. In the absence of firm evidence, statins cannot currently be recommended for primary or secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism.

  2. Severe chronic venous insufficiency: primary treatment with sclerofoam.

    PubMed

    Bergan, John J; Pascarella, Luigi

    2005-03-01

    Venous insufficiency, for practical purposes, can be divided into primary venous insufficiency and chronic venous insufficiency. The latter is characterized by advanced skin changes of hyperpigmentation, edema, ulceration, scarring from healed ulcers or open ulcerations. These are summarized in the CEAP classification as Classes 4, 5 and 6. Pretreatment evaluation is done with a standing ultrasound reflux examination. Thorough mapping of the extremity reflux is desirable. Physiologic tests of venous function, such as plethysmography, are unnecessary. Treatment is directed at closing refluxing axial veins as well as controlling those perforating veins with outward flow. Varicose veins contribute to axial reflux and must be obliterated. Arterial occlusive disease may complicate venous ulceration in as many as 15% of cases. Initial treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency is usually carried out by controlling the edema with elastic bandaging or nonelastic support, such as the Unna boot or the CircAid dressing. Surgical intervention has been successful but the advent of foam sclerotherapy has proven to be an attractive alternative to surgery and has added a new tool for the treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency. In this preliminary experience, the results are quite satisfactory and the technique has been shown to be effective, pain-free, inexpensive, with very little morbidity. Guidelines for obtaining sclerosants for use in foam sclerotherapy legally are provided.

  3. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  4. [Cardiac preload and central venous pressure].

    PubMed

    Weyland, A; Grüne, F

    2009-05-01

    The force of cardiac contraction is strongly influenced by myocardial fibre length at the beginning of systole. Because the length of cardiac sarcomers and muscle fibres primarily depends on the end-diastolic ventricular volume, filling pressures a priori can only act as indirect parameters of cardiac preload. Central venous pressure (CVP) gives information on right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which parallels changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure as long as ventricular function is not impaired. Since the pressure-volume relationship of cardiac ventricles is not linear and shows great variability, filling of the ventricles cannot be directly derived from end-diastolic pressure. Further limitations of CVP as a surrogate variable of preload are caused by the influence of intrathoracic and intra-abdominal pressures. A valid parameter of preload should describe the relationship between preload and stroke volume as given by the Frank-Starling law. Furthermore, estimates of cardiac preload should enable prediction of fluid responsiveness. Many studies have demonstrated that under clinical conditions CVP cannot meet these demands and thus does not appear to be a useful predictor of cardiac preload. Variables which more directly represent end-diastolic ventricular volume (e.g. intrathoracic blood volume or end-diastolic ventricular area) offer a higher validity as estimates of cardiac preload. Furthermore, dynamic parameters of ventricular preload, such as pulse pressure variation or stroke volume variation, seem to be more predictive of volume responsiveness in ventilated patients than CVP. These limitations, however, do not impair the importance of CVP as the downstream pressure of the systemic venous system.

  5. Venous thromboembolism and cancer: risks and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Agnes Y Y; Levine, Mark N

    2003-06-17

    Cancer and its treatments are well-recognized risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Evidence suggests that the absolute risk depends on the tumor type, the stage or extent of the cancer, and treatment with antineoplastic agents. Furthermore, age, surgery, immobilization, and other comorbid features will also influence the overall likelihood of thrombotic complications, as they do in patients without cancer. The role of hereditary thrombophilia in patients with cancer and thrombosis is still unclear, and screening for this condition in cancer patients is not indicated. The most common malignancies associated with thrombosis are those of the breast, colon, and lung, reflecting the prevalence of these malignancies in the general population. When adjusted for disease prevalence, the cancers most strongly associated with thrombotic complications are those of the pancreas, ovary, and brain. Idiopathic thrombosis can be the first manifestation of an occult malignancy. However, intensive screening for cancer in patients with VTE often does not improve survival and is not generally warranted. Independently of the timing of cancer diagnosis (before or after the VTE), the life expectancy of cancer patients with VTE is relatively short, because of both deaths from recurrent VTE and the cancer itself. Patients with cancer and acute VTE who take anticoagulants for an extended period are at increased risk of recurrent VTE and bleeding. A recent randomized trial, the Randomized Comparison of Low Molecular Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for Long-Term Anticoagulation in Cancer Patients with Venous Thromboembolism (CLOT) study, showed that low molecular weight heparin may be a better treatment option for this group of patients. The antineoplastic effects of anticoagulants are being actively investigated with promising preliminary results.

  6. Biliary Tract Anatomy and its Relationship with Venous Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S.; Sharma, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  7. Biliary tract anatomy and its relationship with venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S; Sharma, Malay

    2014-02-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma.

  8. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a military patient.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Charlotte; Johnston, A McD

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old serviceman on overseas deployment who presented with a painful, swollen arm. Investigations showed an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) of the right arm with an associated asymptomatic pulmonary embolism, which was treated with warfarin anticoagulation. Further investigation identified positional obstruction at the thoracic outlet, and the patient was diagnosed with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. He underwent elective resection of the first rib, and has now returned to normal duties. After review of the literature on UEDVT, it is suggested that in this military patient, the occurrence of an anatomical variant put him at risk of upper limb venous thrombosis, which was probably potentiated by the occupational factor of carrying a rifle. The external compression of the subclavian vein from the rifle butt and hypertrophied muscles, in addition to the anatomical variation, caused repetitive microtrauma of the vessel intima, which precipitated venous thrombosis.

  9. Pericardial effusion associated with an appropriately placed umbilical venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, A; Cook, V; Dunn, M

    2007-05-01

    Central venous catheterization is widely used in neonatal intensive care units to support tiny preterm babies. Pericardial effusion (PCE) and cardiac tamponade are uncommon but potentially fatal complications of percutaneous, umbilical and surgically placed central venous catheters related to intracardiac position or migration. This report describes a case of PCE arising from fluid infused via umbilical venous catheter. The case study highlights two important aspects: one, occurrence of PCE in a baby with satisfactory position of the umbilical catheter, and second, the life-saving application of basic echocardiography by bedside caregivers for the diagnosis and treatment of this critical condition.

  10. [Venous thromboembolic risk during repatriation for medical reasons].

    PubMed

    Stansal, A; Perrier, E; Coste, S; Bisconte, S; Manen, O; Lazareth, I; Conard, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    In France, approximately 3000 people are repatriated every year, either in a civil situation by insurers. Repatriation also concerns French army soldiers. The literature is scarce on the topic of venous thromboembolic risk and its prevention during repatriation for medical reasons, a common situation. Most studies have focused on the association between venous thrombosis and travel, a relationship recognized more than 60 years ago but still subject to debate. Examining the degree of venous thromboembolic risk during repatriation for medical reasons must take into account several parameters, related to the patient, to comorbid conditions and to repatriation modalities. Appropriate prevention must be determined on an individual basis.

  11. Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Amerasekera, S S H; Jones, C M; Patel, R; Cleasby, M J

    2009-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.

  12. A case report: Pulmonary venous malformation complicated with pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Supakul, Nucharin; Fan, Rong; Karmazyn, Boaz

    2012-12-01

    Pulmonary venous malformation is extremely rare. We present imaging and clinical findings of a 17-year-old male with multifocal subcutaneous venous malformations and multiple cystic lesions in the liver and spleen, suggestive of slow flow vascular malformation. In the right lung, chest radiography followed by chest CT demonstrated large tortuous pulmonary veins and cystic emphysematous changes. Tc99m-MAA (pertechnetate-labeled macroaggregated albumin) lung perfusion scan demonstrated only 3% of normal perfusion to the right lung, with no evidence of arteriovenous shunting. The child had diffuse intraparenchymal hemorrhage throughout the right lower and middle lobes and underwent resection. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of venous malformation complicated with bleeding.

  13. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  14. Clinical tests of noninvasive optoacoustic cerebral venous oxygenation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Petrova, I. Y.; Esenaliev, R. O.; Prough, D. S.

    2009-02-01

    Monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation is critically important for management of patients with traumatic brain injury and cardiac surgery patients. At present, there is no technique for noninvasive, accurate monitoring of this important physiologic parameter. We built a compact optoacoustic system for noninvasive, accurate cerebral venous oxygenation monitoring using a novel optoacoustic probe and algorithm that allow for direct probing of sagittal sinus blood with minimal signal contamination from other tissues. We tested the system in large animal and clinical studies and identified wavelengths for accurate measurement of cerebral blood oxygenation. The studies demonstrated that the system may be used for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation.

  15. Prospective monocentric study of non-tunnelled central venous catheter-related complications in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Nosari, Anna Maria; Nador, Guido; De Gasperi, Andrea; Ortisi, Giuseppe; Volonterio, Alberto; Cantoni, Silvia; Nichelatti, Michele; Marbello, Laura; Mazza, Ernestina; Mancini, Valentina; Ravelli, Erica; Ricci, Francesca; Ciapanna, Denis; Garrone, Federica; Gesu, Giovanni; Morra, Enrica

    2008-11-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) are used in the management of hematologic patients. However, insertion and maintenance of CVCs are susceptible to complications. Study design and methods data concerning 388 consecutive catheterisations, performed in oncohematologic patients between April 2003 and December 2004, were prospectively collected. At insertion thrombocytopenia was present in 109 cases (28.1%) and neutropenia in 67 (17.3%). Hemorrhage after CVC insertion occurred in five thrombocytopenic patients (1.3%). The median duration of catheterisation was 18.8 days (range 1-89), longer in the 7-French CVCs utilised in leukemic patients (24.3 days) and shorter in 12-French CVCs (11 days), used for PBSC harvesting. Deep venous thrombosis was diagnosed in 13 cases (3.3%). Ninety-two catheterisations (12.6/1000 days-catheter) were complicated by infections: 19 local infections (4.8%) and 73 (18.8%) bacteraemias of which 45 (11.6%) were catheter-related, mainly due to Gram positive germs (32/45, 71.1%). The frequency of catheter-related bacteraemia was 7.2 events/1000 days-catheter. Thirteen CVCs were removed due to thrombosis, 15 due to infections, 20 due to malfunction, the remaining 333 at patients discharge. At univariate analysis high-dose chemotherapy (p = 0.013), 7-Fr lumen (p = 0.023), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (p = 0.001), duration of neutropenia >10 days and length of catheterisation were significantly correlated to infection. Multivariate analysis confirmed the duration of catheterisation, AML and high-dose chemotherapy as risk factors. Even though hematological in-patients are at increased risk for bleeding and infections, non-tunnelled CVCs offer a safe venous access also in patients affected by severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged neutropenia.

  16. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control

    PubMed Central

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. PMID:27227081

  17. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Vanessa; Stockhausen, Sven; Busse, Johanna; Antonelli, Antonella; Miller, Meike; Schubert, Irene; Hoseinpour, Parandis; Chandraratne, Sue; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Gaertner, Florian; Lorenz, Michael; Agresti, Alessandra; Coletti, Raffaele; Antoine, Daniel J.; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Reese, Sven; Laitinen, Iina; Schwaiger, Markus; Walch, Axel; Sperandio, Markus; Nawroth, Peter P.; Reinhardt, Christoph; Jäckel, Sven; Bianchi, Marco E.; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Although sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior, we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation, to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation. Transfer of platelets into Hmgb1−/− chimeras showed that this cell type is the major source of HMGB1, exposing reduced HMGB1 on their surface upon activation thereby enhancing the recruitment of monocytes. Activated leukocytes in turn support oxidation of HMGB1 unleashing its prothrombotic activity and promoting platelet aggregation. This potentiates the amount of HMGB1 and further nurtures the accumulation and activation of monocytes through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to local delivery of monocyte-derived tissue factor and cytokines. Moreover, disulfide HMGB1 facilitates formation of prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediated by RAGE, exposing additional HMGB1 on their extracellular DNA strands. Eventually, a vicious circle of coagulation and inflammation is set in motion leading to obstructive DVT formation. Therefore, platelet-derived disulfide HMGB1 is a central mediator of the sterile inflammatory process in venous thrombosis and could be an attractive target for an anti-inflammatory approach for DVT prophylaxis. PMID:27574188

  18. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Stark, Konstantin; Philippi, Vanessa; Stockhausen, Sven; Busse, Johanna; Antonelli, Antonella; Miller, Meike; Schubert, Irene; Hoseinpour, Parandis; Chandraratne, Sue; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Gaertner, Florian; Lorenz, Michael; Agresti, Alessandra; Coletti, Raffaele; Antoine, Daniel J; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Reese, Sven; Laitinen, Iina; Schwaiger, Markus; Walch, Axel; Sperandio, Markus; Nawroth, Peter P; Reinhardt, Christoph; Jäckel, Sven; Bianchi, Marco E; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-11-17

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Although sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior, we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation, to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation. Transfer of platelets into Hmgb1(-/-) chimeras showed that this cell type is the major source of HMGB1, exposing reduced HMGB1 on their surface upon activation thereby enhancing the recruitment of monocytes. Activated leukocytes in turn support oxidation of HMGB1 unleashing its prothrombotic activity and promoting platelet aggregation. This potentiates the amount of HMGB1 and further nurtures the accumulation and activation of monocytes through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to local delivery of monocyte-derived tissue factor and cytokines. Moreover, disulfide HMGB1 facilitates formation of prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediated by RAGE, exposing additional HMGB1 on their extracellular DNA strands. Eventually, a vicious circle of coagulation and inflammation is set in motion leading to obstructive DVT formation. Therefore, platelet-derived disulfide HMGB1 is a central mediator of the sterile inflammatory process in venous thrombosis and could be an attractive target for an anti-inflammatory approach for DVT prophylaxis.

  19. Prevalence rate for inherited thrombophilia in patients with chronic and recurrent venous leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewski, Adam; Bykowska, Ksenia; Bilski, Radoslaw; Jaśkowiak, Wojciech; Proniewski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence rate for inherited thrombophilia (IT) in patients with chronic (CVU) and recurrent venous leg ulceration. We also investigated and evaluated the severity of the clinical pattern of CVU in patients with and without IT. We examined 110 patients with CVU (the study group) and 110 healthy subjects (the control group). We prepared a questionnaire to be completed by each study participant. Ultrasound Doppler color imaging or/and duplex ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the venous system. The ankle-brachial index was calculated to determine the efficiency of the arterial system. We examined both groups for the presence of IT. IT was diagnosed in 30% of study group and in 1.8% of control group. Our diagnoses of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were based on medical interviews, physical examinations, and an ultrasonography of the venous system and concerned 64 study group patients (58.2%), 35 of whom (31.8%) experienced recurrent DVT. Proximal and/or distal DVT was determined in an interview and/or by an ultrasonography performed for all patients with CVU and IT. In 94% of these patients, DVT was recurrent, and in 88% of patients with CVU and IT, we observed recurrent DVT and CVU. It recurred more often and persisted longer when compared to patients with CVU and no IT, despite similar management. No differences were observed in ulcer size, localization, or pain level related to ulceration between patients with CVU and IT and those with CVU and no IT.

  20. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control.

    PubMed

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone.

  1. Multiple Venous Thromboses Presenting as Mechanical Low Back Pain in an 18-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Boucher, Jean-Alexandre; O’Shaughnessy, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented with acute musculoskeletal symptoms but was later diagnosed with multiple deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Clinical Features An 18-year-old female presented to a chiropractic clinic with left lumbosacral pain with referral into the posterior left thigh. A provisional diagnosis was made of acute myofascial syndrome of the left piriformis and gluteus medius muscles. The patient received 3 chiropractic treatments over 1 week resulting in 80% improvement in pain intensity. Two days later, a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain caused the patient to seek urgent medical attention. A diagnostic ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis were performed and interpreted as normal. Following this, the patient reported increased pain in her left leg. Evaluation revealed edema of the left calf and decreased left lower limb sensation. A venous Doppler ultrasound was ordered. Intervention and Outcomes Doppler ultrasound revealed reduction of the venous flow in the femoral vein area. An additional ultrasonography evaluation revealed an extensive DVTs affecting the left femoral vein and iliac axis extending towards the vena cava. Upon follow-up with a hematologist, the potential diagnosis of May-Thurner syndrome was considered based on the absence of blood dyscrasias and sustained anatomical changes found in the left common iliac vein at its junction with the right common iliac artery. A week following discharge, she presented with chest pain and was diagnosed with venous thromboembolism. The patient was successfully treated with anticoagulation therapy and insertion of a vena cava filter. Conclusion Although DVTs are common in the general population, presence in low-risk individuals may be overlooked. In the presence of subtle initial clinical signs such as those described in this case report, clinicians should keep a high index of suspicion for a DVT. Rapid identification of such clinical signs in association

  2. The risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with a history of superficial vein thrombosis and acquired venous thrombotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Roach, Rachel E J; Lijfering, Willem M; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2013-12-19

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) increases the risk of venous thrombosis fourfold to sixfold. As most individuals with SVT do not develop venous thrombosis, additional risk factors may explain the risk of developing a venous thrombosis. In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis study, we assessed the risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with previous SVT and a mild thrombotic risk factor (smoking or overweight/obesity), a strong risk factor (surgery, hospitalization, plaster cast immobilization, or malignancy), or a reproductive factor in women (oral contraception, postmenopausal hormone therapy, or pregnancy/puerperium). Individuals with previous SVT alone had a 5.5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-6.8) increased risk of venous thrombosis. This was 9.3 (95% CI, 7.2-12.1) combined with a mild thrombotic risk factor, 31.4 (95% CI, 14.6-67.5) with a strong risk factor, and 34.9 (95% CI, 19.1-63.8) in women with a reproductive risk factor. The highest separate risk estimates were found for SVT with surgery (42.5; 95% CI, 10.2-177.6), hospitalization (49.8; 95% CI, 11.9-209.2), or oral contraception (43.0; 95% CI, 15.5-119.3 in women). In conclusion, the risk of venous thrombosis is markedly increased in individuals with previous SVT who have an acquired thrombotic risk factor.

  3. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J.; Morgan, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663

  4. The Saudi Clinical Practice Guideline for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Al-Momen, Abdulkarim M.; Algahtani, Farjah H.; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa A.; Al-Saleh, Khalid A.; Al-Sheef, Mohammed A.; Owaidah, Tarek M.; Alhazzani, Waleed; Neumann, Ignacio; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger; Akl, Elie A.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. After diagnosis, its management frequently carries significant challenges to the clinical practitioner. Treatment of VTE with the inappropriate modality and/or in the inappropriate setting may lead to serious complications and have life-threatening consequences. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) and the Saudi Scientific Hematology Society with the methodological support of the McMaster University Guideline working group, this clinical practice guideline was produced to assist health care providers in VTE management. Two questions were identified and were related to the inpatient versus outpatient treatment of acute DVT, and the early versus standard discharge from hospital for patients with acute PE. The corresponding recommendations were made following the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. PMID:26219456

  5. Report of an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations in a cadaveric upper limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations discovered during dissection of cervical, axillary and brachial area of a cadaver is described. Variations are thoroughly described and literature is briefly reviewed. Lateral cord of brachial plexus was not formed; Eight Cervical root divided into anterior and posterior division before uniting with First Thoracic root and Upper Trunk was unusually short. Axillary artery gave origin to a superficial brachial artery and then continued as deep brachial artery. Multiple variations in typical axillary artery branches were present including existence of inferior pectoral artery. Cephalic vein was absent. A variety of interventions, from relative simple as central venous catheter placement to most complicated as brachial plexus injury repair demand thorough knowledge of area’s regional anatomy. Familiarity with anatomic variations allows more precise and careful interventions. Research on these variations is valuable for anatomists and embryologists but also for clinicians because it may provide useful information for non - typical cases but also helps in raising a high level of suspicion. PMID:24495850

  6. Flow through a venous valve and its implication for thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Karino, T; Motomiya, M

    1984-11-01

    To elucidate the possible connection between the flow patterns in the pockets of venous valves and thrombus formation, detailed studies of the behavior of model particles and red cells flowing through a venous valve have been carried out using isolated transparent dog saphenous veins containing two-leaflet valves, and cinemicrographic techniques. It was found that large paired vortices, located symmetrically on both sides of the bisector plane of the valve leaflets, were present in each valve pocket under physiological flow conditions. Particles continually entered the valve pockets from the mainstream, spending long periods of time describing a series of spiral orbits of decreasing diameter, while moving away from the bisector plane, and eventually left the vortex, rejoining the mainstream. With concentrated suspensions of red cells, it was found that another smaller counter-rotating secondary vortex, driven by the large primary vortex existed deep in each valve pocket. The concentration of red cells in this secondary vortex remained appreciably lower than that in the mainstream. In such regions, fluid circulated with extremely low velocities, thus creating a very low shear field which allowed red cells to form aggregates. The results suggest that in some pathological states, the valve-pocket vortices could act as automatic traps and generators of thrombi in a fashion similar to that previously demonstrated in an annular vortex formed downstream from a sudden tubular expansion.

  7. Contact Force-Guided Deep Engagement with a Steerable Sheath in the Distal Great Cardiac Vein: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Y U; Arimoto, Takanori; Iwayama, Tadateru; Hashimoto, Naoaki; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kubota, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Ablation of ventricular tachycardia originating from the great cardiac vein involves the difficult step of deep engagement with an ablation catheter. The catheter and a steerable sheath (MobiCath, Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA) were advanced alternately only when the contact force vector was parallel to the coronary venous system. Deep engagement with a steerable sheath ensured a powerful backup force during ablation.

  8. [Persistent left superior vena cava. Implications in central venous catheterisation].

    PubMed

    Lacuey Lecumberri, G; Ureña, M; Martínez Basterra, J; Basterra, N

    2009-01-01

    The placement of central catheters through the subclavian and jugular venous path can be complicated by the cannulation of an artery or an aberrant venous path. The most frequent anomaly of the embryological development of the caval vein is the persistence of the left superior vena cava (LSVC). The implantation of catheters in the LSVC can be suspected by its anomalous route in thorax radiography. Gasometry and the pressure curve of the vessel make it possible to rule out an arterial catheterisation. Diagnostic confirmation is obtained through angiography, echocardiography, computerised tomography or cardiac resonance. The doctor who regularly implants central venous catheters must be familiar with the anatomy of the venous system and its variants and anomalies, since their presence might influence the handling of the patient.

  9. Cardiomegaly in a premature neonate after venous umbilical catheterization.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, Luregn Jan; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre; Nelle, Mathias; McDougall, Felicity Jane

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical venous catheters allow rapid central access in neonates, but may be associated with various complications. We present a case of a newborn with pericardial effusion following umbilical venous catheterization. An extremely low birth weight infant was intubated for respiratory distress syndrome and had umbilical venous and arterial lines in place. Massive cardiomegaly was noted on the subsequent chest X-ray. Echocardiography revealed a large pericardial effusion without signs of tamponade. After removing the catheter, the effusion gradually resolved. While pericardial effusion is a well-known complication of percutaneous long central lines, only a few case reports have documented sudden cardiovascular compromise associated with umbilical venous catheters. Pericardial effusion may be asymptomatic and should be suspected in infants with central catheters and progressive cardiomegaly. The prompt removal of catheters and, if signs of cardiac tamponade are present, emergency pericardiocentesis may prove to be life-saving.

  10. The stuck central venous catheter: a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Neeti; Choudhury, Minati; Kiran, Usha; Chowdhury, Ujjwal

    2008-10-01

    The placement of central venous catheter (CVC) through internal jugular vein is not free from potential hazards. We report two cases of triple lumen central venous catheter, placed into right internal jugular vein, which got entrapped in patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement. The entrapment of catheter went unnoticed until the time of removal. Subsequent investigations, mechanism of entrapment, prevention, and removal is described. To conclude, we encountered an unusual cause of stuck central venous catheter, in the left atrial suture line. Removal of central venous catheter requires utmost care, and should never be done by forceful traction in the postoperative cardiac surgical patients, as it may lead to disruption of suture lines or rupture of vessels.

  11. Venous ulcers--an evidence-based update.

    PubMed

    Spear, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Leg ulceration can be defined as any chronic ulcer of the lower leg excluding those on the forefoot or toes (Lees & Lambert, 1992). Venous or stasis ulcers account for 80%-85% of all leg ulcers with an overall prevalence of approximately 1% in the United States (Collins & Seraj, 2010; O'Meara, Al-Kurdi, & Ovington, 2008). Venous ulcers are more common in women and the older population (Abbade & Lastoria, 2005; Bergqvist, Lindholm, & Nelzen, 1999). Venous ulcers are often recurrent and chronic and can persist from weeks to even years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant changes (Collins & Seraj, 2010). This column discusses the pathophysiology of venous insufficiency and ulcerations, presentation, diagnosis, and current treatment.

  12. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  13. Central venous catheter placement: where is the tip?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M

    2012-09-01

    The insertion of central venous catheters is a common bedside procedure performed in intensive care units. Here, we present a case of an 82-year-old man who underwent insertion of a central venous catheter in the internal jugular vein without perceived complications. Postprocedural radiographs showed rostral migration of the catheter, and computed tomography performed coincidentally showed cannulation of the jugular bulb at the level of the jugular foramen. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document migration of a central venous catheter from the internal jugular vein into the dural sinuses, as confirmed by computed tomography. The case highlights the importance of acquiring postprocedural radiographs for all insertions of central venous catheters to confirm catheter placement.

  14. Facts and fiction surrounding the discovery of the venous valves.

    PubMed

    Scultetus, A H; Villavicencio, J L; Rich, N M

    2001-02-01

    Venous valves are delicate structures, the integrity of which is crucial for the normal function of the venous system. Their abnormalities lead to widespread disorders, ranging from chronic venous insufficiency to life-threatening thromboembolic phenomena. The discovery of the venous valves, however, has been the subject of hot controversy. Even though Fabricius ab Aquapendente is credited with the discovery by most historians, we demonstrate in this paper that other anatomists described them many years before Fabricius ab Aquapendente publicly demonstrated them in Padua in 1579. A thorough review of the historical literature surrounding the discovery of the venous valves was carried out from 1545 to the present under the supervision of the Medical History Department of our institution. Research was performed at the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine and through MEDLINE access to the medical literature. The Parisian Charles Estienne first mentioned the venous valves in his 1545 publication when he described "apophyses membranarum" in the veins of the liver. Lusitanus and Canano publicly demonstrated them in the azygos vein during cadaver dissections performed in Ferrera, Italy. The Parisian Jacques Sylvius described valves in the veins of the extremities in 1555. The work of these anatomists, however, could not achieve full recognition, because Andreas Vesalius, the leading anatomist at that time, was unable to confirm their findings and strongly denied the existence of venous valves. Vesalius's influence was so powerful that research on the subject was idle until 1579, when Fabricius ab Aquapendente "discovered" the venous valves. About the same time, the German Salomon Alberti published the first drawings of a venous valve (in 1585). William Harvey, a disciple of Fabricius ab Aquapendente, finally postulated the function of the venous valves, providing anatomical support for one of the greatest discoveries in medicine: the blood

  15. Low risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events during growth factor administration for PBSC mobilization.

    PubMed

    Naina, H V; Pruthi, R K; Inwards, D J; Dingli, D; Litzow, M R; Ansell, S M; William, H J; Dispenzieri, A; Buadi, F K; Elliott, M A; Gastineau, D A; Gertz, M A; Hayman, S R; Johnston, P B; Lacy, M Q; Micallef, I N; Porrata, L F; Kumar, S

    2011-02-01

    The use of erythropoietic agents has been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), especially in patients with underlying malignancies. However, it is not known whether there is an increased risk of VTE associated with granulocyte growth factors. We reviewed 621 patients undergoing PBSC mobilization using granulocyte growth factors, alone or in combination with CY. Patients with a diagnosis of AL amyloidosis (AL: 114; 18%), multiple myeloma (MM: 278; 44%) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL: 20; 3%) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL: 209; 33%) were included. Symptomatic VTE occurred in six (0.97%) patients: two AL, two MM and two NHL. Of the six patients, two had pulmonary embolism, one developed deep vein thrombosis and three developed symptomatic catheter related thrombosis. Two patients with AL had heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. We found a low incidence of VTE among patients undergoing PBSC mobilization.

  16. Computerized Decision Support for the Cardiovascular Clinician: Applications for Venous Thromboembolism Prevention and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2010-01-01

    Case Presentation A 76-year-old woman with coronary artery disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction = 30%), obesity, and a history of deep vein thrombosis presents with dyspnea and hypoxemia. The combination of physical examination findings of an S3, rales in the lower half of both lung fields, and peripheral edema, chest x-ray evidence of cardiomegaly and pulmonary edema, and a pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide level of 2,150 pg/mL (normal <350 pg/mL) confirms the diagnosis of decompensated heart failure. She is admitted to the Cardiology Service for diuretic therapy and optimization of her heart failure regimen. Although she is written for bedrest, her admission orders do not include venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. While entering orders, the Medical House Officer caring for the patient receives an electronic alert identifying the patient as high-risk for VTE and recommending that she be prescribed prophylaxis. PMID:19770412

  17. Novel Biomarkers of Arterial and Venous Ischemia in Microvascular Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Gerard K.; Monahan, John F. W.; Davis, Gabrielle B.; Lee, Yong Suk; Ragina, Neli P.; Wang, Charles; Zhou, Zhao Y.; Hong, Young Kwon; Spivak, Ryan M.; Wong, Alex K.

    2013-01-01

    The field of reconstructive microsurgery is experiencing tremendous growth, as evidenced by recent advances in face and hand transplantation, lower limb salvage after trauma, and breast reconstruction. Common to all of these procedures is the creation of a nutrient vascular supply by microsurgical anastomosis between a single artery and vein. Complications related to occluded arterial inflow and obstructed venous outflow are not uncommon, and can result in irreversible tissue injury, necrosis, and flap loss. At times, these complications are challenging to clinically determine. Since early intervention with return to the operating room to re-establish arterial inflow or venous outflow is key to flap salvage, the accurate diagnosis of early stage complications is essential. To date, there are no biochemical markers or serum assays that can predict these complications. In this study, we utilized a rat model of flap ischemia in order to identify the transcriptional signatures of venous congestion and arterial ischemia. We found that the critical ischemia time for the superficial inferior epigastric fasciocutaneus flap was four hours and therefore performed detailed analyses at this time point. Histolgical analysis confirmed significant differences between arterial and venous ischemia. The transcriptome of ischemic, congested, and control flap tissues was deciphered by performing Affymetrix microarray analysis and verified by qRT-PCR. Principal component analysis revealed that arterial ischemia and venous congestion were characterized by distinct transcriptomes. Arterial ischemia and venous congestion was characterized by 408 and 1536>2-fold differentially expressed genes, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to identify five candidate genes Prol1, Muc1, Fcnb, Il1b, and Vcsa1 to serve as biomarkers for flap failure in both arterial ischemia and venous congestion. Our data suggests that Prol1 and Vcsa1 may be specific indicators of venous congestion and allow clinicians to

  18. Venous air embolism following insufflation of the urethra.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L; Boghaert, A; Thienpont, L

    1986-01-01

    Venous air embolism following urethral inflation only scarcely documented: an extensive search of the literature yielded four papers relating to this subject. We report a new case of venous air embolism due to this uncommon etiology. Careful study revealed some common pathogenetic features with previously reported cases. Some important precautions can diminish the likelihood of gas embolism and reduce its fatal outcome in situations, similar to the kind mentioned.

  19. [Chronic venous insufficiency: Update on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gkogkolou, P; Meyer, V; Goerge, T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency is very common and has an important socioeconomic impact. It is associated with a high morbidity for the patients and causes high costs for the healthcare systems. In recent years novel treatment modalities have evolved and their efficacy has been evaluated in many studies. Knowledge of pathophysiology, the diagnostic procedures and therapeutic options for chronic venous insufficiency is important for effective treatment of affected patients.

  20. Multiple medullary venous malformations decreasing cerebral blood flow: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Tomura, N.; Inugami, A.; Uemura, K.; Hadeishi, H.; Yasui, N. )

    1991-02-01

    A rare case of multiple medullary venous malformations in the right cerebral hemisphere is reported. The literature review yielded only one case of multiple medullary venous malformations. Computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified lesions with linear contrast enhancement representing abnormal dilated vessels and mild atrophic change of the right cerebral hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere.

  1. The up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anob M

    2015-08-01

    There have been a number of developments in the management of venous thromboembolism over the past few years. Old questions, such as thrombolysis, have been revisited in recent trials. New initiatives, such as ambulatory care pathways, are being established across the country. This conference brought together doctors from the UK, USA, Spain and Australia to review the up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

  2. Venous obstruction in permanent pacemaker patients: an isotopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pauletti, M.; Di Ricco, G.; Solfanelli, S.; Marini, C.; Contini, C.; Giuntini, C.

    1981-01-01

    Isotope venography was used to study the venous circulation proximal to the superior vena cava in two groups of pacemaker patients, one with a single endocavitary electrode and the other with multiple pacing catheters. A control group of patients without pacemakers was also studied. Numerous abnormalities were found, especially in the group with multiple electrodes. These findings suggest that venous obstruction is a common complication of endocardial pacing.

  3. Portomesenteric venous thrombosis: A rare but probably under-reported complication of laparoscopic surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yan Mei; Tokala, Ajay; Hany, Tarek; Pursnani, Kishore G.; Date, Ravindra S.

    2017-01-01

    Portomesenteric venous thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare but well-reported complication following laparoscopic surgery. We present three cases of PMVT following laparoscopic surgery. Our first case is a 71-year-old morbidly obese woman admitted for elective laparoscopic giant hiatus hernia (LGHH) repair. Post-operatively, she developed multi-organ dysfunction and computed tomography scan revealed portal venous gas and extensive small bowel infarct. The second patient is a 51-year-old man with known previous deep venous thrombosis who also had elective LGHH repair. He presented 8 weeks post-operatively with severe abdominal pain and required major bowel resection. Our third case is an 86-year-old woman who developed worsening abdominal tenderness 3 days after laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for adenocarcinoma and was diagnosed with an incidental finding of thrombus in the portal vein. She did not require further surgical intervention. The current guidelines for thromboprophylaxis follow-up in this patient group may not be adequate for the patients at risk. Hence, we propose prolonged period of thromboprophylaxis in the patients undergoing major laparoscopic surgery. PMID:28281480

  4. Factors predicting venous thromboembolism after spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Si-Dong; Huang, Wen-Zheng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Wang, Hui; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A meta-analysis was performed to explore predicted factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after surgery in the treatment for spine degeneration diseases. Summary of background data: Many scholars have focused on VTE after spine surgery, but as for the risk factors of VTE have not reached a consensus. Methods: An extensive search of literature, “spine or spinal,” “degeneration,” “after surgery or postoperation,” and “venous thromboembolism” as key words, was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, and WANFANG databases. The following variables were extracted: wearing elastic stocking, hypertension (HT), heart disease, diabetes, drinking, anticoagulant therapy, walking disability preoperation, smoking, sex, age, surgical duration, fusion versus nonfusion (lumbar fusion vs lumbar discectomy), surgical site (cervical vs lumbar), blood loss, and body mass index. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0. Results: A total of 12 studies were identified, including 34,597 patients of whom 624 patients had VTE, and the incidence of VTE was 2% in all patients who underwent spine surgery. The incidence of VTE for Asian patients was 7.5%, compared with 1% VTE for Occidental patients; the difference was significant (P < 0.0001). The pooled analysis showed that there were significant differences regarding wearing elastic stocking (odds ratio [OR] = 11.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.46, 94.00], P = 0.02), walking disability preoperation (OR = 4.80, 95% CI [2.53, 9.12], P < 0.00001), surgical site (lumbar surgery) (OR = 0.23, 95% CI [0.20, 0.27], P < 0.00001), HT (OR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.21, 2.10], P = 0.001), and diabetes (OR = 2.12, 95% CI [1.09, 4.10], P = 0.03). However, there were no significant differences in blood loss, heart disease, smoking, sex, surgical duration, body mass index, surgical duration, anticoagulant therapy, wearing elastic stocking

  5. Simultaneous acute deep vein thrombosis and acute brucellosis. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Andaç, Şeyda; Kalender, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Onur; İmre, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease common in developing countries. Vascular complications, including arterial and venous, associated with Brucella infection have rarely been reported. A case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) developing after a diagnosis of acute brucellosis in a young milkman is presented. A 26-year-old man presented with pain in the right leg. The patient's medical history included a diagnosis of brucellosis in our hospital where he had presented with complaints of weakness and fever. Peripheral venous Doppler ultrasound showed DVT, and the patient was treated with anticoagulants. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy and anti-brucellosis treatment. Although rare, some infectious agents may cause vascular pathologies. Patients presenting with symptoms of DVT or similar vascular pathologies should be assessed for infectious agents, particularly in those coming from Brucella-endemic areas. PMID:27516795

  6. Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors and risk-assessment models.

    PubMed

    Mahajerin, Arash; Branchford, Brian R; Amankwah, Ernest K; Raffini, Leslie; Chalmers, Elizabeth; van Ommen, C Heleen; Goldenberg, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is increasing in pediatric centers. The objective of this work was to systematically review literature on pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk factors and risk-assessment models, to inform future prevention research. We conducted a literature search on pediatric venous thromboembolism risk via PubMed (1946-2014) and Embase (1980-2014). Data on risk factors and risk-assessment models were extracted from case-control studies, while prevalence data on clinical characteristics were obtained from registries, large (n>40) retrospective case series, and cohort studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for risk factors or clinical characteristics reported in at least three studies. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test and quantified by the I(2) statistic. From 394 initial articles, 60 met the final inclusion criteria (20 case-control studies and 40 registries/large case series/cohort studies). Significant risk factors among case-control studies were: intensive care unit stay (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.97-2.32); central venous catheter (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 2.00-2.25); mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42-1.72); and length of stay in hospital (per each additional day, OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.03-1.03). Three studies developed/applied risk-assessment models from a combination of these risk factors. Fourteen significant clinical characteristics were identified through non-case-control studies. This meta-analysis confirms central venous catheter, intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay as risk factors. A few pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk scores have emerged employing these factors. Prospective validation is necessary to inform risk-stratified prevention trials.

  7. Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors and risk-assessment models

    PubMed Central

    Mahajerin, Arash; Branchford, Brian R.; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Raffini, Leslie; Chalmers, Elizabeth; van Ommen, C. Heleen; Goldenberg, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is increasing in pediatric centers. The objective of this work was to systematically review literature on pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk factors and risk-assessment models, to inform future prevention research. We conducted a literature search on pediatric venous thromboembolism risk via PubMed (1946–2014) and Embase (1980–2014). Data on risk factors and risk-assessment models were extracted from case-control studies, while prevalence data on clinical characteristics were obtained from registries, large (n>40) retrospective case series, and cohort studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for risk factors or clinical characteristics reported in at least three studies. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test and quantified by the I2 statistic. From 394 initial articles, 60 met the final inclusion criteria (20 case-control studies and 40 registries/large case series/cohort studies). Significant risk factors among case-control studies were: intensive care unit stay (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.97–2.32); central venous catheter (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 2.00–2.25); mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42–1.72); and length of stay in hospital (per each additional day, OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.03–1.03). Three studies developed/applied risk-assessment models from a combination of these risk factors. Fourteen significant clinical characteristics were identified through non-case-control studies. This meta-analysis confirms central venous catheter, intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay as risk factors. A few pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk scores have emerged employing these factors. Prospective validation is necessary to inform risk-stratified prevention trials. PMID:26001789

  8. Improving venous ulcer healing: designing and reporting randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Weller, Carolina D; McNeil, John; Evans, Sue; Reid, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is often considered the gold standard for judging the benefits of treatments. The application of randomised controlled clinical trials to treatments of venous ulcer healing has lagged behind that of other areas of medicine. To interpret the results of an RCT, readers must understand a variety of aspects of their design, analysis and interpretation. Venous ulcer disease has a high prevalence and has a significant socioeconomic impact in most parts of the world. The management of venous ulcers causes a considerable strain on the health system and is likely to worsen in future. The multi-layer high compression system is described as the current gold standard for treating venous ulcers. A recent meta-analysis of bandaging systems found that multi-layer compression bandages appeared to be superior to single-layer bandages in promoting venous ulcer healing. However, it was noted that many of the studies had small sample sizes and the quality of research in the area was poor. The consolidating standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) statement can help clinicians to discern high-quality studies from ones of poorer quality. This paper discusses how CONSORT can help clinicians and researchers to design and report quality studies to contribute to evidence-based venous ulcer healing.

  9. Glycosaminoglycan sulodexide modulates inflammatory pathways in chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Raffetto, J D

    2014-06-01

    Inflammation represents an important epiphenomenon in the etiopathogenesis of chronic venous disease, a worldwide debilitating condition affecting millions of subjects. The pathophysiology of chronic venous disease (CVD) is based on the hemodynamic abnormalities in conjunction to alterations in cellular and extracellular matrix biocompounds. The endothelial dysfunction results from early perturbation in the endothelium linked to glycocalyx injury and promoted by inflammatory cells and mediators (such as matrix metalloproteinases and interleukins), which lead to progressive dilation of the vein resulting in chronic venous insufficiency. Activated leukocytes during the inflammatory process release enzymes, free radicals, chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in the vessel microenvironment, which are responsible for the changes of the venous wall and venous valve, reflux and venous hypertension, and the development/progression of tissue destruction and skin changes. Sulodexide, a highly purified mixture of glycosaminoglycans composed by 80% fast moving heparin and 20% of dermatan sulphate, exhibits anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic properties, restoring also the essential endothelial glycocalyx. Glycosaminoglycan sulodexide has been also characterized to reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinases-related proteolytic cascades, counteracting endothelial dysfunctions. The pleiotropic effects of sulodexide set the basis for a very promising agent in treating the spectrum of CVD.

  10. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000027.htm Deep vein thrombosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. You were treated for deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ). This is a condition in ...

  11. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  12. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Commentary on the Treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, J. A.; Lee, M. J.; Belli, A. M.; Barkhof, F.

    2011-02-15

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a putative new theory that has been suggested by some to have a direct causative relation with the symptomatology associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The core foundation of this theory is that there is abnormal venous drainage from the brain due to outflow obstruction in the draining jugular vein and/or azygos veins. This abnormal venous drainage, which is characterised by special ultrasound criteria, called the 'venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score' (VHISS), is said to cause intracerebral flow disturbance or outflow problems that lead to periventricular deposits. In the CCSVI theory, these deposits have a great similarity to the iron deposits seen around the veins in the legs in patients with chronic deep vein thrombosis. Zamboni, who first described this new theory, has promoted balloon dilatation to treat the outflow problems, thereby curing CCSVI and by the same token alleviating MS complaints. However, this theory does not fit into the existing bulk of scientific data concerning the pathophysiology of MS. In contrast, there is increasing worldwide acceptance of CCSVI and the associated balloon dilatation treatment, even though there is no supporting scientific evidence. Furthermore, most of the information we have comes from one source only. The treatment is called 'liberation treatment,' and the results of the treatment can be watched on YouTube. There are well-documented testimonies by MS patients who have gained improvement in their personal quality of life (QOL) after treatment. However, there are no data available from patients who underwent unsuccessful treatments with which to obtain a more balanced view. The current forum for the reporting of success in treating CCSVI and thus MS seems to be the Internet. At the CIRCE office and the MS Centre in Amsterdam, we receive approximately 10 to 20 inquiries a month about this treatment. In addition, many interventional radiologists, who are

  13. Review of venous anatomy for venographic interpretation in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Werner, John D; Siskin, Gary P; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Herr, Allen

    2011-12-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) represents a recently described condition that may potentially contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. The evaluation of a prospective patient for CCSVI often involves an invasive evaluation with venography of the internal jugular and azygos veins. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral, and azygos veins, as an understanding of these veins is necessary for appropriate interpretation of the venograms obtained to evaluate patients for CCSVI.

  14. Neutrophil histone modification by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 is critical for deep vein thrombosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinod, Kimberly; Demers, Melanie; Fuchs, Tobias A; Wong, Siu Ling; Brill, Alexander; Gallant, Maureen; Hu, Jing; Wang, Yanming; Wagner, Denisa D

    2013-05-21

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are major health problems associated with high mortality. Recently, DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) resulting from the release of decondensed chromatin, were found to be part of the thrombus scaffold and to promote coagulation. However, the significance of nuclear decondensation and NET generation in thrombosis is largely unknown. To address this, we adopted a stenosis model of deep vein thrombosis and analyzed venous thrombi in peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-deficient mice that cannot citrullinate histones, a process required for chromatin decondensation and NET formation. Intriguingly, less than 10% of PAD4(-/-) mice produced a thrombus 48 h after inferior vena cava stenosis whereas 90% of wild-type mice did. Neutrophils were abundantly present in thrombi formed in both groups, whereas extracellular citrullinated histones were seen only in thrombi from wild-type mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that PAD4 in hematopoietic cells was the source of the prothrombotic effect in deep vein thrombosis. Thrombosis could be rescued by infusion of wild-type neutrophils, suggesting that neutrophil PAD4 was important and sufficient. Endothelial activation and platelet aggregation were normal in PAD4(-/-) mice, as was hemostatic potential determined by bleeding time and platelet plug formation after venous injury. Our results show that PAD4-mediated chromatin decondensation in the neutrophil is crucial for pathological venous thrombosis and present neutrophil activation and PAD4 as potential drug targets for deep vein thrombosis.

  15. Deep Space Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  16. Deep Web video

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2009-06-01

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  17. Deep Web video

    ScienceCinema

    None Available

    2016-07-12

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  18. [Restoration of valvular function of deep veins in lower-limb varicose disease].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Gradusov, E G; Ignat'ev, I M; Akhmetzianov, R V

    2014-01-01

    The present work was based on analysing the results of a complex examination and surgical treatment of 16-to-78-year-old patients presenting with varicose disease during the period from 2006 to 2010. A total of 1,095 limbs were examined and operated on in 1,070 patients. Of these, 298 (29.6 %) were men, and 709 (70.4 %) women. The distribution of the patients according to the CEAP clinical classification was as follows: C1 - 3 patients, C2 - 215, C3 - 566, C4 - 203, C5 - 29, and C6 - 79 subjects. All patients underwent ultrasonic duplex scanning, with retrograde phlebography performed in 21 cases. 51.2% of patients were diagnosed as having pathological deep venous reflux. In the group of patients with valvular insufficiency of deep veins, a total of 93 operations aimed at correcting deep reflux were performed, including 12 interventions for congenital avalvulation of veins. The indications for restorative operations on the valvular apparatus of deep veins were determined in severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency combined with axial reflux along deep veins in cases of inefficiency of conventional methods of surgical and conservative treatment. The long-term outcomes of surgery were assessed after 18-48 months. The results were evaluated by means of clinical and instrumental methods of examination: the disease severity scale, patients quality of life questionnaire, ultrasonographic and roentgen contrast methods of examination, and legometry. The operations aimed at restoring the valvular function of the femoral veins turned out to be effective methods of correcting venous reflux and made it possible to restore the valvular function in 84% of cases. In the remote postoperative period valvular competence was observed in 74.6% of patients. Carrying out such operations significantly improve the course of the disease due to decreasing the malleolar volume (p<0.001), manifestations of symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (p<0.001), and improving quality of life

  19. Effect of Statins on Venous Thromboembolic Events: A Meta-analysis of Published and Unpublished Evidence from Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kazem; Bhala, Neeraj; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Emberson, Jonathan; Biere-Rafi, Sara; Krane, Vera; Robertson, Michele; Wikstrand, John; McMurray, John

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that statins substantially reduce the risk of venous thromboembolic events. We sought to test this hypothesis by performing a meta-analysis of both published and unpublished results from randomised trials of statins. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to March 2012 for randomised controlled trials comparing statin with no statin, or comparing high dose versus standard dose statin, with 100 or more randomised participants and at least 6 months' follow-up. Investigators were contacted for unpublished information about venous thromboembolic events during follow-up. Twenty-two trials of statin versus control (105,759 participants) and seven trials of an intensive versus a standard dose statin regimen (40,594 participants) were included. In trials of statin versus control, allocation to statin therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of venous thromboembolic events (465 [0.9%] statin versus 521 [1.0%] control, odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% CI 0.78–1.01, p = 0.08) with no evidence of heterogeneity between effects on deep vein thrombosis (266 versus 311, OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01) and effects on pulmonary embolism (205 versus 222, OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.76–1.12). Exclusion of the trial result that provided the motivation for our meta-analysis (JUPITER) had little impact on the findings for venous thromboembolic events (431 [0.9%] versus 461 [1.0%], OR = 0.93 [95% CI 0.82–1.07], p = 0.32 among the other 21 trials). There was no evidence that higher dose statin therapy reduced the risk of venous thromboembolic events compared with standard dose statin therapy (198 [1.0%] versus 202 [1.0%], OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.80–1.20, p = 0.87). Risk of bias overall was small but a certain degree of effect underestimation due to random error cannot be ruled out. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. Conclusions The findings from this meta-analysis do not support the

  20. Use of Percutaneous Aspiration Thrombectomy vs. Anticoagulation Therapy to Treat Acute Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis: 1-year Follow-up Results of a Randomised, Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Volkan; Gulcu, Aytac; Akay, Emrah; Capar, Ahmet E.; Gencpinar, Tugra; Kucuk, Banu; Karabay, Ozalp; Goktay, A. Yigit

    2014-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) followed by standard anticoagulant therapy, with anticoagulation therapy alone, for the treatment of acute proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.MethodsIn this randomised, prospective study, 42 patients with acute proximal iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis documented via Doppler ultrasound examination, were separated into an interventional treatment group (16 males, 5 females, average age 51 years) and a medical treatment group (13 males, 8 females, average age 59 years). In the interventional group, PAT with large-lumen 9-F diameter catheterisation was applied, after initiation of standard anticoagulant therapy. Balloon angioplasty (n 19) and stent implementation (n: 14) were used to treat patients with residual stenosis (>50 %) after PAT. Prophylactic IVC filters were placed in two patients. The thrombus clearance status of the venous system was evaluated by venography. In both the medical and interventional groups, venous patency rates and clinical symptom scores were evaluated at months 1, 3, and 12 after treatment.ResultsDeep venous systems became totally cleared of thrombi in 12 patients treated with PAT. The venous patency rates in month 12 were 57.1 and 4.76 % in the interventional and medical treatment groups, respectively. A statistically significant improvement was observed in clinical symptom scores of the interventional group (PAT) with or without stenting (4.23 ± 0.51 before treatment; 0.81 ± 0.92 at month 12) compared with the medical treatment group (4.00 ± 0.63 before treatment; 2.43 ± 0.67 at month 12). During follow-up, four patients in the medical treatment and one in the interventional group developed pulmonary embolisms.ConclusionsFor treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis, PAT with or without stenting is superior to anticoagulant therapy alone in terms of both ensuring venous patency and improving clinical