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Sample records for deep-inelastic ep scattering

  1. A combined analysis of SLAC experiments on deep inelastic e-p and e-d scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, L.W.; Bodek, A.; deBarbaro, P.; Dasu, S.; Harada, H.; Krasny, M.W.; Lang, K.; Riordan, E.M.; Rock, S.; Arnold, R.; Benton, D.; Bosted, P.; Button-Shafer, J.; deChambrier, G.; Clogher, L.; Lung, A.; Szalata, Z.M.; Alster, J.; Debebe, B.; Hicks, R.; Dietrich, F.; Van Bibber, K.; Filippone, B.; Jourdan, J.; Milner, R.; McKeown, R.; Potterveld, D.; Walker, R.C.; Gearhart, R.; Para, A.

    1989-08-01

    We report recent work on the extraction of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} and the structure function F{sub 2} over a large kinematic range, which is based on a reanalysis of deep inelastic {var_epsilon} {minus} p and {var_epsilon} {minus} d scattering cross sections measured at SLAC between 1970 and 1985. All these data were corrected for radiative effects using improved versions of external and internal radiative correction procedures. The data from seven individual experiments were normalized to those from the recent high-precision SLAC experiment E140. We find that R{sub p} = R{sub d}, as expected in QCD. The value of R is higher than predicted by QCD even when target-mass effects are included. This difference indicates that additional dynamical higher-twist effects may be present. The structure functions F{sub 2}p and F{sub 2}d were also extracted from the full data sets of normalized cross sections using an empirical fit to R. These structure functions were then compared with data from the CERN muon scattering experiments BCDMS and EMC. We find that our data are consistent with the EMC data, if the latter are multiplied by a normalization factor of 1.07. No single, uniform normalization factor can be applied to the BCDMS data that will bring them into agreement with the SLAC data in the region of overlap.

  2. A combined analysis of SLAC experiments on deep inelastic e-p and e-d scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, L.W. ); Bodek, A.; deBarbaro, P.; Dasu, S.; Harada, H.; Krasny, M.W.; Lang, K.; Riordan, E.M. ); Rock, S.; Arnold, R.; Benton, D.; Bosted, P.; Button-Shafer, J.; deChambrier, G.; Clogher, L.; Lung, A.; Szalata, Z.M. ); Alster, J. ); Debebe, B.; Hicks, R. (Massach

    1989-08-01

    We report recent work on the extraction of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} and the structure function F{sub 2} over a large kinematic range, which is based on a reanalysis of deep inelastic {var epsilon} {minus} p and {var epsilon} {minus} d scattering cross sections measured at SLAC between 1970 and 1985. All these data were corrected for radiative effects using improved versions of external and internal radiative correction procedures. The data from seven individual experiments were normalized to those from the recent high-precision SLAC experiment E140. We find that R{sub p} = R{sub d}, as expected in QCD. The value of R is higher than predicted by QCD even when target-mass effects are included. This difference indicates that additional dynamical higher-twist effects may be present. The structure functions F{sub 2}p and F{sub 2}d were also extracted from the full data sets of normalized cross sections using an empirical fit to R. These structure functions were then compared with data from the CERN muon scattering experiments BCDMS and EMC. We find that our data are consistent with the EMC data, if the latter are multiplied by a normalization factor of 1.07. No single, uniform normalization factor can be applied to the BCDMS data that will bring them into agreement with the SLAC data in the region of overlap.

  3. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Souder, P.

    1994-04-01

    AA beam of polarized electrons at CEBAF with an energy of 8 GeV or more will be useful for performing precision measurements of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering. Possible applications include precision tests of the Standard Model, model-independent measurements of parton distribution functions, and studies of quark correlations.

  4. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.

    1995-08-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.

  5. Pion in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Povh, B.

    2008-10-13

    The forward neutron production in the ep collisions at 300 GeV measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at DESY has been used to estimate the total probability for the proton fluctuation into n{pi}{sup +} and p{pi}{sup 0}. The probability found is on the order of the 30%. This number is compared with the numbers of obtained for the probability of quark fluctuation into {pi}{sup +} from several alternative DIS processes (Gottfried sum rule, polarized structure function) and the axial-vector coupling constant, where the pion fluctuation is believed to play an important role.

  6. Quantum Chromodynamics and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R. Keith

    2016-10-01

    This article first describes the parton model which was the precursor of the QCD description of hard scattering processes. After the discovery of QCD and asymptotic freedom, the first successful applications were to Deep Inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The subsequent application of QCD to processes with two initial state hadrons required the understanding and proof of factorization. To take the fledgling theory and turn it into the robust calculational engine it has become today, required a number of technical and conceptual developments which will be described. Prospects for higher loop calculations are also reviewed.

  7. Field-theoretical description of deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, B.; Robaschik, D.; Wieczorek, E.

    1980-01-01

    The most important theoretical notions concerning deep inelastic scattering are reviewed. Topics discussed are the model-independent approach, which is based on the general principles of quantum field theory, the application of quantum chromodynamics to deep inelastic scattering, approaches based on the quark--parton model, the light cone algebra, and conformal invariance, and also investigations in the framework of perturbation theory.

  8. Quantum chromodynamics and deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-08-01

    Moments of deep-inelastic structure functions, parton distributions and parton fragmentation functions are discussed in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics with particular emphasis put on higher order corrections. A brief discussion of higher twist contributions is also given.

  9. Measurement of the cross-section ratio σψ(2S)/σJ/ψ(1S) in deep inelastic exclusive ep scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Antonelli, S.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brook, N. H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Dusini, S.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N. Z.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlański, W.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Przybycień, M.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Solano, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    The exclusive deep inelastic electroproduction of ψ (2 S) and J / ψ (1 S) at an ep centre-of-mass energy of 317 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the kinematic range 2

  10. Polarised HIGH-Q2 Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hera-Ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, K.

    2005-04-01

    The cross sections for neutral and charged-current deep inelastic scattering with longitudinally polarised e+p collisions were first measured at a luminosity-averaged positive polarisation of about 30% and at a negative polarisation of about -40%. The parity-violating nature of the weak charged-current interaction was clearly observed, which is the first direct measurement at large energies.

  11. Deep-inelastic muon scattering from nuclei with hadron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.; Jackson, H.; Kaufman, S.

    1995-08-01

    Deep-inelastic lepton scattering from nuclei provides a direct look at the quark structure of nuclear matter. These reactions revealed the first convincing evidence that the structure of nucleons is modified in the nuclear medium and had profound implications on the understanding of nuclear dynamics. FNAL experiment E665, using the 490-GeV muon beams at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, provides new information on the nuclear effects on nucleon properties by studying deep-inelastic muon scattering with coincident hadron detection. The high beam energy makes the experiment particularly suited to the study of the region of x < 0.1 (where x is the fraction of the momentum of the nucleon carried by the struck quark in the infinite momentum frame), and total center-of-mass hadronic energy > 25 GeV, where hard QCD processes are expected to become evident and there are little data from other deep-inelastic measurements.

  12. Heavy quark production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, B. W.; Laenen, E.; Moch, S.; Smith, J.

    1999-06-02

    We discuss two topics in the production of heavy quarks in deep-inelastic scattering: the next-to-leading order Monte-Carlo HVQDIS and the next-to-leading logarithmic resummation of soft gluon effects, including estimates of next-to-next-to-leading order corrections therefrom.

  13. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M. R.

    2006-04-11

    A number of the most recent results from the wealth of precision HERA data on high transverse energy jet production in deep inelastic scattering are reviewed. These measurements are confronted with predictions from next-to-leading order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics and allow the extraction of the strong coupling constant, {alpha}s, and have been used in QCD fits of the parton distribution functions in the proton.

  14. Parity-Violation in Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschke, K. D.

    2009-08-01

    The completion of the planned 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab will open a new avenue for precision studies of the high-x structure of the nucleon through parity-violation in deeply-inelastic scattering (PV-DIS). PV-DIS would be a clean technique for studying quark-level charge symmetry violation, probing higher-twist effects and for a measurement of the structure function ratio d/u at high x. In addition to these topics in hadronic physics, these measurements would also provide access to a linear combination of the poorly measured axial electron-quark weak couplings C2u and C2d, thus provide an important test of the electroweak Standard Model.

  15. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    D. Boer, L. Gamberg, B.U. Musch, A. Prokudin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  16. Resonance Region Structure Functions and Parity Violating Deep Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Carl E. Carlson, Benjamin C. Rislow

    2012-04-01

    The primary motive of parity violating deep inelastic scattering experiments has been to test the standard model, particularly the axial couplings to the quarks, in the scaling region. The measurements can also test for the validity of models for the off-diagonal structure functions $F_{1,2,3}^{\\gamma Z}(x,Q^2)$ in the resonance region. The off-diagonal structure functions are important for the accurate calculation of the $\\gamma Z$-box correction to the weak charge of the proton. Currently, with no data to determine $F_{1,2,3}^{\\gamma Z}(x,Q^2)$ directly, models are constructed by modifying existing fits to electromagnetic data. We present the asymmetry value for deuteron and proton target predicted by several different $F_{1,2,3}^{\\gamma Z}(x,Q^2)$ models, and demonstrate that there are notable disagreements.

  17. Particle production at small-x in deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dajing

    The properties of small-x QCD are studied in this dissertation. One of the most interesting features of small-x physics is gluon saturation effect and to obtain direct evidence of this effect has been of great theoretical and experimental interest. We focus on deep inelastic scattering off heavy nucleus which may provide the first evidence of gluon saturation. Our results might be put into test in future by Electron-Ion Collider(EIC). We studied transverse momentum spectrum in gluon production and analyzed the result in different regimes of nuclear matter, dilute nucleus and saturated nucleus included. We first studied diffractive gluon production in small- x DIS, which itself is an excellent probe to detect gluon distribution inside nucleus. We then made an investigation on inclusive gluon production in DIS and, specifically, tried to understand the contribution from momentum conservation.

  18. Dynamic color screening in diffractive deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelman, Gunnar; Pasechnik, Roman; Werder, Dominik

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel Monte Carlo implementation of dynamic color screening via multiple exchanges of semisoft gluons as a basic QCD mechanism to understand diffractive electron-proton scattering at the HERA collider. Based on the kinematics of individual events in the standard QCD description of deep inelastic scattering at the parton level, which at low x is dominantly gluon initiated, the probability is evaluated for additional exchanges of softer gluons resulting in an overall color singlet exchange leading to a forward proton and a rapidity gap as the characteristic observables for diffractive scattering. The probability depends on the impact parameter of the soft exchanges and varies with the transverse size of the hard scattering subsystem and is therefore influenced by different QCD effects. We account for matrix elements and parton shower evolution either via conventional DGLAP log Q2 evolution with collinear factorization or CCFM small x evolution with k⊥ factorization and discuss the sensitivity to the gluon density distribution in the proton and the importance of large log x contributions. The overall result is, with only two model parameters which have theoretically motivated values, a satisfactory description of the observed diffractive cross section at HERA obtained in a wide kinematical range.

  19. Self Organizing Maps for use in Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askanazi, Evan

    2015-04-01

    Self Organizing Maps are a type of artificial neural network that has been proven to be particularly useful in solving complex problems in neural biology, engineering, robotics and physics. We are attempting to use the Self Organizing Map to solve problems and probe phenomenological patterns in subatomic physics, specifically in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS). In DIS there is a cross section in electron hadron scattering that is dependent on the momentum fraction x of the partons in the hadron and the momentum transfer of the virtual photon exchanged. There is a soft cross part of this cross section that currently can only be found through experimentation; this soft part is comprised of Structure Functions which in turn are comprised of the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). We aim to use the Self Organizing Process, or SOP, to take theoretical models of these PDFs and fit it to the previous, known data. The SOP will also be used to probe the behavior of the PDFs in particular at large x values, in order to observe how they congregate. The ability of the SOPto take multidimensional data and convert it into two dimensional output is anticipated to be particularly useful in achieving this aim.

  20. Semi-Inclusive Pion Electroproduction in Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohn, Wesley; Avakian, Harut; Joo, Kyungseon; Ungaro, Maurizio

    2010-02-01

    Measurements of pion electro-production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) have been performed. Data were taken with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab using a 5.498 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam and an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target during the E1-f run period in 2003. All three pion channels (&+circ;, 0̂ and &-circ;) were measured simultaneously over a large range of kinematics(Q^2 1-4 GeV^2 and x 0.1-0.5). Preliminary results from our study of single-spin azimuthal asymmetries from all three pion channels as functions of x, z, and PT, from which ALU^sinφ is extracted, will be presented, as will preliminary measurements of AUU^cosφ and AUU^cos2φ in the charged pion channels. This new high statistical data could provide access to transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD's), which are thought to be important in understanding of the physics underlying the spin structure of the nucleon. )

  1. Multiparticle production in deep inelastic lepton scattering and soft proton proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, K.

    1987-06-01

    We demonstrate how the theoretical knowledge about multiparticle production in deep inelastic lepton scattering can be incorporated into a multistring model for low p/sub t/ proton proton collisions. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Precise QCD Predictions for the Production of Dijet Final States in Deep Inelastic Scattering.

    PubMed

    Currie, James; Gehrmann, Thomas; Niehues, Jan

    2016-07-22

    The production of two-jet final states in deep inelastic scattering is an important QCD precision observable. We compute it for the first time to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD. Our calculation is fully differential in the lepton and jet variables and allows one to impose cuts on the jets in both the laboratory and the Breit frame. We observe that the NNLO corrections are moderate in size, except at kinematical edges, and that their inclusion leads to a substantial reduction of the scale variation uncertainty on the predictions. Our results will enable the inclusion of deep inelastic dijet data in precision phenomenology studies. PMID:27494466

  3. Precise QCD Predictions for the Production of Dijet Final States in Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, James; Gehrmann, Thomas; Niehues, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The production of two-jet final states in deep inelastic scattering is an important QCD precision observable. We compute it for the first time to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD. Our calculation is fully differential in the lepton and jet variables and allows one to impose cuts on the jets in both the laboratory and the Breit frame. We observe that the NNLO corrections are moderate in size, except at kinematical edges, and that their inclusion leads to a substantial reduction of the scale variation uncertainty on the predictions. Our results will enable the inclusion of deep inelastic dijet data in precision phenomenology studies.

  4. Longitudinal Polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar Hyperons in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Sapozhnikov, M. G.

    2007-06-13

    The longitudinal polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar hyperons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c polarized positive muons is studied in the COMPASS (CERN NA58) experiment. Preliminary results on the longitudinal polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar from data collected during the 2003 run are presented.

  5. Perturbative QCD effects observed in 490 GeV deep-inelastic muon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.; Aied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Baker, M.D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A.A.; Braun, H.M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J.M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M.C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P.H.; Stier, H.E.; Stopa, P.; Swanso

    1993-12-01

    Results on forward charged hadrons in 490 GeV deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The transverse momenta, azimuthal asymmetry, and energy flow of events with four or more forward charged hadrons are studied. The range of the invariant hadronic mass squared 300[lt][ital W][sup 2][lt]900 GeV[sup 2]/[ital c][sup 4] extends higher than previous deep-inelastic muon scattering experiments. Data are compared to the predictions of the Lund Monte Carlo model with perturbative QCD simulated by matrix elements, parton showers, and color dipole radiation. All of the QCD-based models are consistent with the data while a model without QCD processes is not. Correlations with the multiplicity-independent event variable [Pi][congruent][summation][vert bar][ital p][sub [ital T

  6. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W. )

    1992-02-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, [ital y][sub [ital cut

  7. Toward a QCD analysis of jet rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates defined by the JADE clustering algorithm are compared to perturbative Quantum chromodynamics (PQCD) and different Monte Carlo model predictions. The applicability of the jet-parton duality hypothesis is studied. We obtain hadronic jet rates which are approximately a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the parton level. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  8. Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Polifka, Richard

    2015-04-10

    The QCD factorization theorem in diffraction is tested by comparing diffractive jet production data to QCD predictions based on fits to inclusive diffractive cross section data. H1 measured dijet production with a leading proton detected in the Very Forward Proton Spectrometer (VFPS), both in deep-inelastic scattering and in photoproduction. The DIS measurements are complemented by measurements of dijet production with an associated rapidity gap and in a data sample selected with a leading proton in the Forward Proton Spectrometer (FPS)

  9. Measurements of transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Griffioen

    2012-12-01

    With mounting experimental evidence that only a small fraction of the proton's spin comes from the spins of its quarks and gluons, the quest for orbital angular momentum has begun. The parton distributions relevant to this depend on transverse quark momenta. Recent CLAS semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering measurements probe these new transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions using longitudinally polarized beams and targets and detecting {pi}{sup +},{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup 0} in the final state.

  10. Polarized lepton deep-inelastic scattering from few-nucleon targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woloshyn, R. M.

    1989-06-01

    The structure functions for deep-inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized few-nucleon targets (nucleon, 2H, 3He) are calculated in a parton model. Spin-dependent quark distributions constructed along the lines of Carlitz-Kaur model are used. The asymmetry for scattering from polarized 3He is small in magnitude and dominated by the neutron contribution. For 2H, cancellation between proton and neutron contributions leads to a very small asymmetry below x≈0.1. Otherwise the asymmetry is large but dominated by the proton.

  11. AdS Black Disk Model for Small-x Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2010-08-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple anti-de Sitter black disk model to describe saturation in deep inelastic scattering. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value (1+ω)/(3+ω), independently of the target. For γ*-γ* scattering at high energies we obtain explicit expressions and ratios for the total cross sections of transverse and longitudinal photons in terms of the single parameter ω.

  12. Bose condensate in superfluid sup 4 He and momentum distributions by deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N. ); Sokol, P.E. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    There are several reasons for the high interest in the recent experimental and theoretical progress in understanding deep inelastic neutron scattering from liquid {sup 4}He: it tests the fundamental London hypothesis of a connection between superfluidity and Bose condensation; it provides a quantitative test of ab-initio calculational methods for all systems with strong correlations which are the focus of current quantum many-body research; and it establishes the range of validity of deep inelastic scattering as a method for measuring momentum distributions. In this paper we introduce the concepts of impulse approximation in more detail, we describe recent progress in the theory for final state corrections to the impulse approximation, we present quantitative predictions for neutron scattering experiments, we compare with recent high energy pulsed neutron source experiments on liquid {sup 4}He by P. Sokol and colleagues as well as other attempts to extract the Bose condensate fraction from the neutron scattering data, and we discuss the implications of this progress for future momentum distribution experiments in other systems such as liquid {sup 3}He and quasi-elastic electron nucleus scattering. 42 refs., 23 figs.

  13. Deep Inelastic Scattering results from the first year of HERA operation

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, S.R.

    1993-12-31

    The first year of operation of the HERA electron-proton collider has resulted in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) Physics results from both the H1 and ZEUS experiments. Reported here are the H1 and ZEUS measurements of the proton structure function F{sub 2} at higher Q{sup 2} and lower x than previously reported from fixed target experiments. Also included are the results of QCD studies on hadronic final states and jets, and the observation of high Q{sup 2} charged current events from both experiments. Finally, the observation of events with large rapidity gaps by the ZEUS collaboration is also reported.

  14. Jet production in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, H.L.

    1993-06-01

    Measurements of jet rates in deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The JADE algorithm is used to define jets in the kinematic region 9 < W < 33 GeV. Data taken on a proton target are analyzed within the QCD framework, with the goal of extracting [alpha][sub s]. Results on the Q[sup 2] dependence of the average transverse momentum of jets are used to demonstrate the running of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s]. In addition, first measurements of the production of jets from heavy nuclei in the region x[sub B[sub j

  15. Nuclear dependence of structure functions in the shadowing region of deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.; Qiu, Jianwei

    1988-07-27

    A discussion of nuclear shadowing in deep inelastic lepton scattering is presented. We show that the parton recombination model suggests that shadowing should begin to occur at larger values of Bjorken x as A increases. This expectation as well as that of weak dependence on Q/sup 2/, and the trend of the x dependence of the shadowing phenomenon are consistent with recent data. Shadowing at small x is combined with nuclear bound state effects, responsible for nuclear dependence at larger x, to provide description of the A dependence of the structure function for the entire range of x. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  16. First measurements of jet production rates in deep-inelastic lepton-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.; Aied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Baker, M.D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A.A.; Braun, H.M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J.M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M.C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Michael, D.G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Seyerlein, H.J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P.H.; Stier, H.E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R.A.; Talaga, R.; T

    1992-08-17

    The first measurements of forward multijet rates in deep-inelastic lepton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490-GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. The jets were defined using the GADE algorithm. The measured rates are presented as a function of the jet resolution parameter {ital y}{sub cut}, and as a function of the virtual-photon--proton center-of-momentum energy {ital W}, in the range 13{le}{ital W}{le}33 GeV. Comparisons are made to the predictions of the Lund Monte Carlo programs and good agreement is obtained when QCD corrections are included in the model.

  17. First measurements of jet production rates in deep-inelastic lepton-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kobrak, H. G.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Vidal, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1992-08-01

    The first measurements of forward multijet rates in deep-inelastic lepton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490-GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. The jets were defined using the gade algorithm. The measured rates are presented as a function of the jet resolution parameter ycut, and as a function of the virtual-photon-proton center-of-momentum energy W, in the range 13<=W<=33 GeV. Comparisons are made to the predictions of the Lund Monte Carlo programs and good agreement is obtained when QCD corrections are included in the model.

  18. Parity-violating deep-inelastic electron-deuteron scattering: Higher twist and parton angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Chien-Yeah; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    We study the effect of parton angular momentum on the twist-four correction to the left-right asymmetry in the electron-deuteron parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering (PVDIS). We show that this higher-twist correction is transparent to the dynamics of parton angular momentum needed to account for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders functions and spin-independent parton distribution functions. A sufficiently precise measurement of the PVDIS asymmetry may, thus, provide additional information about the parton dynamics responsible for nucleon spin.

  19. Perturbative QCD effects observed in 490 GeV deep-inelastic muon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1993-12-01

    Results on forward charged hadrons in 490 GeV deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The transverse momenta, azimuthal asymmetry, and energy flow of events with four or more forward charged hadrons are studied. The range of the invariant hadronic mass squared 300deep-inelastic muon scattering experiments. Data are compared to the predictions of the Lund Monte Carlo model with perturbative QCD simulated by matrix elements, parton showers, and color dipole radiation. All of the QCD-based models are consistent with the data while a model without QCD processes is not. Correlations with the multiplicity-independent event variable Π~=J||pT|| are studied. The relationship between the azimuthal asymmetry and transverse momentum of forward hadrons is also presented. The data are most consistent with intrinsic parton transverse momentum squared k2T of 0.25 GeV2/c2.

  20. Calibration and absolute normalization procedure of a new Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Palomino, L. A.; Blostein, J. J.; Dawidowski, J.

    2011-08-01

    We describe the calibration process of a new Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) spectrometer, recently implemented at the Bariloche Electron LINAC (Argentina), consisting in the determination of the incident neutron spectrum, dead-time and electronic delay of the data acquisition line, and detector bank efficiency. For this purpose, samples of lead, polyethylene and graphite of different sizes were employed. Their measured spectra were corrected by multiple scattering, attenuation and detector efficiency effects, by means of an ad hoc Monte Carlo code. We show that the corrected spectra are correctly scaled with respect to the scattering power of the tested materials within a 2% of experimental error, thus allowing us to define an experimental constant that links the arbitrary experimental scale (number of recorded counts per monitor counts) with the involved cross-sections. The present work also serves to analyze the existence of possible sources of systematic errors.

  1. Polarized Electron - Polarized Deuteron Deep-Inelastic Scattering in Electron-Ion Collider with Tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsian, Misak; Cosyn, Wim; Weiss, Christian

    2015-10-01

    For the past several years there have been an intensive research and development for the possible electron-ion collider that will be able to probe deep inelastic processes at unprecedentedly high energies in eA channel. One of the important advantages of the collider kinematics in DIS processes is the possibility for an unambiguous separation of hadrons emerging from DIS and hadrons fragmenting from the target nucleus. This creates a unique possibility for tagging the interacting nucleon with the recoil slow fragments in the DIS process. The situation is most clean for the deuteron target in which case the recoil particle is a nucleon. In addition, the possibility of having polarized deuteron beams will create unprecedented opportunities in probing polarization degrees of freedom for parton distributions in the interacting bound nucleon. In this work we develop a theoretical framework for the polarized electron-polarized deuteron deep inelastic scattering in which the recoil nucleon is detected in the target fragmentation region. Two main contributions for which theoretical models are developed are the plane-wave impulse approximation, in which no reinteractions are taking place between the final state products of DIS and the recoil nucleon.

  2. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  3. D^* production in deep-inelastic scattering at low Q^2

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Inclusive production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA is studied in the range 5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2} of the photon virtuality and 0.02 < y < 0.70 of the inelasticity of the scattering process. The visible range for the D* meson is p{sub T} (D*) > 1.25 GeV and |{eta}(D*)| < 1.8. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2004 to 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 347 pb{sup -1}. Single and double differential cross sections are measured. The results are compared to QCD predictions.

  4. Deep inelastic scattering near the endpoint in soft-collinear effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2007-01-01

    We apply the soft-collinear effective theory to deep inelastic scattering near the endpoint region. The forward scattering amplitude and the structure functions are shown to factorize as a convolution of the Wilson coefficients, the jet functions, and the parton distribution functions. The behavior of the parton distribution functions near the endpoint region is considered. It turns out that it evolves with the Altarelli-Parisi kernel even in the endpoint region, and the parton distribution function can be factorized further into a collinear part and the soft Wilson line. The factorized form for the structure functions is obtained by the two-step matching, and the radiative corrections or the evolution for each factorized part can be computed in perturbation theory. We present the radiative corrections of each factorized part to leading order in {alpha}{sub s}, including the zero-bin subtraction for the collinear part.

  5. Parity Violation in Deep Inelastic Scattering at JLab 6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaochao Zheng

    2006-05-16

    The parity-violating asymmetry in e-$^2$H deep inelastic scattering (DIS) can be used to extract the weak neutral-current coupling constants $C_{2q}$. A measurement of this asymmetry at two $Q^2$ values is planned at Jefferson Lab. Results from this experiment will provide a value of $2C_{2u}-C_{2d}$ to a precision of $\\pm 0.03$, a factor of eight improvement over our current knowledge. If all hadronic effects can be understood, this results will provide information on possible extensions of the Standard Model, complementary to other experiments dedicated to new physics searches. Presented here are the physics motivation, experimental setup, potential hadronic effects and their implications, and the future of PV DIS at Jefferson Lab.

  6. Beam spin asymmetries from semi-inclusive pion electroproduction in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gohn, W.; Joo, K.; Ungaro, M.; Avakian, H.

    2009-08-04

    Measurements of beam-spin asymmetries from semi-inclusive pion electro-production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have been performed. Data were taken with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab using a 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam and an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. All three pion channels ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup -}) were measured simultaneously over a large range of kinematics at the intermediate Q{sup 2} range (Q{sup 2}{approx_equal}1-3 GeV{sup 2}). We present our preliminary studies of single-spin azimuthal asymmetries of the two charged pion channels as functions of z and P{sub T}. This new high statistical data will provide important means of studying physics underlying the spin structure of the nucleon.

  7. Jet production in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, H.L.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-06-01

    Measurements of jet rates in deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The JADE algorithm is used to define jets in the kinematic region 9 < W < 33 GeV. Data taken on a proton target are analyzed within the QCD framework, with the goal of extracting {alpha}{sub s}. Results on the Q{sup 2} dependence of the average transverse momentum of jets are used to demonstrate the running of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}. In addition, first measurements of the production of jets from heavy nuclei in the region x{sub B{sub j}} > 0.001 are discussed. Initial results indicate a suppression in the rate of two forward jets in carbon, calcium and lead as compared to deuterium. All results presented are preliminary.

  8. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muonproton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, y[sub cut], in energies up to W=33 GeV. Good agreement is found in comparisons with predictions of the QCD-inspired Lund Monte Carlo models. Non-perturbative QCD production mechanisms, inside the Lund Model, can not reproduce the results for energies greater than W [approx equal] 20 GeV. Sensitivities of the jet rate measurements to the low x (x [approx equal] 0.02) gluon content of the nucleon and the evolution of [alpha][sub s], are studied.

  9. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muonproton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, y{sub cut}, in energies up to W=33 GeV. Good agreement is found in comparisons with predictions of the QCD-inspired Lund Monte Carlo models. Non-perturbative QCD production mechanisms, inside the Lund Model, can not reproduce the results for energies greater than W {approx_equal} 20 GeV. Sensitivities of the jet rate measurements to the low x (x {approx_equal} 0.02) gluon content of the nucleon and the evolution of {alpha}{sub s}, are studied.

  10. General Helicity Formalism for Polarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmino, M; Boglione, M; D’Alesio, U; Melis, S; Murgia, F; Nocera, E R; Prokudin, A

    2011-06-01

    We study polarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) processes, within the QCD parton model and a factorization scheme, taking into account all transverse motions, of partons inside the initial proton and of hadrons inside the fragmenting partons. We use the helicity formalism. The elementary interactions are computed at LO with non collinear exact kinematics, which introduces phases in the expressions of their helicity amplitudes. Several Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) distribution and fragmentation functions appear and contribute to the cross sections and to spin asymmetries. Our results agree with those obtained with different formalisms, showing the consistency of our approach. The full expression for single and double spin asymmetries is derived. Simplified, explicit analytical expressions, convenient for phenomenological studies, are obtained assuming a factorized Gaussian dependence on intrinsic momenta for the TMDs.

  11. Longitudinal polarization of hyperon and antihyperon in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shanshan; Chen Ye; Liang Zuotang; Xu Qinghua

    2009-05-01

    We make a detailed study of the longitudinal polarization of hyperons and antihyperons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. We present the numerical results for spin transfer in quark fragmentation processes, and analyze the possible origins for a difference between the polarization for hyperon and that for the corresponding antihyperon. We present the results obtained in the case that there is no asymmetry between sea and antisea distribution in the nucleon as well as those obtained when such an asymmetry is taken into account. We compare the results with the available data such as those from COMPASS and make predictions for future experiments including those at even higher energies such as at eRHIC.

  12. Sivers asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Hwang, Dae Sung; Kotzinian, Aram

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of a nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for {pi}{sup +} production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for {pi}{sup 0} and K{sup +} production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.

  13. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering at JLab 6 GeV.

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, X.; Arrington, J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Hafidi, K.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H. E.; Potterveld, D. H.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E.; Zeidman, B.; Physics

    2007-01-01

    The parity-violating asymmetry in e-2H deep inelastic scattering (DIS) can be used to extract the weak neutral-current coupling constants C 2q . A measurement of this asymmetry at two Q 2 values is planned at Jefferson Lab. Results from this experiment will provide a value of 2C 2u - C 2d to a precision of {+-}0.03, a factor of eight improvement over our current knowledge. If all hadronic effects can be understood, this result will provide information on possible extensions of the Standard Model, complementary to other experiments dedicated to new physics searches. Presented here are the physics motivation, experimental setup, potential hadronic effects and their implications, and the future of PV DIS at Jefferson Lab.

  14. Phenomenological analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, V.; Boglione, M.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. O.; Melis, S.

    2015-04-01

    We present a phenomenological analysis of the cos ϕ and cos 2 ϕ asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, based on the recent multidimensional data released by the COMPASS and HERMES collaborations. In the transverse-momentum-dependent framework, valid at relatively low transverse momenta, these asymmetries arise from intrinsic transverse momentum and transverse spin effects, and from their correlations. The role of the Cahn and Boer-Mulders effects in both azimuthal moments is explored up to order 1 /Q . As the kinematics of the present experiments is dominated by the low-Q2 region, higher-twist contributions turn out to be important, affecting the results of our fits.

  15. Jet rates from deep inelastic muon scattering in the W range of 15 to 35 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.

    1991-08-01

    Production rates of forward jets in deep inelastic muon scattering are studied using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The evolution of di-jet rates with W is compared to QCD first order predictions in the W range of 15 to 25 GeV. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Unpolarised TMD Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from recent HERMES and COMPASS Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexey; Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; Melis, Stefano; Gonzalez, J. O.

    2014-10-01

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of semi- inclusive deep inelastic scattering multiplicities for charged hadron production. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape.

  17. Possibility of detecting triple gluon coupling and Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly in polarized deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, C.S.; Li, B.A.

    1980-05-01

    A way to detect experimentally the existence of triple gluon coupling and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly is to measure the Q/sup 2/-dependence of polarized deep inelastic scattering. These effects lead to a ln ln Q/sup 2/ term which we calculate by introducing a new gluon operator in the Wilson expansion.

  18. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and multiquark cluster effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off

    SciTech Connect

    Simula, S.

    1994-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.

  19. Measurement of partonic nuclear effects in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering using MINERvA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mousseau, J.

    2016-04-19

    Here, the MINERvA Collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5–50 GeV. Based on the predictions of charged-lepton scattering ratios, good agreement is found between the data and prediction at medium x and low neutrino energy.more » However, the ratios appear to be below predictions in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x < 0.1. This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high Eν, is consistent with previous MINERvA observations [B. Tice (MINERvA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 231801 (2014).] and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.« less

  20. Measurement of partonic nuclear effects in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering using MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousseau, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerν A Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The MINERvA Collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5-50 GeV. Based on the predictions of charged-lepton scattering ratios, good agreement is found between the data and prediction at medium x and low neutrino energy. However, the ratios appear to be below predictions in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x <0.1 . This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high Eν, is consistent with previous MINERvA observations [B. Tice et al. (MINERvA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 231801 (2014).] and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.

  1. Diffractive deep inelastic scattering in an AdS/CFT inspired model: A phenomenological study

    SciTech Connect

    Betemps, M. A.; Goncalves, V. P.; Santana Amaral, J. T. de

    2010-05-01

    The analytical treatment of the nonperturbative QCD dynamics is one of the main open questions of the strong interactions. Currently, it is only possible to get some qualitative information about this regime considering other QCD-like theories, as, for example, the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, where one can perform calculations in the nonperturbative limit of large 't Hooft coupling using the anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT). Recently, the high energy scattering amplitude was calculated in the AdS/CFT approach, applied to deep-inelastic scattering and confronted with the F{sub 2} HERA data. In this work we extend the nonperturbative AdS/CFT inspired model for diffractive processes and compare its predictions with a perturbative approach based on the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. We demonstrate that the AdS/CFT inspired model is not able to describe the current F{sub 2}{sup D(3)} HERA data and predicts a similar behavior to that from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation in the range 10{sup -7} < or approx. x{sub P} < or approx. 10{sup -4}. At smaller values of x{sub P} the diffractive structure function is predicted to be energy independent.

  2. Final-state interactions in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cosyn, Wim; Melnitchouk, Wally; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2014-01-16

    We explore the role of final-state interactions (FSI) in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron. Relating the inclusive cross section to the deuteron forward virtual Compton scattering amplitude, a general formula for the FSI contribution is derived in the generalized eikonal approximation, utilizing the diffractive nature of the effective hadron-nucleon interaction. The calculation uses a factorized model with a basis of three resonances with mass W~<2 GeV and a continuum contribution for larger W as the relevant set of effective hadron states entering the final-state interaction amplitude. The results show sizeable on-shell FSI contributions for Bjorken x ~> 0.6 andmore » Q2 < 10 GeV2 increasing in magnitude for lower Q2, but vanishing in the high-Q2 limit due to phase space constraints. The off-shell rescattering contributes at x ~> 0.8 and is taken as an uncertainty on the on-shell result.« less

  3. Search for a narrow baryonic state decaying to p KS0 and p ‾ KS0 in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Antonelli, S.; Aushev, V.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E. G.; Brock, I.; Brook, N. H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dusini, S.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grzelak, G.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hain, W.; Hlushchenko, O.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N. Z.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, P.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nobe, T.; Nowak, R. J.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlański, W.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Przybycień, M.; Roloff, P.; Ruspa, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Solano, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Tassi, E.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    A search for a narrow baryonic state in the p KS0 and p ‾ KS0 system has been performed in ep collisions at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 358pb-1 taken in 2003-2007. The search was performed with deep inelastic scattering events at an ep centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV for exchanged photon virtuality, Q2, between 20 and 100GeV2. Contrary to evidence presented for such a state around 1.52 GeV in a previous ZEUS analysis using a sample of 121 pb-1 taken in 1996-2000, no resonance peak was found in the p (p ‾) KS0 invariant-mass distribution in the range 1.45-1.7 GeV. Upper limits on the production cross section are set.

  4. Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrino-Nucleon Deep-Inelastic Scattering and the Froissart Bound

    SciTech Connect

    Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kotikov, Anatoly V.

    2011-06-10

    We present a simple formula for the total cross section {sigma}{sup {nu}}N of neutral- and charged-current deep-inelastic scattering of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos on isoscalar nuclear targets, which is proportional to the structure function F{sub 2}{sup {nu}}N(M{sub V}{sup 2}/s,M{sub V}{sup 2}), where M{sub V} is the intermediate-boson mass and s is the square of the center-of-mass energy. The coefficient in front of F{sub 2}{sup {nu}}N(x,Q{sup 2}) depends on the asymptotic low-x behavior of F{sub 2}{sup {nu}}N. It contains an additional lns term if F{sub 2}{sup {nu}}N scales with a power of ln(1/x). Hence, an asymptotic low-x behavior F{sub 2}{sup {nu}}N{proportional_to}ln{sup 2}(1/x), which is frequently assumed in the literature, already leads to a violation of the Froissart bound on {sigma}{sup {nu}}N.

  5. Parity Violating Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering from the Deuteron at 6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Kai

    2013-02-01

    An experiment that measured the parity violating (PV) asymmetry Ad in e-2H deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at Q2 ~ 1.10 and 1.90 (GeV/c)2 and xB ~ 0.3 was completed in experimental Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The asymmetry can be used to extract the neutral weak coupling combination (2C2u-C2d), providing a factor of five to six improvement over the current world data. To achieve this precision, asymmetries of the 10-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 500 kHz with high electron detection efficiency and high pion background rejection capability. A specialized scaler-based counting data acquisition system (DAQ) with hardware-based particle identification was successfully implemented. The statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes and the experimental goal of 3-4% statistical uncertainty was achieved. The design and performance of the new DAQ system is presented with the preliminary asymmetry results given in the end.

  6. Longitudinal-Transverse Separation of Deep-Inelastic Scattering at Low Q² on Nucleons and Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tvaskis, Vladas

    2004-12-09

    Since the early experiments at SLAC, which discovered the nucleon substructure and led to the development of the quark parton model, deep inelastic scattering (DIS) has been the most powerful tool to investigate the partonic substructure of the nucleon. After about 30 years of experiments with electron and muon beams the nucleon structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) is known with high precision over about four orders of magnitude in x and Q{sup 2}. In the region of Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} the results of the DIS measurements are interpreted in terms of partons (quarks and gluons). The theoretical framework is provided in this case by perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics (pQCD), which includes scaling violations, as described by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equations. The description starts to fail when Q{sup 2} becomes of the order of 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, where non-perturbative effects (higher-twist effects), which are still not fully understood, become important (non-pQCD). The sensitivity for order-n twist effects increases with decreasing Q{sup 2}, since they include a factor 1/(Q{sup 2}{sup n}) (n {ge} 1).

  7. Momentum space saturation model for deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive hadron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, E. A. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; de Oliveira, E. G.

    2011-08-01

    We show how the Santana Amaral-Gay Ducati-Betemps-Soyez (AGBS) model, originally developed for deep inelastic scattering applied to HERA data on the proton structure function, can also describe the RHIC data on single inclusive hadron yield for d+Au and p+p collisions through a new simultaneous fit. The single inclusive hadron production is modeled through the color glass condensate, which uses the quark (and gluon) condensate amplitudes in momentum space. The AGBS model is also a momentum space model based on the asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, although a different definition of the Fourier transform is used. This aspect is overcome, and a description entirely in transverse momentum of both processes arises for the first time. The small difference between the simultaneous fit and the one for HERA data alone suggests that the AGBS model describes very well both kinds of processes and thus emerges as a good tool to investigate the inclusive hadron production data. We use this model for predictions at LHC energies, which agrees very well with available experimental data.

  8. Electroweak higher-order effects and theoretical uncertainties in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, K.-P.O.; Dittmaier, S.; Hollik, W.

    2005-11-01

    A previous calculation of electroweak O({alpha}) corrections to deep-inelastic neutrino scattering, as e.g. measured by NuTeV and NOMAD, is supplemented by higher-order effects. In detail, we take into account universal two-loop effects from {delta}{alpha} and {delta}{rho} as well as higher-order final-state photon radiation off muons in the structure function approach. Moreover, we make use of the recently released O({alpha})-improved parton distributions MRST2004QED and identify the relevant QED factorization scheme, which is DIS-like. As a technical by-product, we describe slicing and subtraction techniques for an efficient calculation of a new type of real corrections that are induced by the generated photon distribution. A numerical discussion of the higher-order effects suggests that the remaining theoretical uncertainty from unknown electroweak corrections is dominated by nonuniversal two-loop effects and is of the order 0.0003 when translated into a shift in sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}=1-M{sub W}{sup 2}/M{sub Z}{sup 2}. The O({alpha}) corrections implicitly included in the parton distributions lead to a shift of about 0.0004.

  9. DATA REVIEW: A compilation of structure functions in deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrmann, T.; Roberts, R. G.; Whalley, M. R.

    1999-12-01

    A compilation of all the available data on the unpolarized structure functions F2 and xF3, R = (icons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="TOP"/>L/icons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="TOP"/>T), the virtual photon asymmetries A1 and A2 and the polarized structure functions g1 and g2, from deep inelastic lepton scattering off protons, deuterium and nuclei is presented. The relevant experiments at CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC from 1991, the date of our earlier review [1], to the present day are covered. A brief general theoretical introduction is given followed by the data presented both in tabular and graphical form and, for the F2 and xF3 data, the predictions based on the MRST98 and CTEQ4 parton distribution functions are also displayed. All the data in this review, together with data on a wide variety of other reactions, can be found in and retrieved from the Durham-RAL HEP Databases on the World-Wide-Web (http://durpdg.dur.ac.uk/HEPDATA)

  10. Twist-four effects in deep inelastic neutrino scattering and sinStheta/sub w/

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfer, S.; Oakes, R.J.

    1985-07-01

    In addition to the standard perturbative QCD corrections to deep inelastic scattering, there are nonperturbative twist-four corrections which behave like 1/QS relative to the lnQS leading log corrections. We have calculated the twist-four, spin-one and spin-two corrections to sigma/sub NC/, sigma/sub CC/, R/sub nu/ and R/sub anti nu/ using the following procedure: The bilocal product of the weak currents is expanded into local operators using the Wilson operator product expansion. The coefficient functions obey the renormalization group equations and, neglecting the anomalous dimensions of the operators, were calculated using perturbative techniques. The nucleon matrix elements of the local operators can then be evaluated assuming some quark confinement model. We found that twist-four, spin-two corrections to the neutral current neutrino scattering decreases sinStheta/sub w/ by about 1%. Taking into account the twist-four, spin-two corrections for the charged current cross section, we found that they give a dominant contribution to the ratio R/sub nu/ and increased sinStheta/sub w/ by about 0.5%. We also have studied the model dependence of our results, and we have found that the twist-four, spin-two corrections to sinStheta/sub w/ are quite model dependent. The twist-four, spin-one corrections to the neutrino scattering were also calculated. These corrections come from two-quark, one-gluon operators and even at low QS their contribution was found to be considerably smaller than the twist-four, spin-two corrections.

  11. Transverse Target Moments of Dihadron Production in Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliske, Stephen V.

    Pseudo-scalar meson production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) at HERMES has provided essential information towards the understanding of the transverse momentum dependent structure of the proton. SIDIS dihadron (hadron pair) production also provides access to the structure of the proton and is complimentary to that provided by pseudo-scalars production, as the same parton distribution functions are involved. For example, while pion and kaon final states allow access to flavor combinations of the Sivers distribution function, SIDIS meson production (included in the K +K- dihadron sample) allows direct access to the Sivers function for the strange quarks. The Sivers function for strange quarks is also related to the orbital angular momentum of the gluons. In the SIDIS cross section, the distribution functions are integrated with fragmentation functions for the respective final states. These fragmentation functions yield information regarding the quark hadronization process. Of particular interest, the Lund/Artru model of fragmentation makes specific predictions regarding the relation between results for dihadron and pseudo-scalar meson production for certain transverse momentum dependent moments. This dissertation presents the first transverse momentum dependent (non-collinear) analysis of the transverse target moments in SIDIS dihadron production, extracting results from the 2002--2005 HERMES data set for pi +pi0, pi+pi-, pi -pi0 and K+ K- dihadrons. A new transverse momentum dependent Monte Carlo generator, TMDGen, is also introduced. Additionally, several theoretical developments have been completed, including a new partial wave analysis of the fragmentation functions, computation of the next-to-leading twist dihadron cross section, and the first model calculation for transverse momentum dependent dihadron fragmentation functions.

  12. CT14QED parton distribution functions from isolated photon production in deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl; Pumplin, Jon; Stump, Daniel; Yuan, C.-P.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the implementation of quantum electrodynamic (QED) evolution at leading order (LO) along with quantum chromodynamic (QCD) evolution at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the CTEQ-TEA global analysis package. The inelastic contribution to the photon parton distribution function (PDF) is described by a two-parameter ansatz, coming from radiation off the valence quarks, and based on the CT14 NLO PDFs. Setting the two parameters to be equal allows us to completely specify the inelastic photon PDF in terms of the inelastic momentum fraction carried by the photon, p0γ, at the initial scale Q0=1.295 GeV . We obtain constraints on the photon PDF by comparing with ZEUS data [S. Chekanov et al. (ZEUS Collaboration), Phys. Lett. B 687, 16 (2010)] on the production of isolated photons in deep inelastic scattering, e p →e γ +X . For this comparison we present a new perturbative calculation of the process that consistently combines the photon-initiated contribution with the quark-initiated contribution. Comparison with the data allows us to put a constraint at the 90% confidence level of p0γ≲0.14 % for the inelastic photon PDF at the initial scale of Q0=1.295 GeV in the one-parameter radiative ansatz. The resulting inelastic CT14QED PDFs will be made available to the public. In addition, we also provide CT14QEDinc PDFs, in which the inclusive photon PDF at the scale Q0 is defined by the sum of the inelastic photon PDF and the elastic photon distribution obtained from the equivalent photon approximation.

  13. Measurement of charged and neutral current {ital e}{sup {minus}}{ital p} deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high {ital Q}{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R.L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.; Katz, U.F.; Mari, S.M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, C.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Norman, D.J.P.; O`Mara, J.A.; Tapper, R.J.; Wilson, S.S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R.R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J.A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P.B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajac, J.; Kotanski, A.; Przybycien, M.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J.K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasinski, M.; Gilkinson, D.J.; Glasman, C.; Goettlicher, P.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hessling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Koepke, L.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Loewe, M.; Lueke, D.; Manczak, O.; Ng, J.S.T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.

    1995-08-07

    Deep inelastic {ital e}{sup {minus}}{ital p} scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared {ital Q}{sup 2} above 400GeV{sup 2} using the ZEUS detector at the HERA {ital ep} collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections {ital d}{sigma}/{ital dQ}{sup 2} are presented. From the {ital Q}{sup 2} dependence of the CC cross section, the mass term in the CC propagator is determined to be {ital M}{sub {ital W}}=76{plus_minus}16{plus_minus}13 GeV.

  14. Charm-Quark Production in Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order in QCD.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng; Liu, Ze Long; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2016-05-27

    We present a fully differential next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of charm-quark production in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering, with full charm-quark mass dependence. The next-to-next-to-leading order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics are found to be comparable in size to the next-to-leading order corrections in certain kinematic regions. We compare our predictions with data on dimuon production in (anti)neutrino scattering from a heavy nucleus. Our results can be used to improve the extraction of the parton distribution function of a strange quark in the nucleon.

  15. Charm-Quark Production in Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order in QCD.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng; Liu, Ze Long; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2016-05-27

    We present a fully differential next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of charm-quark production in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering, with full charm-quark mass dependence. The next-to-next-to-leading order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics are found to be comparable in size to the next-to-leading order corrections in certain kinematic regions. We compare our predictions with data on dimuon production in (anti)neutrino scattering from a heavy nucleus. Our results can be used to improve the extraction of the parton distribution function of a strange quark in the nucleon. PMID:27284650

  16. Distributions of charged hadrons observed in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at 490 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Vidal, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1991-11-01

    Longitudinal and transverse momentum spectra of final state hadrons produced in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at incident muon energy of 490 GeV have been measured up to a hadronic center of mass energy of 30 GeV. The longitudinal distributions agree well with data from earlier muon-nucleon scattering experiments; these distributions tend to increase in steepness as the center of mass energy increases. Comparisons with e+e- data at comparable center of mass energies indicate slight differences. The transverse momentum distributions show an increase in mean pT2 with an increase in the center of mass energy.

  17. Energy dissipation in heavy systems: the transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; van den Berg, A.; Kolata, J.J.; Kovar, D.G.; Kutschera, W.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Yntema, J.L.; Lee, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of medium mass projectiles (A = 28 - 64) with /sup 208/Pb has been studied using a split-pole spectrograph which allows single mass and charge identification. The reaction process in all systems studied so far is dominated by quasi-elastic neutron transfer reactions, especially at incident energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition to the quasi-elastic component deep inelastic contributions are present in all reaction channels. The good mass and charge separation allows to generate Wilczynski plots for individual channels; for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb we observe that the transition between the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic reactions occurs around Q = -(30 to 35) MeV.

  18. Deuteron spin structure functions in the resonance and deep inelastic scattering regions

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Kulagin; W. Melnitchouk

    2008-01-01

    We derive relations between spin-dependent nuclear and nucleon g1 and g2 structure functions within the nuclear impulse approximation, which are valid at all Q^2, and in both the resonance and deep inelastic regions. We apply the formalism to the specific case of the deuteron, which is often used as a source of neutron structure information, and compare the size of the nuclear corrections calculated using exact kinematics and using approximations applicable at large Q^2.

  19. Next-to-leading order weighted Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering: three-gluon correlator

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Lingyun; Prokudin, Alexei; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    We study the three-gluon correlation function contribution to the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We first establish the matching between the usual twist-3 collinear factorization approach and transverse momentum dependent factorization formalism for the moderate transverse momentum region. We then derive the so-called coefficient functions used in the usual TMD evolution formalism. Finally, we perform the next-to-leading order calculation for the transverse-momentum-weighted spin-dependent differential cross section, from which we identify the QCD collinear evolution of the twist-3 Qiu-Sterman function: the off-diagonal contribution from the three-gluon correlation functions.

  20. Azimuthal distributions of charged hadrons, pions, and kaons produced in deep-inelastic scattering off unpolarized protons and deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Belostotski, S.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; De Leo, R.; De Nardo, L.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrosyan, A.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanftl, F.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.-A.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Terkulov, A.; Truty, R. M.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zagrebelnyy, V.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The azimuthal cos⁡ϕ and cos⁡2ϕ modulations of the distribution of hadrons produced in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of electrons and positrons off hydrogen and deuterium targets have been measured in the HERMES experiment. For the first time these modulations were determined in a four-dimensional kinematic space for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons separately, as well as for unidentified hadrons. These azimuthal dependences are sensitive to the transverse motion and polarization of the quarks within the nucleon via, e.g., the Cahn, Boer-Mulders and Collins effects.

  1. A scaler-based data acquisition system for measuring parity-violating asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, R.; Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Deng, X.; Michaels, R.; Reimer, P. E.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zheng, X.

    2013-10-01

    An experiment that measured the parity-violating asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering was completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in experimental Hall A. From these asymmetries, a combination of the quark weak axial charge could be extracted with a factor of five improvement in precision over world data. To achieve this, asymmetries at the 10-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 600 kHz and the high pion background typical to deep inelastic scattering experiments needed to be rejected efficiently. A specialized data acquisition (DAQ) system with intrinsic particle identification (PID) was successfully developed and used: the pion contamination in the electron samples was controlled at the order of 2×10-4 or below with an electron efficiency of higher than 91% during most of the production period of the experiment, the systematic uncertainty in the measured asymmetry due to DAQ deadtime was below 0.5%, and the statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes. The DAQ system is presented here with an emphasis on its design scheme, the achieved PID performance, deadtime effect and the capability of measuring small asymmetries.

  2. A scaler-based data acquisition system for measuring parity-violating asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh R.; Wang, Diancheng; Pan, Kai; Deng, Xiaoyan; Michaels, Robert W.; Shahinyan, Albert; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2013-10-01

    An experiment that measured the parity violating asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering was completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in experimental Hall A. From these asymmetries, a combination of the quark weak axial charge could be extracted with a factor of five improvement in precision over world data. To achieve this, asymmetries at the 10^-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 500 kHz and the high pion background typical to deep inelastic scattering experiments needed to be rejected efficiently. A specialized data acquisition (DAQ) system with intrinsic particle identification (PID) was successfully developed and used: The pion contamination in the electron samples was controlled at the order of 2 × 10^-4 or below with an electron efficiency of higher than 91% throughout the production period of the experiment, the systematic uncertainty in the measured asymmetry due to DAQ deadtime was below 0.2%, and the statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes. The DAQ system is presented here with an emphasis on its design scheme, the achieved PID performance, deadtime effect and the capability of measuring small asymmetries.

  3. Measurement of the Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Deep Inelastic Scattering at JLab 6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Diancheng

    2013-12-01

    The parity-violating asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering (PVDIS) offers us a useful tool to study the weak neutral couplings and the hadronic structure of the nucleon, and provides high precision tests on the Standard Model. During the 6 GeV PVDIS experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, the parity-violating asymmetries A{sub PV} of a polarized electron beam scattering off an unpolarized deuteron target in the deep inelastic scattering region were precisely measured at two Q2 values of 1.1 and 1.9 (GeV/c)2. The asymmetry at Q2=1.9 (GeV/c)2 can be used to extract the weak coupling combination 2C2u - C2d, assuming the higher twist effect is small. The extracted result from this measurement is in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction, and improves the precision by a factor of five over previous data. In addition, combining the asymmetries at both Q2 values provides us extra knowledge on the higher twist effects. The parity violation asymmetries in the resonance region were also measured during this experiment. These results are the first APV data in the resonance region beyond the Δ (1232). They provide evidence that the quark hadron duality works for APV at the (10-15)% level, and set constraints on nucleon resonance models that are commonly used for background calculations to other parity-violating electron scattering measurements.

  4. Distorted spin dependent spectral function of {sup 3}He and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptari, Leonya P.; Del Dotto, Alessio; Pace, Emanuele; Salme, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    The spin dependent spectral function, relevant to describe polarized electron scattering off polarized {sup 3}He, is studied, within the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation and taking into account final state interaction effects (FSI). In particular, the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SiDIS) is considered, evaluating the FSI of the hadronizing quark with the nuclear remnants. It is shown that particular kinematical regions can be selected to minimize the latter effects, so that parton distributions in the neutron can be accessed. On the other side, in the regions where FSI dominates, the considered reactions can elucidate the mechanism of hadronization of quarks during the propagation in the nuclear medium. It is shown that the obtained spin dependent spectral function can be directly applied to investigate the SiDIS reaction e-vector + {sup 3}He-vector to h+X, where the hadron h originates from the current fragmentation. Experiments of this type are being performed at JLab to extract neutron transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. As a case study, a different SiDIS process, with detection of slow (A-1) systems in the final state, is considered in more details, in order to establish when nuclear structure effects and FSI can be distinguished from elementary reactions on quasi-free nucleons. It is argued that, by a proper choice of kinematics, the origin of nuclear effects in polarized DIS phenomena and the details of the interaction between the hadronizing quark and the nuclear medium can be investigated at a level which is not reachable in inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  5. Coulomb Corrections in Deep Inelastic Scattering and the Nuclear Dependence of R =σL /σT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, David

    2011-04-01

    Measurements of Deep Inelastic structure functions from nuclei are typically performed at very high energies, hence effects from the Coulombic acceleration or deceleration of the incident and scattered lepton due to additional protons in a heavy nucleus are typically ignored. However, re-analysis of data taken at SLAC from experiments E140 and E139 indicates that the effect of including Coulomb corrections, while not large, is non-zero and impacts the extracted results non-trivially. In particular, there is a significant impact when these data are used to extrapolate the magnitude of the EMC effect to nuclear matter. In addition, the conclusion from E140 that there is no evidence for a nuclear dependence of R =σL /σT is thrown into question. When combined with recent data from Jefferson Lab, RA -RD at x = 0 . 5 is found to differ from zero by two σ.

  6. Single transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering in a spin-1 diquark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narinder; Dahiya, Harleen

    2015-04-01

    The observed results for the azimuthal single spin asymmetries (SSAs) of the proton, measured in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), can be explained by the final-state interaction (FSI) from the gluon exchange between the outgoing quark and the target spectator system. SSAs require a phase difference between two amplitudes coupling the target with opposite spins to the same final state. We have used the model of light front wave functions (LFWFs) consisting of a spin- system as a composite of a spin- fermion and a spin-1 vector boson to estimate the SSAs. The implications of such a model have been investigated in detail by considering different coupling constants. The FSIs also produce a complex phase which can be included in the LFWFs to calculate the Sivers and Boer-Mulders distribution functions of the nucleon.

  7. Deep inelastic neutron scattering from orthorhombic ordered HCl: Short-time proton dynamics and anomalous neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Senesi, R.; Colognesi, D.; Pietropaolo, A.; Abdul-Redah, T.

    2005-08-01

    Deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements from orthorhombic ordered HCl are presented and analyzed in order to clarify the problem of an anomalous deficit in the neutron-proton cross section found in previous experiments on various materials. A reliable model for the HCl short-time single-particle dynamics, including atomic vibrational anisotropies and deviations from the impulsive approximation, is set up. The model HCl response function is transformed into simulated time-of-flight spectra, taking carefully into account the effects of instrumental resolution and the filter absorption profile used for neutron energy analysis. Finally, the experimental values of the anomalous reduction factor for the neutron-proton cross section are extracted by comparing simulated and experimental data. Results show a 34% reduction of the H cross section, varying with the scattering angle in a range centered at 53 deg. In addition, the same approximate procedure used in earlier studies is also employed, providing results in reasonable agreement with the more rigorous ones, and confirming the substantial reliability of the past work on this subject.

  8. Examination of higher-order twist contributions in parity-violating deep-inelastic electron-deuteron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantry, Sonny; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Sacco, Gian Franco

    2010-12-01

    We show that parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering (PVDIS) of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium can in principle be a relatively clean probe of higher twist quark-quark correlations beyond the parton model. As first observed by Bjorken and Wolfenstein, the dominant contribution to the electron polarization asymmetry, proportional to the axial vector electron coupling, receives corrections at twist four from the matrix element of a single four-quark operator. We reformulate the Bjorken-Wolfenstein argument in a matter suitable for the interpretation of experiments planned at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). In particular, we observe that because the contribution of the relevant twist-four operator satisfies the Callan-Gross relation, the ratio of parity-violating longitudinal and transverse cross sections, RγZ, is identical to that for purely electromagnetic scattering, Rγ, up to perturbative and power-suppressed contributions. This result simplifies the interpretation of the asymmetry in terms of other possible novel hadronic and electroweak contributions. We use the results of MIT Bag Model calculations to estimate contributions of the relevant twist-four operator to the leading term in the asymmetry as a function of Bjorken x and Q2. We compare these estimates with possible leading twist corrections from violation of charge symmetry in the parton distribution functions.

  9. Measurement of unpolarized differential cross section of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering on a 3He target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xuefei; Jefferson Lab E06-010 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 was performed with 5.9 GeV polarized e- beam on a transversely polarized 3He target. The produced hadrons at semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) kinematics were detected in the high-resolution spectrometer (HRS) in coincidence with the scattered electrons detected by the BigBite spectrometer. The kinematic coverage focuses on the valence quark region, x = 0.1 to 0.4, at Q2 = 1 to 3 (GeV/c)2. Previous analysis effort has been focused on extracting single-spin asymmetry (SSA) and double-spin asymmetry (DSA) related to various TMDs such as Transversity, Sivers, Pretzelosity and Transverse Helicity (g1Tq). The extracted unpolarized differential cross section will put important constraints on the Cahn effect of SIDIS and the Boer-Mulders function. In this talk we will present new results on extracted unpolarized differential cross section of SIDIS in channels e- + 3He --> e-' + π+/- + X. A dedicated study of the acceptance of HRS and BigBite spectrometers, as well as updated study of the efficiencies and particle contamination in the experiment allowed us to control systematic uncertainties to an acceptable level. This work is supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Contract Numbers DE-FG02-03ER41231.

  10. Diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering and photon-hadron collisions in the color glass condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Armesto, Néstor; Beuf, Guillaume; Rezaeian, Amir H.

    2016-07-01

    We study exclusive dijet production in coherent diffractive processes in deep inelastic scattering and real (and virtual) photon-hadron (γ (*)-h) collisions in the Color Glass Condensate formalism at leading order. We show that the diffractive dijet cross section is sensitive to the color-dipole orientation in the transverse plane, and is a good probe of possible correlations between the q q bar -dipole transverse separation vector r and the dipole impact parameter b. We also investigate the diffractive dijet azimuthal angle correlations and t-distributions in γ (*)-h collisions and show that they are sensitive to gluon saturation effects in the small-x region. In particular, we show that the t-distribution of diffractive dijet photo-production off a proton target exhibits a dip-type structure in the saturation region. This effect is similar to diffractive vector meson production. Besides, at variance with the inclusive case, the effect of saturation leads to stronger azimuthal correlations between the jets.

  11. Deep inelastic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nucleon structure as seen in the context of deep inelastic scattering is discussed. The lectures begin with consideration of the quark-parton model. The model forms the basis of understanding lepton-nucleon inelastic scattering. As improved data in lepton-nucleon scattering at high energies became available, the quark-parton model failed to explain some crucial features of these data. At approximately the same time a candidate theory of strong interactions based on a SU(3) gauge theory of color was being discussed in the literature, and new ideas on the explanation of inelastic scattering data became popular. A new theory of strong interactions, now called quantum chromodynamics provides a new framework for understanding the data, with a much stronger theoretical foundation, and seems to explain well the features of the data. The lectures conclude with a look at some recent experiments which provide new data at very high energies. These lectures are concerned primarily with charged lepton inelastic scattering and to a lesser extent with neutrino results. Furthermore, due to time and space limitations, topics such as final state hadron studies, and multi-muon production are omitted here. The lectures concentrate on the more central issues: the quark-parton model and concepts of scaling, scale breaking and the ideas of quantum chromodynamics, the Q/sup 2/ dependence of structure function, moments, and the important parameter R.

  12. Measurement of “pretzelosity” asymmetry of charged pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a polarized He3 target

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Y.; Qian, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Huang, J.; Katich, J.; Wang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2014-11-24

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of 0.16 < x < 0.35 and 1.4 < Q² < 2.7 GeV². Our results show that both π± on 3He and on neutron pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  13. Simultaneous extraction of transversity and Collins functions from new semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and e{sup +}e{sup -} data

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; D'Alesio, Umberto; Melis, Stefano; Murgia, Francesco; Prokudin, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    We present a global re-analysis of the most recent experimental data on azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, from the HERMES and COMPASS Collaborations, and in e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} h{sub 1} h{sub 2} X processes, from the Belle Collaboration. The transversity and the Collins functions are extracted simultaneously, in the framework of a revised global analysis in which a new parameterisation of the unknown functions is also tested.

  14. [ital Q][sup 2] dependence of the average squared transverse energy of jets in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering with comparison to perturbative QCD predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.; Arndotied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Baker, M.D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A.A.; Braun, H.M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J.M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M.C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P.H.; Stier, H.E.; Stopa, P.; S

    1994-01-24

    The average squared transverse energy of jets in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering is measured as a function of the momentum transfer squared ([ital Q][sup 2]), in the range 3[lt][ital Q][sup 2][lt]25 GeV[sup 2]. Perturbative QCD predicts that the average squared parton transverse energy will depend upon the strong coupling constant ([alpha][sub [ital S

  15. Hadron mass corrections in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero Teran, Juan Vicente; Ethier, James J.; Accardi, Alberto; Casper, Steven W.; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2015-09-24

    We found that the spin-dependent cross sections for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering are derived in the framework of collinear factorization, including the effects of masses of the target and produced hadron at finite Q2. At leading order the cross sections factorize into products of parton distribution and fragmentation functions evaluated in terms of new, mass-dependent scaling variables. Furthermore, the size of the hadron mass corrections is estimated at kinematics relevant for current and future experiments, and the implications for the extraction of parton distributions from semi-inclusive measurements are discussed.

  16. Hadron mass corrections in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guerrero Teran, Juan Vicente; Ethier, James J.; Accardi, Alberto; Casper, Steven W.; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2015-09-24

    We found that the spin-dependent cross sections for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering are derived in the framework of collinear factorization, including the effects of masses of the target and produced hadron at finite Q2. At leading order the cross sections factorize into products of parton distribution and fragmentation functions evaluated in terms of new, mass-dependent scaling variables. Furthermore, the size of the hadron mass corrections is estimated at kinematics relevant for current and future experiments, and the implications for the extraction of parton distributions from semi-inclusive measurements are discussed.

  17. Study of deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons off polarized deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriki, M.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis describes a 29GeV electron - nucleon scattering experiment carried out at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Highly polarized electrons are scattered off a polarized ND{sub 3} target. Scattered electrons are detected by two spectrometers located in End Station A (ESA) at angles of 4.5{degrees} and 7{degrees} with respect to the beam axis. We have measured the spin structure function g{sub 1} of deuteron over the range of 0.029 < x < 0.8 and 1. 0 < Q{sup 2} < 12.0(GeV/c){sup 2}. This integral indicates a discrepancy of more than three standard deviations from the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, 0.068{+-}0.005 at Q{sup 2} = 3.0(GeV/c){sup 2} while our result of g{sub 1}{sup d} in good agreement with SMC results. Combined with g{sub 1} of the proton, the measurement of {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}(g{sub 1}{sup d}-g{sub 1}{sup n}) is 0.169{+-}0.008. We also obtained the strong coupling constant at Q{sup 2} = 3.0(GeV/c){sup 2} to be 0.417{sub -0.110}{sup +0.086}, using the power correction for the sum rule up to third order of {alpha}{sub s}. This result is in agreement with the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) = 3.0(GeV/c{sup 2}) obtained from various experiments. Using our deuteron results and the axial vector couplings of hyperon decays, the total quark polarization along the nucleon spin is found to be 0.286{+-}.055, implying that quarks carry only 30% of the nucleon spin. The strange sea quark polarization is also determined to be -0.101 {+-} .023. These measurements are in agreement with other experiments and provide the world`s most precise measurement of these quark polarizations. 80 refs., 151 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mulders, P.J.; Levelt, J.

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  19. Measurement of single and double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering on proton and deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Suman Bandhu

    The EG1-DVCS experiment with CLAS at Jefferson Lab collected semi-inclusive pion electro-production data on longitudinally polarized solid state NH3 and ND3 targets with longitudinally polarized electrons of approximately 6 GeV energy. Data on all three pion channels, pi +, pi-- and pi0, were collected simultaneously. The charged pions were identified by their time-of-flight information whereas the neutral pions were reconstructed from the invariant mass of two photons. The experiment covered a wide kinematic range: 1 GeV 2 ≤ Q2 ≤ 3.2 GeV2, 0.12 ≤ xB ≤ 0.48, 0.0 GeV ≤ Ph⊥ ≤ 1.0 GeV and 0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.7. The beam single (ALU), target single (AUL) and beam-target double ( ALL) spin azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) off the proton and the deuteron extracted from the data are presented. The results of the azimuthal asymmetries for the proton are presented as a function of two variables: (xB, Ph⊥), (z, P h⊥) and (xB, z). Due to limited statistics, the azimuthal asymmetries for the deuteron are presented as a function of a single variable for the variables xB, z and Ph ⊥. Some theoretical and phenomenological predictions as well as earlier published results are compared with the results from this analysis. All the results are plotted and suitably tabulated for further analysis. The SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are convolutions of fragmentation functions and transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs). The TMDs describe transverse momenta and spins of quarks and gluons inside nucleons. They open a window on the contribution of the orbital angular momentum of the quarks and gluons to the total spin of the nucleons. The results presented in this work are sensitive to these leading twist TMDs: f 1, g1, h⊥ 1L, and h⊥ 1. The significant precision of the results from this analysis will highly constrain the extractions of the associated TMDs which will substantially contribute towards further

  20. Naive time-reversal odd phenomena in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering from light-cone constituent quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Pasquini, Peter Schweitzer

    2011-06-01

    We present results for leading-twist azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering due to naively time-reversal odd transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions from the light-cone constituent quark model. We carefully discuss the range of applicability of the model, especially with regard to positivity constraints and evolution effects. We find good agreement with available experimental data from COMPASS and HERMES, and present predictions to be tested in forthcoming experiments at Jefferson Lab.

  1. Q2 dependence of the average squared transverse energy of jets in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering with comparison to perturbative QCD predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Arndotïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1994-01-01

    The average squared transverse energy of jets in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering is measured as a function of the momentum transfer squared (Q2), in the range 3

  2. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X

    SciTech Connect

    Katich, Joseph; Qian, Xin; Zhao, Yuxiang; Allada, Kalyan; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Bradshaw, Elliott; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei; Chirapatpimol, Khem; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cornejo, Juan; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Ding, Huaibo; Dolph, Peter; Dutta, Chiranjib; Dutta, Dipangkar; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gilad, Gilad; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Guo, Lei; Hamilton, David; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jijun; Huang, Min; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jin, Ge; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kim, Wooyoung; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Y; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lu, Hai-jiang; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yoomin; Osipenko, Mikhail; Parno, Diana; Peng, Jen-chieh; Phillips, Sarah; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Ransome, Ronald; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Shahinyan, Albert; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Sirca, Simon; Stepanyan, Stepan; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tang, Liguang; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vilardi, Ignazio; Wang, Kebin; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Z; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zong, Xing

    2014-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X on a 3He gas target polarized normal to the lepton plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.72 GeV, which is non-zero at the 2.75sigma level. Theoretical calculations, which assume two-photon exchange with quasi-free quarks, predict a neutron asymmetry of O(10−4) when both photons couple to one quark, and O(10−2) for the photons coupling to different quarks. Our measured asymmetry agrees both in sign and magnitude with the prediction that uses input based on the Sivers transverse momentum distribution obtained from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  3. Structure Functions in Deep Inelastic Lepton Scattering: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gehrmann, T; Roberts, R. G.; Whalley, M. R.; Durham HEP Database Group

    Gehrmann, Roberts, and Whalley in their 1999 paper, A Compilation of Structure Functions in Deep Inelastic Scattering, published in volume 25 of Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics) note that these data will continue to be relevant to the next generation of hadron colliders. They present data on the unpolarized structure functions F2 and xF3, R D ._L=_T /, the virtual photon asymmetries A1 and A2 and the polarized structure functions g1 and g2, from deep inelastic lepton scattering off protons, deuterium and nuclei. Data are presented in both tabular and graphical format and include predictions based on the MRST98 and CTEQ4 parton distribution functionsö as well. The data gathered from the relevant collaborations at DOE's Fermilab, SLAC, and JLAB are available, and so are data from related collaborations based at CERN and DESY. The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also include in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  4. Parity Violation in ep scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Souder

    2005-10-01

    We review the program of parity violation in the scattering of polarized electrons at JLab. Results are presented from recent experiments measuring the weak form factors, which in turn measure the contribution of strange quarks to the elastic form factors. In addition, we discuss the physics of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering, which will become possible with the upgrade of the JLab energy to 12 GeV.

  5. Single spin asymmetries in charged kaon production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized He3 target

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Y. X.; Wang, Y.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R.M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; et al

    2014-11-03

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized 3He target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1 < xbj<0.4 for K+ and K– production. While the Collins and Sivers moments for K+ are consistent with zero within the experimental uncertainties, both moments for K– favor negative values. The Sivers moments are compared to the theoretical prediction from a phenomenological fit to the world data. Whilemore » the K+ Sivers moments are consistent with the prediction, the K– results differ from the prediction at the 2-sigma level.« less

  6. Deep Inelastic Structure Functions from Electron Scattering on Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Iron at 0.6 GEV(2) <= Q('2) <= 30.0 GEV(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Larry W.

    1990-01-01

    We report the final results from experiment E140, a recent deep inelastic electron-deuterium and electron -iron scattering experiment at SLAC. In addition, we present the results of a combined global analysis of all SLAC deep inelastic electron-hydrogen and electron-deuterium cross section measurements between 1970 and 1983. Data from seven earlier experiments are re-radiatively corrected and normalized to experiment E140. We report extractions of R(x,Q^2) and F_2(x,Q ^2) for hydrogen and deuterium over the entire SLAC kinematic range:.06 <= x <=.90 and 0.6 <= Q^2 <= 30.0 (GeV^2). We find that R^{p} = R^{d}, as expected by QCD. Extracted values of R(x,Q^2) are significantly larger than predictions based on QCD and on QCD with the inclusion of kinematic target mass terms. This difference indicates that dynamical higher twist effects may be important in the SLAC kinematic range. A best fit empirical model of R(x,Q^2) is used to extract F_2 from each cross section measurement. These F_2 extractions are compared with F_2 data from EMC and BCDMS. Agreement is observed with EMC when the EMC data are multiplied by times 1.07. Agreement is observed with BCDMS over a limited range in x. The ratios of F_sp{2} {d}/F_sp{2}{p} are examined for Q^2 dependence. We observe a significant negative slope for x<= .6, and a significant positive slope above x>.7 , in excellent agreement with predictions based on QCD with the inclusion of kinematic target mass terms.

  7. Single/Double-Spin Asymmetry Measurements of Semi-Inclusive Pion Electroproduction on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target through Deep Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Qian

    2012-06-01

    Parton distribution functions, which represent the flavor and spin structure of the nucleon, provide invaluable information in illuminating quantum chromodynamics in the confinement region. Among various processes that measure such parton distribution functions, semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is regarded as one of the golden channels to access transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, which provide a 3-D view of the nucleon structure in momentum space. The Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 focuses on measuring the target single and double spin asymmetries in the 3He(e, e'pi+,-)X reaction with a transversely polarized 3He target in Hall A with a 5.89 GeV electron beam. A leading pion and the scattered electron are detected in coincidence by the left High-Resolution Spectrometer at 16{sup o} and the BigBite spectrometer at 30{sup o} beam right, respectively. The kinematic coverage concentrates in the valence quark region, x {approx} 0.1-0.4, at Q2 {approx}1-3 Gev{sub 2}. The Collins and Sivers asymmetries of 3He and neutron are extracted. In this review, an overview of the experiment and the final results are presented. Furthermore, an upcoming 12-GeV program with a large acceptance solenoidal device and the future possibilities at an electron-ion collider are discussed.

  8. Scaled energy (z) distributions of charged hadrons observed in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV from xenon and deuterium targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H. J.; Venkataramania, H.; Vidal, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1994-08-01

    Fermilab Experiment-665 measured deep-inelastic scattering of 490 GeV muons off deuterium and xenon targets. Events were selected with a range of energy exchange ν from 100 GeV to 500 GeV and with large ranges of Q2 and xBj: 0.1 GeV2/c2scattering; specifically, the kinematic region of ``shadowing'' has been compared to that of nonshadowing. The dependence of the distributions upon the order of the hadrons, determined by the fractional energies, has been examined as well; a strong degree of similarity has been observed in the shapes of the distributions of the different order hadrons. These z distributions, however, show no nuclear dependence, even in the kinematic region of shadowing.

  9. Scaled energy ([ital z]) distributions of charged hadrons observed in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV from xenon and deuterium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.; Aied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Baker, M.D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A.A.; Braun, H.M.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T.; Conrad, J.M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M.C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Seyerlein, H.J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P.H.; Stier, H.E.; St

    1994-08-01

    Fermilab Experiment-665 measured deep-inelastic scattering of 490 GeV muons off deuterium and xenon targets. Events were selected with a range of energy exchange [nu] from 100 GeV to 500 GeV and with large ranges of [ital Q][sup 2] and [ital x][sub Bj]: 0.1 GeV[sup 2]/[ital c][sup 2][lt][ital Q][sup 2][lt]150 GeV[sup 2]/[ital c][sup 2] and 0.001[lt][ital x][sub Bj][lt]0.5. The fractional energy ([ital z]) distributions of forward-produced hadrons from the two targets have been compared as a function of the kinematics of the scattering; specifically, the kinematic region of shadowing'' has been compared to that of nonshadowing. The dependence of the distributions upon the [ital order] of the hadrons, determined by the fractional energies, has been examined as well; a strong degree of similarity has been observed in the shapes of the distributions of the different order hadrons. These [ital z] distributions, however, show no nuclear dependence, even in the kinematic region of shadowing.

  10. High-Q{sup 2} neutral current cross sections in e{sup +}p deep inelastic scattering at {radical}(s)=318 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    Cross sections for e{sup +}p neutral current deep inelastic scattering have been measured at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=318 GeV with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 63.2 pb{sup -1}. The double-differential cross section, d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2}, is presented for 200 GeV{sup 2}200 GeV{sup 2}. The effect of Z-boson-exchange is seen in d{sigma}/dx measured for Q{sup 2}>10 000 GeV{sup 2}. The data presented here were combined with ZEUS e{sup +}p neutral current data taken at {radical}(s)=300 GeV and the structure function F{sub 2}{sup em} was extracted. All results agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model.

  11. Next-to-leading order transverse momentum-weighted Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering: The role of the three-gluon correlator

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ling -Yun; Kang, Zhong -Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-12-22

    Here, we study the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering. We concentrate on the contribution from the photon-gluon fusion channel at O(αem2αs), where three-gluon correlation functions play a major role within the twist-3 collinear factorization formalism. We establish the correspondence between such a formalism with three-gluon correlation functions and the usual transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization formalism at moderate hadron transverse momenta. We derive the coefficient functions used in the usual TMD evolution formalism related to the quark Sivers function expansion in terms of the three-gluon correlation functions. We further perform the next-to-leading order calculation for the transverse momentum-weighted spin-dependent differential cross section and identify the off-diagonal contribution from the three-gluon correlation functions to the QCD collinear evolution of the twist-3 Qiu-Sterman function.

  12. Next-to-leading order transverse momentum-weighted Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering: The role of the three-gluon correlator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dai, Ling -Yun; Kang, Zhong -Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-12-22

    Here, we study the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering. We concentrate on the contribution from the photon-gluon fusion channel at O(αem2αs), where three-gluon correlation functions play a major role within the twist-3 collinear factorization formalism. We establish the correspondence between such a formalism with three-gluon correlation functions and the usual transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization formalism at moderate hadron transverse momenta. We derive the coefficient functions used in the usual TMD evolution formalism related to the quark Sivers function expansion in terms of the three-gluon correlation functions. We further perform the next-to-leading order calculation for themore » transverse momentum-weighted spin-dependent differential cross section and identify the off-diagonal contribution from the three-gluon correlation functions to the QCD collinear evolution of the twist-3 Qiu-Sterman function.« less

  13. Measurement of Single Spin Asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Reaction n(e, e'π+) X at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Allada, Kalyan

    2010-06-01

    What constitutes the spin of the nucleon? The answer to this question is still not completely understood. Although we know the longitudinal quark spin content very well, the data on the transverse quark spin content of the nucleon is still very sparse. Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) using transversely polarized targets provide crucial information on this aspect. The data that is currently available was taken with proton and deuteron targets. The E06-010 experiment was performed at Jefferson Lab in Hall-A to measure the single spin asymmetries in the SIDIS reaction n(e, e'π±/K±)X using transversely polarized 3He target. The experiment used the continuous electron beam provided by the CEBAF accelerator with a beam energy of 5.9 GeV. Hadrons were detected in a high-resolution spectrometer in coincidence with the scattered electrons detected by the BigBite spectrometer. The kinematic coverage focuses on the valence quark region, x = 0.19 to 0.34, at Q2 = 1.77 to 2.73 (GeV/c)2. This is the first measurement on a neutron target. The data from this experiment, when combined with the world data on the proton and the deuteron, will provide constraints on the transversity and Sivers distribution functions on both the u and d-quarks in the valence region. In this work we report on the single spin asymmetries in the SIDIS n(e, e'π+)X reaction.

  14. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L. A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J. F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2014-10-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2, Bjorken x, jet trans- verse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2. The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b ( m b ) = 4.07 ± 0.14 (fit){-/0.07 + 0.01}(mod.){-/0.00 + 0.05}(param.){-/0.05 + 0.08}(theo.) GeV.

  15. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L. A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J. F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2014-09-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2, Bjorken x, jet trans- verse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2. The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b ( m b ) = 4.07 ± 0.14 (fit){-/0.07 + 0.01}(mod.){-/0.00 + 0.05}(param.){-/0.05 + 0.08}(theo.) GeV.

  16. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laveissière, G.; Degrande, N.; Jaminion, S.; Jutier, C.; Todor, L.; Salvo, R. Di; Hoorebeke, L. Van; Alexa, L. C.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Arundell, K.; Audit, G.; Auerbach, L.; Baker, F. T.; Baylac, M.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Bimbot, L.; Boeglin, W. U.; Brash, E. J.; Breton, V.; Breuer, H.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J. R.; Cardman, L. S.; Cavata, C.; Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dale, D. S.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Deur, A.; D'Hose, N.; Dodge, G. E.; Domingo, J. J.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Epstein, M. B.; Ewell, L. A.; Finn, J. M.; Fissum, K. G.; Fonvieille, H.; Fournier, G.; Frois, B.; Frullani, S.; Furget, C.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Grenier, P.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Hansen, J. O.; Holmes, R.; Holtrop, M.; Howell, C.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Jardillier, J.; Jones, M. K.; Kahl, W.; Kamalov, S.; Kato, S.; Katramatou, A. T.; Kelly, J. J.; Kerhoas, S.; Ketikyan, A.; Khayat, M.; Kino, K.; Kox, S.; Kramer, L. H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Leone, A.; Lerose, J. J.; Liang, M.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G. J.; Lourie, R. W.; Madey, R.; Maeda, K.; Malov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Marchand, C.; Marchand, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marroncle, J.; Martino, J.; McCormick, K.; McIntyre, J.; Mehrabyan, S.; Merchez, F.; Meziani, Z. E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G. W.; Mougey, J. Y.; Nanda, S. K.; Neyret, D.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.; Papandreou, Z.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Perrino, R.; Petratos, G. G.; Platchkov, S.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Prout, D. L.; Punjabi, V. A.; Pussieux, T.; Quémenér, G.; Ransome, R. D.; Ravel, O.; Real, J. S.; Renard, F.; Roblin, Y.; Rowntree, D.; Rutledge, G.; Rutt, P. M.; Saha, A.; Saito, T.; Sarty, A. J.; Serdarevic, A.; Smith, T.; Smirnov, G.; Soldi, K.; Sorokin, P.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Templon, J. A.; Terasawa, T.; Tiator, L.; Tieulent, R.; Tomasi-Gustaffson, E.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; de Vyver, R. Van; der Meer, R. L. J. Van; Vernin, P.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wilson, R.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Zainea, D. G.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.-L.

    2009-01-01

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e, e'p)γ exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q2=1GeV2 and for the Q2 dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed Q2 dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H(e, e'p)γ to H(e, e'p)π0 cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to real Compton scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q2 independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  17. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Laveissiere, Geraud; Degrande, Natalie; Jaminion, Stephanie; Jutier, Christophe; Todor, Luminita; Di Salvo, Rachele; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Alexa, L.C.; Anderson, Brian; Aniol, Konrad; Arundell, Kathleen; Audit, Gerard; Auerbach, Leonard; Baker, F.; Baylac, Maud; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Bimbot, Louis; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Breton, Vincent; Breuer, Herbert; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cardman, Lawrence; Cavata, Christian; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Dale, Daniel; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deur, Alexandre; D'Hose, Nicole; Dodge, Gail; Domingo, John; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Epstein, Martin; Ewell, Lars; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Fournier, Guy; Frois, Bernard; Frullani, Salvatore; Furget, Christophe; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Grenier, Philippe; Guichon, Pierre; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Holmes, Richard; Holtrop, Maurik; Howell, Calvin; Huber, Garth; Hyde, Charles; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jardillier, Johann; Jones, Mark; Kahl, William; Kamalov, Sabit; Kato, Seigo; Katramatou, A.T.; Kelly, James; Kerhoas, Sophie; Ketikyan, Armen; Khayat, Mohammad; Kino, Kouichi; Kox, Serge; Kramer, Laird; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Leone, Antonio; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Lourie, Robert; Madey, Richard; Maeda, Kazushige; Malov, Sergey; Manley, D.; Marchand, Claude; Marchand, Dominique; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marroncle, Jacques; Martino, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McIntyre, Justin; Mehrabyan, Surik; Merchez, Fernand; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Miller, Gerald; Mougey, Jean; Nanda, Sirish; Neyret, Damien; Offermann, Edmond; Papandreou, Zisis; Perdrisat, Charles; Perrino, R.; Petratos, Gerassimos; Platchkov, Stephane; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Prout, David; Punjabi, Vina; Pussieux, Thierry; Quemener, Gilles; Ransome, Ronald; Ravel, Oliver; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Renard, F.; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rutledge, Gary; Rutt, Paul; Saha, Arunava; Saito, Teijiro; Sarty, Adam; Serdarevic, A.; Smith, T.; Smirnov, G.; Soldi, K.; Sorokin, Pavel; Souder, Paul; Suleiman, Riad; Templon, Jeffrey; Terasawa, Tatsuo; Tiator, Lothar; Tieulent, Raphael; Tomasi-Gustaffson, E.; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ulmer, Paul; Urciuoli, Guido; Van De Vyver, R.; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Watson, J.W.; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Wilson, R.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zainea, Dan; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Z.-L.

    2009-01-01

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e,e'p)? exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q2=1 GeV2, and for the Q2-dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed Q2-dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H(e,e'p)? to H(e,e'p)?0 cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to Real Compton Scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q2-independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  18. Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep inelastic region at backward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Laveissiere, G.; Jaminion, S.; Salvo, R. Di; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.; Ravel, O.; Roblin, Y.; Smirnov, G.; Jutier, C.; Hyde, C. E.; Todor, L.; Dodge, G. E.; McCormick, K.; Ulmer, P. E.

    2009-01-15

    We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) process via the H(e, e{sup '}p){gamma} exclusive reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed Q{sup 2}=1 GeV{sup 2} and for the Q{sup 2} dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV. The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and second resonance regions. The observed Q{sup 2} dependence is smooth. The measured ratio of H(e, e{sup '}p){gamma} to H(e, e{sup '}p){pi}{sup 0} cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally, when compared to real Compton scattering (RCS) at high energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q{sup 2} independence, which may suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism at the quark level.

  19. Probing the Small-x Gluon Tomography in Correlated Hard Diffractive Dijet Production in Deep Inelastic Scattering.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2016-05-20

    We investigate the close connection between the quantum phase space Wigner distribution of small-x gluons and the color dipole scattering amplitude, and we propose studying it experimentally in the hard diffractive dijet production at the planned electron-ion collider. The angular correlation between the nucleon recoiled momentum and the dijet transverse momentum probes the nontrivial correlation in the phase space Wigner distribution. This experimental study not only provides us with three-dimensional tomographic pictures of gluons inside high energy protons-it gives a unique and interesting signal for the small-x dynamics with QCD evolution effects. PMID:27258865

  20. Probing the Small-x Gluon Tomography in Correlated Hard Diffractive Dijet Production in Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the close connection between the quantum phase space Wigner distribution of small-x gluons and the color dipole scattering amplitude, and we propose studying it experimentally in the hard diffractive dijet production at the planned electron-ion collider. The angular correlation between the nucleon recoiled momentum and the dijet transverse momentum probes the nontrivial correlation in the phase space Wigner distribution. This experimental study not only provides us with three-dimensional tomographic pictures of gluons inside high energy protons—it gives a unique and interesting signal for the small-x dynamics with QCD evolution effects.

  1. Density and correlation integrals in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering at 490 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Botterweck, F.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kadija, K.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.; Fermilab E665 Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    Results on density integrals Fq( Q2) and correlation integrals Kq( Q2) are presented for the first time in muon-nucleon scattering at ∼ 490 GeV, using data from the E665 experiment at the Tevatron of Fermilab. A clear rise of the Fq integrals with decreasing size of the phase-space cells (“intermittency”) is observed for pairs and triplets of negative hadrons whereas the effect is much weaker for mixed charge combinations. From these findings it is concluded that the observed intermittency signal is mainly caused by Bose-Einstein interference. Furthermore, no energy ( W) dependence of F2( Q2) is observed within the W range of the E665 experiment. Finally, the third-order correlation integrals K3( Q2) are found to be significantly different from zero which implies the presence of genuine three-particle correlations in muon-nucleon interactions.

  2. Meaurement of D{sup *}{sup plus_minus} production in deep inelastic e{sup plus_minus}p scattering at HERA.

    SciTech Connect

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Loizides, J. H.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; ZEUS Collaboration; High Energy Physics

    2004-01-01

    Inclusive production of D{sup *}{sup {+-}} (2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at DESY HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.9 pb{sup -1}. The decay channel D{sup *}{sup +}{yields}D0{pi}{sup +} with D0{yields}K-{pi}{sup +} and corresponding antiparticle decay were used to identify D{sup *} mesons. Differential D{sup *} cross sections with 1.5

  3. Measurement of “pretzelosity” asymmetry of charged pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a polarized He3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Qian, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Huang, J.; Katich, J.; Wang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H. -J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z. -E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L. -G.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y. -W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.

    2014-11-24

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of 0.16 < x < 0.35 and 1.4 < Q² < 2.7 GeV². Our results show that both π± on 3He and on neutron pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  4. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  5. Single spin asymmetries in charged kaon production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized He3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y. X.; Wang, Y.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R.M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, C.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Katich, J.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H. -J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z. -E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. -C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L. -G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. -W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.

    2014-11-03

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized 3He target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1 < xbj<0.4 for K+ and K production. While the Collins and Sivers moments for K+ are consistent with zero within the experimental uncertainties, both moments for K favor negative values. The Sivers moments are compared to the theoretical prediction from a phenomenological fit to the world data. While the K+ Sivers moments are consistent with the prediction, the K results differ from the prediction at the 2-sigma level.

  6. Deep inelastic structure functions from electron scattering on hydrogen, deuterium, and iron at 0.6 GeV2 less than or equal to Q2 less than or equal to 30.0 GeV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, L. W.

    1990-03-01

    The final results are reported from experiment E140, a recent deep inelastic electron-deuterium and electron-iron scattering experiment at SLAC. In addition, the results are presented of a combined global analysis of all SLAC deep inelastic electron-hydrogen and electron-deuterium cross section measurements between 1970 and 1983. Data from seven earlier experiments are re-radiatively corrected and normalized to experiment E140. Extractions are reported of R(x,Q sq) and F2 (x,Q sq) for hydrogen and deuterium over the entire SLAC kinematic range: .06 less than or = x less than or = .90 and 0.6 less than or = Q sq less than or = 30.0 (GeV sq). It was found that R(sup p) = R(sup d), as expected by QCD. Extracted values of R(x,Q sq) are significantly larger than predictions based on QCD and on QCD with the inclusion of kinematic target mass terms. This difference indicates that dynamical higher twist effects may be important in the SLAC kinematic range. A best fit empirical model of R(x,Q sq) is used to extract F2 from each cross section measurement. These F2 extractions are compared with F2 data from EMC and BCDMS. Agreement is observed with EMC when the EMC data are multiplied by 1.07. Agreement is observed with BCDMS over a limited range in x. The ratios of F2 exp D/F2 exp p are examined for Q sq dependence. A significant negative slope was observed for x less than or = .6, and a significant positive slope above x greater than .7, in excellent agreement with predictions based on QCD with the inclusion of kinematic target mass terms.

  7. Deep inelastic structure functions from electron scattering on hydrogen, deuterium, and iron at 0. 6 GeV sup 2 le Q sup 2 le 30. 0 GeV sup 2

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, L.W.

    1990-03-01

    We report the final results from experiment E140, a recent deep inelastic electron-deuterium and electron-iron scattering experiment at SLAC. In addition, we present the results of a combined global analysis of all SLAC deep inelastic electron-hydrogen and electron-deuterium cross section measurements between 1970 and 1983. Data from seven earlier experiments are re-radiatively corrected and normalized to experiment E140. We report extractions of R(x,Q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) for hydrogen and deuterium over the entire SLAC kinematic range: .06{le} x {le}.90 and 0.6{le} Q{sup 2} {le}30.0 (GeV{sup 2}). We fine that R{sup p} = R{sup d}, as expected by QCD. Extracted values of R(x,Q{sup 2}) are significantly larger than predictions based on QCD and on QCD with the inclusion of kinematic target mass terms. This difference indicates that dynamical higher twist effects may be important in the SLAC kinematic range. A best fit empirical model of R(x,Q{sup 2}) is used to extract F{sub 2} from each cross section measurement. These F{sub 2} extractions are compared with F{sub 2} data from EMC and BCDMS. Agreement is observed with EMC when the EMC data are multiplied by 1.07. Agreement is observed with BCDMS over a limited range in x. The ratios of F{sub 2}{sup d}/F{sub 2}{sup p} are examined for Q{sup 2} dependence. We observe a significant negative slope for x {le} .6, and a significant positive slope above x > .7, in excellent agreement with predictions based on QCD with the inclusion of kinematic target mass terms. 111 refs., 40 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. QCD studies in ep collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F{sub 2}, which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q{sup 2} regimes are discussed. The low Q{sup 2} transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure {alpha}{sub s}, and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs.

  9. Determination of the gluon distribution function of the nucleon using energy-energy angular pattern in deep-inelastic muon-deuteron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T. J.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H. J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1996-03-01

    We have used the energy-energy angular pattern of hadrons in inelastic muon-deuteron scattering to study perturbative QCD effects and to extract the gluon distribution function ηG( η) of the nucleon, where η is the fractional momentum carried by the gluon. The data were taken with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 490 GeV. We present ηG( η) for 0.005< η<0.05 and at an average Q 2 of 8 GeV2 using this new technique. We find that ηG( η) in this region can be described by ηG( η) α ηλ with λ=-0.87±0.09( stat.)±{0.37/0.32}( sys.). We compare our results to expectations from various parametrizations of the parton distribution function and also to results from HERA.

  10. Deep inelastic scattering, diffraction and all that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A. García; Sassot, R.

    2000-08-01

    These lectures include an introduction to the partonic description of the proton, the photon and the `color singlet', as seen in inclusive and semi-inclusive DIS, in e+e- collisions, and in diffractive processes, respectively. Their formal treatment using structure, fragmentation, and fracture functions is outlined giving an insight into the perturbative QCD framework for these functions. Examples and comparisons with experimental data from LEP, HERA, and Tevatron are also covered.

  11. Phenomenology of deep-inelastic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-03-01

    The field of heavy-ion deep-inelastic reactions is reviewed with particular attention to the experimental picture. The most important degrees of freedom involved in the process are identified and illustrated with relevant experiments. Energy dissipation and mass transfer are discussed in terms of particles and/or phonons exchanged in the process. The equilibration of the fragment neutron-to-proton ratios is inspected for evidence of giant isovector resonances. The angular momentum effects are observed in the fragment angular distributions and the angular momentum transfer is inferred from the magnitude and alignment of the fragments spins. The possible sources of light particles accompanying the deep-inelastic reactions are discussed. The use of the sequentially emitted particles as angular momentum probes is illustrated. The significance and uses of a thermalized component emitted by the dinucleus is reviewed. The possible presence of Fermi jets in the prompt component is shown to be critical to the justification of the one-body theories.

  12. Internal spin structure of the proton from high energy polarized e-p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, V.W.; Baum, G.; Bergstroem, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    A review is given of experimental knowledge of the spin dependent structure functions of the proton, which is based on inclusive high energy scattering of longitudinal polarized electrons by longitudinally polarized protons in both the deep inelastic and resonance regions, and includes preliminary results from our most recent SLAC experiment. Implications for scaling, sum rules, models of proton structure, and the hyperfine structure interval in hydrogen are given. Possible future directions of research are indicated.

  13. Statistical properties of deep inelastic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-08-01

    The multifaceted aspects of deep-inelastic heavy-ion collisions are discussed in terms of the statistical equilibrium limit. It is shown that a conditional statistical equilibrium, where a number of degrees of freedom are thermalized while others are still relaxing, prevails in most of these reactions. The individual degrees of freedom that have been explored experimentally are considered in their statistical equilibrium limit, and the extent to which they appear to be thermalized is discussed. The interaction between degrees of freedom on their way towards equilibrium is shown to create complex feedback phenomena that may lead to self-regulation. A possible example of self-regulation is shown for the process of energy partition between fragments promoted by particle exchange. 35 references.

  14. Thomson Scattering on the HBT-EP Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Hanson, J. M.; James, R.; Maurer, D. A.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2007-11-01

    Thomson scattering can be used as a non-invasive method for measuring local electron density and temperature in plasmas. We describe the HBT-EP Thomson Scattering diagnostic, which is based on a design in use at DIII-D [1]. A five-channel interference filter polychrometer measures incoherent scattered light from an 8ns, 800mJ, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A set of pre-amplification circuits designed by Princeton Scientific Instruments [2] has recently been installed for signal detection using avalanche photodiodes. System layout, alignment, and straylight level reduction techniques will be outlined. Rayleigh and Raman scattering calibration procedures have been used to absolutely calibrate the collection optics and detection system. Recent progress on diagnosing different HBT-EP plasmas using the Thomson scattering diagnostic will be presented. [1] T. N. Carlstrom, et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 61, 2858, 1990. [2] D. Johnson, et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 72, 1, 1129, 2001.

  15. Interplay of threshold resummation and hadron mass corrections in deep inelastic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Accardi, Alberto; Anderle, Daniele P.; Ringer, Felix

    2015-02-01

    We discuss hadron mass corrections and threshold resummation for deep-inelastic scattering lN-->l'X and semi-inclusive annihilation e+e- → hX processes, and provide a prescription how to consistently combine these two corrections respecting all kinematic thresholds. We find an interesting interplay between threshold resummation and target mass corrections for deep-inelastic scattering at large values of Bjorken xB. In semi-inclusive annihilation, on the contrary, the two considered corrections are relevant in different kinematic regions and do not affect each other. A detailed analysis is nonetheless of interest in the light of recent high precision data from BaBar and Belle on pion and kaon production, with which we compare our calculations. For both deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive annihilation, the size of the combined corrections compared to the precision of world data is shown to be large. Therefore, we conclude that these theoretical corrections are relevant for global QCD fits in order to extract precise parton distributions at large Bjorken xB, and fragmentation functions over the whole kinematic range.

  16. Interplay of threshold resummation and hadron mass corrections in deep inelastic processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Accardi, Alberto; Anderle, Daniele P.; Ringer, Felix

    2015-02-01

    We discuss hadron mass corrections and threshold resummation for deep-inelastic scattering lN-->l'X and semi-inclusive annihilation e+e- → hX processes, and provide a prescription how to consistently combine these two corrections respecting all kinematic thresholds. We find an interesting interplay between threshold resummation and target mass corrections for deep-inelastic scattering at large values of Bjorken xB. In semi-inclusive annihilation, on the contrary, the two considered corrections are relevant in different kinematic regions and do not affect each other. A detailed analysis is nonetheless of interest in the light of recent high precision data from BaBar and Belle on pion and kaonmore » production, with which we compare our calculations. For both deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive annihilation, the size of the combined corrections compared to the precision of world data is shown to be large. Therefore, we conclude that these theoretical corrections are relevant for global QCD fits in order to extract precise parton distributions at large Bjorken xB, and fragmentation functions over the whole kinematic range.« less

  17. Fusion, deep-inelastic collisions, and neck formation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, C.E.; Barbosa, V.C.; Canto, L.F.; Donangelo, R.

    1988-07-01

    We use the liquid drop model to calculate the cross section for neck formation in a heavy-ion collision and show that for the recently measured /sup 58/Ni+/sup 124/Sn case this cross section is strongly related to the sum of the fusion and deep-inelastic cross sections. We note that the observation of deep-inelastic collisions at sub-Coulomb barrier energies may be classically understood by the effective barrier lowering obtained when the neck degree of freedom is considered.

  18. Lepton-quark scattering and nucleon spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, David

    Consideration is given to the asymmetries arising from the deep inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons with longitudinally polarized protons at ep collider energies. Information from such measurements will provide means for testing models of nucleon spin structure. The Carlitz-Kaur model of spin structure is used as a guide for estimating the behavior of these asymmetries, which arise from the interference of the electromagnetic and neutral currents.

  19. Transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy ion induced transfer reactions are usually considered to fall into two categories. Quasi-elastic processes, on one hand, are characterized by small energy transfers, with one-nucleon transfer reactions being a typical example. These processes are dominant for grazing collisions, and are generally described within simple one-step DWBA calculations. Deep inelastic reactions, on the other hand, occur for more central collisions where the interaction time is longer and subsequently more energy and particles can be exchanged. Quasi-elastic collisions dominate transfer reactions induced by light heavy ions (e.g., /sup 16/O) at energies not too high above the barrier, while deep inelastic collisions are observed mainly in reactions induced by heavier projectiles (Kr, Xe). In this contribution, we discuss the transition between these two processes for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb. /sup 48/Ti is located between light (/sup 16/O) and heavy (Kr) projectiles and should be well suited for a study of the interrelation between quasi- and deep-inelastic reactions. The experiments were performed with a 300 MeV /sup 48/Ti beam obtained from the Argonne National Laboratory superconducting linac. The outgoing particles were momentum analyzed in a split pole magnetic spectrograph and detected in the focal plane by a position sensitive ionization chamber. The specific energy loss, the magnetic rigidity and the total energy of the outgoing particles were measured enabling mass and Z-identification. The energy resolution was about 3 MeV, determined by the thickness of the /sup 208/Pb target, and thus excluded study of transfer reactions to discrete final states. Angular distributions were measured in the range theta/sub lab/ = 20/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ in steps of 5/sup 0/. 8 refs.

  20. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, E. ); Wuesthoff, M. )

    1994-10-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to the presentation and discussion of formulas for the cross section of photon diffractive dissociation. The calculations which we present in a very detailed way are based on perturbative QCD. We improve formulas which describe this process in the triple Regge limit where the square of the missing mass [ital M][sub [ital X

  1. Measurement of Single and Double Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal,; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKInnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Protopopescu; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stapanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-12-01

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A significant non-zero $\\sin2\\phi$ single spin asymmetry was also observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. The azimuthal modulations of single spin asymmetries have been measured over a wide kinematic range.

  2. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  3. The Proton Coulomb Form Factor from Polarized Inclusive e-p Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Harris

    2001-08-01

    The proton form factors provide information on the fundamental properties of the proton and provide a test for models based on QCD. In 1998 at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) in Newport News, VA, experiment E93026 measured the inclusive e-p scattering cross section from a polarized ammonia (15NH3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from the polarized target and the scattered electron was detected. Data has been analyzed to obtain the asymmetry from elastically scattered electrons from hydrogen in 15NH3. The asymmetry, Ap, has been used to determine the proton elastic form factor GEp. The result is consistent with the dipole model and data from previous experiments. However, due to the choice of kinematics, the uncertainty in the measurement is large.

  4. Two-photon exchange in elastic ep scattering and the status of the OLYMPUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasell, Douglas; Olympus Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Two-photon exchange in elastic ep scattering is believed to explain the observed discrepancy in the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, μpGEp /GMp , measured by Rosenbluth separation and by polarization transfer methods. To quantitatively determine the contribution of two-photon exchange to elastic scattering the OLYMPUS experiment was proposed and operated at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany to measure the ratio in the elastic scattering cross sections, σe+ p /σe- p . The OLYMPUS experiment used the positron and electron beams of the DORIS storage ring at a beam energy of 2.01 GeV incident on a windowless, internal, hydrogen gas target. A left/right symmetric detector measured the rates for elastic scattering over a broad kinematic range together with a redundant set of luminosity monitors. Approximately 4.45 fb-1 of integrated luminosity was collected. The current status of the OLYMPUS analysis will be presented.

  5. Multi-Point Thomson Scattering System Calibration and Measurements on HBT-EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, G. V.; Levesque, J. P.; Stoafer, C. C.; Mauel, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    A Thomson scattering (TS) system has been successfully installed and calibrated for diagnostics of HBT-EP. The TS system provides three spatial point measurements and has significantly improved upon the previous single point system. Analysis of Rayleigh Scattering was performed for an absolute density calibration of the TS system. Energy fluctuations in the output pulse from the Nd:YAG laser are individually recorded and accounted for using an integrating sphere and photodetector. Te and ne profiles have been investigated for varying wall configuration changes, including insertion of ferritic wall elements. We report our results, for the three spatial points, and measurements of the Te and ne evolution through typical HBT-EP discharges. The three fiber bundle system will be upgraded within the next grant period to allow measurement of ten spatial points. The ten point system will enhance our equilibrium reconstruction capability, improve stability analysis of the HBT-EP discharges, and allow for further understanding of the plasma characteristics during resistive wall mode (RWM) activity and active control experiments. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  6. Measurement of the structure function of the nearly free neutron using spectator tagging in inelastic 2H(e ,e'ps )X scattering with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, S.; Baillie, N.; Kuhn, S. E.; Zhang, J.; Arrington, J.; Bosted, P.; Bültmann, S.; Christy, M. E.; Fenker, H.; Griffioen, K. A.; Kalantarians, N.; Keppel, C. E.; Melnitchouk, W.; Tvaskis, V.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Lewis, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    Background: Much less is known about neutron structure than that of the proton due to the absence of free neutron targets. Neutron information is usually extracted from data on nuclear targets such as deuterium, requiring corrections for nuclear binding and nucleon off-shell effects. These corrections are model dependent and have significant uncertainties, especially for large values of the Bjorken scaling variable x . As a consequence, the same data can lead to different conclusions, for example, about the behavior of the d quark distribution in the proton at large x . Purpose: The Barely Off-shell Nucleon Structure experiment at Jefferson Lab measured the inelastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section, tagging spectator protons in coincidence with the scattered electrons. This method reduces nuclear binding uncertainties significantly and has allowed for the first time a (nearly) model-independent extraction of the neutron structure function F2(x ,Q2) in the resonance and deep-inelastic regions. Method: A novel compact radial time projection chamber was built to detect protons with momentum between 70 and 150 MeV/c and over a nearly 4 π angular range. For the extraction of the free-neutron structure function F2n, spectator protons at backward angles (>100∘ relative to the momentum transfer) and with momenta below 100 MeV/c were selected, ensuring that the scattering took place on a nearly free neutron. The scattered electrons were detected with Jefferson Lab's CLAS spectrometer, with data taken at beam energies near 2, 4, and 5 GeV. Results: The extracted neutron structure function F2n and its ratio to the inclusive deuteron structure function F2d are presented in both the resonance and the deep-inelastic regions for momentum transfer squared Q2 between 0.7 and 5 GeV2/c2 , invariant mass W between 1 and 2.7 GeV/c2 , and Bjorken x between 0.25 and 0.6 (in the deep-inelastic scattering region). The dependence of the semi-inclusive cross section on the

  7. Deep-inelastic diffraction and the pomeron as a single gluon

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1997-09-03

    Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling provides fundamental insight into the QCD pomeron. It is argued that single gluon domination of the structure function, together with the well-known Regge pole property, determines that the pomeron carries color-change parity C{sub c} = {minus}1 and, at short distances, is in a super-critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory. The main purpose of the talk is to describe the relationship of the super-critical pomeron to QCD.

  8. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4<Q2<2.7 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H. -J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z. -E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L. -G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y. -W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3He and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  9. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, E.

    1994-02-01

    Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.

  10. Demonstration of imaging X-ray Thomson scattering on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belancourt, Patrick X.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Keiter, Paul A.; Collins, Tim J. B.; Bonino, Mark J.; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Regan, Sean P.; Drake, R. Paul

    2016-11-01

    Foams are a common material for high-energy-density physics experiments because of low, tunable densities, and being machinable. Simulating these experiments can be difficult because the equation of state is largely unknown for shocked foams. The focus of this experiment was to develop an x-ray scattering platform for measuring the equation of state of shocked foams on OMEGA EP. The foam used in this experiment is resorcinol formaldehyde with an initial density of 0.34 g/cm3. One long-pulse (10 ns) beam drives a shock into the foam, while the remaining three UV beams with a 2 ns square pulse irradiate a nickel foil to create the x-ray backlighter. The primary diagnostic for this platform, the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer, spectrally resolves the scattered x-ray beam while imaging in one spatial dimension. Ray tracing analysis of the density profile gives a compression of 3 ± 1 with a shock speed of 39 ± 6 km/s. Analysis of the scattered x-ray spectra gives an upper bound temperature of 20 eV.

  11. Measurement of Beam-Spin Asymmetries for Deep Inelastic pi{sup +} Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    H. Avakian; Volker D. Burkert; Latifa Elouadrhiri; et. al.

    2002-12-01

    We report the first evidence for a non-zero beam-spin azimuthal asymmetry in the electroproduction of positive pions in the deep-inelastic region. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 4.3 GeV and with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The amplitude of the sin phi modulation increases with the momentum of the pion relative to the virtual photon, z, with an average amplitude of 0.038+/-0.005+/-0.003 for 0.5

  12. Beam single spin asymmetry of neutral pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenjuan; Lu, Zhun

    2013-01-01

    We study the beam spin asymmetry ALUsin⁡ϕh in semi-inclusive π0 electroproduction contributed by the T-odd twist-3 distribution function g⊥(x,kT2). We calculate this transverse momentum dependent distribution function for the u and d quarks inside the proton in a spectator model including the scalar and the axial-vector diquark components. Using the model results, we estimate the asymmetry ALUsin⁡ϕh in the ep→e'π0X process in which the lepton beam is longitudinally polarized. The model prediction is compared with the data measured by the CLAS and HERMES collaborations, and it is found that our numerical results agree with the experimental data reasonably. Especially, our results can well describe the CLAS data at the region where the Bjorken x and the pion transverse momentum is not large. We also make a prediction on the asymmetry ALUsin⁡ϕh in π0 electroproduction at CLAS12 using the same model calculation.

  13. Off-mass-shell dynamics in the calculation of deep inelastic scattering from nucleons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, L.S.; Pantziris, A.; Shakin, C.M.; Wang, H. Center for Nuclear Theory, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 )

    1990-01-01

    We discuss methods for the calculation of the electromagnetic response tensor, {ital W}{sub {mu}{nu}}, in terms of quark wave functions. We describe the consequences of various choices which can be made in the specification of the four-momentum of the quark and contrast the approximations we have made with those of the parton model.

  14. Access quark information in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at JLab-12GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiadong

    2009-01-01

    We outline a plan for a detailed study of SIDIS hadron-multiplicities (pion and kaon). The goal of this plan is to firmly establish the kinematic region over which SIDIS reaction can be reliably interpreted to the next-to-leading-order QCD in terms of parton distributions and fragmentation functions.

  15. Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering and Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberg, Leonard; Boer, Daniel; Musch, Bernhard; Prokudin, Alexei

    2011-12-14

    We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel-weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  16. Observation of the naive-T-odd Sivers effect in deep-inelastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Bacchetta, A; Ball, B; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Bonomo, C; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; López Ruiz, A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X-G; Lu, X-R; Ma, B-Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, H; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2009-10-01

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi(+), pi(0), and K(+/-), as well as in the difference of the pi(+) and pi(-) cross sections. PMID:19905623

  17. Analysis of the Diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering Data with Running Coupling and Gluon Number Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wen-Chang; Hu, Zhi-Hai; Liu, Wan-Song; Peng, Jun-Jin; Cai, Shao-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11305040, 11505036 and 11447203, the Education Department of Guizhou Province Talent Fund under Grant No [2015]5508, and the Science and Technology Department of Guizhou Province Fund under Grant Nos [2015]2114 and [2014]7053.

  18. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry Ayn in the Deep Inelastic Region from the Reaction 3He(e,e')

    SciTech Connect

    Katich, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A first measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry, Any, has been performed in deep-inelastic scattering of electrons from a 3He target polarized normal to the electron scattering plane. This asymmetry is void of contributions at the Born level, and thus is a direct observable for two-photon physics. The experiment was performed in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from October 2008 through early February 2009. The measurement is the first from a polarized neutron target. The final overall precision is several times better than previously existing SLAC proton data, and significantly extends the kinematic range over which the asymmetry has been measured. The asymmetry was measured at five kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region covering Q2 = 1 - 3 GeV2 and xB = 0.16 to 0.41. The asymmetry varied from 0.006 to 0.071 with astatistical precision at the 10-2 level.

  19. Inclusive D∗-meson production in ep scattering at low Q2 in the GM-VFN scheme at NLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G.; Spiesberger, H.

    2009-08-01

    We have calculated the next-to-leading order cross sections for the inclusive production of D∗-mesons in ep collisions at HERA for finite, although very small Q2. In this Q2-range, the same approximations as for photoproduction can be used. Our calculation is performed in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme. In this approach, large logarithms of the charm transverse momentum are resummed and finite terms depending on m2 /pT2 are kept in the hard scattering cross sections. The theoretical results are compared with recent data from the ZEUS Collaboration at HERA. On average, we find good agreement.

  20. Polarised Parton Densities from the Fits to the Deep Inelastic Spin Asymmetries on Nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2001-07-01

    We have updated our next to leading order QCD fit for polarised parton densities [S. Tatur, J. Bartelski, M. Kurzela, Acta Phys. Pol. B31, 647 (2000)] using recent experimental data on the deep inelastic spin asymmetries on nucleons. Our distributions have functional form inspired by the unpolarised ones given by MRST (Martin, Roberts, Stirling and Thorne) fit. In addition to usually used data sample (averaged over variable Q2 for the same value of x variable) we have also considered the points with the same x and different Q2. Our fits to both groups of data give very similar results with substantial antiquark contribution in the measured region of x. In the first case we get rather small (Δ G=0.31) gluon polarisation. For the non averaged data the best fit is obtained when gluon contribution vanishes at Q2=1GeV2. Our new parametrisation of parton densities and additional experimental data taken into account do not change much our previous results.

  1. N/Z Equilibration in Deep Inelastic Collisions and the Fragmentation of the Resulting Quasiprojectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keksis, August; Veselsky, Martin; Souliotis, George; Shetty, Dinesh; Jandel, Marian; Bell, Elizabeth; Ruangma, Ananya; Winchester, Eileen; Garey, Josh; Parketon, Sara; Richers, Cass; Yennello, Sherry

    2007-10-01

    When target and projectile nuclei have different N/Z, the quasiprojectiles formed in deep inelastic collisions should have a mean N/Z between that of the N/Z of the target and the N/Z of the projectile. This depends on the amount of N/Z equilibration that occurred. Six reaction systems with different N/Z between target and projectile were studied at Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute. The fragments were measured with FAUST, the Forward Array Using Silicon Technology. Two techniques were used to determine the quasiprojectile N/Z, which were then compared to a fully N/Z equilibrated system to study the amount of N/Z equilibration. The fragmentation of the quasiprojectiles was studied using isobaric, isotopic, fractional and mean N/Z yield comparisons between systems. The results show that the neutron richness of the system affects the fragment yields, with the neutron-rich nuclides populated preferentially by the neutron-rich systems. The N/Z distribution of the fragment yields was also studied and an inhomogeneous N/Z distribution between the LCPs (Z<3) and IMF's (Z>2) was observed. This research was funded in part by the Department of Energy through grant DE-FG03-93ER40773 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation through grant A-1266.

  2. Recent searches for superheavy elements in deep-inelastic reactions. [Approximately 7 MeV/. mu.

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    New attempts have been made to synthesize superheavy elements (SHE) by nuclear reactions that may possibly form the products at low excitation energies. Survival of the superheavy elements would then be enhanced because of reduced losses from prompt fission. Classical and diffusion-model calculations of deep-inelastic reactions indicate there should be detectable yields of SHE formed with less than 30 MeV of excitation energy. Accordingly, superheavy elements have been sought in such reactions where targets of /sup 248/Cm and /sup 238/U have been irradiated with /sup 136/Xe and /sup 238/U ions. In the most recent experiments, targets of /sup 248/Cm metal (3.5 to 7 mg-cm/sup -2/) were bombarded with 1.8-GeV /sup 238/U ions from the UNILAC accelerator. The longer-lived SHE and actinides near the target Z were chemically separated, and the yields of a number of isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm were measured. An upper limit of 30 nb was obtained for the formation of 1-h /sup 259/No. In addition to the off-line chemical recovery and search for SHE, an on-line experiment was performed to detect volatile SHE with half-lives of a minute or more. All experiments to produce and detect superheavy elements were much less than optimum because of premature failures in the Cm-metal targets. The outcome and status of these experiments and the implications of the actinide yields in estimating the chances for forming superheavy elements in the /sup 248/Cm + /sup 238/U reactions are discussed. 5 figures, 1 table.

  3. γZ corrections to forward-angle parity-violating ep scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alex Sibirtsev; Blunden, Peter G.; Melnitchouk, Wally; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2010-07-30

    We use dispersion relations to evaluate the γZ box contribution to parity-violating electron scattering in the forward limit, taking into account constraints from recent JLab data on electroproduction in the resonance region as well as high energy data from HERA. The correction to the asymmetry is found to be 1.2 +- 0.2% at the kinematics of the JLab Qweak experiment, which is well within the limits required to achieve a 4% measurement of the weak charge of the proton.

  4. Contributions From yZ Box Diagrams to Parity Violating Elastic e-p Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Rislow, Carl Carlson

    2011-06-01

    Parity-violating (PV) elastic electron-proton scattering measures Q-weak for the proton, Q{sub W}{sup p}. To extract Q{sub W}{sup p} from data, all radiative corrections must be well-known. Recently, disagreement on the {gamma}Z box contribution to Q{sub W}{sup p} has prompted the need for further analysis of this term. Here, we support one choice of a debated factor, go beyond the previously assumed equality of electromagnetic and {gamma}Z structure functions, and find an analytic result for one of the {gamma}Z box integrals. Our numerical evaluation of the {gamma}Z box is in agreement within errors with previous reports, albeit somewhat larger in central value, and is within the uncertainty requirements of current experiments.

  5. Quark combinatorics and the spectra of hadrons in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation and in deep inelastic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Anisovich, V.V.; Volkovitskii, P.E.; Kobrinskii, M.N.

    1982-07-01

    The predictions of statistical quark-model calculations (quark combinatorics) are compared with the data on the production of pions, kaons, rho mesons, and antiprotons in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. We show that a successful description of the spectra of secondary hadrons (s/..beta..)(dsigma/dx/sub E/) (e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..hadrons) in the region 0.1deep inelastic lepton-hadron collisions in the current fragmentation region are given.

  6. Rates for inclusive deep-inelastic electroproduction of charm quarks at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemersma, S.; Smith, J.; van Neerven, W. L.

    1995-02-01

    The coefficient functions for heavy flavour production in deeply inelastic electron hadron scattering have been calculated previously. These functions are so long that no analytic expressions could be published. Therefore we have tabulated them as two-dimensional arrays as is often done for the scale dependent parton densities. Using this computer program we present event rates for charm production at HERA in bins of x and Q2. These rates are insensitive to variations in the factorization and renormalization scale μ.

  7. Possible indication of an A-dependence of R in deep-inelastic electron scattering from nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of R for deuterium, He, Al, Fe and Au were made at Q/sup 2/ = 5 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ and x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. An indication of a possible A-dependence of R has been found which would result in large differences among sigma/sup A//sigma/sup d/, F/sub 2//sup A//F/sub 2//sup d/ and F/sub 1//sup A//F/sub 1//sup d/. 7 references, 4 figures.

  8. A Study of the Nuclear-Medium Influence on Transverse Momentum of Hadrons Produced in Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Agababyan, N.M.; Ammosov, V.V.; Ivanilov, A.A.; Korotkov, V.A.; Atayan, M.; Grigoryan, N.; Gulkanyan, H.; Karamyan, Zh.

    2005-07-01

    The influence of nuclear effects on the transverse momentum (p{sub T}) of neutrino-produced hadrons is investigated using the data obtained with the SKAT propane-freon bubble chamber irradiated in the neutrino beam (with E{sub {nu}} = 3-30 GeV) at the Serpukhov accelerator. It has been observed that the nuclear effects cause an enhancement of of hadrons produced in the target fragmentation region at low invariant mass of the hadronic system (2 < W < 4 GeV) and at low energies transferred to the hadrons (2 < {nu} < 9 GeV). At higher W and {nu}, no influence of nuclear effects on is observed. Measurement results are compared with predictions of a simple model, incorporating secondary intranuclear interactions of hadrons, which qualitatively reproduces the main features of the data.

  9. QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering: Laplace transform and Jacobi polynomials approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Tehrani, S. Atashbar; Mahdavi, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions x F3(x ,Q2) , based on Laplace transforms and the Jacobi polynomials approach. The analysis corresponds to the next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order approximations of perturbative QCD. The Laplace transform technique, as an exact analytical solution, is used for the solution of nonsinglet Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations at low- and large-x values. The extracted results are used as input to obtain the x and Q2 evolution of x F3(x ,Q2) structure functions using the Jacobi polynomials approach. In our work, the values of the typical QCD scale ΛMS¯ (nf) and the strong coupling constant αs(MZ2) are determined for four quark flavors (nf=4 ) as well. A careful estimation of the uncertainties shall be performed using the Hessian method for the valence-quark distributions, originating from the experimental errors. We compare our valence-quark parton distribution functions sets with those of other collaborations, in particular with the CT14, MMHT14, and NNPDF sets, which are contemporary with the present analysis. The obtained results from the analysis are in good agreement with those from the literature.

  10. Constraints on large-x parton distributions from new weak boson production and deep-inelastic scattering data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Accardi, A.; Brady, L. T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Owens, J. F.; Sato, N.

    2016-06-20

    Here, we present a new set of leading twist parton distribution functions, referred to as "CJ15", which take advantage of developments in the theoretical treatment of nuclear corrections as well as new data. The analysis includes for the first time data on the free neutron structure function from Jefferson Lab, and new high-precision charged lepton and W-boson asymmetry data from Fermilab, which significantly reduce the uncertainty on the d/u ratio at large values of x.

  11. Measurement of ep{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} beam spin asymmetries above the resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Masi, R. De; Morrow, S. A.; Garcon, M.; Ball, J.; Procureur, S.; Sabatie, F.; Zhao, B.; Joo, K.; Markov, N.; Ungaro, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Bueltmann, S.; Careccia, S. L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dodge, G. E.; Gavalian, G.; Guler, N.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Kalantarians, N.

    2008-04-15

    The beam spin asymmetry (BSA) in the exclusive reaction e-vectorp{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} was measured with the CEBAF 5.77 GeV polarized electron beam and Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The x{sub B},Q{sup 2},t, and {phi} dependences of the {pi}{sup 0} BSA are presented in the deep inelastic regime. The asymmetries are fitted with a sin{phi} function and their amplitudes are extracted. Overall, they are of the order of 0.04-0.11 and roughly independent of t. This is the signature of a nonzero longitudinal-transverse interference. The implications concerning the applicability of a formalism based on generalized parton distributions, as well as the extension of a Regge formalism at high photon virtualities, are discussed.

  12. Intracardiac electrophysiology study (EPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rhythms - EPS; Bradycardia - EPS; Tachycardia - EPS; Fibrillation - EPS; Arrhythmia - EPS; Heart block - EPS ... you have signs of an abnormal heart rhythm ( arrhythmia ). You may need to have other tests before ...

  13. Structure of ²⁰⁷Pb populated in ²⁰⁸Pb + ²⁰⁸Pb deep-inelastic collisions*

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, C. M.; Wilson, E.; Podolyák, Zs.; Grawe, H.; Brown, B. A.; Fornal, B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Bowry, M.; Bunce, M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Carroll, R. J.; Chiara, C. J.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Deo, A. Y.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kempley, R. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Lane, G. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Lotay, G.; Reed, M. W.; Regan, P. H.; Rodriguez-Triguero, C.; Seweryniak, D.; Szpak, B.; Walker, P. M.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    The yrast structure of 207Pb above the 13/2+ isomeric state has been investigated in deep-inelastic collisions of 208Pb and 208Pb at ATLAS, Argonne National Laboratory. New and previously observed transitions were measured using the Gammasphere detector array. The level scheme of 207Pb is presented up to ~ 6 MeV, built using coincidence and γ-ray intensity analyses. In addition, the spin and parity assignments of states were made, based on angular distributions and comparisons to shell model calculations.

  14. A study of nuclear effect in F{sub 3} structure function in the deep inelastic v(v-bar) reactions in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.; Simo, I. Ruiz; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2009-11-25

    We study nuclear effect in the F{sub 3}{sup A}(x) structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, target mass correction, shadowing and anti-shadowing corrections. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. Results for F{sub 3}{sup A}(x) have been compared with the results reported at NuTeV and also with some of the older experiments reported in the literature.

  15. Structure of ²⁰⁷Pb populated in ²⁰⁸Pb + ²⁰⁸Pb deep-inelastic collisions*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shand, C. M.; Wilson, E.; Podolyák, Zs.; Grawe, H.; Brown, B. A.; Fornal, B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Bowry, M.; Bunce, M.; Carpenter, M. P.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The yrast structure of 207Pb above the 13/2+ isomeric state has been investigated in deep-inelastic collisions of 208Pb and 208Pb at ATLAS, Argonne National Laboratory. New and previously observed transitions were measured using the Gammasphere detector array. The level scheme of 207Pb is presented up to ~ 6 MeV, built using coincidence and γ-ray intensity analyses. In addition, the spin and parity assignments of states were made, based on angular distributions and comparisons to shell model calculations.

  16. Weak-electromagnetic interference in polarized eD scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    Observation of parity non-conservation in deep-inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from deuterium was reported in an experiment at SLAC in 1978. The events at SLAC and elsewhere leading to the successful search for parity non-conservation in the electromagnetic processes are described.

  17. Probing Quark-Gluon Structure of Matter with e-p and e-A Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the strong interaction (QCD) in the truly strong ('non-perturbative') region remains a major challenge in modern physics. Nucleon and nuclei provide natural laboratories to study the strong interaction. The quark-gluon structure of the nucleon and nuclei are important by themselves since they are the main (>99%) part of the visible world. With electroweak interaction well-understood, e-p and e-A are clean means to probe the nucleon and nuclear structure and to study the strong interaction (QCD). Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinally-polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions (PDFs). It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse structure (both transverse spatial structure via generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum structure via transverse- momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs)) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction(QCD). The transverse spin, GPDs and TMDs have been the subjects of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With 12 GeV energy upgrade, Jefferson Lab (JLab) will provide the most precise multi-dimensional map of the TMDs and GPDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) and Deep-Exclusive experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum and spatial spaces. The precision information on TMDs and GPDs will provide access to the quark orbital angular momentum and its correlation with the quark and the nucleon spins. The planned future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will enable a precision study of the TMDs and GPDs of the sea quarks and gluons, in addition to completing the study in the valence region. The EIC will also open a new window to study the role of gluons in nuclei.

  18. Determination of the weak charge of the proton through parity violating asymmetry measurements in the elastic e+p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Adesh

    2014-12-01

    The Qweak experiment has taken data to make a 2.5% measurement of parity violating elastic e+p asymmetry in the four momentum transfer region of 0.0250 (GeV/c)2. This asymmetry is proportional to the weak charge of the proton, which is related to the weak mixing angle, sin2(theta_W). The final Qweak measurement will provide the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle below the Z0 pole to test the Standard Model prediction. A description of the experimental apparatus is provided in this dissertation. The experiment was carried out using a longitudinally polarized electron beam of up to 180 microampere on a 34.5 cm long unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The Qweak target is not only the world's highest cryogenic target ever built for a parity experiment but also is the least noisy target. This dissertation provides a detailed description of this target and presents a thorough analysis of the target performance. Statistical analysis of Run 1 data, collected between Feb - May 2011, is done to extract a blinded parity violating asymmetry of size -299.7 ± 13.4 (stat.) ± 17.2 (syst.) ± 68 (blinding) parts-per-billion. This resulted in a preliminary proton's weak charge of value 0.0865 ± 0.0085, a 9% measurement. Based on this blinded asymmetry, the weak mixing angle was determined to be sin2(theta_W) = 0.23429 ± 0.00211.

  19. Towards a Precision Measurement of Parity-Violating e-p Elastic Scattering at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Q-weak experiment is to make a measurement of the proton's weak charge QWp = 1 - 4 sin2W2(θW2(θWWp by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer Q2 = 0.026 (GeV/c)2 and forward angles (8 degrees). The anticipated size of the asymmetry, based on the SM, is about 230 parts per billion (ppb). With the proposed accuracy, the experiment may probe new physics beyond Standard Model at the TeV scale. This thesis focuses on my contributions to the experiment, including track reconstruction for momentum transfer determination of the scattering process, and the focal plane scanner, a detector I designed and built to measure the flux profile of scattered electrons on the focal plane of the Q-weak spectrometer to assist in the extrapolation of low beam current tracking results to high beam current. Preliminary results from the commissioning and the first run period of the Q-weak experiment are reported and discussed.

  20. Transverse Spin Structure of the Nucleon through Target Single Spin Asymmetry in Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic $(e,e^\\prime \\pi^\\pm)$ Reaction at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H; Chen, J -P; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Huang, M; Afanasev, A; Anselmino, M; Avakian, H; Cates, G; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; de Jager, C; Garibaldi, F; Hu, B T; Jiang, X; Kumar, K S; Li, X M; Lu, H J; Meziani, Z -E; Ma, B -Q; Mao, Y J; Peng, J -C; Prokudin, A; Schlegel, M; Souder, P; Xiao, Z G; Ye, Y; Zhu, L

    2011-01-01

    Jefferson Lab (JLab) 12 GeV energy upgrade provides a golden opportunity to perform precision studies of the transverse spin and transverse-momentum-dependent structure in the valence quark region for both the proton and the neutron. In this paper, we focus our discussion on a recently approved experiment on the neutron as an example of the precision studies planned at JLab. The new experiment will perform precision measurements of target Single Spin Asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive electro-production of charged pions from a 40-cm long transversely polarized $^3$He target in Deep-Inelastic-Scattering kinematics using 11 and 8.8 GeV electron beams. This new coincidence experiment in Hall A will employ a newly proposed solenoid spectrometer (SoLID). The large acceptance spectrometer and the high polarized luminosity will provide precise 4-D ($x$, $z$, $P_T$ and $Q^2$) data on the Collins, Sivers, and pretzelocity asymmetries for the neutron through the azimuthal angular dependence. The full 2$\\pi$ azimuthal angular coverage in the lab is essential in controlling the systematic uncertainties. The results from this experiment, when combined with the proton Collins asymmetry measurement and the Collins fragmentation function determined from the e$^+$e$^-$ collision data, will allow for a quark flavor separation in order to achieve a determination of the tensor charge of the d quark to a 10% accuracy. The extracted Sivers and pretzelocity asymmetries will provide important information to understand the correlations between the quark orbital angular momentum and the nucleon spin and between the quark spin and nucleon spin.

  1. Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

  2. Single particle structure of 209,210Pb and 206Hg investigated through the deep inelastic reaction 136Xe +208 Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamill, C. R.; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Barrett, J. S.; Loveland, W.; Yanez, R.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Chiara, C. J.; Harker, J. L.; Walters, W. B.; Brown, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    The region of nuclei around 208Pb is rich in information relevant to nuclear structure and astrophysics, yet is relatively unexplored. To access these nuclei, a deep inelastic reaction was performed at Argonne National Laboratory's Gammasphere, where a 136Xe beam was incident on a 208Pb target. Our analysis focused on209Pb, 210Pb and 206Hg, and our findings of new relevant information include energy level schemes, angular correlations resulting in level spins and gamma-ray multipolarities, and half-lives of isomeric states. Known transitions in these nuclei were observed and confirmed and coincidence techniques were used to expand upon this data to discover new excited states. The results from this study were compared to theoretical shell model calculations and states interpreted in terms of valence nucleon excitation or coupling of the extra neutron(s) or proton holes to the double magic (Z = 82, N =126) 208Pb core. Results will be presented. Supported by US DOE under the SULI Program and Award No. DE-FG06-97ER41026 and No. DE-FG02-94ER40834 and Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and No. DE-AC02-06CH10886.

  3. Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2010-11-01

    In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.

  4. Measurement of Single and Double Spin Asymmetries in p(e, e' pi(+/-,0))X Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawalkar, Sucheta Shrikant

    Measurements in the late 1980s at CERN revealed that quark spins account for a small fraction of the proton's spin. This so-called spin crisis spurred a number of new experiments to identify the proton's silent spin contributors, namely, the spin of the gluons, which hold the quarks together, and the orbital angular momentum of both quarks and gluons. One such experiment was eg1-dvcs at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., which ran in 2009 and collected approximately 19 billion electron triggers for hydrogen. I will present new measurements of the single and double-spin asymmetries ALU, AUL and ALL for pi+, pi - and pi0, measured as a function of Bjorken xB, squared momentum transfer Q2, hadron energy fraction z, and hadron transverse momentum Ph ⊥. These asymmetries, which are convolutions of transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions and fragmentation functions, correlate with the transverse momentum, and therefore with the orbital motion, of the struck quark.

  5. Measurement of D{plus-minus} and D{sup 0} production in deep Inelastic scattering using a lifetime tag at HERA.

    SciTech Connect

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Nicholass, D.; High Energy Physics; ZEUS Collboration

    2009-10-01

    The production of D{sup {+-}}- and D{sup 0}-mesons has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 133.6 pb{sup -1}. The measurements cover the kinematic range 5 < Q{sup 2} < 1000 GeV{sup 2}, 0.02 < y < 0.7, 1.5 < p T{sup D} < 15 GeV and |{eta}{sup D}| < 1.6. Combinatorial background to the D-meson signals is reduced by using the ZEUS microvertex detector to reconstruct displaced secondary vertices. Production cross sections are compared with the predictions of next-to-leading-order QCD, which is found to describe the data well. Measurements are extrapolated to the full kinematic phase space in order to obtain the open-charm contribution, F{sub 2}{sup c{bar c}} to the proton structure function, F{sub 2}.

  6. Single Spin Asymmetries in Charged Pion Production from Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized $^3$He Target

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X; Allada, K; Huang, J; Katich, J; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J.R.M.; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P.A.M.; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A.J.R.; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2011-08-01

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries in the semi-inclusive $^3{He}(e,e'\\pi^\\pm)X$ reaction on a transversely polarized target. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.9 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 0.14 $< x <$ 0.34 with 1.3 $

  7. Constrained gamma-Z interference corrections to parity-violating electron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Nathan Luke; Blunden, Peter Gwithian; Melnitchouk, Wally; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of gamma-Z interference corrections to the weak charge of the proton measured in parity-violating electron scattering, including a survey of existing models and a critical analysis of their uncertainties. Constraints from parton distributions in the deep-inelastic region, together with new data on parity-violating electron scattering in the resonance region, result in significantly smaller uncertainties on the corrections compared to previous estimates. At the kinematics of the Qweak experiment, we determine the gamma-Z box correction to be Re\\box_{gamma-Z}^V = (5.61 +- 0.36) x 10^{-3}. The new constraints also allow precise predictions to be made for parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries on the deuteron.

  8. Parity Violation Inelastic Scattering Experiments at 6 GeV and 12 GeV Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Sulkosky, Vincent A.; et. al.,

    2015-03-01

    We report on the measurement of parity-violating asymmetries in the deep inelastic scattering and nucleon resonance regions using inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized deuterium target. The effective weak couplings C$_{2q}$ are accessible through the deep-inelastic scattering measurements. Here we report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry, which yields a determination of 2C$_{2u}$ - C$_{2d}$ with an improved precision of a factor of five relative to the previous result. This result indicates evidence with 95% confidence that the 2C$_{2u}$ - C$_{2d}$ is non-zero. This experiment also provides the first parity-violation data covering the whole resonance region, which provide constraints on nucleon resonance models. Finally, the program to extend these measurements at Jefferson Lab in the 12 GeV era using the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device was also discussed.

  9. Recent HERMES results on transverse-momentum dependent phenomena from scattering off unpolarised targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyan, Gevorg

    2015-01-01

    HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg collected a wealth of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data using the 27.6 GeV lepton beam and pure gaseous, unpolarised hydrogen and deuterium targets. These data can be used in studies of the transverse-momentum dependent effects and can provide a check of existing models for transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions.

  10. Photon bremsstrahlung from quark jet via transverse and longitudinal scattering: Single versus multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu; Qin, Guang-You

    2016-08-01

    We study the production of jet-bremsstrahlung photons through scattering with the constituents of dense nuclear matter within the framework of deep-inelastic scattering off a large nucleus. Applying a gradient expansion up to the second order for the exchanged three-dimensional momentum between jet and medium, we derive the single-photon bremsstrahlung spectrum with the inclusion of contributions from the transverse broadening as well as the longitudinal drag and diffusion of the hard parton's momentum. We also compare the medium-induced photon radiation spectra for single scattering and from the resummation of multiple scatterings. It is found that the coupling between different scatterings can give an additional contribution to medium-induced photon radiation, while for small momentum exchange the leading contribution from the drag and diffusions to the photon emission spectra remain the same for single and multiple scatterings.

  11. Parity-Violating and Parity-Conserving Asymmetries in e->p and e->N Scattering in the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deconinck, Wouter; Qweak Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab has made the first determination of the weak charge of the proton in elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized protons at a momentum transfer Q2 of 0.025 (GeV/c)2. To achieve the required precision to measure the small parity-violating asymmetry of -279 parts per billion, we directed a 180 μA 85%-polarized electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target and integrated scattered events in eight azimuthally symmetric fused silica Cerenkov detectors. Based on 4% of the total data collected by the experiment, we find a value for the weak charge of proton in agreement with predictions of the Standard Model. To correct for the contributions from background processes, we conducted several additional parity-violating and parity-conserving asymmetry measurements with different kinematics (elastic and N --> Δ), electron polarization (longitudinal and transverse), and targets (protons, electrons, aluminum, and carbon). In many cases, these ancillary results are first or high-precision measurements as well. I will discuss the analysis and anticipated results of the main experiment with a focus on several of the ancillary results. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1405857.

  12. Measurement of parity-violating asymmetry in electron-deuteron inelastic scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Subedi, R.; Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bellini, V.; Beminiwattha, R.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally-polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were publishedmore » earlier, but are presented here in more detail.« less

  13. Measurement of parity-violating asymmetry in electron-deuteron inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Subedi, R.; Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bellini, V.; Beminiwattha, R.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Dutta, C.; Fassi, L. El; Erler, J.; Flay, D.; Franklin, G. B.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Golge, S.; Grimm, K.; Hafidi, K.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Hyde, C. E.; Jen, C. M.; Jones, D.; Kang, Hoyoung; King, P. M.; Kowalski, S.; Kumar, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; LeRose, J. J.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; McNulty, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D. G.; Mercado, L.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Mesick, K. E.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman, none; Oh, Y.; Parno, D.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Quinn, B.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Rider, K.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Rubin, J.; Russo, G.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Silwal, R.; Sirca, S.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, L.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.

    2015-04-01

    The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally-polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were published earlier, but are presented here in more detail.

  14. REVIVING AND UPGRADING OF THE EP DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriquez, I.; Higinbotham, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, an electron beam is used to probe the fundamental properties of the nucleus. In these experiments, it is essential to know the precise energy of the beam. An important instrument along the beamline to measure the beam energy is the eP device. The device measures the scattered electron angle and the recoil proton angle of an elastic collision. From these angle measurements, the beam energy can be calculated. Many eP device components such as computer software, controls, and mechanical parts needed to be upgraded and/or replaced in order for the eP device to be operational again. A research study was conducted of the current hydrogen target and its properties as well as alternate targets for better performance. As the maximum electron beam energy incident on the eP device will soon be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV, an analysis was also done on potential changes to the position of the electron and proton detectors in order to accommodate this change. Calculations show that for the new energy upgrade, electron detectors need to be positioned at 5° above and below the beamline to measure the energy of 12 GeV. New proton detectors need to be placed at an angle of 49.2° above and below the beamline to measure energies of 6.6 GeV and 8.8 GeV. With these changes the eP device will measure the range of new energies from 2.2 GeV to 12 GeV. From the target research studies it was found that a carbon nanotube mixture with polypropylene could be the ideal target for the eP device because of its high thermal conductivity and its high hydrogen content. The changes made to the eP device demonstrate the importance of continued research and new technologies.

  15. Inclusive Inelastic Electron Scattering from Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, Nadia

    2007-10-26

    Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and Q{sup 2} is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi-elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark consitituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the infiuence of final state interactions and the approach to y-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to x-scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

  16. eP physics at the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.E.; White, D.H.; Morse, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    In this report we have tried to demonstrate how a 20 x 400 GeV eP facility at the CBA will complement the future physics of high energy e+e/sup -/ and hadron-hadron colliders. By offering the first glimpse of the physics of 17 TeV muon and neutrino beams, an eP collider will extend tests of the standard model by about an order of magnitude in spacelike momentum transfer, and thus close the final kinematic gap of knowledge about electro-weak processes. It will be especially interesting to test whether the lefthanded nature of the charged current observed at low spacelike momentum transfers persists to large, spacelike momentum transfers. A high energy eP collider also enables unique tests of QCD such as a study of high Q/sup 2/ scale breaking and the high P/sub t/ QCD Compton process. In addition to probing small distance behavior in kinematic regions orthogonal to other collider facilities, an eP facility will generate data useful to understanding the physics of e+e/sup -/ and hadron-hadron collisions. The current jet produced in the high energy eP neutral current process is produced against a single electron which can be used to predict the momentum of the quark which gives rise to the jet. Hence the central problem in jet physics of deducing the kinematics of a quark by measurement of its hadronization jet can be studied under uniquely controlled circumstances. Finally the high Q/sup 2/ structure functions of the proton which are essential in understanding hard process in hadron-hadron scattering can only be cleanly measured in an eP collider.

  17. eP physics at the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.E.; White, D.H.; Morse, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    In this report we have tried to demonstrate how a 20 x 400 GeV ep facility at the CBA will complement the physics of high energy e/sup -/e/sup +/ and hadron-hadron colliders. An ep collider will extend tests of the standard model by about an order of magnitude in spacelike momentum transfer, and extend our knowledge of electro-weak processes to a remarkable degree. It will be especially interesting to see if the lefthanded nature of the charged current observed at low spacelike momentum transfers persists to large, space momentum transfers. A high energy ep collider is unique in the opportunity to investigate QCD through the scale breaking at high Q/sup 2/ the high P/sub t/ QCD Compton process. In addition to probing small distance behavior in kinematic regions orthogonal to other collider facilities, an ep facility will generate data ultimately crucial to the understanding of the physics of e/sup +/e/sup -/ and hadron-hadron collisions. The current jet that is produced in the high energy ep neutral current process recoils against a single electron which can be used to predict the momentum of the quark which gives rise to the jet. The central problem in jet physics of deducing the kinematics of a quark by measurement of its hadronization jet can be studied under uniquely controlled circumstances. Finally the high Q/sup 2/ structure functions of the proton which are essential in understanding hard processes in hadron-hadron scattering can only be cleanly measured in an ep collider.

  18. Jet production in muon-proton and muon-nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Proton Muon- Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Proton deep-inelastic scattering are compared to perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) and Monte Carlo model predictions. We observe hadronic (2+1)-jet rates which are a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the partonic level. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a suppression of the jet rates as compared to deuterium. The two- forward jet sample present higher suppression as compared to the one-forward jet sample.

  19. Large corrections to high-pT hadron-hadron scattering in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. K.; Furman, M. A.; Haber, H. E.; Hinchliffe, I.

    1980-10-27

    In this paper, we have computed the first non-trivial QCD corrections to the quark-quark scattering process which contributes to the production of hadrons at large pT in hadron-hadron collisions. Using quark distribution functions defined in deep inelastic scattering and fragmentation functions defined in one particle inclusive e+e- annihilation, we find that the corrections are large. Finally, this implies that QCD perturbation theory may not be reliable for large-pT haron physics.

  20. Spherical momentum distribution of the protons in hexagonal ice from modeling of inelastic neutron scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammini, D.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Andreani, C.; McBride, F.; Hodgson, A.; Adams, M. A.; Lin, L.; Car, R.

    2012-01-01

    The spherical momentum distribution of the protons in ice is extracted from a high resolution deep inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Following a recent path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study, data were successfully interpreted in terms of an anisotropic Gaussian model, with a statistical accuracy comparable to that of the model independent scheme used previously, but providing more detailed information on the three dimensional potential energy surface experienced by the proton. A recently proposed theoretical concept is also employed to directly calculate the mean force from the experimental neutron Compton profile, and to evaluate the accuracy required to unambiguously resolve and extract the effective proton potential from the experimental data.

  1. Spherical momentum distribution of the protons in hexagonal ice from modeling of inelastic neutron scattering data.

    PubMed

    Flammini, D; Pietropaolo, A; Senesi, R; Andreani, C; McBride, F; Hodgson, A; Adams, M A; Lin, L; Car, R

    2012-01-14

    The spherical momentum distribution of the protons in ice is extracted from a high resolution deep inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Following a recent path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study, data were successfully interpreted in terms of an anisotropic Gaussian model, with a statistical accuracy comparable to that of the model independent scheme used previously, but providing more detailed information on the three dimensional potential energy surface experienced by the proton. A recently proposed theoretical concept is also employed to directly calculate the mean force from the experimental neutron Compton profile, and to evaluate the accuracy required to unambiguously resolve and extract the effective proton potential from the experimental data. PMID:22260600

  2. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions and the MINERvA Neutrino Nucleus Scattering Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfín, Jorge G.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering have been studied in the frame-work of a χ2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs)1. A set of iron PDFs have been extracted which are then used to compute xBj-dependent and Q2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. Upon comparing our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for l±-iron scattering we find that, except for very high xBj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering. The MINERvA neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab, will systematically study neutrino nuclear effects off of He, C, Fe and Pb for a more thorough A-dependent study of nuclear PDFs and these correction factors.

  3. Theory of high-energy electron scattering by composite targets

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of these expository lectures is on the role of relativistic invariance and the unity of the theory for medium and high energies. Sec. 2 introduces the kinematic notation and provides an elementary derivation of the general cross section. The relevant properties of the Poincare group and the transformation properties of current operators and target states are described in Sec 3. In Sec. 4 representations of target states with kinematic light-front symmetry are briefly discussed. The focus is on two applications. An impulse approximation of inclusive electron nucleus scattering at both medium and high energies. A parton model of the proton applied to deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons by polarized protons. 19 refs.

  4. The single particle dynamics of iodine in the Sachs-Teller regime: An inelastic x-ray scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, M. G.; Bencivenga, F.; Di Fonzo, S.; Cunsolo, A.; Verbeni, R.; De Lorenzo, R. Gimenez

    2010-09-28

    The high frequency dynamics of liquid iodine has been investigated by deep inelastic x-ray scattering at exchanged wave-vectors (q) ranging from 2.5 to 15 A{sup -1}. The experimental data have been analyzed in the frame of the Sachs-Teller theory of the molecular spectrum while accounting for final state corrections to the lineshape. The performed data analysis carries insights on physical quantities as relevant as the mean rototranslational kinetic energy and the mean square Laplacian of the intermolecular potential. In both cases the measured values are consistent with corresponding theoretical expectations.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STATUS DVCS epepγ AND en → enγ AT JEFFERSON LAB-HALL A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdi, C.

    2005-02-01

    The experiments E00-110 and E03-106 [1] propose to measure the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) epepγ and en → enγ in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 5.75 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam. The exclusivity requires the High Resolution Spectrometer of the Hall A for the detection of the scattered electron (∆p/p = 10-4), an electromagnetic calorimeter for the detection of the real photon (σ/E < 5%) and a scintillator array for the detection of the third particle. A 1 GHz sampling system allows one to deal with pile-up as expected from running detectors at small angles and high luminosity L = 1037 cm-2 s-1. We will describe the apparatus and will explain the method to extract GPDs and evaluate the contributions from higher twists from the measurement of the cross-section difference.

  6. The role of alginate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa EPS adherence, viscoelastic properties and cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Orgad, Oded; Oren, Yoram; Walker, Sharon L; Herzberg, Moshe

    2011-08-01

    Among various functions, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provide microbial biofilms with mechanical stability and affect initial cell attachment, the first stage in the biofilm formation process. The role of alginate, an abundant polysaccharide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, in the viscoelastic properties and adhesion kinetics of EPS was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technology. EPS was extracted from two P. aeruginosa biofilms, a wild type strain, PAO1, and a mucoid strain, PAOmucA22 that over-expresses alginate production. The higher alginate content in the EPS originating from the mucoid biofilms was clearly shown to increase both the rate and the extent of attachment of the EPS, as well as the layer's thickness. Also, the presence of calcium and elevated ionic strength increased the thickness of the EPS layer. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the presence of calcium and elevated ionic strength induced intermolecular attractive interactions in the mucoid EPS molecules. For the wild type EPS, in the presence of calcium, an elevated shift in the distribution of the diffusion coefficients was observed with DLS due to a more compacted conformation of the EPS molecules. Moreover, the alginate over-expression effect on EPS adherence was compared to the effect of alginate over-expression on P. aeruginosa cell attachment. In a parallel plate flow cell, under similar hydraulic and aquatic conditions as those applied for the EPS adsorption tests in the QCM-D flow cell, reduced adherence of the mucoid strain was clearly observed compared to the wild type isogenic bacteria. The results suggest that alginate contributes to steric hindrance and shielding of cell surface features and adhesins that are known to promote cell attachment.

  7. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3 He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  8. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; de Gouvea, A.; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  9. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDF's). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parametrized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  10. Measurement of ep-->ep[pi]0 beam spin asymmetries above the resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    De Masi, Rita; Garcon, Michel; Zhao, Bo; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, James; Baltzell, Nathan; Baturin, Vitaly; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Bertin, Pierre; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dashyan, Natalya; De Sanctis, Enzo; De Vita, Raffaella; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Donnelly, Joseph; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Gavalian, Gagik; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gonenc, Atilla; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klimenko, Alexei; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Lee, Tsung-Shung; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; Mazouz, Malek; McKinnon, Bryan; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Michel, Bernard; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Tur, Clarisse; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Voutier, Eric; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, Michael; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-04-01

    The beam spin asymmetry (BSA) in the exclusive reaction e-vector p-->eppi0 was measured with the CEBAF 5.77 GeV polarized electron beam and Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The xB,Q2,t, and phi dependences of the pi0 BSA are presented in the deep inelastic regime. The asymmetries are fitted with a sinphi function and their amplitudes are extracted. Overall, they are of the order of 0.04â 0.11 and roughly independent of t. This is the signature of a nonzero longitudinal-transverse interference. The implications concerning the applicability of a formalism based on generalized parton distributions, as well as the extension of a Regge formalism at high photon virtualities, are discussed.

  11. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Sanne de; Dalum, Guus van; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Tibbe, Arjan G. J.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM– CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM– CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic lung cancer patients. The majority of spiked EpCAM+ cells could be detected with CellSearch, whereas most spiked cells with EpCAMlow or EpCAM– expression were detected using filtration. Five or more CTC were detected in 15% of the patient samples, this increased to 41% when adding the CTC detected in the discarded blood. The number of patients with CTC and the number of CTC detected were doubled by the presence of EpCAM– CTC. In this pilot study, the presence of EpCAM+ CTC was associated with poor outcome, whereas the EpCAM– CTC were not. This observation will need to be confirmed in larger studies and molecular characterization needs to be conducted to elucidate differences between EpCAM– and EpCAM+ CTC. PMID:26184843

  12. The detection of EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T M; Tibbe, Arjan G J; Hiltermann, T Jeroen N; Groen, Harry J M; van Rijn, Cees J M; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2015-07-17

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM(-) CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic lung cancer patients. The majority of spiked EpCAM(+) cells could be detected with CellSearch, whereas most spiked cells with EpCAM(low) or EpCAM(-) expression were detected using filtration. Five or more CTC were detected in 15% of the patient samples, this increased to 41% when adding the CTC detected in the discarded blood. The number of patients with CTC and the number of CTC detected were doubled by the presence of EpCAM(-) CTC. In this pilot study, the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC was associated with poor outcome, whereas the EpCAM(-) CTC were not. This observation will need to be confirmed in larger studies and molecular characterization needs to be conducted to elucidate differences between EpCAM(-) and EpCAM(+) CTC.

  13. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  14. Frondoside A inhibits breast cancer metastasis and antagonizes prostaglandin E receptors EP4 and EP2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinrong; Kundu, Namita; Collin, Peter D; Goloubeva, Olga; Fulton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Frondoside A, derived from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa has demonstrable anticancer activity in several models, however, the ability of Frondoside A to affect tumor metastasis has not been reported. Using a syngeneic murine model of metastatic breast cancer, we now show that Frondoside A has potent antimetastatic activity. Frondoside A given i.p. to mice bearing mammary gland implanted mammary tumors, inhibits spontaneous tumor metastasis to the lungs. The elevated Cyclooxygenase -2 activity in many malignancies promotes tumor growth and metastasis by producing high levels of PGE2 which acts on the prostaglandin E receptors, chiefly EP4 and EP2. We examined the ability of Frondoside A to modulate the functions of these EP receptors. We now show that Frondoside A antagonizes the prostaglandin E receptors EP2 and EP4. 3H-PGE2 binding to recombinant EP2 or EP4-expressing cells was inhibited by Frondoside A at low μM concentrations. Likewise, EP4 or EP2-linked activation of intracellular cAMP as well as EP4-mediated ERK1/2 activation were also inhibited by Frondoside A. Consistent with the antimetastatic activity observed in vivo, migration of tumor cells in vitro in response to EP4 or EP2 agonists was also inhibited by Frondoside A. These studies identify a new function for an agent with known antitumor activity, and show that the antimetastatic activity may be due in part to a novel mechanism of action. These studies add to the growing body of evidence that Frondoside A may be a promising new agent with potential to treat cancer and may also represent a potential new modality to antagonize EP4. PMID:21761157

  15. PGE2 decreases reactivity of human platelets by activating EP2 and EP4

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Haddad, Elias V.; Downey, Jason D.; Breyer, Richard M.; Boutaud, O.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Platelet hyperreactivity associates with cardiovascular events in humans. Studies in mice and humans suggest that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates platelet activation. In mice, activation of the PGE2 receptor subtype 3 (EP3) promotes thrombosis, but the significance of EP3 in humans is less well understood. Objectives: To characterize the regulation of thromboxane-dependent human platelet activation by PGE2. Patients/Methods: Platelets collected from nineteen healthy adults were studied using an agonist of the thromboxane receptor (U46,619), PGE2, and selective agonists and/or antagonists of the EP receptor subtypes. Platelet activation was assayed by (1) optical aggregometry, (2) measurement of dense granule release, and (3) single-platelet counting. Results: Healthy volunteers demonstrated significant interindividual variation in platelet response to PGE2. PGE2 completely inhibited U46,619-induced platelet aggregation and ATP release in 26% of subjects; the remaining 74% had partial or no response to PGE2. Antagonism of EP4 abolished the inhibitory effect of PGE2. In all volunteers, a selective EP2 agonist inhibited U46,619-induced aggregation. Furthermore, the selective EP3 antagonist DG-041 converted all PGE2 nonresponders to full responders. Conclusions: There is significant interindividual variation of platelet response to PGE2 in humans. The balance between EP2, EP3, and EP4 activation determines its net effect. PGE2 can prevent thromboxane-induced platelet aggregation in an EP4-dependent manner. EP3 antagonism converts platelets of nonresponders to a PGE2-responsive phenotype. These data suggest that therapeutic targeting of EP pathways may have cardiovascular benefit by decreasing platelet reactivity. PMID:20451959

  16. PrEP: controversy, agency and ownership

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus P; Race, Kane; Goicochea, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human trials of PrEP and the ones we see today in the era of licensing and implementation are explored. We outline five mediating principles or cultural norms that may influence arguments about PrEP differently. Three areas of specific concern are identified: medical risk versus benefit, distrust and fear of healthcare interventions, and fears for individual responsibility and community cohesion. The fear that PrEP may somehow represent a loss of control over one or more of these domains is suggested as an underlying factor. The development of countervailing measures, to institute greater community “ownership” of PrEP, and concomitant improvements in the sense of individual agency over sexual risk are outlined and recommended. PMID:27760689

  17. Measurement of single-target spin asymmetries in the electroproduction of negative pions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic reaction n(e,e'π-)X on a transversely polarized 3He target

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Chiranjib

    2010-06-14

    The experiment E06010 measured the target single spin asymmetry (SSA) in the semiinclusive deep inelastic (SIDIS) n(e,e'π-)X reaction with a transversely polarized 3He target as an e ective neutron target. This is the very rst independent measurement of the neutron SSA, following the measurements at HERMES and COMPASS on the proton and the deuteron. The experiment acquired data in Hall A at Je erson Laboratory with a continuous electron beam of energy 5.9 GeV, probing the valence quark region, with x = 0.13 → 0.41, at Q2 = 1.31 → 3.1 GeV2. The two contributing mechanisms to the measured asymmetry, viz, the Collins effect and the Sivers effect can be realized through the variation of the asymmetry as a function of the Collins and Sivers angles. The neutron Collins and Sivers moments, associated with the azimuthal angular modulations, are extracted from the measured asymmetry for the very first time and are presented in this thesis. The kinematics of this experiment is comparable to the HERMES proton measurement. However, the COMPASS measurements on deuteron and proton are in the low-x region. The results of this experiment are crucial as the first step toward the extraction of quark transversity and Sivers distribution functions in SIDIS. With the existing results on proton and deuteron, these new results on neutron will provide powerful constraints on the transversity and Sivers distributions of both the u and d-quarks in the valence region.

  18. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3 He

    SciTech Connect

    Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data on which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.

  19. H1 search for a narrow baryonic resonance decaying to K{sub S}{sup 0}p(p-bar)

    SciTech Connect

    Risler, Christiane

    2005-10-06

    Preliminary results from the H1 experiment on the search for the production of a candidate for the strange pentaquark in the decay channel {theta}{sup +} {yields} K{sub s}{sup 0}p and its antiparticle in the invariant mass combinations of K{sub s}{sup 0} mesons with protons and antiprotons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering at HERA are presented.

  20. Hot-Electron Generation with Kilojoule Pulses on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Myatt, J. F.; Stoeckl, C.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Theobald, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Akli, K. U.; Patel, P. K.; MacKinnon, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    Intense laser--solid interactions generate high-current electron sources with relativistic energies that are important for advanced ignition experiments. Applications include rapid heating for fast ignition and energy deposition in solid material for flash radiography, isochoric heating, and x-ray scattering experiments. Results of laser-electron coupling experiments carried out on the OMEGA EP laser with up to 1.3-kJ, 10-ps-long pulses will be presented. Strong (˜20%) energy coupling to electrons is demonstrated with conversion efficiencies independent of the laser pulse duration. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC02-ER54789 and DE-FC52-08NA28302. (P.M. Nilson, R. Betti, and D.D. Meyerhofer also FSC.)

  1. Helicity representation for deep inelastic collisions of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V. M.; Vydrug-Vlasenko, S. M.

    1980-09-01

    Quantum-mechanical cross-section for the inelastic collisions characterized by large values of the angular momenta is analysed. For the case of a planar mechanism of the reaction the approximation of the small helicity is drawn.

  2. Deep inelastic scaling in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    These lectures are intended to be a pedagogical introduction to some of the ideas and concepts concerning scaling phenomena which arise in nuclear and particle physics. Topics discussed are: classical scaling and dimensional analysis; non-relativistic treatment; dynamics and scaling; y-scaling; and relativistic treatment (QCD). 22 refs., 16 figs. (LSP)

  3. Moisture performance analysis of EPS frost insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ojanen, T.; Kokko, E.

    1997-11-01

    A horizontal layer of expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) is widely used as a frost insulation of building foundations in the Nordic countries. The performance properties of the insulation depend strongly on the moisture level of the material. Experimental methods are needed to produce samples for testing the material properties in realistic moisture conditions. The objective was to analyze the moisture loads and the wetting mechanisms of horizontal EPS frost insulation. Typical wetting tests, water immersion and diffusive water vapor absorption tests, were studied and the results were compared with the data from site investigations. Usually these tests give higher moisture contents of EPS than what are detected in drained frost insulation applications. Also the effect of different parameters, like the immersion depth and temperature gradient were studied. Special attention was paid to study the effect of diffusion on the wetting process. Numerical simulation showed that under real working conditions the long period diffusive moisture absorption in EPS frost insulation remained lower than 1% Vol. Moisture performance was determined experimentally as a function of the distance between the insulation and the free water level in the ground. The main moisture loads and the principles for good moisture performance of frost insulation are presented.

  4. 30 CFR 550.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.211 What must the EP include? Your EP must include the following: (a) Description... completion) of the exploration activities that you propose to undertake. Examples of exploration...

  5. 30 CFR 250.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.211 What must the EP include? Your EP must include the... tentative schedule (from start to completion) of the exploration activities that you propose to...

  6. 30 CFR 550.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.211 What must the EP include? Your EP must include the following: (a) Description... completion) of the exploration activities that you propose to undertake. Examples of exploration...

  7. 30 CFR 550.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.211 What must the EP include? Your EP must include the following: (a) Description... completion) of the exploration activities that you propose to undertake. Examples of exploration...

  8. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incentive payments to EPs. 495.102 Section 495.102... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicare Program § 495.102 Incentive payments to EPs. (a) General...) Increase in incentive payment limit for EPs who predominantly furnish services in a geographic HPSA. In...

  9. 48 CFR 504.570 - Procedures for using the EPS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EPS. 504.570 Section 504.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 504.570 Procedures for using the EPS. (a) You must use the EPS to issue any synopsis required by FAR part 5 or GSAR part 505. (b) You must...

  10. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE... for an EP who is not a successful electronic prescriber under section 1848(a)(5) of the Act, or 98 percent if the EP is subject to the payment adjustment for an EP who is not a successful...

  11. EpCAM proteolysis: new fragments with distinct functions?

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2013-01-01

    EpCAM [epithelial cell adhesion molecule; CD326 (cluster of differentiation 326)] is highly expressed on epithelium-derived tumours and can play a role in cell proliferation. Recently, RIP (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) has been implicated as the trigger for EpCAM-mediated proliferative signalling. However, RIP does not explain all EpCAM-derived protein fragments. To shed light on how proteolytic cleavage is involved in EpCAM signalling, we characterized the protein biochemically using antibodies binding to three different EpCAM domains. Using a newly generated anti-EpCAM antibody, we find that EpCAM can be cleaved at multiple positions within its ectodomain in addition to described peptides, revealing that EpCAM is processed via distinct proteolytic pathways. Here, we report on four new peptides, but also discuss the previously described cleavage products to provide a comprehensive picture of EpCAM cleavage at multiple positions. The complex regulation of EpCAM might not only result in the absence of full-length EpCAM, but the newly formed EpCAM-derived proteins may have their own signalling properties. PMID:23409978

  12. Extraction and Analysis of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS): Comparison of Methods and EPS Levels in Salmonella pullorum SA 1685

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production and composition for Salmonella pullorum SA 1685 exposed to artificial groundwater (AGW) has been examined utilizing three EPS extraction methods: lyophilization, ethanol, and sonication. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the robustness...

  13. Prostaglandin E2/EP4 signalling facilitates EP4 receptor externalization in primary sensory neurons in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2013-02-01

    Inflammatory pain severely affects the quality of life of millions of individuals worldwide. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a pain mediator enriched in inflamed tissues, plays a pivotal role in nociceptor sensitization and in the genesis of inflammatory pain. Its EP4 receptor mainly mediates its role in inflammatory pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we found that PGE2/EP4 signalling-induced EP4 externalization in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to nociceptor sensitization and inflammatory pain. In cultured DRG neurons, PGE2 and the EP4 agonist concentration- and time-dependently stimulated EP4 externalization. The inhibitors of anterograde secretory pathway, protein synthesis, or recycling pathway suppressed PGE2-induced EP4 externalization, suggesting that EP4 retained in Golgi apparatus and in recycling endosomes, as well as newly synthesized, are mobilized in this event. Interestingly, the intracellular cAMP levels of cultured DRG explants following 2 sequential treatments with the EP4 agonist were significantly higher than a single treatment, suggesting that the first treatment of agonist likely induces EP4 export to sensitize DRG neurons. Intraplantar injection of complete Freud's adjuvant increases both total and cell-surface EP4 levels of L4-6 DRG neurons, an event suppressed by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor or a selective EP4 antagonist, suggesting that PGE2/EP4 signalling in inflamed paw contributes to EP4 synthesis and export in DRG neurons, thus sensitizing nociceptors during inflammation. We conclude that PGE2/EP4 signalling-induced EP4 externalization in DRG neuron is a novel mechanism underlying nociceptor sensitization and inflammatory pain. Blocking EP4 externalization could open a novel therapeutic avenue to treat inflammatory pain.

  14. EPS analysis of nominal STS-1 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfgram, D. F.; Pipher, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of electrical power system (EPS) analysis of the planned Shuttle Transportation System Flight 1 mission are presented. The capability of the orbiter EPS to support the planned flight and to provide program tape information and supplementary data specifically requested by the flight operations directorate was assessed. The analysis was accomplished using the orbiter version of the spacecraft electrical power simulator program, operating from a modified version of orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline revision four. The results indicate that the nominal flight, as analyzed, is within the capabilities of the orbiter power generation system, but that a brief, and minimal, current overload may exist between main distributor 1 and mid power controlled 1, and that inverter 9 may the overloaded for extended periods of time. A comparison of results with launch commit criteria also indicated that some of the presently existing launch redlines may be violated during the terminal countdown.

  15. Macrophage EP4 deficiency increases apoptosis and suppresses early atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Babaev, Vladimir R.; Chew, Joshua D.; Ding, Lei; Davis, Sarah; Breyer, Matthew D.; Breyer, Richard M.; Oates, John A.; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.

    2009-01-01

    Prostagladin (PG) E2, a major product of activated macrophages, has been implicated in atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. The PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and are known to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells. To examine the roles of macrophage EP4 and EP2 in apoptosis and early atherosclerosis, fetal liver cell transplantation was used to generate LDLR−/− mice chimeric for EP2−/− or EP4−/− hematopoietic cells. After 8-weeks on a Western diet, EP4−/− → LDLR−/− mice, but not EP2−/− → LDLR−/− mice, had significantly reduced aortic atherosclerosis with increased apoptotic cells in the lesions. EP4−/− peritoneal macrophages had increased sensitivity to pro-apoptotic stimuli, including palmitic acid and free cholesterol loading, which was accompanied by suppression of activity of p-Akt, p-Bad and NF-kB-regulated genes. Thus, EP4 deficiency inhibits the PI3K/Akt and NF-kB pathways compromising macrophage survival and suppressing early atherosclerosis, identifying macrophage EP4 signaling pathways as molecular targets for modulating the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:19041765

  16. Selective activation of the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP2 or EP4 leads to inhibition of platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shuhko; Kashiwagi, Hitoshi; Yuhki, Koh-ichi; Kojima, Fumiaki; Yamada, Takehiro; Fujino, Takayuki; Hara, Akiyoshi; Takayama, Koji; Maruyama, Takayuki; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Narumiya, Shuh; Ushikubi, Fumitaka

    2010-10-01

    The effect of selective activation of platelet prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptor subtype EP2 or EP4 on platelet aggregation remains to be determined. In platelets prepared from wild-type mice (WT platelets), high concentrations of PGE2 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by U-46619, a thromboxane receptor agonist. However, there was no significant change in the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on platelets lacking EP2 (EP2-/- platelets) and EP4 (EP4-/- platelets) compared with the inhibitory effect on WT platelets. On the other hand, AE1-259 and AE1-329, agonists for EP2 and EP4, respectively, potently inhibited U-46619 -induced aggregation with respective IC50 values of 590 ± 14 and 100 ± 4.9 nM in WT platelets, while the inhibition was significantly blunted in EP2-/- and EP4-/- platelets. In human platelets, AE1-259 and AE1-329 inhibited U-46619-induced aggregation with respective IC50 values of 640 ± 16 and 2.3 ± 0.3 nM. Notably, the inhibitory potency of AE1-329 in human platelets was much higher than that in murine platelets, while such a difference was not observed in the inhibitory potency of AE1-259. AE1-329 also inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, and the inhibition was almost completely blocked by AE3-208, an EP4 antagonist. In addition, AE1-329 increased intracellular cAMP concentrations in a concentration- and EP4-dependent manner in human platelets. These results indicate that selective activation of EP2 or EP4 can inhibit platelet aggregation and that EP4 agonists are particularly promising as novel anti-platelet agents.

  17. Lead Optimization Studies of Cinnamic Amide EP2 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prostanoid receptor EP2 can play a proinflammatory role, exacerbating disease pathology in a variety of central nervous system and peripheral diseases. A highly selective EP2 antagonist could be useful as a drug to mitigate the inflammatory consequences of EP2 activation. We recently identified a cinnamic amide class of EP2 antagonists. The lead compound in this class (5d) displays anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. However, this compound exhibited moderate selectivity to EP2 over the DP1 prostanoid receptor (∼10-fold) and low aqueous solubility. We now report compounds that display up to 180-fold selectivity against DP1 and up to 9-fold higher aqueous solubility than our previous lead. The newly developed compounds also display higher selectivity against EP4 and IP receptors and a comparable plasma pharmacokinetics. Thus, these compounds are useful for proof of concept studies in a variety of models where EP2 activation is playing a deleterious role. PMID:24773616

  18. Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    This paper presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering on Glass). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain over an order of magnitude higher statistics than presently available for the purely weak processes νμ + e- → νμ + e- and νμ + e- → νe + μ-. A sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples will also be obtained. As a result, NuSOnG will be unique among present and planned experiments for its ability to probe neutrino couplings to Beyond the Standard Model physics. Many Beyond Standard Model theories physics predict a rich hierarchy of TeV-scale new states that can correct neutrino cross-sections, through modifications of Zνν couplings, tree-level exchanges of new particles such as Z‧'s, or through loop-level oblique corrections to gauge boson propagators. These corrections are generic in theories of extra dimensions, extended gauge symmetries, supersymmetry, and more. The sensitivity of NuSOnG to this new physics extends beyond 5 TeV mass scales. This paper reviews these physics opportunities.

  19. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; et al

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by othermore » experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.« less

  20. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    SciTech Connect

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; Placakyte, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Schienbein, I.; Starovoitov, P.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.

  1. The complete O (αs2) non-singlet heavy flavor corrections to the structure functions g1,2ep (x ,Q2), F1,2,Lep (x ,Q2), F1,2,3ν (ν bar) (x ,Q2) and the associated sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümlein, Johannes; Falcioni, Giulio; De Freitas, Abilio

    2016-09-01

    We calculate analytically the flavor non-singlet O (αs2) massive Wilson coefficients for the inclusive neutral current non-singlet structure functions F1,2,Lep (x ,Q2) and g1,2ep (x ,Q2) and charged current non-singlet structure functions F1,2,3ν (ν bar) p (x ,Q2), at general virtualities Q2 in the deep-inelastic region. Numerical results are presented. We illustrate the transition from low to large virtualities for these observables, which may be contrasted to basic assumptions made in the so-called variable flavor number scheme. We also derive the corresponding results for the Adler sum rule, the unpolarized and polarized Bjorken sum rules and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule. There are no logarithmic corrections at large scales Q2 and the effects of the power corrections due to the heavy quark mass are of the size of the known O (αs4) corrections in the case of the sum rules. The complete charm and bottom corrections are compared to the approach using asymptotic representations in the region Q2 ≫mc,b2. We also study the target mass corrections to the above sum rules.

  2. Exclusive Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Deeply Virtual Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchey, E; Camsonne, A; Mazouz, M; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Canan, M; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J -M; Frullani, S; Garcon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P.A.M.; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Homstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Itard, F; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissiere, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z -E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J -S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2011-02-01

    We present measurements of the ep->ep pi^0 cross section extracted at two values of four-momentum transfer Q^2=1.9 GeV^2 and Q^2=2.3 GeV^2 at Jefferson Lab Hall A. The kinematic range allows to study the evolution of the extracted hadronic tensor as a function of Q^2 and W. Results will be confronted with Regge inspired calculations and GPD predictions. An intepretation of our data within the framework of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering has also been attempted.

  3. Hard exclusive neutral pion production at Jefferson Lab Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchey, E.

    2011-10-24

    We present measurements of the ep{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} cross section extracted at two values of four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 1.9 GeV{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} = 2.3 GeV{sup 2} at Jefferson Lab Hall A. The kinematic range allows to study the evolution of the cross section as a function of Q{sup 2} and W. Results will be confronted with Regge inspired calculations and GPD predictions. An intepretation of our data within the framework of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering has also been attempted.

  4. Exclusive neutral pion electroproduction in the deeply virtual regime

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchey, E.; Camsonne, A.; Bertin, P.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Gavalian, G.; Amarian, M.; Canan, M.; Hayes, D.; Ibrahim, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Weinstein, L. B.; Kuchina, E.; Gilman, R.; Jiang, X.; Kumbartzki, G.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Margaziotis, D. J.

    2011-02-15

    We present measurements of the ep{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} cross section extracted at two values of four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=1.9 GeV{sup 2} and Q{sup 2}=2.3 GeV{sup 2} at Jefferson Lab Hall A. The kinematic range allows one to study the evolution of the extracted cross section as a function of Q{sup 2} and W. Results are confronted with Regge-inspired calculations and GPD predictions. An intepretation of our data within the framework of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is also discussed.

  5. Rooting Gene Trees without Outgroups: EP Rooting

    PubMed Central

    Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Lake, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167–181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301–316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60–76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489–493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763–766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–260). PMID:22593551

  6. HBT-EP Program: Active MHD Mode Dynamics and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, G. A.; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A. H.; Byrne, P. J.; Donald, G. V.; Hughes, P. E.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Peng, Q.; Rhodes, D. J.; Stoafer, C. C.; Hansen, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    The HBT-EP active mode control research program aims to: (i) quantify external kink dynamics and multimode response to magnetic perturbations, (ii) understand the relationship between control coil configuration, conducting and ferritic wall effects, and active feedback control, and (iii) explore advanced feedback algorithms. Biorthogonal decomposition is used to observe multiple simultaneous resistive wall modes (RWM). A 512 core GPU-based low latency (14 μs) MIMO control system uses 96 inputs and 64 outputs for Adaptive Control of RWMs. An in-vessel adjustable ferritic wall is used to study ferritic RWMs with increased growth rates, RMP response, and disruptivity. A biased electrode in the plasma is used to control the rotation of external kinks and evaluate error fields. A Thomson scattering diagnostic measures Te and ne at 3 spatial points, soon to be extended to 10 points. A quasi-linear sharp-boundary model of the plasma's multimode response to error fields is developed to determine harmful error field structures and associated NTV and resonant torques. Upcoming machine upgrades will allow measurements and control of scrape-off-layer currents, and control of kink modes using optical diagnostics. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  7. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B.; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli’s association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ- mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ+ strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922’s association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization. PMID:27014210

  8. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli's association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ(-) mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ(+) strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922's association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization. PMID:27014210

  9. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli's association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ(-) mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ(+) strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922's association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization.

  10. Inclusive electron scattering within the SuSAv2 meson-exchange current approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megias, G. D.; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present our recent progress on the relativistic modeling of electron-nucleus reactions and compare our predictions with inclusive 12C (e , e' ) experimental data in a wide kinematical region. The model, originally based on the superscaling phenomenon shown by electron-nucleus scattering data, has recently been improved through the inclusion of relativistic mean field theory effects that take into account the enhancement of the quasielastic transverse scaling function compared with its longitudinal counterpart. In this work, we extend the model to include the complete inelastic spectrum—resonant, nonresonant and deep inelastic scattering. We also discuss the impact of meson-exchange currents through the analysis of two-particle two-hole contributions to electromagnetic response functions evaluated within the framework of the relativistic Fermi gas, considering for the first time not only the transverse but also the longitudinal channel. The results show quite good agreement with data over the whole range of energy transfer, including the dip region between the quasielastic peak and the Δ resonance.

  11. Characteristics of thermoregulatory and febrile responses in mice deficient in prostaglandin EP1 and EP3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takakazu; Oka, Kae; Kobayashi, Takuya; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Ushikubi, Fumitaka; Narumiya, Shuh; Saper, Clifford B

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed about whether prostaglandin EP1 or EP3 receptors are critical for producing febrile responses. We therefore injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a variety doses (1 μg kg−1−1 mg kg−1) intraperitoneally (I.P.) into wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the EP1 or the EP3 receptors and measured changes in core temperature (Tc) by using telemetry. In WT mice, I.P. injection of LPS at 10 μg kg−1 increased Tc about 1 °C, peaking 2 h after injection. At 100 μg kg−1, LPS increased Tc, peaking 5–8 h after injection. LPS at 1 mg kg−1 decreased Tc, reaching a nadir at 5–8 h after injection. In EP1 receptor knockout (KO) mice injected with 10 μg kg−1 LPS, only the initial (< 40 min) increase in Tc was lacking; with 100 μg kg−1 LPS the mice showed no febrile response. In EP3 receptor KO mice, LPS decreased Tc in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, in EP3 receptor KO mice subcutaneous injection of turpentine did not induce fever. Both EP1 and EP3 receptor KO mice showed a normal circadian cycle of Tc and brief hyperthermia following psychological stress (cage-exchange stress and buddy-removal stress). The present study suggests that both the EP1 and the EP3 receptors play a role in fever induced by systemic inflammation but neither EP receptor is involved in the circadian rise in Tc or psychological stress-induced hyperthermia in mice. PMID:12837930

  12. Proton Magnetic Form Factor from Existing Elastic e-p Cross Section Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; Christy, Eric; Gilad, Shalev; Keppel, Cynthia; Schmookler, Barak; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    The proton magnetic form factor GMp, in addition to being an important benchmark for all cross section measurements in hadron physics, provides critical information on proton structure. Extraction of GMp from e-p cross section data is complicated by two-photon exchange (TPE) effects, where available calculations still have large theoretical uncertainties. Studies of TPE contributions to e-p scattering have observed no nonlinear effects in Rosenbluth separations. Recent theoretical investigations show that the TPE correction goes to 0 when ɛ approaches 1, where ɛ is the virtual photon polarization parameter. In this talk, existing e-p elastic cross section data are reanalyzed by extrapolating the reduced cross section for ɛ approaching 1. Existing polarization transfer data, which is supposed to be relatively immune to TPE effects, are used to produce a ratio of electric and magnetic form factors. The extrapolated reduced cross section and polarization transfer ratio are then used to calculate GEp and GMp at different Q2 values.

  13. The Recovery of TOMS-EP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science

  14. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Payment adjustment effective in CY 2015 and subsequent years for nonqualifying EPs. (1)(i) Subject to paragraphs (d)(3) and (4) of this section, beginning 2015, for covered professional services furnished by an.... Applicable percent is as follows: (i) For 2015, 99 percent if the EP is not subject to the payment...

  15. EP Additive Performance in Biobased vs. Paraffinic Base Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of commercial extreme pressure (EP) additives containing sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine were investigated for their EP properties in soybean (SBO) and paraffinic (PRFN) base oils. The investigations were conducted using a 4-ball (4B) and twist-compression (TC) tribometers. The concentra...

  16. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... negative and have taken PrEP for up to 5 years, no significant health effects have been seen. Learn more about how to protect yourself and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool (BETA). Can you start PrEP after you have ...

  17. Preon Model and a Possible New Physics in ep Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senju, H.

    1993-03-01

    The properties of predicted new particles in a preon-subpreon model are discussed. The model contains several new particles which could be detected in the near future. It is shown that ep colliders are especially adequate to study properties of a few of them. Production cross sections and signatures in ep collisions are discussed.

  18. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  19. Self-reported Recent PrEP Dosing and Drug Detection in an Open Label PrEP Study.

    PubMed

    Amico, K Rivet; Mehrotra, Megha; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; McMahan, Vanessa; Veloso, Valdilea G; Anderson, Peter; Guanira, Juan; Grant, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is part of the recommended package for PrEP prescribing, yet ongoing concerns about how to do so confidently are exacerbated by gross discrepancies in reported and actual use in clinical trials. We evaluated concordance between reports of recent PrEP dosing collected via neutral interviewing and drug quantitation in the iPrEx open-label extension, where participants (n = 1172) had the choice to receive or not receive PrEP. Self-report of recent dosing (at least one PrEP dose in the past 3-day) was the most common report (84 % of participants), and among these 83 % did have quantifiable levels of drug. The vast majority of those reporting no doses in the past 3-day (16 % of the sample) did not have quantifiable levels of drug (82 %). Predictors of over-report of dosing included younger age and lower educational attainment. Monitoring recent PrEP use through neutral interviewing may be a productive approach for clinicians to consider in implementation of real-world PrEP. Strategies to capture longer term or prevention-effective PrEP use, particularly for younger cohorts, are needed.

  20. 42 CFR 495.10 - Participation requirements for EPs, eligible hospitals, and CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 424 subpart F. (ii) Medicaid EPs may also assign their incentive payments to a TIN for an... Number (TIN) which may be the EP's Social Security Number (SSN) to which the EP's incentive...

  1. Modulation of host natural killer cell functions in breast cancer via prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4.

    PubMed

    Holt, Dawn M; Ma, Xinrong; Kundu, Namita; Collin, Peter D; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    Breast malignancies often have high levels of COX-2. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to the high metastatic capacity of breast tumors. Our published data indicate that inhibiting either PGE2 production or PGE2-mediated signaling through the PGE2 receptor EP4 (1 of 4 EP expressed on the malignant cell) reduces metastasis by a mechanism that requires natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-derived PGE2 and exogenous PGE2 are known to have direct inhibitory effects on NK cell functions, but less is known regarding which EP receptors mediate these effects. We now show that several NK functions (lysis, migration, cytokine production) are compromised in tumor-bearing mice and that tumor-produced PGE2 interferes with NK cell functions. PGE2 inhibits the potential of NK cells to migrate, exert cytotoxic effects, and secrete interferon γ. The ability of PGE2 to inhibit NK cells from tumor-bearing mice is by acting on EP2 and EP4 receptors. NK cells from tumor-bearing mice were more sensitive to inhibition by EP4 and EP2 agonists compared with endogenous NK cells from healthy mice. PGE2 was inhibitory to most NK functions of either normal or tumor-bearing mice. In contrast, there was a trend for enhanced tumor necrosis factor α production in response to PGE2 by NK cells from tumor-bearing mice. We also report that a recently described EP4 antagonist, frondoside A, inhibits breast tumor metastasis in an NK-dependent manner and protects interferon γ production by NK cells from PGE2-mediated suppression. Taken together these data show that NK functions are depressed in tumor-bearing hosts relative to normal NK cells and that PGE2 suppresses NK functions by acting on EP2 and EP4 receptors.

  2. Prostanoid receptors EP2, EP4, and FP are regulated by estradiol in bovine oviductal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Liu, Bo; Dong, Zhiheng; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Li, Changyou; Cao, Jinshan

    2015-09-01

    Gamete and embryo transport is an important function of the oviduct. This transport involves both smooth muscle contraction and epithelial cell secretions, the former of which is mediated by prostaglandins (PGs) and their receptors. Our aim was to study the regulation of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2α receptors (EP2, EP4, and FP receptor) by estradiol in bovine oviduct smooth muscle. EP2, EP4, and FP receptor mRNA and protein expression was investigated using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. To evaluate the contraction or relaxation of cultured bovine oviductal smooth muscle tissue, peristalsis was used to assess contractile activity. EP2, EP4, and FP receptor mRNA and protein expression was increased in oviductal smooth muscle tissue after treatment with different concentrations of estradiol for various durations. The expression of all receptors peaked at an estradiol concentration of 10(-11)mol/L after 8h of treatment, whereas no increase in expression was observed after fulvestrant (a selective antagonist of E2 receptor) treatment, indicating that E2 interacts with specific E2 nuclear receptors to regulate EP2, EP4, and FP receptor expression. Although PGF2α and PGE2 induced both contraction and relaxation, no significant differences were found in contractility between the estradiol-treated and control groups, with both groups of cultured smooth muscle strips showing similar vitality. In conclusion, estradiol increases EP2, EP4, and FP receptor mRNA and protein expression in bovine oviductal smooth muscle when added for different periods of time and at different concentrations. Additionally, E2 is transported intracellularly and interacts with specific E2 nuclear receptors to regulate their expression.

  3. EP4 receptor stimulation down-regulates human eosinophil function.

    PubMed

    Luschnig-Schratl, Petra; Sturm, Eva M; Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Marsche, Gunther; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Samberger, Claudia; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Lippe, Irmgard Th; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2011-11-01

    Accumulation of eosinophils in tissue is a hallmark of allergic inflammation. Here we observed that a selective agonist of the PGE(2) receptor EP4, ONO AE1-329, potently attenuated the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils, upregulation of the adhesion molecule CD11b and the production of reactive oxygen species. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement and Ca(2+) mobilization. The involvement of the EP4 receptor was substantiated by a selective EP4 antagonist, which reversed the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist. Selective kinase inhibitors revealed that the inhibitory effect of EP4 stimulation on eosinophil migration depended upon activation of PI 3-kinase and PKC, but not cAMP. Finally, we found that EP4 receptors are expressed by human eosinophils, and are also present on infiltrating leukocytes in inflamed human nasal mucosa. These data indicate that EP4 agonists might be a novel therapeutic option in eosinophilic diseases.

  4. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis by Oenococcus oeni: from genes to phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Vuillemin, Marlène; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Lucas, Patrick M; Ballestra, Patricia; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Favier, Marion; Coulon, Joana; Moine, Virginie; Doco, Thierry; Roques, Maryline; Williams, Pascale; Petrel, Melina; Gontier, Etienne; Moulis, Claire; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Dols-Lafargue, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is the bacterial species which drives malolactic fermentation in wine. The analysis of 50 genomic sequences of O. oeni (14 already available and 36 newly sequenced ones) provided an inventory of the genes potentially involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. The loci identified are: two gene clusters named eps1 and eps2, three isolated glycoside-hydrolase genes named dsrO, dsrV and levO, and three isolated glycosyltransferase genes named gtf, it3, it4. The isolated genes were present or absent depending on the strain and the eps gene clusters composition diverged from one strain to another. The soluble and capsular EPS production capacity of several strains was examined after growth in different culture media and the EPS structure was determined. Genotype to phenotype correlations showed that several EPS biosynthetic pathways were active and complementary in O. oeni. Can be distinguished: (i) a Wzy-dependent synthetic pathway, allowing the production of heteropolysaccharides made of glucose, galactose and rhamnose, mainly in a capsular form, (ii) a glucan synthase pathway (Gtf), involved in β-glucan synthesis in a free and a cell-associated form, giving a ropy phenotype to growth media and (iii) homopolysaccharide synthesis from sucrose (α-glucan or β-fructan) by glycoside-hydrolases of the GH70 and GH68 families. The eps gene distribution on the phylogenetic tree was examined. Fifty out of 50 studied genomes possessed several genes dedicated to EPS metabolism. This suggests that these polymers are important for the adaptation of O. oeni to its specific ecological niche, wine and possibly contribute to the technological performance of malolactic starters. PMID:24901216

  5. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Synthesis by Oenococcus oeni: From Genes to Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Vuillemin, Marlène; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Lucas, Patrick M.; Ballestra, Patricia; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Favier, Marion; Coulon, Joana; Moine, Virginie; Doco, Thierry; Roques, Maryline; Williams, Pascale; Petrel, Melina; Gontier, Etienne; Moulis, Claire; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Dols-Lafargue, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is the bacterial species which drives malolactic fermentation in wine. The analysis of 50 genomic sequences of O. oeni (14 already available and 36 newly sequenced ones) provided an inventory of the genes potentially involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. The loci identified are: two gene clusters named eps1 and eps2, three isolated glycoside-hydrolase genes named dsrO, dsrV and levO, and three isolated glycosyltransferase genes named gtf, it3, it4. The isolated genes were present or absent depending on the strain and the eps gene clusters composition diverged from one strain to another. The soluble and capsular EPS production capacity of several strains was examined after growth in different culture media and the EPS structure was determined. Genotype to phenotype correlations showed that several EPS biosynthetic pathways were active and complementary in O. oeni. Can be distinguished: (i) a Wzy -dependent synthetic pathway, allowing the production of heteropolysaccharides made of glucose, galactose and rhamnose, mainly in a capsular form, (ii) a glucan synthase pathway (Gtf), involved in β-glucan synthesis in a free and a cell-associated form, giving a ropy phenotype to growth media and (iii) homopolysaccharide synthesis from sucrose (α-glucan or β-fructan) by glycoside-hydrolases of the GH70 and GH68 families. The eps gene distribution on the phylogenetic tree was examined. Fifty out of 50 studied genomes possessed several genes dedicated to EPS metabolism. This suggests that these polymers are important for the adaptation of O. oeni to its specific ecological niche, wine and possibly contribute to the technological performance of malolactic starters. PMID:24901216

  6. Production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by Serratia sp.1 using wastewater sludge as raw material and flocculation activity of the EPS produced.

    PubMed

    Bezawada, J; Hoang, N V; More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, N; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-10-15

    Growth profile and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production of Serratia sp.1 was studied in shake flask fermentation for 72 h using wastewater sludge as raw material. Maximum cell concentration of 6.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was obtained at 48 h fermentation time. EPS dry weight, flocculation activity and dewaterability of different EPS (tightly bound or TB-EPS, loosely bound or LB-EPS and broth-EPS or B-EPS) were also measured. The highest concentration of LB-EPS (2.45 g/L) and TB-EPS (0.99 g/L) were attained at 48 h of fermentation. Maximum flocculation activity and dewaterability (ΔCST) of TB-EPS (76.4%, 14.5s and 76.5%, 15.5s), LB-EPS (67.8%, 8.1s and 64.7%, 7.6s) and broth EPS (61%, 6.1s and 70.4%, 6.8s) were obtained at 36 and 48 h of growth. Higher flocculation activity and dewaterability were achieved with TB-EPS than with the two other EPS. Characterization of TB-EPS and LB-EPS was done in terms of their protein and carbohydrate content. Protein content was much higher in TB-EPS where as carbohydrate content was only slightly higher in TB-EPS than LB-EPS. Morphology of the Serratia strain after fermentation in sludge and TSB was observed under a scanning electron microscope and the cell size was found to be bigger in the sludge medium than the TSB medium.

  7. Cloning and expression of the rabbit prostaglandin EP2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Youfei; Stillman, Brett A; Zhang, Yahua; Schneider, André; Saito, Osamu; Davis, Linda S; Redha, Reyadh; Breyer, Richard M; Breyer, Matthew D

    2002-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has multiple physiologic roles mediated by G protein coupled receptors designated E-prostanoid, or "EP" receptors. Evidence supports an important role for the EP2 receptor in regulating fertility, vascular tone and renal function. Results The full-length rabbit EP2 receptor cDNA was cloned. The encoded polypeptide contains 361 amino acid residues with seven hydrophobic domains. COS-1 cells expressing the cloned rabbit EP2 exhibited specific [3H]PGE2 binding with a Kd of 19.1± 1.7 nM. [3H]PGE2 was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGE2>>PGD2=PGF2α=iloprost. Binding of [3H]PGE2 was also displaced by EP receptor subtype selective agonists with a rank order of affinity consistent with the EP2 receptor (butaprost>AH13205>misoprostol>sulprostone). Butaprost free acid produced a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP accumulation in rabbit EP2 transfected COS-1 cells with a half-maximal effective concentration of 480 nM. RNase protection assay revealed high expression in the ileum, spleen, and liver with lower expression in the kidney, lung, heart, uterus, adrenal gland and skeletal muscle. In situ hybridization localized EP2 mRNA to the uterine endometrium, but showed no distinct localization in the kidney. EP2 mRNA expression along the nephron was determined by RT-PCR and its expression was present in glomeruli, MCD, tDL and CCD. In cultured cells EP2 receptor was not detected in collecting ducts but was detected in renal interstitial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. EP2 mRNA was also detected in arteries, veins, and preglomerular vessels of the kidney. Conclusion EP2 expression pattern is consistent with the known functional roles for cAMP coupled PGE2 effects in reproductive and vascular tissues and renal interstitial cells. It remains uncertain whether it is also expressed in renal tubules. PMID:12097143

  8. Prostaglandin E2 is required for ultraviolet B-induced skin inflammation via EP2 and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kabashima, Kenji; Nagamachi, Miyako; Honda, Tetsuya; Nishigori, Chikako; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Narumiya, Shuh

    2007-01-01

    Keratinocytes are the major target of sunlight, and they produce prostaglandin (PG) E(2) upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Although indomethacin, one of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, is known to suppress UV-induced acute skin inflammation, it remains uncertain whether endogenous PGE(2) is responsible for UV-induced skin inflammation, and which subtype of PGE(2) receptors mediates this process. UV-induced skin inflammation was investigated by using genetically and pharmacologically PGE(2) receptor-deficient mice. We applied UV-induced skin inflammation model to genetical and pharmacological PGE(2) receptor-deficient mice. We exposed UVB on these mice at 5 kJ/m(2), and examined the ear swelling and the histological findings. We also measured the blood flow using a laser doppler device to assess the intensity of UVB-induced inflammatory change. The UV-induced ear swelling at 48 h after exposure was significantly reduced in EP2(-/-), EP4(-/-) or wild-type mice treated with the EP4 antagonist compared to control mice. Consistently, inflammatory cell infiltration into the local skin, and local blood flow after UV exposure were significantly reduced by EP2 or EP4 signaling blockade. These data suggest that PGE(2)-EP2/EP4 signaling is mandatory in UV-induced acute skin inflammation, presumably by enhancing blood flow in the microenvironment.

  9. Clinician attitudes toward CDC interim pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) guidance and operationalizing PrEP for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Kahn, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    Prior to issuing formal HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical practice guidelines in 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had released interim guidance for oral PrEP use among adults. Because oral PrEP may be used off-label for youth and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents, we examined the potential adoption of the interim guidance among clinicians who care for HIV-infected and at-risk youth. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 US clinicians who were recruited through an adolescent HIV research network. The theory-driven interview guide, consisting primarily of open-ended questions, assessed demographics, familiarity with the guidance, attitudes toward the guidance, and attitudes toward the use of the guidance for adult and adolescent patients. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Most clinicians (11/15) reported that the guidance was compatible with their practice, although several reported that some aspects, particularly frequency of follow-up visits, needed to be tailored to meet their patients' needs. We found variability in clinician reported characteristics of appropriate PrEP candidates (e.g., youth with substance use and mental health issues were noted to be both suitable and unsuitable PrEP candidates) and PrEP use in serodiscordant couples (e.g., whether PrEP would be recommended to a patient whose HIV-infected partner is virally suppressed). Clinician reported steps for initiation, monitoring, and discontinuing PrEP were largely consistent with the guidance. The observed variability in clinician practice with regard to oral PrEP may be reduced through interventions to educate clinicians about the content and rationale for guideline recommendations.

  10. EP2/EP4 signalling inhibits monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production induced by interleukin 1ß in synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Largo, R; Diez-Ortego, I; Sanchez-Pernaute, O; Lopez-Armada, M; Alvarez-Soria, M; Egido, J; Herrero-Beaumont, G

    2004-01-01

    Background: Besides its proinflammatory properties, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) acts as a regulator of the expression of inducible genes. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis might thus result in a paradoxical deleterious effect on inflammation. Objective: To examine the effect of PGE2 on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in cultured synovial fibroblasts (SF) stimulated with interleukin (IL)1ß. Methods: MCP-1 expression was assessed in SF stimulated with IL1ß in the presence of PGE2 or different NSAIDs by RT-PCR or northern blot and immunocytochemistry. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoforms was studied by western blot techniques. The role of PGE2 receptors (EP) in PGE2 action was assessed employing EP receptor subtype-specific agonists. Results: PGE2 significantly inhibited IL1ß induced MCP-1 expression in SF in a dose dependent manner. IL1ß increased COX-2 and did not alter COX-1 synthesis in SF. 11-Deoxy-PGE1, an EP2/EP4 agonist, reproduced PGE2 action on MCP-1 expression. Butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist, was less potent than PGE2. Sulprostone, an EP1/EP3 agonist, had no effect on IL1ß induced MCP-1 expression. Inhibition of endogenous PGE2 synthesis by NSAIDs further enhanced MCP-1 mRNA expression in IL1ß stimulated SF, an effect prevented by addition of exogenous PGE2. Conclusion: Activation of EP2/EP4 receptors down regulates the expression of MCP-1 in IL1ß stimulated SF, while PGE2 pharmacological inhibition cuts off this signalling pathway and results in a superinduction of MCP-1 expression. The data suggest that NSAIDs may intercept a natural regulatory circuit controlling the magnitude of inflammation, which questions their continuous administration in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:15361371

  11. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    F.X. Girod

    2007-12-17

    The beam spin asymmetries of the reaction ep -> epg in the Bjorken regime were measured over a wide kinematical domain using the CLAS detector and a new lead-tungstate calorimeter. Through the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process with Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering, those asymmetries provide constraints for the nucleon Generalized Parton Distributions models. The observed shapes are in agreement with twist-2 dominance predictions.

  12. Development of second generation EP2 antagonists with high selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Thota; Jiang, Jianxiong; Dingledine, Ray

    2014-01-01

    EP2 receptor has emerged as an important biological target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, it has been shown to exacerbate disease progression of a variety of CNS and peripheral diseases. Deletion of the EP2 receptor in mouse models recapitulates several features of the COX-2 inhibition, thus presenting a new avenue for anti-inflammatory therapy which could bypass some of the adverse side effects observed by the COX-2 inhibition therapy. We have recently reported a cinnamic amide class of EP2 antagonists with high potency, but these compounds exhibited a moderate selectivity against prostanoid receptor DP1. Moreover they possess acrylamide moiety in the structure, which may result in liver toxicity over longer period of use in a chronic disease model. Thus, we now developed a second generation compounds that devoid of the acrylamide functionality and possess high potency and improved (>1000-fold) selectivity to EP2 over other prostanoid receptors. PMID:24937185

  13. PrEP implementation research in Africa: what is new?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Frances M; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Sanders, Eduard J; Mugo, Nelly R; Guedou, Fernand A; Alary, Michel; Behanzin, Luc; Mugurungi, Owen; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP. In addition, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are at substantial risk in some parts of the continent. It has been estimated that at least three million individuals in Africa are likely to be eligible for PrEP according to WHO's criteria. Tens of demonstration projects are planned or underway across the continent among a range of countries, populations and delivery settings. Discussion In each of the target populations, there are overarching issues related to (i) creating demand for PrEP, (ii) addressing supply-side issues and (iii) providing appropriate and tailored adherence support. Critical for creating demand for PrEP is the normalization of HIV prevention. Community-level interventions which engage opinion leaders as well as empowerment interventions for those at highest risk will be key. Critical to supply of PrEP is that services are accessible for all, including for stigmatized populations. Establishing accessible integrated services provides the opportunity to address other public health priorities including the unmet need for HIV testing, contraception and sexually transmitted infections treatment. National policies need to include minimum standards for training and quality assurance for PrEP implementation and to address supply chain issues. Adherence support needs to recognize that social and structural factors are likely to have an

  14. HED physics frontiers on OMEGA/OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2008-04-01

    The 60 beam, 30 kJ, OMEGA laser facility has been operating at the University of Rochester for more than a decade. The OMEGA EP laser facility adjacent to it will be completed in Q3FY08. OMEGA EP will consist of four beamlines with NIF-like architecture. Each of the beams will ultimately produce 10 ns 6.5 kJ energy ultraviolet pulses directed into the EP target chamber. Two of the beamlines will also operate as high energy petawatt (HEPW) lasers, with up to 2.6 kJ each in 10 ps IR pulses. The HEPW beams can be injected into either the EP chamber or the existing OMEGA target chamber for integrated experiments. This talk will describe the OMEGA EP project status, HED physics possibilities using the combined system, and opportunities for external user access. The full OMEGA laser system (original 60 beam OMEGA and OMEGA EP) will allow unprecedented opportunities for HED physics research. These include backlighting of ICF implosions and integrated Fast Ignition Experiments in the OMEGA target chamber. The configuration flexibility of the OMEGA EP target area, will allow a wide variety of HED physics research, with the possibility of mixing and matching short and long pulse laser beams. Research areas will include episodic jets, the use of up to 40 ns long drive pulses for Equation of State measurements, short pulse, high intensity backlighting of otherwise opaque materials, and the possibility of creating an electron-positron plasma The ongoing OMEGA EP Use Planning process will be described.

  15. Optimizing Content for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Counseling for Men who have Sex with Men: Perspectives of PrEP Users and High-risk PrEP Naïve Men

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. Wade; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Elsesser, Steven M.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing trials of antiretroviral (ARV) medication as chemoprophylaxis against HIV reveal that the degree of protection is primarily dependent on product adherence. However, there is a lack of data on targets for behavioral interventions to improve adherence to ARV as prevention. Information from individuals who have used ARV as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can inform behavioral intervention development. Thirty-nine HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Two of the focus groups consisted of MSM who had been prescribed and used PrEP in the context of a clinical trial; the other two consisted of high-risk MSM who had not previously used PrEP. An in-depth, within-case/across-case content analysis resulted in six descriptive themes potentially salient for a PrEP adherence behavioral intervention: (1) motivations to use PrEP, (2) barriers to PrEP use, (3) facilitators to PrEP use, (4) sexual decision-making in the context of PrEP, (5) prospective PrEP education content, and, (6) perceived effective characteristics of PrEP delivery personnel. Addressing these themes in behavioral interventions in the context of prescribing PrEP may result in the optimal “packaging” public health programs that implement PrEP for high-risk MSM. PMID:24077928

  16. Role of EP2 and EP4 receptors in airway microvascular leak induced by prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Victoria C; Birrell, Mark A; Maher, Sarah A; Griffiths, Mark; Grace, Megan; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Clark, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Airway microvascular leak (MVL) involves the extravasation of proteins from post‐capillary venules into surrounding tissue. MVL is a cardinal sign of inflammation and an important feature of airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2, a product of COX‐mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid, binds to four receptors, termed EP1–4. PGE2 has a wide variety of effects within the airway, including modulation of inflammation, sensory nerve activation and airway tone. However, the effect of PGE2 on airway MVL and the receptor/s that mediate this have not been described. Experimental Approach Evans Blue dye was used as a marker of airway MVL, and selective EP receptor agonists and antagonists were used alongside EP receptor‐deficient mice to define the receptor subtype involved. Key Results PGE2 induced significant airway MVL in mice and guinea pigs. A significant reduction in PGE2‐induced MVL was demonstrated in Ptger2 −/− and Ptger4 −/− mice and in wild‐type mice pretreated simultaneously with EP2 (PF‐04418948) and EP4 (ER‐819762) receptor antagonists. In a model of allergic asthma, an increase in airway levels of PGE2 was associated with a rise in MVL; this change was absent in Ptger2 −/− and Ptger4 −/− mice. Conclusions and Implications PGE2 is a key mediator produced by the lung and has widespread effects according to the EP receptor activated. Airway MVL represents a response to injury and under ‘disease’ conditions is a prominent feature of airway inflammation. The data presented highlight a key role for EP2 and EP4 receptors in MVL induced by PGE2. PMID:26639895

  17. Prostaglandin E2 increases proximal tubule fluid reabsorption, and modulates cultured proximal tubule cell responses via EP1 and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Rania; Hassouneh, Ramzi; Zimpelmann, Joseph; Karam, Andrew J; Thibodeau, Jean-Francois; Burger, Dylan; Burns, Kevin D; Kennedy, Chris Rj; Hébert, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Renal prostaglandin (PG) E2 regulates salt and water transport, and affects disease processes via EP1-4 receptors, but its role in the proximal tubule (PT) is unknown. Our study investigates the effects of PGE2 on mouse PT fluid reabsorption, and its role in growth, sodium transporter expression, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in a mouse PT cell line (MCT). To determine which PGE2 EP receptors are expressed in MCT, qPCR for EP1-4 was performed on cells stimulated for 24 h with PGE2 or transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), a known mediator of PT injury in kidney disease. EP1 and EP4 were detected in MCT, but EP2 and EP3 are not expressed. EP1 was increased by PGE2 and TGFβ, but EP4 was unchanged. To confirm the involvement of EP1 and EP4, sulprostone (SLP, EP1/3 agonist), ONO8711 (EP1 antagonist), and EP1 and EP4 siRNA were used. We first show that PGE2, SLP, and TGFβ reduced H(3)-thymidine and H(3)-leucine incorporation. The effects on cell-cycle regulators were examined by western blot. PGE2 increased p27 via EP1 and EP4, but TGFβ increased p21; PGE2-induced p27 was attenuated by TGFβ. PGE2 and SLP reduced cyclinE, while TGFβ increased cyclinD1, an effect attenuated by PGE2 administration. Na-K-ATPase α1 (NaK) was increased by PGE2 via EP1 and EP4. TGFβ had no effect on NaK. Additionally, PGE2 and TGFβ increased fibronectin levels, reaching 12-fold upon co-stimulation. EP1 siRNA abrogated PGE2-fibronectin. PGE2 also increased ROS generation, and ONO-8711 blocked PGE2-ROS. Finally, PGE2 significantly increased fluid reabsorption by 31 and 46% in isolated perfused mouse PT from C57BL/6 and FVB mice, respectively, and this was attenuated in FVB-EP1 null mice. Altogether PGE2 acting on EP1 and EP4 receptors may prove to be important mediators of PT injury, and salt and water transport.

  18. Production and Characterization of the Intra- and Extracellular Carbohydrates and Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Three Sea-Ice Diatom Species, and Evidence for a Cryoprotective Role for EPS.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Shazia N; Cresswell-Maynard, Tania; Thomas, David N; Underwood, Graham J C

    2012-12-01

    Diatoms and their associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are major constituents of the microalgal assemblages present within sea ice. Yields and chemical composition of soluble and cell-associated polysaccharides produced by three sea-ice diatoms, Synedropsis sp., Fragilariopsis curta, and F. cylindrus, were compared. Colloidal carbohydrates (CC) contained heteropolysaccharides rich in mannose, xylose, galactose, and glucose. Synedropsis sp. CC consisted mainly of carbohydrates <8 kDa size, with relatively soluble EPS, compared to high proportions of less-soluble EPS produced by both Fragilariopsis spp. F. curta colloidal EPS contained high concentrations of amino sugars (AS). Both Fragilariopsis species had high yields of hot bicarbonate (HB) soluble EPS, rich in xylose, mannose, galactose, and fucose (and AS in F. cylindrus). All species had frustule-associated EPS rich in glucose-mannose. Nutrient limitation resulted in declines in EPS yields and in glucose content of all EPS fractions. Significant similarities between EPS fractions from cultures and different components of natural EPS from Antarctic sea ice were found. Increased salinity (52) reduced growth, but increased yields of EPS in Fragilariopsis cylindrus. Ice formation was inhibited byF. cylindrus, EPS, and by enhanced EPS content (additional xanthan gum) down to -12°C, with growth rate reduced in the presence of xanthan. Differences in the production and composition of EPS between Synedropsis sp. and Fragilariopsis spp., and the association between EPS, freezing and cell survival, supports the hypothesis that EPS production is a strategy to assist polar ice diatoms to survive the cold and saline conditions present in sea ice. PMID:27009999

  19. Seasonal PrEP for partners of migrant miners in southern Mozambique: a highly focused PrEP intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cremin, Ide; Morales, Fernando; Jewell, Britta L; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Hallett, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To be used most effectively, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be prioritized to those at high risk of acquisition and would ideally be aligned with time periods of increased exposure. Identifying such time periods is not always straightforward, however. Gaza Province in southern Mozambique is characterized by high levels of HIV transmission and circular labour migration to mines in South Africa. A strong seasonal pattern in births is observable, reflecting an increase in conception in December. Given the potential for increased HIV transmission between miners returning in December and their partners in Gaza Province, PrEP use by the latter would be a useful means of HIV prevention, especially for couples who wish to conceive. Methods A mathematical model was used to represent population-level adult heterosexual HIV transmission in Gaza Province. Increased HIV acquisition among partners of miners in December, coinciding with the miners’ return from South Africa, is represented. In addition to a PrEP intervention, the scale-up of treatment and recent scale-up of male circumcision that have occurred in Gaza are represented. Results Providing time-limited PrEP to the partners of migrant miners, as opposed to providing PrEP all year, would improve the cost per infection averted by 7.5-fold. For the cost per infection averted to be below US$3000, at least 85% of PrEP users would need to be good adherers and PrEP would need to be cheaper than US$115 per person per year. Uncertainty regarding incidence of HIV transmission among partners of miners each year in December has a strong influence on estimates of cost per infection averted. Conclusions Providing time-limited PrEP to partners of migrant miners in Gaza Province during periods of increased exposure would be a novel strategy for providing PrEP. This strategy would allow for a better prioritized intervention, with the potential to improve the efficiency of a PrEP intervention considerably, as well

  20. Ezrin regulates microvillus morphogenesis by promoting distinct activities of Eps8 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zwaenepoel, Ingrid; Naba, Alexandra; Menezes Lyra Da Cunha, Marcel; Del Maestro, Laurence; Formstecher, Etienne; Louvard, Daniel; Arpin, Monique

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate actin filament polymerization resulting in the morphogenesis of the brush border microvilli in epithelial cells remain unknown. Eps8, the prototype of a family of proteins capable of capping and bundling actin filaments, has been shown to bundle the microvillar actin filaments. We report that Eps8L1a, a member of the Eps8 family and a novel ezrin-interacting partner, controls microvillus length through its capping activity. Depletion of Eps8L1a leads to the formation of long microvilli, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effect. We demonstrate that ezrin differentially modulates the actin-capping and -bundling activities of Eps8 and Eps8L1a during microvillus assembly. Coexpression of ezrin with Eps8 promotes the formation of membrane ruffles and tufts of microvilli, whereas expression of ezrin and Eps8L1a induces the clustering of actin-containing structures at the cell surface. These distinct morphological changes are neither observed when a mutant of ezrin defective in its binding to Eps8/Eps8L1a is coexpressed with Eps8 or Eps8L1a nor observed when ezrin is expressed with mutants of Eps8 or Eps8L1a defective in the actin-bundling or -capping activities, respectively. Our data show a synergistic effect of ezrin and Eps8 proteins in the assembly and organization of actin microvillar filaments. PMID:22262457

  1. Prostaglandin receptor EP4 in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Richard Y; St Amand, Tim; Li, XinZhi; Yoon, Sung-Hee; Wang, Carol P; Song, Hui; Maruyama, Takayuki; Brown, Peter M; Zelt, David T; Funk, Colin D

    2012-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis is distinguished by vessel wall inflammation. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, key components of the most well-characterized inflammatory prostaglandin pathway, contribute to AAA development in the 28-day angiotensin II infusion model in mice. In this study, we used this model to examine the role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) and genetic knockdown of COX-2 expression (70% to 90%) in AAA pathogenesis. The administration of the prostaglandin receptor EP4 antagonist AE3-208 (10 mg/kg per day) to apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice led to active drug plasma concentrations and reduced AAA incidence and severity compared with control apoE-deficient mice (P < 0.01), whereas COX-2 genetic knockdown/apoE-deficient mice displayed only a minor, nonsignificant decrease in incidence of AAA. EP4 receptor protein was present in human and mouse AAA, as observed by using Western blot analysis. Aortas from AE3-208-treated mice displayed evidence of a reduced inflammatory phenotype compared with controls. Atherosclerotic lesion size at the aortic root was similar between all groups. In conclusion, the prostaglandin E(2)-EP4 signaling pathway plays a role in the AAA inflammatory process. Blocking the EP4 receptor pharmacologically reduces both the incidence and severity of AAA in the angiotensin II mouse model, potentially via attenuation of cytokine/chemokine synthesis and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase activities.

  2. EP300 Protects from Light-Induced Retinopathy in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kawase, Reiko; Nishimura, Yuhei; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Moriyuki, Kazumi; Yamane, Shinsaku; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of rhodopsin to bright white light can induce photoreceptor cell damage and degeneration. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying light-induced retinopathy remains elusive. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of three rodent models of light-induced retinopathy, and we identified 37 genes that are dysregulated in all three models. Gene ontology analysis revealed that this gene set is significantly associated with a cytokine signaling axis composed of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 (STAT1/3), interleukin 6 signal transducer (IL6ST), and oncostatin M receptor (OSMR). Furthermore, the analysis suggested that the histone acetyltransferase EP300 may be a key upstream regulator of the STAT1/3–IL6ST/OSMR axis. To examine the role of EP300 directly, we developed a larval zebrafish model of light-induced retinopathy. Using this model, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of EP300 significantly increased retinal cell apoptosis, decreased photoreceptor cell outer segments, and increased proliferation of putative Müller cells upon exposure to intense light. These results suggest that EP300 may protect photoreceptor cells from light-induced damage and that activation of EP300 may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27242532

  3. EP2 Induces p38 Phosphorylation via the Activation of Src in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Minsub

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase, binds to four different prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) which are G-protein coupled transmembrane receptors (GPCRs). Although GPCRs including EP receptors have been shown to be associated with their specific G proteins, recent evidences suggest that GPCRs can regulate MAPK signaling via non-G protein coupled pathways including Src. EP2 is differentially expressed in various tissues and the expression of EP2 is induced by extracellular stimuli. We hypothesized that an increased level of EP2 expression may affect MAPK signaling. The overexpression of EP2 in HEK 293 cells resulted in significant increase in intracellular cAMP levels response to treatment with butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, while overexpression of EP2 alone did not increase intracellular cAMP levels. However, EP2 overexpression in the absence of PGE2 induced an increase in the level of p38 phosphorylation as well as the kinase activity of p38, suggesting that up-regulation of EP2 may promote p38 activation via non-G protein coupled pathway. Inhibition of Src completely blocked EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation and overexpression of Src increased the level of p38 phosphorylation, indicating that Src is upstream kinase for EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation. EP2 overexpression also increased the Src activity and EP2 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with Src. Furthermore, sequential co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that EP2, Src, and β-arrestin can form a complex. Our study found a novel pathway in which EP2 is associated with Src, regulating p38 pathway. PMID:26535079

  4. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gay Ducati, M. B.; Machado, M. M.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2009-04-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interaction at the small-x region using the color dipole formalism. This phenomenological approach is quite successful in describing experimental results in deep inelastic ep scattering and charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies. We present theoretical predictions for the relevant structure functions and the corresponding implications for the total NC neutrino cross section. It is shown that at small x, the NC boson-nucleon cross section should exhibit the geometric scaling property that has important consequences for ultrahigh energy neutrino phenomenology.

  5. D*-PRODUCTION and F2c for Q2 > 1 GEV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrdieck, S.

    2002-10-01

    Results of the H1 experiment on the visible ep cross section for inclusive D*(2010) meson production in deep-inelastic scattering are presented in a kinematic range of 1 < Q2 < 100 GeV2 and 0.05 < y < 0.7 and in the visible region pt(D*) > 1.5 GeV and |η(D*)| < 1.5. The data is compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD calculations in the CCFM and NLO DGLAP scheme. The charm contribution to the proton structure function, F2c, is extracted by extrapolating the visible cross section to the full phase space.

  6. Beauty production at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Yagues, A.

    2009-12-17

    Beauty quark production in ep collisions is being studied at HERA. The latest results in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction (PHP) regime performed by the ZEUS and HI experiments are presented here. The first measurement exploits the potential of the ZEUS mi-crovertex detector to identify beauty in PHP dijet events in an inclusive analysis. In the second measurement, beauty quarks were identified through their decays into muons. Finally, two measurements of the beauty contribution to the proton structure function, F{sub 2}{sup b???b}, in DIS are presented. The four measurements are consistent with previous results and are reasonably well described by QCD predictions.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 represses interleukin 1 beta-induced inflammatory mediator output from pregnant human myometrial cells through the EP2 and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Andrea A; Rainey, Kelly J; Giembycz, Mark A; Wood, Stephen; Slater, Donna M

    2012-07-01

    Inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines, are strongly implicated in the mechanism of human labor, though their precise roles remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) significantly increased the expression and release of interleukin-8 (CXCL8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF2) by primary human myometrial cells. However, this effect was repressed by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). As PGE(2) can activate four distinct PGE(2) receptors (EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4)) to elicit various responses, we sought to define the EP receptor(s) responsible for this repression. Using selective EP receptor agonists and a selective EP(4) antagonist, we show that PGE(2) mediates the repression of IL-1beta-induced release of CXCL8, CCL2, and CSF2 via activation of the EP(2) and EP(4) receptors. The use of siRNA gene-specific knockdown further confirmed a role for both receptors. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that EP(2) was the most highly expressed of all four EP receptors at the mRNA level in human myometrial cells, and immunocytochemistry showed that EP(2) protein is abundantly present throughout the cells. Interestingly, PGE(2) does not appear to reduce mRNA expression of CXCL8, CCL2, and CSF2. Our results demonstrate that PGE(2) can elicit anti-inflammatory responses via activation of the EP(2) and EP(4) receptors in lower segment term pregnant human myometrial cells. Further elucidation of the EP receptor-mediated signaling pathways in the pregnant human uterus may be beneficial for optimizing the maintenance of pregnancy, induction of labor or indeed treatment of preterm labor.

  8. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone promoted gastric cancer growth through prostaglandin E receptor (EP2 and EP4) in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shin, Vivian Y; Jin, Hong C; Ng, Enders K O; Cho, Chi H; Leung, Wai K; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chu, Kent-Man

    2011-05-01

    Prostaglandin E (EP) receptor is positively related with COX-2, which is involved in cancer biology. A mechanistic study on how 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) promotes gastric carcinogenesis is lacking. Recently, we found that nicotine promoted tumor growth through upregulation of the COX-2/prostaglandin E(2) pathway. This extended our study on the involvement of EP receptors in gastric carcinogenesis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that NNK promoted cancer cell growth with concomitant EP2 and EP4 upregulation. We found that NNK stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis, but suppressed apoptosis by increasing Bcl2 and decreasing caspase-3 expressions. Both EP2 and EP4 siRNA significantly impaired these tumorigenic actions of NNK in xenograft tumor. Cell cycle analysis showed that NNK increased S phase entry with increased cyclin D1 and the associated cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, and downregulation of p21 and p27. The p38 phosphorylation was EP2/4-dependent, and SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) suppressed NNK-induced prostaglandin E(2) , VEGF, and cell proliferation. Antagonists of EP2 or EP4 abolished the elevated VEGF and VEGF receptor-2. These data strongly indicate that EP2/4 are important for NNK-promoted gastric carcinogenesis, thus providing a framework for future evaluation of EP antagonist(s) as anticancer drugs for smokers.

  9. EpCAM Aptamer-siRNA Chimera Targets and Regress Epithelial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Nithya; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Sreemanthula, JagadeeshBabu; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Khetan, Vikas; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker is over expressed in epithelial cancers and in retinoblastoma (RB). We fabricated an EpCAM targeting aptamer-siRNA chimera and investigated its anti-tumor property and EpCAM intracellular domain (EpICD) mediated signaling in epithelial cancer. The anti-tumor efficacy of EpCAM aptamer-siEpCAM chimera (EpApt-siEp) was evaluated by qPCR, northern and Western blotting in WERI-Rb1- RB cell line, primary RB tumor cells and in MCF7- breast cancer cell line. Anti-tumor activity of EpApt-siEp was studied in vivo using epithelial cancer (MCF7) mice xenograft model. The mechanism and pathways involved in the anti-tumor activity was further studied using protein arrays and qPCR. EpApt-siEp chimera was processed in vitro by dicer enzyme. Treatment of the WERI-Rb1 and MCF7 cells with EpApt-siEp revealed statistically significant down regulation of EpCAM expression (P<0.005) and concomitant reduction in cellular proliferation. In primary RB cells cultured from RB tumors, EpApt-siEp silenced EpCAM, significantly inhibited (P<0.01) cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity. Knockdown of EpICD expressed in RB primary tumors led to repression of pluripotency markers, SOX2, OCT4, NANOG, and CD133. In vivo studies showed complete tumor growth regression without any toxicity in animals (P<0.001) and tumor tissues showed significant downregulation (P<0.05) of EpCAM, MRP1, ABCG2, stathmin, survivin and upregulation of ATM (P<0.05) leading to apoptosis by intrinsic pathway with minor alteration in cytokines. Our results revealed that EpApt-siEp potentially eradicated EpCAM positive cancer cells through CSC marker suppression and apoptosis, while sparing normal EpCAM negative adjacent cells. PMID:26176230

  10. The soluble EP2 receptor FuEP2/Ex2 suppresses endometrial cancer cell growth in an orthotopic xenograft model in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Izumi, Keisuke; Uehara, Hisanori

    2011-07-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and many factors influence in its growth and development. As in many other types of cancer, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is thought to be an accelerator of cell proliferation and endometrial cancer progression. In this study, we examined the effect of FuEP2/Ex2, a soluble decoy receptor for PGE(2) on growth of endometrial cancer cells. A stable transfectant expressing FuEP2/Ex2 was established from human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells (Ish-FuEP2/Ex2). Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 cells expressed FuEP2/Ex2 mRNA and protein. Expression levels of E-prostanoid receptor 1 (EP1), EP2, EP3, EP4, and F-prostanoid receptor (FP) were almost the same in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 and vector control cells. Growth rates of Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 under normal culture conditions were also similar to vector control cells, although PGE(2)-induced growth stimulation was completely inhibited in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 or by Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 culture medium. Moreover, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, and c-fos mRNA by PGE(2) were not observed in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 and Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 culture medium-treated vector control cells, although they were found when treated with prostaglandin F(2α). An orthotopic xenograft model in athymic nude mice revealed that Ish-FuEP2/Ex2-injected mice had significantly decreased mean tumor area. The proportion of Ki-67-positive cells in the tumor lesion was also significantly lower in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2-injected mice. These findings suggest that an EP-targeting strategy using FuEP2/Ex2 may be of use in the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Hyperosmolar-Induced Human Mast Cell Activation through Prostanoid Receptors EP2 and EP4

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Atencio, Ivonne; Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; de Mora, Fernando; Picado, César; Martín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthma. The mechanism underlying EIB is probably related to increased airway fluid osmolarity that activates mast cells to the release inflammatory mediators. These mediators then act on bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchoconstriction. In parallel, protective substances such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are probably also released and could explain the refractory period observed in patients with EIB. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PGE2 on osmotically activated mast cells, as a model of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods We used LAD2, HMC-1, CD34-positive, and human lung mast cell lines. Cells underwent a mannitol challenge, and the effects of PGE2 and prostanoid receptor (EP) antagonists for EP1–4 were assayed on the activated mast cells. Beta-hexosaminidase release, protein phosphorylation, and calcium mobilization were assessed. Results Mannitol both induced mast cell degranulation and activated phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, thereby causing de novo eicosanoid and cytokine synthesis. The addition of PGE2 significantly reduced mannitol-induced degranulation through EP2 and EP4 receptors, as measured by beta-hexosaminidase release, and consequently calcium influx. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation were diminished when compared with mannitol activation alone. Conclusions Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition. PMID:25329458

  12. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incentive payments to EPs. 495.102 Section 495.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meaningful use on the basis of lack of face-to-face or telemedicine interaction with patients and lack...

  13. How EPs Record the Voice of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Emma; Atkinson, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Legislation, literature and research have recently advocated the importance of establishing and representing the views of children and young people. This study aimed to establish how Educational Psychologists (EPs) in one authority ascertain and present children's views in written reports. Content analysis was undertaken on the pupils' view…

  14. The ZInEP Epidemiology Survey: background, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Warnke, Inge; Hengartner, Michael P; Landolt, Karin; Hagenmuller, Florence; Meier, Magali; Tse, Lee-Ting; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Passardi, Marco; Knöpfli, Daniel; Schönfelder, Herdis; Eisele, Jochen; Rüsch, Nicolas; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces the design, sampling, field procedures and instruments used in the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. This survey is one of six ZInEP projects (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie, i.e. the "Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services"). It parallels the longitudinal Zurich Study with a sample comparable in age and gender, and with similar methodology, including identical instruments. Thus, it is aimed at assessing the change of prevalence rates of common mental disorders and the use of professional help and psychiatric sevices. Moreover, the current survey widens the spectrum of topics by including sociopsychiatric questionnaires on stigma, stress related biological measures such as load and cortisol levels, electroencephalographic (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examinations with various paradigms, and sociophysiological tests. The structure of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey entails four subprojects: a short telephone screening using the SCL-27 (n of nearly 10,000), a comprehensive face-to-face interview based on the SPIKE (Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology: the main instrument of the Zurich Study) with a stratified sample (n = 1500), tests in the Center for Neurophysiology and Sociophysiology (n = 227), and a prospective study with up to three follow-up interviews and further measures (n = 157). In sum, the four subprojects of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey deliver a large interdisciplinary database. PMID:24942564

  15. Tsetse EP Protein Protects the Fly Midgut from Trypanosome Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Lee R.; Lehane, Stella M.; Pearson, Terry W.; Lehane, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    African trypanosomes undergo a complex developmental process in their tsetse fly vector before transmission back to a vertebrate host. Typically, 90% of fly infections fail, most during initial establishment of the parasite in the fly midgut. The specific mechanism(s) underpinning this failure are unknown. We have previously shown that a Glossina-specific, immunoresponsive molecule, tsetse EP protein, is up regulated by the fly in response to gram-negative microbial challenge. Here we show by knockdown using RNA interference that this tsetse EP protein acts as a powerful antagonist of establishment in the fly midgut for both Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. congolense. We demonstrate that this phenomenon exists in two species of tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. palpalis palpalis, suggesting tsetse EP protein may be a major determinant of vector competence in all Glossina species. Tsetse EP protein levels also decline in response to starvation of the fly, providing a possible explanation for increased susceptibility of starved flies to trypanosome infection. As starvation is a common field event, this fact may be of considerable importance in the epidemiology of African trypanosomiasis. PMID:20221444

  16. 48 CFR 504.570 - Procedures for using the EPS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 504.570 Procedures for using the EPS. (a... that electronic access to a solicitation will result in adequate competition, distribute the... writing the Contracting Officer at the address in . (e) The Electronic Posting System Manual...

  17. E&P forum land transport safety management guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.; Carouso, M.; Covil, M.

    1996-11-01

    Against a general background of falling lost time injuries the member of serious incidents and fatalities in the upstream E&P industry involving motor vehicles employed in land transport remains stubbornly high. In consequence the E&P Forum has prepared guidelines to provide the E&P industry with clear guidance and a shared aim in minimizing vehicle incidents and their costs. Logistics and land transport are multifunctional activities involving personnel throughout the E&P industry. All those involved in land transport share a joint commitment to amazing land transport risks in their operation and to preventing incidents and fatalities as stated in their HSE policies. Historically management`s focus has been on those activities which have a higher perceived risk. This attention has resulted in significant reductions in the number of accidents in these areas. The management of land transport safety requires the same approach and the same proactive emphasis as the management of other HSE risks within the business activity. Companies should have in place a management system for land transport operations based on a full and careful appraisal of the risks, followed by a clear management strategy to minimis and control those risks to a level as low as reasonably practicable.

  18. When and why women might suspend PrEP use according to perceived seasons of risk: implications for PrEP-specific risk-reduction counselling.

    PubMed

    Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg; Corneli, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral drug emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of HIV acquisition for women at higher risk of infection if taken daily. Understanding when and why women would intentionally stop using an efficacious oral PrEP drug within the context of their 'normal' daily lives is essential for delivering effective PrEP risk-reduction counselling. As part of a larger study, we conducted 60 qualitative interviews with women at higher risk of HIV in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants charted their sexual contacts over the previous six months, indicated whether they would have taken PrEP if available and discussed whether and why they would have suspended PrEP use. Nearly all participants said they would have used PrEP in the previous six months; half indicated they would have suspended PrEP use at some point. Participants' reasons for an extended break from PrEP were related to partnership dynamics (e.g., perceived low risk of a stable partner) and phases of life (e.g., trying to conceive). Life events (e.g., holidays and travel) could prompt shorter breaks in PrEP use. These circumstances may or may not correspond to actual contexts of lower risk, highlighting the importance of tailored PrEP risk-reduction counselling.

  19. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    PubMed

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized.

  20. Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Boniface, Katia; Bak-Jensen, Kristian S; Li, Ying; Blumenschein, Wendy M; McGeachy, Mandy J; McClanahan, Terrill K; McKenzie, Brent S; Kastelein, Robert A; Cua, Daniel J; de Waal Malefyt, René

    2009-03-16

    Prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play an important role during inflammation. This is exemplified by the clinical use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, which interfere with PGE2 synthesis, as effective antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that PGE2 directly promotes differentiation and proinflammatory functions of human and murine IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells. In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic AMP pathways to up-regulate IL-23 and IL-1 receptor expression. Furthermore, PGE2 synergizes with IL-1beta and IL-23 to drive retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-gammat, IL-17, IL-17F, CCL20, and CCR6 expression, which is consistent with the reported Th17 phenotype. While enhancing Th17 cytokine expression mainly through EP2, PGE2 differentially regulates interferon (IFN)-gamma production and inhibits production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 in Th17 cells predominantly through EP4. Furthermore, PGE2 is required for IL-17 production in the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Hence, the combination of inflammatory cytokines and noncytokine immunomodulators, such as PGE2, during differentiation and activation determines the ultimate phenotype of Th17 cells. These findings, together with the altered IL-12/IL-23 balance induced by PGE2 in dendritic cells, further highlight the crucial role of the inflammatory microenvironment in Th17 cell development and regulation.

  1. Measurement of diffractive dijet production at the H1 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raičević, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    The new results on measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering, ep → eXY, obtained with the H1 detector are presented. The system X contains at least two jets. Measurements are performed using two approaches. One approach is based on detection of the diffractive processes with Y being a proton or its low mass excitation. Diffractive events are selected by demanding a large empty rapidity gap interval separating the final state hadronic systems X and Y. In another approach, the leading final state proton from the process ep → eXp is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurements are compared with predictions from NLO QCD calculations based on diffractive parton densities.

  2. 30 CFR 550.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.222 Section 550.222 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.222 What lease stipulations information must accompany... stipulations related to your proposed exploration activities must accompany your EP....

  3. 30 CFR 250.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 250.222 Section 250.222 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.222 What lease stipulations... conditions of lease stipulations related to your proposed exploration activities must accompany your EP....

  4. 30 CFR 550.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.222 Section 550.222 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.222 What lease stipulations information must accompany... stipulations related to your proposed exploration activities must accompany your EP....

  5. 30 CFR 550.228 - What administrative information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What administrative information must accompany the EP? 550.228 Section 550.228 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.228 What administrative information must accompany the EP?...

  6. 30 CFR 550.218 - What air emissions information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the EP? 550.218 Section 550.218 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.218 What air emissions information must accompany the EP? The... will be generated by your proposed exploration activities. (1) For each source on or associated...

  7. 30 CFR 550.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.222 Section 550.222 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.222 What lease stipulations information must accompany... stipulations related to your proposed exploration activities must accompany your EP....

  8. 30 CFR 550.228 - What administrative information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What administrative information must accompany the EP? 550.228 Section 550.228 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.228 What administrative information must accompany the EP?...

  9. 30 CFR 550.228 - What administrative information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What administrative information must accompany the EP? 550.228 Section 550.228 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.228 What administrative information must accompany the EP?...

  10. 30 CFR 550.218 - What air emissions information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the EP? 550.218 Section 550.218 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.218 What air emissions information must accompany the EP? The... will be generated by your proposed exploration activities. (1) For each source on or associated...

  11. 30 CFR 550.218 - What air emissions information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the EP? 550.218 Section 550.218 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.218 What air emissions information must accompany the EP? The... will be generated by your proposed exploration activities. (1) For each source on or associated...

  12. 30 CFR 250.231 - After receiving the EP, what will MMS do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? 250.231 Section 250.231 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT... and Information Review and Decision Process for the Ep § 250.231 After receiving the EP, what will...

  13. 30 CFR 250.231 - After receiving the EP, what will MMS do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? 250.231 Section 250.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Decision Process for the Ep § 250.231 After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? (a) Determine...

  14. Should Earnings per Share (EPS) Be Taught as a Means of Comparing Intercompany Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Charles E.; Clark, Stanley J.; Smith, W. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Accounting standards state that the purpose of presenting earnings per share (EPS) is to provide financial statement users with information on the performance of a single entity. Yet, several textbook authors go further to state that EPS can be used to make comparisons among firms. In this article, the authors show that although EPS comparisons…

  15. 30 CFR 250.285 - How do I submit revised and supplemental EPs, DPPs, and DOCDs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I submit revised and supplemental EPs....285 How do I submit revised and supplemental EPs, DPPs, and DOCDs? (a) Submittal. You must submit to the Regional Supervisor any revisions and supplements to approved EPs, DPPs, or DOCDs for...

  16. 30 CFR 250.285 - How do I submit revised and supplemental EPs, DPPs, and DOCDs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit revised and supplemental EPs... supplemental EPs, DPPs, and DOCDs? (a) Submittal. You must submit to the Regional Supervisor any revisions and supplements to approved EPs, DPPs, or DOCDs for approval, whether you initiate them or the Regional...

  17. 7 CFR 2902.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. (a..., will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling products. By that...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling...

  1. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  2. Study of Double Spin Asymmetries in Inclusive ep Scattering at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hoyoung

    2014-08-01

    The spin structure of the proton has been investigated in the high Bjorken x and low momentum transfer Q2 region. We used Jefferson Lab's polarized electron beam, a polarized target, and a spectrometer to get both the parallel and perpendicular spin asymmetries Apar and Aperp. These asymmetries produced the physics asymmetries A_1 and A_2 and spin structure functions g_1 and g_2. We found Q2 dependences of the asymmetries at resonance region and higher-twist effects. Our result increases the available data on the proton spin structure, especially at resonance region with low Q2. Moreover, A_2 and g_2 data show clear Q2 evolution, comparing with RSS and SANE-BETA. Negative resonance in A_2 data needs to be examined by theory. It can be an indication of very negative transverse-longitudinal interference contribution at W ~ 1.3 GeV. Higher twist effect appears at the low Q2 of 1.9 GeV2, although it is less significant than lower Q2 data of RSS. Twist03 matrix element d_2 was calculated using our asymmetry fits evaluation at Q2 – 1.9 GeV2. D-bar_2 = -0.0087±0.0014 was obtained by integrating 0.47 ≤ x ≤ 0.87.

  3. PrEP in Europe – expectations, opportunities and barriers

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Sheena Mary; Noseda, Veronica; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access. Discussion Health systems and government commitment to HIV prevention and care, both financial and political, differ considerably between the countries that make up Europe. A common feature is that funds for prevention are a small fraction of funds for care. Although care is generally good, access is limited in the middle-income countries of Eastern Europe and central Asia, and only 19% of people living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy in 2014. It is challenging to motivate governments or civil society to implement PrEP in the context of this unmet treatment need, which is driven by limited national health budgets and diminishing assistance from foreign aid. The high-income countries of Western Europe have hesitated to embrace PrEP for different reasons, initially due to key gaps in the evidence. Now that PrEP has been shown to be highly effective in European MSM in two randomized controlled trials, it is clear that the major barrier is the cost of the drug which is still on patent, although inadequate health systems and diminishing investment in civil society are also key challenges to overcome. Conclusions The momentum to implement PrEP in European countries is increasing and provides a welcome opportunity to expand and improve clinical services and civil society support focused on HIV and related infections including other sexually transmitted and

  4. Preferred recycling pathway by internalized PGE2 EP4 receptor following agonist stimulation in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to enhanced EP4 receptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2016-06-21

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator abundantly produced in injured tissues, sensitizes nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) through its four EP receptors (EP1-4). Our prior study showed that PGE2 or EP4 agonist stimulates EP4 externalization and this event was not only suppressed by the inhibitor of anterograde export, but also by the recycling inhibitor (St-Jacques and Ma, 2013). These data suggest that EP4 recycling also contributes to agonist-enhanced EP4 surface abundance. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using antibody-feeding-based internalization assay, recycling assay and FITC-PGE2 binding assay. We observed that selective EP4 agonist 1-hydroxy-PGE1 (1-OH-PGE1) or CAY10850 time- and concentration-dependently increased EP4 internalization in cultured DRG neuron. Internalized EP4 was predominantly localized in the early endosomes and recycling endosomes, but rarely in the late endosomes and lysosomes. These observations were confirmed by FITC-PGE2 binding assay. We further revealed that 1-OH-PGE1 or CAY10850 time- and concentration-dependently increased EP4 recycling. Double exposures to 1-OH-PGE1 induced a greater increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release than a single exposure or vehicle exposure, an event blocked by pre-treatment with the recycling inhibitor monensin. Our data suggest that EP4 recycling contributes to agonist-induced cell surface abundance and consequently enhanced receptor sensitivity. Facilitating EP4 externalization and recycling is a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-induced nociceptor sensitization.

  5. Protection of Hippocampal Neurogenesis from Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Innate Immune Activation by Ablation of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype EP1 or EP2

    PubMed Central

    Keene, C. Dirk; Chang, Rubens; Stephen, Christina; Nivison, Mary; Nutt, Samuel E.; Look, Amy; Breyer, Richard M.; Horner, Phillip J.; Hevner, Robert; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 is one of several eicosanoid products of the cyclooxygenase isozymes and is a key regulator of innate immune responses; it also possesses paracrine effects on mature neurons. The prostaglandin E2 receptor family consists of four subtypes of which EP1 and EP2 are known to be expressed by microglia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune activation leads to the degeneration of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) that are destined for neuronal maturation in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ); these cells can be identified by the expression of the transcription factor T-box brain gene 2 (Tbr2). Importantly, depletion of LPS-induced IPCs from the SGZ is suppressed by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. We therefore tested the hypothesis that either EP1 or EP2 is critical to LPS-induced depletion of Tbr2+ IPCs from the SGZ. Expression of either EP1 or EP2 was necessary for Toll-like receptor 4-dependent innate immune-mediated depletion of these Tbr2+ IPCs in mice. Moreover, EP1 activation was directly toxic to murine adult hippocampal progenitor cells; EP2 was not expressed by these cells. Finally, EP1 modulated the response of murine primary microglia cultures to LPS but in a manner distinct from EP2. These results indicate that prostaglandin E2 signaling via either EP1 or EP2 is largely to completely necessary for Toll-like receptor 4-dependent depletion of IPCs from the SGZ and suggest further pharmacological strategies to protect this important neurogenic niche. PMID:19389932

  6. EP3 receptor deficiency attenuates pulmonary hypertension through suppression of Rho/TGF-β1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ankang; Zuo, Caojian; He, Yuhu; Chen, Guilin; Piao, Lingjuan; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Bing; Shen, Yujun; Tang, Juan; Kong, Deping; Alberti, Sara; Chen, Di; Zuo, Shenkai; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Shuai; Fei, Xiaochun; Yuan, Fei; Zhou, Bin; Duan, Shengzhong; Yu, Yu; Lazarus, Michael; Su, Yunchao; Breyer, Richard M.; Funk, Colin D.; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly associated with chronic hypoxemia in disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prostacyclin analogs are widely used in the management of PAH patients; however, clinical efficacy and long-term tolerability of some prostacyclin analogs may be compromised by concomitant activation of the E-prostanoid 3 (EP3) receptor. Here, we found that EP3 expression is upregulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and human distal pulmonary arteries (PAs) in response to hypoxia. Either pharmacological inhibition of EP3 or Ep3 deletion attenuated both hypoxia and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and restrained extracellular matrix accumulation in PAs in rodent models. In a murine PAH model, Ep3 deletion in SMCs, but not endothelial cells, retarded PA medial thickness. Knockdown of EP3α and EP3β, but not EP3γ, isoforms diminished hypoxia-induced TGF-β1 activation. Expression of either EP3α or EP3β in EP3-deficient PASMCs restored TGF-β1 activation in response to hypoxia. EP3α/β activation in PASMCs increased RhoA-dependent membrane type 1 extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) translocation to the cell surface, subsequently activating pro–MMP-2 and promoting TGF-β1 signaling. Activation or disruption of EP3 did not influence PASMC proliferation. Together, our results indicate that EP3 activation facilitates hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in mice and suggest EP3 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25664856

  7. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  8. Heavy Quark Production in ep Collisions at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, I.

    2006-11-17

    Collisions of electrons with protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV are being recorded by the two experiments H1 and ZEUS at the ep accelerator HERA at DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Measurements involving beauty and charm quarks, performed by these experiments, provide a good environment to test perturbative QCD predictions as the large quark mass supplies a hard scale. Recent measurements of beauty and charm production in ep collisions are presented here. QCD predictions at next-to-leading order are found to generally agree with the measurements. Beauty measurements however are sometimes slightly higher than the predicted cross sections. Beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure were also measured and are well described by QCD predictions.

  9. Neuroprotection by the PGE2 EP2 receptor in permanent focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Liejun; Breyer, Richard; Mattson, Mark P; Andreasson, Katrin

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies suggest a neuroprotective function of the PGE2 EP2 receptor in excitotoxic neuronal injury. The function of the EP2 receptor was examined at time points after excitotoxicity in an organotypic hippocampal model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) challenge and in a permanent model of focal forebrain ischemia. Activation of EP2 led to significant neuroprotection in hippocampal slices up to 3 hours after a toxic NMDA stimulus. Genetic deletion of EP2 resulted in a marked increase in stroke volume in the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model. These findings support further investigation into therapeutic strategies targeting the EP2 receptor in stroke.

  10. Spatial measure of reaction size in proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Makoto; Iwasaki, Masataka; Otani, Reiji; Tomita, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    The microscopic coupled-channel (MCC) calculations for proton + 12C inelastic scattering are performed in the energy range of Ep = 29.95 MeV to 65 MeV. The nuclear interactions for the proton -12C system are constructed from the folding model, which employs the internal wave function of 12C, obtained from the 3α resonating group method (3α RGM), and an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of the density-dependent Michigan three-range Yukawa (DDM3Y). The MCC calculation with the 3α RGM + DDM3Y nicely reproduces all of the differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering in the angular range of θc.m. = 30° to 120°. We introduce a scattering radius, which characterizes a spatial size of the scattering area, from partial wave decompositions of an angle-integrated cross section. The scattering radii for the elastic scattering and the various inelastic channels, which involve the rotational or vibrational excitations and the 3α excitations in 12C, are derived. We found that the scattering radii for the inelastic channels with a well developed 3α structure are strongly enhanced in comparison to the scattering radii for the elastic and collective channels. This enhancement of the scattering radius for the 3α channel strongly suggests that the scattering radius is sensitive to a size of the intrinsic structure of the finally excited state in the scattering process.

  11. Knowledge is Power! Increased Provider Knowledge Scores Regarding Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are Associated with Higher Rates of PrEP Prescription and Future Intent to Prescribe PrEP.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jill; Jain, Sonia; Krakower, Douglas; Sun, Xiaoying; Young, Jason; Mayer, Kenneth; Haubrich, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The FDA approval of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 has raised questions about the delivery of PrEP in a real-world setting. iPad-based questionnaires were given to providers at conferences in California and New York to assess knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding PrEP in HIV and non-HIV providers. HIV provider status was defined either by self-identification or by having greater than 5 years of HIV care experience. Knowledge scores were the sum of correct answers from five PrEP knowledge questions. Univariate analyses used t-test to compare knowledge scores and Fisher's exact test for past or future PrEP prescription between HIV and non-HIV providers. Multivariable linear or logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with the outcomes. Of 233 respondents, the mean age was 40 years, 59 % were White, 59 % were physicians and 52 % were HIV providers. In univariate analysis, mean PrEP knowledge scores (max 5) were significantly higher for HIV providers (2.8 versus 2.2; p < 0.001), age > 41 (mean 2.8 versus 2.3; p = 0.004), White race (2.7 versus 2.2; p = 0.026) and participants in the New York region (3.0 versus 2.3; p < 0.001). In a multivariable model of knowledge scores, all but age remained significant. Among 201 potential prescribers, the rate of prior PrEP prescription was higher among HIV providers than non-HIV providers (34 versus 9 %; p < 0.001) and by knowledge score, but the association with provider status was no longer significant in multivariable analysis that controlled for knowledge. Intent to prescribe PrEP in the future was high for all provider types (64 %) and was associated with knowledge scores in multivariable analysis. The most common concerns about PrEP (>40 % of providers) were drug toxicities, development of resistance and patient adherence to follow-up; 32 % identified risk compensation as a concern. HIV providers had significantly greater PrEP knowledge

  12. Measuring dark energy with the Eiso - Ep correlation of gamma-ray bursts using model-independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Wang, F. Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Dai, Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We use two model-independent methods to standardize long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the Eiso - Ep correlation (log Eiso = a + blog Ep), where Eiso is the isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray energy and Ep is the spectral peak energy. We update 42 long GRBs and attempt to constrain the cosmological parameters. The full sample contains 151 long GRBs with redshifts from 0.0331 to 8.2. The first method is the simultaneous fitting method. We take the extrinsic scatter σext into account and assign it to the parameter Eiso. The best-fitting values are a = 49.15 ± 0.26, b = 1.42 ± 0.11, σext = 0.34 ± 0.03 and Ωm = 0.79 in the flat ΛCDM model. The constraint on Ωm is 0.55 < Ωm< 1 at the 1σ confidence level. If reduced χ2 method is used, the best-fit results are a = 48.96 ± 0.18, b = 1.52 ± 0.08, and Ωm = 0.50 ± 0.12. The second method uses type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to calibrate the Eiso - Ep correlation. We calibrate 90 high-redshift GRBs in the redshift range from 1.44 to 8.1. The cosmological constraints from these 90 GRBs are Ωm = 0.23+0.06-0.04 for flat ΛCDM and Ωm = 0.18 ± 0.11 and ΩΛ = 0.46 ± 0.51 for non-flat ΛCDM. For the combination of GRB and SNe Ia sample, we obtain Ωm = 0.271 ± 0.019 and h = 0.701 ± 0.002 for the flat ΛCDM and the non-flat ΛCDM, and the results are Ωm = 0.225 ± 0.044, ΩΛ = 0.640 ± 0.082, and h = 0.698 ± 0.004. These results from calibrated GRBs are consistent with that of SNe Ia. Meanwhile, the combined data can improve cosmological constraints significantly, compared to SNe Ia alone. Our results show that the Eiso - Ep correlation is promising to probe the high-redshift Universe.

  13. A comprehensive photometric study of the eclipsing binary EP Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.-L.; Wei, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-G.; Li, K.; Zhang, X.-B.

    2015-02-01

    We present new observations for the eclipsing binary EP Aurigae, which were performed by using three small telescopes in China from 2003 December to 2014 January. With the updated 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code, the photometric elements were deduced from three sets of light curves. Based on all available eclipsing times, the orbital period changes were investigated. It is discovered that the (O-C) curve may show an existence of light-time effect due to an unseen third body, which was weakly identified by the photometric solution. The modulated period and amplitude of the cyclic variation are P3=71.2(±8.0) yr and A=0.0101(±0.0008) day, respectively. In the co-planar orbit with the binary system, the mass of the third body is M3=0.18(±0.02) M⊙. The photometric results imply that EP Aur is an Algol-type binary with a mass ratio of q=0.831(±0.004). Its primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. Therefore, EP Aur may consist of a normal main-sequence star and a cool Roche-lobe filling subgiant, which may be undergoing rapid mass transfer.

  14. The Ep - Eiso relation and the internal shock model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochkovitch, R.; Nava, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The validity of the Ep - Eiso correlation in gamma-ray bursts and the possibility of explaining the prompt emission with internal shocks are highly debated questions. Aims: We study whether the Ep - Eiso correlation can be reproduced if internal shocks are indeed responsible for the prompt emission, or conversely, if the correlation can be used to constrain the internal shock scenario. Methods: We developed a toy model where internal shocks are limited to the collision of only two shells. Synthetic burst populations were constructed for various distributions of the model parameters, such as the injected power in the relativistic outflow, the average Lorentz factor, and its typical contrast between the shells. These parameters can be independent or linked by various relations. Results: Synthetic Ep - Eiso diagrams are obtained in the different cases and compared with the observed correlation. The reference observed correlation is the one defined by the BAT6 sample, a sample of Swift bursts almost complete in redshift and affected by well-known and reproducible instrumental selection effects. The comparison is then performed with a subsample of synthetic bursts that satisfy the same selection criteria as were imposed on the BAT6 sample. A satisfactory agreement between model and data can often be achieved, but only if several strong constraints are satisfied on both the dynamics of the flow and the microphysics that governs the redistribution of the shock-dissipated energy.

  15. EP-toxicity testing of mercury removal resin grout

    SciTech Connect

    Mersman, K.E.

    1984-07-18

    To determine which category a waste will fit into, the EPA requires a classification test. The test, EP-toxicity, consists of a physical integrity test followed by an extraction. For the case of the mercury removal resin grout, the mercury concentration in the extract cannot exceed 0.2 mg/L if the waste is to be classified as ``solid waste.`` Otherwise, the waste is classified as ``hazardous.`` Simulated process solutions were used to load the mercury removal resin. The resin was solidified with the addition of cement and water using a formulation based on grout formulations typically used to solidify power reactor ion exchange resins. Envirodyne Engineers of St. Louis, Missouri, an EPA sanctioned laboratory, performed the EP-toxicity test for the two samples. One sample was a blank which was made with unloaded resin. For the formulation tested, the EP-toxicity test results showed that the mercury removal resin grout does not fit into the ``hazardous waste`` category.

  16. Interaction of eosinophils with endothelial cells is modulated by prostaglandin EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Bálint, Zoltán; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Sturm, Eva M; Schicho, Rudolf; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophil extravasation across the endothelium is a key feature of allergic inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of PGE(2) and its receptor, E-type prostanoid receptor (EP)-4, in the regulation of eosinophil interaction with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. PGE(2) and the EP4 receptor agonist ONO AE1-329 significantly reduced eotaxin-induced eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin, and formation of filamentous actin and gelsolin-rich adhesive structures. These inhibitory effects were reversed by a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, ONO AE3-208. PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist prevented the activation and cell-surface clustering of β2 integrins, and L-selectin shedding of eosinophils. Under physiological flow conditions, eosinophils that were treated with the EP4 agonist showed reduced adhesion to endothelial monolayers upon stimulation with eotaxin, as well as after TNF-α-induced activation of the endothelial cells. Selective activation of EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors did not alter eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells, whereas the EP4 antagonist prevented PGE(2) from decreasing eosinophil adhesion. Finally, eosinophil transmigration across thrombin- and TNF-α-activated endothelial cells was effectively reduced by the EP4 agonist. These data suggest that PGE(2) -EP4 signaling might be protective against allergic responses by inhibiting the interaction of eosinophils with the endothelium and might hence be a useful therapeutic option for controlling inappropriate eosinophil infiltration.

  17. A mathematical model of quorum sensing regulated EPS production in biofilm communities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biofilms are microbial communities encased in a layer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix provides several functional purposes for the biofilm, such as protecting bacteria from environmental stresses, and providing mechanical stability. Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication mechanism used by several bacterial taxa to coordinate gene expression and behaviour in groups, based on population densities. Model We mathematically model quorum sensing and EPS production in a growing biofilm under various environmental conditions, to study how a developing biofilm impacts quorum sensing, and conversely, how a biofilm is affected by quorum sensing-regulated EPS production. We investigate circumstances when using quorum-sensing regulated EPS production is a beneficial strategy for biofilm cells. Results We find that biofilms that use quorum sensing to induce increased EPS production do not obtain the high cell populations of low-EPS producers, but can rapidly increase their volume to parallel high-EPS producers. Quorum sensing-induced EPS production allows a biofilm to switch behaviours, from a colonization mode (with an optimized growth rate), to a protection mode. Conclusions A biofilm will benefit from using quorum sensing-induced EPS production if bacteria cells have the objective of acquiring a thick, protective layer of EPS, or if they wish to clog their environment with biomass as a means of securing nutrient supply and outcompeting other colonies in the channel, of their own or a different species. PMID:21477365

  18. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  19. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  20. Central PGE2 exhibits anxiolytic-like activity via EP1 and EP4 receptors in a manner dependent on serotonin 5-HT1A, dopamine D1 and GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Narumiya, Shuh; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2011-07-21

    We found that centrally administered prostaglandin (PG) E(2) exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in the elevated plus-maze and open field test in mice. Agonists selective for EP(1) and EP(4) receptors, among four receptor subtypes for PGE(2), mimicked the anxiolytic-like activity of PGE(2). The anxiolytic-like activity of PGE(2) was blocked by an EP(1) or EP(4) antagonist, as well as in EP(4) but not EP(1) knockout mice. Central activation of either EP(1) or EP(4) receptors resulted in anxiolytic-like activity. The PGE(2)-induced anxiolytic-like activity was inhibited by antagonists for serotonin 5-HT(1A), dopamine D(1) and GABA(A) receptors. Taken together, PGE(2) exhibits anxiolytic-like activity via EP(1) and EP(4) receptors, with downstream involvement of 5-HT(1A), D(1) and GABA(A) receptor systems.

  1. Development of an in vivo active, dual EP1 and EP3 selective antagonist based on a novel acyl sulfonamide bioisostere

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Jason D.; Saleh, Sam A.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Daniels, J. Scott; Lindsley, Craig W.; Breyer, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent preclinical studies demonstrate a role for the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) subtype 1 (EP1) receptor in mediating, at least in part, the pathophysiology of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. A series of amide and N-acylsulfonamide analogs of a previously described picolinic acid-based human EP1 receptor antagonist (7) were prepared. Each analog had improved selectivity at the mouse EP1 receptor over the mouse thromboxane receptor (TP). A subset of analogs gained affinity for the mouse PGE2 subtype 3 (EP3) receptor, another potential therapeutic target. One analog (17) possessed equal selectivity for EP1 and EP3, displayed a sufficient in vivo residence time in mice, and lacked the potential for acyl glucuronide formation common to compound 7. Treatment of mice with 17 significantly attenuated the vasopressor activity resulting from an acute infusion of EP1 and EP3 receptor agonists. Compound 17 represents a potentially novel therapeutic in the treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:23218714

  2. 30 CFR 250.234 - How do I submit a modified EP or resubmit a disapproved EP, and when will MMS make a decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disapproved EP, and when will MMS make a decision? 250.234 Section 250.234 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Review and Decision Process for the Ep § 250.234 How do I submit...

  3. Acceptability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV prevention strategy: Barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake among at-risk Peruvian populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Salazar, Ximena; Lee, Sung-Jae; Giron, Maziel; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cáceres, Carlos; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among female sex workers, male-to-female transgendered persons, and men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. Focus groups explored social issues associated with PrEP acceptability and conjoint analysis assessed preferences among eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios with varying attribute profiles and their relative impact on acceptability. Conjoint analysis revealed that PrEP acceptability ranged from 19.8 to 82.5 out of a possible score of 100 across the eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios. Out-of-pocket cost had the greatest impact on PrEP acceptability (25.2, p <0.001), followed by efficacy (21.4, p <0.001) and potential side effects (14.7, p <0.001). Focus group data supported these findings, and also revealed that potential sexual risk disinhibition, stigma and discrimination associated with PrEP use, and mistrust of health care professionals were also concerns. These issues will require careful attention when planning for PrEP roll-out if proven efficacious in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:21571973

  4. Decrease in zinc adsorption onto soil in the presence of EPS-rich and EPS-poor Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Drozdova, O Yu; Pokrovsky, O S; Lapitskiy, S A; Shirokova, L S; González, A G; Demin, V V

    2014-12-01

    The adsorption of Zn onto the humic and illuvial horizons of the podzol soil in the presence of soil bacteria was studied using a batch-reactor technique as a function of the pH (from 2 to 9) and the Zn concentration in solution (from 0.076mM to 0.760mM). Exopolysaccharides-forming aerobic heterotrophs Pseudomonas aureofaciens were added at 0.1 and 1.0gwetL(-1) concentrations to two different soil horizons, and Zn adsorption was monitored as a function of the pH and the dissolved-Zn concentration. The pH-dependent adsorption edge demonstrated more efficient Zn adsorption by the humic horizon than the mineral horizon at otherwise similar soil concentrations. The Zn adsorption onto the EPS-poor strain was on slightly lower than that onto EPS-rich bacteria. Similar differences in the adsorption capacities between the soil and bacteria were also detected by "langmuirian" constant-pH experiments conducted in soil-Zn and bacteria-Zn binary systems. The addition of 0.1gwetL(-1)P. aureofaciens to a soil-bacteria system (4gdryL(-1)soil) resulted in statistically significant decrease in the adsorption yield, which was detectable from both the pH-dependent adsorption edge and the constant-pH isotherm experiments. Increasing the amount of added bacteria to 1gwetL(-1) further decreased the overall adsorption in the full range of the pH. This decrease was maximal for the EPS-rich bacteria and minimal for the EPS-poor bacteria (a factor of 2.8 and 2.2 at pH=6.9, respectively). These observations in binary and ternary systems were further rationalized by linear-programming modeling of surface equilibria that revealed the systematic differences in the number of binding sites and the surface-adsorption constant of zinc onto the two soil horizons with and without bacteria. The main finding of this work is that the adsorption of Zn onto the humic soil-bacteria system is lower than that in pure, bacteria-free soil systems. This difference is statistically significant (p<0.05). As such

  5. Composition and aggregation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in hyperhaline and municipal wastewater treatment plants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; Gao, Jun-Min; Chen, You-Peng; Yan, Peng; Dong, Yang; Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Zeng, Ni; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    As important constituents of activated sludge flocs, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play significant roles in pollutants adsorption, the formation and maintenance of microbial aggregates, and the protection of microbes from external environmental stresses. In this work, EPS in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (M-WWTP) with anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2/O) process and a hyperhaline wastewater treatment plant (H-WWTP) with anaerobic/oxic (A/O) process were extracted by ultrasound method. The proteins and polysaccharides contents in EPS were determined by using a modified Lowry method and anthrone colorimetry respectively to analyze the detail differences in two types of WWTPs. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated proteins and polysaccharides were the dominant components of the two types of EPS, and the aromatic protein-like substances accounted for a larger proportion in EPS proteins. The results of the aggregation test indicated that EPS were good for the sludge aggregation, and the EPS in oxic sludge were more beneficial to sludge aggregation than that in anoxic sludge. Anoxic sludge EPS in H-WWTP showed a negligible effect on sludge aggregation. Comparative study on EPS of different tanks in the M-WWTP and H-WWTP was valuable for understanding the characteristics of EPS isolated from two typical wastewater treatment processes. PMID:27220287

  6. Visualization and analysis of EPS glycoconjugates of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiyong; Neu, Thomas R; Zhang, Yutong; Bellenberg, Sören; Kuhlicke, Ute; Li, Qian; Sand, Wolfgang; Vera, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated colonies of microorganisms embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As EPS mediate the contact between cells and surfaces, an understanding of their composition and production is of particular interest. In this study, the EPS components of Sulfolobus metallicus DSM 6482(T) forming biofilms on elemental sulfur (S(0)) were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In order to visualize cell and EPS distributions, biofilm cells were stained with various dyes specific for glycoconjugates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Biofilm cells on S(0) were heterogeneously distributed and characterized as individual cells, microcolonies, and large clusters up to a hundred micrometers in diameter. The glycoconjugates in biofilms were detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA). Screening of 72 commercially available lectins resulted in the selection of 21 lectins useful for staining biofilms of S. metallicus (T). Capsular EPS from planktonic cells were mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins. In contrast, colloidal EPS from planktonic cells were dominated by carbohydrates. Proteins were found to be major components in EPS from biofilms on S(0). Using specific probes combined with CLSM, we showed that extracellular proteins and nucleic acids were present in the EPS matrix. Finally, we showed that S. metallicus (T) cells were embedded in a flexible EPS matrix. This study provides new insights into archaeal biofilms and EPS composition and properties with respect to their interactions with S(0).

  7. Composition and aggregation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in hyperhaline and municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Gao, Jun-Min; Chen, You-Peng; Yan, Peng; Dong, Yang; Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Zeng, Ni; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    As important constituents of activated sludge flocs, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play significant roles in pollutants adsorption, the formation and maintenance of microbial aggregates, and the protection of microbes from external environmental stresses. In this work, EPS in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (M-WWTP) with anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process and a hyperhaline wastewater treatment plant (H-WWTP) with anaerobic/oxic (A/O) process were extracted by ultrasound method. The proteins and polysaccharides contents in EPS were determined by using a modified Lowry method and anthrone colorimetry respectively to analyze the detail differences in two types of WWTPs. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated proteins and polysaccharides were the dominant components of the two types of EPS, and the aromatic protein-like substances accounted for a larger proportion in EPS proteins. The results of the aggregation test indicated that EPS were good for the sludge aggregation, and the EPS in oxic sludge were more beneficial to sludge aggregation than that in anoxic sludge. Anoxic sludge EPS in H-WWTP showed a negligible effect on sludge aggregation. Comparative study on EPS of different tanks in the M-WWTP and H-WWTP was valuable for understanding the characteristics of EPS isolated from two typical wastewater treatment processes. PMID:27220287

  8. The EP3 Agonist Sulprostone Enhances Platelet Adhesion But Not Thrombus Formation Under Flow Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pasterk, Lisa; Philipose, Sonia; Eller, Kathrin; Marsche, Gunther; Heinemann, Akos; Schuligoi, Rufina

    2015-01-01

    Platelets express the EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 has a biphasic effect on platelets. Low concentrations of PGE2 enhance platelet aggregation through the activation of the EP3 receptors, while at high concentrations it attenuates aggregation via the EP4 receptor. Consequently, EP3 receptor inhibition was shown to inhibit artherothrombosis, but had no influence on bleeding time in vivo. In this study, we investigated the role of the EP3 receptor in adhesion and thrombus formation under flow conditions in vitro. The EP3 agonist sulprostone caused an increase in the adhesion of washed platelets to fibrinogen as well as to collagen under low shear stress, an effect that was blocked by the EP3 antagonist L-798106. In contrast, when whole blood was perfused over collagen-coated surfaces, sulprostone did not enhance binding and thrombus formation of platelets on collagen; at high concentrations it even attenuated this response. We conclude that in more physiological models of thrombus formation, the role for EP3 receptors is limited, indirectly suggesting that the primary action of PGE2 in haemostasis might be an inhibitory one. PMID:26228833

  9. Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christian

    2013-05-01

    This presentation covers: deep inelastic processes and transverse momentum distributions; chiral symmetry breaking, including the physical picture, the dynamical model, and parton distributions; partonic structures, including transverse momentum distributions, coordinate space correlator, and short range correlations; and measurements of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, correlations, and multi-parton processes in pp interactions.

  10. Sorption of ferrous and ferric iron by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from acidophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Jaime M; Muñoz, Jesús; González, Felisa; Blázquez, Maria L; Ballester, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of acidophilic bacteria Acidiphilium 3.2Sup(5) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, harvested from the ecosystem of the Tinto River (Huelva, Spain), was investigated. EPS from mixed cultures of both bacteria (EPS(mixed)) and pure cultures of A. 3.2Sup(5) (EPS(pure)) were extracted with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), electron photoemission (XPS), x-ray diffraction (DRX), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). EPS pure were loaded, in sorption tests, with Fe(II) and Fe(III). The results obtained indicate that the biochemical composition and structure of EPS(mixed) was very similar to that of EPS(pure). Besides, results indicate that EPS(mixed) adsorbed Fe(II) and Fe(III) by preferential interaction with the carboxyl group, which favored the formation of Fe(II)/Fe(III) oxalates. These species were also formed in EPS(pure) loaded with Fe(II)/Fe(III). All this behavior suggested that the sorption of iron by EPS(mixed) was similar to sorption of EPS(pure), which fitted the Freundlich model. Thus, the iron uptake of EPS(mixed) reached 516.7 ± 23.4 mg Fe/g-EPS at an initial concentration of 2.0 g/L of Fe(total) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of 1.0.

  11. Activation of prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling reduces chemokine production in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Tang, Eva H C; Cai, Yin; Wong, Chi Kin; Rocha, Viviane Z; Sukhova, Galina K; Shimizu, Koichi; Xuan, Ge; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Libby, Peter; Xu, Aimin

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue induces metabolic derangements associated with obesity. Thus, determining ways to control or inhibit inflammation in adipose tissue is of clinical interest. The present study tested the hypothesis that in mouse adipose tissue, endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) negatively regulates inflammation via activation of prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP4). PGE2 (5-500 nM) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines, including interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α in mouse adipose tissue. A selective EP4 antagonist (L161,982) reversed, and two structurally different selective EP4 agonists [CAY10580 and CAY10598] mimicked these actions of PGE2. Adipose tissue derived from EP4-deficient mice did not display this response. These findings establish the involvement of EP4 receptors in this anti-inflammatory response. Experiments performed on adipose tissue from high-fat-fed mice demonstrated EP4-dependent attenuation of chemokine production during diet-induced obesity. The anti-inflammatory actions of EP4 became more important on a high-fat diet, in that EP4 activation suppressed a greater variety of chemokines. Furthermore, adipose tissue and systemic inflammation was enhanced in high-fat-fed EP4-deficient mice compared with wild-type littermates, and in high-fat-fed untreated C57BL/6 mice compared with mice treated with EP4 agonist. These findings provide in vivo evidence that PGE2-EP4 signaling limits inflammation. In conclusion, PGE2, via activation of EP4 receptors, functions as an endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator in mouse adipose tissue, and targeting EP4 may mitigate adipose tissue inflammation.

  12. Inactivation of the EP3 receptor attenuates the Angiotensin II pressor response via decreasing arterial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Miao, Yifei; Zhang, Yahua; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Tian, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guangrui; Pu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jihong; Gao, Yuansheng; Wang, Shiqiang; Breyer, Matthew D.; Wang, Nanping; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Yu; Breyer, Richard M; Guan, Youfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present studies aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype 3 (EP3) in regulating blood pressure. Methods and Results Mice bearing a genetic disruption of the EP3 gene (EP3−/−) exhibited reduced baseline mean arterial pressure monitored by both tail-cuff and carotid arterial catheterization. The pressor responses induced by EP3 agonists M&B28767 and sulprostone were markedly attenuated in EP3−/− mice, while the reduction of BP induced by PGE2 was comparable in both genotypes. Vasopressor effect of acute or chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) was attenuated in EP3−/− mice. AngII–induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries decreased in EP3−/− group. In mesenteric arteries from wild type mice, AngII–induced vasoconstriction was inhibited by EP3 selective antagonist DG-041 or L798106. The expression of Arhgef-1 is attenuated in EP3 deficient mesenteric arteries. EP3 antagonist DG-041 diminished AngII-induced phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 in isolated mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), AngII induced intracellular Ca2+ increase was potentiated by EP3 agonist sulprostone, while inhibited by DG-041. Conclusions Activation of the EP3 receptor raises baseline blood pressure and contributes to AngII-dependent hypertension at least partially via enhancing Ca2+ sensitivity and intracellular calcium concentration in VSMCs. Selective targeting of the EP3 receptor may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:23065824

  13. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  14. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  15. Scalable synthesis of a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Danny; Dolman, Sarah J; Hughes, Greg; O'Shea, Paul D; Davies, Ian W

    2010-06-18

    The evolution of scalable, economically viable synthetic approaches to the potent and selective prostaglandin EP4 antagonist 1 is presented. The chromatography-free synthesis of multikilogram quantities of 1 using a seven-step sequence (six in the longest linear sequence) is described. This approach has been further modified in an effort to identify a long-term manufacturing route. Our final synthesis involves no step requiring cryogenic (< -25 degrees C) conditions; comprises a total of four steps, only three of which are in the longest linear synthesis; and features the use of two consecutive iron-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts substitutions.

  16. Remember the water--a comment on EPS colligative properties.

    PubMed

    Keiding, K; Wybrandt, L; Nielsen, P H

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between water and activated sludge components was examined. Reevaluation of published data on freezing point depression, drying rates and dewatering has been performed. The basis of this has been the assumption that the water/sludge relationship is considered to be a colligative effect. Since the results indicate this to be the case, we suggest that the published concepts of "pools of water" are false. Data on swelling properties of EPS as a function of pH suggests that the colligative properties are largely determined by the counterions of charged polymers and surfaces.

  17. Scheme of IMSF-EP for matrix video display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; He, Zhuyuan; Liu, Shicai

    1996-09-01

    The wide commercial utilization of varied matrix display systems provides a promising development of matrix display techniques. Some methods, which are addressed in this paper, have existed for matrix systems to display video (dynamic) pictures with colors and multi-level brightness. A novel scheme, referred to as the integration of multi-sub-frames with equal period (IMSF-EP), is proposed. With this scheme, the implement of display control is simplified. A proof-in- principle LED matrix display system of 64 X 48 pixels, with the breadboard-based circuits, is constructed.

  18. R&D for the Post-EP Processes of Superconducting RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Takayuki; Funahashi, Y.; Hayano, H.; Kato, Seigo; Nishiwaki, Michiru; Sawabe, Motoaki; Ueno, Kenji; Watanabe, K.; Antoine, Claire; Berry, Stefurn; Eozenou, F.; Gasser, Y.; Visentin, B.; Clemens, William A.; Geng, Rongli; Manus, Robert; Tyagi, Puneet

    2009-11-01

    The Electro-Polishing (EP) process is the best candidate of final surface treatment for the production of ILC cavities. Nevertheless, the broad distribution of the gradient caused by field emitters in cavities is sitll a serious problem for the EP process. A candidate source of field emitter is the sulfur component which is produced in the EP process and remains the inner-surface of cavities. We studied the effect of Ethanole- and degreaser-rinse processes after the EP process by a unique method. Moreover, we tried to test the sponge cleaning as the post-EP process to remove the field emitter inside the cavcity. This article describe the results of series tests of the post-EP process at KEK.

  19. Characterization of adhesive exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2009-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes large quantities of exopolysaccharide (EPS), making it an excellent model organism for the study of EPS-mediated adhesion. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of limited nutrients availability in the culture medium on the composition of EPS produced by P. aeruginosa. The relationship between the EPS production and the adhesion process of the P. aeruginosa cells to stainless steel surface (type 316 L) under starvation conditions were also examined. In all experimental variants P. aeruginosa produced more EPS with an increase of incubation period upon starvation conditions. Under limited nutrients condition, glucose dominated in the EPS materials. After 6 days of the process, only glucosyl units were detected in the extracellular matrix produced by nutrient-deprived P. aeruginosa cells. These extracellular molecules promoted more advanced stages of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the surface of stainless steel.

  20. Discovery and characterization of a potent and selective EP4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Schiffler, Matthew A; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Fisher, Matthew J; Harvey, Anita; Kuklish, Steven L; Wang, Xu-Shan; Warshawsky, Alan M; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2015-08-15

    EP4 is a prostaglandin E2 receptor that is a target for potential anti-nociceptive therapy. Described herein is a class of amphoteric EP4 antagonists which reverses PGE2-induced suppression of TNFα production in human whole blood. From this class, a potent and highly bioavailable compound (6) has been selected for potential clinical studies. EP4 binding and functional data, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties of this compound are included.

  1. Integral Benchmark Data for Nuclear Data Testing Through the ICSBEP & IRPhEP

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2013-10-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was last discussed directly with the nuclear data community at ND2007. Since ND2007, integral benchmark data that are available for nuclear data testing have increased significantly. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPhEP is discussed and selected benchmark configurations that have been added to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since ND2007 are highlighted.

  2. Integral Benchmark Data for Nuclear Data Testing Through the ICSBEP & IRPhEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. B.; Bess, J. D.; Gulliford, J.

    2014-04-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was last discussed directly with the nuclear data community at ND2007. Since ND2007, integral benchmark data that are available for nuclear data testing have increased significantly. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPhEP is discussed and selected benchmark configurations that have been added to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since ND2007 are highlighted.

  3. Signaling of Prostaglandin E Receptors, EP3 and EP4 Facilitates Wound Healing and Lymphangiogenesis with Enhanced Recruitment of M2 Macrophages in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosono, Kanako; Isonaka, Risa; Kawakami, Tadashi; Narumiya, Shuh; Majima, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in homeostasis, metabolism, and immunity, and also occurs during wound-healing. Here, we examined the roles of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP) signaling in enhancement of lymphangiogenesis in wound healing processes. The hole-punch was made in the ears of male C57BL/6 mice using a metal ear punch. Healing process and lymphangiogenesis together with macrophage recruitment were analyzed in EP knockout mice. Lymphangiogenesis was up-regulated in the granulation tissues at the margins of punched-hole wounds in mouse ears, and this increase was accompanied by increased expression levels of COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Administration of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, suppressed lymphangiogenesis in the granulation tissues and reduced the induction of the pro-lymphangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -C and VEGF-D. Topical applications of selective EP receptor agonists enhanced the expressions of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 and VEGF receptor-3. The wound-healing processes and recruitment of CD11b-positive macrophages, which produced VEGF-C and VEGF-D, were suppressed under COX-2 inhibition. Mice lacking either EP3 or EP4 exhibited reduced wound-healing, lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages, compared with wild type mice. Proliferation of cultured human lymphatic endothelial cells was not detected under PGE2 stimulation. Lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages that produced VEGF-C/D were suppressed in mice treated with a COX-2 inhibitor or lacking either EP3 or EP4 during wound healing. COX-2 and EP3/EP4 signaling may be novel targets to control lymphangiogenesis in vivo. PMID:27711210

  4. EpCAM Knockdown Alters MicroRNA Expression in Retinoblastoma- Functional Implication of EpCAM Regulated MiRNA in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  5. EpCAM knockdown alters microRNA expression in retinoblastoma--functional implication of EpCAM regulated miRNA in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  6. Prostanoid receptor EP2 as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Thota

    2014-06-12

    Cycoloxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction is prevalent in a variety of (brain and peripheral) injury models where COX-2 levels correlate with disease progression. Thus, COX-2 has been widely explored for anti-inflammatory therapy with COX-2 inhibitors, which proved to be effective in reducing the pain and inflammation in patients with arthritis and menstrual cramps, but they have not provided any benefit to patients with chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease. Recently, two COX-2 drugs, rofecoxib and valdecoxib, were withdrawn from the United States market due to cardiovascular side effects. Thus, future anti-inflammatory therapy could be targeted through a specific prostanoid receptor downstream of COX-2. The PGE2 receptor EP2 is emerging as a pro-inflammatory target in a variety of CNS and peripheral diseases. Here we highlight the latest developments on the role of EP2 in diseases, mechanism of activation, and small molecule discovery targeted either to enhance or to block the function of this receptor.

  7. On the affordances of the MaxEP principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Bong Jae; McDermid, Kirk; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    Optimality principles have long been popular in the natural sciences and enjoyed much successes in various applications. However these principles seem to be disparate, each applied in limited contexts and there are far too many of them causing some consternation among scientists and philosophers of science regarding the ad-hoc nature of the optimality arguments. In this paper, we discuss the Maximum entropy production (MaxEP) as a plausible over-arching principle to understand stable configurations in fluid mechanics and related problems. The MaxEP being based upon sound physical arguments and in the immutable laws of thermodynamics along with the fact that it has been successfully co-opted across disciplines makes it worthy of attention. We discuss various physical and metaphysical aspects of this principle and use it to analyze some model problems regarding patterns in particle sedimentation such as sedimentation of a particle in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and stable deformation of a falling droplet.

  8. PGE2 Signaling Through the EP4 Receptor on Fibroblasts Upregulates RANKL and Stimulates Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Xie, Chao; Wei, Xiaochao; Zhang, Minjie; Zhang, Xinping; Flick, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Edward M.; O'Keefe, Regis J.

    2009-01-01

    Periprosthetic osteolysis is the most common cause of aseptic loosening in total joint arthroplasty. The role of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and osteoclast promoting factors including RANKL in the pathogenesis of osteolysis has been well characterized. However, the PGE2 receptor (EP1, EP2, or EP4), and cell type in which it is expressed, which is responsible for PGE2 induction of RANKL during wear debris–induced osteolysis, has yet to be elucidated. To address this, we used mice genetically deficient in these EP receptors to assess PGE2 and wear debris responses in vitro and in vivo. Wear debris–induced osteolysis and RANKL expression were observed at similar levels in WT, EP1−/−, and EP2−/− mice, indicating that these receptors do not mediate PGE2 signals in this process. A conditional knockout approach was used to eliminate EP4 expression in FSP1+ fibroblasts that are the predominant source of RANKL. In the absence of EP4, fibroblasts do not express RANKL after stimulation with particles or PGE2, nor do they exhibit high levels of osteoclasts and osteolysis. These results show that periprosthetic fibroblasts are important mediators of osteolysis through the expression of RANKL, which is induced after PGE2 signaling through the EP4 receptor. PMID:19419302

  9. Sequestration of nanoparticles by an EPS matrix reduces the particle-specific bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Kang, Fuxing; Gao, Yanzheng; Mao, Xuewei; Hu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    Most artificial nanomaterials are known to exhibit broad-spectrum bactericidal activity; however, the defence mechanisms that bacteria use based on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to detoxify nanoparticles (NPs) are not well known. We ruled out the possibility of ion-specific bactericidal activity by showing the lack of equivalent dissolved zinc and silicon toxicity and determined the particle-specific toxicity of ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles (ZnONPs/SiO2NPs) through dialysis isolation experiments. Surprisingly, the manipulation of the E. coli EPS (i.e., no EPS manipulation or EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation) showed that their particle-specific bactericidal activity could be antagonized by NP-EPS sequestration. The survival rates of pristine E. coli (no EPS manipulation) reached 65% (ZnONPs, 500 mg L−1) and 79% (SiO2NPs, 500 mg L−1), whereas survival rates following EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation were 11% and 63%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with fluorescence micro-titration analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that protein-like substances (N-H and C-N in amide II) and secondary carbonyl groups (C=O) in the carboxylic acids of EPS acted as important binding sites that were involved in NP sequestration. Accordingly, the amount and composition of EPS produced by bacteria have important implications for the bactericidal efficacy and potential environmental effects of NPs. PMID:26856606

  10. EP1 DISRUPTION ATTENUATES END-ORGAN DAMAGE IN A MOUSE MODEL OF HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Christina E.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Harris, Raymond C.; Zent, Roy; Breyer, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    PGE2 is a major prostanoid found in the kidney and vasculature contributing to the regulation of blood pressure. The PGE2 receptor EP1 has been shown to contribute to hypertension by mediating angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction, although its precise role is incompletely characterized. Disruption of the EP1 receptor in C57BL/6J mice reduced the incidence of mortality during severe hypertension induced by uninephrectomy, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and angiotensin II. Mortality was dependent on all components of the model. Death was a result of aortic aneurysm rupture or occurred after development of anasarca, each of which was reduced in EP1−/− mice. Mean arterial pressure was increased in treated EP1+/+ and EP1−/− mice, however this elevation was significantly lower in EP1−/− mice. Blood pressure reduction via administration of hydralazine phenocopied EP1−/− mice. Thus reduction in blood pressure by disruption of EP1 reduced incidence of mortality and decreased organ damage suggesting that EP1 receptor blockade may be a viable target for anti-hypertensive therapy. PMID:23006735

  11. Interactions of EPS with soil minerals: A combination study by ITC and CLSM.

    PubMed

    Lin, Di; Ma, Wenting; Jin, Zhaoxia; Wang, Yixuan; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from Pseudomonas putida on montmorillonite, kaolinite and goethite was investigated as a function of pH using batch studies coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Characterization by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the extracted EPS contained carboxyl, phosphoryl, amino, and hydroxyl on functional groups as well as polysaccharides, protein and nucleic acid on components. The mass fraction of EPS adsorption on minerals decreased with the final pH increased from 3.0 to 9.0. The mass fraction of EPS-N adsorption varied with pH values and was higher than that of EPS-C or EPS-P on montmorillonite and kaolinite, while the mass fraction of EPS-P adsorption was the highest on goethite. CLSM results further demonstrated that proteins were predominantly distributed on the montmorillonite and kaolinite surfaces, while nucleic acids were mainly on the goethite surface. ITC results revealed that the adsorption process in all mineral systems was exothermic, and pH altered the heat effect of EPS-mineral reactions. The data obtained in this study would facilitate a better understanding of the adsorption mechanisms of EPS on minerals.

  12. Selection of monoclonal antibodies for the identification of D variants: ability to detect weak D and to split epD2, epD5 and epD6/7.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Filbey, D

    1996-01-01

    Red cells from known D variant donors were tested with 41 monoclonal anti-D reagents, 26 IgG and 15 IgM, with the view to selecting a panel to aid the identification of unusual D types. These antibodies gave reaction patterns which allowed the identification of most of the known D category cells, recognizing epD2, epD5, epD6/7, epD8 and epD9, but were unable to distinguish category III from normal D-positive cells. Reactivity with HMi, HMii, DFR, DBT and RoHar cells split epD2, epD5 and epD6/7 into two, three and eight groups, respectively. A panel comprising 15 monoclonal anti-D, 11 IgG and four IgM, was selected as representative of the antibodies tested. Reactivity of monoclonal anti-D was dependent on antibody concentration and antibody avidity. An antibody concentration of at least 12 micrograms/ml was required for optimum reactivity of the two monoclonal antibodies tested. A simple calculation of division of the titre by the antibody concentration provided a relatively simple means of establishing the reactivity performance of the antibody and correlated well with ability to detect weak D (Du) cells. A characteristic variable reduction in reaction strength with all the IgG anti-D was observed with weak D cells. The IgM antibodies, except the high avidity RUM-1, T3D2T6, D9A4 and BS226, performed poorly in detecting weak D. The majority of the IgM antibodies tested reacted with RoHarr cells, while only one IgG antibody was positive. PMID:8740011

  13. PREFACE: The EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Roger

    2008-03-01

    HEPP2007, the EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference, was held in Manchester from July 19-26 2007. It brought together 580 delegates across the whole subject: from string theorists to detector technologists, from young postgraduate students to senior professors. Geographically they came from the UK, from the rest of Europe, from North America, and from the rest of the world. It covered the whole spectrum of the subject, not only accelerator-based experiments but also its astrophysical and cosmological aspects. The parallel and plenary talks can be found in these proceedings. A key feature of the conference, as always, was the award of the prizes: this year the EPS prize was awarded to Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa for their explanation of CP violation with a 6 quark model—Kobayashi came to accept it in person. The Gribov medal went to Niklas Beisert, the outreach prize to Richard Jacobsson and Charles Timmermans and the Young Physicist prizer to I Furic, G Gomez-Ceballos and S Menzemer. Parallel sessions were held in Manchester University, and plenary talks were held in the Bridgewater Hall in Manchester Town centre, a magnificent modern venue whose positive and co-operative staff enabled the conference to make the most of the impressive surroundings. We were able to put the hall to its proper purpose one evening with a concert by the Fairey Band—one of the distinctive brass bands who form part of the rich musical tradition of the North of England, and came as something new and different to many of the delegates. The conference ran smoothly and successfully, thanks largely to hard work by the local organising committee who devoted a lot of time to planning, producing ideas, and anticipating potential problems. Many of them were not from Manchester itself but from other universities and laboratories in the North of England, so their dedication was especially appreciated. The EPS committee also played a major part, by the selection of plenary

  14. The Angular Momentum Structure of the Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-10-13

    The proton spin budget is discussed. Results are presented from inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and from deeply virtual Compton scattering. They permit interpretations towards the determination of various contributions to the proton spin.

  15. Energy and angular correlations in heavy-ion deep inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    Brink-Dietrich theory of energy-angular-momentum correlations is formulated from the viewpoint of the statistical model of macroscopic rotation. Comparison with the available experimental data is given.

  16. Yrast studies of {sup 80,82}Se using deep-inelastic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. A.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyak, Zs.; Gelletly, W.; Langdown, S. D.; Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Axiotis, M.; Kroell, Th.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.; Tonev, D.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ur, C. A.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Lenzi, S.

    2007-11-15

    We report the results of an experiment in which we studied the near-yrast states in selenium isotopes approaching N=50 following their population in multinucleon transfer reactions between a {sup 82}Se beam and a {sup 192}Os target. The level schemes for {sup 80,82}Se derived from the current work are compared with restricted-basis shell-model calculations and pair-truncated shell-model calculations. These provide a good description of the yrast sequences in these nuclei using a basis space limited to excitations in the {nu}(p{sub (3/2)},p{sub (1/2)},g{sub (9/2)}) and {pi}(f{sub (5/2)},p{sub (3/2)},p{sub (1/2)}) orbitals.

  17. Altered hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity in mice deficient in the PGE2 EP2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jian; Breyer, Richard M.; Chen, Chu

    2008-01-01

    Our laboratory demonstrated previously that PGE2-induced modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission is via a presynaptic PGE2 EP2 receptor. However, little is known about whether the EP2 receptor is involved in hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Here we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) at the hippocampal perforant path synapses was impaired in mice deficient in the EP2 (KO), while membrane excitability and passive properties in granule neurons were normal. Importantly, escape latency in the water maze in EP2 KO was longer than that in age-matched EP2 wild-type littermates (WT). We also observed that LTP was potentiated in EP2 WT animals that received lipopolysaccharide (LPS, i.p.), but not in EP2 KO. Bath application of PGE2 or butaprost, an EP2 receptor agonist, increased synaptic transmission and decreased paired-pulses ratio (PPR) in EP2 WT mice, but failed to induce the changes in EP2 KO mice. Meanwhile, synaptic transmission was elevated by application of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, both in EP2 KO and WT animals. In addition, the PGE2-enhanced synaptic transmission was significantly attenuated by application of PKA, IP3 or MAPK inhibitors in EP2 WT animals. Our results show that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity is impaired in mice deficient in the EP2, suggesting that PGE2-EP2 signaling is important for hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. PMID:19012750

  18. Elucidation of the EP defect in Diamond-Blackfan anemia by characterization and prospective isolation of human EPs.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Deena; Psaila, Bethan; Gerrard, Gareth; Chaidos, Aristeidis; En Foong, Hui; Harrington, Yvonne; Karnik, Leena C; Roberts, Irene; de la Fuente, Josu; Karadimitris, Anastasios

    2015-04-16

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a disorder characterized by a selective defect in erythropoiesis. Delineation of the precise defect is hampered by a lack of markers that define cells giving rise to erythroid burst- and erythroid colony-forming unit (BFU-E and CFU-E) colonies, the clonogenic assays that quantify early and late erythroid progenitor (EEP and LEP) potential, respectively. By combining flow cytometry, cell-sorting, and single-cell clonogenic assays, we identified Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(+)CD45RA(-)CD123(-)CD71(+)CD41a(-)CD105(-)CD36(-) bone marrow cells as EEP giving rise to BFU-E, and Lin(-)CD34(+/-)CD38(+)CD45RA(-)CD123(-)CD71(+)CD41a(-)CD105(+)CD36(+) cells as LEP giving rise to CFU-E, in a hierarchical fashion. We then applied these definitions to DBA and identified that, compared with controls, frequency, and clonogenicity of DBA, EEP and LEP are significantly decreased in transfusion-dependent but restored in corticosteroid-responsive patients. Thus, both quantitative and qualitative defects in erythroid progenitor (EP) contribute to defective erythropoiesis in DBA. Prospective isolation of defined EPs will facilitate more incisive study of normal and aberrant erythropoiesis. PMID:25755292

  19. Elucidation of the EP defect in Diamond-Blackfan anemia by characterization and prospective isolation of human EPs.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Deena; Psaila, Bethan; Gerrard, Gareth; Chaidos, Aristeidis; En Foong, Hui; Harrington, Yvonne; Karnik, Leena C; Roberts, Irene; de la Fuente, Josu; Karadimitris, Anastasios

    2015-04-16

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a disorder characterized by a selective defect in erythropoiesis. Delineation of the precise defect is hampered by a lack of markers that define cells giving rise to erythroid burst- and erythroid colony-forming unit (BFU-E and CFU-E) colonies, the clonogenic assays that quantify early and late erythroid progenitor (EEP and LEP) potential, respectively. By combining flow cytometry, cell-sorting, and single-cell clonogenic assays, we identified Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(+)CD45RA(-)CD123(-)CD71(+)CD41a(-)CD105(-)CD36(-) bone marrow cells as EEP giving rise to BFU-E, and Lin(-)CD34(+/-)CD38(+)CD45RA(-)CD123(-)CD71(+)CD41a(-)CD105(+)CD36(+) cells as LEP giving rise to CFU-E, in a hierarchical fashion. We then applied these definitions to DBA and identified that, compared with controls, frequency, and clonogenicity of DBA, EEP and LEP are significantly decreased in transfusion-dependent but restored in corticosteroid-responsive patients. Thus, both quantitative and qualitative defects in erythroid progenitor (EP) contribute to defective erythropoiesis in DBA. Prospective isolation of defined EPs will facilitate more incisive study of normal and aberrant erythropoiesis.

  20. Dual roles of PGE2-EP4 signaling in mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Yoshiyasu; Li, Youxian; Sakata, Daiji; Yao, Chengcan; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Narumiya, Shuh

    2010-07-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although prostaglandin (PG) concentrations are increased in cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, the role of PGs in MS is unknown. We examined this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each PG receptor type or subtype to EAE induction and using agonists or antagonists selective for each of the four PGE receptor (EP) subtypes. Among PG receptor-deficient mice, only EP4(-/-) mice manifested significant suppression of EAE, which was mimicked in wild-type mice and to a greater extent, in EP2(-/-) mice by administration of the EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 during the immunization phase. EP4 antagonism during immunization also suppressed the generation of antigen-specific T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells in wild-type mice and to a greater extent, in EP2(-/-) mice. ONO-AE3-208 administration at EAE onset had little effect on disease severity, and its administration throughout the experimental period did not cause significant reduction of the peak of disease, suggesting that, in addition to its facilitative action during the immunization phase, EP4 exerts a preventive action in the elicitation phase. Administration of the EP4 agonist ONO-AE1-329 at EAE onset delayed and suppressed disease progression as well as inhibited the associated increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Thus, PGE(2) exerts dual functions in EAE, facilitating Th1 and Th17 cell generation redundantly through EP4 and EP2 during immunization and attenuating invasion of these cells into the brain by protecting the blood-brain barrier through EP4.

  1. Selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 modulates DNA methylation and histone modification machinery proteins in human endometriotic cells.

    PubMed

    Arosh, Joe A; Lee, JeHoon; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Banu, Sakhila K

    2015-07-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory gynecological disease of reproductive-age women. The prevalence of endometriosis is 5-10% in reproductive-age women. Modern medical treatments are directed to inhibit the action of estrogen in endometriotic cells. However, hormonal therapies targeting estrogen can be prescribed only for a short time because of their undesirable side effects. Recent studies from our laboratory, using human endometriotic epithelial cell line 12Z and stromal cell line 22B derived from red lesion, discovered that selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors EP2 and EP4 inhibits adhesion, invasion, growth, and survival of 12Z and 22B cells by modulating integrins, MMPs and TIMPs, cell cycle, survival, and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, suggesting multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The novel findings of the present study indicate that selective pharmacological inhibition of EP2 and EP4: (i) decreases expression of DNMT3a, DNMT3b, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, SUV39H1, HP1a, H3K27, EZH2, JMJD2a, HDAC1, HDAC3, MeCP2, CoREST and Sin3A; (ii) increases expression of H3K4me3, H3H9ac, H3K27ac; and (iii) does not modulate the expression of DNMT1, hSET1, LSD1, MBD1, p300, HDAC2, and JMJD3 epigenetic machinery proteins in an epithelial and stromal cell specific manner. In this study, we report for the first time that inhibition of PGE2-EP2/EP4 signaling modulates DNA methylation, H3 histone methylation and acetylation, and epigenetic memory machinery proteins in human endometriotic epithelial cells and stromal cells. Thus, targeting EP2 and EP4 receptors may emerge as long-term nonsteroidal therapy for treatment of active endometriotic lesions in women.

  2. Role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Moshe; Kang, Seoktae; Elimelech, Menachem

    2009-06-15

    This study elucidates the mechanisms by which extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) impact permeate water flux and salt rejection during biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. RO fouling experiments were conducted with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, EPS extracted from PAO1 biofilms, and dead PAO1 cells fixed in formaldehyde. While a biofouling layer of dead bacterial cells decreases salt rejection and permeate flux by a biofilm-enhanced osmotic pressure mechanism, the EPS biofouling layer adversely impacts permeate flux by increasing the hydraulic resistance to permeate flow. During controlled fouling experiments with extracted EPS in a simulated wastewater solution, polysaccharides adsorbed on the RO membranes much more effectively than proteins (adsorption efficiencies of 61.2-88.7% and 11.6-12.4% for polysaccharides and proteins, respectively). Controlled fouling experiments with EPS in sodium chloride solutions supplemented with 0.5 mM calcium ions (total ionic strength of 15 mM) indicate that calcium increases the adsorption efficiency of polysaccharides and DNA by 2- and 3-fold, respectively. The increased adsorption of EPS onto the membrane resulted in a significant decrease in permeate water flux. Corroborating with these calcium effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that addition of calcium ions to the feed solution results in a marked increase in the adhesion forces between a carboxylated particle probe and the EPS layer. The increase in the interfacial adhesion forces is attributed to specific EPS-calcium interactions that play a major role in biofouling of RO membranes.

  3. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  4. 30 CFR 550.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.221 Section 550.221 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.221 What environmental monitoring information must... the impacts of your exploration activities. (b) Incidental takes. If there is reason to believe...

  5. 30 CFR 250.218 - What air emissions information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the EP? 250.218 Section 250.218 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.218 What air emissions information... volatile organic compounds (VOC) that will be generated by your proposed exploration activities. (1)...

  6. 30 CFR 250.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 250.221 Section 250.221 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.221 What environmental...-specific data or information on the impacts of your exploration activities. (b) Incidental takes. If...

  7. 30 CFR 550.216 - What biological, physical, and socioeconomic information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information must accompany the EP? 550.216 Section 550.216 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.216 What biological, physical, and.... Socioeconomic information regarding your proposed exploration activities....

  8. 30 CFR 550.223 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.223 Section 550.223 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.223 What mitigation measures information must accompany... to minimize or mitigate environmental impacts from your proposed exploration activities,...

  9. 30 CFR 550.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the proposed exploration activities described in detail in...) information must accompany the EP? 550.226 Section 550.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  10. 30 CFR 550.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.221 Section 550.221 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.221 What environmental monitoring information must... the impacts of your exploration activities. (b) Incidental takes. If there is reason to believe...

  11. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) information must accompany the EP? 250.227 Section 250.227 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What... of your proposed exploration activities; (2) Be project specific; and (3) Be as detailed as...

  12. 30 CFR 250.219 - What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information must accompany the EP? 250.219 Section 250.219 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.219 What oil and... spills of oil (see definition under 30 CFR 254.6) and hazardous substances (see definition under 40...

  13. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal...(c)(3)(B) of the CZMA (16 U.S.C. 1456(c)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the...

  14. 30 CFR 250.228 - What administrative information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What administrative information must accompany the EP? 250.228 Section 250.228 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.228 What administrative...

  15. 30 CFR 250.223 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 250.223 Section 250.223 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.223 What mitigation measures... regulations in this part to minimize or mitigate environmental impacts from your proposed...

  16. 30 CFR 550.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the proposed exploration activities described in detail in...) information must accompany the EP? 550.226 Section 550.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  17. 30 CFR 250.216 - What biological, physical, and socioeconomic information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information must accompany the EP? 250.216 Section 250.216 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.216 What... study reports. Socioeconomic information regarding your proposed exploration activities....

  18. 30 CFR 550.223 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.223 Section 550.223 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.223 What mitigation measures information must accompany... to minimize or mitigate environmental impacts from your proposed exploration activities,...

  19. 30 CFR 550.216 - What biological, physical, and socioeconomic information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information must accompany the EP? 550.216 Section 550.216 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.216 What biological, physical, and.... Socioeconomic information regarding your proposed exploration activities....

  20. 30 CFR 550.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.221 Section 550.221 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.221 What environmental monitoring information must... the impacts of your exploration activities. (b) Incidental takes. If there is reason to believe...

  1. 30 CFR 550.223 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accompany the EP? 550.223 Section 550.223 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.223 What mitigation measures information must accompany... to minimize or mitigate environmental impacts from your proposed exploration activities,...

  2. 30 CFR 550.216 - What biological, physical, and socioeconomic information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information must accompany the EP? 550.216 Section 550.216 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.216 What biological, physical, and.... Socioeconomic information regarding your proposed exploration activities....

  3. 30 CFR 550.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the proposed exploration activities described in detail in...) information must accompany the EP? 550.226 Section 550.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  4. Role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Moshe; Kang, Seoktae; Elimelech, Menachem

    2009-06-15

    This study elucidates the mechanisms by which extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) impact permeate water flux and salt rejection during biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. RO fouling experiments were conducted with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, EPS extracted from PAO1 biofilms, and dead PAO1 cells fixed in formaldehyde. While a biofouling layer of dead bacterial cells decreases salt rejection and permeate flux by a biofilm-enhanced osmotic pressure mechanism, the EPS biofouling layer adversely impacts permeate flux by increasing the hydraulic resistance to permeate flow. During controlled fouling experiments with extracted EPS in a simulated wastewater solution, polysaccharides adsorbed on the RO membranes much more effectively than proteins (adsorption efficiencies of 61.2-88.7% and 11.6-12.4% for polysaccharides and proteins, respectively). Controlled fouling experiments with EPS in sodium chloride solutions supplemented with 0.5 mM calcium ions (total ionic strength of 15 mM) indicate that calcium increases the adsorption efficiency of polysaccharides and DNA by 2- and 3-fold, respectively. The increased adsorption of EPS onto the membrane resulted in a significant decrease in permeate water flux. Corroborating with these calcium effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that addition of calcium ions to the feed solution results in a marked increase in the adhesion forces between a carboxylated particle probe and the EPS layer. The increase in the interfacial adhesion forces is attributed to specific EPS-calcium interactions that play a major role in biofouling of RO membranes. PMID:19603652

  5. Cancer-associated immunodeficiency and dendritic cell abnormalities mediated by the prostaglandin EP2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Yamagata, Noboru; Yadav, Rajwardhan; Brandon, Suzanne; Courtney, Regina L.; Morrow, Jason D.; Shyr, Yu; Boothby, Mark; Joyce, Sebastian; Carbone, David P.; Breyer, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX metabolite, plays important roles in several facets of tumor biology. We characterized the contribution of the PGE2 EP2 receptor to cancer-associated immune deficiency using EP2–/– mice. EP2–/– mice exhibited significantly attenuated tumor growth and longer survival times when challenged with MC26 or Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines as compared with their wild-type littermates. While no differences in T cell function were observed, PGE2 suppressed differentiation of DCs from wild-type bone marrow progenitors, whereas EP2-null cells were refractory to this effect. Stimulation of cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions by wild-type DCs was suppressed by treatment with PGE2, while EP2–/–-derived DCs were resistant to this effect. In vivo, DCs, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells were significantly more abundant in draining lymph nodes of tumor-bearing EP2–/– mice than in tumor-bearing wild-type mice, and a significant antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte response could be observed only in the EP2–/– animals. Our data demonstrate an important role for the EP2 receptor in PGE2-induced inhibition of DC differentiation and function and the diminished antitumor cellular immune responses in vivo. PMID:12618527

  6. 30 CFR 250.223 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mitigation measures information must... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.223 What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP? (a... be incidentally taken by planned exploration activities, you must include mitigation...

  7. 30 CFR 250.232 - What actions will MMS take after the EP is deemed submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deemed submitted? 250.232 Section 250.232 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Review and Decision Process for the Ep § 250.232 What actions will MMS take after the EP is...

  8. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose.

  9. The Folly of Making EPS Comparisons across Companies: Do Accounting Textbooks Send the Correct Message?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Timothy P.; Hora, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates why EPS comparisons across companies are meaningless. An example is provided showing how a company with a higher ROE than another company may have a lower EPS simply from having a lower book value per share (and more shares outstanding) than the comparison company. While ROE comparisons across companies can be useful,…

  10. 42 CFR 495.10 - Participation requirements for EPs, eligible hospitals, and CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM General Provisions § 495.10 Participation requirements for EPs... must be consistent with Section 1842(b)(6)(A) of the Act and 42 CFR part 424 subpart F. (ii) Medicaid EPs may also assign their incentive payments to a TIN for an entity promoting the adoption of...

  11. Effects of a polarized light source (λ400-2000nm) on H.Ep.2 and L929 cell lines: a spectroscopic in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Juliana S. D. C.; de Moura, Katia V. M.; Lopes, Cibelle B.; Soares, Cristina P.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2009-02-01

    Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to compare, using the MTT Assay, the effects of a polarized light system (λ400-2000nm, 40mW, φ5cm, 9.6J/cm2) on cellular cultures of human laryngeal carcinoma (H.Ep.2) and in a fibroblast lineage (L929-CLLINCTC clone 929). Summary Background Data: Recently there has been increased interest in the propagation of polarized light in randomly scattering media, such as biological tissues, because their high potential of applications, particularly in biomedical area. Materials and Methods: The illuminations were performed at the following times: T0 (24 hours after handling the cells) and T48 (equivalent to 48 hours after the first illumination). The cellular viability was assessed using MTT essay at the following times T0, T6, T12, T24, T48, T72. The results were analyzed using the Graphpad Prism® software. Results: The results showed that time had influenced on the cellular viability of L929 on both control (P=0.0014) and illuminated cultures (P=0.0035). Significant difference between control (P=0.0001) and illuminated H.Ep.2 cells (P=0.0001) was observed. There was a significant difference between the two used types of cells illuminated when compared to their controls: H.Ep.2 (P=0.0001) and L929 (P=0.0002). Conclusion: The use of polarized light on H.Ep.2 and L929 cells resulted on photobiological effects that need further investigation of the mechanisms involved as this is the first study using this methodology.

  12. Inclusion of Trans Women in Pre-Exposure Phrophylaxis (PrEP): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Operario, Don; Socías, Maria E; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2014-01-01

    Trans women are at high-risk of HIV infection. We conducted a review to determine the extent to which trans women were eligible for inclusion in and enrolled into pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy trials. Out of seven trials analyzing PrEP efficacy, we found that trans women comprised only 1.2% of one trial, and 0.2% of total trial enrollments. Although an additional PrEP trial to determine efficacy among trans women may not be warranted, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of PrEP in this marginalized population, through observational and feasibility studies. These studies should focus on unique barriers that trans women may experience while obtaining access to PrEP, such as gender discrimination, transphobia, and violence. PMID:25430940

  13. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  14. Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis acting primarily on IP and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Khuyen Gia; Allison, Sarah; Murray, Michael; Petrovic, Nenad

    2015-09-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by numerous activators and inhibitors, including prostanoids. Although many studies have identified their roles in inflammation, regulatory functions of prostanoids in angiogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we compared the activation of angiogenesis in vitro by two prostanoids with important vascular roles: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - thought to be the most important prostanoid activator of angiogenesis - and prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin or PGI2), whose receptors are predominantly expressed in endothelial cells. Both of these prostanoids activate G-protein coupled receptors: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 by PGE2 and IP by prostacyclin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to characterize two pivotal pro-angiogenic processes in vitro: cell migration (using the matrigel droplet assay developed in our laboratory) and "tube formation" (a widely accepted method of assessing formation of blood vessel precursors). The suppression of cell migration and tube formation by the IP-specific antagonist CAY10441 was more extensive (~80%) than by the EP4-specific antagonist L-161,982 (~20%). AH6809, an antagonist of EP1, EP2 and EP3 receptors did not significantly suppress angiogenesis. Expression of the pro-angiogenic receptors KDR and Tie-2 in HUVECs was preferentially suppressed by antagonism of IP and EP4 receptors, respectively. EP4 and IP receptor agonists elicited biphasic actions on angiogenic processes in which there was activation at low concentration, and rapid desensitization at high concentrations - a characteristic common to many G-protein coupled receptors. Together these findings suggest that the prostacyclin-IP pathway plays a major role in the regulation of pro-angiogenic processes in HUVECs.

  15. Overexpression of EPS8 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Zhi; Liang, Zhao; Wu, Mei-Rong; Wen, Qi; Deng, Lan; Song, Chao-Yang; Wu, Bing-Yi; Tu, San-Fang; Huang, Rui; Li, Yu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Molecular markers have become an invaluable tool in monitoring disease status particularly of leukemias, as bone marrow samples can be easily collected for analysis during all stages of disease development including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Two genes that have been used as prognostic markers in acute leukemia are Wilms' tumor (WT1) and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). A novel gene, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), is often over-expressed and associated with poor outcome in some solid tumor types. However, whether EPS8 is also associated with the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unclear. Here, quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of EPS8, MDR1, and WT1 in bone marrow samples of adult ALL patients (n=107) and non-leukemia controls (n=22). EPS8, MDR1, and WT1 were detected in ALL patients, and significant correlations were found between expression profiles for EPS8 and MDR1, EPS8 and WT1, and MDR1 and WT1. In general, high expression of EPS8, MDR1, or WT1 in patients was associated with a higher risk of relapse. Furthermore, when patients were stratified based on high or low expression of the genes, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that disease-free survival of patients with the high-EPS8/high-WT1/high-MDR1 profile was significantly shorter than in patients with the low-EPS8/low-WT1/low-MDR1 profile or those excluded from either of these groups (P<0.0001). Thus, EPS8, as MDR1 and WT1, may be a clinically valuable biomarker for assessing the outcome of ALL patients.

  16. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  17. Isolation and characterization of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3.

    PubMed

    Bramhachari, P V; Kishor, P B Kavi; Ramadevi, R; Kumar, Ranadheer; Rao, B Rama; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Marine bacterial strains were isolated from coastal regions of Goa and screened for the strains that produce the highest amount of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS). Our screening resulted in the identification of the strain Vibrio furnissii VB0S3 (hereafter called VB0S3), as it produced the highest EPS in batch cultures during the late logarithmic growth phase. The isolate was identified as VB0S3 based on morphological and biochemical properties. Growth and EPS production were studied in mineral salts medium supplemented with NaCl (1.5%) and glucose (0.2%). The exopolymer was recovered from the culture supernatant by using three volumes of cold ethanol precipitation and dialysis procedure. Chemical analyses of EPS revealed that it is primarily composed of neutral sugars, uronic acids, and proteins. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups, which correspond to a typical heteropolymeric polysaccharide, and the EPS also possessed good emulsification activity. The gas chromatographic analysis of an alditol-acetate derivatized sample of EPS revealed that it was mainly composed of galactose and glucose. Minor components found were mannose, rhamnose, fucose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. EPS was readily isolated from culture supernatants, which suggests that the EPS was a slime-like exopolysaccharide. This is the first report of exopolysaccharide characterization that describes the isolation and characterization of an EPS expressed by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3. The results of the study contribute significantly and go a long way towards an understanding of the correlation between growth and EPS production, chemical composition, and industrial applications of the exopolysaccharide in environmental biotechnology and bioremediation.

  18. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their subfractions to the sludge aggregation in membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and their subfractions to sludge aggregation in combined MBR system. It was observed that aggregation abilities of sludge samples were decreased by worm predation. Furthermore, worm predation enhanced the energy barriers and weakened the secondary energy minimum in the interaction energy profiles of slime, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). Further investigations demonstrated that the content decrease and structural change of different EPS fractions induced by worm predation may be the reason for the decreased aggregation of sludge. Concomitantly, the adsorption tests and atomic force microscopy observation confirmed that the worm predation decreased the adsorption of slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS on membrane. This would indicate the worm predation could keep an optimum EPS level for which floc structure was maintained and the fouling propensity of mixed liquid was reduced. PMID:23891833

  19. 30 CFR 250.235 - If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone... SHELF Plans and Information Review and Decision Process for the Ep § 250.235 If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? If an affected State objects to...

  20. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.202 Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA... in June 2011 (for plan year 2012), MA organizations seeking reimbursement for qualifying MA EPs...

  1. Biosynthesis of selenium rich exopolysaccharide (Se-EPS) by Pseudomonas PT-8 and characterization of its antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuhong; Zhang, Jiajia; Liu, Zhaofang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jiang; Li, Yao Olive

    2016-05-20

    Biosynthesis of organo-selenium is achieved by submerged fermentation of selenium-tolerant Pseudomonas PT-8. The end product of metabolic process is selenium-bearing exopolysaccharide (Se-EPS), which contains a higher content of uronic acid than the exopolysaccharide (EPS) by the strain without selenium in the culture medium. Selenium content in Se-EPS reached a maximum yield of 256.7 mg/kg when using an optimized culture condition. Crude Se-EPS was purified into two fractions-a pH neutral Se-EPS-1 and an acidic Se-EPS-2. Structure and chemical composition of Se-EPS-2 were investigated by chromatographic analyses. Results showed that Se-EPS-2 was a homogenous polysaccharide with molecular weight of 7.3 kDa, consisting of monosaccharides, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 19.58:19.28:5.97:18.99:23.70:12.48, respectively. Compared to the EPS, the content of rhamnose in Se-EPS increased and molecular weight decreased. The Se-EPS had strong scavenging actions on DPPH•, •OH and •O2(-), which is much higher than the EPS. PMID:26917395

  2. EpCAM-Independent Enrichment of Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schneck, Helen; Gierke, Berthold; Uppenkamp, Frauke; Behrens, Bianca; Niederacher, Dieter; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Templin, Markus F.; Pawlak, Michael; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the potential precursors of metastatic disease. Most assays established for the enumeration of CTCs so far–including the gold standard CellSearch—rely on the expression of the cell surface marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). But, these approaches may not detect CTCs that express no/low levels of EpCAM, e.g. by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we present an enrichment strategy combining different antibodies specific for surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components to capture an EpCAMlow/neg cell line and EpCAMneg CTCs from blood samples of breast cancer patients depleted for EpCAM-positive cells. The expression of respective proteins (Trop2, CD49f, c-Met, CK8, CD44, ADAM8, CD146, TEM8, CD47) was verified by immunofluorescence on EpCAMpos (e.g. MCF7, SKBR3) and EpCAMlow/neg (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. To test antibodies and ECM proteins (e.g. hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen I, laminin) for capturing EpCAMneg cells, the capture molecules were first spotted in a single- and multi-array format onto aldehyde-coated glass slides. Tumor cell adhesion of EpCAMpos/neg cell lines was then determined and visualized by Coomassie/MitoTracker staining. In consequence, marginal binding of EpCAMlow/neg MDA-MB-231 cells to EpCAM-antibodies could be observed. However, efficient adhesion/capturing of EpCAMlow/neg cells could be achieved via HA and immobilized antibodies against CD49f and Trop2. Optimal capture conditions were then applied to immunomagnetic beads to detect EpCAMneg CTCs from clinical samples. Captured CTCs were verified/quantified by immunofluorescence staining for anti-pan-Cytokeratin (CK)-FITC/anti-CD45 AF647/DAPI. In total, in 20 out of 29 EpCAM-depleted fractions (69%) from 25 metastatic breast cancer patients additional EpCAMneg CTCs could be identified [range of 1–24 CTCs per sample] applying Trop2, CD49f, c-Met, CK8 and/or HA magnetic enrichment. Ep

  3. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  4. STXM and NanoSIMS investigations on EPS fractions before and after adsorption to goethite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinran; Eusterhues, Karin; Thieme, Jürgen; Ciobota, Valerian; Höschen, Carmen; Mueller, Carsten W; Küsel, Kirsten; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Totsche, Kai U

    2013-04-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are expected to be an important source for the formation of mineral-organic associations in soil. Because such formations affect the composition of mobile and immobile organic matter as well as the reactivity of minerals, we investigated the composition of EPS before and after adsorption to goethite. Raman measurements on EPS extracted from Bacillus subtilis distinguished four fractions rich in proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, or lipids and proteins. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy identified three different EPS-fractions that varied in their composition in proteins, nonaromatic proteins, and polysaccharides. Reaction of EPS with goethite led to a preferential adsorption of lipids and proteins. The organic coverage was heterogeneous, consisting of ~100 × 200 nm large patches of either lipid-rich or protein-rich material. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry showed a strong S enrichment in aggregates of ~400 nm in the goethite adsorbed EPS. From our simplified model system, we learned that only a small portion (<10%) of EPS was immobilized via adsorption to goethite. This fraction formed a coating of subμm spaced protein-rich and lipid-rich domains, i.e., of two materials which will strongly differ in their reactive sites. This will finally affect further adsorption, the particle mobility and eventually also colloidal stability.

  5. Antagonism of the prostaglandin E receptor EP4 inhibits metastasis and enhances NK function.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Ma, Xinrong; Holt, Dawn; Goloubeva, Olga; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Fulton, Amy M

    2009-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is associated with aggressive breast cancers. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) acts through four G-protein-coupled receptors designated EP1-4. Malignant and immortalized normal mammary epithelial cell lines express all four EP. The EP4 antagonist AH23848 reduced the ability of tumor cells to colonize the lungs or to spontaneously metastasize from the mammary gland. EP4 gene silencing by shRNA also reduced the ability of mammary tumor cells to metastasize. Metastasis inhibition was lost in mice lacking either functional Natural Killer (NK) cells or interferon-gamma. EP4 antagonism inhibited MHC class I expression resulting in enhanced ability of NK cells to lyse mammary tumor target cells. These studies support the hypothesis that EP4 receptor antagonists reduce metastatic potential by facilitating NK-mediated tumor cell killing and that therapeutic targeting of EP4 may be an alternative approach to the use of COX inhibitors to limit metastatic disease.

  6. PrEP as Peri-conception HIV Prevention for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Heffron, Renee; Pintye, Jillian; Matthews, Lynn T; Weber, Shannon; Mugo, Nelly

    2016-06-01

    Daily oral tenofovir (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy and recommended for men and women with substantial risk of HIV acquisition. The peri-conception period, the stage prior to pregnancy when condom use is necessarily reduced, has elevated HIV risk that can be mitigated by PrEP use. Data from a randomized trial suggest that peri-conception PrEP use by HIV-seronegative women does not increase the risk of pregnancy loss, birth defects or congenital anomalies, preterm birth, or infant growth faltering. Women considering PrEP use throughout pregnancy must weigh the known increased risk of HIV acquisition with unknown risks of drug effects on infant growth. PrEP has been used safely by HIV-seronegative men with HIV-seropositive female partners who have become pregnant. As an effective user-controlled HIV prevention strategy, PrEP offers autonomy and empowerment for HIV prevention and can be recommended alongside antiretroviral therapy, fertility screening, vaginal self-insemination, intercourse timed to peak fertility, medically assisted reproduction, and other safer conception strategies to provide multiple options. The integration of PrEP into safer conception programs is warranted and will safely reduce HIV transmission to women, men, and children during the peri-conception period.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chenglin; Zhao, Ruonan; Vallejo, Julian; Igwe, Orisa; Bonewald, Lynda; Wetmore, Lori; Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from osteocytes enhances myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, suggesting that signaling from bone may be important for skeletal muscle myogenesis. The effect of CM was closely mimicked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid mediator in various physiological or pathological conditions. PGE2 is secreted at high levels by osteocytes and such secretion is further enhanced under loading conditions. Although four types of receptors, EP1 to EP4, mediate PGE2 signaling, it is unknown whether these receptors play a role in myogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the expression of EPs in mouse primary myoblasts was characterized, followed by examination of their roles in myoblast proliferation by treating myoblasts with PGE2 or specific agonists. All four PGE2 receptor mRNAs were detectable by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but only PGE2 and EP4 agonist CAY 10598 significantly enhance myoblast proliferation. EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects. Moreover, treatment with EP4 antagonist L161,982 dose-dependently inhibited myoblast proliferation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis and the gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Concomitant with the inhibition of myoblast proliferation, treatment with L161,982 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Cotreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or sodium ascorbate (SA) successfully reversed the inhibition of myoblast proliferation and ROS overproduction caused by L161,982. Therefore, PGE2 signaling via the EP4 receptor regulates myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and blocking this receptor results in increased ROS production in myoblasts.

  8. Distinct roles of Eps8 in the maturation of cochlear and vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Spaiardi, Paolo; Zampini, Valeria; Contini, Donatella; Manca, Marco; Russo, Giancarlo; Prigioni, Ivo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2016-07-22

    Several genetic mutations affecting the development and function of mammalian hair cells have been shown to cause deafness but not vestibular defects, most likely because vestibular deficits are sometimes centrally compensated. The study of hair cell physiology is thus a powerful direct approach to ascertain the functional status of the vestibular end organs. Deletion of Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), a gene involved in actin remodeling, has been shown to cause deafness in mice. While both inner and outer hair cells from Eps8 knockout (KO) mice showed abnormally short stereocilia, inner hair cells (IHCs) also failed to acquire mature-type ion channels. Despite the fact that Eps8 is also expressed in vestibular hair cells, Eps8 KO mice show no vestibular deficits. In the present study we have investigated the properties of vestibular Type I and Type II hair cells in Eps8-KO mice and compared them to those of cochlear IHCs. In the absence of Eps8, vestibular hair cells show normally long kinocilia, significantly shorter stereocilia and a normal pattern of basolateral voltage-dependent ion channels. We have also found that while vestibular hair cells from Eps8 KO mice show normal voltage responses to injected sinusoidal currents, which were used to mimic the mechanoelectrical transducer current, IHCs lose their ability to synchronize their responses to the stimulus. We conclude that the absence of Eps8 produces a weaker phenotype in vestibular hair cells compared to cochlear IHCs, since it affects the hair bundle morphology but not the basolateral membrane currents. This difference is likely to explain the absence of obvious vestibular dysfunction in Eps8 KO mice.

  9. SC-46275: a potent and highly selective agonist at the EP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Savage, M A; Moummi, C; Karabatsos, P J; Lanthorn, T H

    1993-12-01

    The agonist properties of SC-46275 have been investigated in EP receptor subtype-specific smooth muscle assays. In the isolated guinea pig vas deferens (GPVD), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), via the EP3 receptor, potently inhibited electrically induced contractions with an EC50 of 5.4 +/- 1.1 nM. Sulprostone and misoprostol were both potent relaxers of the GPVD yielding EC50s of 1.6 +/- 0.4 nM and 4.3 +/- 0.9 nM, respectively, while butaprost (10,000 nM) was inactive. SC-46275 was by far the most potent agonist in the GPVD exhibiting an EC50 of 0.04 +/- 0.02 nM. PGE2, via the EP1 receptor, stimulates contractions in the longitudinal muscle layer of the guinea pig ileum (GPIL) with an EC50 of 74.4 +/- 10.6 nM. SC-46275 was extremely weak in this preparation, generating only 33% of the maximal PGE2 effect at 30,000 nM. The circular muscle layer of guinea pig ileum (GPIC) is responsive to inhibition of electrically stimulated contractions by PGE2 (EC50 = 179.6 +/- 20.8 nM) via the EP2 receptor. SC-46275 (up to 10,000 nM) was completely inactive in this preparation. We conclude from these findings that SC-46275 is a very potent and highly selective EP3 receptor agonist. SC-46275 should prove to be an extremely valuable tool in probing the physiological significance of EP3 receptors. The high potency of SC-46275 at the EP3 receptor may account for its antisecretory and cytoprotective actions, while its lack of activity at the EP1 or EP2 sites may explain its very weak diarrheagenic potential.

  10. Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi in different hydrocarbon bioremediation assays.

    PubMed

    Calvo, C; Silva-Castro, G A; Uad, I; García Fandiño, C; Laguna, J; González-López, J

    2008-11-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi strain AD2 was isolated from the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery and was identified by analysis of the sequence of the gene encoding 16S rDNA. This bacterium produced exopolysaccharides in glucose nutrient broth media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-octane, mineral light and heavy oils and crude oils). The exopolysaccharide AD2 (EPS emulsifier) synthesized showed a wide range of emulsifying activity but none of them had surfactant activity. Yield production varied from 0.47 to 0.94 g of EPS l(-1) depending on the hydrocarbon added. In the same way, chemical composition and emulsification activity of EPS emulsifier varied with the culture conditions. Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier as biostimulating agent was assayed in soil microcosms and experimental biopiles. The AD2 biopolymer was added alone or combined with commercial products frequently used in oil bioremediation such as inorganic NPK fertilizer and oleophilic fertilizer (S200 C). Also, its efficiency was tested in mixture with activated sludge from an oil refinery. In soil microcosms supplemented with S200 C+EPS emulsifier as combined treatment, indigenous microbial populations as well as hydrocarbon degradation was enhanced when compared with microcosms treated with NPK fertilizer or EPS emulsifier alone. In the same way EPS emulsifier stimulated the bioremediation effect of S200 C product, increasing the number of bacteria and decreasing the amount of hydrocarbon remained. Finally, similar effects were obtained in biopile assays amended with EPS emulsifier plus activated sludge. Our results suggest that the bioemulsifier EPS emulsifier has interesting properties for its application in environment polluted with oil hydrocarbon compounds and may be useful for bioremediation purposes.

  11. Absence of cell-surface EpCAM in congenital tufting enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Mueller, James L.; Veenstra-Algra, Anneke; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Giepmans, Ben N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; CD326) gene are causal for congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE), a disease characterized by intestinal abnormalities resulting in lethal diarrhea in newborns. Why the different mutations all lead to the same disease is not clear. Here, we report that most mutations, including a novel intronic variant, will result in lack of EpCAM's transmembrane domain, whereas two mutations allow transmembrane localization. We find that these mutants are not routed to the plasma membrane, and that truncated mutants are secreted or degraded. Thus, all epcam mutations lead to loss of cell-surface EpCAM, resulting in CTE. PMID:23462293

  12. PIC Simulations of the Omega-EP Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenda; Blackman, Eric; Yan, Rui; Ren, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    In an Omega EP experiment on magnetic reconnection, two laser beams with peak intensity of 7 × 1018 W/cm2 are focused on a Cu-target. Here we report 2D PIC simulation results with parameters derived from the experiment including a realistic ion-electron mass ratio. We find that 1) toroidal and mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields are generated and a bubble of high-energy-density plasma is produced from single beam-target interactions and 2) the magnetic topology changes as two such bubbles expand and interact with each other indicating the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection can occur even when the bubble expansion velocity is subsonic. Flux pileup is observed when the expansion velocity is supersonic. Energetic Cu-ions with energy up to 12 MeV are also observed in the outflow. This work was supported by NNSA under Corporate Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302 and Grant No. DE-NA0002205; by DOE under Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER54789; and by NSF under Grant No. PHY-1314734.

  13. Gravitational form factors and nucleon spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Nucleon scattering by the classical gravitational field is described by the gravitational (energy-momentum tensor) form factors (GFFs), which also control the partition of nucleon spin between the total angular momenta of quarks and gluons. The equivalence principle (EP) for spin dynamics results in the identically zero anomalous gravitomagnetic moment, which is the straightforward analog of its electromagnetic counterpart. The extended EP (ExEP) describes its (approximate) validity separately for quarks and gluons and, in turn, results in equal partition of the momentum and total angular momentum. It is violated in quantum electrodynamics and perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but may be restored in nonperturbative QCD because of confinement and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, which is supported by models and lattice QCD calculations. It may, in principle, be checked by extracting the generalized parton distributions from hard exclusive processes. The EP for spin-1 hadrons is also manifested in inclusive processes (deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process) in sum rules for tensor structure functions and parton distributions. The ExEP may originate in either gravity-proof confinement or in the closeness of the GFF to its asymptotic values in relation to the mediocrity principle. The GFFs in time-like regions reveal some similarity between inflation and annihilation.

  14. Overview of the 2014 Edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2014-10-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) is a widely recognized world class program. The work of the IRPhEP is documented in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook). Integral data from the IRPhEP Handbook is used by reactor safety and design, nuclear data, criticality safety, and analytical methods development specialists, worldwide, to perform necessary validations of their calculational techniques. The IRPhEP Handbook is among the most frequently quoted reference in the nuclear industry and is expected to be a valuable resource for future decades.

  15. Measurement of the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton in Virtual Scattering at Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2: I. Low Energy Expansion Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Jaminion; Natalie Degrande; Geraud Laveissiere; Christophe Jutier; Luminita Todor; Rachele Di Salvo; L. Van Hoorebeke

    2003-12-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering is studied at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility at low Center-of-Mass energies, below pion threshold. Following the Low Energy Theorem for the ep {yields} ep gamma process, we obtain values for the two structure functions Pll-Ptt/epsilon and Plt at four-momentum transfer squared Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2.

  16. Treatment of an Unusual Non-Tooth Related Enamel Pearl (EP) and 3 Teeth-Related EPs with Localized Periodontal Disease Without Teeth Extractions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pardiñas López, Simón; Warren, Roger N; Bromage, Timothy G; Matei, Ioana Chesnoiu; Khouly, Ismael

    2015-09-01

    Enamel may be found ectopically as enamel pearls (EPs), which are frequently associated with advanced localized periodontal (LP) destruction. This study presents a case in which an unusual non-tooth-related enamel pearl and three teeth-related enamel pearls with LP disease were found and treated without teeth extractions. A 47-year-old female patient presented at the New York University College of Dentistry with four EPs, three of which were associated with periodontal pockets and/or bleeding on probing (BOP), and one of them not related to any tooth. Periodontal therapy included scaling and root planing and open flap debridement with removal of the EPs. Two pearls were histologically analyzed by polarizing microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Clinical periodontal parameters, including probing depth and BOP, were measured. All enamel found in the pearls had the same general morphologic appearance when examined by a SEM. The non-tooth-related pearl could be classified as Rodriguez Ponte "adamantinóidea" pearl. Probing depths at 3 months and 9 months after EP removal diminished considerably. Only after the treatment was there no BOP. Before treatment it was in some areas, as shown in Table 1. The LP related to the EP was resolved. The authors conclude that early recognition of enamel pearls is important in the prevention of periodontal destruction, and removal of EPs by a surgical approach as an adjunct to mechanical periodontal treatment resulted in resolution of the LP. The authors state that this is the first time an "adamantinóideas" pearl is being reported on clinically in the literature.

  17. Exogenous arachidonic acid mediates permeability of human brain microvessel endothelial cells through prostaglandin E2 activation of EP3 and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Siddhartha; Nguyen, Hieu H; On, Ngoc; Mitchell, Ryan W; Aukema, Harold M; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2015-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier, formed by microvessel endothelial cells, is the restrictive barrier between the brain parenchyma and the circulating blood. Arachidonic acid (ARA; 5,8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a conditionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acid [20:4(n-6)] and is a major constituent of brain lipids. The current study examined the transport processes for ARA in confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Addition of radioactive ARA to the apical compartment of HBMEC cultured on Transwell(®) inserts resulted in rapid incorporation of radioactivity into the basolateral medium. Knock down of fatty acid transport proteins did not alter ARA passage into the basolateral medium as a result of the rapid generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), an eicosanoid known to facilitate opening of the blood-brain barrier. Permeability following ARA or PGE2 exposure was confirmed by an increased movement of fluorescein-labeled dextran from apical to basolateral medium. ARA-mediated permeability was attenuated by specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. EP3 and EP4 receptor antagonists attenuated the ARA-mediated permeability of HBMEC. The results indicate that ARA increases permeability of HBMEC monolayers likely via increased production of PGE2 which acts upon EP3 and EP4 receptors to mediate permeability. These observations may explain the rapid influx of ARA into the brain previously observed upon plasma infusion with ARA. The blood-brain barrier, formed by microvessel endothelial cells, is a restrictive barrier between the brain parenchyma and the circulating blood. Radiolabeled arachidonic acid (ARA) movement across, and monolayer permeability in the presence of ARA, was examined in confluent monolayers of primary human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) cultured on Transwell(®) plates. Incubation of HBMECs with ARA resulted in a rapid increase in HBMEC monolayer permeability. The mechanism was mediated, in part

  18. QED radiative effects in the processes of exclusive photon electroproduction from polarized protons with the next-to-leading accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Akushevich, Igor V.; Ilyichev, Alexander; Shumeiko, Nikolai M

    2014-08-01

    Radiative effects in the electroproduction of photons in polarized ep-scattering are calculated with the next-to-leading (NLO) accuracy. The contributions of loops and two photon emission were presented in analytical form. The covariant approach of Bardin and Shumeiko was used to extract the infrared divergence. All contributions to the radiative correction were presented in the form of the correction to the leptonic tensor thus allowing for further applications in other experiments, e.g., deep inelastic scattering. The radiative corrections (RC) to the cross sections and polarization asymmetries were analyzed numerically for kinematical conditions of the current measurement at Jefferson Lab. Specific attention was paid on analyzing kinematical conditions for the process with large radiative effect when momenta of two photons in the final state are collinear to momenta of initial and final electrons, respectively.

  19. 42 CFR 495.10 - Participation requirements for EPs, eligible hospitals, and CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 424 subpart F. (ii) Medicaid EPs may also assign their incentive payments to a TIN for an... programs only one time, and only for a payment year before 2015; (3) Must, for each payment year, meet...

  20. Quick stimulation of Alcanivorax sp. by bioemulsificant EPS2003 on microcosm oil spill simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Simone; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Santisi, Santina; Volta, Anna; Bonsignore, Martina; Mancini, Giuseppe; Giuliano, Laura; Genovese, Lucrezia; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill microcosms experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of bioemulsificant exopolysaccharide (EPS2003) on quick stimulation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Early hours of oil spill, were stimulated using an experimental seawater microcosm, supplemented with crude oil and EPS2003 (SW+OIL+EPS2003); this system was monitored for 2 days and compared to control microcosm (only oil-polluted seawater, SW+OIL). Determination of bacterial abundance, heterotrophic cultivable and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were carried out. Community composition of marine bacterioplankton was determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Data obtained indicated that bioemulsificant addition stimulated an increase of total bacterial abundance and, in particular, selection of bacteria related to Alcanivorax genus; confirming that EPS2003 could be used for the dispersion of oil slicks and could stimulate the selection of marine hydrocarbon degraders thus increasing bioremediation process. PMID:25763036

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, 1934, DETAIL OF CORNICE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF STAIR (1st STORY -- REAR HALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (PARLOR -- SOUTH WALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  4. Molecular characterization of prostaglandin F receptor (FP) and E receptor subtype 3 (EP3) in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Amy H Y; Wang, Yajun; Leung, Frederick C

    2012-10-01

    Prostaglandin E and F regulate diverse physiological functions including gastrointestinal motility, fever induction and reproduction. This multitude of biological effects is mediated via their four E receptor subtypes (EP(1), EP(2), EP(3) and EP(4)) and F receptor (FP), respectively. Majority of these studies was performed in mammalian species, while investigations on their roles were impeded by inadequate information on their receptors in avian species. In present study, full-length cDNAs of chicken EP(3) (cEP(3)) and two isoforms of FP - cFPa and cFPb - were cloned from adult hen ovary. The putative cEP(3) and cFPa share high amino acid sequence identity with their respective orthologs, while the predicted cFPb is a novel middle-truncated splice variant which lacks 107 amino acids between transmembrane domains 4 and 6. RT-PCR showed that cEP(3), cFPa and cFPb are widely expressed in adult tissues examined, including ovary and oviduct. Using a pGL3-CRE luciferase reporter system, cEP(3)-expressing DF1 cells inhibited forskolin-induced luciferase activity (EC(50): <1.9 pM) upon PGE(2) treatment, suggesting that cEP(3) may functionally couple to Gi protein. Upon PGF(2α) addition, cFPa was shown to potentially couple to intracellular Ca(2+)-signaling pathway by pGL3-NFAT-RE reporter assay (EC(50): 2.9 nM), while cFPb showed no response. Using a pGL4-SRE reporter system, both cEP(3) and cFPa exhibited potential MAPK activation by PGE(2) and PGF(2α) at EC(50) 0.34 and 13 nM, respectively. Molecular characterization of these receptors paved the road to the better understanding of PGE(2) and PGF(2α) roles in avian physiology and comparative endocrinology studies. PMID:22885557

  5. Role of the prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Glushakov, Alexander V; Fazal, Jawad A; Narumiya, Shuh; Doré, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Brain injuries promote upregulation of so-called proinflammatory prostaglandins, notably prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leading to overactivation of a class of its cognate G-protein-coupled receptors, including EP1, which is considered a promising target for treatment of ischemic stroke. However, the role of the EP1 receptor is complex and depends on the type of brain injury. This study is focused on the investigation of the role of the EP1 receptor in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model, a preclinical model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The therapeutic effects of post-treatments with a widely studied EP1 receptor antagonist, SC-51089, were examined in wildtype and EP1 receptor knockout C57BL/6 mice. Neurological deficit scores (NDS) were assessed 24 and 48 h following CCI or sham surgery, and brain immunohistochemical pathology was assessed 48 h after surgery. In wildtype mice, CCI resulted in an obvious cortical lesion and localized hippocampal edema with an associated significant increase in NDS compared to sham-operated animals. Post-treatments with the selective EP1 receptor antagonist SC-51089 or genetic knockout of EP1 receptor had no significant effects on cortical lesions and hippocampal swelling or on the NDS 24 and 48 h after CCI. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed CCI-induced gliosis and microglial activation in selected ipsilateral brain regions that were not affected by SC-51089 or in the EP1 receptor-deleted mice. This study provides further clarification on the respective contribution of the EP1 receptor in TBI and suggests that, under this experimental paradigm, the EP1 receptor would have limited effects in modulating acute neurological and anatomical pathologies following contusive brain trauma. Findings from this protocol, in combination with previous studies demonstrating differential roles of EP1 receptor in ischemic, neurotoxic, and hemorrhagic conditions, provide scientific background and further clarification of potential therapeutic

  6. Regulation of Calcium Channels and Exocytosis in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cells by Prostaglandin EP3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Mark L.; Breyer, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 controls numerous physiological functions through a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (EP1–EP4). Targeting specific EP receptors might be therapeutically useful and reduce side effects associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that block prostanoid synthesis. Systemic immune challenge and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase expression of the synthetic enzymes for PGE2 in the adrenal gland. Catecholamines and other hormones, released from adrenal chromaffin cells in response to Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, play central roles in homeostatic function and the coordinated stress response. However, long-term elevation of circulating catecholamines contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. Here, we investigated the EP receptor(s) and cellular mechanisms by which PGE2 might modulate chromaffin cell function. PGE2 did not alter resting intracellular [Ca2+] or the peak amplitude of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor currents, but it did inhibit CaV2 voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents (ICa). This inhibition was voltage-dependent and mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, consistent with a direct Gβγ subunit-mediated mechanism common to other Gi/o-coupled receptors. mRNA for all four EP receptors was detected, but using selective pharmacological tools and EP receptor knockout mice, we demonstrated that EP3 receptors mediate the inhibition of ICa. Finally, changes in membrane capacitance showed that Ca2+-dependent exocytosis was reduced in parallel with ICa. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EP receptor signaling in mouse chromaffin cells and identifies a molecular mechanism for paracrine regulation of neuroendocrine function by PGE2. PMID:21383044

  7. Overexpression of EpCAM and Trop2 in pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Pang, Bo; Liang, Yu; Xu, Shang-Chen; Xin, Tao; Fan, Hai-Tao; Yu, Yan-Bing; Pang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We sought to investigate the expression of EpCAM and Trop2 in Pituitary adenomas (PAs) and study the correlation of protein expression with invasiveness, proliferation, clinical functioning, recurrence/progression, and some other factors. We investigated the expression of EpCAM and Trop2 in 74 samples of PAs by immunohistochemistry and made correlative analysis of protein overexpression with clinicopathological parameters. Follow-up data was analyzed for recurrence/progression with Kaplan-Meier method and Multivariate Cox regression analysis. Immunohistochemistry results showed that overexpression rates of EpCAM and Trop2 were 51/74 (68.9%) and 43/74 (58.1%), respectively. For both EpCAM and Trop2, PAs with invasiveness showed a higher overexpression rate than PAs without invasiveness (PEpCAM = 0.001; PTrop2 = 0.006). Nonfunctional Pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) demonstrated a higher EpCAM overexpression than functional Pituitary adenomas (FPAs) (P = 0.026). Both EpCAM and Trop2 overexpression correlated significantly with expression of proliferation factor Ki-67 (PEpCAM = 0.011; PTrop2 = 0.000), but not with gender and age. Follow-up analysis revealed that Trop2 overexpression was a significantly predictive factor for recurrence/progression by means of Kaplan-Meier method d (P = 0.028) and Multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.025). This study reveals that both EpCAM and Trop2 overexpression in PAs correlate significantly with invasiveness and proliferation. EpCAM presents a potential target for differential diagnosis and immunotherapy for NFPAs. Follow-up analysis shows that Trop2 is a predictive factor for recurrence/progression for PAs. PMID:25550831

  8. The interplay between Eps8 and IRSp53 contributes to Src-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, P-S; Jong, T-H; Maa, M-C; Leu, T-H

    2010-07-01

    As an oncoprotein, Eps8 participates in v-Src-induced cellular transformation. To delineate the underlying mechanism, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening and identified IRSp53S, a protein critical in cell mobilization, as one of the Eps8-binding partners from a human brain cDNA library. The association was mediated by the multiple proline-rich regions of Eps8 and the C-terminal SH3-WWB containing domains of IRSp53S. In this study, we observed that Eps8 modulated the expression of IRSp53 in v-Src-transformed cells (IV5), raising the question of whether Eps8/IRSp53 interaction was crucial in carcinogenesis. To address this issue, we generated IV5-expressing irsp53 siRNA cells. Attenuation of IRSp53 reduced cell proliferation of IV5 in culture dish and tumor formation in mice, which could be partly rescued by ectopically expressed human IRSp53S. In addition, IRSp53 knockdown impaired activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (as reflected by Pi-Ser473 AKT) and Stat3 (as reflected by Pi-Tyr705 Stat3), and reduced cyclin D1 expression that culminated to impede G(1)-phase cell-cycle progression. Ectopically expressed human IRSp53S, but not its Eps8-binding defective mutants (that is, Delta363 and PPPDA), rescued these defects and partly restored cell proliferation. Remarkably, through activation of Src, EGF increased the formation of Eps8/IRSp53 complex and Stat3 activation in HeLa cells. With these results, we show for the first time that IRSp53, through its interaction with Eps8, not only affects cell migration but also dictates cellular growth in cancer cells. PMID:20418908

  9. Night eating and obesity in the EP3R-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Klein, Izabella; Brownell, Sara E; Tabarean, Iustin V; Davis, Christopher N; Conti, Bruno; Bartfai, Tamas

    2007-02-20

    Adult mice carrying a null mutation of the prostanoid receptor EP3R (EP3R(-/-) mice) exhibit increased frequency of feeding during the light cycle of the day and develop an obese phenotype under a normal fat diet fed ad libitum. EP3R(-/-) mice show increased motor activity, which is not sufficient to offset the increased feeding leading to increased body weight. Altered "nocturnal" activity and feeding behavior is present from a very early age and does not seem to require age-dependent factors for the development of obesity. Obesity in EP3R(-/-) mice is characterized by elevated leptin and insulin levels and >20% higher body weight compared with WT littermates. Abdominal and subcutaneous fat and increased liver weight account for the weight increase in EP3R(-/-) mice. These observations expand the roles of prostaglandin E(2) signaling in metabolic regulation beyond the reported stimulation of leptin release from adipose tissue to involve actions mediated by EP3R in the regulation of sleep architecture and feeding behavior. The findings add to the growing literature on links between inflammatory signaling and obesity.

  10. A Long Noncoding RNA lincRNA-EPS Acts as a Transcriptional Brake to Restrain Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Atianand, Maninjay K; Hu, Wenqian; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Shen, Ying; Ricci, Emiliano P; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Bhatta, Ankit; Schattgen, Stefan A; McGowan, Jason D; Blin, Juliana; Braun, Joerg E; Gandhi, Pallavi; Moore, Melissa J; Chang, Howard Y; Lodish, Harvey F; Caffrey, Daniel R; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2016-06-16

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression. Although lincRNAs are expressed in immune cells, their functions in immunity are largely unexplored. Here, we identify an immunoregulatory lincRNA, lincRNA-EPS, that is precisely regulated in macrophages to control the expression of immune response genes (IRGs). Transcriptome analysis of macrophages from lincRNA-EPS-deficient mice, combined with gain-of-function and rescue experiments, revealed a specific role for this lincRNA in restraining IRG expression. Consistently, lincRNA-EPS-deficient mice manifest enhanced inflammation and lethality following endotoxin challenge in vivo. lincRNA-EPS localizes at regulatory regions of IRGs to control nucleosome positioning and repress transcription. Further, lincRNA-EPS mediates these effects by interacting with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L via a CANACA motif located in its 3' end. Together, these findings identify lincRNA-EPS as a repressor of inflammatory responses, highlighting the importance of lincRNAs in the immune system.

  11. Probing the biophysical interaction between Neocarzinostatin toxin and EpCAM RNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Athyala, Prasanna Kumar; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Alameen, Mohamed; Kanwar, Rupinder Kaur; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Watson, Jon; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Narayanan, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Neocarzinostatin (NCS) a potent DNA-damaging, anti-tumor toxin extracted from Streptomyces carzinostaticus that recognizes double-stranded DNA bulge and induces DNA damage. 2 Fluoro (2F) Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer is a 23-mer that targets EpCAM protein, expressed on the surface of epithelial tumor cells. Understanding the interaction between NCS and the ligand is important for carrying out the targeted tumor therapy. In this study, we have investigated the biophysical interactions between NCS and 2-fluro Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer using Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy. The aromatic amino acid residues spanning the β sheets of NCS are found to participate in intermolecular interactions with 2 F Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer. In-silico modeling and simulation studies corroborate with CD spectra data. Furthermore, it reinforces the involvement of C and D1 strand of NCS in intermolecular interactions with EpCAM RNA aptamer. This the first report on interactions involved in the stabilization of NCS-EpCAM aptamer complex and will aid in the development of therapeutic modalities towards targeted cancer therapy. PMID:26642954

  12. Component analysis and heavy metal adsorption ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zheng-Bo; Li, Qing; Li, Chuan-chuan; Chen, Tian-hu; Wang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play an important role in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this paper, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used as the test strain to explore the effect of heavy metals on the components and adsorption ability of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis results showed that heavy metals did not influence the type of functional groups of EPS. Potentiometric titration results indicated that the acidic constants (pKa) of the EPS fell into three ranges of 3.5-4.0, 5.9-6.7, and 8.9-9.8. The adsorption site concentrations of the surface functional groups also increased. Adsorption results suggested that EPS had a specific binding affinity for the dosed heavy metal, and that EPS extracted from the Zn(2+)-dosed system had a higher binding affinity for all heavy metals. Additionally, Zn(2+) decreased the inhibitory effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on the SRB.

  13. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes Jr., Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Christopher Mimun, L.; Maswadi, Saher M.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, electrochemical interactions, thermoelastic expansion, and others. To date, very limited research has investigated non-electric phenomena occurring during nsEP exposures and their potential effect on cell nanoporation. Of primary interest is the production of acoustic shock waves during nsEP exposure, as it is known that acoustic shock waves can cause membrane poration (sonoporation). Based on these observations, our group characterized the acoustic pressure transients generated by nsEP and determined if such transients played any role in nanoporation. In this paper, we show that nsEP exposures, equivalent to those used in cellular studies, are capable of generating high-frequency (2.5 MHz), high-intensity (>13 kPa) pressure transients. Using confocal microscopy to measure cell uptake of YO-PRO®-1 (indicator of nanoporation of the plasma membrane) and changing the electrode geometry, we determined that acoustic waves alone are not responsible for poration of the membrane. PMID:26450165

  14. Evidence for the presence of a critical disulfide bond in the mouse EP3γ receptor

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Jason D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the contribution of cysteines to the function of the mouse E-prostanoid subtype 3 gamma (mEP3γ), we tested a series of cysteine-to-alanine mutants. Two of these mutants, C107A and C184A, showed no agonist-dependent activation in a cell-based reporter assay for mEP3γ, whereas none of the other cysteine-to-alanine mutations disrupted mEP3γ signal transduction. Total cell membranes prepared from HEK293 cells transfected with mEP3γ C107A or C184A had no detectable radioligand binding. Other mutant mEP3γ receptors had radioligand affinities and receptor densities similar to wild-type. Cell-surface ELISA against the N-terminal HA-tag of C107A and C184A demonstrated 40 % and 47 % reductions respectively in receptor protein expression at the cell surface, and no radioligand binding was detected as assessed by intact cell radioligand binding experiments. These data suggest a key role for C107 and C184 in both receptor structure/stability and function and is consistent with the presence of a conserved disulfide bond between C107 and C184 in mouse EP3 that is required for normal receptor expression and function. Our results also indicate that if a second disulfide bond is present in the native receptor it is non-essential for receptor assembly or function. PMID:21236356

  15. Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: The Primary Care Perspective.

    PubMed

    Conniff, James; Evensen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Until recently there have been few primary care office-based strategies to reduce the transmission of HIV. In May 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published updated practice guidelines recommending the use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral dosing of tenofovir/emtricitabine to help prevent HIV infection in high-risk individuals (strength of recommendation, A). Knowledge of PrEP among primary care providers is low, however, and this intervention is likely reaching only a small fraction of eligible patients. PrEP is recommended for certain injection drug users, nonmonogamous men who have sex with men, heterosexual women who have sex with men who have sex with men or injection drug users, and those in HIV serodiscordant relationships. Providers should obtain baseline laboratory values and provide initial counseling before prescribing PrEP. Regular office visits are necessary to ensure adherence, provide ongoing counseling, and monitor for side effects, including nausea, abdominal pain, headache, and, less commonly, increased creatinine. Guidelines and toolkits have been developed to assist in incorporating PrEP into primary care practice. PrEP is gaining widespread acceptance and has become a crucial tool in the fight to stop the spread of HIV.

  16. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  17. EpCAM Expression in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Carcinoma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Anna K.; Hoving, Hilde D.; Rosati, Stefano; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since it is overexpressed in prostatic carcinoma compared with benign prostate epithelium and compared with stroma. However, EpCAM expression in lymph node metastases is sparsely available in the literature and EpCAM expression in bone metastases is yet unknown. The current study evaluates the expression of EpCAM in prostate carcinoma lymph nodes, in matched normal lymph nodes, in prostate carcinoma bone metastases, and in normal bone by immunohistochemistry. EpCAM was expressed in 100% of lymph node metastases (21 out of 21), in 0% of normal lymph nodes (0 out of 21), in 95% of bone metastases (19 out of 20), and in 0% of normal bone (0 out of 14). Based on these results, EpCAM may be a feasible imaging target in prostate carcinoma lymph node and bone metastases. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm current results. Preoperative visualization of prostate carcinoma metastases will improve disease staging and will prevent unnecessary invasive surgery. PMID:27690012

  18. Suppression of Alzheimer-associated inflammation by microglial prostaglandin-E2 EP4 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Woodling, Nathaniel S; Wang, Qian; Priyam, Prachi G; Larkin, Paul; Shi, Ju; Johansson, Jenny U; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; Boutaud, Olivier; Andreasson, Katrin I

    2014-04-23

    A persistent and nonresolving inflammatory response to accumulating Aβ peptide species is a cardinal feature in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In response to accumulating Aβ peptide species, microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, generate a toxic inflammatory response that accelerates synaptic and neuronal injury. Many proinflammatory signaling pathways are linked to progression of neurodegeneration. However, endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways capable of suppressing Aβ-induced inflammation represent a relatively unexplored area. Here we report that signaling through the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) EP4 receptor potently suppresses microglial inflammatory responses to Aβ42 peptides. In cultured microglial cells, EP4 stimulation attenuated levels of Aβ42-induced inflammatory factors and potentiated phagocytosis of Aβ42. Microarray analysis demonstrated that EP4 stimulation broadly opposed Aβ42-driven gene expression changes in microglia, with enrichment for targets of IRF1, IRF7, and NF-κB transcription factors. In vivo, conditional deletion of microglial EP4 in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 (APP-PS1) mice conversely increased inflammatory gene expression, oxidative protein modification, and Aβ deposition in brain at early stages of pathology, but not at later stages, suggesting an early anti-inflammatory function of microglial EP4 signaling in the APP-PS1 model. Finally, EP4 receptor levels decreased significantly in human cortex with progression from normal to AD states, suggesting that early loss of this beneficial signaling system in preclinical AD development may contribute to subsequent progression of pathology.

  19. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure.

    PubMed

    Roth, Caleb C; Barnes, Ronald A; Ibey, Bennett L; Beier, Hope T; Christopher Mimun, L; Maswadi, Saher M; Shadaram, Mehdi; Glickman, Randolph D

    2015-10-09

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, electrochemical interactions, thermoelastic expansion, and others. To date, very limited research has investigated non-electric phenomena occurring during nsEP exposures and their potential effect on cell nanoporation. Of primary interest is the production of acoustic shock waves during nsEP exposure, as it is known that acoustic shock waves can cause membrane poration (sonoporation). Based on these observations, our group characterized the acoustic pressure transients generated by nsEP and determined if such transients played any role in nanoporation. In this paper, we show that nsEP exposures, equivalent to those used in cellular studies, are capable of generating high-frequency (2.5 MHz), high-intensity (>13 kPa) pressure transients. Using confocal microscopy to measure cell uptake of YO-PRO®-1 (indicator of nanoporation of the plasma membrane) and changing the electrode geometry, we determined that acoustic waves alone are not responsible for poration of the membrane.

  20. Silver nanoparticles formation by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from electroactive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Wei; Zhang, Xing; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excreted from microorganisms were a complex natural biological polymer mixture of proteins and polysaccharides, which played an important roles in the transport of metals, such as Ag(+). Electroactive bacteria, is an important class of environmental microorganisms, which can use iron or manganese mineral as terminal electron acceptors to generate energy for biosynthesis and cell maintenance. In this work, the EPS extracted of three electroactive bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas putida) were used for reducing Ag(+) and forming silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Results showed that all the three microbial EPS could reduce Ag(+) to AgNPs. The formed AgNPs were characterized in depth by the UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The main components in the EPS from the three electroactive bacteria were analyzed. The presence of cytochrome c in these EPS was confirmed, and they were found to contribute to the reduction of Ag(+) to AgNPs. The results indicated that the EPS of electroactive bacteria could act as a reductant for AgNPs synthesis and could provide new information to understand the fate of metals and their metal nanoparticles in the natural environments. PMID:26797954

  1. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and surface properties of activated sludges: effect of organic carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Ayse Gul; Kılıç, Başak; Çeçen, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to clarify how the type of organic substrate in a wastewater affects the production and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and hydrophobicity and surface charge of activated sludges. For this purpose, three activated sludge reactors were operated in parallel with feeds composed of the organics (i) peptone, glucose, and acetate and (ii) peptone and (iii) glucose. EPS extracted from sludges were fractionated into very loosely bound, loosely bound, and tightly bound fractions and analyzed for protein and polysaccharide. Also, molecular weight distribution of proteins was determined by using high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Regardless of the type of organic substrate, in each sludge, tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) prevailed. The type of organic substrate affected the relative proportion of protein and polysaccharide and had an impact on hydrophobicity and surface charge. The sludge fed with peptone was distinctly more hydrophobic and had a lower negative surface charge than others. HPSEC fingerprints revealed that the variety and size of proteins were dependent on the type of feed. HPSEC also pointed to a shift of high molecular weight (MW) proteins from TB-EPS to others. In addition, results of a parallel study examining the inhibitory effect of Ag(+) on three sludges were interpreted along with feed composition, EPS, and surface measurements. The response of each sludge to toxic Ag(+) ion seemed to change with the type of feed. PMID:26381789

  2. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A., Jr.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Christopher Mimun, L.; Maswadi, Saher M.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, electrochemical interactions, thermoelastic expansion, and others. To date, very limited research has investigated non-electric phenomena occurring during nsEP exposures and their potential effect on cell nanoporation. Of primary interest is the production of acoustic shock waves during nsEP exposure, as it is known that acoustic shock waves can cause membrane poration (sonoporation). Based on these observations, our group characterized the acoustic pressure transients generated by nsEP and determined if such transients played any role in nanoporation. In this paper, we show that nsEP exposures, equivalent to those used in cellular studies, are capable of generating high-frequency (2.5 MHz), high-intensity (>13 kPa) pressure transients. Using confocal microscopy to measure cell uptake of YO-PRO®-1 (indicator of nanoporation of the plasma membrane) and changing the electrode geometry, we determined that acoustic waves alone are not responsible for poration of the membrane.

  3. Neuroprotection by selective allosteric potentiators of the EP2 prostaglandin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianxiong; Ganesh, Thota; Du, Yuhong; Thepchatri, Pahk; Rojas, Asheebo; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Li, Lian; Qui, Min; Serrano, Geidy; Shaw, Renee; Sun, Aiming; Dingledine, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the Gαs-coupled EP2 receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes cell survival in several models of tissue damage. To advance understanding of EP2 functions, we designed experiments to develop allosteric potentiators of this key prostaglandin receptor. Screens of 292,000 compounds identified 93 that at 20 μM (i) potentiated the cAMP response to a low concentration of PGE2 by > 50%; (ii) had no effect on EP4 or β2 adrenergic receptors, the cAMP assay itself, or the parent cell line; and (iii) increased the potency of PGE2 on EP2 receptors at least 3-fold. In aqueous solution, the active compounds are largely present as nanoparticles that appear to serve as active reservoirs for bioactive monomer. From 94 compounds synthesized or purchased, based on the modification of one hit compound, the most active increased the potency of PGE2 on EP2 receptors 4- to 5-fold at 10 to 20 μM and showed substantial neuroprotection in an excitotoxicity model. These small molecules represent previously undescribed allosteric modulators of a PGE2 receptor. Our results strongly reinforce the notion that activation of EP2 receptors by endogenous PGE2 released in a cell-injury setting is neuroprotective. PMID:20080612

  4. Functional consequences of EpCam mutation in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Mueller, James L; McGeough, Matthew D; Peña, Carla A; Sivagnanam, Mamata

    2014-02-15

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe diarrheal disease of infancy characterized by villous changes and epithelial tufts. We previously identified mutations in epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as the cause of CTE. We developed an in vivo mouse model of CTE based on EpCAM mutations found in patients with the aim to further elucidate the in vivo role of EpCAM and allow for a direct comparison to human CTE. Using Cre-LoxP recombination technology, we generated a construct lacking exon 4 in Epcam. Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice and CTE patient intestinal tissue integrity was analyzed by histology using both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice demonstrate neonatal lethality and growth retardation with pathological features, including epithelial tufts, enterocyte crowding, altered desmosomes, and intercellular gaps, similar to human CTE patients. Mutant EpCAM protein is present at low levels and is mislocalized in the intestine of Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice and CTE patients. Deletion of exon 4 was found to decrease expression of both EpCAM and claudin-7 causing a loss of colocalization, functionally disrupting the EpCAM/claudin-7 complex, a finding for the first time confirmed in CTE patients. Furthermore, compared with unaffected mice, mutation of Epcam leads to enhanced permeability and intestinal cell migration, uncovering underlying disease mechanisms.

  5. Dyson-Schwinger equations - aspects of the pion.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.; Physics

    2001-10-01

    The contemporary use of Dyson-Schwinger equations in hadronic physics is exemplified via applications to the calculation of pseudoscalar meson masses, and inclusive deep inelastic scattering with a determination of the pion's valence-quark distribution function.

  6. Diffractive dijet and W production in CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K.

    1998-06-01

    Results on diffractive dijet and W-boson production from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on factorization of the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA.

  7. TMD Evolution at Moderate Hard Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Ted; Collins, John C.

    2016-01-01

    We summarize some of our recent work on non-perturbative transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, emphasizing aspects that are necessary for dealing with moderately low scale processes like semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  8. Twist-3 spin observables for single-hadron production in DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberg, Leonard P.; Kanazawa, Koichi; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel A.; Prokudin, Alexei; Schlegel, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Recently, three twist-3 spin asymmetries for single-inclusive hadron production in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering have been computed using collinear factorization and the leading order approximation. Here we summarize the main findings of these studies.

  9. Recent results on hadron structure from COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makke, Nour

    2016-05-01

    A review of the most recent measurements of longitudinal and transverse momentum dependent distributions and fragmentation functions accessed in the inclusive and the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering from COMPASS is given.

  10. Conformal symmetry and the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2011-10-15

    Solutions to the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are considered which respect an SO(3) subgroup of the conformal group. The symmetry dictates a specific dependence of the saturation scale on the impact parameter. Applications to deep inelastic scattering are considered.

  11. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  12. Blockade of prostaglandin E2 signaling through EP1 and EP3 receptors attenuates Flt3L-dependent dendritic cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Hoggatt, Jonathan; Hu, Peirong; Speth, Jennifer M.; Fukuda, Seiji; Breyer, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis, like all mature blood cells, is maintained via hierarchal generation from hematopoietic precursors; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing DC generation. Here, we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is required for optimal Flt3 ligand–mediated DC development and regulates expression of the Flt3 receptor on DC-committed progenitor cells. Inhibition of PGE2 biosynthesis reduces Flt3-mediated activation of STAT3 and expression of the antiapoptotic protein survivin, resulting in increased apoptosis of DC-committed progenitor cells. Reduced DC development caused by diminished PGE2 signaling is reversed by overexpression of Flt3 or survivin in DC progenitors and conversely is mimicked by STAT3 inhibition. PGE2 regulation of DC generation is specifically mediated through the EP1 and EP3 G protein PGE2 receptors. These studies define a novel DC progenitor regulatory pathway in which PGE2 signaling through EP1/EP3 receptors regulates Flt3 expression and downstream STAT3 activation and survivin expression, required for optimal DC progenitor survival and DC development in vivo. PMID:22110249

  13. Potent contractile actions of prostanoid EP3-receptor agonists on human isolated pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y M; Jones, R L; Chan, K M; Stock, A I; Ho, J K

    1994-10-01

    1. In 13 of 15 experiments, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and sulprostone (a prostanoid EP1/EP3-receptor agonist) contracted isolated rings of human pulmonary artery at low concentrations (> or = 5 and > or = 0.5 nM respectively). Tissue was obtained from patients undergoing surgery mainly for carcinoma of the lung. Characterization of the receptors involved was complicated by loss of sensitivity to the contractile PGE action over the experimental period. In contrast, contractile responses to KCl, phenylephrine and the specific thromboxane (TP-) receptor agonist, U-46619, did not decrease with time. 2. The relative contractile potencies for seven PGE analogues, measured during the first few hours after setting up the preparations, were as follows: sulprostone > misoprostol = gemeprost > or = PGE2 > or = GR 63799X > 17-phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2 > or = 11-deoxy PGE1. This ranking indicates that an EP3-receptor is involved. 3. The contractile action of sulprostone was not blocked by the TP-receptor antagonists, EP 169 and GR 32191, and the EP1-receptor antagonist, AH 6809. 4. In two experiments, PGE2 (50 nM) reduced basal tone and sulprostone was a weak contractile agent. Phenylephrine-induced tone was also inhibited by PGE2 (EC50 = 5-20 nM), 11-deoxy PGE1 and butaprost (a selective EP2-receptor agonist); the latter prostanoids were about 2 and 4 times less potent than PGE2 respectively. Interactions with phenylephrine were different in experiments where PGE2 alone was contractile: PGE2 induced contraction superimposed on the phenylephrine response and 11-deoxy PGE1 induced either further contraction or had no effect. Butaprost produced relaxation at high concentrations;this may not be an EP2 action since preparations were highly sensitive to relaxant actions of prostacyclin (IP-) receptor agonists (cicaprost and TEI-9063).5 The study has shown that in the majority of experiments on the human isolated pulmonary artery,the contractile EP3 system outweighed the relaxant EP2

  14. Definition of Prostaglandin E2-EP2 Signals in the Colon Tumor Microenvironment That Amplify Inflammation and Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Aoki, Tomohiro; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Narumiya, Shuh

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation in the colon contributes significantly to colorectal cancer development. While aspirin reduces the colorectal cancer risk, its action mechanism, especially in inflammation in tumor microenvironment, still remains obscure. Here, we examined this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each prostaglandin (PG) receptor to colitis-associated cancer model. Deficiency of PGE receptor subtype EP2 selectively reduced, and deficiency of EP1 and EP3 enhanced, the tumor formation. EP2 is expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts in stroma, where it regulates expression of inflammation- and growth-related genes in a self-amplification manner. Notably, expression of cytokines such as TNFα and IL6, a chemokine, CXCL1, a PG-producing enzyme, COX-2, and Wnt5A was significantly elevated in tumor lesions of wild-type mice but this elevation was significantly suppressed in EP2-deficient mice. Intriguingly, EP2 stimulation in cultured neutrophils amplified expression of TNFα, IL6, CXCL1, COX-2, and other proinflammatory genes synergistically with TNFα, and EP2 stimulation in cultured fibroblasts induced expression of EP2 itself, COX-2, IL6, and Wnt genes. EP2 expression in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts was also found in clinical specimen of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Bone marrow transfer experiments suggest that EP2 in both cell populations is critical for tumorigenesis. Finally, administration of a selective EP2 antagonist potently suppressed tumorigenesis in this model. Our study has thus revealed that EP2 in neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts promotes colon tumorigenesis by amplifying inflammation and shaping tumor microenvironment, and suggests that EP2 antagonists are promising candidates of aspirin-alternative for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

  15. Scattering from binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Douglas W.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of sources of scattering in binary optics: etch depth errors, line edge errors, quantization errors, roughness, and the binary approximation to the ideal surface. These sources of scattering can be systematic (deterministic) or random. In this paper, scattering formulas for both systematic and random errors are derived using Fourier optics. These formulas can be used to explain the results of scattering measurements and computer simulations.

  16. Approximations for photoelectron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, V.

    1989-04-01

    The errors of several approximations in the theoretical approach of photoelectron scattering are systematically studied, in tungsten, for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. The large inaccuracies of the plane-wave approximation (PWA) are substantially reduced by means of effective scattering amplitudes in the modified small-scattering-centre approximation (MSSCA). The reduced angular momentum expansion (RAME) is so accurate that it allows reliable calculations of multiple-scattering contributions for all the energies considered.

  17. Modulation of antigen-induced responses by serotonin and prostaglandin E2 via EP1 and EP4 receptors in the peripheral rat lung.

    PubMed

    Larsson-Callerfelt, Anna-Karin; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Kühl, Anna-Rebekka; Lex, Dennis; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2013-01-15

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and prostanoids may critically contribute to the early allergic airway response. In the rat lung, serotonin (5-HT) is a major mediator of antigen-induced contractions. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the relative role of the COX pathway and serotonin for antigen-induced contractions in the rat lung. Airway responses were studied in rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Lung slices were stimulated with ovalbumin or serotonin after pretreatment with COX inhibitors or specific TP or EP receptor antagonists. Changes in airway size (contractions/relaxations) were measured by a digital video camera. The supernatants were analysed for changes in prostaglandin and serotonin release. Airway contractions to ovalbumin were attenuated by the unselective COX inhibitor indomethacin, the selective COX-1 inhibitor FR-122047 and COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The EP(1) receptor antagonist ONO-8713 reduced the contractions, whereas the EP(4) receptor antagonist L-161,982 significantly increased the contractile response to ovalbumin. The 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin completely inhibited the ovalbumin-induced contractions. The different COX inhibitors decreased the production of prostaglandins but did not affect the synthesis of serotonin. The serotonin-induced bronchoconstriction was attenuated by celecoxib and ONO-8713, but not by methacholine. Taken together, our data indicate that PGE(2) is the main prostanoid involved in the early allergic airway response in the rat lung. PGE(2) appears to act both as a primary mediator of antigen-induced airway contraction via the EP(4) receptor and as a downstream modulator of serotonin-induced bronchoconstriction via the EP(1) receptor.

  18. Role of microbial exopolymeric substances (EPS) on chromium sorption and transport in heterogeneous subsurface soils: I. Cr(III) complexation with EPS in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Kantar, C.; Dodge, C.; Demiray, H.; Dogan, N.M.

    2011-01-26

    Chromium (III) binding by exopolymeric substances (EPS) isolated from Pseudomonas putida P18, Pseudomonas aeruginosa P16 and Pseudomonas stutzeri P40 strains were investigated by the determination of conditional stability constants and the concentration of functional groups using the ion-exchange experiments and potentiometric titrations. Spectroscopic (EXAFS) analysis was also used to obtain information on the nature of Cr(III) binding with EPS functional groups. The data from ion-exchange experiments and potentiometric titrations were evaluated using a non-electrostatic discrete ligand approach. The modeling results show that the acid/base properties of EPSs can be best characterized by invoking four different types of acid functional groups with arbitrarily assigned pK{sub a} values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The analysis of ion-exchange data using the discrete ligand approach suggests that while the Cr binding by EPS from P. aeruginosa can be successfully described based on a reaction stoichiometry of 1:2 between Cr(III) and HL{sub 2} monoprotic ligands, the accurate description of Cr binding by EPSs extracted from P. putida and P. stutzeri requires postulation of 1:1 Cr(III)-ligand complexes with HL{sub 2} and HL{sub 3} monoprotic ligands, respectively. These results indicate that the carboxyl and/or phosphoric acid sites contribute to Cr(III) binding by microbial EPS, as also confirmed by EXAFS analysis performed in the current study. Overall, this study highlights the need for incorporation of Cr-EPS interactions into transport and speciation models to more accurately assess microbial Cr(VI) reduction and chromium transport in subsurface systems, including microbial reactive treatment barriers.

  19. Role of Microbial Exopolymeric Substances (EPS) on Chromium Sorption and Transport in Heterogeneous Subsurface Soils: I. Cr(III) Complexation with EPS in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    C Kantar; H Demiray; N Dogan; C Dodge

    2011-12-31

    Chromium (III) binding by exopolymeric substances (EPS) isolated from Pseudomonas putida P18, Pseudomonas aeruginosa P16 and Pseudomonas stutzeri P40 strains were investigated by the determination of conditional stability constants and the concentration of functional groups using the ion-exchange experiments and potentiometric titrations. Spectroscopic (EXAFS) analysis was also used to obtain information on the nature of Cr(III) binding with EPS functional groups. The data from ion-exchange experiments and potentiometric titrations were evaluated using a non-electrostatic discrete ligand approach. The modeling results show that the acid/base properties of EPSs can be best characterized by invoking four different types of acid functional groups with arbitrarily assigned pK{sub a} values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The analysis of ion-exchange data using the discrete ligand approach suggests that while the Cr binding by EPS from P. aeruginosa can be successfully described based on a reaction stoichiometry of 1:2 between Cr(III) and HL{sub 2} monoprotic ligands, the accurate description of Cr binding by EPSs extracted from P. putida and P. stutzeri requires postulation of 1:1 Cr(III)-ligand complexes with HL{sub 2} and HL{sub 3} monoprotic ligands, respectively. These results indicate that the carboxyl and/or phosphoric acid sites contribute to Cr(III) binding by microbial EPS, as also confirmed by EXAFS analysis performed in the current study. Overall, this study highlights the need for incorporation of Cr-EPS interactions into transport and speciation models to more accurately assess microbial Cr(VI) reduction and chromium transport in subsurface systems, including microbial reactive treatment barriers.

  20. Introduction to the study of collisions between heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bayman, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    Current investigations concerning the collisions of nuclei governed by small de Broglie wavelengths are reviewed. The wave packets localize nuclei in regions small compared to their diameters. Cross sections are examined for potential scattering, elastic scattering, quasi-molecular states, peripheral particle-transfer reactions, fusion, and deep inelastic collisions. Theories of fusion and deep inelastic collisions are summarized. This paper is in the nature of a review-tutorial. 45 references, 51 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  1. Measurements of the {Delta}(1232) transition form factor and the ratio {sigma}{sub n}/{sigma}{sub p} from inelastic electron-proton and electron-deuteron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bosted, P.E.; Andivahis, L.; Lung, A.; Arnold, R.G.; Keppel, C.; Rock, S.E.; Spengos, M.; Szalata, Z.; Tao, L.H.; Stuart, L.M.; Gomez, J.; Stuart, L.M.; Dietrich, F.S.; Chang, C.C.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.; Peterson, G.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Dodge, W.R.; Griffioen, K.A.; Petratos, G.G.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Stuart, L.M.; Gearhart, R.; Kuhn, S.E.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Swartz, K.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of inclusive electron-scattering cross sections using hydrogen and deuterium targets in the region of the {Delta}(1232) resonance are reported. A global fit to these new data and previous data in the resonance region is also reported for the proton. Transition form factors have been extracted from the proton cross sections for this experiment over the four-momentum transfer squared range 1.64{lt}Q{sup 2}{lt}6.75 (GeV/c){sup 2} and from previous data over the range 2.41{lt}Q{sup 2}{lt}9.82 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The results confirm previous reports that the {Delta}(1232) transition form factor decreases more rapidly with Q{sup 2} than expected from perturbative QCD. The ratio of {sigma}{sub n}/{sigma}{sub p} in the {Delta}(1232) resonance region has been extracted from the deuteron data for this experiment in the range 1.64{lt}Q{sup 2}{lt}3.75 (GeV/c){sup 2} and for a previous experiment in the range 2.4{lt}Q{sup 2}{lt}7.9 (GeV/c){sup 2}. A study has been made of the model dependence of these results. This ratio {sigma}{sub n}/{sigma}{sub p} for {Delta}(1232) production is slightly less than unity, while {sigma}{sub n}/{sigma}{sub p} for the nonresonant cross sections is approximately 0.5, which is consistent with deep inelastic scattering results. thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  3. EP24.15 as a Potential Regulator of Kisspeptin Within the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Woitowich, Nicole C; Philibert, Keith D; Leitermann, Randy J; Wungjiranirun, Manida; Urban, Janice H; Glucksman, Marc J

    2016-02-01

    The neuropeptide kisspeptin (Kiss1) is integral to the advent of puberty and the generation of cyclical LH surges. Although many complex actions of Kiss1 are known, the mechanisms governing the processing/regulation of this peptide have not been unveiled. The metallo enzyme, endopeptidase 24.15 (thimet oligopeptidase), has been demonstrated to play a key role in the processing and thus the duration of action of the reproductive neuropeptide, GnRH, which signals downstream of Kiss1. Initial in silico modeling implied that Kiss1 could also be a putative substrate for EP24.15. Coincubation of Kiss1 and EP24.15 demonstrated multiple cleavages of the peptide predominantly between Arg29-Gly30 and Ser47-Phe48 (corresponding to Ser5-Phe6 in Kiss-10; Kiss-10 as a substrate had an additional cleavage between Phe6-Gly7) as determined by mass spectrometry. Vmax for the reaction was 2.37±0.09 pmol/min · ng with a Km of 19.68 ± 2.53μM, which is comparable with other known substrates of EP24.15. EP24.15 immunoreactivity, as previously demonstrated, is distributed in cell bodies, nuclei, and processes throughout the hypothalamus. Kiss1 immunoreactivity is localized primarily to cell bodies and fibers within the mediobasal and anteroventral-periventricular hypothalamus. Double-label immunohistochemistry indicated coexpression of EP24.15 and Kiss1, implicating that the regulation of Kiss1 by EP24.15 could occur in vivo. Further studies will be directed at determining the precise temporal sequence of EP24.15 effects on Kiss1 as it relates to the control of reproductive hormone secretion and treatment of fertility issues. PMID:26653570

  4. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) to linear acceleration impulses in rats.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, M; Elidan, J; Mager, M; Sohmer, H

    1997-11-01

    In this study, short latency (t < 12.7 ms) vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) in response to linear acceleration impulses were recorded in 37 rats. A new technique (based on a solenoid) was used for generating linear force impulses that were delivered to the animal's head. The impulse had a maximal peak acceleration of 12 g. During the impulse, the displacement was 50 microns (at 4 g) and the rise time was 1.0 ms. A stimulation rate of 2/s was usually used. The VsEPs (averaged responses to 128 stimulations, digital filter: 300-1500 Hz) were recorded with electrodes on pinna and vertex, and were composed of 4-6 clear waves with mean amplitudes (for a 4 g stimulus) of 1-5 microV. The VsEPs were resistant to white noise masking, and were significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) following bilateral application of a saturated KCl solution to the inner ear, showing that contributions of the auditory and somatosensory systems are negligible. The latency of the response decreased as a power law function of stimulus magnitude, and the amplitude of the first wave increased as a sigmoid function of stimulus magnitude. VsEP responses were still present at the lowest intensities attainable (0.06-0.4 g) and reached saturation at 9 g. The amplitude of the later components was reduced when stimulus rate was elevated to 20/s. These results suggest that VsEPs in response to linear accelerations are similar in their nature to VsEPs in response to angular acceleration impulses that were previously recorded. These VsEPs to linear accelerations are most likely initiated in the otolith organs. PMID:9402894

  5. Scattering in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Musikant, S.

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include internal scattering and surface scattering, environmental effects, and various applications. Papers are presented on scattering in ZnSe laser windows, the far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings, the effects of standard optical shop practices on scattering, and the damage susceptibility of ring laser gyro class optics. Attention is also given to the infrared laser stimulated desorption of pyridine from silver surfaces, to electrically conductive black optical paint, to light scattering from an interface bubble, and to the role of diagnostic testing in identifying and resolving dimensional stability problems in electroplated laser mirrors.

  6. Vector analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconescu, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2004-11-01

    We compute the vector analyzing power (VAP) for the elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons from protons at low energies using an effective theory of electrons, protons, and photons. We study all contributions through second order in E/M, where E and M are the electron energy and nucleon mass, respectively. The leading-order VAP arises from the imaginary part of the interference of one- and two-photon exchange amplitudes. Subleading contributions are generated by the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius as well as recoil corrections to the leading-order amplitude. Working to O(E/M){sup 2}, we obtain a prediction for A{sub n} that is free of unknown parameters and that agrees with the recent measurement of the VAP in backward angle ep scattering.

  7. Vector analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconescu, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.

    2004-11-01

    We compute the vector analyzing power (VAP) for the elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons from protons at low energies using an effective theory of electrons, protons, and photons. We study all contributions through second order in E/M , where E and M are the electron energy and nucleon mass, respectively. The leading-order VAP arises from the imaginary part of the interference of one- and two-photon exchange amplitudes. Subleading contributions are generated by the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius as well as recoil corrections to the leading-order amplitude. Working to O (E/M)2 , we obtain a prediction for An that is free of unknown parameters and that agrees with the recent measurement of the VAP in backward angle ep scattering.

  8. From virtual to clinical: The discovery of PGN-1531, a novel antagonist of the prostanoid EP4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jon; Clark, David E; Higgs, Christopher; de Groot, Marcel J; Harris, Neil V; Taylor, Andrea; Lockey, Peter M; Maubach, Karen; Woodrooffe, Amanda; Davis, Richard J; Coleman, Robert A; Clark, Kenneth L

    2014-05-01

    In this Letter, we present the results of a hit-finding and lead optimization programme against the EP4 receptor (EP4R). In a short time period, we were able to discover five structurally diverse series of hit compounds using a combination of virtual screening methods. The most favoured hit, compound 6, was demonstrated to be a competitive antagonist of the EP4R. Compound 73 was identified following several rounds of optimization, which centred on improving both the primary EP4R affinity and selectivity against the related EP2R as well as the aqueous solubility. This work culminated in the preparation of PGN-1531, the sodium salt of 73, which showed a marked improvement in solubility (>10 mg/mL). PGN-1531 is a potent and selective antagonist at EP4Rs in vitro and in vivo, with the potential to alleviate the symptoms of migraine that result from cerebral vasodilatation.

  9. From virtual to clinical: The discovery of PGN-1531, a novel antagonist of the prostanoid EP4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jon; Clark, David E; Higgs, Christopher; de Groot, Marcel J; Harris, Neil V; Taylor, Andrea; Lockey, Peter M; Maubach, Karen; Woodrooffe, Amanda; Davis, Richard J; Coleman, Robert A; Clark, Kenneth L

    2014-05-01

    In this Letter, we present the results of a hit-finding and lead optimization programme against the EP4 receptor (EP4R). In a short time period, we were able to discover five structurally diverse series of hit compounds using a combination of virtual screening methods. The most favoured hit, compound 6, was demonstrated to be a competitive antagonist of the EP4R. Compound 73 was identified following several rounds of optimization, which centred on improving both the primary EP4R affinity and selectivity against the related EP2R as well as the aqueous solubility. This work culminated in the preparation of PGN-1531, the sodium salt of 73, which showed a marked improvement in solubility (>10 mg/mL). PGN-1531 is a potent and selective antagonist at EP4Rs in vitro and in vivo, with the potential to alleviate the symptoms of migraine that result from cerebral vasodilatation. PMID:24703233

  10. An important role of prostanoid receptor EP2 in host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Singh, Yogesh; Van Kaer, Luc; Peters-Golden, Marc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-12-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, resides and replicates within susceptible hosts by inhibiting host antimicrobial mechanisms. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), produced by M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages, exerts a variety of immunomodulatory functions via 4 receptors (EP1-EP4), each mediating distinct PGE(2) functions. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis infection selectively upregulates EP2 messenger RNA expression in CD4(+) T cells. We found that EP2 deficiency in mice increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection, which correlated with reduced antigen-specific T-cell responses and increased levels of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells. These findings have revealed an important role for EP2 in host immune defense against tuberculosis. As a G protein-coupled receptor, EP2 could serve as a target for immunotherapy of tuberculosis.

  11. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  12. Relativity versus exchange currents in 16O(e ,e'p )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grineviciute, J.; Halderson, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Background: The 16O(e ,e'p ) reaction in the quasielastic region has been studied in several experiments to determine spectroscopic factors, hence, the degree to which 16O looks like a closed shell. By varying the kinematics, experimentalists are able to extract response functions which comprise the cross section. However, analysis of the response functions separately produces very different spectroscopic factors. Two calculations led to different conclusions as to whether exchange currents can eliminate the discrepancies. Neither calculation considered relativistic corrections. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to investigate the disagreement as to whether exchange currents are the solution to obtaining consistent spectroscopic factors and to show that relativistic corrections have a much greater influence on providing this consistency. Methods: This calculation employs the recoil corrected continuum shell model, a model that uses a realistic interaction and produces nonspurious scattering states that are solutions to the coupled-channel problems. Pionic and pair contributions to the exchange currents were calculated as developed by Dubach et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 271, 279 (1976), 10.1016/0375-9474(76)90246-3]. Relativistic effects are included by use of the direct Pauli reduction. Results: Contributions of the exchange currents are shown to be insufficient to provide consistent spectroscopic factors. However, the inclusion of relativistic corrections produces spectroscopic factors from the different responses and cross sections which are very similar for both the p1 /2 and the p3 /2 states and both the (|q |,ω )=(460 MeV /c ,100 MeV ) and (|q |,ω )=(570 MeV /c ,172 MeV ) data. The influence of channel coupling is also shown to be significant. Tests of current conservation show that inclusion of the direct Pauli reduction produces small increases in its violation. Conclusions: Results are model dependent. Meson-exchange current contributions are not sufficient

  13. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral PrEP

  14. Review of two-photon exchange in electron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    J. Arrington, P. G. Blunden, W. Melnitchouk

    2011-10-01

    We review the role of two-photon exchange (TPE) in electron-hadron scattering, focusing in particular on hadronic frameworks suitable for describing the low and moderate Q^2 region relevant to most experimental studies. We discuss the effects of TPE on the extraction of nucleon form factors and their role in the resolution of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio puzzle. The implications of TPE on various other observables, including neutron form factors, electroproduction of resonances and pions, and nuclear form factors, are summarized. Measurements seeking to directly identify TPE effects, such as through the angular dependence of polarization measurements, nonlinear epsilon contributions to the cross sections, and via e+p to e-p cross section ratios, are also outlined. In the weak sector, we describe the role of TPE and gamma-Z interference in parity-violating electron scattering, and assess their impact on the extraction of the strange form factors of the nucleon and the weak charge of the proton.

  15. Expression of epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) in chronic (necro-)inflammatory liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Breuhahn, Kai; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Peters, Malte; Prang, Nadja; Töx, Ulrich; Köhne-Volland, Rudolph; Dries, Volker; Schirmacher, Peter; Leo, Eugen

    2006-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) is expressed in a several epithelial tissues and carcinomas, but not on mature hepatocytes. Here, we analysed the expression of Ep-CAM in 230 patients suffering from various liver diseases like chronic hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV infection), chronic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), hereditary hemochromatosis and dysplastic nodules (DNs) as well as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and cholangiocellular carcinomas (CCCs) by immunohistochemistry. De novo hepatocellular Ep-CAM expression was found in 75.9% of ALD (22/29), 63.6% of HCV (21/33) and 55.6% of each AIH and HBV cases (5/9 and 15/27, respectively). Lower Ep-CAM expression levels were observed for primary sclerosing liver diseases (PBC and PSC) with 25% (3/12) and 7.7% (1/13) of cases. Moreover, only 14.3% of HCCs (9/63) manifested expression, while all CCCs showed strong Ep-CAM expression (5/5). For DNs and hereditary hemochromatosis, Ep-CAM expression was found in 10 and 50% (3/30 and 2/4), respectively. In HBV and HCV, Ep-CAM expression correlated significantly with inflammatory activity as assessed by histological parameters and to the extent of fibrosis. In addition, for HCV also transaminase levels correlated significantly with Ep-CAM expression. Our results indicate that de novo Ep-CAM expression in hepatocytes is frequent in inflammatory liver diseases and is potentially linked to regenerative activity. CCCs and Ep-CAM positive HCCs may represent an attractive target group for Ep-CAM-directed immunotherapies, yet unwanted toxicity may limit the use of such strategies due to Ep-CAM expression in biliary epithelium and several chronic liver diseases such as HBV-and HCV-hepatitis.

  16. Prostaglandin EP4 receptor enhances BCR-induced apoptosis of immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Prijatelj, Matevz; Celhar, Teja; Mlinaric-Rascan, Irena

    2011-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is emerging as an important co-modulator of B cell responses. Using a pharmacological approach, we aimed to delineate the role of PGE2 in B cell receptor (BCR) induced apoptosis of immature B cells. Gene and protein expression analyses showed that, of the four PGE2 receptors subtypes, only EP4 receptor is upregulated upon BCR cross-linking, leading to sensitization of WEHI 231 cells towards PGE2 mediated inhibitory effects. EP4 receptor antagonist ONO-AE3-208, was able to completely revert the observed effects of PGE2. The engagement of EP4 receptor promotes BCR-induced G0/G1 arrest of WEHI 231 cells, resulting in enhanced caspase mediated, BCR-induced apoptosis. We addressed, mechanistically, the interplay between BCR and EP4 receptor signaling components. Prostaglandin1-alcohol (Pge1-OH), a selective EP4 receptor agonist inhibits BCR-induced activation of NF-κB by suppression of BCR-induced IκBα phosphorylation. Disruption of prosurvival pathways is a possible mechanism by which PGE2 enhances BCR-induced apoptosis in immature B lymphocytes.

  17. Evaluation of 'GLAMEPS'—a proposed multimodel EPS for short range forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iversen, Trond; Deckmyn, Alex; Santos, Carlos; Sattler, Kai; Bremnes, John Bjørnar; Feddersen, Henrik; Frogner, Inger-Lise

    2011-05-01

    Grand Limited Area Model Ensemble Prediction System (GLAMEPS) is prepared for pan-European, short-range probabilistic numerical weather prediction of fine synoptic-scale, quasi-hydrostatic atmospheric flows. Four equally sized ensembles are combined: EuroTEPS, a version of the global ECMWF EPS with European target; AladEPS, a downscaling of EuroTEPS using the ALADIN model; HirEPS_K and HirEPS_S, two ensembles using the HIRLAM model nested into EuroTEPS including 3DVar data-assimilation for two control forecasts. A 52-member GLAMEPS thus samples forecast uncertainty by three analysed initial states combined with 12 singular vector-based perturbations, four different models and the stochastic physics tendencies in EuroTEPS. Over a 7-week test period in winter 2008, GLAMEPS produced better results than ECMWF's EPS with 51 ensemble members. Apart from spatial resolution, the improvement is due to the multimodel combination and to a smaller extent the dedicated EuroTEPS. Ensemble resolution and reliability are both improved. Combining uncalibrated ensembles is seen to produce a better combined ensemble than the best single-model ensemble of the same size, except when one of the single-model ensembles is considerably better than the others. Bayesian Model Averaging improves reliability, but needs further elaboration to account for geographical variations. These conclusions need to be confirmed by long-period evaluations.

  18. A CDC42EP4/septin-based perisynaptic glial scaffold facilitates glutamate clearance.

    PubMed

    Ageta-Ishihara, Natsumi; Yamazaki, Maya; Konno, Kohtarou; Nakayama, Hisako; Abe, Manabu; Hashimoto, Kenji; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kohichi; Huda, Fathul; Hirai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Kinoshita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase-effector proteins CDC42EP1-5/BORG1-5 interact reciprocally with CDC42 or the septin cytoskeleton. Here we show that, in the cerebellum, CDC42EP4 is exclusively expressed in Bergmann glia and localizes beneath specific membrane domains enwrapping dendritic spines of Purkinje cells. CDC42EP4 forms complexes with septin hetero-oligomers, which interact with a subset of glutamate transporter GLAST/EAAT1. In Cdc42ep4(-/-) mice, GLAST is dissociated from septins and is delocalized away from the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. The excitatory postsynaptic current exhibits a protracted decay time constant, reduced sensitivity to a competitive inhibitor of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors (γDGG) and excessive baseline inward current in response to a subthreshold dose of a nonselective inhibitor of the glutamate transporters/EAAT1-5 (DL-TBOA). Insufficient glutamate-buffering/clearance capacity in these mice manifests as motor coordination/learning defects, which are aggravated with subthreshold DL-TBOA. We propose that the CDC42EP4/septin-based glial scaffold facilitates perisynaptic localization of GLAST and optimizes the efficiency of glutamate-buffering and clearance. PMID:26657011

  19. BeEP Server: using evolutionary information for quality assessment of protein structure models

    PubMed Central

    Palopoli, Nicolas; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Parisi, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The BeEP Server (http://www.embnet.qb.fcen.uba.ar/embnet/beep.php) is an online resource aimed to help in the endgame of protein structure prediction. It is able to rank submitted structural models of a protein through an explicit use of evolutionary information, a criterion differing from structural or energetic considerations commonly used in other assessment programs. The idea behind BeEP (Best Evolutionary Pattern) is to benefit from the substitution pattern derived from structural constraints present in a set of homologous proteins adopting a given protein conformation. The BeEP method uses a model of protein evolution that takes into account the structure of a protein to build site-specific substitution matrices. The suitability of these substitution matrices is assessed through maximum likelihood calculations from which position-specific and global scores can be derived. These scores estimate how well the structural constraints derived from each structural model are represented in a sequence alignment of homologous proteins. Our assessment on a subset of proteins from the Critical Assessment of techniques for protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment has shown that BeEP is capable of discriminating the models and selecting one or more native-like structures. Moreover, BeEP is not explicitly parameterized to find structural similarities between models and given targets, potentially helping to explore the conformational ensemble of the native state. PMID:23729471

  20. IL-6 Overexpression in ERG-Positive Prostate Cancer Is Mediated by Prostaglandin Receptor EP2.

    PubMed

    Merz, Constanze; von Mässenhausen, Anne; Queisser, Angela; Vogel, Wenzel; Andrén, Ove; Kirfel, Jutta; Duensing, Stefan; Perner, Sven; Nowak, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in men and multiple risk factors and genetic alterations have been described. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion event and the overexpression of the transcription factor ERG are present in approximately 50% of all prostate cancer patients, however, the clinical outcome is still controversial. Prostate tumors produce various soluble factors, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, regulating cellular processes such as proliferation and metastatic segregation. Here, we used prostatectomy samples in a tissue microarray format and analyzed the co-expression and the clinicopathologic data of ERG and IL-6 using immunohistochemical double staining and correlated the read-out with clinicopathologic data. Expression of ERG and IL-6 correlated strongly in prostate tissue samples. Forced expression of ERG in prostate tumor cell lines resulted in significantly increased secretion of IL-6, whereas the down-regulation of ERG decreased IL-6 secretion. By dissecting the underlying mechanism in prostate tumor cell lines we show the ERG-mediated up-regulation of the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP3. The prostanoid receptor EP2 was overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissue. Furthermore, the proliferation rate and IL-6 secretion in DU145 cells was reduced after treatment with EP2-receptor antagonist. Collectively, our study shows that the expression of ERG in prostate cancer is linked to the expression of IL-6 mediated by the prostanoid receptor EP2.