Science.gov

Sample records for defective insulin secretion

  1. Insulin secretion and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: which defect is primary?

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M

    1984-01-01

    Defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action exist in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The loss of the acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose is seen in patients with relatively mild degrees of fasting hyperglycemia, but patients with severe fasting hyperglycemia also demonstrate absolute hypoinsulinemia in response to an oral glucose challenge. In contrast, day-long circulating insulin levels are within normal limits even in severely hyperglycemic patients with NIDDM. The relationship between NIDDM and insulin action in NIDDM is less complex, and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. This metabolic defect is independent of obesity, and the severity of the resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increases with magnitude of hyperglycemia. Control of hyperglycemia with exogenous insulin ameliorates the degree of insulin resistance, and reduction of insulin resistance with weight loss in obese patients with NIDDM leads to an enhanced insulin response. Since neither therapeutic intervention is capable of restoring all metabolic abnormalities to normal, these observations do not tell us which of these two defects is primarily responsible for the development of NIDDM. Similarly, the observation that most patients with impaired glucose tolerance are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant does not prove that insulin resistance is the primary defect in NIDDM. In conclusion, reduction in both insulin secretion and action is seen in patients with NIDDM, and the relationship between these two metabolic abnormalities is very complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Heterogeneous Contribution of Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Defects to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E.; Allard, Catherine; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Bouchard, Luigi; Ecker, Jeffrey L.; Perron, Patrice; Florez, Jose C.; Thadhani, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize physiologic subtypes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin sensitivity and secretion were estimated in 809 women at 24–30 weeks' gestation, using oral glucose tolerance test–based indices. In women with GDM (8.3%), defects in insulin sensitivity or secretion were defined below the 25th percentile in women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). GDM subtypes were defined based on the defect(s) present. RESULTS Relative to women with NGT, women with predominant insulin sensitivity defects (51% of GDM) had higher BMI and fasting glucose, larger infants (birth weight z score 0.57 [−0.01 to 1.37] vs. 0.03 [−0.53 to 0.52], P = 0.001), and greater risk of GDM-associated adverse outcomes (57.6 vs. 28.2%, P = 0.003); differences were independent of BMI. Women with predominant insulin secretion defects (30% of GDM) had BMI, fasting glucose, infant birth weights, and risk of adverse outcomes similar to those in women with NGT. CONCLUSIONS Heterogeneity of physiologic processes underlying hyperglycemia exists among women with GDM. GDM with impaired insulin sensitivity confers a greater risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27208340

  3. Defective insulin secretion in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pontoglio, M; Sreenan, S; Roe, M; Pugh, W; Ostrega, D; Doyen, A; Pick, A J; Baldwin, A; Velho, G; Froguel, P; Levisetti, M; Bonner-Weir, S; Bell, G I; Yaniv, M; Polonsky, K S

    1998-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1alpha cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 3, a form of diabetes that results from defects in insulin secretion. Since the nature of these defects has not been defined, we compared insulin secretory function in heterozygous [HNF-1alpha (+/-)] or homozygous [HNF-1alpha (-/-)] mice with null mutations in the HNF-1alpha gene with their wild-type littermates [HNF-1alpha (+/+)]. Blood glucose concentrations were similar in HNF-1alpha (+/+) and (+/-) mice (7.8+/-0.2 and 7.9+/-0.3 mM), but were significantly higher in the HNF-1alpha (-/-) mice (13.1+/-0.7 mM, P < 0.001). Insulin secretory responses to glucose and arginine in the perfused pancreas and perifused islets from HNF-1alpha (-/-) mice were < 15% of the values in the other two groups and were associated with similar reductions in intracellular Ca2+ responses. These defects were not due to a decrease in glucokinase or insulin gene transcription. beta cell mass adjusted for body weight was not reduced in the (-/-) animals, although pancreatic insulin content adjusted for pancreas weight was slightly lower (0.06+/-0.01 vs. 0.10+/-0.01 microg/mg, P < 0.01) than in the (+/+) animals. In summary, a null mutation in the HNF-1alpha gene in homozygous mice leads to diabetes due to alterations in the pathways that regulate beta cell responses to secretagogues including glucose and arginine. These results provide further evidence in support of a key role for HNF-1alpha in the maintenance of normal beta cell function. PMID:9593777

  4. [Prostaglandins, insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Torella, R; Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J; D'Onofrio, F

    1988-12-01

    The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly PGE2, reduce the insulin response to glucose whereas lipo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly 15-HPETE, stimulate insulin secretion. So, for instance, drugs that increase prostaglandins synthesis as colchicine or furosemide inhibit insulin secretion while non steroid anti-inflammator drugs, mainly salicylates, which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, enhance the insulin response to various stimuli. In type-2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes, an increased sensitivity to endogenous prostaglandins has been proposed as a possible cause for the insulin secretion defect which characterizes this disease. Play in favor of this hypothesis the fact that the administration of PGE inhibits the insulin response to arginine in type-2 diabetics but not in normal subject and the fact that the administration of salicylates could improve the insulin response to glucose in some of these patients.

  5. Synapses of Amphids Defective (SAD-A) Kinase Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion through Activation of p21-activated Kinase (PAK1) in Pancreatic β-Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jia; Sun, Chao; Faruque, Omar; Ye, Guangming; Li, Jia; Liang, Qiangrong; Chang, Zhijie; Yang, Wannian; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases. PAK1 is activated by the onset of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through phosphorylation of Thr-423, a major activation site by Cdc42 and Rac1. However, the kinase(s) that phosphorylates PAK1 at Thr-423 in islet β-cells remains elusive. The present studies identified SAD-A (synapses of amphids defective), a member of AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases exclusively expressed in brain and pancreas, as a key regulator of GSIS through activation of PAK1. We show that SAD-A directly binds to PAK1 through its kinase domain. The interaction is mediated by the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and requires both kinases in an active conformation. The binding leads to direct phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr-423 by SAD-A, triggering the onset of GSIS from islet β-cells. Consequently, ablation of PAK1 kinase activity or depletion of PAK1 expression completely abolishes the potentiating effect of SAD-A on GSIS. Consistent with its role in regulating GSIS, overexpression of SAD-A in MIN6 islet β-cells significantly stimulated cytoskeletal remodeling, which is required for insulin exocytosis. Together, the present studies identified a critical role of SAD-A in the activation of PAK1 during the onset of insulin exocytosis. PMID:22669945

  6. Synapses of amphids defective (SAD-A) kinase promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) in pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia; Sun, Chao; Faruque, Omar; Ye, Guangming; Li, Jia; Liang, Qiangrong; Chang, Zhijie; Yang, Wannian; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-07-27

    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases. PAK1 is activated by the onset of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through phosphorylation of Thr-423, a major activation site by Cdc42 and Rac1. However, the kinase(s) that phosphorylates PAK1 at Thr-423 in islet β-cells remains elusive. The present studies identified SAD-A (synapses of amphids defective), a member of AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases exclusively expressed in brain and pancreas, as a key regulator of GSIS through activation of PAK1. We show that SAD-A directly binds to PAK1 through its kinase domain. The interaction is mediated by the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and requires both kinases in an active conformation. The binding leads to direct phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr-423 by SAD-A, triggering the onset of GSIS from islet β-cells. Consequently, ablation of PAK1 kinase activity or depletion of PAK1 expression completely abolishes the potentiating effect of SAD-A on GSIS. Consistent with its role in regulating GSIS, overexpression of SAD-A in MIN6 islet β-cells significantly stimulated cytoskeletal remodeling, which is required for insulin exocytosis. Together, the present studies identified a critical role of SAD-A in the activation of PAK1 during the onset of insulin exocytosis.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  8. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  9. Insulin and Glucagon Secretion In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-duration space flight is associated with many physiological abnormalities in astronauts. In particular, altered regulation of the hormones insulin and glucagon may contribute to metabolic disturbances such as increased blood sugar levels, which if persistently elevated result in toxic effects. These changes are also observed in the highly prevalent disease diabetes, which affects 16 million Americans and consumes over $100 billion in annual healthcare costs. By mimicking the microgravity environment of space in the research laboratory using a NASA-developed bioreactor, one can study the physiology of insulin and glucagon secretion and determine if there are alterations in these cellular processes. The original specific objectives of the project included: (1) growing ('cell culture') of pancreatic islet beta and alpha cells that secrete insulin and glucagon respectively, in the NASA bioreactor; (2) examination of the effects of microgravity on insulin and glucagon secretion; and (3) study of molecular mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion if altered by microgravity.

  10. Characteristics of repaglinide effects on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Harumi; Hidaka, Shihomi; Seki, Chihiro; Yokoi, Norihide; Seino, Susumu

    2018-06-05

    The dynamics of insulin secretion stimulated by repaglinide, a glinide, and the combinatorial effects of repaglinide and incretin were investigated. At 4.4 mM glucose, repaglinide induced insulin secretion with a gradually increasing first phase, showing different dynamics from that induced by glimepiride, a sulfonylurea. In the presence of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin secretion by repaglinide was augmented significantly but to lesser extent and showed different dynamics from that by glimepiride. At 4.4 mM glucose, the intracellular Ca 2+ level was gradually increased by repaglinide alone or repaglinide plus GLP-1, which differs from the Ca 2+ dynamics by glimepiride alone or glimepiride plus GLP-1, suggesting that the difference in Ca 2+ dynamics contributes to the difference in the dynamics of insulin secretion. At a higher concentration (8.8 mM) of glucose, the dynamics of insulin secretion stimulated by repaglinide was similar to that by glimepiride. Combination of repaglinide and GLP-1 significantly augmented insulin secretion, the amount of which was comparable to that by the combination of glimepiride and GLP-1. The Ca 2+ dynamics was similar for repaglinide and glimepiride at 8.8 mM glucose. Our data indicate that repaglinide has characteristic properties in its effects on the dynamics of insulin secretion and intracellular Ca 2+ and that the combination of repaglinide and GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion more effectively than the combination of glimepiride and GLP-1 at a high concentration of glucose, providing a basis for its use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  12. Insulin secretion at high altitude in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, R. C.; Malhotra, A. S.; Singh, T.; Rai, R. M.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of hypoxia on circulatory levels of insulin, its response to oral glucose administration (100 g) and changes in circadian rhythms of glucose as well as insulin were evaluated in euglycemic males at sea level (SL, 220 m) during their stay at high altitude (3500 m, SJ) and in high altitude natives (HAN). Basal glucose levels were not altered at high altitude but the rise in glucose (δ glucose) after glucose load was significantly higher in SJ and HAN (p<0.01) as compared to SL values. An increase (p<0.01) both in basal as well as glucose induced rise in insulin secretioninsulin) was observed at HA. The rise in insulin in SJ was significantly higher (p<0.01) than in HAN. This elevation in glucose and insulin levels was also evident at different times of the day. The circadian rhythmicity of glucose as well as insulin was altered by the altitude stress. The findings of the study show a rise in insulin level at HA but the hyperglycemia in the face of hyper-insulinism require the presumption of a simultaneous and dispropotionate rise of insulin antagonistic hormones upsetting the effect of insulin on glucose metabolism.

  13. Urea impairs β cell glycolysis and insulin secretion in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Koppe, Laetitia; Nyam, Elsa; Vivot, Kevin; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Nguyen, Bich N.; Attané, Camille; Moullé, Valentine S.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Ghislain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are associated with increased mortality, but the mechanisms of impaired insulin secretion in this disease remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that defective insulin secretion in CKD is caused by a direct effect of urea on pancreatic β cells. In a murine model in which CKD is induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD mice), we observed defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and in isolated islets. Similarly, insulin secretion was impaired in normal mouse and human islets that were cultured with disease-relevant concentrations of urea and in islets from normal mice treated orally with urea for 3 weeks. In CKD mouse islets as well as urea-exposed normal islets, we observed an increase in oxidative stress and protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was also observed in pancreatic sections from CKD patients. Impairment of insulin secretion in both CKD mouse and urea-exposed islets was associated with reduced glucose utilization and activity of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1), which could be reversed by inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation also restored insulin secretion in both mouse models. These results suggest that insulin secretory defects associated with CKD arise from elevated circulating levels of urea that increase islet protein O-GlcNAcylation and impair glycolysis. PMID:27525435

  14. Fenofibrate Decreases Insulin Clearance and Insulin Secretion to Maintain Insulin Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Russo, Lucia; Ghanem, Simona S.; Patel, Payal R.; Oyarce, Ana Maria; Heinrich, Garrett; Najjar, Sonia M.

    2016-01-01

    High fat diet reduces the expression of CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1), a transmembrane glycoprotein that promotes insulin clearance and down-regulates fatty acid synthase activity in the liver upon its phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transcriptionally suppresses CEACAM1 expression, we herein examined whether high fat down-regulates CEACAM1 expression in a PPARα-dependent mechanism. By activating PPARα, the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate reverses dyslipidemia and improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes in part by promoting fatty acid oxidation. Despite reducing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, fenofibrate treatment does not result in insulin insufficiency. To examine whether this is mediated by a parallel decrease in CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways, we fed wild-type and Pparα−/− null mice a high fat diet supplemented with either fenofibrate or Wy14643, a selective PPARα agonist, and examined their effect on insulin metabolism and action. We demonstrated that the decrease in insulin secretion by fenofibrate and Wy14643 is accompanied by reduction in insulin clearance in wild-type but not Pparα−/− mice, thereby maintaining normoinsulinemia and insulin sensitivity despite continuous high fat intake. Intact insulin secretion in L-CC1 mice with protected hepatic insulin clearance and CEACAM1 levels provides in vivo evidence that insulin secretion responds to changes in insulin clearance to maintain physiologic insulin and glucose homeostasis. These results also emphasize the relevant role of hepatic insulin extraction in regulating insulin sensitivity. PMID:27662905

  15. Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Arora, G P; Almgren, P; Thaman, R G; Pal, A; Groop, L; Vaag, A; Prasad, R B; Brøns, C

    2017-10-01

    The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999) and adapted WHO 2013 (GDM2013) criteria, excluding the 1-h glucose value, in a high-risk Indian population from Punjab. Insulin secretion (HOMA2-B) and insulin action (HOMA2-IR) were assessed in 4665 Indian women with or without gestational diabetes defined by the GDM1999 or adapted GDM2013 criteria. Gestational diabetes defined using both criteria was associated with decreased insulin secretion compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes defined by the adapted GDM2013, but not GDM1999 criteria, were more insulin resistant than pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, and furthermore displayed lower insulin secretion than GDM1999 women. Urban habitat, illiteracy, high age and low BMI were independently associated with reduced insulin secretion, whereas Sikh religion, increasing age and BMI, as well as a family history of diabetes were independently associated with increased insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes risk factors influence insulin secretion and action in North Indian women in a differential manner. Gestational diabetes classified using the adapted GDM2013 compared with GDM1999 criteria is associated with more severe impairments of insulin secretion and action. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  16. Important role of heparan sulfate in postnatal islet growth and insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Iwao; Noguchi, Naoya; Nata, Koji

    2009-05-22

    Heparan sulfate (HS) binds with several signaling molecules and regulates ligand-receptor interactions, playing an essential role in embryonic development. Here we showed that HS was intensively expressed in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells after 1 week of age in mice. The enzymatic removal of HS in isolated islets resulted in attenuated glucose-induced insulin secretion with a concomitant reduction in gene expression of several key components in the insulin secretion machinery. We further depleted islet HS by inactivating the exostosin tumor-like 3 gene specifically in {beta}-cells. These mice exhibited abnormal islet morphology with reduced {beta}-cell proliferation after 1 week of age and glucosemore » intolerance due to defective insulin secretion. These results demonstrate that islet HS is involved in the regulation of postnatal islet maturation and required to ensure normal insulin secretion.« less

  17. Sirt1 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Repressing UCP2 in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bordone, Laura; Jhala, Ulupi S; Apfeld, Javier; McDonagh, Thomas; Lemieux, Madeleine; McBurney, Michael; Szilvasi, Akos; Easlon, Erin J; Lin, Su-Ju; Guarente, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Sir2 and insulin/IGF-1 are the major pathways that impinge upon aging in lower organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans a possible genetic link between Sir2 and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway has been reported. Here we investigate such a link in mammals. We show that Sirt1 positively regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Sirt1 represses the uncoupling protein (UCP) gene UCP2 by binding directly to the UCP2 promoter. In β cell lines in which Sirt1 is reduced by SiRNA, UCP2 levels are elevated and insulin secretion is blunted. The up-regulation of UCP2 is associated with a failure of cells to increase ATP levels after glucose stimulation. Knockdown of UCP2 restores the ability to secrete insulin in cells with reduced Sirt1, showing that UCP2 causes the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Food deprivation induces UCP2 in mouse pancreas, which may occur via a reduction in NAD (a derivative of niacin) levels in the pancreas and down-regulation of Sirt1. Sirt1 knockout mice display constitutively high UCP2 expression. Our findings show that Sirt1 regulates UCP2 in β cells to affect insulin secretion. PMID:16366736

  18. Role of the Transcription Factor Sox4 in Insulin Secretion and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Goldsworthy, Michelle; Hugill, Alison; Freeman, Helen; Horner, Emma; Shimomura, Kenju; Bogani, Debora; Pieles, Guido; Mijat, Vesna; Arkell, Ruth; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Cox, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES— To identify, map, clone, and functionally validate a novel mouse model for impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Haploinsufficiency of the insulin receptor and associated mild insulin resistance has been used to sensitize an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen to identify novel mutations resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. The new impaired glucose tolerance 4 (IGT4) model was selected using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and inheritance of the phenotype confirmed by generation of backcross progeny. Segregation of the phenotype was correlated with genotype information to map the location of the gene and candidates sequenced for mutations. The function of the SRY-related high mobility group (HMG)-box 4 (Sox4) gene in insulin secretion was tested using another ENU allele and by small interfering RNA silencing in insulinoma cells. RESULTS— We describe two allelic autosomal dominant mutations in the highly conserved HMG box of the transcription factor Sox4. Previously associated with pancreas development, Sox4 mutations in the adult mouse result in an insulin secretory defect, which exhibits impaired glucose tolerance in association with insulin receptor+/−–induced insulin resistance. Elimination of the Sox4 transcript in INS1 and Min6 cells resulted in the abolition of glucose-stimulated insulin release similar to that observed for silencing of the key metabolic enzyme glucokinase. Intracellular calcium measurements in treated cells indicate that this defect lies downstream of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) and calcium influx. CONCLUSIONS— IGT4 represents a novel digenic model of insulin resistance coupled with an insulin secretory defect. The Sox4 gene has a role in insulin secretion in the adult β-cell downstream of the KATP channel. PMID:18477811

  19. Impaired Insulin Secretion and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Cholecystokinin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chun-Min; Obici, Silvana; Dong, H. Henry; Haas, Michael; Lou, Dawnwen; Kim, Dae Hyun; Liu, Min; D’Alessio, David; Woods, Stephen C.; Tso, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in response to lipid intake and stimulates insulin secretion. We hypothesized that CCK deficiency would alter the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to determine body composition and studied plasma glucose and insulin secretion of CCK gene knockout (CCK-KO) mice and their wild-type controls using intraperitoneal glucose and arginine infusions. The area of anti-insulin staining in pancreatic islets was measured by immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with euglycemic-hyperinsulemic clamps. RESULTS CCK-KO mice fed a low-fat diet had a reduced acute insulin response to glucose but a normal response to arginine and normal glucose tolerance, associated with a trend toward greater insulin sensitivity. However, when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks, CCK-KO mice developed glucose intolerance despite increased insulin sensitivity that was associated with low insulin secretion in response to both glucose and arginine. The deficiency of insulin secretion in CCK-KO mice was not associated with changes in β-cell or islet size. CONCLUSIONS CCK is involved in regulating insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in mice eating an HFD. The impaired insulin response to intraperitoneal stimuli that do not typically elicit CCK release suggests that this hormone has chronic effects on β-cell adaptation to diet in addition to acute incretin actions. PMID:21602512

  20. Fetal adaptations in insulin secretion result from high catecholamines during placental insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR. We propose that sustained high catecholamine concentrations observed in the IUGR fetus produce developmental adaptations in pancreatic β-cells that impair fetal insulin secretion. Experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis shows that chronic elevation in circulating catecholamines in IUGR fetuses persistently inhibits insulin concentrations and secretion. Elevated catecholamines also allow for maintenance of a normal fetal basal metabolic rate despite low fetal insulin and glucose concentrations while suppressing fetal growth. Importantly, a compensatory augmentation in insulin secretion occurs following inhibition or cessation of catecholamine signalling in IUGR fetuses. This finding has been replicated in normally grown sheep fetuses following a 7-day noradrenaline (norepinephrine) infusion. Together, these programmed effects will potentially create an imbalance between insulin secretion and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the neonate which probably explains the transient hyperinsulinism and hypoglycaemia in some IUGR infants. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  1. Effect of tadalafil administration on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in obese men.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Hernández-Corona, Diana M; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Alejandra M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of tadalafil administration on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in obese men without diabetes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in obese male patients between 30 and 50 years of age. Eighteen subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of nine patients each. During a 28-day period, subjects received 5 mg orally of tadalafil or placebo each night. Patients were evaluated before and after the intervention. Total insulin secretion and first phase of insulin secretion were calculated by insulinogenic index and Stumvoll index, respectively, and insulin sensitivity was calculated using the Matsuda index. Tolerability and compliance were evaluated permanently throughout the study. There were no significant differences after administration of tadalafil in total insulin secretion (0.82 ± 0.45 vs. 0.61 ± 0.27, p = 0.594), first phase of insulin secretion (1332 ± 487 vs. 1602 ± 800, p = 0.779) and insulin sensitivity (4.6 ± 1.2 vs. 4.9 ± 2.5, p = 0.779). No significant differences were shown in other measurements. Tadalafil administration for 28 days did not modify insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity in obese men.

  2. Evaluation of insulin secretion and action in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Firshman, Anna M; Cebra, Christopher K; Schanbacher, Barbara J; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    To measure and compare insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy alpacas and llamas via glucose clamping techniques. 8 llamas and 8 alpacas. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping (HEC) and hyperglycemic clamping (HGC) were performed on each camelid in a crossover design with a minimum 48-hour washout period between clamping procedures. The HEC technique was performed to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin was infused IV at 6 mU/min/kg for 4 hours, and an IV infusion of glucose was adjusted to maintain blood glucose concentration at 150 mg/dL. Concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. The HGC technique was performed to assess insulin secretion in response to exogenous glucose infusion. An IV infusion of glucose was administered to maintain blood glucose concentration at 320 mg/dL for 3 hours, and concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. Alpacas and llamas were not significantly different with respect to whole-body insulin sensitivity during HEC or in pancreatic β-cell response during HGC. Alpacas and llamas had markedly lower insulin sensitivity during HEC and markedly lower pancreatic β-cell response during HGC, in comparison with many other species. New World camelids had lower glucose-induced insulin secretion and marked insulin resistance in comparison with other species. This likely contributes to the disorders of fat and glucose metabolism that are common to camelids.

  3. Neurotrophin Signaling Is Required for Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Houtz, Jessica; Borden, Philip; Ceasrine, Alexis; Minichiello, Liliana; Kuruvilla, Rejji

    2016-11-07

    Insulin secretion by pancreatic islet β cells is critical for glucose homeostasis, and a blunted β cell secretory response is an early deficit in type 2 diabetes. Here, we uncover a regulatory mechanism by which glucose recruits vascular-derived neurotrophins to control insulin secretion. Nerve growth factor (NGF), a classical trophic factor for nerve cells, is expressed in pancreatic vasculature while its TrkA receptor is localized to islet β cells. High glucose rapidly enhances NGF secretion and increases TrkA phosphorylation in mouse and human islets. Tissue-specific deletion of NGF or TrkA, or acute disruption of TrkA signaling, impairs glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in mice. We show that internalized TrkA receptors promote insulin granule exocytosis via F-actin reorganization. Furthermore, NGF treatment augments glucose-induced insulin secretion in human islets. These findings reveal a non-neuronal role for neurotrophins and identify a new regulatory pathway in insulin secretion that can be targeted to ameliorate β cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Flavonoids on Mechanism of Modulation of Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana Mikaelly Dias; Pereira Leal, Ana Ediléia Barbosa; Silva, Juliane Cabral; Almeida, Jackson R G S; de Oliveira, Helinando Pequeno

    2017-01-01

    The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells. Twelve articles were included and represent the basis of discussion on mechanisms of insulin secretion of flavonoids. Papers in ISI Web of Knowledge were in number of 1, Scopus 44, PubMed 264, ScienceDirect 511, and no papers from LILACS and SciELO databases. According to the literature, the majority of flavonoid subclasses can modulate insulin secretion through several pathways, in an indication that corresponding molecule is a potential candidate for active materials to be applied in the treatment of diabetes. The action of natural products on insulin secretion represents an important investigation topic due to their importance in the diabetes controlIn addition to their typical antioxidant properties, flavonoids contribute to the insulin secretionThe modulation of insulin secretion is induced by flavonoids according to different mechanisms. Abbreviations used: K ATP channels: ATP-sensitive K + channels, GLUT4: Glucose transporter 4, ERK1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, L-VDCCs: L-type voltage-dependent Ca +2 channels, GLUT1: Glucose transporter 1, AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, PTP1B: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, GLUT2: Glucose transporter 2, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, PKA: Protein kinase A, PTK: Protein tyrosine kinase, CaMK II: Ca 2+ /calmodulin

  5. Restitution of defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in diabetic GK rat by acetylcholine uncovers paradoxical stimulatory effect of beta-cell muscarinic receptor activation on cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Manuel; Bailbé, Danielle; Giroix, Marie-Hélène; Calderari, Sophie; Gangnerau, Marie-Noelle; Serradas, Patricia; Rickenbach, Katharina; Irminger, Jean-Claude; Portha, Bernard

    2005-11-01

    Because acetylcholine (ACh) is a recognized potentiator of glucose-stimulated insulin release in the normal beta-cell, we have studied ACh's effect on islets of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes. We first verified that ACh was able to restore the insulin secretory glucose competence of the GK beta-cell. Then, we demonstrated that in GK islets 1) ACh elicited a first-phase insulin release at low glucose, whereas it had no effect in Wistar; 2) total phospholipase C activity, ACh-induced inositol phosphate production, and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation were normal; 3) ACh triggered insulin release, even in the presence of thapsigargin, which induced a reduction of the ACh-induced [Ca2+]i response (suggesting that ACh produces amplification signals that augment the efficacy of elevated [Ca2+]i on GK exocytosis); 4) inhibition of protein kinase C did not affect [Ca2+]i nor the insulin release responses to ACh; and 5) inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs), adenylyl cyclases, or cAMP generation, while not affecting the [Ca2+]i response, significantly lowered the insulinotropic response to ACh (at low and high glucose). In conclusion, ACh acts mainly through activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway to potently enhance Ca2+-stimulated insulin release in the GK beta-cell and, in doing so, normalizes its defective glucose responsiveness.

  6. Functional Role of Serotonin in Insulin Secretion in a Diet-Induced Insulin-Resistant State

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuho; Oh, Chang-Myung; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Park, Sangkyu; Namkung, Jun; Yadav, Vijay K.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Roe, Michael W.; Philipson, Louis H.; Karsenty, Gerard; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), in pancreatic β-cell function was previously elucidated using a pregnant mouse model. During pregnancy, 5-HT increases β-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through the Gαq-coupled 5-HT2b receptor (Htr2b) and the 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3), a ligand-gated cation channel, respectively. However, the role of 5-HT in β-cell function in an insulin-resistant state has yet to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of β-cell-specific Htr2b−/− (Htr2b βKO), Htr3a−/− (Htr3a knock-out [KO]), and β-cell-specific tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1)−/− (Tph1 βKO) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Htr2b βKO, Htr3a KO, and Tph1 βKO mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance on a standard chow diet. After 6 weeks on an HFD, beginning at 4 weeks of age, both Htr3a KO and Tph1 βKO mice developed glucose intolerance, but Htr2b βKO mice remained normoglycemic. Pancreas perfusion assays revealed defective first-phase insulin secretion in Htr3a KO mice. GSIS was impaired in islets isolated from HFD-fed Htr3a KO and Tph1 βKO mice, and 5-HT treatment improved insulin secretion from Tph1 βKO islets but not from Htr3a KO islets. Tph1 and Htr3a gene expression in pancreatic islets was not affected by an HFD, and immunostaining could not detect 5-HT in pancreatic islets from mice fed an HFD. Taken together, these results demonstrate that basal 5-HT levels in β-cells play a role in GSIS through Htr3, which becomes more evident in a diet-induced insulin-resistant state. PMID:25426873

  7. Pulsatile insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Satin, Leslie S.; Butler, Peter C.; Ha, Joon; Sherman, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results when increases in beta cell function and/or mass cannot compensate for rising insulin resistance. Numerous studies have documented the longitudinal changes in metabolism that occur during the development of glucose intolerance and lead to T2DM. However, the role of changes in insulin secretion, both amount and temporal pattern has been understudied. Most of the insulin secreted from pancreatic beta cells of the pancreas is released in a pulsatile pattern, which is disrupted in T2DM. Here we review the evidence that changes in beta cell pulsatility occur during the progression from glucose intolerance to T2DM in humans, and contribute significantly to the etiology of the disease. We review the evidence that insulin pulsatility improves the efficacy of secreted insulin on its targets, particularly hepatic glucose production, but also examine evidence that pulsatility alters or is altered by changes in peripheral glucose uptake. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for oscillatory insulin secretion. Understanding how insulin pulsatility contributes to normal glucose homeostasis and is altered in metabolic disease states may help improve the treatment of T2DM. PMID:25637831

  8. Basal measures of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion and simplified glucose tolerance tests in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M

    2010-10-01

    There is need for simple, inexpensive measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in dogs. The aim of this study was to estimate the closeness of correlation between fasting and dynamic measures of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, the precision of fasting measures, and the agreement between results of standard and simplified glucose tolerance tests in dogs. A retrospective descriptive study using 6 naturally occurring obese and 6 lean dogs was conducted. Data from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGTTs) in 6 obese and 6 lean client-owned dogs were used to calculate HOMA, QUICKI, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Fasting measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion were compared with MINMOD analysis of FSIGTTs using Pearson correlation coefficients, and they were evaluated for precision by the discriminant ratio. Simplified sampling protocols were compared with standard FSIGTTs using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients, limits of agreement, and Pearson correlation coefficients. All fasting measures except fasting plasma glucose concentration were moderately correlated with MINMOD-estimated insulin sensitivity (|r| = 0.62-0.80; P < 0.03), and those that combined fasting insulin and glucose were moderately closely correlated with MINMOD-estimated insulin secretion (r = 0.60-0.79; P < 0.04). HOMA calculated using the nonlinear formulae had the closest estimated correlation (r = 0.77 and 0.74) and the best discrimination for insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion (discriminant ratio 4.4 and 3.4, respectively). Simplified sampling protocols with half as many samples collected over 3 h had close agreement with the full sampling protocol. Fasting measures and simplified intravenous glucose tolerance tests reflect insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion derived from frequently sampled glucose tolerance tests with MINMOD analysis in dogs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Insulin sensitivity and secretion in Arab Americans with glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Salinitri, Francine D; Pinelli, Nicole R; Martin, Emily T; Jaber, Linda A

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the pathophysiological abnormalities in Arab Americans with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of insulin secretion (HOMA-%β), and the Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index composite (ISIcomposite) were calculated from the fasting and stimulated glucose and insulin concentrations measured during the oral glucose tolerance test in a population-based, representative, cross-sectional sample of randomly selected Arab Americans. In total, 497 individuals (42±14 years old; 40% males; body mass index [BMI], 29±6 kg/m(2)) were studied. Multivariate linear regression models were performed to compare HOMA-IR, HOMA-%β, and ISIcomposite among individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=191) versus isolated IFG (n=136), isolated IGT (n=22), combined IFG/IGT (n=43), and diabetes (n=105). Compared with individuals with NGT (2.9±1.6), HOMA-IR progressively increased in individuals with isolated IFG (4.8±2.7, P<0.001), combined IFG/IGT (6.0±4.3, P<0.001), and diabetes (9.7±8.3, P<0.001) but not in those with isolated IGT (3.0±1.7, P=0.87). After adjustment for sex and BMI, these associations remained unchanged. Whole-body insulin sensitivity as measured by ISIcomposite was significantly lower in individuals with isolated IFG (3.9±2.3, P<0.001), isolated IGT (2.8±1.5, P<0.001), combined IFG/IGT (1.9±1.1, P<0.001), and diabetes (1.6±1.1, P<0.001) compared with those with NGT (6.1±3.5). HOMA-%β was significantly lower in diabetes (113.7±124.9, P<0.001) compared with NGT (161.3±92.0). After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, isolated IFG (146.6±80.2) was also significantly associated with a decline in HOMA-%β relative to NGT (P=0.005). This study suggests that differences in the underlying metabolic defects leading to diabetes in Arab Americans with IFG and/or IGT exist and may require different strategies for the

  10. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyun; Baik, Sei Hyun; Kim, Tae Sun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-Teak; Kim, Young Seol; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index β-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p < 0.001 for all). Among the GIGT subjects, the 1-hour plasma glucose abnormal levels group showed significantly greater weight gain during pregnancy and higher values in the 50-g OGCT than the other two groups. Moreover, the 1-hour and 2-hour abnormal levels groups had poorer insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  11. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyun; Baik, Sei Hyun; Kim, Tae Sun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-Teak; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). Results The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index β-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p < 0.001 for all). Among the GIGT subjects, the 1-hour plasma glucose abnormal levels group showed significantly greater weight gain during pregnancy and higher values in the 50-g OGCT than the other two groups. Moreover, the 1-hour and 2-hour abnormal levels groups had poorer insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. Conclusions Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:23682224

  12. Insulin secretion and GLUT-2 expression in undernourished neonate rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes Da Costa, Célia; Sampaio De Freitas, Marta; Sanchez Moura, Anibal

    2004-04-01

    In previous studies, we verified increased insulin sensitivity in adult male offspring of lactating rats readjusting to lack of insulin secretion reduction brought about by protein restriction during lactation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of maternal protein undernutrition during lactation on glucose-induced insulin secretion and GLUT-2 expression in beta-cells of neonate male and female rats. Lactating Wistar rats were given a protein-free diet during the first 10 days and a normal diet (22% of protein) until weaning. The neonates were separated at birth by sex and diet and studied at 4, 8 and 21 days of lactation. Glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets was analyzed by radioimmunoassay and GLUT-2 expression in beta-cells by Western blot. Glucose-induced insulin secretion of the undernourished groups was higher than in the control groups except among females. When comparing the male and female groups and the control and undernourished groups, female neonates showed significantly greater insulin secretion than the male group. Also it was noted that undernutrition induced greater GLUT-2 expression. For instance, comparing the undernourished male and female neonates there was an increase in female GLUT-2 expression on day 4. On the other hand, in undernourished male neonates a GLUT-2 expression increased later in lactation. In conclusion, during a short term, maternal undernutrition induces an increase of the glucose-induced insulin secretion only in male neonates and is associated with an increase in GLUT-2 expression in the beta-cell.

  13. Modulation of insulin secretion by fatty acyl analogs.

    PubMed

    Las, Guy; Mayorek, Nina; Dickstein, Kobie; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2006-12-01

    The secretagogue, the incretin-like, and the suppressive activities of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in modulating insulin secretion in vivo and in cultured islets were simulated here by beta,beta'-tetramethyl-hexadecanedioic acid (M16) and alpha,alpha'-tetrachloro-tetradecanedioic acid (Cl-DICA). M16, but not Cl-DICA, serves as a substrate for ATP-dependent CoA thioesterification but is not further metabolized. M16, but not Cl-DICA, acted as a potent insulin secretagogue in islets cultured in basal but not high glucose. Short-term exposure to M16 or Cl-DICA resulted in activation of glucose- but not arginine-stimulated insulin secretion. Long-term exposure to M16, but not to Cl-DICA, resulted in suppression of glucose-, arginine-, and K(+)-stimulated insulin secretion; inhibition of glucose-induced proinsulin biosynthesis; and depletion of islets insulin. beta-Cell mass and islet ATP content remained unaffected. Hence, nonmetabolizable LCFA analogs may highlight discrete LCFA metabolites and pathways involved in modulating insulin secretion, which could be overlooked due to the rapid turnover of natural LCFA.

  14. Advanced glycation end products impair glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Park, Kyung Hwa; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are derivative compounds generated from non-enzymatic glycosylation and oxidation. In comparison with glucose-derived AGEs (Glu-AGEs), glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs) have stronger toxicity to living systems. In this study, we compared the effects of Glu-AGE and Glycer-AGE on insulin secretion. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated by collagenase digestion and primary-cultured in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 0.1 mg/ml Glu-AGE or Glycer-AGE-albumin. After 48 h of culture, we performed an insulin secretion test and identified the defects by a battery of rescue experiments [corrected]. Also, mRNA expression of genes associated with insulin secretion was measured. Insulin secretion induced by a high glucose concentration was 164.1 ± 6.0, 124.4 ± 4.4 (P < 0.05) and 119.8 ± 7.1 (P < 0.05) μU/3 islets/h in the presence of BSA, Glu-AGE, and Glycer-AGE, respectively. Inhibition of insulin secretion by Glu-AGE or Glycer-AGE was rescued by a high extracellular potassium concentration, tolbutamide and α-ketoisocaproic acid, but not by glyceraldehyde, dihydroxacetone, methylpyruvate, glucagon-like peptide-1 and acetylcholine. Glu-AGE or Glycer-AGE reduced the expression of the malate dehydrogenase (Mdh1/2) gene, which plays a critical role in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle. Despite its reported cytotoxicity, the effects of Glycer-AGE on insulin secretion are similar to those of Glu-AGE. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  15. α-Synuclein binds the KATP channel at insulin-secretory granules and inhibits insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xuehui; Lou, Haiyan; Wang, Jian; Li, Lehong; Swanson, Alexandra L.; Sun, Ming; Beers-Stolz, Donna; Watkins, Simon; Perez, Ruth G.

    2011-01-01

    α-Synuclein has been studied in numerous cell types often associated with secretory processes. In pancreatic β-cells, α-synuclein might therefore play a similar role by interacting with organelles involved in insulin secretion. We tested for α-synuclein localizing to insulin-secretory granules and characterized its role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent sulfonylureas were used to test for α-synuclein localization to insulin granules in β-cells, immunoprecipitation with Western blot analysis for interaction between α-synuclein and KATP channels, and ELISA assays for the effect of altering α-synuclein expression up or down on insulin secretion in INS1 cells or mouse islets, respectively. Differences in cellular phenotype between α-synuclein knockout and wild-type β-cells were found by using confocal microscopy to image the fluorescent insulin biosensor Ins-C-emGFP and by using transmission electron microscopy. The results show that anti-α-synuclein antibodies labeled secretory organelles within β-cells. Anti-α-synuclein antibodies colocalized with KATP channel, anti-insulin, and anti-C-peptide antibodies. α-Synuclein coimmunoprecipitated in complexes with KATP channels. Expression of α-synuclein downregulated insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose with little effect following 16.7 mM glucose stimulation. α-Synuclein knockout islets upregulated insulin secretion at 2.8 and 8.4 mM but not 16.7 mM glucose, consistent with the depleted insulin granule density at the β-cell surface membranes observed in these islets. These findings demonstrate that α-synuclein interacts with KATP channels and insulin-secretory granules and functionally acts as a brake on secretion that glucose stimulation can override. α-Synuclein might play similar roles in diabetes as it does in other degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:20858756

  16. Dissecting the relationship between obesity and hyperinsulinemia: Role of insulin secretion and insulin clearance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Reaven, Gerald M; Kim, Sun H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to better delineate the complex interrelationship among insulin resistance (IR), secretion rate (ISR), and clearance rate (ICR) to increase plasma insulin concentrations in obesity. Healthy volunteers (92 nondiabetic individuals) had an insulin suppression test to measure IR and graded-glucose infusion test to measure ISR and ICR. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 , and IR was defined as steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) ≥10 mmol/L during the insulin suppression test. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, ISR, and ICR were compared in three groups: insulin sensitive/overweight; insulin sensitive/obesity; and insulin resistant/obesity. Compared with the insulin-sensitive/overweight group, the insulin-sensitive/obesity had significantly higher insulin area under the curve (AUC) and ISR AUC during the graded-glucose infusion test (P < 0.001). Glucose AUC and ICR were similar. The insulin-resistant/obesity group had higher insulin AUC and ISR AUC compared with the insulin-sensitive/obesity but also had higher glucose AUC and decreased ICR (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, both BMI and SSPG were significantly associated with ISR. Plasma insulin concentration and ISR are increased in individuals with obesity, irrespective of degree of IR, but a decrease in ICR is confined to the subset of individuals with IR. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Microtubules negatively regulate insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Hu, Ruiying; Brissova, Marcela; Stein, Roland W.; Powers, Alvin C.; Gu, Guoqiang; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Summary For glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) insulin granules have to be localized close to the plasma membrane. The role of microtubule-dependent transport in granule positioning and GSIS has been debated. Here, we report that microtubules, counterintuitively, restrict granule availability for secretion. In β cells, microtubules originate at the Golgi and form a dense non-radial meshwork. Non-directional transport along these microtubules limits granule dwelling at the cell periphery, restricting granule availability for secretion. High glucose destabilizes microtubules, decreasing their density; such local microtubule depolymerization is necessary for GSIS, likely because granule withdrawal from the cell periphery becomes inefficient. Consistently, microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole blocks granule withdrawal, increases their concentration at exocytic sites, and dramatically enhances GSIS in vitro and in mice. Furthermore, glucose-driven MT destabilization is balanced by new microtubule formation, which likely prevents over-secretion. Importantly, microtubule density is greater in dysfunctional β cells of diabetic mice. PMID:26418295

  18. Minireview: Dopaminergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion from the Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous dopamine inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, but the lack of dopaminergic neurons in pancreatic islets has led to controversy regarding the importance of this effect. Recent data, however, suggest a plausible physiologic role for dopamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. We review the literature underlying our current understanding of dopaminergic signaling that can down-regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. In this negative feedback loop, dopamine is synthesized in the β-cells from circulating l-dopa, serves as an autocrine signal that is cosecreted with insulin, and causes a tonic inhibition on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. On the whole animal scale, l-dopa is produced by cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and its concentration in the blood plasma increases following a mixed meal. By reviewing the outcome of certain types of bariatric surgery that result in rapid amelioration of glucose tolerance, we hypothesize that dopamine serves as an “antiincretin” signal that counterbalances the stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1. PMID:23744894

  19. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  20. Psoriasis and insulin secretion. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Jucci, A; Vignini, M; Pelfini, C; Criffŏ, A; Fratino, P

    1977-01-31

    We have studied psoriatic subjects with normal weight and with overweight without inherited diabetic familiarity. The results seem to indicate the existence in psoriasis of an endogenous insulin-resistence. In this prospective the hypothesis that psoriasis carries a diabetogen risk is suggested.

  1. Exocyst sec5 regulates exocytosis of newcomer insulin granules underlying biphasic insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Zhu, Dan; Kang, Youhou; Liang, Tao; He, Yu; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst complex subunit Sec5 is a downstream effector of RalA-GTPase which promotes RalA-exocyst interactions and exocyst assembly, serving to tether secretory granules to docking sites on the plasma membrane. We recently reported that RalA regulates biphasic insulin secretion in pancreatic islet β cells in part by tethering insulin secretory granules to Ca(2+) channels to assist excitosome assembly. Here, we assessed β cell exocytosis by patch clamp membrane capacitance measurement and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to investigate the role of Sec5 in regulating insulin secretion. Sec5 is present in human and rodent islet β cells, localized to insulin granules. Sec5 protein depletion in rat INS-1 cells inhibited depolarization-induced release of primed insulin granules from both readily-releasable pool and mobilization from the reserve pool. This reduction in insulin exocytosis was attributed mainly to reduction in recruitment and exocytosis of newcomer insulin granules that undergo minimal docking time at the plasma membrane, but which encompassed a larger portion of biphasic glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Sec5 protein knockdown had little effect on predocked granules, unless vigorously stimulated by KCl depolarization. Taken together, newcomer insulin granules in β cells are more sensitive than predocked granules to Sec5 regulation.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of insulin secretion granules

    PubMed Central

    Coore, H. G.; Hellman, B.; Pihl, E.; Täljedal, I.-B.

    1969-01-01

    β-Granules were prepared from micro-dissected pancreatic islets of obese–hyperglycaemic mice. This fraction contained 60% of the insulin, 30% of the cytochrome oxidase, 16% of the acid phosphatase activity and 20% of the protein present in whole islets. The isolated granules retained a heavy metal during fractionation. Optimum conditions for granule stability were low ionic strength and pH6, the granules being unexpectedly fragile at pH7·4. The stability of the granules was unaffected by sucrose in the concentration range 50–320mm, but 1% (w/v) sodium deoxycholate released all insulin. A solubilizing effect was also noted with ATP and citrate. Spinning through 1·6m-sucrose yielded a further purification in relation to mitochondria and acid-phosphatase-carrying particles but virtually no purification in relation to protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the major contaminants were rough-surfaced vesicles and membranes. A separation of granules from acid phosphatase was achieved by phase distribution in polyethylene glycol and dextran. The location of the enzyme to the interphase was so pronounced in systems buffered with lithium phosphate that the technique may be used for future purification of acid-phosphatase-carrying particles from the β-cells. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4887194

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I interactions with insulin secretion and production.

    PubMed

    Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J; Cochran, Blake J

    2016-02-01

    Human population studies have established that an elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is associated with a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In addition to having several potentially cardioprotective functions, HDLs and apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, the main HDL apolipoprotein, also have antidiabetic properties. Interventions that elevate plasma HDL-C and apoA-I levels improve glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus by enhancing pancreatic β-cell function and increasing insulin sensitivity. This review is concerned with recent advances in understanding the mechanisms by which HDLs and apoA-I improve pancreatic β-cell function. HDLs and apoA-I increase insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic β cells. The underlying mechanism of this effect is similar to what has been reported for intestinally derived incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, which both increase β-cell insulin secretion under high glucose conditions. This involves the activation of a heterotrimeric G protein Gαs subunit on the β-cell surface that leads to induction of a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase, increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and Ca levels, and activation of protein kinase A. Protein kinase A increases insulin synthesis by excluding FoxO1 from the β-cell nucleus and derepressing transcription of the insulin gene.

  4. [Changes in the secretion of somatotropin and insulin in hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Cavagnini, F; Peracchi, M; Panerai, A E; Pinto, M

    1975-06-01

    Twenty hyperthyroid patients were investigated for growth hormone (GH) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) secretion in response to insulin hypoglycaemia, arginine infusion and glucose-induced hyperglycaemia. GH response to either insulin hypoglycaemia or arginine infusion was significantly reduced in these patients compared with 20 normal subjects. Thyrotoxic patients also displayed an abnormal GH pattern after a 100 g oral glucose load: in fact, serum GH underwent a paradoxical increase in spite of abnormally high levels attained by blood glucose. IRI secretion was also clearly reduced in response to arginine infusion and moderately blunted after oral glucose. In a group of patients re-evaluated under euthyroid conditions, a fair increase of GH response to the provocative stimuli jointly with the restoration of a normal suppressibility of serum GH by glucose were noted; by contrast, no significant change of IRI response to arginine or glucose took place. Likewise, the impairment of glucose tolerance was not improved. These findings indicate that an impairment of GH and IRI secretion is present in hyperthyroidism. The possibility that a potentiation of the catecholamine effects caused by the thyroid hormones is involved in this alteration deserves consideration.

  5. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-08-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a medicinal plant whose consumption has demonstrated benefits on lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight (BWt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of G. sylvestre administration on metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients (without pharmacological treatment), 30-60 years old, with diagnosis of MetS in accordance with the modified International Diabetes Federation criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive G. sylvestre or placebo twice daily before breakfast and dinner in 300 mg capsules for a total of 600 mg per day for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, the components of MetS were evaluated as well as BWt, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Area under the curve of glucose and insulin, phases of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests; P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. After G. sylvestre administration, significant decreases in BWt (81.3 ± 10.6 kg vs. 77.9 ± 8.4 kg, P = .02), BMI (31.2 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 vs. 30.4 ± 2.2 kg/m 2 , P = .02), and VLDL levels (0.45 ± 0.15 mmol/dL vs. 0.35 ± 0.15 mmol/dL, P = .05) were observed, without modifying the components of MetS, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, G. sylvestre administration decreased BWt, BMI, and VLDL levels in subjects with MetS, without changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.

  6. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  7. Insulin and growth hormone secretion in the nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, J F; Summerskill, J; Buckler, J M; Hellman, B; Rosen, S M

    1975-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a series of patients with the nephrotic syndrome and compared with a similar number of normal controls. The nephrotic syndrome was associated with a smaller secretion of insulin in response to intravenous glucose and tolbutamide than occurred in normals. In the syndrom fasting serum growth hormone (G.H.) concentrations were increased and did not show the characteristic suppression after glucose administration, and the disappearance rate of glucose (k value) was lower. well marked correlation existed between serum G.H. concentrations and the total urinary protein excreted. These abnormal findings returned to normal in a patient who underwent a repeat study when the nephrotic syndrome had resolved.

  8. Studies on the mechanism of salicylate-induced increase of insulin secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Ceriello, A; Cerciello, T; Varano, R; Saccomanno, F; Torella, R

    1988-01-01

    Salicylate compounds are known to increase basal and stimulated insulin secretion in man. In our studies, infusion of lysine acetylsalicylate (72 mg/min) increased basal insulin levels and amplified insulin responses to glucose (5 g i.v.), arginine (5 g i.v.) and tolbutamide (1 g i.v.). Verapamil, an organic calcium antagonist, did not modify LAS-induced increase of basal insulin levels, but reduced the effect of LAS on glucose-induced insulin secretion. Calcitonin and somatostatin, two agents that inhibit basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inhibited the insulin response to glucose in presence of LAS infusion. The ability of salicylate compounds to augment insulin secretion might be due to multiple sites of action in the Beta-cells.

  9. Closing in on the Mechanisms of Pulsatile Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Richard; Satin, Leslie S; Sherman, Arthur S

    2018-03-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells occurs in a pulsatile fashion, with a typical period of ∼5 min. The basis of this pulsatility in mouse islets has been investigated for more than four decades, and the various theories have been described as either qualitative or mathematical models. In many cases the models differ in their mechanisms for rhythmogenesis, as well as other less important details. In this Perspective, we describe two main classes of models: those in which oscillations in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration drive oscillations in metabolism, and those in which intrinsic metabolic oscillations drive oscillations in Ca 2+ concentration and electrical activity. We then discuss nine canonical experimental findings that provide key insights into the mechanism of islet oscillations and list the models that can account for each finding. Finally, we describe a new model that integrates features from multiple earlier models and is thus called the Integrated Oscillator Model. In this model, intracellular Ca 2+ acts on the glycolytic pathway in the generation of oscillations, and it is thus a hybrid of the two main classes of models. It alone among models proposed to date can explain all nine key experimental findings, and it serves as a good starting point for future studies of pulsatile insulin secretion from human islets. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Optical Control of Insulin Secretion Using an Incretin Switch.

    PubMed

    Broichhagen, Johannes; Podewin, Tom; Meyer-Berg, Helena; von Ohlen, Yorrick; Johnston, Natalie R; Jones, Ben J; Bloom, Stephen R; Rutter, Guy A; Hoffmann-Röder, Anja; Hodson, David J; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-12-14

    Incretin mimetics are set to become a mainstay of type 2 diabetes treatment. By acting on the pancreas and brain, they potentiate insulin secretion and induce weight loss to preserve normoglycemia. Despite this, incretin therapy has been associated with off-target effects, including nausea and gastrointestinal disturbance. A novel photoswitchable incretin mimetic based upon the specific glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist liraglutide was designed, synthesized, and tested. This peptidic compound, termed LirAzo, possesses an azobenzene photoresponsive element, affording isomer-biased GLP-1R signaling as a result of differential activation of second messenger pathways in response to light. While the trans isomer primarily engages calcium influx, the cis isomer favors cAMP generation. LirAzo thus allows optical control of insulin secretion and cell survival. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Profiling Synaptic Proteins Identifies Regulators of Insulin Secretion and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2008-01-01

    Cells are organized into distinct compartments to perform specific tasks with spatial precision. In neurons, presynaptic specializations are biochemically complex subcellular structures dedicated to neurotransmitter secretion. Activity-dependent changes in the abundance of presynaptic proteins are thought to endow synapses with different functional states; however, relatively little is known about the rules that govern changes in the composition of presynaptic terminals. We describe a genetic strategy to systematically analyze protein localization at Caenorhabditis elegans presynaptic specializations. Nine presynaptic proteins were GFP-tagged, allowing visualization of multiple presynaptic structures. Changes in the distribution and abundance of these proteins were quantified in 25 mutants that alter different aspects of neurotransmission. Global analysis of these data identified novel relationships between particular presynaptic components and provides a new method to compare gene functions by identifying shared protein localization phenotypes. Using this strategy, we identified several genes that regulate secretion of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and influence lifespan in a manner dependent on insulin/IGF signaling. PMID:19043554

  12. Insulin resistance, secretion and breakdown are increased 9 months following severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Melanie G.; Fram, Ricki Y.; Barr, David; Chinkes, David; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance in the acute burn period has been well described, however, it is unknown if alterations in glucose metabolism persist beyond discharge from the acute injury. To measure the duration of insulin resistance following recovery from the acute burn injury, we performed a prospective cross-sectional study with a standard two hour oral glucose tolerance test in 46 severely burned children at 6, 9 or 12 months following initial injury. Glucose uptake and insulin secretion were assessed following the glucose load. Results were compared to those previously published in healthy children. At 6 months post-burn, the 2 hour glucose concentration was significantly (P<0.001) greater than controls, and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was significantly higher compared to 12 months and to healthy children (P=0.027 and P<0.001, respectively). The 9 month AUC glucose was higher than controls (P<0.01). The 6 month 2 hour insulin in was significantly higher than controls, as was the AUC of insulin in all time points post-burn. The AUC of C-peptide was significantly greater at 6 months post-injury compared to 9 and 12 months (P<0.01 for both). Increased 2 hour and AUC glucose and insulin indicate that glucose metabolism is still altered at 6 and 9 months post-injury, and coincides with previously documented defects in bone and muscle metabolism at these time points. Insulin breakdown is also still increased in this population. Further study of this population is warranted to determine if specific treatment is needed. PMID:18672331

  13. Quantitative visualization of synchronized insulin secretion from 3D-cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Kanamori, Takao; Inouye, Satoshi

    Quantitative visualization of synchronized insulin secretion was performed in an isolated rat pancreatic islet and a spheroid of rat pancreatic beta cell line using a method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging. Video-rate images of insulin secretion from 3D-cultured cells were obtained by expressing the fusion protein of insulin and Gaussia luciferase (Insulin-GLase). A subclonal rat INS-1E cell line stably expressing Insulin-GLase, named iGL, was established and a cluster of iGL cells showed oscillatory insulin secretion that was completely synchronized in response to high glucose. Furthermore, we demonstrated the effect of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, on synchronized insulin secretion from 2D- andmore » 3D-cultured iGL cells. The amount of secreted Insulin-GLase from iGL cells was also determined by a luminometer. Thus, our bioluminescence imaging method could generally be used for investigating protein secretion from living 3D-cultured cells. In addition, iGL cell line would be valuable for evaluating antidiabetic drugs. - Highlights: • An imaging method for protein secretion from 3D-cultured cells was established. • The fused protein of insulin to GLase, Insulin-GLase, was used as a reporter. • Synchronous insulin secretion was visualized in rat islets and spheroidal beta cells. • A rat beta cell line stably expressing Insulin-GLase, named iGL, was established. • Effect of an antidiabetic drug on insulin secretion was visualized in iGL cells.« less

  14. Role of the glucose-sensing receptor in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Itaru; Medina, Johan; Nakagawa, Yuko

    2017-09-01

    Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion. It has been thought that glucose exerts its effect by a mechanism solely dependent on glucose metabolism. We show here that glucose induces rapid Ca 2+ and cyclic AMP signals in β-cells. These rapid signals are independent of glucose-metabolism and are reproduced by non-metabolizable glucose analogues. These results led us to postulate that glucose activates a cell-surface receptor, namely the glucose-sensing receptor. Rapid signals induced by glucose are blocked by inhibition of a sweet taste receptor subunit T1R3 and a calcium-sensing receptor subunit CaSR. In accordance with these observations, T1R3 and CaSR form a heterodimer. In addition, a heterodimer of T1R3 and CaSR is activated by glucose. These results suggest that a heterodimer of T1R3 and CaSR is a major component of the glucose-sensing receptor. When the glucose-sensing receptor is blocked, glucose-induced insulin secretion is inhibited. Also, ATP production is significantly attenuated by the inhibition of the receptor. Conversely, stimulation of the glucose-sensing receptor by either artificial sweeteners or non-metabolizable glucose analogue increases ATP. Hence, the glucose-sensing receptor signals promote glucose metabolism. Collectively, glucose activates the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and promotes its own metabolism. Glucose then enters the cells and is metabolized through already activated metabolic pathways. The glucose-sensing receptor is a key molecule regulating the action of glucose in β-cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Autocrine effect of Zn²⁺ on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Daniels, Nigel A; Guo, Aili; Li, Yang V

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for the process of insulin biosynthesis and the maturation of insulin secretory granules in pancreatic beta (β)-cells, and that changes in Zn(2+) levels in the pancreas have been found to be associated with diabetes. Glucose-stimulation causes a rapid co-secretion of Zn(2+) and insulin with similar kinetics. However, we do not know whether Zn(2+) regulates insulin availability and secretion. Here we investigated the effect of Zn(2+) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Whereas Zn(2+) alone (control) had no effect on the basal secretion of insulin, it significantly inhibited GSIS. The application of CaEDTA, by removing the secreted Zn(2+) from the extracellular milieu of the islets, resulted in significantly increased GSIS, suggesting an overall inhibitory role of secreted Zn(2+) on GSIS. The inhibitory action of Zn(2+) was mostly mediated through the activities of KATP/Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, during brief paired-pulse glucose-stimulated Zn(2+) secretion (GSZS), Zn(2+) secretion following the second pulse was significantly attenuated, probably by the secreted endogenous Zn(2+) after the first pulse. Such an inhibition on Zn(2+) secretion following the second pulse was completely reversed by Zn(2+) chelation, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism, in which the initial glucose-stimulated Zn(2+) release inhibits subsequent Zn(2+) secretion, subsequently inhibiting insulin co-secretion as well. Taken together, these data suggest a negative feedback mechanism on GSZS and GSIS by Zn(2+) secreted from β-cells, and the co-secreted Zn(2+) may act as an autocrine inhibitory modulator.

  16. Desnutrin/ATGL Activates PPARδ to Promote Mitochondrial Function for Insulin Secretion in Islet β cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tianyi; Abbott, Marcia J.; Ahmadian, Maryam; Lopes, Andressa B.; Wang, Yuhui; Sul, Hei Sook

    2013-01-01

    Excessive caloric intake leading to obesity is associated with insulin resistance and dysfuntion of islet β cells. High fat feeding decreases desnutrin (also called ATGL/PNPLA2) levels in islets. Here we show that desnutrin ablation via RIP-Cre (βKO) or RIP-CreER results in hyperglycemia with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Due to decreased lipolysis, islets have higher TAG content but lower free FA levels. βKO islets exhibit impaired mitochondrial respiration and lower production of ATP required for GSIS, along with decreased expression of PPARδ target genes involved in mitochondrial oxidation. Furthermore, synthetic PPARδ, but not PPARα, agonist restores GSIS and expression of mitochondrial oxidative genes in βKO mice, revealing desnutrin-catalyzed lipolysis generates PPARδ ligands. Finally, adenoviral expression of desnutrin in βKO islets restores all defects of βKO islet phenotype and function including GSIS and mitochondrial defects, demonstrating the critical role of the desnutrin-PPARδ-mitochondrial oxidation axis in regulating islet β cell GSIS. PMID:24268737

  17. Desnutrin/ATGL activates PPARδ to promote mitochondrial function for insulin secretion in islet β cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tianyi; Abbott, Marcia J; Ahmadian, Maryam; Lopes, Andressa B; Wang, Yuhui; Sul, Hei Sook

    2013-12-03

    Excessive caloric intake leading to obesity is associated with insulin resistance and dysfunction of islet β cells. High-fat feeding decreases desnutrin (also called ATGL/PNPLA2) levels in islets. Here we show that desnutrin ablation via RIP-Cre (βKO) or RIP-CreER results in hyperglycemia with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Due to decreased lipolysis, islets have higher TAG content but lower free FA levels. βKO islets exhibit impaired mitochondrial respiration and lower production of ATP required for GSIS, along with decreased expression of PPARδ target genes involved in mitochondrial oxidation. Furthermore, synthetic PPARδ, but not PPARα, agonist restores GSIS and expression of mitochondrial oxidative genes in βKO mice, revealing that desnutrin-catalyzed lipolysis generates PPARδ ligands. Finally, adenoviral expression of desnutrin in βKO islets restores all defects of βKO islet phenotype and function, including GSIS and mitochondrial defects, demonstrating the critical role of the desnutrin-PPARδ-mitochondrial oxidation axis in regulating islet β cell GSIS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide interaction with the insulin secretion locus MTNR1B reveals CMIP as a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Keaton, Jacob M; Gao, Chuan; Guan, Meijian; Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Palmer, Nicholette D; Pankow, James S; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Freedman, Barry I; Ng, Maggie C Y; Bowden, Donald W

    2018-04-24

    Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, most of the genetic risk loci identified to date relates to insulin secretion. We reported that T2D loci influencing insulin sensitivity may be identified through interactions with insulin secretion loci, thereby leading to T2D. Here, we hypothesize that joint testing of variant main effects and interaction effects with an insulin secretion locus increases power to identify genetic interactions leading to T2D. We tested this hypothesis with an intronic MTNR1B SNP, rs10830963, which is associated with acute insulin response to glucose, a dynamic measure of insulin secretion. rs10830963 was tested for interaction and joint (main + interaction) effects with genome-wide data in African Americans (2,452 cases and 3,772 controls) from five cohorts. Genome-wide genotype data (Affymetrix Human Genome 6.0 array) was imputed to a 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. T2D risk was modeled using logistic regression with rs10830963 dosage, age, sex, and principal component as predictors. Joint effects were captured using the Kraft two degrees of freedom test. Genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10 -8 ) interaction with MTNR1B and joint effects were detected for CMIP intronic SNP rs17197883 (P interaction  = 1.43 × 10 -8 ; P joint  = 4.70 × 10 -8 ). CMIP variants have been nominally associated with T2D, fasting glucose, and adiponectin in individuals of East Asian ancestry, with high-density lipoprotein, and with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index in Europeans. These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk, including insulin sensitivity loci, can be identified through interactions with insulin secretion loci. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. Polymorphism at the 5' end flanking region of the insulin gene is associated with reduced insulin secretion in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, S; Riccardi, G; Monticelli, A; Capaldo, B; Genovese, S; Krogh, V; Celentano, E; Farinaro, E; Varrone, S; Avvedimento, V E

    1988-12-01

    Sixty-four unrelated healthy subjects were studied for the detection of a DNA polymorphism at the 5' end of the insulin gene. No significant difference between the groups was found in blood glucose values at fasting and after an oral glucose load. A significant association was found between fasting (P less than 0.05) and after load plasma C-peptide levels (P less than 0.01) and the presence of a 1.6 Kb insertion at the 5' end of the insulin gene. A gene dose-dependent effect was noted, class 3/3 individuals having the lowest after-load C-peptide concentration and class 1/3 an intermediate level (F for the linear trend: P = 0.007). This might suggest that insulin gene polymorphism affects insulin secretion in healthy individuals. In order to confirm this, a subgroup of six class 3/3 and eight class 1/1 individuals subsequently underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp. The tissue sensitivity to insulin was similar in the two groups but glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was markedly impaired in homozygotes for the class 3 allele. In this group, insulin secretion was, on average, only one-third of that in class 1/1 individuals (P less than 0.02). Similarly impaired in class 3/3 persons was the glucose + arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (P less than 0.05). We conclude that the polymorphism at the 5' end of the insulin gene is associated with variations in insulin secretion in healthy humans.

  20. Allyl isothiocyanate increases carbohydrate oxidation through enhancing insulin secretion by TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Kurata, Manami; Yamazaki, Hanae; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2018-04-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 is a cation channel belonging to the TRP channel family and it has been reported to be involved in energy metabolism, especially glucose metabolism. While, we have previously shown that intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) enhanced glucose metabolism via TRPV1, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the relationship between insulin secretion and the increase in carbohydrate oxidation due to AITC. Intragastric administration of AITC elevated blood insulin levels in mice and AITC directly enhanced insulin secretion from isolated islets. These observations were not reproduced in TRPV1 knockout mice. Furthermore, AITC did not increase carbohydrate oxidation in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results suggest that intragastric administration of AITC could induce insulin secretion from islets via TRPV1 and that enhancement of insulin secretion was related to the increased carbohydrate oxidation due to AITC.

  1. A single-islet microplate assay to measure mouse and human islet insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Truchan, Nathan A; Brar, Harpreet K; Gallagher, Shannon J; Neuman, Joshua C; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-01-01

    One complication to comparing β-cell function among islet preparations, whether from genetically identical or diverse animals or human organ donors, is the number of islets required per assay. Islet numbers can be limiting, meaning that fewer conditions can be tested; other islet measurements must be excluded; or islets must be pooled from multiple animals/donors for each experiment. Furthermore, pooling islets negates the possibility of performing single-islet comparisons. Our aim was to validate a 96-well plate-based single islet insulin secretion assay that would be as robust as previously published methods to quantify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse and human islets. First, we tested our new assay using mouse islets, showing robust stimulation of insulin secretion 24 or 48 h after islet isolation. Next, we utilized the assay to quantify mouse islet function on an individual islet basis, measurements that would not be possible with the standard pooled islet assay methods. Next, we validated our new assay using human islets obtained from the Integrated Islet Distribution Program (IIDP). Human islets are known to have widely varying insulin secretion capacity, and using our new assay we reveal biologically relevant factors that are significantly correlated with human islet function, whether displayed as maximal insulin secretion response or fold-stimulation of insulin secretion. Overall, our results suggest this new microplate assay will be a useful tool for many laboratories, expert or not in islet techniques, to be able to precisely quantify islet insulin secretion from their models of interest.

  2. Interleukin-33-Activated Islet-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Insulin Secretion through Myeloid Cell Retinoic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Dalmas, Elise; Lehmann, Frank M; Dror, Erez; Wueest, Stephan; Thienel, Constanze; Borsigova, Marcela; Stawiski, Marc; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Lucchini, Fabrizio C; Dapito, Dianne H; Kallert, Sandra M; Guigas, Bruno; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Maechler, Pierre; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Konrad, Daniel; Wolfrum, Christian; Böni-Schnetzler, Marianne; Finke, Daniela; Donath, Marc Y

    2017-11-21

    Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2. In turn, local RA signaled to the β cells to increase insulin secretion. This IL-33-ILC2 axis was activated after acute β cell stress but was defective during chronic obesity. Accordingly, IL-33 injections rescued islet function in obese mice. Our findings provide evidence that an immunometabolic crosstalk between islet-derived IL-33, ILC2s, and myeloid cells fosters insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2013-03-01

    Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of β-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased β-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of Insulin Synthesis and Secretion and Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhuo; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Insulin, which is produced in β-cells, is a critical regulator of metabolism. Insulin is synthesized as preproinsulin and processed to proinsulin. Proinsulin is then converted to insulin and C-peptide and stored in secretary granules awaiting release on demand. Insulin synthesis is regulated at both the transcriptional and translational level. The cis-acting sequences within the 5′ flanking region and trans-activators including paired box gene 6 (PAX6), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1(PDX-1), MafA, and B-2/Neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) regulate insulin transcription, while the stability of preproinsulin mRNA and its untranslated regions control protein translation. Insulin secretion involves a sequence of events in β-cells that lead to fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane. Insulin is secreted primarily in response to glucose, while other nutrients such as free fatty acids and amino acids can augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. In addition, various hormones, such as melatonin, estrogen, leptin, growth hormone, and glucagon like peptide-1 also regulate insulin secretion. Thus, the β-cell is a metabolic hub in the body, connecting nutrient metabolism and the endocrine system. Although an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] is the primary insulin secretary signal, cAMP signaling-dependent mechanisms are also critical in the regulation of insulin secretion. This article reviews current knowledge on how β-cells synthesize and secrete insulin. In addition, this review presents evidence that genetic and environmental factors can lead to hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and autoimmunity, resulting in β-cell dysfunction, thereby triggering the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:22974359

  5. Effects of phenylbutazone on glucose tolerance and on secretion of insulin in healthy geldings.

    PubMed

    Zicker, S C; Brumbaugh, G W

    1989-05-01

    The effect of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg of body weight, IV, q 24 h, for 5 days) on glucose tolerance and on secretion of insulin in 6 healthy geldings was determined. Phenylbutazone significantly lowered fasting concentrations of glucose in plasma but did not significantly change the concentration of insulin in serum. There was no significant effect of phenylbutazone on glucose tolerance, on secretion of insulin, or on the area under the insulin/glucose ratio vs time curve in healthy geldings, as determined by paired t test analysis.

  6. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-06-15

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca(2+)-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca(2+)-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  8. l-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Increase in the concentration of plasma l-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged l-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged l-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued l-cysteine–induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, l-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. l-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N′-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in l-cysteine–treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to l-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:25713368

  9. Role for the TRPV1 channel in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Sánchez-Soto, Carmen; Velasco, Myrian; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Hiriart, Marcia

    2014-06-01

    Transient receptor potential channels have been put forward as regulators of insulin secretion. A role for the TRPV1 ion channel in insulin secretion has been suggested in pancreatic beta cell lines. We explored whether TRPV1 is functionally expressed in RINm5F and primary beta cells from neonate and adult rats. We examined if capsaicin could activate cationic non-selective currents. Our results show that TRPV1 channels are not functional in insulin-secreting cells, since capsaicin did not produce current activation, not even under culture conditions known to induce the expression of other ion channels in these cells. Although TRPV1 channels seem to be irrelevant for the physiology of isolated beta cells, they may play a role in glucose homeostasis acting through the nerve fibers that regulate islet function. At the physiological level, we observed that Trpv1 (-/-) mice presented lower fasting insulin levels than their wild-type littermates, however, we did not find differences between these experimental groups nor in the glucose tolerance test or in the insulin secretion. However, we did find that the Trpv1 (-/-) mice exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity compared to their wild-type counterparts. Our results demonstrate that TRPV1 does not contribute to glucose-induced insulin secretion in beta cells as was previously thought, but it is possible that it may control insulin sensitivity.

  10. Regulation of Endogenous (Male) Rodent GLP-1 Secretion and Human Islet Insulin Secretion by Antagonism of Somatostatin Receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Farb, Thomas B; Adeva, Marta; Beauchamp, Thomas J; Cabrera, Over; Coates, David A; Meredith, Tamika DeShea; Droz, Brian A; Efanov, Alexander; Ficorilli, James V; Gackenheimer, Susan L; Martinez-Grau, Maria A; Molero, Victoriano; Ruano, Gema; Statnick, Michael A; Suter, Todd M; Syed, Samreen K; Toledo, Miguel A; Willard, Francis S; Zhou, Xin; Bokvist, Krister B; Barrett, David G

    2017-11-01

    Incretin and insulin responses to nutrient loads are suppressed in persons with diabetes, resulting in decreased glycemic control. Agents including sulfonylureas and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) partially reverse these effects and provide therapeutic benefit; however, their modes of action limit efficacy. Because somatostatin (SST) has been shown to suppress insulin and glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion through the Gi-coupled SST receptor 5 (SSTR5) isoform in vitro, antagonism of SSTR5 may improve glycemic control via intervention in both pathways. Here, we show that a potent and selective SSTR5 antagonist reverses the blunting effects of SST on insulin secretion from isolated human islets, and demonstrate that SSTR5 antagonism affords increased levels of systemic GLP-1 in vivo. Knocking out Sstr5 in mice provided a similar increase in systemic GLP-1 levels, which were not increased further by treatment with the antagonist. Treatment of mice with the SSTR5 antagonist in combination with a DPP4i resulted in increases in systemic GLP-1 levels that were more than additive and resulted in greater glycemic control compared with either agent alone. In isolated human islets, the SSTR5 antagonist completely reversed the inhibitory effect of exogenous SST-14 on insulin secretion. Taken together, these data suggest that SSTR5 antagonism should increase circulating GLP-1 levels and stimulate insulin secretion (directly and via GLP-1) in humans, improving glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Momordica charantia Administration Improves Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Villar, Miriam Méndez-Del

    2018-02-12

    An improvement in parameters of glycemic control has been observed with Momordica charantia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is unknown whether this improvement is through a modification of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, or both. We hypothesized that M. charantia administration can improve insulin secretion and/or insulin sensitivity in patients with T2DM, without pharmacological treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of M. charantia administration on insulin secretion and sensitivity. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients who received M. charantia (2000 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done before and after the intervention to calculate areas under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion (insulinogenic index), first phase of insulin secretion (Stumvoll index), and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index). In the M. charantia group, there were significant decreases in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C), 2-h glucose in OGTT, and AUC of glucose. A significant increase in insulin AUC (56,562 ± 36,078 vs. 65,256 ± 42,720 pmol/L/min, P = .043), in total insulin secretion (0.29 ± 0.18 vs. 0.41 ± 0.29, P = .028), and during the first phase of insulin secretion (557.8 ± 645.6 vs. 1135.7 ± 725.0, P = .043) was observed after M. charantia administration. Insulin sensitivity was not modified with any intervention. In conclusion, M. charantia administration reduced A1C, 2-h glucose, glucose AUC, weight, BMI, fat percentage, and WC, with an increment of insulin AUC, first phase and total insulin secretion.

  12. Effect of Human Myotubes-Derived Media on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizgier, Maria L; Cataldo, Luis R; Gutierrez, Juan; Santos, José L; Casas, Mariana; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel E; Moro, Cedric; Bouzakri, Karim; Galgani, Jose E

    2017-01-01

    Fasting to postprandial transition requires a tight adjustment of insulin secretion to its demand, so tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle) glucose supply is assured while hypo-/hyperglycemia are prevented. High muscle glucose disposal after meals is pivotal for adapting to increased glycemia and might drive insulin secretion through muscle-released factors (e.g., myokines). We hypothesized that insulin influences myokine secretion and then increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In conditioned media from human myotubes incubated with/without insulin (100 nmol/L) for 24 h, myokines were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using an antibody-based array and ELISA-based technology, respectively. C57BL6/J mice islets and Wistar rat beta cells were incubated for 24 h with control and conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes prior to GSIS determination. Conditioned media from insulin-treated versus nontreated myotubes had higher RANTES but lower IL6, IL8, and MCP1 concentration. Qualitative analyses revealed that conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes expressed 32 and 23 out of 80 myokines, respectively. Islets incubated with conditioned media from noninsulin-treated myotubes had higher GSIS versus control islets ( p < 0.05). Meanwhile, conditioned media from insulin-treated myotubes did not influence GSIS. In beta cells, GSIS was similar across conditions. In conclusion, factors being present in noninsulin-stimulated muscle cell-derived media appear to influence GSIS in mice islets.

  13. Effect of Human Myotubes-Derived Media on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Luis R.; Gutierrez, Juan; Santos, José L.; Casas, Mariana; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel E.; Moro, Cedric; Bouzakri, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Fasting to postprandial transition requires a tight adjustment of insulin secretion to its demand, so tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle) glucose supply is assured while hypo-/hyperglycemia are prevented. High muscle glucose disposal after meals is pivotal for adapting to increased glycemia and might drive insulin secretion through muscle-released factors (e.g., myokines). We hypothesized that insulin influences myokine secretion and then increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In conditioned media from human myotubes incubated with/without insulin (100 nmol/L) for 24 h, myokines were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using an antibody-based array and ELISA-based technology, respectively. C57BL6/J mice islets and Wistar rat beta cells were incubated for 24 h with control and conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes prior to GSIS determination. Conditioned media from insulin-treated versus nontreated myotubes had higher RANTES but lower IL6, IL8, and MCP1 concentration. Qualitative analyses revealed that conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes expressed 32 and 23 out of 80 myokines, respectively. Islets incubated with conditioned media from noninsulin-treated myotubes had higher GSIS versus control islets (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, conditioned media from insulin-treated myotubes did not influence GSIS. In beta cells, GSIS was similar across conditions. In conclusion, factors being present in noninsulin-stimulated muscle cell-derived media appear to influence GSIS in mice islets. PMID:28286777

  14. Pancreatic β-Cell Electrical Activity and Insulin Secretion: of Mice and Men

    PubMed Central

    Rorsman, Patrik; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2018-01-01

    The pancreatic β-cell plays a key role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone capable of lowering the blood glucose concentration. Impaired insulin secretion results in the chronic hyperglycaemia that characterizes type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which currently afflicts >450 million people worldwide. The healthy β-cell acts as a glucose sensor matching its output to the circulating glucose concentration. It does so via metabolically induced changes in electrical activity, which culminate in an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and initiation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the β-cell transcriptome, electrical activity and insulin exocytosis. We highlight salient differences between mouse and human β-cells, provide models of how the different ion channels contribute to their electrical activity and insulin secretion, and conclude by discussing how these processes become perturbed in T2DM. PMID:29212789

  15. Stress-induced dissociations between intracellular calcium signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Farhan M; Dejene, Eden A; Corbin, Kathryn L; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2015-05-01

    In healthy pancreatic islets, glucose-stimulated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) provide a reasonable reflection of the patterns and relative amounts of insulin secretion. We report that [Ca(2+)]i in islets under stress, however, dissociates with insulin release in different ways for different stressors. Islets were exposed for 48h to a variety of stressors: cytokines (low-grade inflammation), 28mM glucose (28G, glucotoxicity), free fatty acids (FFAs, lipotoxicity), thapsigargin (ER stress), or rotenone (mitochondrial stress). We then measured [Ca(2+)]i and insulin release in parallel studies. Islets exposed to all stressors except rotenone displayed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)]i in low glucose, however, increased insulin secretion was only observed for 28G due to increased nifedipine-sensitive calcium-channel flux. Following 3-11mM glucose stimulation, all stressors substantially reduced the peak glucose-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i response (first phase). Thapsigargin and cytokines also substantially impacted aspects of calcium influx and ER calcium handling. Stressors did not significantly impact insulin secretion in 11mM glucose for any stressor, although FFAs showed a borderline reduction, which contributed to a significant decrease in the stimulation index (11:3mM glucose) observed for FFAs and also for 28G. We also clamped [Ca(2+)]i using 30mM KCl+250μM diazoxide to test the amplifying pathway. Only rotenone-treated islets showed a robust increase in 3-11mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under clamped conditions, suggesting that low-level mitochondrial stress might activate the metabolic amplifying pathway. We conclude that different stressors dissociate [Ca(2+)]i from insulin secretion differently: ER stressors (thapsigargin, cytokines) primarily affect [Ca(2+)]i but not conventional insulin secretion and 'metabolic' stressors (FFAs, 28G, rotenone) impacted insulin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jessica N; Cousteils, Katelyn; Lou, Jennifer W; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Joseph, Jamie W

    2014-05-09

    It is well known that mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is critical for insulin secretion; however, we know little about how pyruvate is transported into mitochondria in β-cells. Part of the reason for this lack of knowledge is that the carrier gene was only discovered in 2012. In the current study, we assess the role of the recently identified carrier in the regulation of insulin secretion. Our studies show that β-cells express both mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (Mpc1 and Mpc2). Using both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knockdown of the MPCs we show that this carrier plays a key role in regulating insulin secretion in clonal 832/13 β-cells as well as rat and human islets. We also show that the MPC is an essential regulator of both the ATP-regulated potassium (KATP) channel-dependent and -independent pathways of insulin secretion. Inhibition of the MPC blocks the glucose-stimulated increase in two key signaling molecules involved in regulating insulin secretion, the ATP/ADP ratio and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. The MPC also plays a role in in vivo glucose homeostasis as inhibition of MPC by the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-β-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)-acrylate (UK5099) resulted in impaired glucose tolerance. These studies clearly show that the newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier sits at an important branching point in nutrient metabolism and that it is an essential regulator of insulin secretion.

  17. Neuromedin U suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Miura, Ayako; Shimizu, Koichiro; Mori, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya; Takayama, Kentaro; Hayashi, Yoshio; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-11-04

    Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly conserved peptide in mammals, is implicated in energy homeostasis and glycemic control, and may also be involved in the regulation of adipoinsular axis function. However, the role of NMU in regulating insulin secretion has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigated the role of NMU in the regulation of insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo. We found that NMU and NMU receptor (NMUR) 1 were expressed in mouse islets and β cell-derived MIN6-K8 cells. In mice, NMU suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, an NMUR1 agonist inhibited GSIS in both MIN6-K8 cells and mice islets. Moreover, NMU attenuated intracellular Ca 2+ influx in MIN6-K8 cells, potentially causing a decrease in insulin secretion. siNmu-transfected MIN6-K8 cells showed elevated GSIS. Treatment with anti-NMU IgG increased GSIS in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. These results suggested that NMU can act directly on β cells through NMUR1 in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to suppress insulin secretion. Collectively, our results highlight the crucial role of NMU in suppressing pancreatic insulin secretion, and may improve our understanding of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracellular and extracellular adenosine triphosphate in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells (β).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjiong; Geng, Bin; Cui, Qinghua; Guan, Youfei; Yang, Jichun

    2014-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and release in mitochondria play critical roles in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly characterized by a decrease in ATP production, which is a central event in the progression of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and diabetes. ATP has been demonstrated to regulate insulin secretion via several pathways: (i) Intracellular ATP directly closes ATP-sensitive potassium channel to open L-type calcium channel, leading to an increase in free cytosolic calcium levels and exocytosis of insulin granules; (ii) A decrease in ATP production is always associated with an increase in production of reactive oxygen species, which exerts deleterious effects on pancreatic β cell survival and insulin secretion; and (iii) ATP can be co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic β cells, and the released ATP functions as an autocrine signal to modulate insulin secretory process via P2 receptors on the cell membrane. In this review, the recent findings regarding the role and mechanism of ATP synthesis and release in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells will be summarized and discussed. © 2013 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Insulin secretion and its association with physical activity, fitness and screen time in children.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Bastard, J-P; Barnett, T A; Benedetti, A; Chaput, J-P; Tremblay, A; Lambert, M

    2014-02-01

    To determine the independent associations of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fitness, screen time, and adiposity with insulin secretion in children. Caucasian youth (n = 423/630), 8-10 years old, with at least one obese biological parent, were studied (QUALITY cohort). Insulin secretion was measured using HOMA2-%B, area under the curve (AUC) of insulin to glucose over the first 30 minutes (AUC I/G(t30min)) of the OGTT and AUC I/G(t120min) over 2 hours. Fitness was measured by VO₂peak ; percent fat mass (PFM) by DXA; 7-day MVPA by accelerometry; self-reported screen time included television, video game, or computer use. Models were adjusted for age, sex, season, puberty, PFM, and insulin sensitivity [IS] (HOMA2-IS, Matsuda-ISI). PFM was strongly associated with insulin secretion, even after adjustment for IS: for every 1% increase in PFM, insulin secretion increased from 0.3% to 0.8% across indices. MVPA was negatively associated with HOMA2-%B (P < 0.05), but not with OGTT-derived measures. Fitness was negatively associated with AUC I/G(t120min) (P < 0.05). Screen time showed a trend toward higher HOMA2-%B in girls (P = 0.060). In children with an obese parent, lower insulin secretion is associated with lower adiposity, higher MVPA, better fitness, and possibly reduced screen time. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Homozygosity for aquaporin 7 G264V in three unrelated children with hyperglyceroluria and a mild platelet secretion defect.

    PubMed

    Goubau, Christophe; Jaeken, Jaak; Levtchenko, Elena N; Thys, Chantal; Di Michele, Michela; Martens, Geert A; Gerlo, Erik; De Vos, Rita; Buyse, Gunnar M; Goemans, Nathalie; Van Geet, Chris; Freson, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin 7 (AQP7) belongs to the aquaglyceroporin family, which transports glycerol and water. AQP7-deficient mice develop obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglyceroluria. However, AQP7's pathophysiologic role in humans is not yet known. Three children with psychomotor retardation and hyperglyceroluria were screened for AQP7 mutations. The children were from unrelated families. Urine and plasma glycerol levels were measured using a three-step enzymatic approach. Platelet morphology and function were studied using electron microscopy, aggregations, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion tests. The index patients were homozygous for AQP7 G264V, which has previously been shown to inhibit transport of glycerol in Xenopus oocytes. We also detected a subclinical platelet secretion defect with reduced ATP secretion, and the absence of a secondary aggregation wave after epinephrine stimulation. Electron microscopy revealed round platelets with centrally located granules. Immunostaining showed AQP7 colocalization, with dense granules that seemed to be released after strong platelet activation. Healthy relatives of these patients, who were homozygous (not heterozygous) for G264V, also had hyperglyceroluria and platelet granule abnormalities. The discovery of an association between urine glycerol loss and a platelet secretion defect is a novel one, and our findings imply the involvement of AQPs in platelet secretion. Additional studies are needed to define whether AQP7 G264V is also a risk factor for mental disability.

  1. Insulin-secreting non-islet cells are resistant to autoimmune destruction.

    PubMed Central

    Lipes, M A; Cooper, E M; Skelly, R; Rhodes, C J; Boschetti, E; Weir, G C; Davalli, A M

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic nonobese diabetic mice were created in which insulin expression was targeted to proopiomelanocortin-expressing pituitary cells. Proopiomelanocortin-expressing intermediate lobe pituitary cells efficiently secrete fully processed, mature insulin via a regulated secretory pathway, similar to islet beta cells. However, in contrast to the insulin-producing islet beta cells, the insulin-producing intermediate lobe pituitaries are not targeted or destroyed by cells of the immune system. Transplantation of the transgenic intermediate lobe tissues into diabetic nonobese diabetic mice resulted in the restoration of near-normoglycemia and the reversal of diabetic symptoms. The absence of autoimmunity in intermediate lobe pituitary cells engineered to secrete bona fide insulin raises the potential of these cell types for beta-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710916

  2. Insulin-producing cells could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the difference between insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and normal human pancreatic beta cells both in physiological function and morphological features in cellular level. Methods The levels of insulin secretion were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The insulin gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The morphological features were detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Results IPCs and normal human pancreatic beta cells were similar to each other under the observation in AFM with the porous structure features in the cytoplasm. Both number of membrane particle size and average roughness of normal human beta cells were higher than those of IPCs. Conclusions Our results firstly revealed that the cellular ultrastructure of IPCs was closer to that of normal human pancreatic beta cells, but they still could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells. PMID:23421382

  3. Indices of insulin secretion during a liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare indices of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity (IS),and oral disposition index (oDI) during the liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and negative autoantibodies (Ab-) versus those with T2DM and positive autoantibodies (Ab+) to ...

  4. Dual effect of cell-cell contact disruption on cytosolic calcium and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Fabienne; Jousset, Hélène; Tomas, Alejandra; Prost, Anne-Lise; Wollheim, Claes B; Irminger, Jean-Claude; Demaurex, Nicolas; Halban, Philippe A

    2008-05-01

    Cell-to-cell interactions play an important role in insulin secretion. Compared with intact islets, dispersed pancreatic beta-cells show increased basal and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In this study, we used mouse MIN6B1 cells to investigate the mechanisms that control insulin secretion when cells are in contact with each other or not. RNAi-mediated silencing of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin in confluent cells reduced glucose-stimulated secretion to the levels observed in isolated cells but had no impact on basal secretion. Dispersed cells presented high cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, depolymerized cytoskeleton and ERK1/2 activation in low glucose conditions. Both the increased basal secretion and the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity were corrected by transient removal of Ca(2+) or prolonged incubation of cells in low glucose, a procedure that restored the ability of dispersed cells to respond to glucose (11-fold stimulation). In conclusion, we show that dispersed pancreatic beta-cells can respond robustly to glucose once their elevated basal secretion has been corrected. The increased basal insulin secretion of dispersed cells is due to spontaneous Ca(2+) transients that activate downstream Ca(2+) effectors, whereas engagement of cell adhesion molecules including E-cadherin contributes to the greater secretory response to glucose seen in cells with normal intercellular contacts.

  5. Familial hyperinsulinemia associated with secretion of an abnormal insulin, and coexistence of insulin resistance in the propositus.

    PubMed

    Vinik, A I; Seino, S; Funakoshi, A; Schwartz, J; Matsumoto, M; Schteingart, D E; Fu, Z Z; Tsai, S T

    1986-04-01

    A 45-yr-old muscular nonobese white man who had a 9-yr history of syncopal episodes was studied on several occasions between April 1979 and August 1984. Fasting glucose concentrations ranged between 74-115 mg/dl, and those of insulin ranged between 14-64 microU/ml. Reactive hypoglycemia 3-4 h after ingestion of glucose occurred in the first 2 yr. Glucose tolerance was impaired in 1979, from February 1982 through September 1983, and again in August 1984. The maximum plasma insulin response to glucose ranged between 475-1630 microU/ml. When studied in November 1982, insulin (0.1 U/kg) caused a fall in blood glucose concentration of only 25% (normal, greater than 50%), and maximal glucose utilization during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was 7.5 mg/kg . min (normal, greater than 12 mg/kg . min). Plasma counterregulatory hormone concentrations were normal, and antibodies to insulin and the insulin receptor were absent. Binding of exogenous insulin to the patient's cellular receptors (monocytes, red blood cells, and skin fibroblasts) was normal. Insulin was purified from plasma by immunoaffinity and molecular sieve chromatography and was found to elute later than human insulin on reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. It was more hydrophobic than normal human insulin and had only 10% of the activity of normal insulin in terms of ability to bind to and stimulate glucose metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes. The abnormal insulin was identified in two of three sons and a sister, but not in the mother, brother, or niece. Sensitivity to insulin was normal in the two sons who had abnormal insulin. These results suggest that in this family the abnormal insulin was due to a biosynthetic defect, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The hyperinsulinemia was not associated with diabetes in family members who had no insulin resistance.

  6. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P < .05), A1C (5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 5.6% ± 0.4%, P < .05), AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P < .05), and total insulin secretion (0.45 ± 0.23 vs. 0.35 ± 0.18, P < .05), with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P < .05). There were no significant differences after placebo administration. A. dracunculus administration for 90 days in patients with IGT significantly decreased SBP, A1C, AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels.

  7. Measuring phospholipase D activity in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-responsive muscle cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, Rosanna; Huang, Ping; Teng, Shuzhi; Hughes, William E

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme producing phosphatidic acid and choline through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. The enzyme has been identified as a member of a variety of signal transduction cascades and as a key regulator of numerous intracellular vesicle trafficking processes. A role for PLD in regulating glucose homeostasis is emerging as the enzyme has recently been identified in events regulating exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and also in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through controlling GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in muscle and adipose tissue. We present methodologies for assessing cellular PLD activity in secretagogue-stimulated insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and also insulin-stimulated adipocyte and muscle cells, two of the principal insulin-responsive cell types controlling blood glucose levels.

  8. The Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels, Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Women 3 Years after Delivery.

    PubMed

    Tänczer, Tímea; Magenheim, Rita; Fürst, Ágnes; Domján, Beatrix; Janicsek, Zsófia; Szabó, Eszter; Ferencz, Viktória; Tabák, Ádám G

    2017-12-01

    There is a direct correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, women with gestational diabetes (GDM) may have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to controls. The present study intended to investigate 25(OH)D levels and their association with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with prior GDM and in controls 3.2 years after delivery. A total of 87 patients with prior GDM and 45 randomly selected controls (age range, 22 to 44 years) with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy nested within a cohort of all deliveries at Saint Margit Hospital, Budapest, between January 1 2005, and December 31 2006, were examined. Their 25(OH) D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin secretion were estimated using the homeostasis model asssessment (HOMA) calculator and early insulin secretion by the insulinogenic index based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between cases and controls (27.2±13.1 [±SD] vs. 26.9±9.8 ng/L). There was a positive association between HOMA insulin sensitivity and 25(OH)D levels (beta = 0.017; 95% CI 0.001 to 0.034/1 ng/mL) that was robust to adjustment for age and body mass index. There was a nonsignificant association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D (p=0.099), while no association was found with the insulinogenic index. Prior GDM status was not associated with 25(OH)D levels; however, 25(OH) D levels were associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity. It is hypothesized that the association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D levels is related to the autoregulation of fasting glucose levels because no association between 25(OH)D and insulinogenic index was found. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CNC-bZIP protein Nrf1-dependent regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Rui; Dong, Jian; Liu, Dianxin; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tong, Qingchun; Teng, Weiping; Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-04-01

    The inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient insulin in response to glucose stimulation is a major contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of deficiency of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) in β-cells on β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Silencing of Nrf1 in β-cells leads to a pre-T2D phenotype with disrupted glucose metabolism and impaired insulin secretion. Specifically, MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf1 (Nrf1-KD) and isolated islets from β-cell-specific Nrf1-knockout [Nrf1(b)-KO] mice displayed impaired glucose responsiveness, including elevated basal insulin release and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Nrf1(b)-KO mice exhibited severe fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced GSIS, and glucose intolerance. Silencing of Nrf1 in MIN6 cells resulted in oxidative stress and altered glucose metabolism, with increases in both glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with the elevated basal insulin release and reduced glucose responsiveness. The elevated glycolysis and reduced glucose responsiveness due to Nrf1 silencing likely result from altered expression of glucose metabolic enzymes, with induction of high-affinity hexokinase 1 and suppression of low-affinity glucokinase. Our study demonstrated a novel role of Nrf1 in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in β-cells and characterized Nrf1 as a key transcription factor that regulates the coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism and GSIS. Nrf1 plays critical roles in regulating glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion, suggesting that Nrf1 may be a novel target to improve the function of insulin-secreting β-cells.

  10. Control of Insulin Secretion by Cholinergic Signaling in the Human Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Judith; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Fachado, Alberto; Jacques-Silva, M. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine regulates hormone secretion from the pancreatic islet and is thus crucial for glucose homeostasis. Little is known, however, about acetylcholine (cholinergic) signaling in the human islet. We recently reported that in the human islet, acetylcholine is primarily a paracrine signal released from α-cells rather than primarily a neural signal as in rodent islets. In this study, we demonstrate that the effects acetylcholine produces in the human islet are different and more complex than expected from studies conducted on cell lines and rodent islets. We found that endogenous acetylcholine not only stimulates the insulin-secreting β-cell via the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M3 and M5, but also the somatostatin-secreting δ-cell via M1 receptors. Because somatostatin is a strong inhibitor of insulin secretion, we hypothesized that cholinergic input to the δ-cell indirectly regulates β-cell function. Indeed, when all muscarinic signaling was blocked, somatostatin secretion decreased and insulin secretion unexpectedly increased, suggesting a reduced inhibitory input to β-cells. Endogenous cholinergic signaling therefore provides direct stimulatory and indirect inhibitory input to β-cells to regulate insulin secretion from the human islet. PMID:24658304

  11. Persistence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian disease after inhibition of ovarian steroid secretion.

    PubMed

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Bersch, N; Golde, D W; Landaw, E M; Chang, R J

    1986-03-01

    Six nonobese women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) showed significant hyperinsulinemia, compared with controls after oral glucose (P less than 0.05). As an indicator of insulin sensitivity, in vitro proliferation of erythrocyte progenitor cells of PCOD subjects exposed to physiologic concentrations of insulin was significantly blunted (P less than 0.001). Monocyte insulin receptor binding was not impaired in the PCOD subjects. Three of the PCOD patients were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for 6 months, which resulted in marked suppression of ovarian androgen secretion but no demonstrable changes in in vivo or in vitro indicators of insulin resistance. Thus insulin resistance in PCOD subjects appears to be unrelated to ovarian hyperandrogenism (or acanthosis or obesity). Although certain tissues are insulin-resistant in PCOD patients, the ovary may remain sensitive and overproduce androgens in response to high circulating insulin levels.

  12. Effect of activators and inhibitors of K+ channels on insulin secretion in the amphibian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Francini, F; Pirotte, B; Gagliardino, J J

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacological evidence for the presence and participation of K+ channels in amphibian pancreatic islets. Pancreases from the toad Bufo arenarum were thus incubated with activators or blockers of K+ channels and the immunoreactive insulin released into the medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. Two K(+)-ATP channel openers (diazoxide and BPDZ44) inhibited; while a K(+)-ATP channel blocker (tolbutamide) and metabolizable sugars (glucose, glyceraldehyde) significantly stimulated the output of insulin. Although a nonmetabolizable sugar (galactose) failed to increase insulin release, dinitrophenol decreased the secretagogue effect of glucose. By contrast, although somatostatin and clonidine blocked the release of insulin, tetraethylammonium significantly stimulated secretion. For each compound tested, the effects on both insulin secretion and B-cell K+ channel activity were similar to those observed in the mammalian pancreas. These findings point to the existence of mammalian-like K+ channels in the B-cells of some amphibians.

  13. One-year metreleptin improves insulin secretion in patients with diabetes linked to genetic lipodystrophic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vatier, C; Fetita, S; Boudou, P; Tchankou, C; Deville, L; Riveline, Jp; Young, J; Mathivon, L; Travert, F; Morin, D; Cahen, J; Lascols, O; Andreelli, F; Reznik, Y; Mongeois, E; Madelaine, I; Vantyghem, Mc; Gautier, Jf; Vigouroux, C

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin) therapy was shown to improve hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and insulin sensitivity in patients with lipodystrophic syndromes, but its effects on insulin secretion remain controversial. We used dynamic intravenous (i.v.) clamp procedures to measure insulin secretion, adjusted to insulin sensitivity, at baseline and after 1 year of metreleptin therapy, in 16 consecutive patients with lipodystrophy, diabetes and leptin deficiency. Patients, with a mean [± standard error of the mean (s.e.m.)] age of 39.2 (±4) years, presented with familial partial lipodystrophy (n = 11, 10 women) or congenital generalized lipodystrophy (n = 5, four women). Their mean (± s.e.m.) BMI (23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m(2) ), glycated haemoglobin levels (8.5 ± 0.4%) and serum triglycerides levels (4.6 ± 0.9 mmol/l) significantly decreased within 1 month of metreleptin therapy, then remained stable. Insulin sensitivity (from hyperglycaemic or euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps, n = 4 and n = 12, respectively), insulin secretion during graded glucose infusion (n = 12), and acute insulin response to i.v. glucose adjusted to insulin sensitivity (disposition index, n = 12), significantly increased after 1 year of metreleptin therapy. The increase in disposition index was related to a decrease in percentage of total and trunk body fat. Metreleptin therapy improves not only insulin sensitivity, but also insulin secretion in patients with diabetes attributable to genetic lipodystrophies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Human primary myoblast cell cultures from non-diabetic insulin resistant subjects retain defects in insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D B; Pratley, R; Ossowski, V

    1996-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a predictor of the development of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. It is unclear whether insulin resistance is a primary defect leading to NIDDM or the result of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. To determine if insulin resistance is the result of extrinsic factors such as hyperinsulinemia primary skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from muscle biopsies from Pima Indians with differing in vivo insulin sensitivities. These cell cultures expressed a variety of muscle-specific phenotypes including the proteins alpha-actinin and myosin, muscle-specific creatine kinase activity, and RNA encoding GLUT4, MYF5, MYOD1, and MYOGENIN. Labeled glucose was used to measure the insulin-stimulated conversion of glucose to glycogen in these cultures. The in vivo rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen production (insulin resistance) were correlated with in vitro measures of glycogen production (P = 0.007, r = 0.58). This defect in insulin action is stable in a uniform culture environment and is retained over time. The retention of insulin resistance in myoblast derived cell cultures is consistent with the expression of an underlying biochemical defect in insulin resistant skeletal muscle. PMID:8941652

  15. Insulin and glucose sensitivity, insulin secretion and beta-cell distribution in endocrine pancreas of the fruit bat Artibeus lituratus.

    PubMed

    Protzek, A O P; Rafacho, A; Viscelli, B A; Bosqueiro, J R; Cappelli, A P; Paula, F M M; Boschero, A C; Pinheiro, E C

    2010-10-01

    The fruit bat Artibeus lituratus absorbs large amounts of glucose in short periods of time and maintains normoglycemia even after a prolonged starvation period. Based on these data, we aimed to investigate various aspects related with glucose homeostasis analyzing: blood glucose and insulin levels, intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests (ipGTT and ipITT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (2.8, 5.6 or 8.3 mmol/L glucose) in pancreas fragments, cellular distribution of beta cells, and the amount of pAkt/Akt in the pectoral muscle and liver. Blood glucose levels were higher in fed bats (6.88+/-0.5 mmol/L) than fasted bats (4.0+/-0.8 mmol/L), whereas insulin levels were similar in both conditions. The values of the area-under-the curve obtained from ipGTT were significantly higher when bats received 2 (5.5-fold) or 3g/kg glucose (7.5-fold) b.w compared to control (saline). These bats also exhibited a significant decrease of blood glucose values after insulin administration during the ipITT. Insulin secretion from fragments of pancreas under physiological concentrations of glucose (5.6 or 8.3 mmol/L) was similar but higher than in 2.8 mmol/L glucose 1.8- and 2.0-fold, respectively. These bats showed a marked beta-cell distribution along the pancreas, and the pancreatic beta cells are not exclusively located at the central part of the islet. The insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was more pronounced in the pectoral muscle, compared to liver. The high sensitivity to glucose and insulin, the proper insulin response to glucose, and the presence of an apparent large beta-cell population could represent benefits for the management of high influx of glucose from a carbohydrate-rich meal, which permits appropriate glucose utilization. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Regulation Mechanisms of Five Mulberry Ingredients on Insulin Secretion under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun-Chong; He, Hao; Wei, Xing; Ge, Sheng; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2016-11-23

    The effects of mulberry ingredients including 1-deoxynojrimycin (DNJ), resveratrol (RES), oxyresveratrol (OXY), cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) on insulin secretion under oxidative stress were investigated. The results revealed that they had distinct effects on insulin secretion in H 2 O 2 -induced MIN 6 cells, especially DNJ, C3G, and C3R, while RES and OXY showed modest effects in low dose (12.5 μM). The mechanisms were demonstrated in signal pathway that after treatment with DNJ, C3G, and C3R, the expressions of glucokinase (GK) were up-regulated, leading to intracellular ATP accumulation and insulin secretion. They also bound to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), improved GLP-1R, duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) expression, and stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, ROS production was inhibited, followed by a decreasing apoptosis rate, while RES and OXY accelerated the apoptosis at high dose (50 μM). This work expounded the potential mechanisms of mulberry ingredients on insulin secretion, indicating the potential application in the intervention against hyperglycemia.

  18. Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Women after Various Bariatric Operations

    PubMed Central

    Vrbikova, Jana; Kunesova, Marie; Kyrou, Ioannis; Tura, Andrea; Hill, Martin; Grimmichova, Tereza; Dvorakova, Katerina; Sramkova, Petra; Dolezalova, Karin; Lischkova, Olga; Vcelak, Josef; Hainer, Vojtech; Bendlova, Bela; Kumar, Sudhesh; Fried, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB) on insulin sensitivity and secretion with the effects of laparoscopic gastric plication (P). Methods A total of 52 obese women (age 30-66 years) suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were prospectively recruited into three study groups: 16 BPD; 16 LAGB, and 20 P. Euglycemic clamps and mixed meal tolerance tests were performed before, at 1 month and at 6 months after bariatric surgery. Beta cell function derived from the meal test parameters was evaluated using mathematical modeling. Results Glucose disposal per kilogram of fat free mass (a marker of peripheral insulin sensitivity) increased significantly in all groups, especially after 1 month. Basal insulin secretion decreased significantly after all three types of operations, with the most marked decrease after BPD compared with P and LAGB. Total insulin secretion decreased significantly only following the BPD. Beta cell glucose sensitivity did not change significantly post-surgery in any of the study groups. Conclusion We documented similar improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese T2DM women after all three study operations during the 6-month postoperative follow-up. Notably, only BPD led to decreased demand on beta cells (decreased integrated insulin secretion), but without increasing the beta cell glucose sensitivity. PMID:27951535

  19. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Is Implicated in Fuel- and Non-fuel-stimulated Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Peyot, Marie-Line; Guay, Claudiane; Latour, Martin G.; Lamontagne, Julien; Lussier, Roxane; Pineda, Marco; Ruderman, Neil B.; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Joly, Érik; Madiraju, S. R. Murthy; Poitout, Vincent; Prentki, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Reduced lipolysis in hormone-sensitive lipase-deficient mice is associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), suggesting that endogenous β-cell lipid stores provide signaling molecules for insulin release. Measurements of lipolysis and triglyceride (TG) lipase activity in islets from HSL−/− mice indicated the presence of other TG lipase(s) in the β-cell. Using real time-quantitative PCR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was found to be the most abundant TG lipase in rat islets and INS832/13 cells. To assess its role in insulin secretion, ATGL expression was decreased in INS832/13 cells (ATGL-knockdown (KD)) by small hairpin RNA. ATGL-KD increased the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) into TG. ATGL-KD cells showed decreased glucose- or Gln + Leu-induced insulin release, as well as reduced response to KCl or palmitate at high, but not low, glucose. The KATP-independent/amplification pathway of GSIS was considerably reduced in ATGL-KD cells. ATGL−/− mice were hypoinsulinemic and hypoglycemic and showed decreased plasma TG and FFAs. A hyperglycemic clamp revealed increased insulin sensitivity and decreased GSIS and arginine-induced insulin secretion in ATGL−/− mice. Accordingly, isolated islets from ATGL−/− mice showed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose, glucose + palmitate, and KCl. Islet TG content and FFA esterification into TG were increased by 2-fold in ATGL−/− islets, but glucose usage and oxidation were unaltered. The results demonstrate the importance of ATGL and intracellular lipid signaling for fuel- and non-fuel-induced insulin secretion. PMID:19389712

  20. Free triiodothyronine plasma concentrations are positively associated with insulin secretion in euthyroid individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Emilio; Koska, Juraj; Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bunt, Joy C; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones (TH) may influence glucose metabolism. Hyperthyroid subjects have higher insulin secretion rates when compared with euthyroid individuals. Objective To evaluate the association between TH concentrations and insulin secretion in euthyroid, healthy Pima Indian adults (n=55, 29±7 years, females/males 36/19) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) admitted to a Clinical Research Unit. Methods TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), 3,5,3′-L-tri-iodothyronine (FT3), and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples, percentage of body fat (%BF) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), acute insulin response (AIR), and incremental area under the curve (AUC) of insulin in response to a 25 g intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) respectively and insulin action (M) during an euglycemic clamp. Results FT3 concentrations were associated with FPI, AIR, and insulin AUC both before (r=0.33, P=0.01; r=0.29, P=0.03; and r=0.35, P=0.008 respectively) and after adjustment for age, sex, %BF, glucose (fasting concentrations or glucose AUC), and M (β=0.09, P=0.01; β=0.16, P=0.03; and β=0.24, P=0.0007 respectively). No associations were found for TSH or FT4. Conclusion FT3 was associated with several measurements of insulin secretion in euthyroid individuals with NGT. T3 concentrations may play a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:18230829

  1. The relationship between insulin secretion, the insulin-like growth factor axis and growth in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Paulus; Robertson, Ian; Cowley, David; Harris, Margaret; Masters, I Brent; Cotterill, Andrew M

    2002-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) is an increasingly common complication of cystic fibrosis. CFRD is preceded by a progressive decline in insulin secretion but there is no accepted definition of the prediabetic state in CFRD. This prediabetic state appears to have adverse effects on clinical status, nutrition and lung function, but there is no direct evidence that the impaired glucose homeostasis is the cause of these deteriorations. This study examined the prevalence of glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in a population of children with CF without CFRD. Severe CF lung disease is often associated with poor weight gain and slower growth but the mechanism for this is still unclear. The relationships between the current state of glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion and the insulin-like growth factor axis, height velocity, nutrition status and lung function were therefore studied. Eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 9.5-15 years had oral glucose tolerance tests and 14 of these also had intravenous glucose tolerance tests (four refused). Blood samples were collected for insulin, C-peptide, glucose, HbA1c, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3. Data on height, weight, puberty status, clinical score (Shwachman score) and lung function were recorded. Height velocity, height and weight standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated using WHO/CDC data. The mean height SDS (-0.52 +/- 0.17) was less than the normal population (P = 0.007) and the mean height velocity was 4.6 +/- 0.5 cm/year, 39% with a height velocity less than the third percentile for age. The weight SDS and body mass index (BMI) were similar to the normal population. Four children had impaired glucose tolerance. The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was below the first percentile of normal population values in nine (65%). Impaired FPIR or impaired glucose tolerance did not correlate with the Shwachman score

  2. Defect in skeletal muscle phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in obese insulin-resistant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Heydrick, S J; Jullien, D; Gautier, N; Tanti, J F; Giorgetti, S; Van Obberghen, E; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y

    1993-01-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is one of the earliest postreceptor events in the insulin signaling pathway. Incubation of soleus muscles from lean mice with 50 nM insulin caused a 3-10-fold increase in antiphosphotyrosine-immunoprecipitable PI3K (antiPTyr-PI3K) activity within 2 min in muscle homogenates as well as both the cytosolic and membrane fractions. Insulin did not affect total PI3K activity. Both the antiPTyr-PI3K stimulation and activation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase were dependent on hormone concentration. In muscles from obese, insulin-resistant mice, there was a 40-60% decrease in antiPTyr-PI3K activity after 2 min of insulin that was present equally in the cytosolic and membrane fractions. A significant reduction in insulin sensitivity was also observed. The defect appears to result from alterations in both insulin receptor and postreceptor signaling. Starvation of obese mice for 48 h, which is known to reverse insulin resistance, normalized the insulin response of both PI3K and the receptor tyrosine kinase. The results demonstrate that: (a) antiPTyr-PI3K activity is responsive to insulin in mouse skeletal muscle, (b) both the insulin responsiveness and sensitivity of this activity are blunted in insulin-resistant muscles from obese mice, (c) these alterations result from a combination of insulin receptor and postreceptor defects, and (d) starvation restores normal insulin responses. Images PMID:8386184

  3. Roles of circulating WNT-signaling proteins and WNT-inhibitors in human adiposity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Almario, R U; Karakas, S E

    2015-02-01

    Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (WNT) signaling and WNT-inhibitors have been implicated in regulation of adipogenesis, insulin resistance, pancreatic function, and inflammation. Our goal was to determine serum proteins involved in WNT signaling (WNT5 and WISP2) and WNT inhibition (SFRP4 and SFRP5) as they relate to obesity, serum adipokines, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation in humans. Study population comprised 57 insulin resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 27 reference women. In a cross-sectional study, blood samples were obtained at fasting, during oral, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Serum WNT5, WISP2, and SFRP4 concentrations did not differ between PCOS vs. reference women. Serum WNT5 correlated inversely with weight both in PCOS and reference women, and correlated directly with insulin response during oral glucose tolerance test in PCOS women. Serum WISP2 correlated directly with fatty acid binding protein 4. Serum SFRP5 did not differ between obese (n=32) vs. nonobese (n=25) PCOS women, but reference women had lower SFRP5 (p<5×10(-6) as compared to both PCOS groups). Serum SFRP5 correlated inversely with IL-1β, TNF-α, cholesterol, and apoprotein B. These findings demonstrated that WNT5 correlated inversely with adiposity and directly with insulin response, and the WNT-inhibitor SFRP5 may be anti-inflammatory. Better understanding of the role of WNT signaling in obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation is important for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} ormore » DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The

  5. What couples glycolysis to mitochondrial signal generation in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion?

    PubMed

    Ishihara, H; Wollheim, C B

    2000-05-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cells are poised to generate metabolic messengers in the mitochondria that link glucose metabolism to insulin exocytosis. This is accomplished through the tight coupling of glycolysis to mitochondrial activation. The messenger molecules ATP and glutamate are produced after the metabolism of glycolysis-derived pyruvate in the mitochondria. The entry of monocarboxylates such as pyruvate into the beta cell is limited, explaining why overexpression of monocarboxylate transporters unravels pyruvate-stimulated insulin secretion. NADH generated by glycolysis is efficiently reoxidized by highly active mitochondrial shuttles rather than by lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpression of this enzyme does not alter glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting that NADH availability restricts the conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the beta cell. These metabolic features permit the fuel function of glucose to be extended to the generation of signaling molecules, which increases cytosolic Ca2+ and promotes insulin exocytosis.

  6. Effects of methyltestosterone on insulin secretion and sensitivity in women.

    PubMed

    Diamond, M P; Grainger, D; Diamond, M C; Sherwin, R S; Defronzo, R A

    1998-12-01

    The frequent coexistence of hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance is well established; however, whether a cause and effect relationship exists remains to be established. In this study we tested the hypothesis that short-term androgen administered to women would induce insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, regularly menstruating, nonobese women were studied before and during methyltestosterone administration (5 mg tid for 10-12 days) by the hyperglycemic (n=8) and euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic (n=7) clamp techniques. Short-term methyltestosterone administration had no significant effects on the fasting levels of glucose, insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, or glucose turnover. During the hyperglycemic clamp studies, the mean glucose level during the final hour was 203+/-2 and 201+/-1 mg/dL in the methyltestosterone and control studies, respectively. The insulin response to this hyperglycemic challenge was slightly but not significantly greater during methyltestosterone treatment (first phase 59+/-8 vs. 50+/-8 microU/mL in controls; second phase 74+/-9 vs. 67+/-9 microU/mL in controls; total insulin response 133+/-16 vs. 117+/-15 microU/mL in controls). In spite of this, glucose uptake was reduced from the control study value of 10.96+/-1.11 to 7.3+/-0.70 mg/kg/min by methyltestosterone (P < 0.05). The ratio of glucose uptake per unit of insulin was also significantly reduced from a control study value of 14.3+/-1.4 to 9.4+/-1.3 mg/kg/min per microU/mL x 100 during methyltestosterone administration. In the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies, insulin was infused at rates of 0.25 and 1.0 mU/kg/min to achieve insulin levels of approximately 25 and 68 microU/mL, respectively. During low-dose insulin infusion, rates of endogenous hepatic glucose production were equivalently suppressed from basal values of 2.37+/-0.29 and 2.40+/-0.27 mg/kg/min to 0.88+/-0.25 and 0.77+/-0.26 mg/kg/min in the methyltestesterone and control studies respectively. Whole body glucose

  7. Pseudoislet formation enhances gene expression, insulin secretion and cytoprotective mechanisms of clonal human insulin-secreting 1.1B4 cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effects of cell communication on human beta cell function and resistance to cytotoxicity using the novel human insulin-secreting cell line 1.1B4 configured as monolayers and pseudoislets. Incubation with the incretin gut hormones GLP-1 and GIP caused dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from 1.1B4 cell monolayers and pseudoislets. The secretory responses were 1.5-2.7-fold greater than monolayers. Cell viability (MTT), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining) were investigated following 2-h exposure of 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H2O2, streptozotocin, glucose, palmitate or cocktails of proinflammatory cytokines. All agents tested decreased viability and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in both 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets. However, pseudoislets exhibited significantly greater resistance to cytotoxicity (1.5-2.7-fold increases in LD50) and lower levels of DNA damage (1.3-3.4-fold differences in percentage tail DNA and olive tail moment) and apoptosis (1.3-1.5-fold difference) compared to monolayers. Measurement of gene expression by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR showed that genes involved with insulin secretion (INS, PDX1, PCSK1, PCSK2, GLP1R and GIPR), cell-cell communication (GJD2, GJA1 and CDH1) and antioxidant defence (SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and CAT) were significantly upregulated in pseudoislets compared to monolayers, whilst the expression of proapoptotic genes (NOS2, MAPK8, MAPK10 and NFKB1) showed no significant differences. In summary, these data indicate cell-communication associated with three-dimensional islet architecture is important both for effective insulin secretion and for protection of human beta cells against cytotoxicity.

  8. Perilipin 5 Regulates Islet Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion in a cAMP-Dependent Manner: Implication of Its Role in the Postprandial Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Michelle B.; Machida, Yui; Hallinger, Daniel R.; Garcia, Eden; Christensen, Aaron; Dutta, Sucharita; Peake, David A.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of circulating fatty acids (FA) during fasting supports postprandial (PP) insulin secretion that is critical for glucose homeostasis and is impaired in diabetes. We tested our hypothesis that lipid droplet (LD) protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) in β-cells aids PP insulin secretion by regulating intracellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that PLIN5 serves as an LD protein in human islets. In vivo, Plin5 and triglycerides were increased by fasting in mouse islets. MIN6 cells expressing PLIN5 (adenovirus [Ad]-PLIN5) and those expressing perilipin 2 (PLIN2) (Ad-PLIN2) had higher [3H]FA incorporation into triglycerides than Ad-GFP control, which support their roles as LD proteins. However, Ad-PLIN5 cells had higher lipolysis than Ad-PLIN2 cells, which increased further by 8-Br-cAMP, indicating that PLIN5 facilitates FA mobilization upon cAMP stimulation as seen postprandially. Ad-PLIN5 in islets enhanced the augmentation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by FA and 8-Br-cAMP in G-protein–coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)- and cAMP-activated protein kinase–dependent manners, respectively. When PLIN5 was increased in mouse β-cells in vivo, glucose tolerance after an acute exenatide challenge was improved. Therefore, the elevation of islet PLIN5 during fasting allows partitioning of FA into LD that is released upon refeeding to support PP insulin secretion in cAMP- and GPR40-dependent manners. PMID:25392244

  9. Novel actions of IGFBP-3 on intracellular signaling pathways of insulin-secreting cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Ferry, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms underlying apoptotic destruction of insulin-secreting cells is critical to validate therapeutic targets for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We recently reported insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as a novel mediator of apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells. In light of emerging IGF-independent roles for IGFBP-3, we investigated the mechanisms underlying actions of the novel, recombinant human mutant G56G80G81-IGFBP-3, which lacks intrinsic IGF binding affinity. Using the rat insulinoma RINm5F cell line, we report the first studies in insulin-secreting cells that IGFBP-3 selectively suppresses multiple, key intracellular phosphorelays. By immunoblot, we demonstrate that G56G80G81-IGFBP-3 suppresses phosphorylation of c-raf-MEK-ERK pathway and p38 kinase in time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. SAPK/JNK signaling was unaffected. These data delineate several novel intracellular sites of action for IGFBP-3 in insulin-secreting cells. PMID:16275148

  10. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  11. Effect of Ezetimibe on Insulin Secretion in db/db Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yong; Wang, Jun; Gu, Ping; Shao, Jiaqing; Lu, Bin; Jiang, Shisen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of ezetimibe on the insulin secretion in db/db mice. Methods. The db/db diabetic mice aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned into 2 groups and intragastrically treated with ezetimibe or placebo for 6 weeks. The age matched db/m mice served as controls. At the end of experiment, glucose tolerance test was performed and then the pancreas was collected for immunohistochemistry. In addition, in vitro perfusion of pancreatic islets was employed for the detection of insulin secretion in the first phase. Results. In the ezetimibe group, the fasting blood glucose was markedly reduced, and the total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly lowered when compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). At 120 min after glucose tolerance test, the area under curve in the ezetimibe group was significantly smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05), but the AUCINS0−30 was markedly higher. In vitro perfusion of pancreatic islets revealed the first phase insulin secretion was improved. In addition, the insulin expression in the pancreas in the ezetimibe group was significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion. Ezetimibe can improve glucose tolerance, recover the first phase insulin secretion, and protect the function of β cells in mice. PMID:23118741

  12. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    PubMed

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  13. Identification of fatty acid binding protein 4 as an adipokine that regulates insulin secretion during obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lindsay E.; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Whitworth, P. Tess; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Turner, Nigel; Biden, Trevor J.; James, David E.; Cantley, James

    2014-01-01

    A critical feature of obesity is enhanced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, enabling the majority of individuals to maintain glycaemic control despite adiposity and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, the factors coordinating this adaptive β-cell response with adiposity have not been delineated. Here we show that fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2) is an adipokine released from adipocytes under obesogenic conditions, such as hypoxia, to augment insulin secretion. The insulinotropic action of FABP4 was identified using an in vitro system that recapitulates adipocyte to β-cell endocrine signalling, with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) as a functional readout, coupled with quantitative proteomics. Exogenous FABP4 potentiated GSIS in vitro and in vivo, and circulating FABP4 levels correlated with GSIS in humans. Insulin inhibited FABP4 release from adipocytes in vitro, in mice and in humans, consistent with feedback regulation. These data suggest that FABP4 and insulin form an endocrine loop coordinating the β-cell response to obesity. PMID:24944906

  14. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Tocotrienols Stimulate Insulin Secretion of Rat Pancreatic Isolated Islets in a Dynamic Culture.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ling L; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H

    2017-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are the naturally occurring vitamin E derivatives that possess antioxidant properties and therapeutic potential in diabetic complications. The bioactivities of the derivatives are determined by the number and arrangement of methyl substitution on the structure. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of T3 derivatives, σ-T3, γ-T3 and α-T3 on insulin secretion of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation that provided a stable cell culture environment. Glucose (2.8 mM and 16.7 mM, as basal and stimulant, respectively) and potassium chloride (KCl) (30 mM) were added to the treatment in calcium free medium. The supernatant was collected for insulin measurements. Short-term exposure (1 h) of σ-T3 to β cells in the stimulant glucose condition significantly potentiated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner. γ-T3 and α-T3 also displayed dosedependent effect but were less effective in the activation of insulin secretion. Essentially, KCl, a pancreatic β cell membrane depolarizing agent, added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin secretion of σ-T3, γ-T3 and α-T3 with ED50 values of 504, 511 and 588 µM, respectively. The findings suggest the potential of σ-T3 in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in response to the intracellular calcium especially in the presence of KCl. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Regulation of insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans rendered permeable by electric discharge

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, M. Adel; Pedley, Kevin C.; Howell, Simon L.

    1982-01-01

    1. High-voltage electric discharge has been used to increase the permeability of B-cells of isolated islets of Langerhans to facilitate studies of the effects of normally impermeable substances on insulin secretion. 2. The application of an intense electric field increased the [14C]sucrose space of the islets from 37.8±3.1% to 86.2±5.2% of their total volume as assessed by 3H2O content. The cells remained permeable for at least 40min. 3. Ultrastructural studies showed no deleterious changes in the structure of the B-cells after discharge. 4. Insulin secretion from normal islets was unaffected by increasing the medium [Ca2+] from 10nm to 10μm. In the islets that had been rendered permeable by discharge, insulin secretion was significantly increased under these conditions, without any alteration in the release of lactate dehydrogenase, a cytoplasmic marker enzyme. 5. Studies of the dynamics of insulin release during perifusion showed that the response to increased (10μm) Ca2+ concentration was rapid and sustained over a period of at least 13min. 6. Secretion responses to Ca2+ in perifusion established that maximum release in permeabilized islets occurs at approx. 1μm-Ca2+ and half-maximum release occurs at approx. 0.6μm-Ca2+. 7. The study of the effect of agents that interfere with the microtubular microfilamentous system in B-cells using a perifusion system revealed that cytochalasin B caused a considerable increase, whereas vinblastine sulphate caused a significant inhibition, in insulin release in response to 1μm-Ca2+. 8. This technique should facilitate the study of the role of normally impermeable ions and metabolic intermediates in the regulation of insulin secretion. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:6751326

  17. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel

    2008-03-10

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice.more » Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells.« less

  18. An In-situ glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay under perfusion bioreactor conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Jamie; Vermette, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Perfusion bioreactors, unlike traditional in vitro cell culture systems, offer stringent control of physiological parameters such as pH, flow, temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration which have been shown to have an impact on cellular behaviour and viability. Due to the relative infancy and the growing interest in these in vitro culture systems, detection methods to monitor cell function under dynamic perfusion bioreactor conditions remains one of the main challenges. In this study, INS-1 cells, a cell line which exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, were embedded in fibrin and cultured under perfusion bioreactor conditions for 48 h and then exposed to either a high-, or low-glucose concentration for 24 h. These cultures were compared to non-bioreacted controls. Bioreacted cultures exposed to a high-glucose concentration showed the highest glucose-stimulated insulin secretion when compared to those in a low-glucose environment. The stimulation index, a marker for insulin secretion functionality, increased over time. A lower incidence of apoptotic cells was observed in the bioreacted cultures when compared to non-bioreacted ones, as evaluated by a TUNEL assay. Immunofluorescence staining of Ki67 and insulin was performed and showed no differences in the incidence of proliferative cells between conditions (bioreacted and non-bioreacted), where all cells stained positive for insulin. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:454-462, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Fast insulin secretion reflects exocytosis of docked granules in mouse pancreatic B-cells.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Charlotta S; Göpel, Sven O; Barg, Sebastian; Galvanovskis, Juris; Ma, Xiaosong; Salehi, Albert; Rorsman, Patrik; Eliasson, Lena

    2002-05-01

    A readily releasable pool (RRP) of granules has been proposed to underlie the first phase of insulin secretion. In the present study we combined electron microscopy, insulin secretion measurements and recordings of cell capacitance in an attempt to define this pool ultrastructurally. Mouse pancreatic B-cells contain approximately 9,000 granules, of which 7% are docked below the plasma membrane. The number of docked granules was reduced by 30% (200 granules) during 10 min stimulation with high K+. This stimulus depolarized the cell to -10 mV, elevated cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+](i)) from a basal concentration of 130 nM to a peak of 1.3 microM and released 0.5 ng insulin/islet, corresponding to 200-300 granules/cell. The Ca2+ transient decayed towards the prestimulatory concentration within approximately 200 s, presumably reflecting Ca2+ channel inactivation. Renewed stimulation with high K+ failed to stimulate insulin secretion when applied in the absence of glucose. The size of the RRP, derived from the insulin measurements, is similar to that estimated from the increase in cell capacitance elicited by photolytic release of caged Ca2+. We propose that the RRP represents a subset of the docked pool of granules and that replenishment of RRP can be accounted for largely by chemical modification of granules already in place or situated close to the plasma membrane.

  20. Ex vivo generation of glucose sensitive insulin secreting mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shruti D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2012-03-01

    Diabetics are incapable of producing insulin/have autoimmune mechanisms making it ineffective to control glucose secretion. We present a prospective study of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-MSC) generated from human adipose tissue (h-AD) sans xenogenic material. Ten grams h-AD from donor anterior abdominal wall was collected in proliferation medium composed of α-Minimum Essential Media (α-MEM), albumin, fibroblast-growth factor and antibiotics, minced, incubated in collagenase-I at 37°C with shaker and centrifuged. Supernatant and pellets were separately cultured in proliferation medium on cell+ plates at 37°C with 5% CO(2) for 10 days. Cells were harvested by trypsinization, checked for viability, sterility, counts, flow-cytometry (CD45(-)/90(+)/73(+)), and differentiated into insulin-expressing cells using medium composed of DMEM, gene expressing up-regulators and antibiotics for 3 days. They were studied for transcriptional factors Pax-6, Isl-1, pdx-1 (immunofluorescence). C-peptide and insulin were measured by chemiluminescence. In vitro glucose sensitivity assay was carried out by measuring levels of insulin and C-peptide secretion in absence of glucose followed by 2 hours incubation after glucose addition. Mean IS-AD-MSC quantum was 3.21 ml, cell count, 1.5 ×10(3) cells/μl), CD45(-)/90(+)/73(+) cells were 44.37% /25.52%. All of them showed presence of pax-6, pdx-1, and Isl-1. Mean C-Peptide and insulin levels were 0.36 ng/ml and 234 μU/ml, respectively, pre-glucose and 0.87 ng/ml and 618.3 μU/ml post-glucose additions. The mean rise in secretion levels was 2.42 and 2.65 fold, respectively. Insulin-secreting h-AD-MSC can be generated safely and effectively showing in vitro glucose responsive alteration in insulin and C-peptide secretion levels.

  1. Synaptotagmin 4 Regulates Pancreatic β Cell Maturation by Modulating the Ca2+ Sensitivity of Insulin Secretion Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Walker, Emily M; Dadi, Prasanna K; Hu, Ruiying; Xu, Yanwen; Zhang, Wenjian; Sanavia, Tiziana; Mun, Jisoo; Liu, Jennifer; Nair, Gopika G; Tan, Hwee Yim Angeline; Wang, Sui; Magnuson, Mark A; Stoeckert, Christian J; Hebrok, Matthias; Gannon, Maureen; Han, Weiping; Stein, Roland; Jacobson, David A; Gu, Guoqiang

    2018-05-07

    Islet β cells from newborn mammals exhibit high basal insulin secretion and poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we show that β cells of newborns secrete more insulin than adults in response to similar intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, suggesting differences in the Ca 2+ sensitivity of insulin secretion. Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4), a non-Ca 2+ binding paralog of the β cell Ca 2+ sensor Syt7, increased by ∼8-fold during β cell maturation. Syt4 ablation increased basal insulin secretion and compromised GSIS. Precocious Syt4 expression repressed basal insulin secretion but also impaired islet morphogenesis and GSIS. Syt4 was localized on insulin granules and Syt4 levels inversely related to the number of readily releasable vesicles. Thus, transcriptional regulation of Syt4 affects insulin secretion; Syt4 expression is regulated in part by Myt transcription factors, which repress Syt4 transcription. Finally, human SYT4 regulated GSIS in EndoC-βH1 cells, a human β cell line. These findings reveal the role that altered Ca 2+ sensing plays in regulating β cell maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Drosophila cytokine Unpaired 2 regulates physiological homeostasis by remotely controlling Insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Akhila; Perrimon, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila the fat body (FB), a functional analog of the vertebrate adipose tissue, is the 'nutrient sensor' that conveys the nutrient status to the insulin producing cells (IPCs) in the fly brain to release insulin-like peptides (Dilps). Dilp secretion in turn regulates energy balance and promotes systemic growth. We identify Unpaired2 (Upd2), a protein with similarities to type I cytokines, as a secreted factor produced by the FB in the ‘fed’ state. When upd2 function is perturbed specifically in the FB, it results in a systemic reduction in growth and alters energy metabolism. Upd2 activates JAK/STAT signaling in a population of GABAergic neurons that project onto the IPCs. This activation relieves the inhibitory tone of the GABAergic neurons on the IPCs, resulting in the secretion of Dilps. Strikingly, we find that human Leptin, can rescue the upd2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that Upd2 is the functional homolog of Leptin. PMID:23021220

  3. Impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Chaofeng; Zhu, Xiao; Han, Yajuan

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion. The normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups included 16, 8, and 19 subjects, respectively. Subjects underwent continuous glucose monitoring for 3 days, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-l (GLP-1) levels were measured at 30-min increments for 2 h after glucose intake. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The area under the curve (AUC) of total GIP (120-min GIP-AUC) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC of the NGT group was significantly larger than those of the T2DM and IGT groups. The early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. Mean amplitudes of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) went in the order of NGT < IGT < T2DM (P < 0.01, IGT vs. NGT; P < 0.001, T2DM vs. IGT). The 120-min GIP-AUC was negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.464), but uncorrelated with ΔI30/ΔG30. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC was positively correlated with ΔI30/ΔG30 (r = 0.580), but negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.606). Incretin may ameliorate glucose excursions, and GLP-1 may exert them by promoting early-phase insulin secretion. No correlation was observed between GIP secretion and early-phase insulin secretion.

  4. Insulin Secretion Improves in Cystic Fibrosis Following Ivacaftor Correction of CFTR: A Small Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Laguna, Theresa; Leschyshyn, Janice; Regelmann, Warren; Dunitz, Jordan; Billings, JoAnne; Moran, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in human insulin secretion by assessing the metabolic impact of the new CFTR corrector, ivacaftor. Methods This open-label pilot study was conducted in CF patients with the G551D mutation given new prescriptions for ivacaftor. At baseline and 4 weeks after daily ivacaftor therapy, intravenous (IVGTT) and oral glucose (OGTT) tolerance tests were performed. Results Five patients age 6–52 were studied. After 1 month on ivacaftor, the insulin response to oral glucose improved by 66–178% in all subjects except one with long-standing diabetes. OGTT glucose levels were not lower in the two individuals with diabetes or the two with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), but the glucose tolerance category in the subject with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) improved to NGT after treatment. In response to intravenous glucose, the only patient whose acute insulin secretion did not improve had newly diagnosed, untreated CFRD. The others improved by 51–346%. Acute insulin secretion was partially restored in two subjects with no measurable acute insulin response at baseline, including the one with IGT and the one with long-standing diabetes. Conclusions This small pilot study suggests there is a direct role of CFTR in human insulin secretion. Larger, long-term longitudinal studies are necessary to determine whether early initiation of CFTR correction, particularly in young children with CF who have not yet lost considerable beta-cell mass, will delay or prevent development of diabetes in this high risk population. PMID:23952705

  5. BAG3 regulates formation of the SNARE complex and insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, V; Festa, M; Rosati, A; Hahne, M; Tiberti, C; Capunzo, M; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin release in response to glucose stimulation requires exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. Glucose stimulation of beta cells leads to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which acts on the Rho family proteins (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) that direct F-actin remodeling. This process requires docking and fusion of secretory vesicles to the release sites at the plasma membrane and is a complex mechanism that is mediated by SNAREs. This transiently disrupts the F-actin barrier and allows the redistribution of the insulin-containing granules to more peripheral regions of the β cell, hence facilitating insulin secretion. In this manuscript, we show for the first time that BAG3 plays an important role in this process. We show that BAG3 downregulation results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation and in disruption of the F-actin network. Moreover, we show that BAG3 binds to SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1, two components of the t-SNARE complex preventing the interaction between SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1. Upon glucose stimulation BAG3 is phosphorylated by FAK and dissociates from SNAP-25 allowing the formation of the SNARE complex, destabilization of the F-actin network and insulin release. PMID:25766323

  6. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  7. Comparison of insulin sensitivity, glucose sensitivity, and first phase insulin secretion in patients treated with repaglinide or gliclazide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Ze; Pei, Dee; Hsieh, An-Tsz; Wang, Kun; Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Lee, Li-Hsiu; Chu, Yi-Min; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Pei, Chun; Hsia, Te-Lin

    2010-03-01

    The traditional sulfonylureas with long half-lives have sustained stimulatory effects on insulin secretion compared to the short-acting insulin secretagogue. In this study, we used the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS), glucose sensitivity (SG), and acute insulin response after glucose load (AIRg) after 4 months treatment with either gliclazide or repaglinide. The design of study was randomizedcrossover. We enrolled 20 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes (mean age, 49.3 years). Totally three FSIGTs were performed, one before and one after each of the two treatment periods as aforementioned. No significant differences in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, body mass index, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, or lipids were noted between the two treatments. After the repaglinide treatment, higher AIRg, lower IS, and lower SG were noted, but they did not reach statistical significance. The disposal index (DI) was also not significantly different between the two treatments. In conclusion, since non-significantly higher DI, AIRg, lower IS and SG were noted after repaglinide treatment, it might be a better treatment for diabetes, relative to gliclazide.

  8. Galanin inhibits caerulein-stimulated pancreatic amylase secretion via cholinergic nerves and insulin.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Woods, Charmaine M; Carati, Colin J; Schloithe, Ann C; Jaya, Surendra R; Toouli, James; Saccone, Gino T P

    2009-08-01

    Pancreatic exocrine secretion is affected by galanin, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We aimed to determine the effect and elucidate the mechanism of action of exogenous galanin on basal and stimulated pancreatic amylase secretion in vitro. The effect of galanin on basal-, carbachol-, and caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion from isolated murine pancreatic lobules was measured. Carbachol and caerulein concentration-response relationships were established. Lobules were coincubated with galanin (10(-12) M to 10(-7) M), carbachol (10(-6) M), or caerulein (10(-10) M). Lobules were preincubated with atropine (10(-5) M), tetrodotoxin (10(-5) M), hexamethonium (10(-5) M), or diazoxide (10(-7) M and 10(-4) M) for 30 min followed by incubation with caerulein (10(-10) M) alone or combined with galanin (10(-12) M). Amylase secretion was expressed as percent of total lobular amylase. Immunohistochemical studies used the antigen retrieval technique and antisera for galanin receptor (GALR) 1, 2, and 3. Carbachol and caerulein stimulated amylase secretion in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal responses of two- and 1.7-fold over control evoked at 10(-6) M and 10(-10) M, respectively. Galanin (10(-12) M) completely inhibited caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion but had no effect on carbachol-stimulated or basal secretion. Atropine and tetrodotoxin pretreatment abolished the caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion, whereas hexamethonium had no significant effect. Diazoxide significantly reduced caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion by approximately 80%. Galanin did not affect caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion in the presence of hexamethonium or diazoxide. Glucose-stimulated amylase secretion was also inhibited by galanin. Immunohistochemistry revealed islet cells labeled for GALR2. These data suggest that galanin may modulate caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion by acting on cholinergic nerves and/or islet cells possibly via GALR2 to regulate insulin

  9. Palmitic acid acutely inhibits acetylcholine- but not GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Wilson, David F.; Matschinsky, Franz M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, acetylcholine, and GLP-1 enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. However, the interplay between glucose, fatty acids, and the neuroendocrine regulators of insulin secretion is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the acute effects of PA (alone or in combination with glucose, acetylcholine, or GLP-1) on isolated cultured mouse islets. Two different sets of experiments were designed. In one, a fixed concentration of 0.5 mM of PA bound to 0.15 mM BSA was used; in the other, a PA ramp from 0 to 0.5 mM was applied at a fixed albumin concentration of 0.15 mM so that the molar PA/BSA ratio changed within the physiological range. At a fixed concentration of 0.5 mM, PA markedly inhibited acetylcholine-stimulated insulin release, the rise of intracellular Ca2+, and enhancement of cAMP production but did not influence the effects of GLP-1 on these parameters of islet cell function. 2-ADB, an IP3 receptor inhibitor, reduced the effect of acetylcholine on insulin secretion and reversed the effect of PA on acetylcholine-stimulated insulin release. Islet perfusion for 35–40 min with 0.5 mM PA significantly reduced the calcium storage capacity of ER measured by the thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ release. Oxygen consumption due to low but not high glucose was reduced by PA. When a PA ramp from 0 to 0.5 mM was applied in the presence of 8 mM glucose, PA at concentrations as low as 50 μM significantly augmented glucose-stimulated insulin release and markedly reduced acetylcholine's effects on hormone secretion. We thus demonstrate that PA acutely reduces the total oxygen consumption response to glucose, glucose-dependent acetylcholine stimulation of insulin release, Ca2+, and cAMP metabolism, whereas GLP-1's actions on these parameters remain unaffected or potentiated. We speculate that acute emptying of the ER calcium by PA results in decreased glucose stimulation of respiration and acetylcholine potentiation of insulin secretion. PMID:20606076

  10. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Secretion, and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; Aceves-de la Mora, Martha C Aceves-de; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Ramos-Núñez, Julia L; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2018-05-01

    Chlorogenic acid has been described as a novel polyphenol with metabolic effects on glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid administration on glycemic control, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 30 patients with IGT; 15 patients randomly assigned to oral chlorogenic acid received 400 mg three times per day for 12 weeks, and the other 15 patients received placebo in the same way. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic measurements, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c, and a lipid profile, were performed. Area under the curve of glucose and insulin as well as the insulinogenic, Stumvoll, and Matsuda indices were calculated. Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were performed, and P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. There were significant decreases in FPG (5.7 ± 0.4 vs. 5.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .002), insulinogenic index (0.71 ± 0.25 vs. 0.63 ± 0.25, P = .028), body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein levels in the chlorogenic acid group, with an increment in the Matsuda index (1.98 ± 0.88 vs. 2.30 ± 1.23, P = .002). There were no significant differences in the placebo group. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid administration in patients with IGT decreased FPG and insulin secretion, while increasing insulin sensitivity and improving both anthropometric evaluations and the lipid profile.

  11. The insulin secretagogues glibenclamide and repaglinide do not influence growth hormone secretion in humans but stimulate glucagon secretion during profound insulin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Østergård, Torben; Degn, Kristine B; Gall, Mari-Anne; Carr, Richard D; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Thomsen, Mads K; Rizza, Robert A; Schmitz, Ole

    2004-01-01

    In vitro data have recently suggested that sulfonylureas (SUs) enhance GH secretion by modulating the effects of GHRH and somatostatin in pituitary cells. The present study was undertaken to explore in more detail a possible influence of a single dose of SU (glibenclamide) and a non-SU (repaglinide) insulin secretagogue on circulating GH dynamics. Ten C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic individuals were examined on three occasions in random order. Either glibenclamide (10.5 mg), repaglinide (8 mg), or placebo was administered after overnight normalization of plasma glucose by iv insulin infusion. Subsequently, GH concentrations were measured regularly after stimulation with GHRH (bolus 0.1 micro g/kg) alone and during concomitant infusion with somatostatin (7 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)). Insulin was replaced at baseline levels (0.25 mU.kg(-1).min(-1)) and plasma glucose clamped at 5-6 mmol/liter. Overall, there were no significant statistical differences in GH responses determined as either GH peak concentrations, integrated levels of GH, or secretory burst mass of GH during the experimental protocol. In contrast, plasma glucagon concentrations were significantly increased during glibenclamide and repaglinide exposure. The present experimental design does not support the hypothesis that acute administration of pharmacological doses of the oral antihyperglycemic agents glibenclamide and repaglinide per se enhance GH release in humans. Additionally, this study shows that these potassium channel inhibitors seem to stimulate glucagon secretion in people who have severe intraislet insulin deficiency (e.g. type 1 diabetes). However, extrapolation of our findings to type 2 diabetic individuals should be done with some caution.

  12. Modulation of Ionic Channels and Insulin Secretion by Drugs and Hormones in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Myrian; Díaz-García, Carlos Manlio; Larqué, Carlos; Hiriart, Marcia

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells, unique cells that secrete insulin in response to an increase in glucose levels, play a significant role in glucose homeostasis. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta cells has been extensively explored. In this mechanism, glucose enters the cells and subsequently the metabolic cycle. During this process, the ATP/ADP ratio increases, leading to ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel closure, which initiates depolarization that is also dependent on the activity of TRP nonselective ion channels. Depolarization leads to the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) and subsequently voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (Cav). The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) triggers the exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Thus, electrical activity of pancreatic beta cells plays a central role in GSIS. Moreover, many growth factors, incretins, neurotransmitters, and hormones can modulate GSIS, and the channels that participate in GSIS are highly regulated. In this review, we focus on the principal ionic channels (KATP, Nav, and Cav channels) involved in GSIS and how classic and new proteins, hormones, and drugs regulate it. Moreover, we also discuss advances on how metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus change channel activity leading to changes in insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  14. Novel Mechanistic Link between Focal Adhesion Remodeling and Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Rondas, Dieter; Tomas, Alejandra; Soto-Ribeiro, Martinho; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Halban, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton remodeling is well known to be positively involved in glucose-stimulated pancreatic β cell insulin secretion. We have observed glucose-stimulated focal adhesion remodeling at the β cell surface and have shown this to be crucial for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, the mechanistic link between such remodeling and the insulin secretory machinery remained unknown and was the major aim of this study. MIN6B1 cells, a previously validated model of primary β cell function, were used for all experiments. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed the glucose-responsive co-localization of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin with integrin β1 at the basal cell surface after short term stimulation. In addition, blockade of the interaction between β1 integrins and the extracellular matrix with an anti-β1 integrin antibody (Ha2/5) inhibited short term glucose-induced phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr-397), paxillin (Tyr-118), and ERK1/2 (Thr-202/Tyr-204). Pharmacological inhibition of FAK activity blocked glucose-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose-induced disruption of the F-actin/SNAP-25 association at the plasma membrane as well as the distribution of insulin granules to regions in close proximity to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, FAK inhibition also completely blocked short term glucose-induced activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results indicate 1) that glucose-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, and ERK1/2 is mediated by β1 integrin intracellular signaling, 2) a mechanism whereby FAK mediates glucose-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling, hence allowing docking and fusion of insulin granules to the plasma membrane, and 3) a possible functional role for the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the FAK-mediated regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PMID:22139838

  15. A Role for Glutamate Transporters in the Regulation of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gammelsaeter, Runhild; Coppola, Thierry; Marcaggi, Païkan; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Attwell, David; Regazzi, Romano; Gundersen, Vidar

    2011-01-01

    In the brain, glutamate is an extracellular transmitter that mediates cell-to-cell communication. Prior to synaptic release it is pumped into vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). To inactivate glutamate receptor responses after release, glutamate is taken up into glial cells or neurons by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, glutamate is proposed to act as an intracellular messenger, regulating insulin secretion from β-cells, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. By immunogold cytochemistry we show that insulin containing secretory granules express VGLUT3. Despite the fact that they have a VGLUT, the levels of glutamate in these granules are low, indicating the presence of a protein that can transport glutamate out of the granules. Surprisingly, in β-cells the glutamate transporter EAAT2 is located, not in the plasma membrane as it is in brain cells, but exclusively in insulin-containing secretory granules, together with VGLUT3. In EAAT2 knock out mice, the content of glutamate in secretory granules is higher than in wild type mice. These data imply a glutamate cycle in which glutamate is carried into the granules by VGLUT3 and carried out by EAAT2. Perturbing this cycle by knocking down EAAT2 expression with a small interfering RNA, or by over-expressing EAAT2 or a VGLUT in insulin granules, significantly reduced the rate of granule exocytosis. Simulations of granule energetics suggest that VGLUT3 and EAAT2 may regulate the pH and membrane potential of the granules and thereby regulate insulin secretion. These data suggest that insulin secretion from β-cells is modulated by the flux of glutamate through the secretory granules. PMID:21853059

  16. Stimulatory effect of exogenous diadenosine tetraphosphate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Ramona A; Rodríguez-Gallardo, Jovita; Egido, Eva M; Marco, José

    1999-01-01

    Diadenosine triphosphate (AP3A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) are released by various cells (e.g. platelets and chromaffin cells), and may act as extracellular messengers. In pancreatic B-cells, AP3A and AP4A are inhibitors of the ATP-regulated K+ channels, and glucose increases intracellular levels of both substances.We have studied the effect of exogenous AP3A and AP4A on insulin and glucagon secretion by the perfused rat pancreas.AP3A did not significantly modify insulin or glucagon release, whereas AP4A induced a prompt, short-lived insulin response (≈4 fold higher than basal value; P<0.05) in pancreases perfused at different glucose concentrations (3.2, 5.5 or 9 mM). AP4A-induced insulin release was abolished by somatostatin and by diazoxide. These two substances share the capacity to activate ATP-dependent K+ channels, suggesting that these channels are a potential target for AP4A in the B-cell.AP4A stimulated glucagon release at both 3.2 and 5.5 mM glucose. This effect was abolished by somatostatin.The results suggest that extracellular AP4A may play a physiological role in the control of insulin and glucagon secretion. PMID:10516664

  17. Stimulatory effect of exogenous diadenosine tetraphosphate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, R A; Rodríguez-Gallardo, J; Egido, E M; Marco, J

    1999-10-01

    1. Diadenosine triphosphate (AP3A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) are released by various cells (e.g. platelets and chromaffin cells), and may act as extracellular messengers. In pancreatic B-cells, AP3A and AP4A are inhibitors of the ATP-regulated K+ channels, and glucose increases intracellular levels of both substances. 2. We have studied the effect of exogenous AP3A and AP4A on insulin and glucagon secretion by the perfused rat pancreas. 3. AP3A did not significantly modify insulin or glucagon release, whereas AP4A induced a prompt, short-lived insulin response ( approximately 4 fold higher than basal value; P<0.05) in pancreases perfused at different glucose concentrations (3.2, 5.5 or 9 mM). AP4A-induced insulin release was abolished by somatostatin and by diazoxide. These two substances share the capacity to activate ATP-dependent K+ channels, suggesting that these channels are a potential target for AP4A in the B-cell. 4. AP4A stimulated glucagon release at both 3.2 and 5.5 mM glucose. This effect was abolished by somatostatin. 5. The results suggest that extracellular AP4A may play a physiological role in the control of insulin and glucagon secretion.

  18. Validation of insulin sensitivity and secretion indices derived from the liquid meal tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Kelley, Kathleen M; Lawless, Andrea L; Hubacher, Rachel L; Schild, Arianne L; Dicklin, Mary R; Rains, Tia M

    2011-06-01

    A liquid meal tolerance test (LMTT) has been proposed as a useful alternative to more labor-intensive methods of assessing insulin sensitivity and secretion. This substudy, conducted at the conclusion of a randomized, double-blind crossover trial, compared insulin sensitivity indices from a LMTT (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index [MISI] and LMTT disposition index [LMTT-DI]) with indices derived from minimal model analysis of results from the insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) (insulin sensitivity index [S(I)] and disposition index [DI]). Participants included men (n = 16) and women (n = 8) without diabetes but with increased abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥89 cm, respectively) and mean age of 48.9 years. The correlation between S(I) and the MISI was 0.776 (P < 0.0001). The respective associations between S(I) and MISI with waist circumference (r = -0.445 and -0.554, both P < 0.05) and body mass index were similar (r = -0.500 and -0.539, P < 0.05). The correlation between DI and LMTT-DI was 0.604 (P = 0.002). These results indicate that indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion derived from the LMTT correlate well with those from the insulin-modified IVGTT with minimal model analysis, suggesting that they may be useful for application in clinical and population studies of glucose homeostasis.

  19. Dopamine Synthesis and D3 Receptor Activation in Pancreatic β-Cells Regulates Insulin Secretion and Intracellular [Ca2+] Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are critical for glucose homeostasis via the regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. We propose a novel mechanism that regulates insulin secretion from β-cells within mouse pancreatic islets: a dopaminergic negative feedback acting on insulin secretion. We show that islets are a site of dopamine synthesis and accumulation outside the central nervous system. We show that both dopamine and its precursor l-dopa inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and this inhibition correlates with a reduction in frequency of the intracellular [Ca2+] oscillations. We further show that the effects of dopamine are abolished by a specific antagonist of the dopamine receptor D3. Because the dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors are expressed in the islets, we propose that cosecretion of dopamine with insulin activates receptors on the β-cell surface. D3 receptor activation results in changes in intracellular [Ca2+] dynamics, which, in turn, lead to lowered insulin secretion. Because blocking dopaminergic negative feedback increases insulin secretion, expanding the knowledge of this pathway in β-cells might offer a potential new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22918877

  20. The Mitochondrial 2-Oxoglutarate Carrier Is Part of a Metabolic Pathway That Mediates Glucose- and Glutamine-stimulated Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Matthew L.; Joseph, Jamie W.; Jensen, Mette V.; Lu, Danhong; Ilkayeva, Olga; Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Becker, Thomas C.; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells is dependent in part on pyruvate cycling through the pyruvate/isocitrate pathway, which generates cytosolic α-ketoglutarate, also known as 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). Here, we have investigated if mitochondrial transport of 2OG through the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC) participates in control of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Suppression of OGC in clonal pancreatic β-cells (832/13 cells) and isolated rat islets by adenovirus-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. OGC suppression also reduced insulin secretion in response to glutamine plus the glutamate dehydrogenase activator 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid. Nutrient-stimulated increases in glucose usage, glucose oxidation, glutamine oxidation, or ATP:ADP ratio were not affected by OGC knockdown, whereas suppression of OGC resulted in a significant decrease in the NADPH:NADP+ ratio during stimulation with glucose but not glutamine + 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid. Finally, OGC suppression reduced insulin secretion in response to a membrane-permeant 2OG analog, dimethyl-2OG. These data reveal that the OGC is part of a mechanism of fuel-stimulated insulin secretion that is common to glucose, amino acid, and organic acid secretagogues, involving flux through the pyruvate/isocitrate cycling pathway. Although the components of this pathway must remain intact for appropriate stimulus-secretion coupling, production of NADPH does not appear to be the universal second messenger signal generated by these reactions. PMID:20356834

  1. Kcne2 deletion impairs insulin secretion and causes type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Min; Baik, Jasmine; Nguyen, Dara; Nguyen, Victoria; Liu, Shiwei; Hu, Zhaoyang; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a rapidly increasing threat to global public health. T2DM arises largely from obesity, poor diet, and lack of exercise, but it also involves genetic predisposition. Here we report that the KCNE2 potassium channel transmembrane regulatory subunit is expressed in human and mouse pancreatic β cells. Kcne2 deletion in mice impaired glucose tolerance as early as 5 wk of age in pups fed a Western diet, ultimately causing diabetes. In adult mice fed normal chow, skeletal muscle expression of insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 were down-regulated 2-fold by Kcne2 deletion, characteristic of T2DM. Kcne2 deletion also caused extensive pancreatic transcriptome changes consistent with facets of T2DM, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and hyperproliferation. Kcne2 deletion impaired β-cell insulin secretion in vitro up to 8-fold and diminished β-cell peak outward K + current at positive membrane potentials, but also left-shifted its voltage dependence and slowed inactivation. Interestingly, we also observed an aging-dependent reduction in β-cell outward currents in both Kcne2 +/+ and Kcne2 - / - mice. Our results demonstrate that KCNE2 is required for normal β-cell electrical activity and insulin secretion, and that Kcne2 deletion causes T2DM. KCNE2 may regulate multiple K + channels in β cells, including the T2DM-linked KCNQ1 potassium channel α subunit.-Lee, S. M., Baik, J., Nguyen, D., Nguyen, V., Liu, S., Hu, Z., Abbott, G. W. Kcne2 deletion impairs insulin secretion and causes type 2 diabetes mellitus. © FASEB.

  2. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 increases β-cell proliferation and enhances insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Mori, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mitsuzaki-Miyoshi, Keiko; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Ono, Hiraku; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2017-07-14

    The prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds to the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motif of target proteins and enhances their cis-trans conversion. This report is the first to show that Pin1 expression in pancreatic β cells is markedly elevated by high-fat diet feeding and in ob/ob mice. To elucidate the role of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells, we generated β-cell-specific Pin1 KO (βPin1 KO) mice. These mutant mice showed exacerbation of glucose intolerance but had normal insulin sensitivity. We identified two independent factors underlying impaired insulin secretion in the βPin1 KO mice. Pin1 enhanced pancreatic β-cell proliferation, as indicated by a reduced β-cell mass in βPin1 KO mice compared with control mice. Moreover, a diet high in fat and sucrose failed to increase pancreatic β-cell growth in the βPin1 KO mice, an observation to which up-regulation of the cell cycle protein cyclin D appeared to contribute. The other role of Pin1 was to activate the insulin-secretory step: Pin1 KO β cells showed impairments in glucose- and KCl-induced elevation of the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and insulin secretion. We also identified salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) as a Pin1-binding protein that affected the regulation of Ca 2+ influx and found Pin1 to enhance SIK2 kinase activity, resulting in a decrease in p35 protein, a negative regulator of Ca 2+ influx. Taken together, our observations demonstrate critical roles of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells and that Pin1 both promotes β-cell proliferation and activates insulin secretion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose and first-phase insulin secretion in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Verkest, Kurt R; Fleeman, Linda M; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M

    2011-03-01

    To compare beta-cell sensitivity to glucose, first-phase insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance between dogs with naturally occurring obesity of > 2 years' duration and lean dogs. 17 client-owned obese or lean dogs. Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed with minimal model analysis on 6 obese dogs and matched controls. Glucagon stimulation tests were performed on 5 obese dogs and matched controls. Obese dogs were half as sensitive to the effects of insulin as lean dogs. Plasma glucose concentrations after food withholding did not differ significantly between groups; plasma insulin concentrations were 3 to 4 times as great in obese as in lean dogs. Obese dogs had plasma insulin concentrations twice those of lean dogs after administration of glucose and 4 times as great after administration of glucagon. First-phase insulin secretion was greater in obese dogs. Obese dogs compensated for obesity-induced insulin resistance by secreting more insulin. First-phase insulin secretion and beta-cell glucose sensitivity were not lost despite years of obesity-induced insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. These findings help explain why dogs, unlike cats and humans, have not been documented to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Reactive oxygen species as a signal in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jingbo; Bai, Yushi; Zhang, Qiang; Wong, Victoria; Floering, Lisa M; Daniel, Kiefer; Reece, Jeffrey M; Deeney, Jude T; Andersen, Melvin E; Corkey, Barbara E; Collins, Sheila

    2007-07-01

    One of the unique features of beta-cells is their relatively low expression of many antioxidant enzymes. This could render beta-cells susceptible to oxidative damage but may also provide a system that is sensitive to reactive oxygen species as signals. In isolated mouse islets and INS-1(832/13) cells, glucose increases intracellular accumulation of H2O2. In both models, insulin secretion could be stimulated by provision of either exogenous H2O2 or diethyl maleate, which raises intracellular H2O2 levels. Provision of exogenous H2O2 scavengers, including cell permeable catalase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inhibited glucose-stimulated H2O2 accumulation and insulin secretion (GSIS). In contrast, cell permeable superoxide dismutase, which metabolizes superoxide into H2O2, had no effect on GSIS. Because oxidative stress is an important risk factor for beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes, the relationship between glucose-induced H2O2 generation and GSIS was investigated under various oxidative stress conditions. Acute exposure of isolated mouse islets or INS-1(832/13) cells to oxidative stressors, including arsenite, 4-hydroxynonenal, and methylglyoxal, led to decreased GSIS. This impaired GSIS was associated with increases in a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, these findings suggest that H2O2 derived from glucose metabolism is one of the metabolic signals for insulin secretion, whereas oxidative stress may disturb its signaling function.

  5. Novel therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: infusion of in vitro-generated insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Dave, S D; Vanikar, A V; Trivedi, H L; Thakkar, U G; Gopal, S C; Chandra, T

    2015-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a metabolic disease usually resulting from autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction requiring lifetime exogenous insulin replacement. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold promising therapy. We present our experience of treating IDDM with co-infusion of in vitro autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC-differentiated insulin-secreting cells (ISC) with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). This was an Institutional Review Board approved prospective non-randomized open-labeled clinical trial after informed consent from ten patients. ISC were differentiated from autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC and were infused with bone marrow-derived HSC in portal, thymic circulation by mini-laparotomy and in subcutaneous circulation. Patients were monitored for blood sugar levels, serum C-peptide levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. Insulin administration was made on sliding scale with an objective of maintaining FBS < 150 mg/dL and PPBS around 200 mg/dL. Mean 3.34 mL cell inoculums with 5.25 × 10(4) cells/μL were infused. No untoward effects were observed. Over a mean follow-up of 31.71 months, mean serum C-peptide of 0.22 ng/mL before infusion had sustained rise of 0.92 ng/mL with decreased exogenous insulin requirement from 63.9 international units (IU)/day to 38.6 IU/day. Improvement in mean Hb1Ac was observed from 10.99 to 6.72%. Mean GAD antibodies were positive in all patients with mean of 331.10 IU/mL, which decreased to mean of 123 IU/mL. Co-infusion of autologous ISC with HSC represents a viable novel therapeutic option for IDDM.

  6. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yunli, E-mail: chrisyu1255@yahoo.com.cn; Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009; Wang, Xinting, E-mail: wxinting1986@yahoo.com.cn

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-daymore » gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may

  7. β-Cell-specific pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Choi, Cheol S.; Ghoshal, Pushpankur; Pliss, Lioudmila; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Hill, David; Cline, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by β-cells requires the generation of ATP from oxidation of pyruvate as well as generation of coupling factors involving three different pyruvate cycling shuttles. The roles of several key enzymes involved in pyruvate cycling in β-cells have been documented using isolated islets and β-cell clonal lines. To investigate the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex (PDC) in GSIS, a murine model of β-cell-specific PDH deficiency (β-PDHKO) was created. Pancreatic insulin content was decreased in 1-day-old β-PDHKO male pups and adult male mice. The plasma insulin levels were decreased and blood glucose levels increased in β-PDHKO male mice from neonatal life onward. GSIS was reduced in isolated islets from β-PDHKO male mice with about 50% reduction in PDC activity. Impairment in a glucose tolerance test and in vivo insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp was evident in β-PDHKO adults. No change in the number or size of islets was found in pancreata from 4-wk-old β-PDHKO male mice. However, an increase in the mean size of individual β-cells in islets of these mice was observed. These findings show a key role of PDC in GSIS by pyruvate oxidation. This β-PDHKO mouse model represents the first mouse model in which a mitochondrial oxidative enzyme deletion by gene knockout has been employed to demonstrate an altered GSIS by β-cells. PMID:20841503

  8. Does epigenetic dysregulation of pancreatic islets contribute to impaired insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    β cell dysfunction is central to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D develops when β cells are not able to compensate for the increasing demand for insulin caused by insulin resistance. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in establishing and maintaining β cell identity and function in physiological conditions. On the other hand, epigenetic dysregulation can cause a loss of β cell identity, which is characterized by reduced expression of genes that are important for β cell function, ectopic expression of genes that are not supposed to be expressed in β cells, and loss of genetic imprinting. Consequently, this may lead to β cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. Risk factors that can cause epigenetic dysregulation include parental obesity, an adverse intrauterine environment, hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, aging, physical inactivity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These risk factors can affect the epigenome at different time points throughout the lifetime of an individual and even before an individual is conceived. The plasticity of the epigenome enables it to change in response to environmental factors such as diet and exercise, and also makes the epigenome a good target for epigenetic drugs that may be used to enhance insulin secretion and potentially treat diabetes.

  9. A novel Gymnema sylvestre extract stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Asare-Anane, H; Maity, C R; Chatterjee, S K; Koley, N; Biswas, T; Chatterji, A K; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S A; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2010-09-01

    Many plant-based products have been suggested as potential antidiabetic agents, but few have been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in human studies, and little is known of their mechanisms of action. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have been used for the treatment of T2DM in India for centuries. The effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract, Om Santal Adivasi, (OSA(R)) on plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose in a small cohort of patients with T2DM are reported here. Oral administration of OSA(R) (1 g/day, 60 days) induced significant increases in circulating insulin and C-peptide, which were associated with significant reductions in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose. In vitro measurements using isolated human islets of Langerhans demonstrated direct stimulatory effects of OSA(R) on insulin secretion from human ß-cells, consistent with an in vivo mode of action through enhancing insulin secretion. These in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that OSA(R) may provide a potential alternative therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with T2DM. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Theophylline prevents the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Salvatore, T; Giunta, R; Torella, R

    1988-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism by which prostaglandins of the E series inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion in man. Acute insulin response (mean change 3-10 min) to iv glucose (0.33 g/kg) was decreased by 40% during the infusion of prostaglandin E2 (10 micrograms/min) and glucose disappearance rates were reduced (P less than 0.05). Insulin response to arginine (5 g iv) and tolbutamide (1 g iv) were not affected by the same rate of prostaglandin E2 infusion. The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion was prevented by theophylline (100 mg as a loading dose followed by a 5 mg/min infusion), a drug that increases the intracellular cAMP concentrations by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity. Our data suggest the involvement of the adenylate cyclase system in the inhibitory action of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid impairs glucose homeostasis and inhibits insulin secretion in high-fat diet obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rancoule, C; Attané, C; Grès, S; Fournel, A; Dusaulcy, R; Bertrand, C; Vinel, C; Tréguer, K; Prentki, M; Valet, P; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2013-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator produced by adipocytes that acts via specific G-protein-coupled receptors; its synthesis is modulated in obesity. We previously reported that reducing adipocyte LPA production in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice is associated with improved glucose tolerance, suggesting a negative impact of LPA on glucose homeostasis. Here, our aim was to test this hypothesis. First, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were assessed after acute (30 min) injection of LPA (50 mg/kg) or of the LPA1/LPA3 receptor antagonist Ki16425 (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.) in non-obese mice fed a normal diet (ND) and in obese/prediabetic (defined as glucose-intolerant) HFD mice. Glucose and insulin tolerance, pancreas morphology, glycogen storage, glucose oxidation and glucose transport were then studied after chronic treatment (3 weeks) of HFD mice with Ki16425. In ND and HFD mice, LPA acutely impaired glucose tolerance by inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. These effects were blocked by pre-injection of Ki16425 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion by LPA also occurred in isolated mouse islets. Plasma LPA was higher in HFD mice than in ND mice and Ki16425 transiently improved glucose tolerance. The beneficial effect of Ki16425 became permanent after chronic treatment and was associated with increased pancreatic islet mass and higher fasting insulinaemia. Chronic treatment with Ki16425 also improved insulin tolerance and increased liver glycogen storage and basal glucose use in skeletal muscle. Exogenous and endogenous LPA exerts a deleterious effect on glucose disposal through a reduction of plasma insulin; pharmacological blockade of LPA receptors improves glucose homeostasis in obese/prediabetic mice.

  12. Branched-chain amino acids supplementation protects streptozotocin-induced insulin secretion and the correlated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zheng, Dongmei; Jiang, Xiuyun; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Significant evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress can impair insulin secretion and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are reported to be positively related to insulin secretion. This study aimed to determine how oxidative stress affects the function of islets and whether BCAAs can ameliorate the oxidative stress, and accompanying c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase D1 (PKD1), and pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) changes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and JNK, PKD1 and PDX-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured in rats treated with STZ and BCAAs. The glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic rats was much higher than that in control animals, and the elevated plasma glucose level in diabetic rats could be significantly inhibited by BCAAs treatment. Consistent with the change in glucose levels, the levels of insulin were also affected by BCAAs treatment. The mRNA and protein expression of JNK, PDX-1, and PKD1 were significantly altered in diabetic rats compared with the control group (P<0.01) and treatment with a low dose of BCAA reversed these changes in those above markers significantly (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that STZ-induced oxidative stress could reduce serum insulin levels and alter the JNK, PDX-1, and PKD1 expression. BCAAs restored the levels of serum insulin reversed changes in JNK, PDX-1, and PKD1 expression. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Effect of Salsalate on Insulin Action, Secretion, and Clearance in Nondiabetic, Insulin-Resistant Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alice; Ariel, Danit; Abbasi, Fahim; Lamendola, Cindy; Grove, Kaylene; Tomasso, Vanessa; Ochoa, Hector; Reaven, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Salsalate treatment has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salsalate treatment on insulin action, secretion, and clearance rate in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a randomized (2:1), single-blind, placebo-controlled study of salsalate (3.5 g daily for 4 weeks) in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. All individuals had measurement of glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test), steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG; insulin suppression test), and insulin secretion and clearance rate (graded-glucose infusion test) before and after treatment. RESULTS Forty-one individuals were randomized to salsalate (n = 27) and placebo (n = 14). One individual from each group discontinued the study. Salsalate improved fasting (% mean change −7% [95% CI −10 to −14] vs. 1% [−3 to 5], P = 0.005) but not postprandial glucose concentration compared with placebo. Salsalate also lowered fasting triglyceride concentration (−25% [−34 to −15] vs. −6% [−26 to 14], P = 0.04). Salsalate had no effect on SSPG concentration or insulin secretion rate but significantly decreased insulin clearance rate compared with placebo (−23% [−30 to −16] vs. 3% [−10 to 15], P < 0.001). Salsalate was well tolerated, but four individuals needed a dose reduction due to symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Salsalate treatment in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals improved fasting, but not postprandial, glucose and triglyceride concentration. These improvements were associated with a decrease in insulin clearance rate without change in insulin action or insulin secretion. PMID:24963111

  14. A Novel GLP1 Receptor Interacting Protein ATP6ap2 Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Feihan F.; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinye Serena; Huang, Xinyi; Luu, Lemieux; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    GLP1 activates its receptor, GLP1R, to enhance insulin secretion. The activation and transduction of GLP1R requires complex interactions with a host of accessory proteins, most of which remain largely unknown. In this study, we used membrane-based split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays to identify novel GLP1R interactors in both mouse and human islets. Among these, ATP6ap2 (ATPase H+-transporting lysosomal accessory protein 2) was identified in both mouse and human islet screens. ATP6ap2 was shown to be abundant in islets including both alpha and beta cells. When GLP1R and ATP6ap2 were co-expressed in beta cells, GLP1R was shown to directly interact with ATP6ap2, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. In INS-1 cells, overexpression of ATP6ap2 did not affect insulin secretion; however, siRNA knockdown decreased both glucose-stimulated and GLP1-induced insulin secretion. Decreases in GLP1-induced insulin secretion were accompanied by attenuated GLP1 stimulated cAMP accumulation. Because ATP6ap2 is a subunit required for V-ATPase assembly of insulin granules, it has been reported to be involved in granule acidification. In accordance with this, we observed impaired insulin granule acidification upon ATP6ap2 knockdown but paradoxically increased proinsulin secretion. Importantly, as a GLP1R interactor, ATP6ap2 was required for GLP1-induced Ca2+ influx, in part explaining decreased insulin secretion in ATP6ap2 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings identify a group of proteins that interact with the GLP1R. We further show that one interactor, ATP6ap2, plays a novel dual role in beta cells, modulating both GLP1R signaling and insulin processing to affect insulin secretion. PMID:26272612

  15. Granule mobility, fusion frequency and insulin secretion are differentially affected by insulinotropic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kirstin; Matz, Magnus; Brüning, Dennis; Baumann, Knut; Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2015-05-01

    The pre-exocytotic behavior of insulin granules was studied against the background of the entirety of submembrane granules in MIN6 cells, and the characteristics were compared with the macroscopic secretion pattern and the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of MIN6 pseudo-islets at 22°C, 32°C and 37°C. The mobility of granules labeled by insulin-EGFP and the fusion events were assessed by TIRF microscopy utilizing an observer-independent algorithm. In the z-dimension, 40 mm K(+) or 30 mm glucose increased the granule turnover. The effect of high K(+) was quickly reversible. The increase by glucose was more sustained and modified the efficacy of a subsequent K(+) stimulus. The effect size of glucose increased with physiological temperature whereas that of high K(+) did not. The mobility in the x/y-dimension and the fusion rates were little affected by the stimuli, in contrast to secretion. Fusion and secretion, however, had the same temperature dependence. Granules that appeared and fused within one image sequence had significantly larger caging diameters than pre-existent granules that underwent fusion. These in turn had a different mobility than residence-matched non-fusing granules. In conclusion, delivery to the membrane, tethering and fusion of granules are differently affected by insulinotropic stimuli. Fusion rates and secretion do not appear to be tightly coupled. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fluoxetine impairs insulin secretion without modifying extracellular serotonin levels in MIN6 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, L R; Cortés, V A; Mizgier, M L; Aranda, E; Mezzano, D; Olmos, P; Galgani, J E; Suazo, J; Santos, J L

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic β-cells synthetize and store Serotonin (5-Hydroxytriptamine, 5HT) which is co-released with insulin. It has been proposed that extracellular 5HT binds to specific cell surface receptors and modulate insulin secretion. On the other hand, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine seems to reduce Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion (GSIS). However, it is unknown whether this effect results from changes in extracellular 5HT concentration owed to the blockade of 5HT transporter (SERT) or from non-5HT dependent actions. The aims of this work were: 1) to quantify extracellular 5HT levels and GSIS in β-cell lines, 2) to determine whether extracellular 5HT levels and GSIS are changed by fluoxetine or 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5HTP, the immediate 5HT biosynthetic precursor), and 3) to quantify the expression of Slc6a4 gene (encoding SERT) in β-cell lines in relation to other genes involved in 5HT system. β-cell lines MIN6 and RINm5f were subjected to GSIS protocols, after treatment with fluoxetine, 5HTP or 5HT. Insulin and 5HT were quantified by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. Relative mRNA expression was quantified by RT-qPCR. MIN6 β-cells secretes 5HT in response to glucose, showing a sharp increase in 5HT release when cells were preloaded with 5HTP. Treatment with 5HT or fluoxetine reduces GSIS. Fluoxetine fails to further increases 5HTP-induced elevation of secreted 5HT. MIN6 β-cells express both isoforms of Tryptophan Hydroxylase (Tph1 and Tph2), and have high expression levels of L-Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), both enzymes involved in 5HT biosynthetic pathway, but do not express the 5HT transporters Slc6a4 or Slc6a3 (the Dopamine-5HT transporter) genes. The inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on β-cell glucose stimulated insulin secretion is not mediated by blockage of 5HT transporter through SERT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Engineered Commensal Bacteria Reprogram Intestinal Cells Into Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Franklin F.; Liu, Joy H.

    2015-01-01

    The inactive full-length form of GLP-1(1-37) stimulates conversion of both rat and human intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-secreting cells. We investigated whether oral administration of human commensal bacteria engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37) could ameliorate hyperglycemia in a rat model of diabetes by reprogramming intestinal cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells. Diabetic rats were fed daily with human lactobacilli engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37). Diabetic rats fed GLP-1–secreting bacteria showed significant increases in insulin levels and, additionally, were significantly more glucose tolerant than those fed the parent bacterial strain. These rats developed insulin-producing cells within the upper intestine in numbers sufficient to replace ∼25–33% of the insulin capacity of nondiabetic healthy rats. Intestinal tissues in rats with reprogrammed cells expressed MafA, PDX-1, and FoxA2. HNF-6 expression was observed only in crypt epithelia expressing insulin and not in epithelia located higher on the villous axis. Staining for other cell markers in rats treated with GLP-1(1-37)–secreting bacteria suggested that normal function was not inhibited by the close physical proximity of reprogrammed cells. These results provide evidence of the potential for a safe and effective nonabsorbed oral treatment for diabetes and support the concept of engineered commensal bacterial signaling to mediate enteric cell function in vivo. PMID:25626737

  18. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-08-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores.

  19. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores. Images PMID:7635965

  20. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  1. Family history of diabetes and its relationship with insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Iraqi immigrants and native Swedes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Louise; Franks, Paul W; Zöller, Bengt; Groop, Leif

    2018-03-01

    Middle Eastern immigrants to western countries are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the heritability and impact of first-degree family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes on insulin secretion and action have not been adequately described. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-75 years born in Iraq or Sweden were invited to participate in this population-based study. Insulin secretion (corrected insulin response and oral disposition index) and action (insulin sensitivity index) were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. In total, 45.7% of Iraqis (616/1348) and 27.4% of native Swedes (201/733) had FH in parent(s), sibling(s) or single parent and sibling, i.e., FH+. Approximately 8% of Iraqis and 0.7% of Swedes had ≥ 3 sibling(s) and parent(s) with diabetes, i.e., FH++. Irrespective of family size, prediabetes and diabetes increased with family burden (FH- 29.4%; FH+ 38.8%; FH++ 61.7%) without significant differences across ethnicities. With increasing level of family burden, insulin secretion rather than insulin action decreased. Individuals with a combination of ≥ 3 siblings and parents with diabetes presented with the lowest levels of insulin secretion. The Iraqi immigrant population often present with a strong familial burden of type 2 diabetes with the worst glycemic control and highest diabetes risk in individuals with ≥ 3 siblings and parents with diabetes. Our data show that in a population still free from diabetes familial burden influences insulin secretion to a higher degree than insulin action and may be a logical target for intervention.

  2. Diurnal pattern to insulin secretion and insulin action in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed; Dalla Man, Chiara; Nandy, Debashis K; Levine, James A; Bharucha, Adil E; Rizza, Robert A; Basu, Rita; Carter, Rickey E; Cobelli, Claudio; Kudva, Yogish C; Basu, Ananda

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of the existence of a diurnal pattern of glucose tolerance after mixed meals is important to inform a closed-loop system of treatment for insulin requiring diabetes. We studied 20 healthy volunteers with normal fasting glucose (4.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and HbA(1c) (5.2 ± 0.0%) to determine such a pattern in nondiabetic individuals. Identical mixed meals were ingested during breakfast, lunch, or dinner at 0700, 1300, and 1900 h in randomized Latin square order on 3 consecutive days. Physical activity was the same on all days. Postprandial glucose turnover was measured using the triple tracer technique. Postprandial glucose excursion was significantly lower (P < 0.01) at breakfast than lunch and dinner. β-Cell responsivity to glucose and disposition index was higher (P < 0.01) at breakfast than lunch and dinner. Hepatic insulin extraction was lower (P < 0.01) at breakfast than dinner. Although meal glucose appearance did not differ between meals, suppression of endogenous glucose production tended to be lower (P < 0.01) and insulin sensitivity tended to be higher (P < 0.01) at breakfast than at lunch or dinner. Our results suggest a diurnal pattern to glucose tolerance in healthy humans, and if present in type 1 diabetes, it will need to be incorporated into artificial pancreas systems.

  3. Homogeneous Time-resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-based Assay for Detection of Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Aslanoglou, Despoina; George, Emily W; Freyberg, Zachary

    2018-05-10

    The detection of insulin secretion is critical for elucidating mechanisms of regulated secretion as well as in studies of metabolism. Though numerous insulin assays have existed for decades, the recent advent of homogeneous time-resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (HTRF) technology has significantly simplified these measurements. This is a rapid, cost-effective, reproducible, and robust optical assay reliant upon antibodies conjugated to bright fluorophores with long lasting emission which facilitates time-resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. Moreover, HTRF insulin detection is amenable for the development of high-throughput screening assays. Here we use HTRF to detect insulin secretion in INS-1E cells, a rat insulinoma-derived cell line. This allows us to estimate basal levels of insulin and their changes in response to glucose stimulation. In addition, we use this insulin detection system to confirm the role of dopamine as a negative regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In a similar manner, other dopamine D2-like receptor agonists, quinpirole, and bromocriptine, reduce GSIS in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results highlight the utility of the HTRF insulin assay format in determining the role of numerous drugs in GSIS and their pharmacological profiles.

  4. Importance of NADPH oxidase-mediated redox signaling in the detrimental effect of CRP on pancreatic insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pei-Chi; Wang, Ya-Chin; Chen, Yi-Ling; Hsu, Wan-Ning; Tian, Yu-Feng; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan

    2017-11-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are positively correlated with the progress of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of CRP on pancreatic insulin secretion is unknown. Here, we showed that purified human CRP impaired insulin secretion in isolated mouse islets and NIT-1 insulin-secreting cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. CRP increased NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, which simultaneously promoted the production of nitrotyrosine (an indicator of RNS, reactive nitrogen species) and TNFα, to diminish cell viability, insulin secretion in islets and insulin-secreting cells. These CRP-mediated detrimental effects on cell viability and insulin secretion were significantly reversed by adding NAC (a potent antioxidant), apocynin (a selective NADPH oxidase inhibitor), L-NAME (a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor), aminoguanidine (a selective iNOS inhibitor), PDTC (a selective NFκB inhibitor) or Enbrel (an anti-TNFα fusion protein). However, CRP-induced ROS production failed to change after adding L-NAME, aminoguanidine or PDTC. In isolated islets and NIT-1 cells, the elevated nitrotyrosine contents by CRP pretreatment were significantly suppressed by adding L-NAME but not PDTC. Conversely, CRP-induced increases in TNF-α production were significantly reversed by administration of PDTC but not L-NAME. In addition, wild-type mice treated with purified human CRP showed significant decreases in the insulin secretion index (HOMA-β cells) and the insulin stimulation index in isolated islets that were reversed by the addition of L-NAME, aminoguanidine or NAC. It is suggested that CRP-activated NADPH-oxidase redox signaling triggers iNOS-mediated RNS and NFκB-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production to cause β cell damage in state of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of the beta-carbolines, harmane and pinoline, on insulin secretion from isolated human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E Jane; Hudson, Alan L; Parker, Christine A; Morgan, Noel G

    2003-12-15

    It is well known that certain imidazoline compounds can stimulate insulin secretion and this has been attributed to the activation of imidazoline I(3) binding sites in the pancreatic beta-cell. Recently, it has been proposed that beta-carbolines may be endogenous ligands having activity at imidazoline sites and we have, therefore, studied the effects of beta-carbolines on insulin secretion. The beta-carbolines harmane, norharmane and pinoline increased insulin secretion two- to threefold from isolated human islets of Langerhans. The effects of harmane and pinoline were dose-dependent (EC(50): 5 and 25 microM, respectively) and these agents also blocked the inhibitory effects of the potassium channel agonist, diazoxide, on glucose-induced insulin release. Stimulation of insulin secretion by harmane was glucose-dependent but, unlike the imidazoline I(3) receptor agonist efaroxan, it increased the rate of insulin release beyond that elicited by 20 mM glucose (20 mM glucose alone: 253+/-34% vs. basal; 20 mM glucose plus 100 microM harmane: 327+/-15%; P<0.01). Stimulation of insulin secretion by harmane was attenuated by the imidazoline I(3) receptor antagonist KU14R (2 (2-ethyl 2,3-dihydro-2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazole) and was reduced when islets were treated with efaroxan for 18 h, prior to the addition of harmane. The results reveal that beta-carbolines can potentiate the rate of insulin secretion from human islets and suggest that these agents may be useful prototypes for the development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  6. Knockdown of Both Mitochondrial Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Enzymes In Pancreatic Beta Cells Inhibits Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Michael J.; Brown, Laura J.; Longacre, Melissa J.; Stoker, Scott W.; Kendrick, Mindy A.; Hasan, Noaman M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are three isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) in the pancreatic insulin cell; IDH1 (cytosolic) and IDH2 (mitochondrial) use NADP(H). IDH3 is mitochondrial, uses NAD(H) and was believed to be the IDH that supports the citric acid cycle. Methods With shRNAs targeting mRNAs for these enzymes we generated cell lines from INS-1 832/13 cells with severe (80%–90%) knockdown of the mitochondrial IDHs separately and together in the same cell line. Results With knockdown of both mitochondrial IDH’s mRNA, enzyme activity and protein level, but not with knockdown of one mitochondrial IDH, glucose- and BCH (an allosteric activator of glutamate dehydrogenase)-plus-glutamine-stimulated insulin release were inhibited. Cellular levels of citrate, α-ketoglutarate, malate and ATP were altered in patterns consistent with blockage at the mitochondrial IDH reactions. We were able to generate only 50% knockdown of Idh1 mRNA in multiple cell lines (without inhibition of insulin release) possibly because greater knockdown of IDH1 was not compatible with cell line survival. Conclusions The mitochondrial IDHs are redundant for insulin secretion. When both enzymes are severely knocked down, their low activities (possibly assisted by transport of IDH products and other metabolic intermediates from the cytosol into mitochondria) are sufficient for cell growth, but inadequate for insulin secretion when the requirement for intermediates is certainly more rapid. The results also indicate that IDH2 can support the citric acid cycle. General Significance As almost all mammalian cells possess substantial amounts of all three IDH enzymes, the biological principles suggested by these results are probably extrapolatable to many tissues. PMID:23876293

  7. β-Cell–Specific Protein Kinase A Activation Enhances the Efficiency of Glucose Control by Increasing Acute-Phase Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kaihara, Kelly A.; Dickson, Lorna M.; Jacobson, David A.; Tamarina, Natalia; Roe, Michael W.; Philipson, Louis H.; Wicksteed, Barton

    2013-01-01

    Acute insulin secretion determines the efficiency of glucose clearance. Moreover, impaired acute insulin release is characteristic of reduced glucose control in the prediabetic state. Incretin hormones, which increase β-cell cAMP, restore acute-phase insulin secretion and improve glucose control. To determine the physiological role of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a mouse model was developed to increase PKA activity specifically in the pancreatic β-cells. In response to sustained hyperglycemia, PKA activity potentiated both acute and sustained insulin release. In contrast, a glucose bolus enhanced acute-phase insulin secretion alone. Acute-phase insulin secretion was increased 3.5-fold, reducing circulating glucose to 58% of levels in controls. Exendin-4 increased acute-phase insulin release to a similar degree as PKA activation. However, incretins did not augment the effects of PKA on acute-phase insulin secretion, consistent with incretins acting primarily via PKA to potentiate acute-phase insulin secretion. Intracellular calcium signaling was unaffected by PKA activation, suggesting that the effects of PKA on acute-phase insulin secretion are mediated by the phosphorylation of proteins involved in β-cell exocytosis. Thus, β-cell PKA activity transduces the cAMP signal to dramatically increase acute-phase insulin secretion, thereby enhancing the efficiency of insulin to control circulating glucose. PMID:23349500

  8. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Yue; Seah, Tingting; Xu, Jun; Radda, George K; Südhof, Thomas C; Han, Weiping

    2010-11-09

    Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium-dependent insulin secretion, thus suggesting that other calcium-sensors must participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Of the other synaptotagmin isoforms that are present in pancreatic islets, the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is expressed at the highest level after synaptotagmin-7. In this study we tested whether synaptotagmin-9 participates in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release by using pancreas-specific synaptotagmin-9 knockout (p-S9X) mice. Deletion of synaptotagmin-9 in the pancreas resulted in no changes in glucose homeostasis or body weight. Glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo and from isolated islets were not affected in the p-S9X mice. Single-cell capacitance measurements showed no difference in insulin granule exocytosis between p-S9X and control mice. Thus, synaptotagmin-9, although a major calcium sensor in the brain, is not involved in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells.

  9. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24–48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  10. Insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway accelerates the glucose-induced first-phase insulin secretion through TrpV2 recruitment in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Kyota; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2010-12-01

    Functional insulin receptor and its downstream effector PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) have been identified in pancreatic β-cells, but their involvement in the regulation of insulin secretion from β-cells remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the physiological role of insulin and PI3K in glucose-induced biphasic insulin exocytosis in primary cultured β-cells and insulinoma Min6 cells using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. The pretreatment of β-cells with insulin induced the rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels and accelerated the exocytotic response without affecting the second-phase insulin secretion. The inhibition of PI3K not only abolished the insulin-induced rapid development of the exocytotic response, but also potentiated the second-phase insulin secretion. The rapid development of Ca2+ and accelerated exocytotic response induced by insulin were accompanied by the translocation of the Ca2+-permeable channel TrpV2 (transient receptor potential V2) in a PI3K-dependent manner. Inhibition of TrpV2 by the selective blocker tranilast, or the expression of shRNA (short-hairpin RNA) against TrpV2 suppressed the effect of insulin in the first phase, but the second phase was not affected. Thus our results demonstrate that insulin treatment induced the acceleration of the exocytotic response during the glucose-induced first-phase response by the insertion of TrpV2 into the plasma membrane in a PI3K-dependent manner.

  11. Protein malnutrition after weaning disrupts peripheral clock and daily insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Borck, Patricia Cristine; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Vieira, Elaine; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Changes in nutritional state may alter circadian rhythms through alterations in expression of clock genes. Protein deficiency has a profound effect on body metabolism, but the effect of this nutrient restriction after weaning on biological clock has not been explored. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether the protein restriction affects the daily oscillation in the behavior and metabolic rhythms, as well as expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues. Male C57BL/6 J mice, after weaning, were fed a normal-protein (NP) diet or a low-protein (LP) diet for 8 weeks. Mice fed an LP diet did not show difference in locomotor activity and energy expenditure, but the food intake was increased, with parallel increased expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide Npy and disruption of the anorexigenic Pomc oscillatory pattern in the hypothalamus. LP mice showed disruption in the daily rhythmic patterns of plasma glucose, triglycerides and insulin. Also, the rhythmic expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues and pancreatic islets was altered in LP mice. In pancreatic islets, the disruption of clock genes was followed by impairment of daily glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the expression of genes involved in exocytosis. Pharmacological activation of REV-ERBα could not restore the insulin secretion in LP mice. The present study demonstrates that protein restriction, leading to development of malnutrition, alters the peripheral clock and metabolic outputs, suggesting that this nutrient provides important entraining cues to regulate the daily fluctuation of biological clock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cephalic phase of insulin secretion and the variety of the food in rat feed].

    PubMed

    Louis-Sylvestre, J; Le Magnen, J

    1983-01-01

    Immunologically reactive insulin levels were determined in freely-moving normal rats offered three different test-meals. In test I, they were offered their normal diet for 4.5 min. In test II, they first ate the same diet for the same amount of time, then a cookie for 6 min, and finally they had free access to lard. In test III, the normal diet was followed by a synthetic sweetener and then by vaseline. It was shown that in a varied meal (tests II and III), the ingestion of each new food was immediately followed by a peak of insulin secretion superimposed on normal postprandial hyperinsulinemia. This resulted in an overall increase in insulinemia over the 15-min period measured. It is well known that in a varied meal more food is consumed. Thus, it may be that when a varied meal is offered, final satiety is postponed. This could be due to sensorially-triggered peaks of insulin secretion which would explain why the "cafeteria diet" induces hyperphagia and obesity.

  13. SIRT4 Is a Lysine Deacylase that Controls Leucine Metabolism and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin A; Huynh, Frank K; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Stuart, J Darren; Peterson, Brett S; Douros, Jonathan D; Wagner, Gregory R; Thompson, J Will; Madsen, Andreas S; Green, Michelle F; Sivley, R Michael; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Stevens, Robert D; Backos, Donald S; Capra, John A; Olsen, Christian A; Campbell, Jonathan E; Muoio, Deborah M; Grimsrud, Paul A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-04-04

    Sirtuins are NAD + -dependent protein deacylases that regulate several aspects of metabolism and aging. In contrast to the other mammalian sirtuins, the primary enzymatic activity of mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) and its overall role in metabolic control have remained enigmatic. Using a combination of phylogenetics, structural biology, and enzymology, we show that SIRT4 removes three acyl moieties from lysine residues: methylglutaryl (MG)-, hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-, and 3-methylglutaconyl (MGc)-lysine. The metabolites leading to these post-translational modifications are intermediates in leucine oxidation, and we show a primary role for SIRT4 in controlling this pathway in mice. Furthermore, we find that dysregulated leucine metabolism in SIRT4KO mice leads to elevated basal and stimulated insulin secretion, which progressively develops into glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. These findings identify a robust enzymatic activity for SIRT4, uncover a mechanism controlling branched-chain amino acid flux, and position SIRT4 as a crucial player maintaining insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IG20/MADD Plays a Critical Role in Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang-cheng; Wang, Yong; Carr, Ryan; Haddad, Christine Samir; Li, Ze; Qian, Lixia; Oberholzer, Jose; Maker, Ajay V.; Wang, Qian; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is a common feature of type 2 diabetes. Earlier, we had cloned IG20 cDNA from a human insulinoma and had shown that IG20/MADD can encode six different splice isoforms that are differentially expressed and have unique functions, but its role in β-cell function was unexplored. To investigate the role of IG20/MADD in β-cell function, we generated conditional knockout (KMA1ko) mice. Deletion of IG20/MADD in β-cells resulted in hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance associated with reduced and delayed glucose-induced insulin production. KMA1ko β-cells were able to process insulin normally but had increased insulin accumulation and showed a severe defect in glucose-induced insulin release. These findings indicated that IG20/MADD plays a critical role in glucose-induced insulin release from β-cells and that its functional disruption can cause type 2 diabetes. The clinical relevance of these findings is highlighted by recent reports of very strong association of the rs7944584 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IG20/MADD with fasting hyperglycemia/diabetes. Thus, IG20/MADD could be a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes, particularly in those with the rs7944584 SNP. PMID:24379354

  15. Glucose acutely decreases pH of secretory granules in mouse pancreatic islets. Mechanisms and influence on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Stiernet, Patrick; Guiot, Yves; Gilon, Patrick; Henquin, Jean-Claude

    2006-08-04

    Glucose-induced insulin secretion requires a rise in beta-cell cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) that triggers exocytosis and a mechanistically unexplained amplification of the action of [Ca2+]c. Insulin granules are kept acidic by luminal pumping of protons with simultaneous Cl- uptake to maintain electroneutrality. Experiments using patched, dialyzed beta-cells prompted the suggestion that acute granule acidification by glucose underlies amplification of insulin secretion. However, others found glucose to increase granular pH in intact islets. In this study, we measured islet granular pH with Lysosensor DND-160, a fluorescent dye that permits ratiometric determination of pH < 6 in acidic compartments. Stimulation of mouse islets with glucose reversibly decreased granular pH by mechanisms that are dependent on metabolism and Cl- ions but independent of changes in [Ca2+]c and protein kinase A or C activity. Granular pH was increased by concanamycin (blocker of the vesicular type H+-ATPase) > methylamine (weak base) > Cl- omission. Concanamycin and methylamine did not alter glucose-induced [Ca2+]c increase in islets but strongly inhibited the two phases of insulin secretion. Omission of Cl- did not affect the first phase but decreased the second phase of both [Ca2+]c and insulin responses. Neither experimental condition affected the [Ca2+]c rise induced by 30 mM KCl, but the insulin responses were inhibited by concanamycin > methylamine and not affected by Cl- omission. The amplification of insulin secretion by glucose was not suppressed. We conclude that an acidic granular pH is important for insulin secretion but that the acute further acidification produced by glucose is not essential for the augmentation of secretion via the amplifying pathway.

  16. Increased prandial insulin secretion after administration of a single preprandial oral dose of repaglinide in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Owens, D R; Luzio, S D; Ismail, I; Bayer, T

    2000-04-01

    To examine the dose-related pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single preprandial oral dose of repaglinide in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 16 Caucasian men with type 2 diabetes participated in two placebo-controlled double-blind randomized cross-over studies. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral dose of repaglinide (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg in study 1 and 4.0 mg in study 2) or placebo (both studies) administered 15 min before the first of two sequential identical standard meals (breakfast and lunch) that were 4 h apart. During each of the study days, which were 1 week apart, blood samples were taken at frequent intervals over a period of approximately 8 h for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and repaglinide concentrations. During the first meal period (0-240 min), administration of repaglinide reduced significantly the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose concentration and significantly increased the AUC for insulin levels, C-peptide levels, and the insulin secretion rate. These results, compared with those of administering placebo, were dose dependent and log linear. The effect of repaglinide administration on insulin secretion was most pronounced in the early prandial period. Within 30 min, it caused a relative increase in insulin secretion of up to 150%. During the second meal period (240-480 min), there was no difference between repaglinide and placebo administration in the AUC for glucose concentration, C-peptide concentration, and the estimated insulin secretion rate. A single dose of repaglinide (0.5-4.0 mg) before breakfast improves insulin secretion and reduces prandial hyperglycemia dose-dependently Administration of repaglinide had no effect on insulin secretion with the second meal, which was consumed 4 h after breakfast.

  17. The GLP-1 mimetic exenatide potentiates insulin secretion in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Gilor, C; Graves, T K; Gilor, S; Ridge, T K; Rick, M

    2011-07-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic exenatide has a glucose-dependent insulinotropic effect, and it is effective in controlling blood glucose (BG) with minimal side effects in people with type 2 diabetes. Exenatide also delays gastric emptying, increases satiety, and improves β-cell function. We studied the effect of exenatide on insulin secretion during euglycemia and hyperglycemia in cats. Nine young, healthy, neutered, purpose-bred cats were used in a randomized, cross-over design. BG concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test were determined in these cats previously. Two isoglycemic glucose clamps (mimicking the BG concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test) were performed in each cat on separate days, one without prior treatment (IGC) and the second with exenatide (1 μg/kg) injected subcutaneously 2 h before (ExIGC). BG, insulin, and exenatide concentrations were measured, and glucose infusion rates were recorded and compared in paired tests between the two experiments. After exenatide injection, insulin serum concentrations increased significantly (2.4-fold; range 1.0- to 9.2-fold; P = 0.004) within 15 min. This was followed by a mild decrease in BG concentration and a return of insulin concentration to baseline despite a continuous increase in serum exenatide concentrations. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) during ExIGC was significantly higher than insulin AUC during IGC (AUC ratio, 2.0 ± 0.4; P = 0.03). Total glucose infused was not significantly different between IGC and ExIGC. Exenatide was detectable in plasma at 15 min after injection. The mean exenatide concentration peaked at 45 min and then returned to baseline by 75 min. Exenatide was still detectable in the serum of three of five cats 8 h after injection. No adverse reactions to exenatide were observed. In conclusion, exenatide affects insulin secretion in cats in a glucose-dependent manner, similar to its effect in other species. Although this effect was not accompanied

  18. Calcium Channels in Postnatal Development of Rat Pancreatic Beta Cells and Their Role in Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    García-Delgado, Neivys; Velasco, Myrian; Sánchez-Soto, Carmen; Díaz-García, Carlos Manlio; Hiriart, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells during the first month of development acquire functional maturity, allowing them to respond to variations in extracellular glucose concentration by secreting insulin. Changes in ionic channel activity are important for this maturation. Within the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), the most studied channels are high-voltage-activated (HVA), principally L-type; while low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels have been poorly studied in native beta cells. We analyzed the changes in the expression and activity of VGCC during the postnatal development in rat beta cells. We observed that the percentage of detection of T-type current increased with the stage of development. T-type calcium current density in adult cells was higher than in neonatal and P20 beta cells. Mean HVA current density also increased with age. Calcium current behavior in P20 beta cells was heterogeneous; almost half of the cells had HVA current densities higher than the adult cells, and this was independent of the presence of T-type current. We detected the presence of α1G, α1H, and α1I subunits of LVA channels at all ages. The Cav 3.1 subunit (α1G) was the most expressed. T-type channel blockers mibefradil and TTA-A2 significantly inhibited insulin secretion at 5.6 mM glucose, which suggests a physiological role for T-type channels at basal glucose conditions. Both, nifedipine and TTA-A2, drastically decreased the beta-cell subpopulation that secretes more insulin, in both basal and stimulating glucose conditions. We conclude that changes in expression and activity of VGCC during the development play an important role in physiological maturation of beta cells. PMID:29556214

  19. Glutathionylation state of uncoupling protein-2 and the control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Fu, Accalia; Robson-Doucette, Christine; Allister, Emma M; Wheeler, Michael B; Screaton, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2012-11-16

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glucose-stimulated insulin release remains controversial because ROS have been shown to both amplify and impede insulin release. In regard to preventing insulin release, ROS activates uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. With our recent discovery that the UCP2-mediated proton leak is modulated by reversible glutathionylation, a process responsive to small changes in ROS levels, we resolved to determine whether glutathionylation is required for UCP2 regulation of GSIS. Using Min6 cells and pancreatic islets, we demonstrate that induction of glutathionylation not only deactivates UCP2-mediated proton leak but also enhances GSIS. Conversely, an increase in mitochondrial matrix ROS was found to deglutathionylate and activate UCP2 leak and impede GSIS. Glucose metabolism also decreased the total amount of cellular glutathionylated proteins and increased the cellular glutathione redox ratio (GSH/GSSG). Intriguingly, the provision of extracellular ROS (H(2)O(2), 10 μM) amplified GSIS and also activated UCP2. Collectively, our findings indicate that the glutathionylation status of UCP2 contributes to the regulation of GSIS, and different cellular sites and inducers of ROS can have opposing effects on GSIS, perhaps explaining some of the controversy surrounding the role of ROS in GSIS.

  20. Glutathionylation State of Uncoupling Protein-2 and the Control of Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Fu, Accalia; Robson-Doucette, Christine; Allister, Emma M.; Wheeler, Michael B.; Screaton, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glucose-stimulated insulin release remains controversial because ROS have been shown to both amplify and impede insulin release. In regard to preventing insulin release, ROS activates uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. With our recent discovery that the UCP2-mediated proton leak is modulated by reversible glutathionylation, a process responsive to small changes in ROS levels, we resolved to determine whether glutathionylation is required for UCP2 regulation of GSIS. Using Min6 cells and pancreatic islets, we demonstrate that induction of glutathionylation not only deactivates UCP2-mediated proton leak but also enhances GSIS. Conversely, an increase in mitochondrial matrix ROS was found to deglutathionylate and activate UCP2 leak and impede GSIS. Glucose metabolism also decreased the total amount of cellular glutathionylated proteins and increased the cellular glutathione redox ratio (GSH/GSSG). Intriguingly, the provision of extracellular ROS (H2O2, 10 μm) amplified GSIS and also activated UCP2. Collectively, our findings indicate that the glutathionylation status of UCP2 contributes to the regulation of GSIS, and different cellular sites and inducers of ROS can have opposing effects on GSIS, perhaps explaining some of the controversy surrounding the role of ROS in GSIS. PMID:23035124

  1. The influence of major dietary fatty acids on insulin secretion and action.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2010-02-01

    To briefly summarize recent advances towards understanding the influence of major dietary fatty acids on beta-cell function and evaluate their implications for insulin resistance. Studies in humans have shown that beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity improve progressively in the postprandial period as the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) with respect to saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in dietary fats increases. However, cell-culture experiments have revealed a dichotomy in the ability of fatty acids to moderate hyperactivity of, and induce lipotoxicity in, beta-cells. There are also some novel findings regarding the ability of HDL to protect beta-cells against oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in vitro and of reconstituted HDL to attenuate insulin resistance in vivo. These findings raise new questions regarding the contribution of dietary fatty acids to insulin secretion and action. These new findings point to a critical role for major dietary fatty acids in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes, which appears to be of particular relevance during postprandial periods and mainly depends on the fatty acid type. This underscores the importance of dietary fatty acids in standard diabetes management.

  2. Subcellular localization, mobility, and kinetic activity of glucokinase in glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, M; Aiston, S; Agius, L

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the subcellular localization, mobility, and activity of glucokinase in MIN6 cells, a glucose-responsive insulin-secreting beta-cell line. Glucokinase is present in the cytoplasm and a vesicular/granule compartment that is partially colocalized with insulin granules. The granular staining of glucokinase is preserved after permeabilization of the cells with digitonin. There was no evidence for changes in distribution of glucokinase between the cytoplasm and the granule compartment during incubation of the cells with glucose. The rate of release of glucokinase and of phosphoglucoisomerase from digitonin-permeabilized cells was slower when cells were incubated at an elevated glucose concentration (S0.5 approximately 15 mmol/l). This effect of glucose was counteracted by competitive inhibitors of glucokinase (5-thioglucose and mannoheptulose) but was unaffected by fructose analogs and may be due to changes in cell shape or conformation of the cytoskeleton that are secondary to glucose metabolism. Based on the similar release of glucokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase, we found no evidence for specific binding of cytoplasmic digitonin-extractable glucokinase. The affinity of beta-cells for glucose is slightly lower than that in cell extracts and, unlike that in hepatocytes, is unaffected by fructose, tagatose, or a high-K+ medium, which is consistent with the lack of change in glucokinase distribution or release. We conclude that glucokinase is present in two locations, cytoplasm and the granular compartment, and that it does not translocate between them. This conclusion is consistent with the lack of adaptive changes in the glucose phosphorylation affinity. The glucokinase activity associated with the insulin granules may have a role in either direct or indirect coupling between glucose phosphorylation and insulin secretion.

  3. Growth hormone, insulin and aging: The benefits of endocrine defects

    PubMed Central

    Bartke, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Longevity of mice can be increased by spontaneous or experimentally induced mutations that interfere with the biosynthesis or actions of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), or insulin in the adipose tissue. The effects of GH resistance and deficiency of GH (along with thyrotropin and prolactin) on aging and lifespan are the most pronounced and best established of these mutations. Potential mechanisms linking these endocrine deficits with delayed aging and extended longevity include increased stress resistance, alterations in insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and metabolic adjustments. Physiological relationships deduced from the extreme phenotypes of long-lived mouse mutants appear to apply broadly, encompassing genetically normal (“wild-type”) mice and other mammalian species. The role of GH in the control of human aging continues to be hotly debated, but recent data indicate that reduced somatotropic signaling provides protection from cancer and other age-related diseases and may promote old age survival. PMID:20851173

  4. Mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes differently to rat pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory defects after prolonged culture in a low non-stimulating glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Roma, L P; Pascal, S M; Duprez, J; Jonas, J-C

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatic beta cells chronically exposed to low glucose concentrations show signs of oxidative stress, loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and increased apoptosis. Our aim was to confirm the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in rat islet cell apoptosis under these culture conditions and to evaluate whether its reduction similarly improves survival and GSIS. Apoptosis, oxidative stress-response gene mRNA expression and glucose-induced stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and insulin secretion were measured in male Wistar rat islets cultured for 1 week in RPMI medium containing 5-10 mmol/l glucose with or without manganese(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) or N-acetyl-L-: cysteine (NAC). Oxidative stress was measured in islet cell clusters cultured under similar conditions using cytosolic and mitochondrial redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1/mt-roGFP1). Prolonged culture in 5 vs 10 mmol/l glucose increased mt-roGFP1 (but not roGFP1) oxidation followed by beta cell apoptosis and loss of GSIS resulting from reduced insulin content, mitochondrial metabolism, Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+)-induced secretion. Tolbutamide-induced, but not high K(+)-induced, Ca(2+) influx was also suppressed. Under these conditions, MnTBAP, but not NAC, triggered parallel ~50-70% reductions in mt-roGFP1 oxidation and beta cell apoptosis, but failed to protect against the loss of GSIS despite significant improvement in glucose-induced and tolbutamide-induced Ca(2+) influx. Mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes differently to rat pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory defects during culture in a low glucose concentration. Thus, targeting beta cell survival may not be sufficient to restore insulin secretion when beta cells suffer from prolonged mitochondrial oxidative stress, e.g. in the context of reduced glucose metabolism.

  5. Ectonucleotidase NTPDase3 is abundant in pancreatic β-cells and regulates glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Syed, Samreen K; Kauffman, Audra L; Beavers, Lisa S; Alston, James T; Farb, Thomas B; Ficorilli, James; Marcelo, Marialuisa C; Brenner, Martin B; Bokvist, Krister; Barrett, David G; Efanov, Alexander M

    2013-11-15

    Extracellular ATP released from pancreatic β-cells acts as a potent insulinotropic agent through activation of P2 purinergic receptors. Ectonucleotidases, a family of membrane-bound nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes, regulate extracellular ATP levels by degrading ATP and related nucleotides. Ectonucleotidase activity affects the relative proportion of ATP and its metabolites, which in turn will impact the level of purinergic receptor stimulation exerted by extracellular ATP. Therefore, we investigated the expression and role of ectonucleotidases in pancreatic β-cells. Of the ectonucleotidases studied, only ENTPD3 (gene encoding the NTPDase3 enzyme) mRNA was detected at fairly abundant levels in human and mouse pancreatic islets as well as in insulin-secreting MIN6 cells. ARL67156, a selective ectonucleotidase inhibitor, blocked degradation of extracellular ATP that was added to MIN6 cells. The compound also decreased degradation of endogenous ATP released from cells. Measurements of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells as well as in mouse and human pancreatic islets demonstrated that ARL67156 potentiated glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Downregulation of NTPDase3 expression in MIN6 cells with the specific siRNA replicated the effects of ARL67156 on extracellular ATP hydrolysis and insulin secretion. Our results demonstrate that NTPDase3 is the major ectonucleotidase in pancreatic β-cells in multiple species and that it modulates insulin secretion by controlling activation of purinergic receptors.

  6. Alpha-Mangostin Improves Insulin Secretion and Protects INS-1 Cells from Streptozotocin-Induced Damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dahae; Kim, Young-Mi; Jung, Kiwon; Chin, Young-Won; Kang, Ki Sung

    2018-05-16

    Alpha (α)-mangostin, a yellow crystalline powder with a xanthone core structure, is isolated from mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana ), which is a tropical fruit of great nutritional value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of α-mangostin and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its effect on pancreatic beta (β)-cell dysfunction. To assess the effects of α-mangostin on insulin production, rat pancreatic INS-1 cells were treated with non-toxic doses of α-mangostin (1⁻10 μM) and its impact on insulin signaling was examined by Western blotting. In addition, the protective effect of α-mangostin against pancreatic β-cell apoptosis was verified by using the β-cell toxin streptozotocin (STZ). Our results showed that α-mangostin stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells by activating insulin receptor (IR) and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) followed by phosphorylation of phospho-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, whereas it inhibited the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) (Ser1101). Moreover, α-mangostin was found to restore the STZ-induced decrease in INS-1 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of INS-1 cells with 50 μM STZ resulted in an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which was represented by the fluorescence intensity of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). This oxidative stress was decreased by co-treatment with 5 μM α-mangostin. Similarly, marked increases in the phosphorylation of P38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleavage of caspase-3 by STZ were decreased significantly by co-treatment with 5 μM α-mangostin. These results suggest that α-mangostin is capable of improving insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and protecting cells from apoptotic damage.

  7. Quercetin induces insulin secretion by direct activation of L-type calcium channels in pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, G; Virsolvy, A; Quignard, J F; Ravier, M A; Bertrand, G; Dalle, S; Cros, G; Magous, R; Richard, S; Oiry, C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Quercetin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid that displays anti-diabetic properties in vivo. Its mechanism of action on insulin-secreting beta cells is poorly documented. In this work, we have analysed the effects of quercetin both on insulin secretion and on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in beta cells, in the absence of any co-stimulating factor. Experimental Approach Experiments were performed on both INS-1 cell line and rat isolated pancreatic islets. Insulin release was quantified by the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Variations in [Ca2+]i were measured using the ratiometric fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fura-2. Ca2+ channel currents were recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key Results Quercetin concentration-dependently increased insulin secretion and elevated [Ca2+]i. These effects were not modified by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol·L−1), but were nearly abolished by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine (1 μmol·L−1). Similar to the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644, quercetin enhanced the L-type Ca2+ current by shifting its voltage-dependent activation towards negative potentials, leading to the increase in [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion. The effects of quercetin were not inhibited in the presence of a maximally active concentration of Bay K 8644 (1 μmol·L−1), with the two drugs having cumulative effects on [Ca2+]i. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, our results show that quercetin stimulates insulin secretion by increasing Ca2+ influx through an interaction with L-type Ca2+ channels at a site different from that of Bay K 8644. These data contribute to a better understanding of quercetin's mechanism of action on insulin secretion. PMID:23530660

  8. Review of methods for measuring β-cell function: Design considerations from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Tamara S; Kahn, Steven E; Utzschneider, Kristina M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Ehrmann, David A; Arslanian, Silva A; Caprio, Sonia; Edelstein, Sharon L; Savage, Peter J; Mather, Kieren J

    2018-01-01

    The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study was initiated to evaluate interventions to slow or reverse the progression of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To design the RISE study, we undertook an evaluation of methods for measurement of β-cell function and changes in β-cell function in response to interventions. In the present paper, we review approaches for measurement of β-cell function, focusing on methodologic and feasibility considerations. Methodologic considerations included: (1) the utility of each technique for evaluating key aspects of β-cell function (first- and second-phase insulin secretion, maximum insulin secretion, glucose sensitivity, incretin effects) and (2) tactics for incorporating a measurement of insulin sensitivity in order to adjust insulin secretion measures for insulin sensitivity appropriately. Of particular concern were the capacity to measure β-cell function accurately in those with poor function, as is seen in established T2D, and the capacity of each method for demonstrating treatment-induced changes in β-cell function. Feasibility considerations included: staff burden, including time and required methodological expertise; participant burden, including time and number of study visits; and ease of standardizing methods across a multicentre consortium. After this evaluation, we selected a 2-day measurement procedure, combining a 3-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and a 2-stage hyperglycaemic clamp procedure, augmented with arginine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Design and clinical pilot testing of the model-based dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST).

    PubMed

    Lotz, Thomas F; Chase, J Geoffrey; McAuley, Kirsten A; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Docherty, Paul D; Berkeley, Juliet E; Williams, Sheila M; Hann, Christopher E; Mann, Jim I

    2010-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a significant risk factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This article presents pilot study results of the dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST), a high-resolution, low-intensity test to diagnose insulin sensitivity (IS) and characterize pancreatic insulin secretion in response to a (small) glucose challenge. This pilot study examines the effect of glucose and insulin dose on the DISST, and tests its repeatability. DISST tests were performed on 16 subjects randomly allocated to low (5 g glucose, 0.5 U insulin), medium (10 g glucose, 1 U insulin) and high dose (20 g glucose, 2 U insulin) protocols. Two or three tests were performed on each subject a few days apart. Average variability in IS between low and medium dose was 10.3% (p=.50) and between medium and high dose 6.0% (p=.87). Geometric mean variability between tests was 6.0% (multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) 4.9%). Geometric mean variability in first phase endogenous insulin response was 6.8% (MSD 2.2%). Results were most consistent in subjects with low IS. These findings suggest that DISST may be an easily performed dynamic test to quantify IS with high resolution, especially among those with reduced IS. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P < .05) and produced slight increases in the measures of GH secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  11. Effect of repaglinide and gliclazide on glycaemic control, early-phase insulin secretion and lipid profiles in.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Bu, Ping; Xie, Yan-Hong; Luo, Juan; Lei, Min-Xiang; Mo, Zhao-Hui; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Both repaglinide and gliclazide are insulin secretagogues widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They stimulate insulin secretion through distinct mechanisms and may benefit patients from different aspects. The present study was to evaluate the effects of repaglinide or gliclazide on glycaemic control, insulin secretion, and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetes patients. A total of 47 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a 4-week treatment with repaglinide or gliclazide. The standard mixed meal tolerance test was performed before and after the treatment. Plasma glucose (PG), insulin concentration, and lipid profiles were measured. The area under insulin concentration curve (AUC(ins)) and the early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)) were calculated. After the trial, fasting and postprandial PG and postprandial insulin improved significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). The maximum insulin concentration occurred earlier in the repaglinide group than that in the gliclazide group. AUC(ins) increased in both groups (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups. ΔI(30)/ΔG(30) increased in both groups (P < 0.05), especially in the repaglinide group (P < 0.05). Triglyceride and total cholesterol decreased significantly in the repaglinide group in some time points, while no significant change was observed in the gliclazide group. Repaglinide and gliclazide had similar effects on glycaemic control and total insulin secretion, while repaglinide had more effects on improvements in β-cell function and lipid metabolism.

  12. Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase and indices of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mendivil, Carlos O; Toloza, Freddy JK; Ricardo-Silgado, Maria L; Morales-Álvarez, Martha C; Mantilla-Rivas, Jose O; Pinzón-Cortés, Jairo A; Lemus, Hernán N

    2017-01-01

    Background Autoimmunity against insulin-producing beta cells from pancreatic islets is a common phenomenon in type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Some reports have also related beta-cell autoimmunity to insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which autoimmunity against components of beta cells is present and relates to IR and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults is uncertain. Aim To explore the association between antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), a major antigen from beta cells, and indices of whole-body IR and beta-cell capacity/insulin secretion in adults who do not have diabetes. Methods We studied 81 adults of both sexes aged 30–70, without known diabetes or any autoimmune disease. Participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with determination of plasma glucose and insulin at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. From these results we calculated indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and incremental area under the insulin curve [iAUCins]) and insulin secretion (corrected insulin response at 30 minutes and HOMA beta-cell%). GADAs were measured in fasting plasma using immunoenzymatic methods. Results We found an overall prevalence of GADA positivity of 21.3%, without differences by sex and no correlation with age. GADA titers did not change monotonically across quartiles of any of the IR or insulin secretion indices studies. GADA did not correlate linearly with fasting IR expressed as HOMA-IR (Spearman’s r=−0.18, p=0.10) or postabsorptive IR expressed as iAUCins (r=−0.15, p=0.18), but did show a trend toward a negative correlation with insulin secretory capacity expressed by the HOMA-beta cell% index (r=−0.20, p=0.07). Hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and waist circumference were not associated with GADA titers. Conclusion GADA positivity is frequent and likely related to impaired beta-cell function among adults

  13. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  14. [Role of peripheral serotonin in the insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Cortés, Víctor Antonio; Galgani, José Eduardo; Olmos, Pablo Roberto; Santos, José Luis

    2014-09-01

    The most studied roles of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) have been related to its action in the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, most of 5HT is produced outside the CNS, mainly in the enterochromaffin cells of the gut. Additionally, other tissues such as the endocrine pancreas, particularly β-cells, have its own serotonin system able to synthesize, secrete and respond to extracellular 5HT through cell surface receptors subtypes that have been grouped in 7 families (HTR1-7). Interestingly, 5HT is stored in granules and released together with insulin from β-cells and its biological significance is likely a combination of intra and extracellular actions. The expression of enzymes involved in 5HT synthesis and their receptors varied markedly in β-pancreatic cells during pregnancy, in parallel with an increase in their insulin secretion potential (probably through the action of Htr3a) and an increase in β-cell mass (through the action of Htr2b and Htr1d). In addition, it has been suggested that gut-derived 5HT may promote hepatic gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting through Htr2b receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that peripheral 5HT plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through the differential expression and activation of 5-HT membrane receptors on the surface of hepatocytes, adipocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical consequences of alginate encapsulation: a NMR study of insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Nicholas E; Grant, Samuel C; Gustavsson, Lenita; Peltonen, Vilje-Mia; Blackband, Stephen J; Constantinidis, Ioannis

    2006-04-01

    In this study we explore the biochemical consequences of alginate encapsulation on betaTC3 cells. (13)C NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer analysis were used to investigate the effects of encapsulation on several enzymatic processes associated with the TCA cycle. Our data show statistically significant differences in various enzymatic fluxes related to the TCA cycle and insulin secretion between monolayer and alginate-encapsulated cultures. The principal cause for these effects was the process of trypsinization. Embedding the trypsinized cells in alginate beads did not have a compounded effect on the enzymatic fluxes of entrapped cells. However, an additional small but statistically significant decrease in insulin secretion was measured in encapsulated cells. Finally, differences in either enzymatic fluxes or glucose consumption as a function of bead diameter were not observed. However, differences in T(2), assessed by (1)H NMR microimaging, were observed as a function of bead diameter, suggesting that smaller beads became more organized with time in culture, while larger beads displayed a looser organization.

  16. Expansion and conversion of human pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting endocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Sugiyama, Takuya; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Gu, Xueying; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James F; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Szot, Gregory L; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation, expansion and conversion of primary adult human pancreatic ductal cells into progeny resembling native β-cells. FACS-sorted adult human ductal cells clonally expanded as spheres in culture, while retaining ductal characteristics. Expression of the cardinal islet developmental regulators Neurog3, MafA, Pdx1 and Pax6 converted exocrine duct cells into endocrine progeny with hallmark β-cell properties, including the ability to synthesize, process and store insulin, and secrete it in response to glucose or other depolarizing stimuli. These studies provide evidence that genetic reprogramming of expandable human pancreatic cells with defined factors may serve as a general strategy for islet replacement in diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00940.001 PMID:24252877

  17. Expansion and conversion of human pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Sugiyama, Takuya; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Gu, Xueying; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James F; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Szot, Gregory L; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K

    2013-11-19

    Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation, expansion and conversion of primary adult human pancreatic ductal cells into progeny resembling native β-cells. FACS-sorted adult human ductal cells clonally expanded as spheres in culture, while retaining ductal characteristics. Expression of the cardinal islet developmental regulators Neurog3, MafA, Pdx1 and Pax6 converted exocrine duct cells into endocrine progeny with hallmark β-cell properties, including the ability to synthesize, process and store insulin, and secrete it in response to glucose or other depolarizing stimuli. These studies provide evidence that genetic reprogramming of expandable human pancreatic cells with defined factors may serve as a general strategy for islet replacement in diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00940.001.

  18. A role of PLC/PKC-dependent pathway in GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Makoto; Cha, Chae Young; Rorsman, Patrik; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous glucose-lowering hormone and GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently being used as antidiabetic drugs clinically. The canonical signalling pathway (including cAMP, Epac2, protein kinase A (PKA) and K ATP channels) is almost universally accepted as the main mechanism of GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion. This belief is based on in vitro studies that used nanomolar (1-100 nM) concentrations of GLP-1. Recently, it was found that the physiological concentrations (1-10 pM) of GLP-1 also stimulate insulin secretion from isolated islets, induce membrane depolarization and increase of intracellular [Ca 2+ ] in isolated β cells/pancreatic islets. These responses were unaffected by PKA inhibitors and occurred without detectable increases in intracellular cAMP and PKA activity. These PKA-independent actions of GLP-1 depend on protein kinase C (PKC), involve activation of the standard GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) and culminate in activation of phospholipase C (PLC), leading to an elevation of diacylglycerol (DAG), increased L-type Ca 2+ and TRPM4/TRPM5 channel activities. Here, we review these recent data and contrast them against the effects of nanomolar concentrations of GLP-1. The differential intracellular signalling activated by low and high concentrations of GLP-1 could provide a clue to explain how GLP-1 exerts different function in the central nervous system and peripheral organs.

  19. Sequential Coating of Insulin Secreting Beta Cells within Multilayers of Polysaccharide Nanogels.

    PubMed

    Bal, Tugba; Oran, Dilem Ceren; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kizilel, Seda

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has emerged as a promising treatment for type-1 diabetes (T1D); however, its clinical application is still limited by the life-long use of immunosuppressive drugs, insufficient number of islets to achieve normoglycemia, and large transplantation volume. This paper reports a unique approach for nanothin coating of insulin secreting beta cell aggregates. The coating is based on hydrophobic and covalent interactions between natural acrylate modified cholesterol bearing pullulan (CHPOA) nanogels and MIN6 beta cell aggregates. Beta cell aggregates are prepared as spheroids through hanging drop method, which is optimized with respect to hanging drop volume and initial number of beta cells. These aggregates, defined as pseudoislets, are coated with sequential layers of nanogels and are evaluated as viable and functional for insulin secretion. Coating experiments are carried out using physiologically compatible medium, where pseudoislets are not brought in contact with toxic prepolymer solutions used in existing approaches. This study offers new opportunities through coating of islets with advanced functional materials under completely physiological conditions for clinical translation of cell transplantation technology. The technique developed here will establish a new paradigm for creating tolerable grafts for other chronic diseases such as anemia, cancer, central nervous system (CNS) diseases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Host Genotype and Gut Microbiome Modulate Insulin Secretion and Diet-Induced Metabolic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kreznar, Julia H; Keller, Mark P; Traeger, Lindsay L; Rabaglia, Mary E; Schueler, Kathryn L; Stapleton, Donald S; Zhao, Wen; Vivas, Eugenio I; Yandell, Brian S; Broman, Aimee Teo; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Attie, Alan D; Rey, Federico E

    2017-02-14

    Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease. Animals harboring microbial communities with enhanced capacity for processing dietary sugars and for generating hydrophobic bile acids showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease. Notably, differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion between different mouse strains were partially recapitulated via gut microbiota transfer. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome contributes to the genetic and phenotypic diversity observed among mouse strains and provide a link between the gut microbiome and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased risk of diabetes with statin treatment is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion: a 6 year follow-up study of the METSIM cohort.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Henna; Stančáková, Alena; Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with statin treatment in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort. A total of 8,749 non-diabetic participants, aged 45-73 years, were followed up for 5.9 years. New diabetes was diagnosed in 625 men by means of an OGTT, HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or glucose-lowering medication started during the follow-up. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated with OGTT-derived indices. Participants on statin treatment (N = 2,142) had a 46% increased risk of type 2 diabetes (adjusted HR 1.46 [95% CI 1.22, 1.74]). The risk was dose dependent for simvastatin and atorvastatin. Statin treatment significantly increased 2 h glucose (2hPG) and glucose AUC of an OGTT at follow-up, with a nominally significant increase in fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Insulin sensitivity was decreased by 24% and insulin secretion by 12% in individuals on statin treatment (at FPG and 2hPG <5.0 mmol/l) compared with individuals without statin treatment (p < 0.01). Decreases in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were dose dependent for simvastatin and atorvastatin. Statin treatment increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 46%, attributable to decreases in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion.

  2. Aerobic Exercise Training Attenuates Tumor Growth and Reduces Insulin Secretion in Walker 256 Tumor-Bearing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Veridiana Mota; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Prates, Kelly Valério; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; de Moraes, Ana Maria Praxedes; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Previate, Carina; Pavanello, Audrei; Matiusso, Camila Cristina Ianoni; Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Malta, Ananda; Tófolo, Laize Peron; da Silva Silveira, Sandra; Saavedra, Lucas Paulo Jacinto; Machado, Katia; da Silva, Paulo Henrique Olivieri; Fabrício, Gabriel S.; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Fátima Silva, Flaviane; Biazi, Giuliana Regina; Pereira, Taís Susane; Vieira, Elaine; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; da Costa Lima, Luiz Delmar; Rinaldi, Wilson; Ravanelli, Maria Ida; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can improve insulin sensitivity in many tissues; however, the relationship among exercise, insulin, and cancer cell growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training begun during adolescence can attenuate Walker 256 tumor growth in adult rats and alter insulin secretion. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats engaged in treadmill running for 8 weeks, 3 days/week, 44 min/day, at 55–65% VO2max until they were 90 days old (TC, Trained Control). An equivalently aged group was kept inactive during the same period (SC, Sedentary Control). Then, half the animals of the SC and TC groups were reserved as the control condition and the other half were inoculated with Walker 256 cancer cells, yielding two additional groups (Sedentary Walker and Trained Walker). Zero mortalities were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Body weight (BW), food intake, plasma glucose, insulin levels, and peripheral insulin sensitivity were analyzed before and after tumor cell inoculation. We also evaluated tumor growth, metastasis and cachexia. Isolated pancreatic islets secretory activity was analyzed. In addition, we evaluated mechanic sensibility. Our results showed improved physical performance according to the final workload and VO2max and reduced BW in trained rats at the end of the running protocol. Chronic adaptation to the aerobic exercise training decreased tumor weight, cachexia and metastasis and were associated with low glucose and insulin levels and high insulin sensitivity before and after tumor cell inoculation. Aerobic exercise started at young age also reduced pancreatic islet insulin content and insulin secretion in response to a glucose stimulus, without impairing islet morphology in trained rats. Walker 256 tumor-bearing sedentary rats also presented reduced pancreatic islet insulin content, without changing insulin secretion through isolated pancreatic islets. The mechanical sensitivity test indicated that aerobic exercise training

  3. Aerobic Exercise Training Attenuates Tumor Growth and Reduces Insulin Secretion in Walker 256 Tumor-Bearing Rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Veridiana Mota; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Prates, Kelly Valério; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; de Moraes, Ana Maria Praxedes; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Previate, Carina; Pavanello, Audrei; Matiusso, Camila Cristina Ianoni; Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Malta, Ananda; Tófolo, Laize Peron; da Silva Silveira, Sandra; Saavedra, Lucas Paulo Jacinto; Machado, Katia; da Silva, Paulo Henrique Olivieri; Fabrício, Gabriel S; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Fátima Silva, Flaviane; Biazi, Giuliana Regina; Pereira, Taís Susane; Vieira, Elaine; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; da Costa Lima, Luiz Delmar; Rinaldi, Wilson; Ravanelli, Maria Ida; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can improve insulin sensitivity in many tissues; however, the relationship among exercise, insulin, and cancer cell growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training begun during adolescence can attenuate Walker 256 tumor growth in adult rats and alter insulin secretion. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats engaged in treadmill running for 8 weeks, 3 days/week, 44 min/day, at 55-65% VO 2max until they were 90 days old (TC, Trained Control). An equivalently aged group was kept inactive during the same period (SC, Sedentary Control). Then, half the animals of the SC and TC groups were reserved as the control condition and the other half were inoculated with Walker 256 cancer cells, yielding two additional groups (Sedentary Walker and Trained Walker). Zero mortalities were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Body weight (BW), food intake, plasma glucose, insulin levels, and peripheral insulin sensitivity were analyzed before and after tumor cell inoculation. We also evaluated tumor growth, metastasis and cachexia. Isolated pancreatic islets secretory activity was analyzed. In addition, we evaluated mechanic sensibility. Our results showed improved physical performance according to the final workload and VO 2max and reduced BW in trained rats at the end of the running protocol. Chronic adaptation to the aerobic exercise training decreased tumor weight, cachexia and metastasis and were associated with low glucose and insulin levels and high insulin sensitivity before and after tumor cell inoculation. Aerobic exercise started at young age also reduced pancreatic islet insulin content and insulin secretion in response to a glucose stimulus, without impairing islet morphology in trained rats. Walker 256 tumor-bearing sedentary rats also presented reduced pancreatic islet insulin content, without changing insulin secretion through isolated pancreatic islets. The mechanical sensitivity test indicated that aerobic exercise training

  4. Assessment of benzene induced oxidative impairment in rat isolated pancreatic islets and effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Benzene (C6H6) is an organic compound used in petrochemicals and numerous other industries. It is abundantly released to our environment as a chemical pollutant causing widespread human exposure. This study mainly focused on benzene induced toxicity on rat pancreatic islets with respect to oxidative damage, insulin secretion and glucokinase (GK) activity. Benzene was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally at doses 200, 400 and 800mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In rats, benzene significantly raised the concentration of plasma insulin. Also the effect of benzene on the release of glucose-induced insulin was pronounced in isolated islets. Benzene caused oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, and also reduced the cell viability and total thiols groups, in the islets of exposed rats. In conclusion, the current study revealed that pancreatic glucose metabolism is susceptible to benzene toxicity and the resultant oxidative stress could lead to functional abnormalities in the pancreas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. TRPM2 activation by cyclic ADP-ribose at body temperature is involved in insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Kazuya; Hara, Yuji; Tominaga, Tomoko; Higashi, Tomohiro; Konishi, Yasunobu; Mori, Yasuo; Tominaga, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    There are eight thermosensitive TRP (transient receptor potential) channels in mammals, and there might be other TRP channels sensitive to temperature stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that TRPM2 can be activated by exposure to warm temperatures (>35°C) apparently via direct heat-evoked channel gating. β-NAD+- or ADP-ribose-evoked TRPM2 activity is robustly potentiated at elevated temperatures. We also show that, even though cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) does not activate TRPM2 at 25°C, co-application of heat and intracellular cADPR dramatically potentiates TRPM2 activity. Heat and cADPR evoke similar responses in rat insulinoma RIN-5F cells, which express TRPM2 endogenously. In pancreatic islets, TRPM2 is coexpressed with insulin, and mild heating of these cells evokes increases in both cytosolic Ca2+ and insulin release, which is KATP channel-independent and protein kinase A-mediated. Heat-evoked responses in both RIN-5F cells and pancreatic islets are significantly diminished by treatment with TRPM2-specific siRNA. These results identify TRPM2 as a potential molecular target for cADPR, and suggest that TRPM2 regulates Ca2+ entry into pancreatic β-cells at body temperature depending on the production of cADPR-related molecules, thereby regulating insulin secretion. PMID:16601673

  6. Nuclear hormone retinoid X receptor (RXR) negatively regulates the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of pancreatic ß-cells.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Taniguchi, Hidenori; Moritoh, Yusuke; Tashiro, Fumi; Yamamoto, Tsunehiko; Yamato, Eiji; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Ozato, Keiko; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2010-11-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and are thought to be key regulators in differentiation, cellular growth, and gene expression. Although several experiments using pancreatic β-cell lines have shown that the ligands of nuclear hormone receptors modulate insulin secretion, it is not clear whether RXRs have any role in insulin secretion. To elucidate the function of RXRs in pancreatic β-cells, we generated a double-transgenic mouse in which a dominant-negative form of RXRβ was inducibly expressed in pancreatic β-cells using the Tet-On system. We also established a pancreatic β-cell line from an insulinoma caused by the β-cell-specific expression of simian virus 40 T antigen in the above transgenic mouse. In the transgenic mouse, expression of the dominant-negative RXR enhanced the insulin secretion with high glucose stimulation. In the pancreatic β-cell line, the suppression of RXRs also enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at a high glucose concentration, while 9-cis-retinoic acid, an RXR agonist, repressed it. High-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed that expression of the dominant-negative RXR affected the expression levels of a number of genes, some of which have been implicated in the function and/or differentiation of β-cells. These results suggest that endogenous RXR negatively regulates the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Given these findings, we propose that the modulation of endogenous RXR in β-cells may be a new therapeutic approach for improving impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.

  7. A beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Attané, Camille; Peyot, Marie-Line; Lussier, Roxane; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhao, Shangang; Zhang, Dongwei; Morin, Johane; Pineda, Marco; Wang, Shupei; Dumortier, Olivier; Ruderman, Neil B; Mitchell, Grant A; Simons, Brigitte; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Joly, Erik; Prentki, Marc

    2016-12-01

    To directly assess the role of beta cell lipolysis in insulin secretion and whole-body energy homeostasis, inducible beta cell-specific adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient (B-Atgl-KO) mice were studied under normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. Atgl flox/flox mice were cross-bred with Mip-Cre-ERT mice to generate Mip-Cre-ERT /+ ;Atgl flox/flox mice. At 8 weeks of age, these mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce deletion of beta cell-specific Atgl (also known as Pnpla2), and the mice were fed an ND or HFD. ND-fed male B-Atgl-KO mice showed decreased insulinaemia and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS) in vivo. Changes in GSIS correlated with the islet content of long-chain saturated monoacylglycerol (MAG) species that have been proposed to be metabolic coupling factors for insulin secretion. Exogenous MAGs restored GSIS in B-Atgl-KO islets. B-Atgl-KO male mice fed an HFD showed reduced insulinaemia, glycaemia in the fasted and fed states and after glucose challenge, as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, decreased insulinaemia in B-Atgl-KO mice was associated with increased energy expenditure, and lipid metabolism in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues, leading to reduced fat mass and body weight. ATGL in beta cells regulates insulin secretion via the production of signalling MAGs. Decreased insulinaemia due to lowered GSIS protects B-Atgl-KO mice from diet-induced obesity, improves insulin sensitivity, increases lipid mobilisation from WAT and causes BAT activation. The results support the concept that fuel excess can drive obesity and diabetes via hyperinsulinaemia, and that an islet beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion.

  8. Over-expression of ZnT7 increases insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells by promoting insulin gene transcription

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanism by which zinc regulates insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells is still unclear. Cellular zinc homeostasis is largely maintained by zinc transporters and intracellular zinc binding proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that zinc transporter 7 (ZnT7, Slc30a7) was co...

  9. TRPM channels phosphorylation as a potential bridge between old signals and novel regulatory mechanisms of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-03-01

    Transient receptor potential channels, especially the members of the melastatin family (TRPM), participate in insulin secretion. Some of them are substrates for protein kinases, which are involved in several neurotransmitter, incretin and hormonal signaling cascades in β cells. The functional relationships between protein kinases and TRPM channels in systems of heterologous expression and native tissues rise issues about novel regulation pathways of pancreatic β-cell excitability. The aim of the present work is to review the evidences about phosphorylation of TRPM channels in β cells and to discuss the perspectives on insulin secretion.

  10. Utility of C-peptide for a reliable estimate of insulin secretion in children with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ciresi, Alessandro; Cicciò, Floriana; Radellini, Stefano; Giordano, Carla

    2016-08-01

    GH treatment (GHT) can lead to glucose metabolism impairment through decreased insulin sensitivity and impaired pancreatic β-cell function, which are the two key components of the pathogenesis of diabetes. Therefore, in addition to insulin sensitivity, during GHT it is very important to perform a reliable evaluation of insulin secretion. However, conflicting data exist regarding the insulin secretion in children during GHT. C-peptide provides a more reliable estimate of β-cell function than insulin, but few studies evaluated it during GHT. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of C-peptide in the evaluation of insulin secretion in GH deficiency (GHD) children. In 48 GHD children, at baseline and after 12 and 24months of GHT, and in 56 healthy subjects we evaluated fasting and glucagon-stimulated (AUCCpep) C-peptide levels in addition to other commonly used secretion indexes, such as fasting and oral glucose tolerance test-stimulated insulin levels (AUCINS), Homa-β, and insulinogenic index. The main outcomes were the change in C-peptide during GHT and its correlation with the auxological and hormonal parameters. At baseline GHD children showed a significant lower AUCCpep (p=0.006), while no difference was found for the other indexes. Both fasting C-peptide (beta 0.307, p=0.016) and AUCCpep (beta 0.379, p=0.002) were independently correlated with IGF-I SDS, while no correlation was found for all other indexes. After 12months an increase in Homa-β (p<0.001), fasting C-peptide (p=0.002) and AUCCpep (p<0.001) was found. At multivariate analysis, only fasting C-peptide (beta 0.783, p=0.001) and AUCCpep (beta 0.880, p<0.001) were independently correlated with IGF-I SDS. C-peptide, rather than the insulin-derived indexes, has proved to be the most useful marker of insulin secretion correlated to IGF-I levels in GHD children. Therefore, we suggest the use of glucagon test both as diagnostic test for the GH assessment and as a useful tool for the evaluation of insulin

  11. Reversal in fatigued athletes of a defect in interferon gamma secretion after administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Clancy, R L; Gleeson, M; Cox, A; Callister, R; Dorrington, M; D'Este, C; Pang, G; Pyne, D; Fricker, P; Henriksson, A

    2006-04-01

    Fatigue and impaired performance in athletes is well recognised and has been loosely linked to "overtraining". Reduced concentration of IgA in the saliva and increased shedding of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) have been associated with intense training in elite athletes. To determine whether athletes presenting with fatigue and impaired performance had an immune defect relevant to defective containment of EBV infection, and whether a probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus acidophilus) shown to enhance mucosal immunity in animal models could reverse any detected abnormality. The fatigued athletes had clinical characteristics consistent with re-activation of EBV infection and significantly (p = 0.02) less secretion of interferon (IFN) gamma from blood CD4 positive T cells. After one month of daily capsules containing 2 x 10(10) colony forming units of L acidophilus, secretion of IFNgamma from T cells had increased significantly (p = 0.01) to levels found in healthy control athletes. A significant (p = 0.03) increase in salivary IFNgamma concentrations in healthy control athletes after the one month course of L acidophilus demonstrated in man the capacity for this probiotic to enhance the mucosal IFNgamma concentration. This is the first evidence of a T cell defect in fatigued athletes, and of its reversal following probiotic therapy.

  12. Assessment of the Dynamic Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity Test (DISST) Pre and Post Gastric bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John; Docherty, Paul; Stubbs, Richard; Chase, J Geoffrey; Krebs, Jeremy

    2018-06-11

    To compare the dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity test (DISST) with the euglycaemic clamp in individuals undergoing open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery prior-to and one month after surgery. Insulin sensitivity in individuals with obesity undergoing RYGB was studied with DISST and a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Eleven participants, including nine females, mean(SD) age 51.2(12.1)yrs, with a preoperative BMI of 48.7(9.5)kg/m 2 were studied. Weight reduced from a mean(SD) of 133.8(29.8)kg to 123.8(28.9)kg post-surgery (p<0.001). The mean(SD) insulin sensitivity index (ISI-DISST) was 3.07×10 -4 (2.18)L.pmol -1 .min -1 preoperatively and 2.36 ×10 -4 (0.78)L.pmol -1 .min -1 postoperatively (p=0.37). The mean(SD) clamp ISI was 2.14 ×10 -2 (1.80)mg.L.kg -1 .min -1 .pmol -1 and 2.00×10 -2 .(0.76)mg.L.kg -1 .min -1 .pmol -1 postoperatively (p=0.86). Correlation between ISI-DISST and ISI-Clamp preoperatively was r=0.81(95%CI 0.37-0.95) and post-operatively r=0.47(95%CI 0-0.88). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrates systematic bias between the two tests, where DISST underestimated insulin sensitivity compared with the clamp by 0.96×10 -2 .mg.L.kg -1 .min -1 .pmol -1 (95%CI -2.24 to 0.32). There was a strong correlation between DISST and the clamp preoperatively and DISST can be used to estimate insulin sensitivity in individuals with morbid obesity. After RYGB surgery, DISST had a weaker correlation with the clamp suggesting the fundamental physiological determinants of insulin sensitivity being measured by each method change in different ways with changes in glucose homeostasis following RYGB surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wisetmuen, Eamruthai; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Yutanawiboonchai, Wiboonchai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion. PMID:23798879

  14. Effects of Steaming Time and Frequency for Manufactured Red Liriope platyphylla on the Insulin Secretion Ability and Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, So Hee; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Young Ju; Prak, So Hae; Lee, Hee Seob; Lee, Jong Sup; Jang, In Surk; Son, Hong Ju; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2011-06-01

    In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ug/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may

  15. Enhanced insulin secretion responsiveness and islet adrenergic desensitization after chronic norepinephrine suppression is discontinued in fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochuan; Green, Alice S.; Macko, Antoni R.; Yates, Dustin T.; Kelly, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses experience prolonged hypoxemia, hypoglycemia, and elevated norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, resulting in hypoinsulinemia and β-cell dysfunction. Previously, we showed that acute adrenergic blockade revealed enhanced insulin secretion responsiveness in the IUGR fetus. To determine whether chronic exposure to NE alone enhances β-cell responsiveness afterward, we continuously infused NE into fetal sheep for 7 days and, after terminating the infusion, evaluated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucose-potentiated arginine-induced insulin secretion (GPAIS). During treatment, NE-infused fetuses had greater (P < 0.05) plasma NE concentrations and exhibited hyperglycemia (P < 0.01) and hypoinsulinemia (P < 0.01) compared with controls. GSIS during the NE infusion was also reduced (P < 0.05) compared with pretreatment values. GSIS and GPAIS were approximately fourfold greater (P < 0.01) in NE fetuses 3 h after the 7 days that NE infusion was discontinued compared with age-matched controls or pretreatment GSIS and GPAIS values of NE fetuses. In isolated pancreatic islets from NE fetuses, mRNA concentrations of adrenergic receptor isoforms (α1D, α2A, α2C, and β1), G protein subunit-αi-2, and uncoupling protein 2 were lower (P < 0.05) compared with controls, but β-cell regulatory genes were not different. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to elevated NE persistently suppresses insulin secretion. After removal, NE fetuses demonstrated a compensatory enhancement in insulin secretion that was associated with adrenergic desensitization and greater stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic islets. PMID:24253046

  16. Effect of Diacerein on Insulin Secretion and Metabolic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Zavala, Maria G.; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Robles-Cervantes, José A.; González-López, Roberto; Santiago-Hernández, Nestor J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of diacerein on insulin secretion and metabolic control in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 40 drug-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes. A metabolic profile including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and fasting insulin levels was carried out before the intervention and 2 months afterward. A hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was performed to assess the phases of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. After randomization, 20 patients received diacerein (50 mg once daily) for the first 15 days and twice daily for 45 additional days. The remaining patients received placebo. Intra- and intergroup differences were calculated by Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS There were significant increases in first (102 ± 63 vs. 130 ± 75 pmol/L; P < 0.01), late (219 ± 111 vs. 280 ± 135 pmol/L; P < 0.01), and total insulin (178 ± 91 vs. 216 ± 99 pmol/L; P < 0.01) secretions without changes in insulin sensitivity after diacerein administration. There were significant decreases in fasting glucose (7.9 ± 1.4 vs. 6.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and in A1C levels (8.3 ± 1.0 vs. 7.0 ± 0.8%; P < 0.001) after diacerein administration. There were no significant changes after placebo administration in the above-mentioned evaluations. CONCLUSIONS Insulin secretion increased and metabolic control improved after diacerein administration in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21610123

  17. Effects of a westernized lifestyle on the association between fasting serum nonesterified fatty acids and insulin secretion in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Nozomu; Yamane, Kiminori; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Ishida, Kazufumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Okubo, Masamichi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2005-06-01

    The effects of the prolonged elevation of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels on insulin secretion have been controversial and thought to be sex-specific. To investigate the association between a westernized lifestyle and the effects of NEFA on insulin secretion in Japanese men, we examined 67 nondiabetic Japanese-American men and 220 nondiabetic native Japanese men who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Most Japanese Americans we surveyed are genetically identical to Japanese living in Japan, but their lifestyle is more westernized. Sets of multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the sum of the immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels during the OGTT ((Sigma)IRI) and clinical parameters. Japanese Americans had higher levels of fasting IRI, (Sigma)IRI, and a higher insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) than native Japanese, whereas there were no significant differences in fasting NEFA and triglyceride levels. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, fasting triglycerides, and body mass index (BMI) demonstrated that the fasting NEFA level was an independent determinant of the (Sigma)IRI only in Japanese-American men ( P = .001), but not in native Japanese men ( P = .054). Even when HOMA-IR was included in models instead of BMI, the NEFA level was a significant variable of (Sigma)IRI only in Japanese Americans ( P < .001), and not in native Japanese ( P = .098). In addition, a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, fasting triglycerides, and BMI demonstrated that the fasting NEFA level was the only independent determinant of (Sigma)C-peptide in Japanese-American men ( P = .041). In conclusion, NEFA seems to be associated with insulin secretion independent of obesity or HOMA-IR. A westernized lifestyle may increase the effects of serum fasting NEFA levels on total insulin secretion after a glucose load in Japanese men.

  18. The Ceramide Transporter CERT is Involved in Muscle Insulin Signaling Defects Under Lipotoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandet, Cécile L; Mahfouz, Rana; Véret, Julien; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Poirier, Maxime; Giussani, Paola; Campana, Mélanie; Philippe, Erwann; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Ballaire, Raphaëlle; Le Liepvre, Xavier; Bourron, Olivier; Berkeš, Dušan; Górski, Jan; Ferré, Pascal; Le Stunff, Hervé; Foufelle, Fabienne; Hajduch, Eric

    2018-05-14

    One main mechanism of insulin resistance (IR), a key feature of type-2 diabetes, is the accumulation of saturated fatty acids (FA) in muscles of obese and type-2 diabetic patients. Understanding the mechanism underlying lipid-induced IR is therefore a crucial challenge. Saturated FA are metabolized into lipid-derivatives called ceramides and their accumulation plays a central role in the development of muscle IR. Ceramides are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to the Golgi through a transporter called CERT, where they are converted into different sphingolipid species. We show here that CERT protein expression is reduced in all insulin resistance models studied due to a caspase-dependent cleavage. Inhibiting CERT activity in vitro potentiates the deleterious action of lipotoxicity on insulin signaling whereas overexpression of CERT in vitro or in vivo increases muscle ceramide content and improves insulin signaling. In addition, inhibition of caspase activity prevents ceramide-induced insulin signaling defects in C2C12 muscle cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate the importance of a physiological ER to Golgi ceramide traffic to preserve muscle cell insulin signaling and identifies CERT as a major actor in this process. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in murine islets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Yun, Jun-Won; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-01-10

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic ebselen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic copper diisopropylsalicylate (CuDIPs) were used to rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets of GPX1 and(or) SOD1-knockout mice. Ebselen improved GSIS in islets of all four tested genotypes. The rescue in the GPX1 knockout resulted from a coordinated transcriptional regulation of four key GSIS regulators and was mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α)-mediated signaling pathways. In contrast, CuDIPs improved GSIS only in the SOD1 knockout and suppressed gene expression of the PGC-1α pathway. Islets from the GPX1 and(or) SOD1 knockout mice provided metabolically controlled intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide conditions for the present study to avoid confounding effects. Bioinformatics analyses of gene promoters and expression profiles guided the search for upstream signaling pathways to link the ebselen-initiated H2O2 scavenging to downstream key events of GSIS. The RNA interference was applied to prove PGC-1α as the main mediator for that link. Our study revealed a novel metabolic use and clinical potential of ebselen in rescuing GSIS in the GPX1-deficient islets and mice, along with distinct differences between the GPX and SOD mimics in this regard. These findings highlight the necessities and opportunities of discretional applications of various antioxidant enzyme mimics in treating insulin secretion disorders. REBOUND TRACK: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Regina Brigelius-Flohe, Vadim Gladyshev, Dexing Hou, and Holger Steinbrenner.

  20. Repaglinide acutely amplifies pulsatile insulin secretion by augmentation of burst mass with no effect on burst frequency.

    PubMed

    Juhl, C B; Pørksen, N; Hollingdal, M; Sturis, J; Pincus, S; Veldhuis, J D; Dejgaard, A; Schmitz, O

    2000-05-01

    Repaglinide is a new oral hypoglycemic agent that acts as a prandial glucose regulator proposed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by stimulating insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to explore actions of repaglinide on the rapid pulsatile insulin release by high-frequency insulin sampling and analysis of insulin-concentration time series. We examined 8 healthy lean male subjects in a single-dose double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. After the subjects underwent an overnight fast, blood sampling was initiated and continued every minute for 120 min. After 40 min, a single dose (0.5 mg) of repaglinide or placebo was given. Serum insulin-concentration time series were assessed by deconvolution analyses and the regularity statistic by approximate entropy (ApEn). Average insulin concentration was increased after repaglinide administration (basal vs. stimulated period, P values are placebo vs. repaglinide) (25.1 +/- 3.6 vs. 33.5 +/- 4.1 pmol/l, P < 0.001). Insulin secretory burst mass (15.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 19.6 +/- 2.8 pmol x l(-1) x pulse(-1), P = 0.02) and amplitude (6.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 7.7 +/- 1.2 pmol x l(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.008) were augmented after repaglinide administration. A concomitant trend toward an increase in basal insulin secretion was observed (2.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.4 pmol x l(-1) x min(-1), p = 0.06), while the interpulse interval was unaltered (6.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.4 min/pulse, P = 0.38). ApEn increased significantly after repaglinide administration (0.623 +/- 0.045 vs. 0.670 +/- 0.034, P = 0.04), suggesting less orderly oscillatory patterns of insulin release. In conclusion, a single dose of repaglinide amplifies insulin secretory burst mass (and basal secretion) with no change in burst frequency. The possible importance of these mechanisms in the treatment of type 2 diabetes characterized by disrupted pulsatile insulin secretion remains to be clarified.

  1. Reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion in low-protein-fed rats is associated with altered pancreatic islets redox status.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Ana Paula G; Zoppi, Claudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Batista, Thiago M; Paula, Flávia M; da Silva, Priscilla M R; Rafacho, Alex; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between early life protein malnutrition-induced redox imbalance, and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. After weaning, male Wistar rats were submitted to a normal-protein-diet (17%-protein, NP) or to a low-protein-diet (6%-protein, LP) for 60 days. Pancreatic islets were isolated and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione content, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and catalase (CAT) gene expression, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities were quantified. Islets that were pre-incubated with H 2 O 2 and/or N-acetylcysteine, were subsequently incubated with glucose for insulin secretion measurement. Protein malnutrition increased CAT mRNA content by 100%. LP group SOD1 and CAT activities were 50% increased and reduced, respectively. H 2 O 2 production was more than 50% increased whereas GSH/GSSG ratio was near 60% lower in LP group. Insulin secretion was, in most conditions, approximately 50% lower in LP rat islets. When islets were pre-incubated with H 2 O 2 (100 μM), and incubated with glucose (33 mM), LP rats showed significant decrease of insulin secretion. This effect was attenuated when LP islets were exposed to N-acetylcysteine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of mammalian homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13-1 (Munc13-1) in the recruitment of newcomer insulin granules in both first and second phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse islets.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Zhu, D; Gaisano, H Y

    2012-10-01

    We have previously reported that the haplodeficient Munc13-1(+/-) mouse exhibits impaired biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), causing glucose intolerance mimicking type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) can bypass these insulin-secretory defects in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of exocytotic events mediated by GLP-1 in rescuing insulin secretion is unclear. The total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) technique was used to examine single insulin granule fusion events in mouse islet beta cells. There was no difference in the density of docked granules in the resting state between Munc13-1(+/+) and Munc13-1(+/-) mouse islet beta cells. While exocytosis of previously docked granules in Munc13-1(+/-) beta cells is reduced during high-K(+) stimulation as expected, we now find a reduction in additional exocytosis events that account for the major portion of GSIS, namely two types of newcomer granules, one which has a short docking time (short-dock) and another undergoing no docking before exocytosis (no-dock). As mammalian homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13-1 (Munc13-1) is a phorbol ester substrate, phorbol ester could partially rescue biphasic GSIS in Munc13-1-deficient beta cells by enhancing recruitment of short-dock newcomer granules for exocytosis. The more effective rescue of biphasic GSIS by GLP-1 than by phorbol was due to increased recruitment of both short-dock and no-dock newcomer granules. Phorbol ester and GLP-1 potentiation of biphasic GSIS are brought about by recruitment of distinct populations of newcomer granules for exocytosis, which may be mediated by Munc13-1 interaction with syntaxin-SNARE complexes other than that formed by syntaxin-1A.

  3. Relationship between serum secreted frizzled-related protein 4 levels and the first-phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in individuals with different glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Qu, Hua; Li, Yingjie; Tang, Qian; Yang, Zesong; Wang, Hang; Deng, Huacong

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that serum secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) 4 may affect β-cell function. In a cross-sectional clinical study, 56 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 52 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 42 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects were enrolled to investigate the relationship between SFRP4 levels and the first-phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted, and acute insulin response (AIR), the area under the curve of the first-phase (0-10 min) insulin secretion (AUC), and the glucose disposition index (GDI) were calculated. The serum levels of SFRP4, IL-1β, plasma glucose, serum lipid, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured. Levels of serum SFRP4 and IL-1β in the T2DM group and IGT group were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.01). The AIR, AUC and GDI between the three groups showed a progressive decrease from the NGT to IGT groups with the lowest value in the T2DM groups (P < 0.01). The serum SFRP4 levels were negatively correlated with AIR, AUC, GDI and HOMA-β (P < 0.01) and were positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, hs-CRP, and IL-1β (P < 0.01). Our study provides evidence that the concentrations of serum SFRP4 in T2DM and IGT subjects were increased and were correlated closely with glycose metabolic disorder, the first-phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and chronic low-grade inflammation. SFRP4 may participate in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin-like and IGF-like peptides in the silkmoth Bombyx mori: discovery, structure, secretion, and function

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Akira; Okamoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    A quarter of a century has passed since bombyxin, the first insulin-like peptide identified in insects, was discovered in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. During these years, bombyxin has been studied for its structure, genes, distribution, hemolymph titers, secretion control, as well as physiological functions, thereby stimulating a wide range of studies on insulin-like peptides in other insects. Moreover, recent studies have identified a new class of insulin family peptides, IGF-like peptides, in B. mori and Drosophila melanogaster, broadening the base of the research area of the insulin-related peptides in insects. In this review, we describe the achievements of the studies on insulin-like and IGF-like peptides mainly in B. mori with short histories of their discovery. Our emphasis is that bombyxins, secreted by the brain neurosecretory cells, regulate nutrient-dependent growth and metabolism, whereas the IGF-like peptides, secreted by the fat body and other peripheral tissues, regulate stage-dependent growth of tissues. PMID:23966952

  6. A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; King, A J; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines, especially plant-derived extracts, have been used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for many centuries, and offer the potential of cheap and readily available alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals in developing countries. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have anti-diabetic activities and have been used as a folk medicine in India for centuries. We have investigated the effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract termed OSA® on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, and on insulin secretion and synthesis by isolated mouse islets. Single administration of OSA® (500 mg/kg) to ob/ob mice 30 min before an intraperitoneal glucose load improved their abnormal glucose tolerance. In vitro studies indicated that OSA® (0.25 mg/ml) initiated rapid and reversible increases in insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets at substimulatory (2 mM) and stimulatory (20 mM) glucose concentrations. In addition, prolonged treatment (24-48 h) of mouse islets with OSA® elevated the expression of preproinsulin mRNA and maintained the total insulin content of mouse islets in the presence of stimulated insulin secretion. These effects of OSA® are consistent with its potential use as a therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with obesity-related T2DM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: Sex Differences in Insulin Action and Secretion.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ananda; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Sex difference plays a substantial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy glucose-tolerant humans. The factors which may contribute to the sex-related differences in glucose metabolism include differences in lifestyle (diet and exercise), sex hormones, and body composition. Several epidemiological and observational studies have noted that impaired glucose tolerance is more common in women than men. Some of these studies have attributed this to differences in body composition, while others have attributed impaired insulin sensitivity as a cause of impaired glucose tolerance in women. We studied postprandial glucose metabolism in 120 men and 90 women after ingestion of a mixed meal. Rates of meal glucose appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance were calculated using a novel triple-tracer isotope dilution method. Insulin action and secretion were calculated using validated physiological models. While rate of meal glucose appearance was higher in women than men, rates of glucose disappearance were higher in elderly women than elderly men while young women had lower rates of glucose disappearance than young men. Hence, sex has an impact on postprandial glucose metabolism, and sex differences in carbohydrate metabolism may have important implications for approaches to prevent and manage diabetes in an individual.

  8. Relaxation Response Induces Temporal Transcriptome Changes in Energy Metabolism, Insulin Secretion and Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Marie G.; Denninger, John W.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A.

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress. PMID:23650531

  9. Stimulation of insulin secretion by long-chain free fatty acids. A direct pancreatic effect.

    PubMed

    Crespin, S R; Greenough, W B; Steinberg, D

    1973-08-01

    A continuous-flow centrifuge was used to infuse sodium salts of oleic, linoleic, lauric, or palmitic acid into the pancreatic artery of anesthetized dogs. In these regional perfusion studies there was no increase in FFA levels in the general circulation. Elevation of pancreatic FFA levels produced an immediate increase in pancreatic venous immunoreactive insulin (IRI). After 10 min of FFA infusion. IRI levels declined somewhat from the initial peak response but soon rose again to high levels which were then sustained until the infusion was terminated. All four long-chain FFA tested produced a similar biphasic IRI response. Clearcut increases in IRI were associated with absolute FFA levels (measured in pancreaticoduodenal venous plasma) as low as 0.6-0.8 mueq/ml and with increments over basal levels of as little as 0.4-0.5 mueq/ml. At higher levels of FFA, absolute IRI levels in the pancreatic venous effluent exceeded 1,000 muU/ml in some experiments and 5- to 10-fold increases over basal values were observed. These studies indicate that long-chain FFA, in physiological concentrations, can markedly stimulate insulin secretion by a direct effect on the pancreas. The results lend support to the concept of insulin as a hormone that is importantly involved in regulating the metabolism of all three principal classes of metabolic substrates and whose release is in turn regulated by all of them. The relative importance and precise nature of its physiologic role in the regulation of lipolysis, lipid deposition, and ketone body formation remains to be established.

  10. SEL1L Regulates Adhesion, Proliferation and Secretion of Insulin by Affecting Integrin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Diaferia, Giuseppe R.; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Biunno, Ida

    2013-01-01

    SEL1L, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, has been reported to regulate the (i) differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine tissue during the second transition of mouse embryonic development, (ii) neural stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment and (iii) cell cycle progression through regulation of genes related to cell-matrix interaction. Here we show that in the pancreas the expression of SEL1L is developmentally regulated, such that it is readily detected in developing islet cells and in nascent acinar clusters adjacent to basement membranes, and becomes progressively restricted to the islets of Langherans in post-natal life. This peculiar expression pattern and the presence of two inverse RGD motifs in the fibronectin type II domain of SEL1L protein indicate a possible interaction with cell adhesion molecules to regulate islets architecture. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed SEL1L and ß1-integrin interaction and, down-modulation of SEL1L in pancreatic ß-cells, negatively influences both cell adhesion on selected matrix components and cell proliferation likely due to altered ERK signaling. Furthermore, the absence of SEL1L protein strongly inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated mouse pancreatic islets unveiling an important role of SEL1L in insulin trafficking. This phenotype can be rescued by the ectopic expression of the ß1-integrin subunit confirming the close interaction of these two proteins in regulating the cross-talk between extracellular matrix and insulin signalling to create a favourable micro-environment for ß-cell development and function. PMID:24324549

  11. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulatesmore » insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.« less

  12. Insulin and GH secretion in adolescent girls with irregular cycles: polycystic vs multifollicular ovaries.

    PubMed

    Villa, P; Rossodivita, A; Fulghesu, A M; Cucinelli, F; Barini, A; Apa, R; Belosi, C; Lanzone, A

    2003-04-01

    In the present study insulin (I) and GH secretion was studied in a group of twenty-five young adolescent girls (mean age: 15 +/- 0.23 yr) with cycle irregularity associated to clinical signs of hyperandrogenism in comparison with that observed in eleven normal matched subjects with regular menses. All patients underwent basal hormone measurements and, on two consecutive days, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a GHRH iv test. Therefore, all subjects had a transabdominal US scan for the measurement of ovarian volume and the characterization of ovarian morphology. On the basis of the US examination we found patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO-like group) and subjects with multifollicular ovaries (MFO group). PCO-like group exhibited T (p<0.01) and LH (p<0.05) plasma levels higher than control group and the highest free androgen index (FAI) values (13 +/- 0.87). All patients with irregular menses showed plasma concentrations of AUC for I (AUC-I) significantly higher in respect to control group (7359.4 +/- 709 vs 5447 +/- 431 microIU/ml x 180 min, p<0.01) as well as both PCO-like group and MFO group did (p<0.001 and p<0.01) respectively. MFO group showed higher values of the AUC for GH (AUC-GH) (2809 +/- 432 ng/ml x 120 min) in respect to controls (1708 +/- 208 ng/ml x 120 min, p<0.05) and PCO-like subjects (p<0.001), who on the contrary showed the lowest AUC-GH values (618 +/- 119 ng/ml x 120 min). In conclusion, PCO-like patients associated hyperinsulinemia with a blunted GH secretion while MFO patients had higher GH secretion associated with higher AUC-I values in a way suggesting an immature and still developing reproductive system.

  13. Decrement of postprandial insulin secretion determines the progressive nature of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Wan Sub; Kim, Soo Kyung; Kim, Hae Jin; Kang, Eun Seok; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lim, Sung Kil; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2006-10-01

    Type-2 diabetes is a progressive disease. However, little is known about whether decreased fasting or postprandial pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness is more prominent with increased duration of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between insulin secretion both during fasting and 2 h postprandial, and the duration of diabetes in type-2 diabetic patients. Cross-sectional clinical investigation. We conducted a meal tolerance test in 1466 type-2 diabetic patients and calculated fasting (M0) and postprandial (M1) beta-cell responsiveness. The fasting C-peptide, postprandial C-peptide, M0, and M1 values were lower, but HbA1c values were higher, in patients with diabetes duration > 10 years than those in other groups. There was no difference in the HbA1c levels according to the tertiles of their fasting C-peptide level. However, in a group of patients with highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the HbA1c values were significantly lower than those in other groups. After adjustment of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), the duration of diabetes was found to be negatively correlated with fasting C-peptide (gamma = -0.102), postprandial C-peptide (gamma = -0.356), M0 (gamma = -0.263), and M1 (gamma = -0.315; P < 0.01 respectively). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, HbA1c was found to be negatively correlated with postprandial C-peptide (gamma = -0.264), M(0) (gamma = -0.379), and M1 (gamma = -0.522), however, positively correlated with fasting C-peptide (gamma = 0.105; P < 0.01 respectively). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, M0, M1, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) emerged as predictors of HbAlc after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI (R2 = 0.272, 0.080, and 0.056 respectively). With increasing duration of diabetes, the decrease of postprandial insulin secretion is becoming more prominent, and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness may be a more important determinant for glycemic control than

  14. Novel Small Molecule Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Rodents and From Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Sloop, Kyle W.; Willard, Francis S.; Brenner, Martin B.; Ficorilli, James; Valasek, Kathleen; Showalter, Aaron D.; Farb, Thomas B.; Cao, Julia X.C.; Cox, Amy L.; Michael, M. Dodson; Gutierrez Sanfeliciano, Sonia Maria; Tebbe, Mark J.; Coghlan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical effectiveness of parenterally-administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics to improve glucose control in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes strongly supports discovery pursuits aimed at identifying and developing orally active, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. The purpose of these studies was to identify and characterize novel nonpeptide agonists of the GLP-1 receptor. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Screening using cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and insulin secretion assays with rodent and human islets were used to identify novel molecules. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp characterized the insulinotropic effects of compounds in vivo. RESULTS Novel low molecular weight pyrimidine-based compounds that activate the GLP-1 receptor and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion are described. These molecules induce GLP-1 receptor-mediated cAMP signaling in HEK293 cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and increase insulin secretion from rodent islets in a dose-dependent manner. The compounds activate GLP-1 receptor signaling, both alone or in an additive fashion when combined with the endogenous GLP-1 peptide; however, these agonists do not compete with radiolabeled GLP-1 in receptor-binding assays. In vivo studies using the IVGTT and the hyperglycemic clamp in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate increased insulin secretion in compound-treated animals. Further, perifusion assays with human islets isolated from a donor with type 2 diabetes show near-normalization of insulin secretion upon compound treatment. CONCLUSIONS These studies characterize the insulinotropic effects of an early-stage, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist and provide compelling evidence to support pharmaceutical optimization. PMID:20823098

  15. [The correlation between serum uric acid level and early-phase insulin secretion in subjects with normal glucose regulation].

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Zheng, F P; Li, H

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum uric acid (SUA) level and early-phase insulin secretion in subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR). Totally 367 community NGR residents confirmed by a 75g oral glucose tolerance test were enrolled. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the early-phase insulin secretion index after a glucose load (ΔI30/ΔG30) were used to estimate the insulin sensitivity and the early-phase insulin secretion, respectively. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the SUA level quartiles. Differences in early-phase insulin levels, ΔI30/ΔG30, and HOMA-IR were compared among the 4 groups. Age, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin (FINS), 30 minutes postprandial insulin(30 minINS), 2 hours postprandial insulin(2hINS), HOMA-IR and TG levels increased across the rising categories of SUA levels, while the HDL-C was decreased across the SUA groups (P<0.01). The SUA level was positively correlated with age(r=0.157, P<0.01), BMI(r=0.262, P<0.01), waist circumference(r=0.372, P<0.01), systolic blood pressure(r=0.200, P<0.01), diastolic blood pressure(r=0.254, P<0.01), 30 minutes postprandial plasma glucose(r=0.118, P=0.023), FINS(r=0.249, P<0.01), 30minINS(r=0.189, P<0.01), 2hINS(r=0.206, P<0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c, r=0.106, P=0.042), HOMA-IR(r=0.244, P<0.01), TG(r=0.350, P<0.01), ΔI30/ΔG30(r=0.144, P<0.01), and negatively correlated with HDL-C level(r=-0.321, P<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that SUA(β=0.292, P<0.01) and HOMA-IR(β=29.821, P<0.01) were positively associated with ΔI30/ΔG30. SUA level is closely related with the early-phase insulin secretion in NGR subjects.

  16. Co-culture of clonal beta cells with GLP-1 and glucagon-secreting cell line impacts on beta cell insulin secretion, proliferation and susceptibility to cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; Moffett, R Charlotte; Flatt, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the direct effects on insulin releasing MIN6 cells of chronic exposure to GLP-1, glucagon or a combination of both peptides secreted from GLUTag L-cell and αTC1.9 alpha-cell lines in co-culture. MIN6, GLUTag and αTC1.9 cell lines exhibited high cellular hormone content and release of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon, respectively. Co-culture of MIN6 cells with GLUTag cells significantly increased cellular insulin content, beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretory responses to a range of established secretogogues and afforded protection against exposure cytotoxic concentrations of glucose, lipid, streptozotocin or cytokines. Benefits of co-culture of MIN6 cells with αTC1.9 alphacells were limited to enhanced beta-cell proliferation with marginal positive actions on both insulin secretion and cellular protection. In contrast, co-culture of MIN6 with GLUTag cells plus αTC1.9 cells, markedly enhanced both insulin secretory responses and protection against beta-cell toxins compared with co-culture with GLUTag cells alone. These data indicate important long-term effects of conjoint GLP-1 and glucagon exposure on beta-cell function. This illustrates the possible functional significance of alpha-cell GLP-1 production as well as direct beneficial effects of dual agonism at beta-cell GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Antiaging Gene Klotho Enhances Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Up-Regulating Plasma Membrane Levels of TRPV2 in MIN6 β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. Klotho is expressed in mouse pancreatic islets and in insulinoma β-cells (MIN6 β-cells). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Klotho plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 β-cells by overexpression and silencing of Klotho. It is interesting that overexpression of Klotho increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β-cells. Overexpression of mouse Klotho protein also significantly increased plasma membrane levels of transient receptor potential V2 (TRPV2), calcium entry, and the glucose-induced increase in intracellular calcium. On the other hand, knockdown of Klotho by siRNA significantly decreased plasma membrane levels of TRPV2 and attenuated glucose-induced calcium entry and insulin secretion. Tranilast, a selective inhibitor of TRPV2, abolished the promoting effects of overexpression of Klotho on glucose-induced calcium entry and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Thus, TRPV2 lies in the downstream of Klotho in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that Klotho may enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion by up-regulating plasma membrane levels of TRPV2 and thus glucose-induced calcium responses. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role of Klotho in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β-cells. PMID:22597535

  18. Antiaging gene Klotho enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion by up-regulating plasma membrane levels of TRPV2 in MIN6 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Sun, Zhongjie

    2012-07-01

    Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. Klotho is expressed in mouse pancreatic islets and in insulinoma β-cells (MIN6 β-cells). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Klotho plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 β-cells by overexpression and silencing of Klotho. It is interesting that overexpression of Klotho increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β-cells. Overexpression of mouse Klotho protein also significantly increased plasma membrane levels of transient receptor potential V2 (TRPV2), calcium entry, and the glucose-induced increase in intracellular calcium. On the other hand, knockdown of Klotho by siRNA significantly decreased plasma membrane levels of TRPV2 and attenuated glucose-induced calcium entry and insulin secretion. Tranilast, a selective inhibitor of TRPV2, abolished the promoting effects of overexpression of Klotho on glucose-induced calcium entry and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Thus, TRPV2 lies in the downstream of Klotho in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that Klotho may enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion by up-regulating plasma membrane levels of TRPV2 and thus glucose-induced calcium responses. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role of Klotho in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β-cells.

  19. Rising intracellular zinc by membrane depolarization and glucose in insulin-secreting clonal HIT-T15 beta cells.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Li, Yang V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30-60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  20. Rising Intracellular Zinc by Membrane Depolarization and Glucose in Insulin-Secreting Clonal HIT-T15 Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Slepchenko, Kira G.; Li, Yang V.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn2+) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30–60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:22536213

  1. Cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and by stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Shukrana, Mishkat; Raza, Sayed Ali; Chishti, Sidra; Kabir, Nurul; Siddiqui, Rehan A

    2015-02-15

    Although the anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid, a pure compound from cinnamon, has been reported but its mechanism(s) is not yet clear. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism(s) of anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid in in vitro and in vivo non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. Non-obese type 2 diabetes was developed by injecting 90 mg/kg streptozotocin in 2-day-old Wistar pups. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde were administered orally to diabetic rats for assessing acute blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of glucose tolerance. Additionally, insulin secretory activity of cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in isolated mice islets. Cinnamic acid, but not cinnamaldehyde, decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of cinnamic acid with 5 and 10 mg/kg doses to diabetic rats improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. The improvement by 10 mg/kg cinnamic acid was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Further in vitro studies showed that cinnamaldehyde has little or no effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, cinnamic acid significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. In conclusion, it can be said that cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulating insulin secretion in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Biotin enhances ATP synthesis in pancreatic islets of the rat, resulting in reinforcement of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Sone, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Komai, Michio; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yuji

    2004-02-13

    Previous studies showed that biotin enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. Changes in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in the pancreatic islets participate in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. In the present study we investigated whether biotin regulates the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in glucose-stimulated islets. When islets were stimulated with glucose plus biotin, the ATP/ADP ratio increased to approximately 160% of the ATP/ADP ratio in islets stimulated with glucose alone. The rate of glucose oxidation, assessed by CO(2) production, was also about 2-fold higher in islets treated with biotin. These increasing effects of biotin were proportional to the effects seen in insulin secretion. There are no previous reports of vitamins, such as biotin, directly affecting ATP synthesis. Our data indicate that biotin enhances ATP synthesis in islets following the increased rate of substrate oxidation in mitochondria and that, as a consequence of these events, glucose-induced insulin release is reinforced by biotin.

  3. Somatostatin and insulin mediate glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion in the pancreatic α-cell by lowering cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amicia D.; Ustione, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion from the pancreatic islet α-cell is a critical component of diabetes pathology and metabolic disease. We show a previously uncharacterized [Ca2+]i-independent mechanism of glucagon suppression in human and murine pancreatic islets whereby cAMP and PKA signaling are decreased. This decrease is driven by the combination of somatostatin, which inhibits adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP via the Gαi subunit of the SSTR2, and insulin, which acts via its receptor to activate phosphodiesterase 3B and degrade cytosolic cAMP. Our data indicate that both somatostatin and insulin signaling are required to suppress cAMP/PKA and glucagon secretion from both human and murine α-cells, and the combination of these two signaling mechanisms is sufficient to reduce glucagon secretion from isolated α-cells as well as islets. Thus, we conclude that somatostatin and insulin together are critical paracrine mediators of glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion and function by lowering cAMP/PKA signaling with increasing glucose. PMID:25406263

  4. Connexin-36 gap junctions regulate in vivo first- and second-phase insulin secretion dynamics and glucose tolerance in the conscious mouse.

    PubMed

    Head, W Steven; Orseth, Meredith L; Nunemaker, Craig S; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W; Benninger, Richard K P

    2012-07-01

    Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin release in isolated islets, however a role in vivo has not been shown. We test whether loss of gap-junction coupling disrupts plasma insulin oscillations and whether this impacts glucose tolerance. We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36(-/-) and control mice. Our results show that Cx36(-/-) mice are glucose intolerant, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. However, Cx36(-/-) mice exhibit reduced insulin pulse amplitudes and a reduction in first-phase insulin secretion. These changes are similarly found in isolated Cx36(-/-) islets. We conclude that Cx36 gap junctions regulate the in vivo dynamics of insulin secretion, which in turn is important for glucose homeostasis. Coordinated pulsatility of individual islets enhances the first-phase elevation and second-phase pulses of insulin. Because these dynamics are disrupted in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, dysregulation of gap-junction coupling could be an important factor in the development of this disease.

  5. Defective calcium inactivation causes long QT in obese insulin-resistant rat.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Huang, Jianying; Kan, Hong; Castranova, Vincent; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Yu, Han-Gang

    2012-02-15

    The majority of diabetic patients who are overweight or obese die of heart disease. We suspect that the obesity-induced insulin resistance may lead to abnormal cardiac electrophysiology. We tested this hypothesis by studying an obese insulin-resistant rat model, the obese Zucker rat (OZR). Compared with the age-matched control, lean Zucker rat (LZR), OZR of 16-17 wk old exhibited an increase in QTc interval, action potential duration, and cell capacitance. Furthermore, the L-type calcium current (I(CaL)) in OZR exhibited defective inactivation and lost the complete inactivation back to the closed state, leading to increased Ca(2+) influx. The current density of I(CaL) was reduced in OZR, whereas the threshold activation and the current-voltage relationship of I(CaL) were not significantly altered. L-type Ba(2+) current (I(BaL)) in OZR also exhibited defective inactivation, and steady-state inactivation was not significantly altered. However, the current-voltage relationship and activation threshold of I(BaL) in OZR exhibited a depolarized shift compared with LZR. The total and membrane protein expression levels of Cav1.2 [pore-forming subunit of L-type calcium channels (LTCC)], but not the insulin receptors, were decreased in OZR. The insulin receptor was found to be associated with the Cav1.2, which was weakened in OZR. The total protein expression of calmodulin was reduced, but that of Cavβ2 subunit was not altered in OZR. Together, these results suggested that the 16- to 17-wk-old OZR has 1) developed cardiac hypertrophy, 2) exhibited altered electrophysiology manifested by the prolonged QTc interval, 3) increased duration of action potential in isolated ventricular myocytes, 4) defective inactivation of I(CaL) and I(BaL), 5) weakened the association of LTCC with the insulin receptor, and 6) decreased protein expression of Cav1.2 and calmodulin. These results also provided mechanistic insights into a remodeled cardiac electrophysiology under the condition of

  6. Insulin secretion from isolated rat islets induced by the novel hypoglycemic agent A-4166, a derivative of D-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Tsukuda, K; Sakurada, M; Niki, I; Oka, Y; Kikuchi, M

    1998-01-01

    A derivative of D-phenylalanine, A-4166, reportedly evokes a more rapid and short-lived hypoglycemic action in vivo than any of the currently available sulfonylureas. This novel oral hypoglycemic agent is structurally different from sulfonylureas. Therefore, studies were designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which A-4166 stimulates insulin secretion. Insulin release from incubated or perifused rat islets was dose-dependently stimulated by 10 to 200 mumol/l A-4166, in the presence of 2.8 mmol/l glucose. Both A-4166 and tolbutamide evoke a prompt rise in insulin secretion followed by a sustained gradually decreasing release from perfused islets in the presence of low glucose, although A-4166 appeared to be more sensitive than tolbutamide to subthreshold glucose concentration. Diazoxide abolished the initial release and blunted sustained release. Removing calcium from the perifusate abolished insulin release within 15 minutes. A-4166 inhibited [3H]-glibenclamide binding to HIT cell membranes and 86Rb efflux from ATP-depleted or diazoxide-treated cells. These results suggest that the insulin release induced by A-4166 is relevant to this agent occupying the tolbutamide binding sites. Therefore, one possible mechanism accounting for the more rapid and short-lived hypoglycemic action of A-4166 in vivo, as compared with tolbutamide, may involve the reported differences in the bioavailability of A-4166.

  7. Jiawei Erzhiwan improves menopausal metabolic syndrome by enhancing insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Mu; Zhang, Pei; Xie, Zhi-Shen; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zhou, Ping; Ma, Shi-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Menopausal metabolic syndrome (MMS) is a series of syndrome caused by ovarian function decline and hormone insufficiency, and is a high risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Erzhiwan (EZW), composed of Herba Ecliptae and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, is a traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat menopausal syndrome for many years. We added Herba Epimedii, Radix Rehmanniae, and Fructus Corni into EZW, to prepare a new formula, termed Jiawei Erzhiwan (JE). The present study was designed to determine the anti-MMS effects of JE using ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats that were treated with JE for 4 weeks, and β-tc-6 cells and INS cells were used to detected the protect effectiveness of JE. Our results showed JE could increase insulin sensitivity and ameliorated hyperlipidemia. Metabolomics analysis showed that the serum levels of branched and aromatic amino acids were down-regulated in serum by JE administration. Moreover, JE enhanced the function of islet β cells INS-1 and β-tc-6, through increasing the glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), which was abolished by estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, indicating that JE functions were mediated by ER signaling. Additionally, JE did not induce tumorigenesis in rat mammary tissue or promoted proliferation of MCF-7 and Hela cells. In conclusion, our work demonstrated that JE ameliorated OVX-induced glucose and lipid metabolism disorder through activating estrogen receptor pathway and promoting GSIS in islet β cells, thus indicating that JE could be a safe and effective medication for MMS therapy. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of glucagon on insulin secretion through cAMP signaling pathway in MIN6 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Yuan; Li, Jun; Cao, Guo-Lei; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yan-Wen; Sun, Kan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the direct regulation effects and mechanisms of glucagon in insulin secretion of MIN6 cells that in the kind of the islet β cells. Methods ICUE3 and PCDNA3.1 plasmid were transfected to the MIN6 cells by electroporation transfection, and then treated with different concentrations of glucagon (Glg) and glucose (Glu). Biosensor technology that based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to monitor the change of cAMP quantitatively and real-time. The level of cAMP and insulin were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The receptor of Glg was mainly located on the cell membrane in MIN6 cells. Compared with the 0 ng/L Glg group in the Glu-free state, the average value of CFP/YFP increased 4%±0.02 in the 500 ng/L Glg group, and the value in the 1000 ng/L Glg group increased 6%±0.03 (P>0.05). While in the high-Glu (16.7 mmol/L) state, the value increased 11%±0.02 in the 500 ng/L Glg group, and increased 23%±0.06 in the 1000 ng/L Glg group when compared with the 0 ng/L Glg group (P<0.01). The levels of the cAMP of 1000 ng/L and 500 ng/L Glg group were higher than those of the 100 ng/L and 0 ng/L Glg group in the condition of Glu-free (81.27±6.29, 76.73±2.10,39.45±2.83, 40.36±4.20; P<0.01). The levels of the cAMP of 1000 ng/L, 500 ng/L and 100 ng/L Glg group were higher than those of the 0 ng/L Glg group, at the meanwhile, the levels of the cAMP of 1000 ng/L and 500 ng/L Glg group were also higher than 100 ng/L Glg group in the condition of low-Glu (2.8 mmol/L) (92.91±7.35, 90.36±3.15, 65.82±10.49, 46.73±1.05; P<0.01). And this trend in the condition of high-Glu was almost to the low-Glu (106.75±7.26, 94.18±2.99, 83.09±1.16, 55.60±5.51, P<0.01). The levels of the insulin of 1000 ng/L, 500 ng/L and 100 ng/L Glg group were higher than those of the 0 ng/L Glg group. While 1000 ng/L Glg group was higher than that of the 500 ng/L and 100 ng/L Glg group in the condition of Glu-free (1844.02±200.93, 1387.94

  9. Use of First-phase Insulin Secretion in Early Diagnosis of Thyroid Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Li-Heng; Huang, Yao; Zhou, Jia; Liang, Xing-Huan; Xian, Jing; Li, Li; Qin, Ying-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: A relationship between hyperthyroidism and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. Therefore, this study explored the use of first-phase insulin secretion in the differential diagnosis of thyroid diabetes (TDM) and T2DM. Methods: In total, 101 patients with hyperthyroidism were divided into hyperthyroidism with normal glucose tolerance (TNGT), hyperthyroidism with impaired glucose regulation (TIGR), and diabetes (TDM) groups. Furthermore, 96 patients without hyperthyroidism were recruited as control groups (normal glucose tolerance [NGT], impaired glucose regulation [IGR], and T2DM). The following parameters were evaluated: homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR, HOMA-β, modified β-cell function index (MBCI), peak insulin/fasting insulin (IP/I0), AUCins-OGTT, and AUCins-OGTT/AUCglu-OGTT from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) insulin release test were utilized to assess the second-phase insulin secretion, while the IP/I0, AIR0′~10′, and AUCins-IVGTT from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) insulin release test were used to assess the first-phase insulin secretion. Results: In the OGTT, the HOMA-β values of the TNGT and TDM groups were higher than those of the NGT and T2DM groups (all P < 0.05). In the hyperthyroidism groups, the MBCI of the TDM group was lower than that of the TNGT and TIGR groups (all P < 0.05). Among the control groups, the MBCI values of the IGR and T2DM groups were lower than that of the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group (all P < 0.05). In the IVGTT, insulin secretion peaked for all groups at 2–4 min, except for the T2DM group, which showed a low plateau and no secretion peak. The IP values of the TNGT, TIGR, and TDM groups were higher than those of the NGT, IGR, and T2DM groups (all P < 0.05). The Ip/I0, AIR0′~10′, and AUCins-IVGTT values of the TDM group were higher than those of the T2DM group but were lower than those of the TNGT, TIGR, NGR, and IGR groups (all P < 0

  10. Betacellulin overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells induces insulin secretion in vitro and ameliorates streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Paz, Ana H; Salton, Gabrielle Dias; Ayala-Lugo, Ana; Gomes, Cristiano; Terraciano, Paula; Scalco, Rosana; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Schneider, Marlon R; Meurer, Luise; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth

    2011-02-01

    Betacellulin (BTC), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been shown to promote growth and differentiation of pancreatic β-cells and to improve glucose metabolism in experimental diabetic rodent models. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been already proved to be multipotent. Recent work has attributed to rat and human MSCs the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells. Our goal was to transfect rat MSCs with a plasmid containing BTC cDNA to guide MSC differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Prior to induction of cell MSC transfection, MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and the ability to in vitro differentiate into mesoderm cell types was evaluated. After rat MSC characterization, these cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing BTC cDNA. Transfected cells were cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium high glucose (H-DMEM) with 10 mM nicotinamide. Then, the capability of MSC-BTC to produce insulin in vitro and in vivo was evaluated. It was possible to demonstrate by radioimmunoassay analysis that 10(4) MSC-BTC cells produced up to 0.4 ng/mL of insulin, whereas MSCs transfected with the empty vector (negative control) produced no detectable insulin levels. Moreover, MSC-BTC were positive for insulin in immunohistochemistry assay. In parallel, the expression of pancreatic marker genes was demonstrated by molecular analysis of MSC-BTC. Further, when MSC-BTC were transplanted to streptozotocin diabetic rats, BTC-transfected cells ameliorated hyperglycemia from over 500 to about 200 mg/dL at 35 days post-cell transplantation. In this way, our results clearly demonstrate that BTC overabundance enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in MSCs in vitro as well as in vivo.

  11. Effects of Steaming Time and Frequency for Manufactured Red Liriope platyphylla on the Insulin Secretion Ability and Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, So Hee; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Young Ju; Prak, So Hae; Lee, Hee Seob; Lee, Jong Sup; Jang, In Surk; Son, Hong Ju

    2011-01-01

    In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ug/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may

  12. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Tabák, Adam G; Jokela, Markus; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimäki, Mika; Witte, Daniel R

    2009-06-27

    Little is known about the timing of changes in glucose metabolism before occurrence of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. We analysed data from our prospective occupational cohort study (Whitehall II study) of 6538 (71% male and 91% white) British civil servants without diabetes mellitus at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 505 diabetes cases were diagnosed (49.1% on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test). We assessed retrospective trajectories of fasting and 2-h postload glucose, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin sensitivity, and HOMA beta-cell function from up to 13 years before diabetes diagnosis (diabetic group) or at the end of follow-up (non-diabetics). Multilevel models adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic origin confirmed that all metabolic measures followed linear trends in the group of non-diabetics (10,989 measurements), except for insulin secretion that did not change during follow-up. In the diabetic group (801 measurements), a linear increase in fasting glucose was followed by a steep quadratic increase (from 5.79 mmol/L to 7.40 mmol/L) starting 3 years before diagnosis of diabetes. 2-h postload glucose showed a rapid increase starting 3 years before diagnosis (from 7.60 mmol/L to 11.90 mmol/L), and HOMA insulin sensitivity decreased steeply during the 5 years before diagnosis (to 86.7%). HOMA beta-cell function increased between years 4 and 3 before diagnosis (from 85.0% to 92.6%) and then decreased until diagnosis (to 62.4%). In this study, we show changes in glucose concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion as much as 3-6 years before diagnosis of diabetes. The description of biomarker trajectories leading to diabetes diagnosis could contribute to more-accurate risk prediction models that use repeated measures available for patients through regular check

  13. Culturing INS-1 cells on CDPGYIGSR-, RGD- and fibronectin surfaces improves insulin secretion and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Carina; Dubiel, Evan A; Sabra, Georges; Vermette, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Rat insulinoma cells (INS-1), an immortalized pancreatic beta cell line, were cultured on low-fouling carboxymethyl-dextran (CMD) layers bearing fibronectin, the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) or CDPGYIGSR, a laminin nonapeptide. INS-1 cells were non-adherent on CMD and RGE but adhered to fibronectin- and peptide-coated CMD surfaces and to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). On CMD bearing fibronectin and the peptides, INS-1 cells showed higher glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to those on TCPS, bare CMD and RGE. INS-1 cells experienced a net cell growth, with the lowest found after 7 days on CMD and the highest on fibronectin. Similarly, cells on RGD and CDPGYIGSR showed lower net growth rates than those on fibronectin. Expression of E-cadherin and integrins αvβ3 and α5 were similar between the conditions, except for α5 expression on fibronectin, RGD and CDPGYIGSR. Larger numbers of Ki-67-positive cells were found on CDPGYIGSR, TCPS, fibronectin and RGD. Cells in all conditions expressed Pdx1. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insulin and C-peptide secretion in non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Mahabeer, S; Jialal, I; Norman, R J; Naidoo, C; Reddi, K; Joubert, S M

    1989-09-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) were assessed in 11 non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and 11 reference subjects matched for age, height and weight. Also, 6 patients with PCOD and 6 normal women were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ivGTT) On oGTT, all subjects exhibited normal glucose tolerance; however, PCOD patients had significantly higher mean plasma glucose levels at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and higher mean incremental glucose areas. In addition the patients with polycystic ovaries showed higher mean basal IRI and C-peptide levels, higher mean glucose stimulated IRI and C-peptide levels and higher mean incremental IRI and C-peptide values. The molar ratios of C-peptide/IRI were significantly lower in the PCOD group at all time intervals after glucose stimulation when compared to the normal women. During ivGTT, there were significantly higher mean glucose levels at 5, 40, 50 and 60 min in the PCOD group when compared to the reference group. The IRI response to intravenous glucose in the PCOD women was similar to the reference group. The findings on oGTT suggest that non-obese patients with PCOD have increased pancreatic IRI secretion as well as impaired hepatic extraction of the hormone.

  15. Effectiveness of Nateglinide on In Vitro Insulin Secretion from Rat Pancreatic Islets Desensitized to Sulfonylureas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuya; Dunning, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to sulfonylureas (SUs) is known to impair the ability of islets to respond to subsequent acute stimulation by SUs or glucose. Nateglinide (NAT) is a novel insulinotropic agent with a primarily site of action at β-cell KATP channels, which is common to the structurally diverse drugs like repaglinide (REP) and the SUs. Earlier studies on the kinetics, glucosedependence and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors of the interaction between NAT and KATP channels suggested a distinct signaling pathways with NAT compared to REP, glyburide (GLY) or glimepiride (GLI). To obtain further evidence for this concept, the present study compared the insulin secretion in vitro from rat islets stimulated acutely by NAT, GLY, GLI or REP at equipotent concentrations during 1-hr static incubation following overnight treatment with GLY or tolbutamide (TOL). The islets fully retained the responsiveness to NAT stimulation after prolonged pretreatment with both SUs, while their acute response to REP, GLY, and GLI was markedly attenuated, confirming the desensitization of islets. The insulinotropic efficacy of NAT in islets desensitized to SUs may result from a distinct receptor/effector mechanism, which contributes to the unique pharmacological profile of NAT. PMID:12369729

  16. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m 2 ) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated Glucose Oxidation, Reduced Insulin Secretion, and a Fatty Heart May Be Protective Adaptions in Ischemic CAD.

    PubMed

    Hannukainen, J C; Lautamäki, R; Mari, A; Pärkkä, J P; Bucci, M; Guzzardi, M A; Kajander, S; Tuokkola, T; Knuuti, J; Iozzo, P

    2016-07-01

    Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and ectopic fat deposition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, which is common in CAD patients. We investigated whether CAD is an independent predictor of these metabolic abnormalities and whether this interaction is influenced by superimposed myocardial ischemia. We studied CAD patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 14) myocardial ischemia and eight non-CAD controls. Insulin sensitivity and secretion and substrate oxidation were measured during fasting and oral glucose tolerance testing. We used magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission and computerized tomography to characterize CAD, cardiac function, pericardial and abdominal adipose tissue, and myocardial, liver, and pancreatic triglyceride contents. Ischemic CAD was characterized by elevated oxidative glucose metabolism and a proportional decline in β-cell insulin secretion and reduction in lipid oxidation. Cardiac function was preserved in CAD groups, whereas cardiac fat depots were elevated in ischemic CAD compared to non-CAD subjects. Liver and pancreatic fat contents were similar in all groups and related with surrounding adipose masses or systemic insulin sensitivity. In ischemic CAD patients, glucose oxidation is enhanced and correlates inversely with insulin secretion. This can be seen as a mechanism to prevent glucose lowering because glucose is required in oxygen-deprived tissues. On the other hand, the accumulation of cardiac triglycerides may be a physiological adaptation to the limited fatty acid oxidative capacity. Our results underscore the urgent need of clinical trials that define the optimal/safest glycemic range in situations of myocardial ischemia.

  18. Elevated Glucose Oxidation, Reduced Insulin Secretion, and a Fatty Heart May Be Protective Adaptions in Ischemic CAD

    PubMed Central

    Hannukainen, J. C.; Lautamäki, R.; Mari, A.; Pärkkä, J. P.; Bucci, M.; Guzzardi, M. A.; Kajander, S.; Tuokkola, T.; Knuuti, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and ectopic fat deposition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, which is common in CAD patients. We investigated whether CAD is an independent predictor of these metabolic abnormalities and whether this interaction is influenced by superimposed myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results: We studied CAD patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 14) myocardial ischemia and eight non-CAD controls. Insulin sensitivity and secretion and substrate oxidation were measured during fasting and oral glucose tolerance testing. We used magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission and computerized tomography to characterize CAD, cardiac function, pericardial and abdominal adipose tissue, and myocardial, liver, and pancreatic triglyceride contents. Ischemic CAD was characterized by elevated oxidative glucose metabolism and a proportional decline in β-cell insulin secretion and reduction in lipid oxidation. Cardiac function was preserved in CAD groups, whereas cardiac fat depots were elevated in ischemic CAD compared to non-CAD subjects. Liver and pancreatic fat contents were similar in all groups and related with surrounding adipose masses or systemic insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: In ischemic CAD patients, glucose oxidation is enhanced and correlates inversely with insulin secretion. This can be seen as a mechanism to prevent glucose lowering because glucose is required in oxygen-deprived tissues. On the other hand, the accumulation of cardiac triglycerides may be a physiological adaptation to the limited fatty acid oxidative capacity. Our results underscore the urgent need of clinical trials that define the optimal/safest glycemic range in situations of myocardial ischemia. PMID:27045985

  19. Brain glucose sensing and neural regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion.

    PubMed

    Thorens, B

    2011-10-01

    Glucose homeostasis requires the tight regulation of glucose utilization by liver, muscle and white or brown fat, and glucose production and release in the blood by liver. The major goal of maintaining glycemia at ∼ 5 mM is to ensure a sufficient flux of glucose to the brain, which depends mostly on this nutrient as a source of metabolic energy. This homeostatic process is controlled by hormones, mainly glucagon and insulin, and by autonomic nervous activities that control the metabolic state of liver, muscle and fat tissue but also the secretory activity of the endocrine pancreas. Activation or inhibition of the sympathetic or parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous systems are controlled by glucose-excited or glucose-inhibited neurons located at different anatomical sites, mainly in the brainstem and the hypothalamus. Activation of these neurons by hyper- or hypoglycemia represents a critical aspect of the control of glucose homeostasis, and loss of glucose sensing by these cells as well as by pancreatic β-cells is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. In this article, aspects of the brain-endocrine pancreas axis are reviewed, highlighting the importance of central glucose sensing in the control of counterregulation to hypoglycemia but also mentioning the role of the neural control in β-cell mass and function. Overall, the conclusions of these studies is that impaired glucose homeostasis, such as associated with type 2 diabetes, but also defective counterregulation to hypoglycemia, may be caused by initial defects in glucose sensing. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lep{sup ob/ob} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya, E-mail: nyahagi-tky@umin.ac.jp; Laboratory of Molecular Physiology on Energy Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655

    2009-09-25

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic {beta}-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-}) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic {beta}-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-} developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup +/+} in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep{sup +/+} background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep{sup ob/ob} islets,more » leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep{sup ob/ob} mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.« less

  1. Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sol, E-ri M; Hovsepyan, Meri; Bergsten, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when stimulatory secretion of insulin was reduced or basal secretion was elevated, respectively. Results After culture, cells were protein profiled by SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were discovered and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Complimentary protein profiles were obtained by the two approaches with SELDI-TOF-MS being more efficient in separating proteins in the low molecular range and 2D-PAGE in the high molecular range. Identified proteins included alpha glucosidase, calmodulin, gars, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, lon peptidase, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, proteasome p45, rab2, pyruvate kinase and t-complex protein. The observed glucose-induced differential protein expression pattern indicates enhanced glucose metabolism, defense against reactive oxygen species, enhanced protein translation, folding and degradation and decreased insulin granular formation and trafficking. Palmitate-induced changes could be related to altered exocytosis. Conclusion The identified altered proteins indicate mechanism important for altered β-cell function in T2DM. PMID:19607692

  2. Chitosan-assisted differentiation of porcine adipose tissue-derived stem cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting clusters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Bing-Hsien; Wong, Shiu-Chung; Wu, Cheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Chou, Han-Yi E.

    2017-01-01

    The unique advantage of easy access and abundance make the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) a promising system of multipotent cells for transplantation and regenerative medicine. Among the available sources, porcine ADSCs (pADSCs) deserve especial attention due to the close resemblance of human and porcine physiology, as well as for the upcoming availability of humanized porcine models. Here, we report on the isolation and conversion of pADSCs into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells. We used the stromal-vascular fraction of the dorsal subcutaneous adipose from 9-day-old male piglets to isolate pADSCs, and subjected the cells to an induction scheme for differentiation on chitosan-coated plates. This one-step procedure promoted differentiation of pADSCs into pancreatic islet-like clusters (PILC) that are characterized by the expression of a repertoire of pancreatic proteins, including pancreatic and duodenal homeobox (Pdx-1), insulin gene enhancer protein (ISL-1) and insulin. Upon glucose challenge, these PILC secreted high amounts of insulin in a dose-dependent manner. Our data also suggest that chitosan plays roles not only to enhance the differentiation potential of pADSCs, but also to increase the glucose responsiveness of PILCs. Our novel approach is, therefore, of great potential for transplantation-based amelioration of type 1 diabetes. PMID:28253305

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Escherichia coli tolC Mutants Defective in Secreting Enzymatically Active Alpha-Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Vakharia, Hema; German, Greg J.; Misra, Rajeev

    2001-01-01

    This study describes the isolation and characterization of a unique class of TolC mutants that, under steady-state growth conditions, secreted normal levels of largely inactive alpha-hemolysin. Unlike the reduced activity in the culture supernatants, the cell-associated hemolytic activity in these mutants was identical to that in the parental strain, thus reflecting a normal intracellular toxin activation event. Treatment of the secreted toxin with guanidine hydrochloride significantly restored cytolytic activity, suggesting that the diminished activity may have been due to the aggregation or misfolding of the toxin molecules. Consistent with this notion, sedimentation and filtration analyses showed that alpha-hemolysin secreted from the mutant strain has a mass greater than that secreted from the parental strain. Experiments designed to monitor the time course of alpha-hemolysin release showed delayed appearance of toxin in the culture supernatant of the mutant strain, thus indicating a possible defect in alpha-hemolysin translocation or release. Eight different TolC substitutions displaying this toxin secretion defect were scattered throughout the protein, of which six localized in the periplasmically exposed α-helical domain, while the remaining two mapped within the outer membrane-embedded β-barrel domain of TolC. A plausible model for the secretion of inactive alpha-hemolysin in these TolC mutants is discussed in the context of the recently determined three-dimensional structure of TolC. PMID:11698380

  4. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  5. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-11-08

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats.

  6. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-01-01

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats. PMID:7972005

  7. Effects of N-[(trans-4-isopropylcyclohexyl)-carbonyl]-D-phenylalanine (A-4166) on insulin and glucagon secretion in isolated perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirose, H; Maruyama, H; Ito, K; Seto, Y; Kido, K; Koyama, K; Dan, K; Saruta, T; Kato, R

    1994-04-01

    N-[(trans-4-isopropylcyclohexyl)-carbonyl]-D-phenylalanine (A-4166) has a structure which differs from those of other known blood glucose-lowering agents including sulfonylureas. It has been shown that oral administration of A-4166 exerts blood glucose-lowering effects in animal in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the effects of A-4166 on insulin and glucagon secretion at several glucose concentrations using isolated perfused rat pancreas preparations. Both 3.0 and 30 mumol/l A-4166 significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared with basal levels at glucose concentrations of 8.0 and 11.0 mmol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, glucagon secretion was not affected by administration of A-4166 up to 30 mumol/l at these glucose concentrations. At a glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/l, neither 0.3 nor 3.0 mumol/l A-4166 produced significant changes in insulin and glucagon secretion. However, A-4166 at 30 mumol/l significantly stimulated insulin secretion and inhibited glucagon secretion as compared with basal levels (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). We conclude that A-4166 at 3.0 and 30 mumol/l directly stimulates insulin secretion but has little effect on glucagon secretion in isolated perfused rat pancreas at glucose concentrations of 8.0 and 11.0 mmol/l. these results, taken together with previously published data, suggest that oral administration of A-4166 could be a useful strategy for stimulating endogenous insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  8. Drp1 guarding of the mitochondrial network is important for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Florian; Schultz, Julia; Waterstradt, Rica

    Mitochondria form a tubular network in mammalian cells, and the mitochondrial life cycle is determined by fission, fusion and autophagy. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has a pivotal role in these processes because it alone is able to constrict mitochondria. However, the regulation and function of Drp1 have been shown to vary between cell types. Mitochondrial morphology affects mitochondrial metabolism and function. In pancreatic beta cells mitochondrial metabolism is a key component of the glucose-induced cascade of insulin secretion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the action of Drp1 in pancreatic beta cells. For this purpose Drp1 wasmore » down-regulated by means of shDrp1 in insulin-secreting INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In INS1 cells reduced Drp1 expression resulted in diminished expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial fusion, namely mitofusin 1 and 2, and optic atrophy protein 1. Diminished mitochondrial dynamics can therefore be assumed. After down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells and spread mouse islets the initially homogenous mitochondrial network characterised by a moderate level of interconnections shifted towards high heterogeneity with elongated, clustered and looped mitochondria. These morphological changes were found to correlate directly with functional alterations. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation were significantly reduced in INS1 cells after Drp1down-regulation. Finally, a significant loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was demonstrated in INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In conclusion, Drp1 expression is important in pancreatic beta cells to maintain the regulation of insulin secretion. -- Highlights: •Down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells reduces mitochondrial fusion protein expression. •Mitochondrial membrane potential in INS1 cells is diminished after Drp1 down-regulation. •Mitochondria become elongated after down-regulation of Drp1 in beta cells.

  9. Routine OGTT: a robust model including incretin effect for precise identification of insulin sensitivity and secretion in a single individual.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Matone, Alice; Samson, Adeline; Vrbikova, Jana; Bendlova, Bela; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5)±9.36×10(-5) min(-1)pM(-1)), IFG (5.30×10(-5)±5.18×10(-5)) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5)±1.95×10(-5), 2.38×10(-5)±2.28×10(-5) and 2.38×10(-5)±2.09×10(-5) respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  10. Deletion of the Mouse Slc30a8 Gene Encoding Zinc Transporter-8 Results in Impaired Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Lynley D.; Sarkar, Suparna; Benninger, Richard K. P.; Wang, Yingda; Suwanichkul, Adisak; Shadoan, Melanie K.; Printz, Richard L.; Oeser, James K.; Lee, Catherine E.; Piston, David W.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Hutton, John C.; Powell, David R.; O’Brien, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The Slc30a8 gene encodes the islet-specific zinc transporter ZnT-8, which provides zinc for insulin-hexamer formation. Polymorphic variants in amino acid 325 of human ZnT-8 are associated with altered susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and ZnT-8 autoantibody epitope specificity changes in type 1 diabetes. To assess the physiological importance of ZnT-8, mice carrying a Slc30a8 exon 3 deletion were analyzed histologically and phenotyped for energy metabolism and pancreatic hormone secretion. No gross anatomical or behavioral changes or differences in body weight were observed between wild type and ZnT-8 −/− mice and ZnT-8 −/− mouse islets were indistinguishable from wild type in terms of their numbers, size and cellular composition. However, total zinc content was markedly reduced in ZnT-8 −/− mouse islets, as evaluated both by Timm’s histochemical staining of pancreatic sections and direct measurements in isolated islets. Blood glucose levels were unchanged in 16 week old, 6 hr fasted animals of either gender, however, plasma insulin concentrations were reduced in both female (~31%) and male (~47%) ZnT-8 −/− mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests demonstrated no impairment in glucose clearance in male ZnT-8 −/− mice but glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets was reduced ~33% relative to wild type littermates. In summary, Slc30a8 gene deletion is accompanied by a modest impairment in insulin secretion without major alterations in glucose metabolism. PMID:19450229

  11. High prevalence of abnormal glucose homeostasis secondary to decreased insulin secretion in individuals with hereditary haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    McClain, D A; Abraham, D; Rogers, J; Brady, R; Gault, P; Ajioka, R; Kushner, J P

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of diabetes in hereditary haemochromatosis are not known. We therefore measured glucose tolerance, insulin secretory capacity and insulin sensitivity in adults with haemochromatosis. Subjects recruited from referrals to a haemochromatosis clinic underwent OGTT and frequently sampled IVGTT. A chart review of former clinic patients was also performed. The prevalence of diabetes (23%) and IGT (30%) was increased in haemochromatosis compared with matched control subjects (0% diabetes and 14% IGT). Subjects with haemochromatosis and diabetes were overweight (14%) or obese (86%). The prevalence of diabetes, as determined by chart review of fasting glucose values, in subjects who had haemochromatosis and were in the 40-79 years age range was 26%. Overall, patients with haemochromatosis and control subjects had similar values for acute insulin response to glucose and insulin sensitivity. However, patients with haemochromatosis and IGT had a 68% decrease in acute insulin response to glucose (p<0.02) compared with those with NGT. They were not insulin-resistant, exhibiting instead a 62% increase in insulin sensitivity (NS). Haemochromatosis subjects with diabetes exhibited further declines in acute insulin response to glucose, insulin resistance, or both. Diabetes and IGT are common in haemochromatosis, justifying screening for diabetes and therapeutic phlebotomy. The major abnormality associated with IGT is decreased insulin secretory capacity. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity and concomitant insulin resistance.

  12. Simultaneous monitoring of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide secretion from islets of Langerhans on a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Lomasney, Anna R; Yi, Lian; Roper, Michael G

    2013-08-20

    A method was developed that allowed simultaneous monitoring of the acute secretory dynamics of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) from islets of Langerhans using a microfluidic system with two-color detection. A flow-switching feature enabled changes in the perfusion media within 5 s, allowing rapid exchange of the glucose concentrations delivered to groups of islets. The perfusate was continuously sampled by electroosmotic flow and mixed online with Cy5-labeled insulin, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled IAPP, anti-insulin, and anti-IAPP antibodies in an 8.15 cm mixing channel maintained at 37 °C. The immunoassay mixture was injected for 0.3 s onto a 1.5 cm separation channel at 11.75 s intervals and immunoassay reagents detected using 488 and 635 nm lasers with two independent photomultiplier tubes for detection of the FITC and Cy5 signal. RSD of the bound-to-free immunoassay ratios ranged from 2 to 7% with LODs of 20 nM for insulin and 1 nM for IAPP. Simultaneous secretion profiles of the two peptides were monitored from groups of 4-10 islets during multiple step changes in glucose concentration. Insulin and IAPP were secreted in an approximately 10:1 ratio and displayed similar responses to step changes from 3 to 11 or 20 mM glucose. The ability to monitor the secretory dynamics of multiple peptides from islets of Langerhans in a highly automated fashion is expected to be a useful tool for investigating hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  13. Differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro of islets from human, nonhuman primate and porcine origin

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A.N.; Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Hooper, Rebecca L; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Taylor, Michael J; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered a potential cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes. It is currently being evaluated in diabetic nonhuman primates (NHP) to assess safety and efficacy of the islet product. However, due to a variety of distinct differences between the respective species, including the insulin secretory characteristics of islets, the suitability and predictive value of the preclinical model in the extrapolation to the clinical setting remains a critical issue. Methods Islets isolated from human (n=3), NHP (n=2), adult pig (AP, n=3) and juvenile pig (JP, n=3) pancreata were perifused with medium at basal glucose (2.5mM) followed by high glucose (16.7mM) concentrations. The total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from generated insulin secretion profiles. Results NHP islets exhibited GSIS 3-fold higher than human islets, while AP and JP islets exhibited GSIS 1/3 and 1/16 of human islets, respectively. The insulin content of NHP and AP islets was similar to that of human islets, whereas that of JP islets was 1/3 of human islets. Conclusion Despite the fact that human, NHP, and AP islets contain similar amounts of insulin, the much higher GSIS for NHP islets than for human, AP and JP islets suggests the need for increased dosing of islets from JP and AP in pig-to-NHP transplantation which may be substantially higher than that required for humans. Finally, porcine islet xenotransplantation to humans may require significantly higher dosing given the lower GSIS of AP islets compared to human islets. PMID:23384163

  14. Differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro of islets from human, nonhuman primate, and porcine origin.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A N; Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Hooper, Rebecca L; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Taylor, Michael J; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered a potential cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes. It is currently being evaluated in diabetic nonhuman primates (NHP) to assess safety and efficacy of the islet product. However, due to a variety of distinct differences between the respective species, including the insulin secretory characteristics of islets, the suitability and predictive value of the preclinical model in the extrapolation to the clinical setting remain a critical issue. Islets isolated from human (n = 3), NHP (n = 2), adult pig (AP, n = 3), and juvenile pig (JP, n = 4) pancreata were perifused with medium at basal glucose (2.5 mm) followed by high glucose (16.7 mm) concentrations. The total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from generated insulin secretion profiles. Nonhuman primate islets exhibited GSIS 3-fold higher than AP islets, while AP and JP islets exhibited GSIS 1/3 and 1/30 of human islets, respectively. The insulin content of NHP and AP islets was similar to that of human islets, whereas that of JP islets was 1/5 of human islets. Despite the fact that human, NHP, and AP islets contain similar amounts of insulin, the much higher GSIS for NHP islets than for AP and JP islets suggests the need for increased dosing of islets from JP and AP in pig-to-NHP transplantation. Porcine islet xenotransplantation to humans may require significantly higher dosing given the lower GSIS of AP islets compared to human islets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Larval hemolymph of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, enhances insulin secretion through ATF3 gene expression in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Whan; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Yoo, Bo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisang; Yu, Kweon; Choi, Ji-Young; Kwon, O-Yu

    2018-05-22

    In this study, we show that INS-1 pancreatic β-cells treated for 2 h with hemolymph of larvae of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, secreted about twice as much insulin compared to control cells without such treatment. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was the highest upregulated gene in DNA chip analysis. The A. dichotoma hemolymph dose-dependently induced increased expression levels of genes encoding ATF3 and insulin. Conversely, treatment with ATF3 siRNA inhibited expression levels of both genes and curbed insulin secretion. These results suggest that the A. dichotoma hemolymph has potential for treating and preventing diabetes or diabetes-related complications.

  16. Hyperinsulinemia in the physiologic range is not superior to short-term fasting in suppressing insulin secretion in obese men.

    PubMed

    Pincelli, A I; Brunani, A; Caumo, A; Scacchi, M; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Dubini, A; Bonadonna, S; Cavagnini, F

    2001-01-01

    The negative-feedback control exerted by plasma insulin on beta-cell insulin release in normal-weight and obese subjects is still a matter of debate. Subjects submitted to a euglycemic insulin clamp undergo a suppression of insulin secretion that is due to both the infused insulin and the 2- to 3-hour fast during the procedure. We elected to elucidate the role of physiologic hyperinsulinemia per se in the insulin negative autofeedback in obese men. Ten men with massive uncomplicated obesity (age, 18 to 37 years; body mass index [BMI], 41 +/- 1.15 kg/m2) and 6 normal-weight healthy men (age, 22 to 30 years; BMI, 22 +/- 0.28 kg/m2) underwent 2 studies in random order: (1) a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp with an insulin infusion rate of 1 mU/kg/min and (2) a control study with saline infusion. Serum C-peptide concentrations were significantly higher in obese versus control subjects at baseline (2.54 +/- 0.178 v 1.63 +/- 0.256 ng/mL, P < .05). Exogenous insulin infusion significantly suppressed serum C-peptide at steady state ([SS] last 30 minutes of insulin or saline infusion) in controls (mean of the last 4 measurements from 120 minutes to 150 minutes, 0.86 +/- 0.306 ng/mL, P < .05 vbaseline) but not in obese patients (2.03 +/- 0.26 ng/mL, nonsignificant [NS] v baseline). During the saline infusion studies, C-peptide levels slightly and similarly declined over time in both groups (2.71 +/- 0.350 at baseline v 2.31 +/- 0.300 ng/mL at SS in obese patients, NS, and 1.96 +/- 0.189 v 1.62 +/- 0.150 ng/mL in controls, NS). This study shows that in obese men hyperinsulinemia within the postprandial range is not superior to a 2.5-hour fast for the suppression of beta-cell activity, suggesting an impairment of the insulin negative autofeedback in this clinical condition.

  17. VAMP-2 and cellubrevin are expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and are essential for Ca(2+)-but not for GTP gamma S-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Regazzi, R; Wollheim, C B; Lang, J; Theler, J M; Rossetto, O; Montecucco, C; Sadoul, K; Weller, U; Palmer, M; Thorens, B

    1995-01-01

    VAMP proteins are important components of the machinery controlling docking and/or fusion of secretory vesicles with their target membrane. We investigated the expression of VAMP proteins in pancreatic beta-cells and their implication in the exocytosis of insulin. cDNA cloning revealed that VAMP-2 and cellubrevin, but not VAMP-1, are expressed in rat pancreatic islets and that their sequence is identical to that isolated from rat brain. Pancreatic beta-cells contain secretory granules that store and secrete insulin as well as synaptic-like microvesicles carrying gamma-aminobutyric acid. After subcellular fractionation on continuous sucrose gradients, VAMP-2 and cellubrevin were found to be associated with both types of secretory vesicle. The association of VAMP-2 with insulin-containing granules was confirmed by confocal microscopy of primary cultures of rat pancreatic beta-cells. Pretreatment of streptolysin-O permeabilized insulin-secreting cells with tetanus and botulinum B neurotoxins selectively cleaved VAMP-2 and cellubrevin and abolished Ca(2+)-induced insulin release (IC50 approximately 15 nM). By contrast, the pretreatment with tetanus and botulinum B neurotoxins did not prevent GTP gamma S-stimulated insulin secretion. Taken together, our results show that pancreatic beta-cells express VAMP-2 and cellubrevin and that one or both of these proteins selectively control Ca(2+)-mediated insulin secretion. Images PMID:7796801

  18. Mechanisms of estradiol-induced insulin secretion by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30/GPER in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes.

  19. Mechanisms of Estradiol-Induced Insulin Secretion by the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor GPR30/GPER in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Geetanjali

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21673097

  20. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K

    2011-11-11

    Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with (31)P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-(13)C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Reduction of diffusion barriers in isolated rat islets improves survival, but not insulin secretion or transplantation outcome

    PubMed Central

    Janette Williams, S; Huang, Han-Hung; Kover, Karen; Moore, Wayne; Berkland, Cory; Singh, Milind; Smirnova, Irina V; MacGregor, Ronal

    2010-01-01

    For people with type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycemic unawareness, islet transplants offer hope for improving the quality of life. However, islet cell death occurs quickly during or after transplantation, requiring large quantities of islets per transplant. The purpose of this study was to determine whether poor function demonstrated in large islets was a result of diffusion barriers and if removing those barriers could improve function and transplantation outcomes. Islets were isolated from male DA rats and measured for cell viability, islet survival, glucose diffusion and insulin secretion. Modeling of diffusion barriers was completed using dynamic partial differential equations for a sphere. Core cell death occurred in 100% of the large islets (diameter >150 µm), resulting in poor survival within 7 days after isolation. In contrast, small islets (diameter <100 µm) exhibited good survival rates in culture (91%). Glucose diffusion into islets was tracked with 2-NBDG; 4.2 µm/min in small islets and 2.8 µm/min in large islets. 2-NBDG never permeated to the core cells of islets larger than 150 µm diameter. Reducing the diffusion barrier in large islets improved their immediate and long-term viability in culture. However, reduction of the diffusion barrier in large islets failed to improve their inferior in vitro insulin secretion compared to small islets, and did not return glucose control to diabetic animals following transplantation. Thus, diffusion barriers lead to low viability and poor survival for large islets, but are not solely responsible for the inferior insulin secretion or poor transplantation outcomes of large versus small islets. PMID:20885858

  2. Effect of Weight Loss, Exercise, or Both on Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Insulin Secretion in Frail, Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Nicola; Phadnis, Uma; Armamento-Villareal, Reina

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity exacerbates age-related decline in glucometabolic control. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UcOC) regulates pancreatic insulin secretion. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions on UcOC and insulin secretion has not been investigated. Methods One hundred seven frail, obese older adults were randomized into the control (N = 27), diet (N = 26), exercise (N = 26), and diet-exercise (N = 28) groups for 1 year. Main outcomes included changes in UcOC and disposition index (DI). Results UcOC increased in the diet group (36 ± 11.6%) but not in the other groups (P < 0.05 between groups). Although similar increases in DI occurred in the diet-exercise and diet groups at 6 months, DI increased more in the diet-exercise group (92.4 ± 11.4%) than in the diet group (61.9 ± 15.3%) at 12 months (P < 0.05). UcOC and body composition changes predicted DI variation in the diet group only (R2 = 0.712), while adipocytokines and physical function changes contributed to DI variation in both the diet (∆R2 = 0.140 and 0.107) and diet-exercise (∆R2 = 0.427 and 0.243) groups (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Diet, but not exercise or both, increases UcOC, whereas both diet and diet-exercise increase DI. UcOC accounts for DI variation only during active weight loss, while adipocytokines and physical function contribute to diet-exercise-induced DI variation, highlighting different mechanisms for lifestyle-induced improvements in insulin secretion. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00146107. PMID:28951766

  3. Effect of Weight Loss, Exercise, or Both on Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Insulin Secretion in Frail, Obese Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Colleluori, Georgia; Napoli, Nicola; Phadnis, Uma; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Villareal, Dennis T

    2017-01-01

    Obesity exacerbates age-related decline in glucometabolic control. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UcOC) regulates pancreatic insulin secretion. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions on UcOC and insulin secretion has not been investigated. One hundred seven frail, obese older adults were randomized into the control ( N = 27), diet ( N = 26), exercise ( N = 26), and diet-exercise ( N = 28) groups for 1 year. Main outcomes included changes in UcOC and disposition index (DI). UcOC increased in the diet group (36 ± 11.6%) but not in the other groups ( P < 0.05 between groups). Although similar increases in DI occurred in the diet-exercise and diet groups at 6 months, DI increased more in the diet-exercise group (92.4 ± 11.4%) than in the diet group (61.9 ± 15.3%) at 12 months ( P < 0.05). UcOC and body composition changes predicted DI variation in the diet group only ( R 2 = 0.712), while adipocytokines and physical function changes contributed to DI variation in both the diet (∆ R 2 = 0.140 and 0.107) and diet-exercise (∆ R 2 = 0.427 and 0.243) groups ( P < 0.05 for all). Diet, but not exercise or both, increases UcOC, whereas both diet and diet-exercise increase DI. UcOC accounts for DI variation only during active weight loss, while adipocytokines and physical function contribute to diet-exercise-induced DI variation, highlighting different mechanisms for lifestyle-induced improvements in insulin secretion. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00146107.

  4. Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy cause decreased insulin secretion from β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Wen-Sen; Lu, Chin-I; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Shu-Huei; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2015-11-15

    Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) is a major component of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We hypothesised that AGEs reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by damaging mitochondrial functions and inducing mitophagy. Mitochondrial morphology and the occurrence of autophagy were examined in pancreatic islets of diabetic db/db mice and in the cultured CML-BSA-treated insulinoma cell line RIN-m5F. In addition, the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on mitochondria in AGE-damaged tissues were evaluated. The diabetic db/db mouse exhibited an increase in the number of autophagosomes in damaged mitochondria and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Treatment of db/db mice with ALA for 12 wk increased the number of mitochondria with well-organized cristae and fewer autophagosomes. Treatment of RIN-m5F cells with CML-BSA increased the level of RAGE protein and autophagosome formation, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased insulin secretion. CML-BSA also reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, increased ROS and lipid peroxide production, and caused mitochondrial DNA deletions. Elevated fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) level and mitochondrial fragmentation demonstrated the unbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in CML-BSA-treated cells. Additionally, increased levels of Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 protein suggest that fragmented mitochondria were associated with increased mitophagic activity, and ALA attenuated the CML-BSA-induced mitophage formation. Our study demonstrated that CML-BSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in pancreatic β-cells. The findings from this study suggest that increased concentration of AGEs may damage β-cells and reduce insulin secretion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity. PMID:21679399

  6. Overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor promotes apoptosis and impairs insulin secretion in rat insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Jing, Danqing; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yu; Yin, Shinan

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), the major effector hormone of renin-angiotensin system, acts as a promoter of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 pathogenesis. Activation of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) has been examined as a potential therapeutic strategy. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the role of AT2R. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of overexpressing AT2R by viral vector transduction on the apoptosis and function of pancreatic β-islet cells. The rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1, was transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing AT2R (Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP). AT2R overexpression resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and subsequently impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) function in INS-1 cells. Down-regulated expressions of GSIS pathway components, insulin, glucose transporter 2, and glucokinase were associated with AT2R overexpression. Further analysis determined that overexpression of AT2R induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and Ang II-independent apoptotic cell death as indicated by increased Annexin V staining. To understand the apoptosis signaling triggered by AT2R overexpression, levels of caspase proteins were measured. Overexpression of AT2R significantly induced caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 cleavage, and decreased Bcl-2, pAkt, and pERK expression levels. AT2R-induced cell apoptosis was successfully blocked by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Our findings suggested that AT2R overexpression triggers the apoptosis of INS-1 cells and dysfunction in insulin secretion. In conclusion, more careful design and consideration are required when applying AT2R-related therapies in treating diabetes.

  7. The comprehensive electrophysiological study of curcuminoids on delayed-rectifier K+ currents in insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lee, Yu-Chi; Chen, Pei-Chun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2018-01-15

    Curcumin (CUR) has been demonstrated to induce insulin release from pancreatic β-cells; however, how curcuminoids (including demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC)) exert any possible effects on membrane ion currents inherently in insulin-secreting cells remains largely unclear. The effects of CUR and other structurally similar curcuminoids on ion currents in rat insulin-secreting (INS-1) insulinoma cells were therefore investigated in this study. The effects of these compounds on ionic currents and membrane potential were studied by patch-clamp technique. CUR suppressed the amplitude of delayed-rectifier K + current (I K(DR) ) in a time-, state- and concentration-dependent manner in these cells and the inhibition was not reversed by diazoxide, nicorandil or chlorotoxin. The value of dissociation constant for CUR-induced suppression of I K(DR) in INS-1 cells was 1.26μM. Despite the inability of CUR to alter the activation rate of I K(DR) , it accelerated current inactivation elicited by membrane depolarization. Increasing CUR concentrations shifted the inactivation curve of I K(DR) to hyperpolarized potential and slowed the recovery of I K(DR) inactivation. CUR, DMC, and BDMC all exerted depressant actions on I K(DR) amplitude to a similar magnitude, although DMC and BDMC did not increase current inactivation clearly. CUR slightly suppressed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated Na + current. CUR, DMC and BDMC depolarized the resting potential and increased firing frequency of action potentials. The CUR-mediated decrease of I K(DR) and the increase of current inactivation also occurred in βTC-6 INS-1 cells. Taken these results together, these effects may be one of the possible mechanisms contributing their insulin-releasing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  9. Phenolic Compounds from Fermented Berry Beverages Modulated Gene and Protein Expression To Increase Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic β-Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle H; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-03-30

    Berries are a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds that are able to bind and inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), a current target for type-2 diabetes therapy. The objectives were to determine the role of berry phenolic compounds to modulate incretin-cleaving DPP-IV and its substrate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and genes and proteins involved in the insulin secretion pathway using cell culture. Anthocyanins (ANC) from 50% blueberry-50% blackberry (Blu-Bla) and 100% blackberry (Bla) fermented beverages at 50 μM cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents increased (p < 0.05) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells (iNS-1E) both when applied directly and following simulated absorption through Caco-2 cells (by 233 and 100 μIU insulin/mL, respectively). ANC 50%Blu-Bla and ANC 100%Bla upregulated the gene for incretin hormone GLP-1 (fold-change 3.0 ± 1.4 and 2.0 ± 0.3, respectively) and genes in the insulin secretory pathway including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (iGF1R, 2.3 ± 0.6 and 1.6 ± 0.3, respectively), and increased (p < 0.05) the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-2 and 3), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in iNS-1E cells. Taken together, anthocyanins, predominantly delphinidin-3-arabinoside, from fermented berry beverages have the potential to modulate DPP-IV and its substrate GLP-1, to increase insulin secretion, and to upregulate expression of mRNA of insulin-receptor associated genes and proteins in pancreatic β-cells.

  10. Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.

    PubMed

    Zambrana, Silvia; Lundqvist, Lena C E; Veliz, Virginia; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Gonzales, Eduardo; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2018-01-15

    Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus ( AC ) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor).

  11. Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Zambrana, Silvia; Lundqvist, Lena C. E.; Veliz, Virginia; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Gonzales, Eduardo; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor). PMID:29342984

  12. Radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) causes impaired insulin secretion and increased oxidative stress in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Ali; Karbalaei, Narges; Mortazavi, S M J; Shabani, Mohammad

    2018-06-18

    There is a great concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This study investigated the effects of EMR induced by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) on insulin secretion and antioxidant redox systems in the rat pancreas. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the weight range of 230 to 260 g were divided into control, sham, Wi-Fi exposed groups. After long term exposure (4 h/day for 45 days) to Wi-Fi electromagnetic radiation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured. Islet insulin secretion and content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in pancreas of rats were determined. Our data showed that the weight gain in the WI-FI exposed group was significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposed group showed hyperglycemia. Plasma insulin level and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet were significantly reduced in the Wi-Fi exposed group. EMR emitted from Wi-Fi caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in GSH level, SOD and GPx activities of the pancreas. these data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases insulin resistance by reducing PPAR-γ expression in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Human studies have provided relatively strong associations of poor vitamin D status with Type 2 diabetes but do not explain the nature of the association. Here, we explored the physiological pathways that may explain how vitamin D status modulates energy, lipid and glucose metabolisms in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were fed high-fat diets containing 25 (VD-low), 1000 (VD-normal) or 10,000 (VD-high) cholecalciferol-IU/kg diet for 8 weeks. Energy expenditure, insulin resistance, insulin secretory capacity and lipid metabolism were measured. Serum 25-OH-D levels, an index of vitamin D status, increased dose dependently with dietary vitamin D. VD-low resulted in less fat oxidation without a significant difference in energy expenditure and less lean body mass in the abdomen and legs comparison to the VD-normal group. In comparison to VD-low, VD-normal had lower serum triglycerides and intracellular fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscles which was associated with down-regulation of the mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. In euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance was exacerbated in the VD-low group but not in the VD-normal group, possibly through decreasing hepatic insulin signaling and PPAR-γ expression in the adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes 1,25-(OH)2-D (10 nM) increased triglyceride accumulation by elevating PPAR-γ expression and treatment with a PPAR-γ antagonist blocked the triglyceride deposition induced by 1,25-(OH)2-D treatment. VD-low impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperglycemic clamp and decreased β-cell mass by decreasing β-cell proliferation. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency resulted in the dysregulation of glucose metabolism in GK rats by simultaneously increasing insulin

  14. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  15. Differential effects of the circadian system and circadian misalignment on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jingyi; Dalla Man, Chiara; Morris, Christopher J; Cobelli, Claudio; Scheer, Frank Ajl

    2018-06-04

    Glucose tolerance is lower at night and higher in the morning. Shift workers, who often eat at night and experience circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the central circadian pacemaker and the environmental/behavioral cycle), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. To determine the separate and relative impacts of the circadian system, behavioral/environmental cycles, and their interaction (i.e., circadian misalignment) on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, we used the oral minimal model to quantitatively assess the major determinants of glucose control in 14 healthy adults, using a randomized, cross-over design with two 8-day laboratory protocols. Both protocols involved 3 baseline inpatient days with habitual sleep/wake cycle, followed by 4 inpatient days with same nocturnal bedtime (circadian alignment) or with 12-h inverted behavioral/environmental cycles (circadian misalignment). Our data showed that circadian phase and circadian misalignment affect glucose tolerance through different mechanisms. While the circadian system reduces glucose tolerance in the biological evening compared to the biological morning mainly by decreasing both dynamic and static β-cell responsivity, circadian misalignment reduced glucose tolerance mainly by lowering insulin sensitivity, not by affecting β-cell function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Stimulation of insulin secretion by medium-chain triglycerides in patients with cirrhosis 1

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Frank S.; Tzagournis, Manuel; Greenberger, Norton J.; Linscheer, Willem G.

    1971-01-01

    Oral medium-chain triglycerides were given to 10 normal volunteers, 12 cirrhotics (group I) without and 28 cirrhotics (group II) with abnormal portal systemic communications (ascites, splenomegaly, oesophageal varices, or surgically-created portacaval shunts). After 30 ml of medium-chain triglyceride oil there was no appreciable change in serum glucose levels in any of the three groups nor in serum insulin levels in the normals and in cirrhotics in group I. However, there was a significant increase in serum insulin levels in the cirrhotic patients in group II. It is suggested that the rise in serum insulin levels after medium-chain triglycerides noted in the cirrhotics with shunts is due to shunting of insulin-containing portal blood around the liver (anatomical shunts) and to a diminished hepatic cell mass capable of extracting insulin (functional shunt). This differential response of serum insulin levels to medium-chain triglycerides may prove to be of value in detecting the presence of abnormal portal systemic communications in cirrhotic patients. PMID:5548559

  17. Saxagliptin Upregulates Nesfatin-1 Secretion and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Profiles in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuanlin; Zhuo, Tiejun; Wang, Jian; Mei, Qing

    2018-06-18

    Saxagliptin as one of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors can effectively improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nesfatin-1 is regarded as a very important factor in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. In this trial, we observed the effect of saxagliptin on regulating nesfatin-1 secretion and ameliorating insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred two type 2 diabetes participants (M/F = 48/54) were investigated. Fifty-one (M/F = 24/27) of them as the treatment group were treated with oral glucose-lowering agents including saxagliptin, the other 51 (M/F = 24/27) as the control group were treated with oral glucose-lowering agents excluding any DPP-4 inhibitors. The parameters of serum nesfatin-1, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment-β (HOMA-β) function, HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) at baseline, month 3, 6, and 12 were observed and compared respectively. Saxagliptin significantly upregulated nesfatin-1 secretion (P < 0.001 at 3-, 6-, and 12-months vs. baseline), increased serum C-peptide (P < 0.05, 0.001, and 0.001 at 3-, 6-, and 12-months vs. baseline), improved HOMA-IR and function of HOMA-β (P < 0.001 at 3-, 6-, and 12-months vs. baseline) and metabolic profiles (P < 0.001 with HbA1c at 3-, 6- and 12-months; P < 0.001 with LDL-C at 6- and 12-months; P < 0.001 and 0.01 with HDL-C at 6- and 12-months vs. baseline), declined BMI (P < 0.05 at 6- and 12-months vs. baseline) and BP (P < 0.001 with systolic BP (SBP), and mean BP at 6- and 12-months, P < 0.01 with diastolic BP at 6- and 12-months vs. baseline). Saxagliptin could upregulate nesfatin-1 secretion and ameliorate insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Saxagliptin had

  18. Early-phase prandial insulin secretion: its role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its modulation by repaglinide.

    PubMed

    Owens, D R; Cozma, L S; Luzio, S D

    2002-12-01

    The major contributory factor to increasing hyperglycaemia in established Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) appears to be the progressive delay and attenuation of the prandial insulin response. An important consequence of this derangement is that hepatic glucose production is no longer suppressed during times of prandial glucose intake. Together with a relative impairment in the rate of peripheral glucose disposal, this leads to supra-physiological plasma glucose excursions, which may damage the vasculature. An obvious therapeutic strategy, therefore, would be to increase insulin availability when most needed--in the early prandial phase. In experiments with exogenous insulin interventions, peak post-prandial blood glucose increments were curtailed without undue increases in total insulin exposure. However, available evidence suggests that the sulphonylurea glibenclamide does not effectively alter early-phase prandial insulin release but predominately increases late-phase and basal insulin output, thus incurring the risk of hypoglycaemia. The novel insulin secretagogue repaglinide, by contrast, augments early-phase prandial insulin secretion when taken before meals, as shown by studies in non-diabetic people and patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated T2DM. Repaglinide exerts its greatest effect on the insulin secretion rate during the first 30 min after a meal is started, thereby going some way to restoring the early insulin secretion curve seen after a meal in non-diabetic people. No residual secretagogue activity is seen 4 hr after taking a single dose of up to 2 mg. Prandial glucose regulation with repaglinide could be associated with lower post-prandial glucose excursions and less risk of post-prandial hypoglycaemia than glibenclamide.

  19. Hydrogel Microencapsulated Insulin-Secreting Cells Increase Keratinocyte Migration, Epidermal Thickness, Collagen Fiber Density, and Wound Closure in a Diabetic Mouse Model of Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Aijaz, Ayesha; Faulknor, Renea; Berthiaume, François; Olabisi, Ronke M

    2015-11-01

    Wound healing is a hierarchical process of intracellular and intercellular signaling. Insulin is a potent chemoattractant and mitogen for cells involved in wound healing. Insulin's potential to promote keratinocyte growth and stimulate collagen synthesis in fibroblasts is well described. However, there currently lacks an appropriate delivery mechanism capable of consistently supplying a wound environment with insulin; current approaches require repeated applications of insulin, which increase the chances of infecting the wound. In this study, we present a novel cell-based therapy that delivers insulin to the wound area in a constant or glucose-dependent manner by encapsulating insulin-secreting cells in nonimmunogenic poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microspheres. We evaluated cell viability and insulin secretory characteristics of microencapsulated cells. Glucose stimulation studies verified free diffusion of glucose and insulin through the microspheres, while no statistical difference in insulin secretion was observed between cells in microspheres and cells in monolayers. Scratch assays demonstrated accelerated keratinocyte migration in vitro when treated with microencapsulated cells. In excisional wounds on the dorsa of diabetic mice, microencapsulated RIN-m cells accelerated wound closure by postoperative day 7; a statistically significant increase over AtT-20ins-treated and control groups. Histological results indicated significantly greater epidermal thickness in both microencapsulated RIN-m and AtT-20ins-treated wounds. The results suggest that microencapsulation enables insulin-secreting cells to persist long enough at the wound site for a therapeutic effect and thereby functions as an effective delivery vehicle to accelerate wound healing.

  20. Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Disruption of KEX1 gene reduces the proteolytic degradation of secreted two-chain Insulin glargine in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Suma; Krishnaiah, Sateesh M; Shyam Mohan, Anil H; Mallikarjun, Niveditha; Govindappa, Nagaraja; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Sastry, Kedarnath N

    2016-02-01

    Insulin glargine is a slow acting analog of insulin used in diabetes therapy. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology in different hosts namely E. coli and Pichia pastoris. In our previous study, we have described the secretion of fully folded two-chain Insulin glargine into the medium by over-expression of Kex2 protease. The enhanced levels of the Kex2 protease was responsible for the processing of the glargine precursor with in the host. Apart from the two-chain glargine product we observed a small proportion of arginine clipped species. This might be due to the clipping of arginine present at the C-terminus of the B-chain as it is exposed upon Kex2 cleavage. The carboxypeptidase precursor Kex1 is known to be responsible for clipping of C-terminal lysine or arginine of the proteins or peptides. In order to address this issue we created a Kex1 knock out in the host using Cre/loxP mechanism of targeted gene deletion. When two-chain glargine was expressed in the Kex1 knock out host of P. pastoris GS115 the C-terminal clipped species reduced by ∼80%. This modification further improved the process by reducing the levels of product related impurities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple defects in muscle glycogen synthase activity contribute to reduced glycogen synthesis in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, A W; Gumbiner, B; Bulacan, F; Brechtel, G; Henry, R R

    1991-01-01

    To define the mechanisms of impaired muscle glycogen synthase and reduced glycogen formation in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), glycogen synthase activity was kinetically analyzed during the basal state and three glucose clamp studies (insulin approximately equal to 300, 700, and 33,400 pmol/liter) in eight matched nonobese NIDDM and eight control subjects. Muscle glycogen content was measured in the basal state and following clamps at insulin levels of 33,400 pmol/liter. NIDDM subjects had glucose uptake matched to controls in each clamp by raising serum glucose to 15-20 mmol/liter. The insulin concentration required to half-maximally activate glycogen synthase (ED50) was approximately fourfold greater for NIDDM than control subjects (1,004 +/- 264 vs. 257 +/- 110 pmol/liter, P less than 0.02) but the maximal insulin effect was similar. Total glycogen synthase activity was reduced approximately 38% and glycogen content was approximately 30% lower in NIDDM. A positive correlation was present between glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity (r = 0.51, P less than 0.01). In summary, defects in muscle glycogen synthase activity and reduced glycogen content are present in NIDDM. NIDDM subjects also have less total glycogen synthase activity consistent with reduced functional mass of the enzyme. These findings and the correlation between glycogen synthase activity and glycogen content support the theory that multiple defects in glycogen synthase activity combine to cause reduced glycogen formation in NIDDM. PMID:1899428

  3. Leucine Stimulates Insulin Secretion via Down-regulation of Surface Expression of Adrenergic α2A Receptor through the mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Dolinger, Michael; Ritaccio, Gabrielle; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph; Conti, David; Zhu, Xinjun; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid leucine is a potent secretagogue, capable of inducing insulin secretion. It also plays an important role in the regulation of mTOR activity, therefore, providing impetus to investigate if a leucine-sensing mechanism in the mTOR pathway is involved in insulin secretion. We found that leucine-induced insulin secretion was inhibited by both the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin as well as the adrenergic α2 receptor agonist clonidine. We also demonstrated that leucine down-regulated the surface expression of adrenergic α2A receptor via activation of the mTOR pathway. The leucine stimulatory effect on insulin secretion was attenuated in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats that overexpress adrenergic α2A receptors, confirming the role of leucine in insulin secretion. Thus, our data demonstrate that leucine regulates insulin secretion by modulating adrenergic α2 receptors through the mTOR pathway. The role of the mTOR pathway in metabolic homeostasis led us to a second important finding in this study; retrospective analysis of clinical data showed that co-administration of rapamycin and clonidine was associated with an increased incidence of new-onset diabetes in renal transplantation patients over those receiving rapamycin alone. We believe that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin along with activation of adrenergic α2 receptors by clonidine represents a double-hit to pancreatic islets that synergistically disturbs glucose homeostasis. This new insight may have important implications for the clinical management of renal transplant patients. PMID:22645144

  4. Switching from high-fat to low-fat diet normalizes glucose metabolism and improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity but not body weight in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Agardh, Carl-David; Ahrén, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Environmental factors such as a high-fat diet contribute to type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study examined glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function after switching from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet or low-fat diet for 18 months, after which mice on the high-fat diet either maintained this diet or switched to a low-fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight and glucose and insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose were determined. Insulin secretion (insulinogenic index: the 10-minute insulin response divided by the 10-minute glucose level) and insulin sensitivity (1 divided by basal insulin) were determined. After 18 months on a high-fat diet, mice had glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight compared to mice on a low-fat diet (P < 0.001). Switching from a high-fat diet to low-fat diet normalized glucose tolerance, reduced but not normalized body weight (P < 0.001), increased insulin secretion (248 ± 39 vs 141 ± 46 pmol/mmol; P = 0.028) and improved but not normalized insulin sensitivity (3.2 ± 0.1 vs 1.0 ± 0.1 [pmol/L]; P = 0.012). Switching from a high-fat diet to low-fat diet normalizes glucose tolerance and improves but not normalizes insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. These effects are more pronounced than the reduced body weight.

  5. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Heart, Emma; Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce; Smith, Peter J. S.; Gray, Joshua P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4-7 mM) to stimulatory (8-16 mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H2O2 inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H2O2 via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H2O2 production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1-10 μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H2O2 formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H2O2 and menadione on insulin secretion. PMID:22115979

  6. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Heart, Emma; Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce; Smith, Peter J S; Gray, Joshua P

    2012-01-15

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4-7mM) to stimulatory (8-16mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H(2)O(2) inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H(2)O(2) via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H(2)O(2) production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1-10μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H(2)O(2) formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H(2)O(2) and menadione on insulin secretion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fuel-induced amplification of insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets exposed to a high sulfonylurea concentration: role of the NADPH/NADP+ ratio.

    PubMed

    Panten, U; Rustenbeck, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the cytosolic NADPH/NADP+ ratio of beta cells serves as an amplifying signal in fuel-induced insulin secretion and whether such a function is mediated by cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate. Pancreatic islets and islet cells were isolated from albino mice by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion of incubated or perifused islets was measured by ELISA. The NADPH and NADP+ content of incubated islets was determined by enzymatic cycling. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in islets was measured by microfluorimetry and the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in islet cells by patch-clamping. Both 30 mmol/l glucose and 10 mmol/l alpha-ketoisocaproate stimulated insulin secretion and elevated the NADPH/NADP+ ratio of islets preincubated in the absence of fuel. The increase in the NADPH/NADP+ ratio was abolished in the presence of 2.7 micromol/l glipizide (closing all ATP-sensitive K+ channels). However, alpha-ketoisocaproate, but not glucose, still stimulated insulin secretion. That glipizide did not inhibit alpha-ketoisocaproate-induced insulin secretion was not the result of elevated [Ca2+]c, as glucose caused a more marked [Ca2+]c increase. Insulin release triggered by glipizide alone was moderately amplified by dimethyl alpha-ketoglutarate (which is cleaved to produce cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate), but there was no indication of a signal function of cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate. The results strongly suggest that the NADPH/NADP+ ratio in the beta cell cytosol does not serve as an amplifying signal in fuel-induced insulin release. The study supports the view that amplification results from the intramitochondrial production of citrate by citrate synthase and from the associated export of citrate into the cytosol.

  8. Effect of disruption of actin filaments by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin on insulin secretion in HIT-T15 cells and pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G; Rungger-Brändle, E; Just, I; Jonas, J C; Aktories, K; Wollheim, C B

    1994-01-01

    To examine their role in insulin secretion, actin filaments (AFs) were disrupted by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin that ADP-ribosylates G-actin. Ribosylation also prevents polymerization of G-actin to F-actin and inhibits AF assembly by capping the fast-growing end of F-actin. Pretreatment of HIT-T15 cells with the toxin inhibited stimulated insulin secretion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The toxin did not affect cellular insulin content or nonstimulated secretion. In static incubation, toxin treatment caused 45-50% inhibition of secretion induced by nutrients alone (10 mM glucose + 5 mM glutamine + 5 mM leucine) or combined with bombesin (phospholipase C-activator) and 20% reduction of that potentiated by forskolin (stimulator of adenylyl cyclase). In perifusion, the stimulated secretion during the first phase was marginally diminished, whereas the second phase was inhibited by approximately 80%. Pretreatment of HIT cells with wartmannin, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, caused a similar pattern of inhibition of the biphasic insulin release as C2 toxin. Nutrient metabolism and bombesin-evoked rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ were not affected by C2 toxin, indicating that nutrient recognition and the coupling between receptor activation and second messenger generation was not changed. In the toxin-treated cells, the AF web beneath the plasma membrane and the diffuse cytoplasmic F-actin fibers disappeared, as shown both by staining with an antibody against G- and F-actin and by staining F-actin with fluorescent phallacidin. C2 toxin dose-dependently reduced cellular F-actin content. Stimulation of insulin secretion was not associated with changes in F-actin content and organization. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin E and B, which shorten AFs, inhibited the stimulated insulin release by 30-50% although differing in their effects on F-actin content. In contrast to HIT-T15 cells, insulin secretion was potentiated in isolated rat islets after disruption of

  9. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 and saturated long chain monoacylglycerol regulate insulin secretion promoted by both fuel and non-fuel stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shangang; Poursharifi, Pegah; Mugabo, Yves; Levens, Emily J.; Vivot, Kevin; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Peyot, Marie-line; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S.R. Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 (ABHD6) is a newly identified monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. We recently reported that it negatively regulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the β cells by hydrolyzing lipolysis-derived MAG that acts as a metabolic coupling factor and signaling molecule via exocytotic regulator Munc13-1. Whether ABHD6 and MAG play a role in response to all classes of insulin secretagogues, in particular various fuel and non-fuel stimuli, is unknown. Methods Insulin secretion in response to various classes of secretagogues, exogenous MAG and pharmacological agents was measured in islets of mice deficient in ABHD6 specifically in the β cell (BKO). Islet perifusion experiments and determinations of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, cytosolic Ca2+ and MAG species levels were carried out. Results Deletion of ABHD6 potentiated insulin secretion in response to the fuels glutamine plus leucine and α-ketoisocaproate and to the non-fuel stimuli glucagon-like peptide 1, carbamylcholine and elevated KCl. Fatty acids amplified GSIS in control and BKO mice to the same extent. Exogenous 1-MAG amplified insulin secretion in response to fuel and non-fuel stimuli. MAG hydrolysis activity was greatly reduced in BKO islets without changes in total diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol lipase activity. ABHD6 deletion induced insulin secretion independently from KATP channels and did not alter the glucose induced rise in intracellular Ca2+. Perifusion studies showed elevated insulin secretion during second phase of GSIS in BKO islets that was not due to altered cytosolic Ca2+ signaling or because of changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Glucose increased islet saturated long chain 1-MAG species and ABHD6 deletion caused accumulation of these 1-MAG species at both low and elevated glucose. Conclusion ABHD6 regulates insulin secretion in response to fuel stimuli at large and some non-fuel stimuli by controlling long chain saturated 1-MAG levels

  10. SAD-A potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as a mediator of glucagon-like peptide 1 response in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia; Lilley, Brendan N; Pan, Y Albert; Faruque, Omar; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Weiping; Sanes, Joshua R; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2013-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β cells, which can be restored by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone commonly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 affects glucose responsiveness in islet β cells remain poorly understood. Here we investigated a role of SAD-A, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, in regulating GSIS in mice with conditional SAD-A deletion. We show that selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas impaired incretin's effect on GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance. Conversely, overexpression of SAD-A significantly enhanced GSIS and further potentiated GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. In support of SAD-A as a mediator of incretin response, SAD-A is expressed exclusively in pancreas and brain, the primary targeting tissues of GLP-1 action. Additionally, SAD-A kinase is activated in response to stimulation by GLP-1 through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways in islet β cells. Furthermore, we identified Thr443 as a key autoinhibitory phosphorylation site which mediates SAD-A's effect on incretin response in islet β cells. Consequently, ablation of Thr443 significantly enhanced GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. Together, these findings identified SAD-A kinase as a pancreas-specific mediator of incretin response in islet β cells.

  11. SAD-A Potentiates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion as a Mediator of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Response in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jia; Lilley, Brendan N.; Pan, Y. Albert; Faruque, Omar; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Weiping; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β cells, which can be restored by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone commonly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 affects glucose responsiveness in islet β cells remain poorly understood. Here we investigated a role of SAD-A, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, in regulating GSIS in mice with conditional SAD-A deletion. We show that selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas impaired incretin's effect on GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance. Conversely, overexpression of SAD-A significantly enhanced GSIS and further potentiated GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. In support of SAD-A as a mediator of incretin response, SAD-A is expressed exclusively in pancreas and brain, the primary targeting tissues of GLP-1 action. Additionally, SAD-A kinase is activated in response to stimulation by GLP-1 through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways in islet β cells. Furthermore, we identified Thr443 as a key autoinhibitory phosphorylation site which mediates SAD-A's effect on incretin response in islet β cells. Consequently, ablation of Thr443 significantly enhanced GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. Together, these findings identified SAD-A kinase as a pancreas-specific mediator of incretin response in islet β cells. PMID:23629625

  12. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Efanov, Alexander M.; Fang, Xiankang; Beavers, Lisa S.; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Jingru; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Ma, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a GPR142-dependent manner. In contrast, Phenylalanine improves in vivo glucose disposal independently of GPR142. Noteworthy, refeeding-induced elevations in insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are blunted in Gpr142 null mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate GPR142 is a Tryptophan receptor critically required for insulin and incretin hormone regulation and suggest GPR142 agonists may be effective therapies that leverage amino acid sensing pathways for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27322810

  13. Zinc Up-Regulates Insulin Secretion from β Cell-Like Cells Derived from Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Tooth (SHED).

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyuyoup; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Pae, Eung-Kwon

    2016-12-13

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) offer several advantages over other stem cell sources. Using SHED, we examined the roles of zinc and the zinc uptake transporter ZIP8 (Zrt- and irt-like protein 8) while inducing SHED into insulin secreting β cell-like stem cells (i.e., SHED-β cells). We observed that ZIP8 expression increased as SHED differentiated into SHED-β cells, and that zinc supplementation at day 10 increased the levels of most pancreatic β cell markers-particularly Insulin and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). We confirmed that SHED-β cells produce insulin successfully. In addition, we note that zinc supplementation significantly increases insulin secretion with a significant elevation of ZIP8 transporters in SHED-β cells. We conclude that SHED can be converted into insulin-secreting β cell-like cells as zinc concentration in the cytosol is elevated. Insulin production by SHED-β cells can be regulated via modulation of zinc concentration in the media as ZIP8 expression in the SHED-β cells increases.

  14. Defective Insulin Signalling, Mediated by Inflammation, Connects Obesity to Alzheimer Disease; Relevant Pharmacological Therapies and Preventive Dietary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Toledano, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's disease. This review relates extensive research literature on facts linking nutrients and dietary patterns to obesity and Alzheimer's disease. In addition briefly presents molecular mechanisms involved in obesity- induced insulin resistance and the contribution of peripheral inflammatory and defective insulin signalling pathways, as well as ectopic lipids accumulation to Alzheimer's development through brain inflammation, neuronal insulin resistance, and cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease. The work relates current and emerging pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the management of obesity, insulin resistance and Alzheimer's considering them as disorders with common molecular features. The findings of this review validate the importance of some nutritional interventions as possible approach to prevent or delay simultaneously progression of Alzheimer's disease and obesity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Impact of 9 Days of Bed Rest on Hepatic and Peripheral Insulin Action, Insulin Secretion, and Whole-Body Lipolysis in Healthy Young Male Offspring of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alibegovic, Amra C.; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P.; van Hall, Gerrit; Stallknecht, Bente; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 9 days of bed rest on insulin secretion, insulin action, and whole-body glucose and fat metabolism in first-degree relative (FDR) and matched control (CON) subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 13 FDR and 20 CON subjects participated in the study. All were studied before and after 9 days of bed rest using the clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Glucose and glycerol turnover rates were studied using stable isotope kinetics. RESULTS Bed rest caused a significant decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in both groups. Hepatic insulin resistance was elevated in FDR subjects prior to bed rest and was significantly augmented by bed rest in FDR (P < 0.01) but not in CON (P = NS) subjects. The rate of whole-body lipolysis decreased during bed rest in both FDR and CON subjects, with no significant differences between the groups. Insulin resistance induced by bed rest was fully accounted for by the impairment of nonoxidative glucose metabolism in both groups (overall P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Whole-body insulin action in both insulin-resistant FDR and healthy CON subjects deteriorates with 9 days of bed rest, converging toward similar degrees of whole-body insulin resistance. FDR subjects exhibit hepatic insulin resistance (HIR), which, in contrast to CON subjects, deteriorates in response to physical inactivity. FDR subjects exhibit reduced insulin secretion when seen in relation to their degree of HIR but not peripheral insulin resistance. PMID:19720789

  16. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A.; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Genieser, Hans-G.; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  17. [Differences in insulin secretion facilitate the differential diagnosis of insulinoma and factitious hypoglycaemia].

    PubMed

    Meier, J J; Hücking, K; Grüneklee, D; Schmiegel, W; Nauck, M A

    2002-02-22

    A 33-year-old female nurse (married; two children; BMI 30.9 kg/m2) had recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia over some months. Two fasting tests were terminated after 26 hours because the patient became unconscious. Improved insulin/glucose ratio was infinity and 6.1 [mU/l]/[mg/dl] (normal value < 0.5). An hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic angle "clamp test" produced a C-peptide suppression to minimally 0.26 - 0.38 nmol/l (normal value 0.06 +/- 0.01 nmol). There was no spontaneous or paradoxical burst in insulin or C-peptide concentration after either the fasting or the "clamp test". Serum analysis of sulphonylurea on several occasions documented an increase of glibenclamide above therapeutic range. The patient denied any intake of oral antidiabetic preparations, but there were no further hypoglycaemia attacks in subsequent months. The demonstration of sulphonylurea in serum confirmed the diagnosis of factitious hypoglycaemia. With regard to insulin or C-peptide suppression, the results of the fasting and clamp tests are the same in factitious hypoglycaemia and insulinoma. However, under the influence of sulphonylurea drugs there are no insulin or C-peptide bursts so typical of insulinoma. In case of doubt, detection of sulphonylurea preparations in serum or urine is the only reliable way of diagnosing factitious hypoglaema due to the ingestion of sulphonylurea.

  18. Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Shaobing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Lin, Qingqiang; Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Yijun; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wang, Zhengchao

    2017-12-01

    It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of DMBG on the expression of the insulin signaling pathway in the ovaries of rats with PCOS, and to identify the potential underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects in PCOS. In the present study, a PCOS rat model was induced by letrozole, and successful establishment of the model was confirmed by examining ovarian histology and determining serum testosterone levels, by hematoxylin and eosin staining and ELISA, respectively. Subsequently, the expression of two key elements of insulin signaling, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)‑2 and phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K), was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that IRS‑2 and PI3K expression was markedly decreased in PCOS ovaries, which was rescued by DMBG treatment. These results indicate that IRS‑2/PI3K signaling may be involved in the development of PCOS and the therapeutic effects of DMBG on PCOS. To further confirm the effects of DMBG on insulin signaling expression during this process, the expression of an additional two downstream proteins, phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase‑1 (PDK‑1) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was also investigated in the present study, and the results demonstrated that the expression of PDK‑1 and mTOR was significantly reduced in PCOS ovaries and increased following DMBG treatment

  19. Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Shaobing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Lin, Qingqiang; Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Yijun; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wang, Zhengchao

    2017-01-01

    It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of DMBG on the expression of the insulin signaling pathway in the ovaries of rats with PCOS, and to identify the potential underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects in PCOS. In the present study, a PCOS rat model was induced by letrozole, and successful establishment of the model was confirmed by examining ovarian histology and determining serum testosterone levels, by hematoxylin and eosin staining and ELISA, respectively. Subsequently, the expression of two key elements of insulin signaling, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that IRS-2 and PI3K expression was markedly decreased in PCOS ovaries, which was rescued by DMBG treatment. These results indicate that IRS-2/PI3K signaling may be involved in the development of PCOS and the therapeutic effects of DMBG on PCOS. To further confirm the effects of DMBG on insulin signaling expression during this process, the expression of an additional two downstream proteins, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was also investigated in the present study, and the results demonstrated that the expression of PDK-1 and mTOR was significantly reduced in PCOS ovaries and increased following DMBG treatment, further indicating

  20. Homeostatic model assessment indices in evaluation of insulin resistance and secretion in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Giers, Kinga; Jasik, Mariusz; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Romejko-Ciepielewska, Katarzyna; Paklerska, Ewa; Gomółka, Małgorzata; Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background Some previous observations suggest that insulin resistance and glucose metabolism disturbances are frequent complications of chronic kidney disease. However, there are no conclusive studies on other indices of the effectiveness of insulin action in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, including chronically hemodialysed (HD) ones. Material/Methods The groups comprised 33 non-diabetic ESRD hemodialysed patients and 33 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). In both groups, HOMA-%B, HOMA-%S, HOMA-IR indices, and DI were calculated using HOMA1 and HOMA2 as measures of insulin resistance. The indices were also assessed in subgroups divided according to BMI. Results Mean fasting plasma glucose concentrations were lower in ESRD patients than in healthy persons (82.4±10.4 vs. 93.9±11.6, p=0.001). Fasting serum insulin concentrations were similar in both groups (median 6.8 vs. 6.0 mU/l, p=0.698). HOMA1-%B values were higher in ESRD patients than controls (median 137.1 vs. 81.6, p=0.002). HOMA1-%S (median 75.6 vs. 71.5) and HOMA1-IR (median 1.3 vs. 1.4) values were not significantly different (p=0.264 and p=0.189, respectively). DI1 levels were higher for HD patients than for healthy subjects (median 1.16 vs. 0.53, p<0.001). In subgroup analysis, all statistically significant differences were restricted mainly to persons with BMI <25 kg/m2. Similar results as for the HOMA1 model were obtained for HOMA2. Conclusions 1. HOMA beta-cell function is strongly correlated with HOMA insulin resistance in HD patients. 2. In non-diabetic ESRD hemodialysed patients, the HOMA indices and DI may be useful and important models in interpretation of glucose metabolism disturbances. PMID:23867834

  1. Beta-endorphin-induced inhibition and stimulation of insulin secretion in normal humans is glucose dependent.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Salvatore, T; Torella, R; D'Onofrio, F

    1988-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of human beta-endorphin on pancreatic hormone levels and their responses to nutrient challenges in normal subjects. Infusion of 0.5 mg/h beta-endorphin caused a significant rise in plasma glucose concentrations preceded by a significant increase in peripheral glucagon levels. No changes occurred in the plasma concentrations of insulin and C-peptide. Acute insulin and C-peptide responses to intravenous pulses of different glucose amounts (0.33 g/kg and 5 g) and arginine (3 g) were significantly reduced by beta-endorphin infusion (P less than .01). This effect was associated with a significant reduction of the glucose disappearance rates, suggesting that the inhibition of insulin was of biological relevance. beta-Endorphin also inhibited glucose suppression of glucagon levels and augmented the glucagon response to arginine. To verify whether the modification of prestimulus glucose level could be important in these hormonal responses to beta-endorphin, basal plasma glucose concentrations were raised by a primed (0.5 g/kg) continuous (20 mg kg-1.min-1) glucose infusion. After stabilization of plasma glucose levels (350 +/- 34 mg/dl, t = 120 min), beta-endorphin infusion caused an immediate and marked increase in plasma insulin level (peak response 61 +/- 9 microU/ml, P less than .01), which remained elevated even after the discontinuation of opioid infusion. Moreover, the acute insulin response to a glucose pulse (0.33 g/kg i.v.) given during beta-endorphin infusion during hyperglycemia was significantly higher than the response obtained during euglycemia (171 +/- 32 vs. 41 +/- 7 microU/ml, P less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Olive Component Oleuropein Promotes β-Cell Insulin Secretion and Protects β-Cells from Amylin Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Velander, Paul; Liu, Dongmin; Xu, Bin

    2017-09-26

    Oleuropein, a natural product derived from olive leaves, has reported anti-diabetic functions. However, detailed molecular mechanisms for how it affects β-cell functions remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that oleuropein promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β-cells. The effect is dose-dependent and stimulates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that oleuropein inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by amylin amyloids, a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrated that these dual functions are structure-specific: we identified the 3-hydroxytyrosol moiety of oleuropein as the main functional entity responsible for amyloid inhibition, but the novel GSIS function requires the entire structure scaffold of the molecule.

  3. Kinetic study of the processing by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV/CD26 of neuropeptides involved in pancreatic insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Lambeir, A M; Durinx, C; Proost, P; Van Damme, J; Scharpé, S; De Meester, I

    2001-11-02

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) metabolizes neuropeptides regulating insulin secretion. We studied the in vitro steady-state kinetics of DPPIV/CD26-mediated truncation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP27 and PACAP38), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). DPPIV/CD26 sequentially cleaves off two dipeptides of VIP, PACAP27, PACAP38 and GRP. GRP situates between the best DPPIV/CD26 substrates reported, comparable to NPY. Surprisingly, the C-terminal extension of PACAP38, distant from the scissile bond, improves both PACAP38 binding and turnover. Therefore, residues remote from the scissile bond can modulate DPPIV/CD26 substrate selectivity as well as residues flanking it.

  4. Addition of n-3 fatty acids to a 4-hour lipid infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mostad, Ingrid L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Basu, Samar; Sutton, Pauline; Frayn, Keith N; Grill, Valdemar

    2009-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA) can impair glucose metabolism to a varying degree depending on time of exposure and also of type of FA. Here we tested for acute effects of marine n-3 FA on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in 11 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A 4-hour lipid infusion (Intralipid [Fresenius Kabi, Halden, Norway], total of 384 mL) was compared with a similar lipid infusion partly replaced by Omegaven (Fresenius Kabi) that contributed a median of 0.1 g fish oil per kilogram body weight, amounting to 0.04 g/kg of marine n-3 FA. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps; insulin secretion (measured after the clamps), by C-peptide glucagon tests; and energy metabolism, by indirect calorimetry. Infusion of Omegaven increased the proportion of n-3 FA in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) compared with Intralipid alone (20:5n-3: median, 1.5% [interquartile range, 0.6%] vs -0.2% [0.2%], P = .001; 22:6n-3: 0.8% [0.4%] vs -0.7% [0.2%], P = .001). However, glucose utilization was not affected; neither was insulin secretion or total energy production (P = .966, .210, and .423, respectively, for the differences between the lipid clamps). Omegaven tended to lower oxidation of fat (P = .062) compared with Intralipid only, correlating with the rise in individual n-3 NEFA (r = 0.627, P = .039). The effects of clamping on phospholipid FA composition, leptin, adiponectin, or F(2)-isoprostane concentrations were not affected by Omegaven. Enrichment of NEFA with n-3 FA during a 4-hour infusion of Intralipid failed to affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Genetic markers of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are associated with spontaneous postnatal growth and response to growth hormone treatment in short SGA children: the North European SGA Study (NESGAS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Kirk, Jeremy; Donaldson, Malcolm; Ivarsson, Sten-A; Söder, Olle; Roche, Edna; Hoey, Hilary; Juul, Anders; Ong, Ken K; Dunger, David B

    2015-03-01

    The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during GH therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. Combined multiallele single nucleotide polymorphism scores with known associations with insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion were analyzed for their relationships with spontaneous postnatal growth and first-year responses to GH therapy in 96 short SGA children. The insulin sensitivity allele score (GS-InSens) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (regression coefficient [B]: 0.12 SD scores per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.23; P = .03) and also in response to GH therapy with first-year height velocity (B: 0.18 cm/y per allele; 95% CI, 0.02-0.35; P = .03) and change in IGF-1 (B: 0.17 SD scores per allele; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32; P = .03). The association with first-year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted P = .04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (B: 0.15; 95% CI, 0.01-0.30; P = .03) and disposition index both before (B: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.04; P = .04) and after 1 year of GH therapy (B: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.05; P = .002), but not with growth and IGF-1 responses to GH therapy. Neither of the allele scores was associated with size at birth. Genetic allele scores indicative of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were associated with spontaneous postnatal growth and responses to GH therapy in short SGA children. Further pharmacogenetic studies may support the rationale for adjuvant therapies by informing the mechanisms of treatment response.

  6. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S; Grace, C; Mattei, A A; Siemienowicz, K; Brownlee, W; MacCallum, J; McNeilly, A S; Duncan, W C; Rae, M T

    2016-06-06

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells.

  7. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, S.; Grace, C.; Mattei, A. A.; Siemienowicz, K.; Brownlee, W.; MacCallum, J.; McNeilly, A. S.; Duncan, W. C.; Rae, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells. PMID:27265420

  8. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Li, Congyu; Hu, Ya-Fang; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Pant, Harish C

    2013-01-01

    Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG) results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs), however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs). Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5) with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A matlab framework for estimation of NLME models using stochastic differential equations: applications for estimation of insulin secretion rates.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stig B; Klim, Søren; Dammann, Bernd; Kristensen, Niels R; Madsen, Henrik; Overgaard, Rune V

    2007-10-01

    The non-linear mixed-effects model based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs) provides an attractive residual error model, that is able to handle serially correlated residuals typically arising from structural mis-specification of the true underlying model. The use of SDEs also opens up for new tools for model development and easily allows for tracking of unknown inputs and parameters over time. An algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the model has earlier been proposed, and the present paper presents the first general implementation of this algorithm. The implementation is done in Matlab and also demonstrates the use of parallel computing for improved estimation times. The use of the implementation is illustrated by two examples of application which focus on the ability of the model to estimate unknown inputs facilitated by the extension to SDEs. The first application is a deconvolution-type estimation of the insulin secretion rate based on a linear two-compartment model for C-peptide measurements. In the second application the model is extended to also give an estimate of the time varying liver extraction based on both C-peptide and insulin measurements.

  11. Physiological concentrations of interleukin-6 directly promote insulin secretion, signal transduction, nitric oxide release, and redox status in a clonal pancreatic β-cell line and mouse islets.

    PubMed

    da Silva Krause, Mauricio; Bittencourt, Aline; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R; Murphy, Colin; Newsholme, Philip

    2012-09-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL6) has recently been reported to promote insulin secretion in a glucagon-like peptide-1-dependent manner. Herein, the direct effects of IL6 (at various concentrations from 0 to 1000 pg/ml) on pancreatic β-cell metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, insulin secretion, nitrite release, and redox status in a rat clonal β-cell line and mouse islets are reported. Chronic insulin secretion (in μg/mg protein per 24  h) was increased from 128·7±7·3 (no IL6) to 178·4±7·7 (at 100  pg/ml IL6) in clonal β-cells and increased significantly in islets incubated in the presence of 5·5  mM glucose for 2  h, from 0·148 to 0·167±0·003  ng/islet. Pretreatment with IL6 also induced a twofold increase in basal and nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in subsequent 20 min static incubations. IL6 enhanced both glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) by nearly 20% without changing intracellular redox status (GSSG/GSH). IL6 dramatically increased iNOS expression (by ca. 100-fold) with an accompanying tenfold rise in nitrite release in clonal β-cells. Phosphorylated AMPK levels were elevated approximately twofold in clonal β-cells and mouse islet cells. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase levels (CaMKK), an upstream kinase activator of AMPK, were also increased by 50% after IL6 exposure (in β-cells and islets). Our data have demonstrated that IL6 can stimulate β-cell-dependent insulin secretion via direct cell-based mechanisms. AMPK, CaMKK (an upstream kinase activator of AMPK), and the synthesis of nitric oxide appear to alter cell metabolism to benefit insulin secretion. In summary, IL6 exerts positive effects on β-cell signaling, metabolism, antioxidant status, and insulin secretion.

  12. Dose- and Glucose-Dependent Effects of Amino Acids on Insulin Secretion from Isolated Mouse Islets and Clonal INS-1E Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenping; Jeppesen, Per B.; Gregersen, Søren; Chen, Xiaoping; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of glucose and fatty acids on beta-cell function is well established whereas little is known about the role of amino acids (AAs). METHODS: Islets isolated from NMRI mice were incubated overnight. After preincubation, isolated islets as well as clonal INS-1E beta-cells were incubated for 60 min in a modified Krebs Ringer buffer containing glucose and AAs. RESULTS: At 16.7 mmol/l (mM) glucose, L-arginine, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-leucine, and L-glutamine potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion dose-dependently, while DL-homocysteine inhibited insulin secretion. Maximal insulin stimulation was obtained at 20 mM L-proline, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-arginine (islets: 2.5 to 6.7 fold increase; INS-1E cells: 1.6 to 2.2 fold increase). L-glutamine and L-leucine only increased glucose-stimulated (16.7 mM) insulin secretion (INS-1E cells: 1.5 and 1.3 fold, respectively) at an AA concentration of 20 mM. Homocysteine inhibited insulin secretion both at 5.6 mM and 16.7 mM glucose. At glucose levels ranging from 1.1 to 25 mM, the equimolar concentration of 10 mM, L-proline, L-lysine, L-arginine increased insulin secretion from mouse islets and INS-1E cells at all glucose levels applied, with a maximal effect obtained at 25 mM glucose. At a concentration of 10 mM, L-arginine and L-lysine had the highest insulinotropic potency among the AAs investigated. CONCLUSION: L-arginine, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-leucine and L-glutamine acutely stimulate insulin secretion from mouse islets and INS-1E cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner, whereas DL-homocysteine inhibits insulin release. PMID:19290384

  13. HPA axis and vagus nervous function are involved in impaired insulin secretion of MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Rosiane A; Torrezan, Rosana; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia C; Lisboa, Patrícia C; Moura, Egberto G; Mathias, Paulo C F

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunctions such as the hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis greatly contribute to obesity and hyperinsulinemia; however, little is known about these dysfunctions in the pancreatic β-cells of obese individuals. We used a hypothalamic-obesity model obtained by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity. To assess the role of the HPA axis and vagal tonus in the genesis of hypercorticosteronemia and hyperinsulinemia in an adult MSG-obese rat model, bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG) alone or combined surgeries (ADX-VAG) were performed. To study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and the cholinergic insulinotropic process, pancreatic islets were incubated with different glucose concentrations with or without oxotremorine-M, a selective agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3AChR) subtype. Protein expression of M3AChR in pancreatic islets, corticosteronemia, and vagus nerve activity was also evaluated. Surgeries reduced 80% of the body weight gain. Fasting glucose and insulin were reduced both by ADX and ADX-VAG, whereas VAG was only associated with hyperglycemia. The serum insulin post-glucose stimulation was lower in all animals that underwent an operation. Vagal activity was decreased by 50% in ADX rats. In the highest glucose concentration, both surgeries reduced GIIS by 50%, whereas ADX-VAG decreased by 70%. Additionally, M3AChR activity was recovered by the individual surgeries. M3AChR protein expression was reduced by ADX. Both the adrenal gland and vagus nerve contribute to the hyperinsulinemia in the MSG model, although adrenal is more crucial as it appears to modulate parasympathetic activity and M3AChR expression in obesity. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Repaglinide is more efficient than glimepiride on insulin secretion and post-prandial glucose excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes. A short term study.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M R; Barbieri, M; Grella, R; Passariello, N; Barone, M; Paolisso, G

    2004-02-01

    To compare the effect of Repaglinide vs Glimepiride on glucose- and meal-induced insulin secretion and on meal-test induced postprandial glucose excursions. After 2 weeks washout period, a 3-Month randomised, cross-over parallel group trial of R (1 mg x 2/die) vs G (2 mg/die) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes "naive" in diet treatment was made. Both R and G significantly but similarly lowered fasting glucose levels and improved fasting plasma insulin levels vs baseline. Hyperglycemic clamp showed that both 1st (129.15 +/- 23.6 vs 106.90 +/- 18.6 pmol/L; p=0.01) and 2nd phase (189.42 +/- 34.4 vs 144.21 +/- 37.3 pmol/L; p=0.003) B-cell response to glucose as well as area under the curve (52.07 +/- 10.86 vs 39.54 +/- 10.27 micromol/L x 120'; p=0.005) were greater in R than G groups. Insulin action (4.0 +/- 1.1 vs 3.2 +/- 0.9 mg x Kg x 60'/microU/mL; p=0.046) was also improved by R than G administration. In the meal test, R therapy produced a more rapId induction of insulin secretion during the first part. In fact, the mean rise in insulin secretion peaked at 45 min in R (p=0.001 vs G) and at 60 min in G (p=0.001 vs R). Consequently, glucose spike at 60 min was higher in G group compared to glucose spike at 45 min in R group (p=0.002). Our study demonstrates that R is more efficient that G on improving glucose- and meal- induced insulin secretion as well as on controlling for postprandial glucose excursion.

  17. Combination of Peptide YY3–36 with GLP-17–36 amide Causes an Increase in First-Phase Insulin Secretion after IV Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tricia M.; Salem, Victoria; Troke, Rachel C.; Alsafi, Ali; Field, Benjamin C. T.; De Silva, Akila; Misra, Shivani; Baynes, Kevin C. R.; Donaldson, Mandy; Minnion, James; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Godsland, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The combination of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a potential treatment for diabetes and obesity. However, the combined effects of these hormones, PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide, on glucose homeostasis are unknown. Objective: This study sought to investigate the acute effects of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide, individually and in combination, on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Setting and Design: Using a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) and minimal modeling, this study measured the effects of PYY3–36 alone, GLP-17–36 amide alone, and a combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide on acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and insulin sensitivity index (SI) in 14 overweight human volunteers, studied in a clinical research facility. Results: PYY3–36 alone caused a small but nonsignificant increase in AIRg. GLP-17–36 amide alone and the combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide did increase AIRg significantly. No significant differences in SI were observed with any intervention. Conclusions: PYY3–36 lacks any significant acute effects on first-phase insulin secretion or SI when tested using an FSIVGTT. Both GLP-17–36 amide alone and the combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide increase first-phase insulin secretion. There does not seem to be any additive or synergistic effect between PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide on first-phase insulin secretion. Neither hormone alone nor the combination had any significant effects on SI. PMID:25144632

  18. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  19. Syntaxin-4 mediates exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer insulin granules underlying biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Zhu, Dan; Dolai, Subhankar; Liang, Tao; Qin, Tairan; Kang, Youhou; Xie, Huanli; Huang, Ya-Chi; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2015-06-01

    Of the four exocytotic syntaxins (Syns), much is now known about the role of Syn-1A (pre-docked secretory granules [SGs]) and Syn-3 (newcomer SGs) in insulin exocytosis. Some work was reported on Syn-4's role in biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but its precise role in insulin SG exocytosis remains unclear. In this paper we examine this role in human beta cells. Endogenous function of Syn-4 in human islets was assessed by knocking down its expression with lentiviral single hairpin RNA (lenti-shRNA)-RFP. Biphasic GSIS was determined by islet perifusion assay. Single-cell analysis of exocytosis of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-positive beta cells (exhibiting near-total depletion of Syn-4) was by patch clamp capacitance measurements (Cm) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), the latter to further assess single SG behaviour. Co-immunoprecipitations were conducted on INS-1 cells to assess exocytotic complexes. Syn-4 knockdown (KD) of 77% in human islets caused a concomitant reduction in cognate Munc18c expression (46%) without affecting expression of other exocytotic proteins; this resulted in reduction of GSIS in the first phase (by 42%) and the second phase (by 40%). Cm of RFP-tagged Syn-4-KD beta cells showed severe inhibition in the readily releasable pool (by 71%) and mobilisation from reserve pools (by 63%). TIRFM showed that Syn-4-KD-induced inhibition of first-phase GSIS was attributed to reduction in exocytosis of both pre-docked and newcomer SGs (which undergo minimal residence or docking time at the plasma membrane before fusion). Second-phase inhibition was attributed to reduction in newcomer SGs. Stx-4 co-immunoprecipitated Munc18c, VAMP2 and VAMP8, suggesting that these exocytotic complexes may be involved in exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer SGs. Syn-4 is involved in distinct molecular machineries that influence exocytosis of both pre-docked and newcomer SGs in a manner functionally redundant to Syn-1A and

  20. Intravenous infusion of amino acids in dogs attenuates hypothermia during anaesthesia and stimulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Satoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Yamada, Kazuto; Ogawa, Mizuho; Nishii, Naohito; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravenous infusion of amino acids on the prevention of hypothermia during anaesthesia in dogs. Randomized experimental trial. Seven healthy Beagle dogs. Four concentrations of amino acids were prepared with a 10% amino acid solution and an acetated Ringer's solution, and dogs were infused with each of the solutions at 1 week intervals. Dogs were infused with amino acid solution at 12 mL kg(-1)  hour(-1) for 60 minutes before and for 60 minutes after induction of anaesthesia. Acetated Ringer's solution was infused at the same rate for the remaining 60 minutes of anaesthesia. The infusion treatments were: 1) A0, nutrient-free acetated Ringer's solution; 2) A6, 0.6 g kg(-1)  hour(-1) ; 3) A9, 0.9 g kg(-1)  hour(-1) ; and 4) A12, 1.2 g kg(-1) hour(-1) . Rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood insulin, glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations, and time to extubation were measured. Before anaesthesia, RT was not affected by amino acid infusion. RT decreased progressively during anaesthesia and the absolute values of RT from 30 to 120 minutes were significantly higher in A12 than in A0 (p < 0.05). Reductions in HR and MAP during anaesthesia were attenuated by amino acid infusion in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher in A12 than in A0 during amino acid infusion and the increase in insulin concentration was greater during than before anaesthesia. BUN increased during amino acid infusion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Time until extubation was shorter in A12 than in A0. Amino acids infused at 1.2 g kg(-1)  hour(-1) in dogs attenuated the decrease in RT, HR, and MAP during anaesthesia, and induced a significant increase in plasma insulin concentration. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  1. The T-Allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 Associates With a Reduced Compensation of Insulin Secretion for Insulin Resistance Induced by 9 Days of Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Alibegovic, Amra C.; Sonne, Mette P.; Højbjerre, Lise; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; van Hall, Gerrit; Holst, Jens J.; Stallknecht, Bente; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether the type 2 diabetes–associated T-allele of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 associates with impaired insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance induced by bed rest. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 38 healthy young Caucasian men were studied before and after bed rest using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The TCF7L2 rs7903146 was genotyped using allelic discrimination performed with an ABI 7900 system. The genetic analyses were done assuming a dominant model of inheritance. RESULTS The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele compared with carriers of the CC genotype before bed rest, with and without correction for insulin resistance. The incremental rise of FPIR in response to insulin resistance induced by bed rest was lower in carriers of the T-allele (P < 0.001). Fasting plasma glucagon levels were significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele before and after bed rest. While carriers of the CC genotype developed increased hepatic insulin resistance, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 did not influence peripheral insulin action or the rate of lipolysis before or after bed rest. CONCLUSIONS Healthy carriers of the T-allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 exhibit a diminished increase of insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose to compensate for insulin resistance as induced by bed rest. Reduced paracrine glucagon stimulation may contribute to the impairment of β-cell function in the carriers TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20107109

  2. Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Multi-Ethnic Vitamin D-Deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Claudia; Daly, Robin M.; Carpentier, André; Lu, Zhong X.; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Sikaris, Ken; Jean, Sonia; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. Design 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). Intervention Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000–6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. Measurements Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Results Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. Conclusions Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and

  3. Investigation of intracellular signalling cascades mediating stimulatory effect of a Gymnema sylvestre extract on insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Docherty, R; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional plant-based remedies such as Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extracts have been used to treat diabetes mellitus for many centuries. We have shown previously that a novel GS extract, OSA®, has a direct effect on insulin secretion but its mode of action has not been studied in detail Thus this study investigated the possible underlying mechanism(s) by which OSA® exerts its action. The effects of OSA® on [Ca(2+)]i and K(+) conductances were assessed by Ca(2+) microfluorimetry and electrophysiology in dispersed mouse islets and MIN6 β-cells, respectively. Isolated mouse (from 20 to 25 mice) and human (from 3 donors) islets, and MIN6 β-cells, were used to investigate whether the stimulatory effect of OSA® on insulin secretion was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and protein kinase activation. OSA ®-induced insulin secretion from mouse islets and MIN6 β-cells was inhibited by nifedipine, a voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker, and by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+), respectively. OSA® did not affect the activities of KATP channels or voltage-dependent K(+) channels in MIN6 β-cells but it caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in Fura-2-loaded mouse islet cells. The insulin secretagogue effect of OSA® was dependent, in part, on protein kinase activation since incubating mouse or human islets with staurosporine, a general protein kinase inhibitor, resulted in partial inhibition of OSA®-induced insulin secretion. Experiments using permeabilized, Ca(2+)-clamped MIN6 β-cells revealed a Ca(2+)-independent component action of OSA® at a late stage in the stimulus-response coupling pathway. OSA®-induced insulin secretion was unexpectedly associated with a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels. These data indicate that the GS isolate OSA® stimulates insulin secretion from mouse and human islets in vitro, at least in part as a consequence of Ca(2+) influx and protein kinase activation. © 2012 Blackwell

  4. Measurement of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin in hypothalamic-portal plasma of unanesthetized sheep. Spontaneous secretion and response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, L A; Downs, T R; Clarke, I J; Thomas, G B

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the role of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin (SRIH) in the regulation of the growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern, we collected portal blood from five unanesthetized ovariectomized ewes for repeated measurements of GRH and SRIH simultaneous with those of peripheral GH. Hormones were measured at 10-min intervals for 5.5 h and their interrelationships analyzed. Mean portal GRH was 20.4 +/- 6.7 (SD) pg/ml and the estimated overall secretion rate was 13 pg/min. GRH secretion was pulsatile with peaks of 25-40 pg/ml and a mean pulse interval of 71 min. Mean portal SRIH was 72 +/- 33 pg/ml and the estimated overall secretion rate was 32 pg/min. SRIH secretion was also pulsatile with peaks of 65-160 pg/ml and a mean pulse interval of 54 min. The GH pulse interval was 62 min. A significant association was present between GRH and GH secretory peaks though not between GRH and SRIH or SRIH and GH. Insulin hypoglycemia resulted in a rapid and brief stimulation of SRIH secretion followed by a decline in GH levels. No effect was observed on GRH secretion until 90 min, when a slight increase occurred. The results suggest (a) the presence of an independent neural rhythmicity of GRH and SRIH secretion with a primary role of GRH in determining pulsatile GRH secretion, and (b) that the inhibitory effects of insulin hypoglycemia on GH in this species are attributable to a combination of enhanced SRIH secretion and possibly other factors, though without significant inhibition of GRH. PMID:1973173

  5. Imaginal discs secrete insulin-like peptide 8 to mediate plasticity of growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Garelli, Andres; Gontijo, Alisson M; Miguela, Veronica; Caparros, Esther; Dominguez, Maria

    2012-05-04

    Developing animals frequently adjust their growth programs and/or their maturation or metamorphosis to compensate for growth disturbances (such as injury or tumor) and ensure normal adult size. Such plasticity entails tissue and organ communication to preserve their proportions and symmetry. Here, we show that imaginal discs autonomously activate DILP8, a Drosophila insulin-like peptide, to communicate abnormal growth and postpone maturation. DILP8 delays metamorphosis by inhibiting ecdysone biosynthesis, slowing growth in the imaginal discs, and generating normal-sized animals. Loss of dilp8 yields asymmetric individuals with an unusually large variation in size and a more varied time of maturation. Thus, DILP8 is a fundamental element of the hitherto ill-defined machinery governing the plasticity that ensures developmental stability and robustness.

  6. Pancreatic Endoderm-Derived From Diabetic Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generates Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Bahareh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Massumi, Mohammad; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can potentially serve as an invaluable source for cell replacement therapy and allow the creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells without the controversial use of embryos and avoids any immunological incompatibility. The generation of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro provides an unprecedented cell source for personal drug discovery and cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. A new five-step protocol was introduced in this study, effectively induced hiPSCs to differentiate into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, primitive gut-tube endoderm, posterior foregut, pancreatic endoderm, and endocrine precursor. Each stage of differentiation were characterized by stage-specific markers. The produced cells exhibited many properties of functional β-cells, including expression of critical β-cells transcription factors, the potency to secrete C-peptide in response to high levels of glucose and the presence of mature endocrine secretory granules. This high efficient differentiation protocol, established in this study, yielded 79.18% insulin-secreting cells which were responsive to glucose five times higher than the basal level. These hiPSCs-derived glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells might provide a promising approach for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2616-2625, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    PubMed

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  8. Dietary oxidised frying oil causes oxidative damage of pancreatic islets and impairment of insulin secretion, effects associated with vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya-Fan; Shaw, Huey-Mei; Yang, Mei-Fang; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien; Chao, Pei-Min

    2011-05-01

    We previously reported that, in rodents, a diet with a high oxidised frying oil (OFO) content leads to glucose intolerance associated with a reduction in insulin secretion. The present study aimed at investigating the impairment of pancreatic islets caused by dietary OFO. C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups to receive a low-fat basal diet containing 5 g/100 g of fresh soyabean oil (LF group) or a high-fat diet containing 20 g/100 g of either fresh soyabean oil (HF group) or OFO (HO group). After 8 weeks, mice in the HO group showed glucose intolerance and hypoinsulinaemia, and their islets showed impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (P < 0·05; HO group v. LF and HF groups). Significantly higher oxidative stress and a lower mitochondrial membrane potential were observed in the islets in the HO group compared with the LF and HF groups. Immunoblots showed that the reduction in insulin levels in HO islets was associated with activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and a reduction in levels of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1. In a second study, when dietary OFO-induced tissue vitamin E depletion was prevented by large-dose vitamin E supplementation (500 IU(1·06 mmol all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate)/kg diet; HO+E group), the OFO-mediated reduction in islet size and impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were significantly attenuated (P < 0·05; HO group v. HO+E group). We conclude that a high level of dietary OFO ingestion impairs glucose metabolism by causing oxidative damage and compromising insulin secretion in pancreatic islets, and that these effects can be prevented by vitamin E supplementation.

  9. Long-term exposure of rat pancreatic islets to fatty acids inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion and biosynthesis through a glucose fatty acid cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y P; Grill, V E

    1994-01-01

    We tested effects of long-term exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFA) in vitro on B cell function. Islets isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to palmitate (0.125 or 0.25 mM), oleate (0.125 mM), or octanoate (2.0 mM) during culture. Insulin responses were subsequently tested in the absence of FFA. After a 48-h exposure to FFA, insulin secretion during basal glucose (3.3 mM) was several-fold increased. However, during stimulation with 27 mM glucose, secretion was inhibited by 30-50% and proinsulin biosynthesis by 30-40%. Total protein synthesis was similarly affected. Conversely, previous palmitate did not impair alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (5 mM)-induced insulin release. Induction and reversibility of the inhibitory effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion required between 6 and 24 h. Addition of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor etomoxir (1 microM) partially reversed (by > 50%) FFA-associated decrease in secretory as well as proinsulin biosynthetic responses to 27 mM glucose. The inhibitory effect of previous palmitate was similar when co-culture was performed with 5.5, 11, or 27 mM glucose. Exposure to palmitate or oleate reduced the production of 14CO2 from D-[U-14C]glucose, and of 14CO2 from D-[3,4-14C]-glucose, both effects being reversed by etomoxir. Conclusions: long-term exposure to FFA inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion and biosynthesis probably through a glucose fatty acid cycle. PMID:8113418

  10. Developmental programming of aging of isolated pancreatic islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in female offspring of mothers fed low-protein diets in pregnancy and/or lactation.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Sosa, T C; Calzada, L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Díaz-Díaz, E; Morales, A; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes predisposition is determined by pancreatic islet insulin secretion and insulin resistance. We studied female rat offspring exposed to low-protein maternal diet (50% control protein diet) in pregnancy and/or lactation at postnatal days 36, 110 and 450. Rats were fed either control 20% casein diet (C) or restricted diet (R - 10% casein) during pregnancy. After delivery, mothers received either C or R diet until weaning to provide four offspring groups: CC, RR, CR and RC (first letter denoting maternal pregnancy diet and the second lactation diet). Serum glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were measured. Pancreatic islets were isolated and in vitro insulin secretion quantified in low glucose (5 mM) and high glucose (11 mM). Serum glucose, insulin and HOMA were similar in all groups at 36 and 110 postnatal days. HOMA was only higher in RR at 450 postnatal days. Only CC demonstrated differences in glucose sensitivity of β-cells to high and low doses at the three ages studied. At 36 days, RR, CR and RC and at 450 days RR and RC groups did not show glucose-stimulated insulin secretion differences between low and high glucose. Aging-associated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion loss was affected by maternal dietary history, indicating that developmental programming must be considered a major factor in aging-related development of predisposition to later-life dysfunctional insulin metabolism. Female offspring islets' insulin secretion was higher than previously reported in males.

  11. The two pore channel TPC2 is dispensable in pancreatic β-cells for normal Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cane, Matthew C.; Parrington, John; Rorsman, Patrik; Galione, Antony; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are central to the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by glucose and other agents, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whilst Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane is a key trigger for glucose-stimulated secretion, mobilisation of Ca2+ from acidic stores has been implicated in the control of more localised Ca2+ changes and membrane potential. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), generated in β-cells in response to high glucose, is a potent mobiliser of these stores, and has been proposed to act through two pore channels (TPC1 and TPC2, murine gene names Tpcn1 and Tpcn2). Whilst the role of TPC1 in the control of Ca2+ mobilisation and insulin secretion was recently confirmed, conflicting data exist for TPC2. Here, we used the selective and efficient deleter strain, Ins1Cre to achieve β-cell selective deletion of the Tpcn2 gene in mice. βTpcn2 KO mice displayed normal intraperitoneal and oral glucose tolerance, and glucose-stimulated Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion from islets were similarly normal. GLP-1-induced Ca2+ increases involved an increase in oscillation frequency from 4.35 to 4.84 per minute (p = 0.04) at 8 mM glucose, and this increase was unaffected by the absence of Tpcn2. The current data thus indicate that TPC2 is not absolutely required for normal glucose- or incretin-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell. Our findings suggest that TPC1, whose expression tended to increase in Tpcn2 null islets, might be sufficient to support normal Ca2+ dynamics in response to stimulation by nutrients or incretins. PMID:26769314

  12. L-Histidine sensing by calcium sensing receptor inhibits voltage-dependent calcium channel activity and insulin secretion in β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Jai; Asotra, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    Aims Our goal was to test the hypothesis that the histidine-induced activation of calcium sensing receptor (CaR) can regulate calcium channel activity of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) due to increased spatial interaction between CaR and VDCC in β-cells and thus modulate glucose-induced insulin secretion. Main methods Rat insulinoma (RINr1046-38) insulin-producing β-cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium on 25 mm diameter glass coverslips in six-well culture plates in a 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. The intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, was determined by ratio fluorescence microscopy using Fura-2AM. The spatial interactions between CaR and L-type VDCC in β-cells were measured by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy using a Nikon C1 laser scanning confocal microscope. The insulin release was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Key findings The additions of increasing concentrations of L-histidine along with 10 mM glucose resulted in 57% decrease in [Ca2+]i. The confocal fluorescence imaging data showed 5.59 to 8.62-fold increase in colocalization correlation coefficient between CaR and VDCC in β-cells exposed to L-histidine thereby indicating increased membrane delimited spatial interactions between these two membrane proteins. The insulin ELISA data showed 54% decrease in 1st phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion in β-cells exposed to increasing concentrations of L-histidine. Significance L-histidine-induced increased spatial interaction of CaR with VDCC can inhibit calcium channel activity of VDCC and consequently regulate glucose-induced insulin secretion by β-cells. The L-type VDCC could therefore be potential therapeutic target in diabetes. PMID:21219913

  13. Sleep apnoea syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular risk in females with type 2 diabetes: relationship with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michel P; Ahn, Sylvie A; Mahadeb, Yovan P; Rousseau, Michel F

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and promotes cardiovascular events, especially in men. The prevalence of sleep apnoea and its association with microvascular and macrovascular diseases and glycaemic control are poorly documented in T2DM women. A total of 305 T2DM women were sleep apnoea diagnosed through (hetero)anamnesis, Epworth's score, oximetry and polysomnography. Sleep apnoea[+] (n = 25) were compared with sleep apnoea[-] (n = 280) regarding cardiovascular risk factors, glucose homeostasis, micro/macrovascular complications and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 10-year risk. Mean (1 SD) age was 66 (12) years, diabetes duration 15 (9) years, sleep apnoea prevalence 8.2% and metabolic syndrome 86%. There were no differences in age, diabetes duration, education, smoking and blood pressure between groups. Sleep apnoea[+] had significantly higher values of body mass index, waist, relative/absolute fat, conicity, visceral fat (all p < 0.0001) and lower skeletal muscle (p = 0.0008). The sleep apnoea[+] group was more insulin resistant [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA S): 37 (20)% versus 59 (44)%; p < 0.0001] and had lesser residual insulin secretion (HOMA B × S: 20 (12)% versus 30 (19)%; p = 0.0006), increased hyperbolic product loss (p = 0.0442) and poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c 69 (12) versus 62 (13) mmol mol(-1) ; p = 0.0099). All atherogenic dyslipidaemia components and inflammatory markers were worsened in sleep apnoea[+]. Women with sleep apnoea had higher UKPDS risk of CAD: 18 (11)% versus 12 (10)% (p = 0.0136). Prevalent micro/macrovascular complications were not different between groups. Sleep apnoea, a frequent comorbidity of T2DM women, is associated with central fat, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, inflammation, worsening β-cell function, poorer glycaemic control and coronary artery disease risk. Sleep apnoea may increase residual vascular risk for microvascular and

  14. A malignant cause of hypoglycaemia: a metastatic insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony; Pagsisihan, Daveric; Berberabe, A'Ericson; Palugod-Lopez, Elaine Gayle

    2016-03-18

    Most cases of insulinomas are benign. We report a case of a malignant form of insulinoma. A 46-year-old man presented with behavioural changes associated with hypoglycaemia. Diagnostic work up revealed high serum insulin, high C-peptide and low glucose levels, compatible with endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed a pancreatic head mass and multiple liver masses. Biopsy of the pancreatic mass revealed a grade three pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Histological analysis of a liver mass showed that it was identical to the pancreatic mass, confirming its metastatic nature. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with en bloc splenectomy. There was persistence of hypoglycaemic symptoms after removal of the pancreatic mass, suggesting that the liver metastases were also functioning. Symptoms were controlled by diazoxide and octreotide long-acting release. The patient is already 1 year postsurgery with no recurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and he has good functional capacity and has returned to his office job. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. A malignant cause of hypoglycaemia: a metastatic insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony; Pagsisihan, Daveric; Berberabe, A'Ericson; Palugod-Lopez, Elaine Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Most cases of insulinomas are benign. We report a case of a malignant form of insulinoma. A 46-year-old man presented with behavioural changes associated with hypoglycaemia. Diagnostic work up revealed high serum insulin, high C-peptide and low glucose levels, compatible with endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed a pancreatic head mass and multiple liver masses. Biopsy of the pancreatic mass revealed a grade three pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Histological analysis of a liver mass showed that it was identical to the pancreatic mass, confirming its metastatic nature. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with en bloc splenectomy. There was persistence of hypoglycaemic symptoms after removal of the pancreatic mass, suggesting that the liver metastases were also functioning. Symptoms were controlled by diazoxide and octreotide long-acting release. The patient is already 1 year postsurgery with no recurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and he has good functional capacity and has returned to his office job. PMID:26994053

  16. Pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon and insulin secretion from the isolated perfused canine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R; Hermansen, K; Iversen, J

    1978-06-01

    The release of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) by gut hormones, acetyl choline and adrenaline was investigated in an isolated perfused pancreas preparation. PP was potently released by 1 nmol/1 caerulein (186 +/- 12%, p is less than 0.001) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) (211 +/- 31%, p is less than 0.005) as well as by 1 mumol/1 acetyl choline (1097 +/- 59%, p is less than 0.001). A significant two-fold release of PP was also evoked by 1 nmol/1 vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (129 +/- 38%, p is less than 0.02 and gastrin (108 +/- 25% p is less than 0.01). Insulin release, induced by high glucose concentration was enhanced by both GIP (210 +/- 38%, p is less than (0.01) and VIP (48 +/- 5%, p is less than 0.001). In addition GIP enhanced the release of glucagon by 179 +/- 18% (p is less 0.001) at 1.4 mmol/1 glucose and by 127 +/- 24% (p is less than 0.005) at 8.3 mmol/1 glucose. Thus no simple inter-relationship appears to exist between the control of the three circulating islet hormones.

  17. Phospholipase C-ε links Epac2 activation to the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Dzhura, Igor; Chepurny, Oleg G; Leech, Colin A; Roe, Michael W; Dzhura, Elvira; Xu, Xin; Lu, Youming; Schwede, Frank; Genieser, Hans-G; Smrcka, Alan V

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is potentiated by cAMP-elevating agents, such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cAMP exerts its insulin secretagogue action by activating both protein kinase A (PKA) and the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor designated as Epac2. Although prior studies of mouse islets demonstrated that Epac2 acts via Rap1 GTPase to potentiate GSIS, it is not understood which downstream targets of Rap1 promote the exocytosis of insulin. Here, we measured insulin secretion stimulated by a cAMP analog that is a selective activator of Epac proteins in order to demonstrate that a Rap1-regulated phospholipase C-epsilon (PLC-ε) links Epac2 activation to the potentiation of GSIS. Our analysis demonstrates that the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiates GSIS from the islets of wild-type (WT) mice, whereas it has a greatly reduced insulin secretagogue action in the islets of Epac2 (−/−) and PLC-ε (−/−) knockout (KO) mice. Importantly, the insulin secretagogue action of 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM in WT mouse islets cannot be explained by an unexpected action of this cAMP analog to activate PKA, as verified through the use of a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR3) that reports PKA activation. Since the KO of PLC-ε disrupts the ability of 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate GSIS, while also disrupting its ability to stimulate an increase of β-cell [Ca2+]i, the available evidence indicates that it is a Rap1-regulated PLC-ε that links Epac2 activation to Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin. PMID:21478675

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Peptide Functionalized Hydrogels for Insulin-Secreting Cell Encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jing; Hu, Bi-Huang; Lowe, William L.; Kaufman, Dixon B.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic islet encapsulation within semi-permeable materials has been proposed for transplantation therapy of Type I diabetes mellitus. Polymer hydrogel networks used for this purpose have been shown to provide protection from islet destruction by immunoreactive cells and antibodies. However, one of the fundamental deficiencies with current encapsulation methods is that the permselective barriers cannot protect islets from cytotoxic molecules of low molecular weight that are diffusible into the capsule material, which subsequently results in β-cell destruction. Use of materials that can locally inhibit the interaction between the permeable small cytotoxic factors and islet cells may prolong the viability and function of encapsulated islet grafts. Here we report the design of anti-inflammatory hydrogels supporting islet cell survival in the presence of diffusible pro-inflammatory cytokines. We demonstrated that a poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel network, formed by native chemical ligation and presenting an inhibitory peptide for islet cell surface IL-1 receptor, was able to maintain the viability of encapsulated islet cells in the presence of a combination of cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and INF-γ. In stark contrast, cells encapsulated in unmodified hydrogels were mostly destroyed by cytokines which diffused into the capsules. At the same time, these peptide-modified hydrogels were able to efficiently protect encapsulated cells against β-cell specific T-lymphocytes and maintain glucose-stimulated insulin release by islet cells. With further development, the approach of encapsulating cells and tissues within hydrogels presenting anti-inflammatory agents may represent a new strategy to improve cell and tissue graft function in transplantation and tissue engineering applications. PMID:19782393

  19. Downregulation of carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase by miRNAs 132 and 212 amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Soni, Mufaddal S; Rabaglia, Mary E; Bhatnagar, Sushant; Shang, Jin; Ilkayeva, Olga; Mynatt, Randall; Zhou, Yun-Ping; Schadt, Eric E; Thornberry, Nancy A; Muoio, Deborah M; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D

    2014-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) 132 and 212 are differentially upregulated in response to obesity in two mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes. Here we show the overexpression of miRNAs 132 and 212 enhances insulin secretion (IS) in response to glucose and other secretagogues including nonfuel stimuli. We determined that carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT; Slc25a20) is a direct target of these miRNAs. CACT is responsible for transporting long-chain acyl-carnitines into the mitochondria for β-oxidation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CACT in β-cells led to the accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines and enhanced IS. The addition of long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines promoted IS from rat insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) as well as primary mouse islets. The effect on INS-1 cells was augmented in response to suppression of CACT. A nonhydrolyzable ether analog of palmitoyl-carnitine stimulated IS, showing that β-oxidation of palmitoyl-carnitine is not required for its stimulation of IS. These studies establish a link between miRNA-dependent regulation of CACT and fatty acyl-carnitine-mediated regulation of IS. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with early-phase insulin secretion in chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojing; Hao, Yaping; Hu, Xiang; Luo, Yuqi; Deng, Zixuan; Zhou, Jian; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the correlations of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (l,5-AG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin (GA) with insulin sensitivity and secretion. In total, 302 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (166 men, 136 women) were enrolled in this study. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated to determine the basal insulin sensitivity and secretion. The insulinogenic index (IGI) was used to evaluate early-phase insulin secretion. 1,5-AG and GA were assayed via the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among all 302 subjects, the serum 1,5-AG level was 13.1±7.2 μg/mL, and the HbA1c and GA levels [median (interquartile range)] were 6.7% (6.2-7.3%) and 17.7% (16.0-19.5%), respectively. Increased 1,5-AG quartiles were accompanied by trends toward a decreased HOMA-IR and an increased HOMA-β and IGI (for all trends, P<0.001). 1,5-AG was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.200, P<0.001) and positively associated with HOMA-β and IGI (r=0.210 and 0.413, respectively; both P<0.001). 1,5-AG was independently related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-β and exhibited an independent positive association with IGI (standardized β=0.242, P<0.001). Additionally, both HbA1c and GA were independently correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. 1,5-AG is not only correlated with basal insulin sensitivity and secretion, but also closely associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Sweet Taste Receptor Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells Activates the Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signaling Systems and Stimulates Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Mogami, Hideo; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and cAMP ([cAMP]c) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca2+]c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca2+]c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a Gq inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions Sweet taste receptor is expressed in β-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:19352508

  2. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. Objectives To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. Methods We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). Measurements and main results β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P < 0.05, ± SEM) and COPD former smokers (39.0 ± 5.4, P < 0.05) compared to healthy controls (53.6 ± 3.4). Similarly, sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and COPD former smokers (37.8 ± 6.0, P < 0.01) vs. healthy controls (19.1 ± 2.5). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between β-adrenergic sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (−0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (−0.3), and history of smoking (−0.27; each P < 0.05). Stepwise multivariate regression included gender (0.39) and COPD (−0.43) in the final model (R2 = 0.266, P < 0.0001). Conclusions β-adrenergic sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements

  3. Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The manipulation of organic materials--cells, tissues, and even living organisms--offers many exciting possibilities for the future from organic computers to improved aquaculture. Commercial researchers are using the microgravity environment to produce large near perfect protein crystals Research on insulin has yielded crystals that far surpass the quality of insulin crystals grown on the ground. Using these crystals industry partners are working to develop new and improved treatments for diabetes. Other researchers are exploring the possibility of producing antibiotics using plant cell cultures which could lead to both orbital production and the improvement of ground-based antibiotic production.

  4. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4more » daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.« less

  5. The diet-derived short chain fatty acid propionate improves beta-cell function in humans and stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Attilio; Chambers, Edward S; Hill, Thomas; Maldonado, Inmaculada Ruz; Liu, Bo; Bewick, Gavin; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom; Wallis, Gareth A; Tedford, Catriona; Castañera González, Ramón; Huang, Guo C; Choudhary, Pratik; Frost, Gary; Persaud, Shanta J

    2017-02-01

    Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon. Acute insulin, GLP-1 and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were quantified pre- and post-supplementation in response to a mixed meal test. Expression of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 in human islets was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Dynamic insulin secretion from perifused human islets was quantified by radioimmunoassay and islet apoptosis was determined by quantification of caspase 3/7 activities. Colonic propionate delivery in vivo was associated with improved β-cell function with increased insulin secretion that was independent of changes in GLP-1 levels. Human islet β-cells expressed FFAR2 and propionate potentiated dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signalling via protein kinase C. Propionate also protected human islets from apoptosis induced by the NEFA sodium palmitate and inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that propionate has beneficial effects on β-cell function in vivo, and in vitro analyses demonstrated that it has direct effects to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin release and maintain β-cell mass through inhibition of apoptosis. These observations support ingestion of propiogenic dietary fibres to maintain healthy glucose homeostasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A 3D cell culture system: separation distance between INS-1 cell and endothelial cell monolayers co-cultured in fibrin influences INS-1 cells insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Georges; Vermette, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell culture system allowing studying the effect of separation distance between monolayers of rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) co-cultured in fibrin over INS-1 cell insulin secretion. For this purpose, a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture chamber was designed, built using micro-fabrication techniques and validated. The co-culture was successfully carried out and the effect on INS-1 cell insulin secretion was investigated. After 48 and 72 h, INS-1 cells co-cultured with HUVEC separated by a distance of 100 µm revealed enhanced insulin secretion compared to INS-1 cells cultured alone or co-cultured with HUVEC monolayers separated by a distance of 200 µm. These results illustrate the importance of the separation distance between two cell niches for cell culture design and the possibility to further enhance the endocrine function of beta cells when this factor is considered. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Low molecular weight compounds from Zoanthus sociatus impair insulin secretion via Ca(+2) influx blockade and cause glucose intolerance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira; Leon-Pinzon, Carolina; Dominguez-Perez, Dany; Varela, Carlos; Rodriguez-Romero, Adela; Castañeda, Olga; Hiriart, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    Cnidarians comprise a taxon with a high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds, which have not been studied on insulin release. We tested the effect of a crude extract of Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1767) and the low molecular weight fraction of this extract on insulin secretion in isolated rat β-cells and also in a glucose tolerance test in vivo. We observed that the extract inhibited insulin release by reducing the amount secreted by individual β-cells and also by silencing a fraction of the secreting population. This effect coincided with a diminished rise of intracellular Ca(+2) in response to high glucose and high K+ -induced depolarization. Moreover intraperitoneal administration of the low molecular weight fraction produced glucose intolerance in adult rats. The active fraction exhibited molecular weights similar to the neurotoxins described in the phylum. Our results broaden the toxic effects of cnidarian venoms and show evidence of potential modulators of voltage-gated Ca(+2) channels in this group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Activation of FoxM1 Revitalizes the Replicative Potential of Aged β-Cells in Male Mice and Enhances Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Golson, Maria L.; Dunn, Jennifer C.; Maulis, Matthew F.; Dadi, Prasanna K.; Osipovich, Anna B.; Magnuson, Mark A.; Jacobson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes incidence increases with age, while β-cell replication declines. The transcription factor FoxM1 is required for β-cell replication in various situations, and its expression declines with age. We hypothesized that increased FoxM1 activity in aged β-cells would rejuvenate proliferation. Induction of an activated form of FoxM1 was sufficient to increase β-cell mass and proliferation in 12-month-old male mice after just 2 weeks. Unexpectedly, at 2 months of age, induction of activated FoxM1 in male mice improved glucose homeostasis with unchanged β-cell mass. Cells expressing activated FoxM1 demonstrated enhanced glucose-stimulated Ca2+ influx, which resulted in improved glucose tolerance through enhanced β-cell function. Conversely, our laboratory has previously demonstrated that mice lacking FoxM1 in the pancreas display glucose intolerance or diabetes with only a 60% reduction in β-cell mass, suggesting that the loss of FoxM1 is detrimental to β-cell function. Ex vivo insulin secretion was therefore examined in size-matched islets from young mice lacking FoxM1 in β-cells. Foxm1-deficient islets indeed displayed reduced insulin secretion. Our studies reveal that activated FoxM1 increases β-cell replication while simultaneously enhancing insulin secretion and improving glucose homeostasis, making FoxM1 an attractive therapeutic target for diabetes. PMID:26251404

  9. Chromium picolinate inhibits resistin secretion in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of amp-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Dong, Yi; Yao, Ming-Hui

    2009-08-01

    1. Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been recommended as an alternative therapeutic regimen for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the action of CrPic is poorly understood. 2. Using normal and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we examined the effects of CrPic on the gene transcription and secretion of adiponectin and resistin. In addition, using immunoblotting, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the effects of 10 nmol/L CrPic for 24 h on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to determine whether this pathway contributed to the regulation of adiponectin and resistin expression and secretion. 3. Chromium picolinate did not modulate the expression of adiponectin and resistin; however, it did significantly inhibit the secretion of resistin, but not adiponectin, by normal and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. Furthermore, although CrPic markedly elevated levels of phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, it had no effect on the levels of AMPK alpha-1 and alpha-2 mRNA transcripts. Importantly, inhibition of AMPK by 2 h pretreatment of cells with 20 micromol/L compound C completely abolished the CrPic-induced suppression of resistin secretion. 4. In conclusion, the data suggest that CrPic inhibits resistin secretion via activation of AMPK in normal and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  10. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie.wang2@osumc.edu; Osei, Kwame

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Primary proinsulin maturation disorder is inherent in Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells. {yields} A consequence is the inefficient conversion of proinsulin to insulin. {yields} Post-translational defects occur as well in the involved PC1/3 and PC2 convertases. {yields} Proinsulin maturation chaos results in defects in the following conversion process. {yields} A link of the proinsulin maturation disorder and hyperproinsulinemia is suggested. -- Abstract: Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia is an indicator of {beta}-cell dysfunction in diabetes and the basis underlying this abnormality remains obscure. Recently, we have found proinsulin is an aggregation-prone molecule inherent with a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostaticmore » balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) in normal {beta}-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to environmental and genetic influences. Perturbation of PIHO produces a number of toxic consequences with known association to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes. To explore whether the perturbation of PIHO has a link to disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia, we investigated proinsulin conversion and the involved prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) in mouse Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells that preserve a primary PIHO disorder due to a mutation (C96Y) in the insulin 2 (Ins2) gene. Our metabolic-labeling studies found an increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin in the cellular or released proteins of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets. Histological, metabolic-labeling, and RT-PCR analyses revealed decreases of the PC1/3 and PC2 immunoreactivities in the {beta}-cells of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets in spite of no declines of these two convertases at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analyses in cloned Ins2{sup +/Akita} {beta}-cells further confirmed the increased ratio of

  11. N-acyl Taurines and Acylcarnitines Cause an Imbalance in Insulin Synthesis and Secretion Provoking β Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Aichler, Michaela; Borgmann, Daniela; Krumsiek, Jan; Buck, Achim; MacDonald, Patrick E; Fox, Jocelyn E Manning; Lyon, James; Light, Peter E; Keipert, Susanne; Jastroch, Martin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Mueller, Nikola S; Sun, Na; Palmer, Andrew; Alexandrov, Theodore; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Tschöp, Matthias H; Walch, Axel

    2017-06-06

    The processes contributing to β cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are uncertain, largely because it is difficult to access β cells in their intact immediate environment. We examined the pathophysiology of β cells under T2D progression directly in pancreatic tissues. We used MALDI imaging of Langerhans islets (LHIs) within mouse tissues or from human tissues to generate in situ-omics data, which we supported with in vitro experiments. Molecular interaction networks provided information on functional pathways and molecules. We found that stearoylcarnitine accumulated in β cells, leading to arrest of insulin synthesis and energy deficiency via excessive β-oxidation and depletion of TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation metabolites. Acetylcarnitine and an accumulation of N-acyl taurines, a group not previously detected in β cells, provoked insulin secretion. Thus, β cell dysfunction results from enhanced insulin secretion combined with an arrest of insulin synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arterial gastroduodenal infusion of cholecystokinin-33 stimulates the exocrine pancreatic enzyme release via an enteropancreatic reflex, without affecting the endocrine insulin secretion in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rengman, Sofia; Weström, Björn; Ahrén, Bo; Pierzynowski, Stefan G

    2009-03-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)-dependent exocrine pancreatic regulation seems to involve different pathways in different species. The aims were to explore the enteropancreatic reflex in the CCK-mediated regulation of the exocrine pancreas and to evaluate a possible involvement of this reflex in the endocrine insulin release. In anesthetized pigs, CCK-33 in increasing doses (4-130 pmol kg 10 min) was infused locally to the gastroduodenal artery, or systemically via the jugular vein. Also, a low CCK-33 dose (13 pmol kg) was injected to the duodenum/antrum area before and after a bilateral truncal vagotomy. Cholecystokinin-33 in the physiological dose range 4 to 32 pmol kg 10 min increased protein and trypsin outputs after local infusion to the antral-duodenal area, whereas it had no effect after systemic infusion. Cholecystokinin-33 in the pharmacological dose range 64 to 130 pmol kg 10 min further increased the secretion after both local and systemic infusions. Only CCK-33 infusions in the pharmacological dose range were able to elevate the plasma insulin levels. Vagotomy had no effect on CCK-33-mediated stimulation of the enzyme release, whereas it had a significant effect on the plasma insulin level. Cholecystokinin-33 in the physiological dose range 4 to 32 pmol kg 10 min stimulates the enzyme secretion but had no effect on the insulin release via a short enteropancreatic pathway in pigs.

  13. Fish oil, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in healthy people: is there any effect of fish oil supplementation in relation to the type of background diet and habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Giacco, Rosalba; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Vessby, Bengt; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Meyer, Barbara J; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate whether a moderate supplementation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is able to modulate insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in healthy individuals consuming a diet rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, also in relation to their habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid. One hundred and sixty-two healthy individuals were randomly assigned to follow either one of two isoenergetic diets for 3 months, one rich in monounsaturated fats and the other rich in saturated fats. Within each group there was a second randomisation to fish oil (n-3 fatty acids 3.6 g/day) or placebo. At the beginning and at the end of the treatment periods insulin sensitivity (SI), first phase insulin response (FPIR) and glucose tolerance (K(G)-value) were evaluated by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Fish oil did not have any effect on SI, FPIR, K(G)-value and disposition index in either diet. Even after dividing subjects according to the median value of n-6/n-3 ratio of serum phospholipids at baseline, there was no change in SI (Delta SI 0.42+/-0.34 on fish oil vs 0.14+/-0.23 on placebo for those with n-6/n-3 <4.85; -1.03+/-0.47 on fish oil vs -0.27+/-0.32 on placebo for those with n-6/n-3 >4.85) (M+/-SE), FPIR (Delta FPIR 135.9+/-78.9 vs 157.2+/-157.5 pmol/L; 38.8+/-181.7 vs 357.1+/-181.7 pmol/L), K(G)-value (Delta K(G) 0.14+/-0.15 vs 0.12+/-0.11; -0.32+/-0.16 vs 0.15+/-0.15) or disposition index (Delta disposition index 1465.4+/-830.4 vs 953.8+/-690.0; -1641.6+/-1034.3 vs 446.6+/-905.1). Considering the 75th percentile of n-6/n-3 ratio (5.82) the results on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and disposition index were confirmed, while, in this more extreme situation, n-3 fatty acid supplementation induced a significant deterioration of K(G)-value (p=0.02). In healthy individuals a moderate supplementation of fish oil does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, beta-cell function or glucose

  14. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal analysis from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca K; Brunner, Eric J; Witte, Daniel R; Færch, Kristine; Vistisen, Dorte; Ikehara, Satoyo; Kivimaki, Mika; Tabák, Adam G

    2017-07-01

    South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose metabolism prior to incident type 2 diabetes. In a prospective British occupational cohort, subject to 5 yearly clinical examinations, we examined ethnic differences in trajectories of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), 2 h post-load serum insulin (2hSI), HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-S) and secretion (HOMA2-B), and the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISI 0,120 ) among 120 South Asian and 867 white participants who developed diabetes during follow-up (1991-2013). We fitted cubic mixed-effects models to longitudinal data with adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Compared with white individuals, South Asians had a faster increase in FPG before diagnosis (slope difference 0.22 mmol/l per decade; 95% CI 0.02, 0.42; p = 0.03) and a higher FPG level at diagnosis (0.27 mmol/l; 95% CI 0.06, 0.48; p = 0.01). They also had higher FSI and 2hSI levels before and at diabetes diagnosis. South Asians had a faster decline and lower HOMA2-S (log e -transformed) at diagnosis compared with white individuals (0.33; 95% CI 0.21, 0.46; p < 0.001). HOMA2-B increased in both ethnic groups until 7 years before diagnosis and then declined; the initial increase was faster in white individuals. ISI 0,120 declined steeply in both groups before diagnosis; levels were lower among South Asians before and at diagnosis. There were no ethnic differences in 2hPG trajectories. We observed different trajectories of plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity and secretion prior to diabetes diagnosis in South Asian and white individuals. This might be due to ethnic

  15. cAMP-secretion coupling is impaired in diabetic GK/Par rat β-cells: a defect counteracted by GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Manuel; Movassat, Jamileh; Bailbé, Danielle; Le Stunff, Hervé; Giroix, Marie-Hélène; Fradet, Magali; Kergoat, Micheline; Portha, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    cAMP-raising agents with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as the first in class, exhibit multiple actions that are beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, including improvement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). To gain additional insight into the role of cAMP in the disturbed stimulus-secretion coupling within the diabetic β-cell, we examined more thoroughly the relationship between changes in islet cAMP concentration and insulin release in the GK/Par rat model of T2D. Basal cAMP content in GK/Par islets was significantly higher, whereas their basal insulin release was not significantly different from that of Wistar (W) islets. Even in the presence of IBMX or GLP-1, their insulin release did not significantly change despite further enhanced cAMP accumulation in both cases. The high basal cAMP level most likely reflects an increased cAMP generation in GK/Par compared with W islets since 1) forskolin dose-dependently induced an exaggerated cAMP accumulation; 2) adenylyl cyclase (AC)2, AC3, and G(s)α proteins were overexpressed; 3) IBMX-activated cAMP accumulation was less efficient and PDE-3B and PDE-1C mRNA were decreased. Moreover, the GK/Par insulin release apparatus appears less sensitive to cAMP, since GK/Par islets released less insulin at submaximal cAMP levels and required five times more cAMP to reach a maximal secretion rate no longer different from W. GLP-1 was able to reactivate GK/Par insulin secretion so that GIIS became indistinguishable from that of W. The exaggerated cAMP production is instrumental, since GLP-1-induced GIIS reactivation was lost in the presence the AC blocker 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine. This GLP-1 effect takes place in the absence of any improvement of the [Ca(2+)](i) response and correlates with activation of the cAMP-dependent PKA-dependent pathway.

  16. Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Farzami, Bijan; Ahmadvand, D; Vardasbi, S; Majin, F J; Khaghani, Sh

    2003-11-01

    The blood glucose lowering effect of Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle) as a medicinal plant has been noted in old writings such as those of Avicenna. Recently, there has also been other investigators that indicated the hypoglycemic effect of Urtica dioica. But so far, the mechanism of this effect has not been deduced. In this report, a perifusion system is arranged in which an exact number of Langerhans Islets were exposed to several fractions of extracts of Urtica dioica by TLC. The active ingredient fraction named F(1), caused a marked increase in insulin secretion. A simultaneous assay of glucose showed that the increase in insulin level was associated with a decrease in glucose level. Furthermore, the active component of Urtica dioica was found to increase the insulin content of blood sera in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats that were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the active ingredient of the extract. The in vivo studies presented in this report show that not only an increase in insulin level of blood sera was observed in rats after 30 min from the initial point of injection but a simultaneous decrease of blood sugar was detected when similar sera was tested for glucose. The increase in insulin level was six times during the 120 min of our determination. The decrease in blood sugar was found to be similar both in the level and time of initiation. On the basis of our findings, we assume that F(1) is the active ingredient of plant leaves extract. The results show that the blood lowering effect of the extract was due to the enhancement of insulin secretion by Langerhance Isletes.

  17. Influence of insulin sensitivity and secretion on glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiemin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Yuqian; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differential effects of insulin sensitivity and secretion on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) at 24-32weeks of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional, sequential case series study was performed in pregnant women with an abnormal 50-g oral glucose-screening test. Hemoglobin A1c and GA measurements were taken during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%β), insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), and modified insulinogenic index were calculated to assess insulin sensitivity and secretory function. A total of 713 pregnant women were enrolled. The GDM group had lower ISOGTT and insulinogenic index scores, and a higher HOMA-IR score. Hemoglobin A1c was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Glycated albumin was negatively correlated with insulinogenic index and HOMA-%β. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was independently associated with diastolic pressure, 0- and 120-minute glucose, and HOMA-IR; GA was independently associated with 0- and 120-minute glucose. Compared with HbA1c, GA is more closely correlated with fasting and postprandial glucose, regardless of insulin resistance and blood pressure, and might be a better monitoring index in women with GDM. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Najem, Dema; Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Yang, Ze; Zhang, Wandong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity, tau pathology, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, all of which play roles in neurodegeneration. Insulin has polytrophic effects on neurons and may be at the center of these pathophysiological changes. In this study, we investigated possible relationships among insulin signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis, along with the effects of Aβ42 on these pathways in vitro. We found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) (N2a-AβPP) produced Aβ and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 (p-IRS-S612) as compared to parental N2a cells. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ42 also increased p-IRS-S612, suggesting that Aβ42 is responsible for insulin resistance. The insulin resistance was alleviated when N2a-AβPP cells were treated with higher insulin concentrations. Insulin increased Aβ release from N2a-AβPP cells, by which it may promote Aβ clearance. Insulin increased cholesterol-synthesis gene expression in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, including 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2). While Aβ42-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited increased HMGCR expression and c-Jun phosphorylation as pro-inflammatory responses, they also showed down-regulation of neuro-protective/anti-inflammatory DHCR24. These results suggest that Aβ42 may cause insulin resistance, activate JNK for c-Jun phosphorylation, and lead to dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, and that enhancing insulin signaling may relieve the insulin-resistant phenotype and the dysregulated cholesterol-synthesis pathway to promote A

  19. Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jolan E.; Rucci, Francesca; Patrizi, Laura; Recher, Mike; Regenass, Stephan; Paganini, Tiziana; Keszei, Marton; Pessach, Itai; Lang, Philipp A.; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Giliani, Silvia; Al-Herz, Waleed; Cowan, Morton J.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Bleesing, Jack; Niehues, Tim; Schuetz, Catharina; Malech, Harry; DeRavin, Suk See; Facchetti, Fabio; Gennery, Andrew R.; Andersson, Emma; Kamani, Naynesh R.; Sekiguchi, JoAnn; Alenezi, Hamid M.; Chinen, Javier; Dbaibo, Ghassan; ElGhazali, Gehad; Fontana, Adriano; Pasic, Srdjan; Detre, Cynthia; Terhorst, Cox

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro–B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP–keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell–activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations. PMID:20547827

  20. miR-124a expression contributes to the monophasic pattern of insulin secretion in islets from pregnant rats submitted to a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Kariny Cassia; de Lima, Faena Moura; Lima, Fernanda Souza; Taki, Marina Satie; da Cunha, Clarissa Felfili; de Lima Reis, Sílvia Regina; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vanzela, Emerielle Cristine; Nardelli, Tarlliza Romanna; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Bordin, Silvana; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the role of miR-124a in the regulation of genes involved in insulin exocytosis and its effects on the kinetics of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets from pregnant rats submitted to a low-protein diet. Adult control non-pregnant (CNP) and control pregnant (CP) rats were fed a normal protein diet (17%), whereas low-protein non-pregnant (LPNP) and low-protein pregnant (LPP) rats were fed a low-protein diet (6%) from days 1 to 15 of pregnancy. Kinetics of the glucose-induced insulin release and measurement of [Ca 2+ ] i in pancreatic islets were assessed by standard protocols. The miR-124a expression and gene transcriptions from pancreatic islets were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In islets from LPP rats, the first phase of insulin release was abrogated. The AUC [Ca 2+ ] i from the LPP group was lower compared with the other groups. miR-124a expression was reduced by a low-protein diet. SNAP-25 mRNA, protein expression, and Rab3A protein content were lower in the LPP rats than in CP rats. Syntaxin 1A and Kir6.2 mRNA levels were decreased in islets from low-protein rats compared with control rats, whereas their protein content was reduced in islets from pregnant rats. Loss of biphasic insulin secretion in islets from LPP rats appears to have resulted from reduced [Ca 2+ ] i due, at least in part, to Kir6.2 underexpression and from the changes in exocytotic elements that are influenced either directly or indirectly by miR-124a.

  1. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A.; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-06-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation.

  2. Novel members of quinoline compound family enhance insulin secretion in RIN-5AH beta cells and in rat pancreatic islet microtissue

    PubMed Central

    Orfi, Z.; Waczek, F.; Baska, F.; Szabadkai, I.; Torka, R.; Hartmann, J.; Orfi, L.; Ullrich, A.

    2017-01-01

    According to clinical data, some tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) possess antidiabetic effects. Several proposed mechanisms were assigned to them, however their mode of action is not clear. Our hypothesis was that they directly stimulate insulin release in beta cells. In our screening approach we demonstrated that some commercially available TKIs and many novel synthesized analogues were able to induce insulin secretion in RIN-5AH beta cells. Our aim was to find efficient, more selective and less toxic compounds. Out of several hits, we chose members from a compound family with quinoline core structure for further investigation. Here we present the studies done with these novel compounds and reveal structure activity relationships and mechanism of action. One of the most potent compounds (compound 9) lost its affinity to kinases, but efficiently increased calcium influx. In the presence of calcium channel inhibitors, the insulinotropic effect was attenuated or completely abrogated. While the quinoline TKI, bosutinib substantially inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation, compound 9 had no such effect. Molecular docking studies further supported our data. We confirmed that some TKIs possess antidiabetic effects, moreover, we present a novel compound family developed from the TKI, bosutinib and optimized for the modulation of insulin secretion. PMID:28272433

  3. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation. PMID:27282931

  4. Defective insulin signaling pathway and increased glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in the brain of diabetic mice: parallels with Alzheimer's disease and correction by insulin.

    PubMed

    Jolivalt, C G; Lee, C A; Beiswenger, K K; Smith, J L; Orlov, M; Torrance, M A; Masliah, E

    2008-11-15

    We have evaluated the effect of peripheral insulin deficiency on brain insulin pathway activity in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes, the parallels with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the effect of treatment with insulin. Nine weeks of insulin-deficient diabetes significantly impaired the learning capacity of mice, significantly reduced insulin-degrading enzyme protein expression, and significantly reduced phosphorylation of the insulin-receptor and AKT. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) was also significantly decreased, indicating increased GSK3 activity. This evidence of reduced insulin signaling was associated with a concomitant increase in tau phosphorylation and amyloid beta protein levels. Changes in phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, GSK3, and tau were not observed in the brain of db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes, after a similar duration (8 weeks) of diabetes. Treatment with insulin from onset of diabetes partially restored the phosphorylation of insulin receptor and of GSK3, partially reduced the level of phosphorylated tau in the brain, and partially improved learning ability in insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Our data indicate that mice with systemic insulin deficiency display evidence of reduced insulin signaling pathway activity in the brain that is associated with biochemical and behavioral features of AD and that it can be corrected by insulin treatment.

  5. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James Stewart; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analog, Exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half life (3.3–4 hrs) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because diabetic patients take >60,000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12–24 fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulfide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5,000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but didn’t cause hypoglycemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. PMID:23078126

  6. Improved insulin sensitivity and secretion in prediabetic patients with adrenal insufficiency on dual-release hydrocortisone treatment: a 36-month retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Guarnotta, Valentina; Ciresi, Alessandro; Pillitteri, Giuseppe; Giordano, Carla

    2018-05-01

    Dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) provides physiological cortisol exposure, leading to an improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of DR-HC on insulin secretion and sensitivity and cardiometabolic risk, indirectly expressed by the visceral adiposity index (VAI). Retrospective analysis of 49 patients, 13 with primary and 36 with secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI), respectively, on conventional glucocorticoid treatment at baseline and switched to DR-HC for 36 months. Overall, 24 patients had AI-pre-diabetes (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and the combination), and 25 had AI-normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Clinical and metabolic parameters, including VAI, insulin secretion and sensitivity indexes (fasting insulinaemia, AUC 2 h insulinaemia , oral disposition index [Dio] and ISI-Matsuda), were evaluated. In patients with AI-NGT and AI-prediabetes, a significant decrease in BMI (P = .017 and P < .001), waist circumference (P = .008 and P < .001), HbA1c (P = .034 and P = .001) and a significant increase in HDL-C (P = .036 and P = .043) was, respectively, observed. In addition, in prediabetic patients, only we found a significant decrease in insulinaemia (P = .014), AUC 2 h insulinaemia (P = .038) and VAI (P = .001), in concomitance with a significant increase in DIo (P = .041) and ISI-Matsuda (P = .038). Long-term DR-HC therapy is associated with an improvement in insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. However, all patients appear to benefit from the treatment in terms of improvement of metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Larger studies are required to confirm our preliminary data. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-05-08

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases were likely caused by Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca(2+)]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Characterization of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Isoforms In Pancreatic Beta Cells: Gene Silencing Shows Participation of ACSL3 and ACSL4 In Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Israr-ul H.; Longacre, Melissa J.; Stoker, Scott W.; Kendrick, Mindy A.; O’Neill, Lucas M.; Zitur, Laura J.; Fernandez, Luis A.; Ntambi, James M.; MacDonald, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) convert fatty acids to fatty acyl-CoAs to regulate various physiologic processes. We characterized the ACSL isoforms in a cell line of homogeneous rat beta cells (INS-1 832/13 cells) and human pancreatic islets. ACSL4 and ACSL3 proteins were present in the beta cells and human and rat pancreatic islets and concentrated in insulin secretory granules and less in mitochondria and negligible in other intracellular organelles. ACSL1 and ACSL6 proteins were not seen in INS-1 832/13 cells or pancreatic islets. ACSL5 protein was seen only in INS-1 832/13 cells. With shRNA-mediated gene silencing we developed stable ACSL knockdown cell lines from INS-1 832/13 cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was inhibited ~ 50% with ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown and unaffected in cell lines with knockdown of ACSL5, ACLS6 and ACSL1. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated gene silencing of ACSL4 and ACSL3 in human pancreatic islets inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin release. ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown cells showed inhibition of ACSL enzyme activity more with arachidonate than with palmitate as a substrate, consistent with their preference for unsaturated fatty acids as substrates. ACSL4 knockdown changed the patterns of fatty acids in phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylethanolamines. The results show the involvement of ACLS4 and ACLS3 in insulin secretion. PMID:28193492

  9. Bridging the gap between protein carboxyl methylation and phospholipid methylation to understand glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2008-01-15

    Recent findings have implicated post-translational modifications at C-terminal cysteines [e.g., methylation] of specific proteins [e.g., G-proteins] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS]. Furthermore, methylation at the C-terminal leucine of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A [PP2Ac] has also been shown to be relevant for GSIS. In addition to these two classes of protein methyl transferases, a novel class of glucose-activated phospholipid methyl transferases have also been identified in the beta cell. These enzymes catalyze three successive methylations of phosphatidylethanolamine to yield phosphatidylcholine. The "newly formed" phosphatidylcholine is felt to induce alterations in the membrane fluidity, which might favor vesicular fusion with the plasma membrane for the exocytosis of insulin. The objectives of this commentary are to: (i) review the existing evidence on the regulation, by glucose and other insulin secretagogues, of post-translational carboxylmethylation [CML] of specific proteins in the beta cell; (ii) discuss the experimental evidence, which implicates regulation, by glucose and other insulin secretagogues, of phosphatidylethanolamine methylation in the islet beta cell; (iii) propose a model for potential cross-talk between the protein and lipid methylation pathways in the regulation of GSIS and (iv) highlight potential avenues for future research, including the development of specific pharmacological inhibitors to further decipher regulatory roles for these methylation reactions in islet beta cell function.

  10. Indian culinary plants enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose consumption in INS-1 β-cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Bains, Kiran; Singh, Harjinder

    2011-12-01

    Six Indian plants, commonly used as culinary plants, herbs or spices (kikar; jamun; neem; harad; fenugreek; bitter gourd), were screened and compared for their antidiabetic potential in vitro. Aqueous plant extracts were prepared and assessed for their effect on the insulin secretion activity of rat pancreatic INS-1 β-cells and glucose consumption in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes in order to study their specific mechanisms of action. The effect of the plant extract concentration (25-1000μg/ml) on insulin release and glucose consumption was also studied. All the extracts had a significant stimulatory effect on the insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. In the presence of kikar extract (100μg/ml), an increase of 228% in insulin release was recorded compared to the control (5.6mM glucose) whereas that was 270% and 367% in the presence of kikar and jamun extracts (500μg/ml), respectively. 3T3-L1 cells treated with jamun extract (100μg/ml) exhibited the highest increase in glucose consumption by the cells (94%, compared with the control) followed by harad (53%) and fenugreek (50%) extracts. A significant inhibitory effect of the fenugreek, kikar and jamun extracts on glucose diffusion across a dialysis membrane suggested that these extracts could partly act by decreasing glucose absorption in the small intestine. The results showed that a combination of these plants in diet could help in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The H+/K+ ATPase Inhibitor SCH-28080 Inhibits Insulin Secretion and Induces Cell Death in INS-1E Rat Insulinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Martin; Ketterl, Nina; Fürst, Johannes; Beyreis, Marlena; Kittl, Michael; Kiesslich, Tobias; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Gaisberger, Martin; Ritter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of pancreatic β-cells involves glucose uptake and metabolism, closure of KATP channels and depolarization of the cell membrane potential (Vmem), activation of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents (ICav) and influx of Ca2+, which eventually triggers hormone exocytosis. Beside this classical pathway, KATP-independent mechanisms such as changes in intracellular pH (pHi) or cell volume, which also affect β-cell viability, can elicit or modify insulin release. In β-cells the regulation of pHi is mainly accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs). To investigate if other proton extrusion mechanisms than NHEs are involved in pH regulation, we tested for the presence of the non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase in rat insulinoma cells and assessed effects of the H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor SCH-28080 on insulin secretion, cell viability and apoptosis. In INS-1E cell cultures, H+/K+ ATPase gene and protein expression was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular pH (pHi) recovery after acute acidic load was measured by NH4Cl prepulsing using BCECF. Insulin secretion was determined by ELISA from the cell culture supernatant. Vmem, K+ and Ca2+ currents were recorded using patch clamp. Overall cell responses were determined using resazurin (viability) and cytotoxicity assays. The mean cell volume (MCV), cell granularity (side-scatter; SSC), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, cell membrane integrity, caspase activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured by flow cytometry. We found that the α-subunit of the non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase (HKα2) is expressed on mRNA and protein level. However, compared to rat colon tissue, in INS-1E cells mRNA abundance was very low. In NH4Cl prepulsing experiments no K+-dependent pHi recovery was observed under Na+-free extracellular conditions. Nonetheless within 1 h, 20 µM SCH-28080 inhibited GSIS by ∼50%, while basal release was unaffected. The L-type ICav blocker

  12. Improvement of Insulin Secretion and Pancreatic β-cell Function in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Aloe vera Extract

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Ayesha; Gunasekaran, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Plant extracts and their products are being used as an alternative system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat several diseases and it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar diabetic rats were used in this study to understand the potential protective effect of A. vera extract on the pancreatic islets. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the A. vera extract on improvement of insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function by morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: After acclimatization, male Wistar rats, maintained as per the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals guidelines, were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The effect of A. vera extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats on the pancreatic islets by morphometric analysis was evaluated. Results: Oral administration of A. vera extract (300 mg/kg) daily to diabetic rats for 3 weeks showed restoration of blood glucose levels to normal levels with a concomitant increase in insulin levels upon feeding with A. vera extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic sections revealed quantitative and qualitative gain in terms of number, diameter, volume, and area of the pancreatic islets of diabetic rats treated with A. vera extract when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusion: A. vera extract exerts antidiabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function by restoring pancreatic islet mass in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. SUMMARY Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin levels were restored to normal levels in diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera extract

  13. Longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes risk and markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, Markus J; Schwab, Ursula S; de Mello, Vanessa D F; Eriksson, Johan G; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti I J

    2016-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity over several years. We conducted a prospective cohort study derived from the randomized Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Total serum fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography in 407 overweight, middle-aged people with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline (1993-1998) and annually during the intervention period (1994-2000). Longitudinal associations of 20 fatty acids and three desaturase activities (Δ5 (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, D5D), Δ6 (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, D6D), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-1)) with type 2 diabetes incidence, and estimates of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda), secretion (ratio of insulin and glucose concentrations) and β-cell function (disposition index) by an oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed using Cox regression and linear mixed models. We validated estimated D5D and D6D using a known FADS1 gene variant, rs174550. The baseline proportions of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and D5D were associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes during a median follow-up of 11 years (HR per 1SD: 0.72, 0.74, 0.73, 0.78, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). These long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D were associated with higher insulin sensitivity in subsequent years but not with disposition index. Saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and 18:3n-3, 18:2n-6, SCD-1 and D6D were inconsistently associated with type 2 diabetes or related traits. Serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D predicted lower type 2 diabetes incidence in people at a high risk of diabetes attending to an intervention study; a putative mechanism behind these associations was higher insulin sensitivity.

  14. Helixconstraints and amino acid substitution in GLP-1 increase cAMP and insulin secretion but not beta-arrestin 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Plisson, Fabien; Hill, Timothy A; Mitchell, Justin M; Hoang, Huy N; de Araujo, Aline D; Xu, Weijun; Cotterell, Adam; Edmonds, David J; Stanton, Robert V; Derksen, David R; Loria, Paula M; Griffith, David A; Price, David A; Liras, Spiros; Fairlie, David P

    2017-02-15

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is an endogenous hormone that induces insulin secretion from pancreatic islets and modified forms are used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. Understanding how GLP-1 interacts with its receptor (GLP-1R) can potentially lead to more effective drugs. Modeling and NMR studies of the N-terminus of GLP-1 suggest a β-turn between residues Glu9-Phe12 and a kinked alpha helix between Val16-Gly37. N-terminal turn constraints attenuated binding affinity and activity (compounds 1-8). Lys-Asp (i, i+4) crosslinks in the middle and at the C-terminus increased alpha helicity and cAMP stimulation without much effect on binding affinity or beta-arrestin 2 recruitment (compounds 9-18). Strategic positioning of helix-inducing constraints and amino acid substitutions (Tyr16, Ala22) increased peptide helicity and produced ten-fold higher cAMP potency (compounds 19-28) over GLP-1(7-37)-NH 2 . The most potent cAMP activator (compound 23) was also the most potent inducer of insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells from human embryonic stem cells by incorporating a synthetic lineage-control network.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Bojar, Daniel; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-10-10

    We previously reported novel technology to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells by engineering a synthetic lineage-control network regulated by the licensed food additive vanillic acid. This genetic network was able to program intricate expression dynamics of the key transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3, OFF-ON-OFF), Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, ON-OFF-ON) and MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, OFF-ON) to guide the differentiation of IPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to beta-like cells. In the present study, we show for the first time that this network can also program the expression dynamics of Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and drive differentiation of these cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells. Therefore, synthetic lineage-control networks appear to be a robust methodology for differentiating pluripotent stem cells into somatic cell types for basic research and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  17. BDE-47 and BDE-85 stimulate insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13 pancreatic β-cells through the thyroid receptor and Akt.

    PubMed

    Karandrea, Shpetim; Yin, Huquan; Liang, Xiaomei; Heart, Emma A

    2017-12-01

    PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are environmental pollutants that have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, however, the precise mechanisms are not clear. Particularly, their direct effect on insulin secretion is unknown. In this study, we show that two PBDE congeners, BDE-47 and BDE-85, potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1 832/13 cells. This effect of BDE-47 and BDE-85 on GSIS was dependent on thyroid receptor (TR). Both BDE-47 and BDE-85 (10μM) activated Akt during an acute exposure. The activation of Akt by BDE-47 and BDE-85 plays a role in their potentiation of GSIS, as pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, an upstream activator of Akt, significantly lowers GSIS compared to compounds alone. This study shows that BDE-47 and BDE-85 directly act on pancreatic β-cells to stimulate GSIS, and that this effect is mediated by the thyroid receptor (TR) and Akt activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Modulatory role of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) on LH and insulin secretion in obese PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Santagni, Susanna; Rattighieri, Erika; Chierchia, Elisa; Despini, Giulia; Marini, Giulia; Prati, Alessia; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition that affects fertility through oligo-ovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic morphology of the ovaries. Since it has been demonstrated a high incidence of insulin resistance in PCOS patients, our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the integrative treatment with D-chiro-inositol (DCI) (500 mg die, per os, for 12 weeks) on hormonal parameters and insulin sensitivity in a group of overweight/obese PCOS patients (body mass index; BMI > 26). After the treatment, interval several endocrine parameters improved (luteinizing hormone [LH], LH/follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], androstenedione and insulin), insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test reported the significant improvement of insulin sensitivity as well as the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced (10 µg, in bolus) LH response. BMI decreased, though no lifestyle modification was requested. When data were analyzed according to the presence or absence of first-grade diabetic relatives, PCOS patients with diabetic relatives showed greater improvement after DCI administration. In conclusion DCI administration is effective in restoring better insulin sensitivity and an improved hormonal pattern in obese hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients, in particular, in hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients who have diabetic relatives.

  19. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and