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Sample records for defective insulin secretion

  1. Defects in insulin secretion and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are inherited. Metabolic studies on offspring of diabetic probands.

    PubMed Central

    Vauhkonen, I; Niskanen, L; Vanninen, E; Kainulainen, S; Uusitupa, M; Laakso, M

    1998-01-01

    No studies are available that have compared early defects in glucose metabolism in the offspring of insulin-deficient and insulin-resistant probands with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To investigate this issue, we evaluated insulin secretion capacity with oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and with the hyperglycemic clamp, and insulin action with the euglycemic insulin clamp in 20 offspring of NIDDM patients with low fasting C-peptide (+/-450 pmol/liter), reflecting deficient insulin secretion (IS-group), 18 offspring of NIDDM patients with high fasting C-peptide (>/= 880 pmol/liter), reflecting insulin resistance (IR-group), and 14 healthy control subjects without a family history of NIDDM. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance was 45.0% in the IS-group and 50% in the IR-group. The IS-group had lower insulin-glucose response at 30 min in the oral glucose tolerance test (85.2+/-10.0 pmol insulin per mmol glucose) than the control group (136.4+/-23.1 pmol insulin per mmol glucose; P < 0.05) and the IR-group (115.6+/-11.8 pmol insulin per mmol glucose; P = 0.05). Furthermore, the acute insulin response during the first 10 min of an intravenous glucose tolerance test was lower in the IS-group than in the IR-group. Maximal insulin secretion capacity evaluated by C-peptide levels during the hyperglycemic clamp did not differ between the groups. The IR-group had lower rates of whole body glucose uptake (60.1+/-4.6 micromol per lean body mass per minute) than did the control group (84.2+/-5.0 micromol per lean body mass per minute; P < 0.001) or the IS-group (82.6+/-5.9 micromol per lean body mass per minute; P < 0.01) and this was due to reduced glucose nonoxidation. To conclude, both impaired insulin secretion and insulin action seem to be inherited and could represent the primary defects in glucose metabolism in the offspring of NIDDM probands. PMID:9421470

  2. Beta-Cell Specific Deletion of Dicer1 Leads to Defective Insulin Secretion and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kalis, Martins; Bolmeson, Caroline; Esguerra, Jonathan L. S.; Gupta, Shashank; Edlund, Anna; Tormo-Badia, Neivis; Speidel, Dina; Holmberg, Dan; Mayans, Sofia; Khoo, Nelson K. S.; Wendt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs), derived through cleavage of pre-miRNAs by the Dicer1 enzyme, regulate protein expression in many cell-types including cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. To investigate the importance of miRNAs in mouse insulin secreting β-cells, we have generated mice with a β-cells specific disruption of the Dicer1 gene using the Cre-lox system controlled by the rat insulin promoter (RIP). In contrast to their normoglycaemic control littermates (RIP-Cre+/− Dicer1Δ/wt), RIP-Cre+/− Dicer1flox/flox mice (RIP-Cre Dicer1Δ/Δ) developed progressive hyperglycaemia and full-blown diabetes mellitus in adulthood that recapitulated the natural history of the spontaneous disease in mice. Reduced insulin gene expression and concomitant reduced insulin secretion preceded the hyperglycaemic state and diabetes development. Immunohistochemical, flow cytometric and ultrastructural analyses revealed altered islet morphology, marked decreased β-cell mass, reduced numbers of granules within the β-cells and reduced granule docking in adult RIP-Cre Dicer1Δ/Δ mice. β-cell specific Dicer1 deletion did not appear to disrupt fetal and neonatal β-cell development as 2-week old RIP-Cre Dicer1Δ/Δ mice showed ultrastructurally normal β-cells and intact insulin secretion. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that a β-cell specific disruption of the miRNAs network, although allowing for apparently normal β-cell development, leads to progressive impairment of insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and diabetes development. PMID:22216196

  3. Defects in beta cell Ca2+ signalling, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a murine model of KATP channel-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, R. K. P.; Remedi, M. S.; Head, W. S.; Ustione, A.; Piston, D. W.; Nichols, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Mutations that render ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels insensitive to ATP inhibition cause neonatal diabetes mellitus. In mice, these mutations cause insulin secretion to be lost initially and, as the disease progresses, beta cell mass and insulin content also disappear. We investigated whether defects in calcium signalling alone are sufficient to explain short-term and long-term islet dysfunction. Methods We examined the metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion response in islets from mice that become diabetic after induction of ATP-insensitive Kir6.2 expression. To separate direct effects of KATP overactivity on beta cell function from indirect effects of prolonged hyperglycaemia, normal glycaemia was maintained by protective exogenous islet transplantation. Results In endogenous islets from protected animals, glucose-dependent elevations of intracellular free-calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) were severely blunted. Insulin content of these islets was normal, and sulfonylureas and KCl stimulated increased [Ca2+]i. In the absence of transplant protection, [Ca2+]i responses were similar, but glucose metabolism and redox state were dramatically altered; sulfonylurea- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion was also lost, because of systemic effects induced by long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia. In both cases, [Ca2+]i dynamics were synchronous across the islet. After reduction of gap-junction coupling, glucose-dependent [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion was partially restored, indicating that excitability of weakly expressing cells is suppressed by cells expressing mutants, via gap-junctions. Conclusions/interpretation The primary defect in KATP-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus is failure of glucose metabolism to elevate [Ca2+]i, which suppresses insulin secretion and mildly alters islet glucose metabolism. Loss of insulin content and mitochondrial dysfunction are secondary to the long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia that

  4. Defects in beta cell Ca²+ signalling, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a murine model of K(ATP) channel-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Remedi, M S; Head, W S; Ustione, A; Piston, D W; Nichols, C G

    2011-05-01

    Mutations that render ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels insensitive to ATP inhibition cause neonatal diabetes mellitus. In mice, these mutations cause insulin secretion to be lost initially and, as the disease progresses, beta cell mass and insulin content also disappear. We investigated whether defects in calcium signalling alone are sufficient to explain short-term and long-term islet dysfunction. We examined the metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion response in islets from mice that become diabetic after induction of ATP-insensitive Kir6.2 expression. To separate direct effects of K(ATP) overactivity on beta cell function from indirect effects of prolonged hyperglycaemia, normal glycaemia was maintained by protective exogenous islet transplantation. In endogenous islets from protected animals, glucose-dependent elevations of intracellular free-calcium activity ([Ca(2+)](i)) were severely blunted. Insulin content of these islets was normal, and sulfonylureas and KCl stimulated increased [Ca(2+)](i). In the absence of transplant protection, [Ca(2+)](i) responses were similar, but glucose metabolism and redox state were dramatically altered; sulfonylurea- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion was also lost, because of systemic effects induced by long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia. In both cases, [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics were synchronous across the islet. After reduction of gap-junction coupling, glucose-dependent [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion was partially restored, indicating that excitability of weakly expressing cells is suppressed by cells expressing mutants, via gap-junctions. The primary defect in K(ATP)-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus is failure of glucose metabolism to elevate [Ca(2+)](i), which suppresses insulin secretion and mildly alters islet glucose metabolism. Loss of insulin content and mitochondrial dysfunction are secondary to the long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia that result from the absence of glucose

  5. Insulin biosynthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Permutt, M A; Kipnis, D M

    1975-06-01

    Studies are presented which support the concept that a cell membrane localized glucoreceptor system is involved in the insulin secretory response to glucose and that the specific stimulation of insulin synthesis by glucose reflects effects at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. After 48 hours of fasting the insulin secretory response to glucose is markedly reduced. This reduction is overcome by 24 hours of refeeding carbohydrate, but notprotein or fat, and is blocked by refeeding in the presence of an inhibitor of RNA synthesis. Although these studies clearly demonstrate an inducible glucoreceptor system, they do not permit conclusions regarding either its composition or location in the beta-cell. Phloridzin, a glycoside with a high affinity for glucose-carrier systems in plama membranes, stimulated basal insulin secretion sixfold. A large number of plant lectins were tested for ability to stimulate insulin release from isolated islets, and only mushroom lectin did so. The lectin concentration producing half-maximal hormone releaseis 3 x 10-7, a value in good agreement with the dissociation constant forlectin binding. Glucose stimulated insulin sythesis in isolated rat islets was determined to be partially inhibited by actinomycin D. The posttranscriptional effect was determined to be increased initiation of total islet mRNAas well as proinsulin mRNA. To futher quantitate the effect of glucose on proinsulin mRNA, immunoprecipitation of proinsulin synthesizing polysomes was accomplished. It appeared that proinsulin is synthesized on a mRNA accommodating six to eight ribosomes, and the size of the proinsulin mRNA is 10-11 S on sucrose gradients. This unexpectedly large size of the proinsulin mRNA is discussed.

  6. [Prostaglandins, insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Torella, R; Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J; D'Onofrio, F

    1988-12-01

    The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly PGE2, reduce the insulin response to glucose whereas lipo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly 15-HPETE, stimulate insulin secretion. So, for instance, drugs that increase prostaglandins synthesis as colchicine or furosemide inhibit insulin secretion while non steroid anti-inflammator drugs, mainly salicylates, which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, enhance the insulin response to various stimuli. In type-2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes, an increased sensitivity to endogenous prostaglandins has been proposed as a possible cause for the insulin secretion defect which characterizes this disease. Play in favor of this hypothesis the fact that the administration of PGE inhibits the insulin response to arginine in type-2 diabetics but not in normal subject and the fact that the administration of salicylates could improve the insulin response to glucose in some of these patients.

  7. ERAD-icating mutant insulin promotes functional insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel J

    2017-01-18

    Overexpression of a chaperone protein liberates functional insulin from a misfolded mutant partner to improve insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  9. Insulin and Glucagon Secretion In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-duration space flight is associated with many physiological abnormalities in astronauts. In particular, altered regulation of the hormones insulin and glucagon may contribute to metabolic disturbances such as increased blood sugar levels, which if persistently elevated result in toxic effects. These changes are also observed in the highly prevalent disease diabetes, which affects 16 million Americans and consumes over $100 billion in annual healthcare costs. By mimicking the microgravity environment of space in the research laboratory using a NASA-developed bioreactor, one can study the physiology of insulin and glucagon secretion and determine if there are alterations in these cellular processes. The original specific objectives of the project included: (1) growing ('cell culture') of pancreatic islet beta and alpha cells that secrete insulin and glucagon respectively, in the NASA bioreactor; (2) examination of the effects of microgravity on insulin and glucagon secretion; and (3) study of molecular mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion if altered by microgravity.

  10. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  11. Insulin secretion at high altitude in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, R. C.; Malhotra, A. S.; Singh, T.; Rai, R. M.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of hypoxia on circulatory levels of insulin, its response to oral glucose administration (100 g) and changes in circadian rhythms of glucose as well as insulin were evaluated in euglycemic males at sea level (SL, 220 m) during their stay at high altitude (3500 m, SJ) and in high altitude natives (HAN). Basal glucose levels were not altered at high altitude but the rise in glucose (δ glucose) after glucose load was significantly higher in SJ and HAN (p<0.01) as compared to SL values. An increase (p<0.01) both in basal as well as glucose induced rise in insulin secretioninsulin) was observed at HA. The rise in insulin in SJ was significantly higher (p<0.01) than in HAN. This elevation in glucose and insulin levels was also evident at different times of the day. The circadian rhythmicity of glucose as well as insulin was altered by the altitude stress. The findings of the study show a rise in insulin level at HA but the hyperglycemia in the face of hyper-insulinism require the presumption of a simultaneous and dispropotionate rise of insulin antagonistic hormones upsetting the effect of insulin on glucose metabolism.

  12. [Cephalic insulin secretion--neuromorphologic findings].

    PubMed

    Radke, R; Stach, W; Freund, E

    1985-01-01

    The paper presented deals with the electron microscopy bases of experimental results, which show a cephalic insulin secretion. The B cell-producing insulin--is a highly innervated endocrine cell. Several nerve endings often form synaptic connexions at a single B cell. The synaptic clefts are usually 20-25 nm. The nerve endings cause an evident impression of the cell membrane. The narrow neuro-cellular connexions form a structural bases of the cephalic insulin response. The interruption of this reflex loop caused by vagotomy eliminates cephalic mechanism. However, the innervation of the islets (electron microscopic examination) remains unaffected. Therefore the intramural nervous mechanism seems to be not excluded by vagotomy.

  13. An Acetate-Specific GPCR, FFAR2, Regulates Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshini, Medha; Villa, Stephanie R.; Fuller, Miles; Wicksteed, Barton; Mackay, Charles R.; Alquier, Thierry; Poitout, Vincent; Mancebo, Helena; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Gilchrist, Annette

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors have been well described to contribute to the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The short-chain fatty acid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), is expressed in pancreatic β-cells, and in rodents, its expression is altered during insulin resistance. Thus, we explored the role of FFAR2 in regulating GSIS. First, assessing the phenotype of wild-type and Ffar2−/− mice in vivo, we observed no differences with regard to glucose homeostasis on normal or high-fat diet, with a marginally significant defect in insulin secretion in Ffar2−/− mice during hyperglycemic clamps. In ex vivo insulin secretion studies, we observed diminished GSIS from Ffar2−/− islets relative to wild-type islets under high-glucose conditions. Further, in the presence of acetate, the primary endogenous ligand for FFAR2, we observed FFAR2-dependent potentiation of GSIS, whereas FFAR2-specific agonists resulted in either potentiation or inhibition of GSIS, which we found to result from selective signaling through either Gαq/11 or Gαi/o, respectively. Lastly, in ex vivo insulin secretion studies of human islets, we observed that acetate and FFAR2 agonists elicited different signaling properties at human FFAR2 than at mouse FFAR2. Taken together, our studies reveal that FFAR2 signaling occurs by divergent G protein pathways that can selectively potentiate or inhibit GSIS in mouse islets. Further, we have identified important differences in the response of mouse and human FFAR2 to selective agonists, and we suggest that these differences warrant consideration in the continued investigation of FFAR2 as a novel type 2 diabetes target. PMID:26075576

  14. Insulin infusion during normoglycemia modulates insulin secretion according to whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anderwald, Christian; Tura, Andrea; Grassi, Angela; Krebs, Michael; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael; Bischof, Martin G; Luger, Anton; Pacini, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Glucose is the major stimulus for insulin release. Time course and amount of insulin secreted after glycemic stimulus are different between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy subjects. In rodents, it was demonstrated that insulin can modulate its own release. Previous studies in humans yielded contrasting results: Insulin was shown to have an enhancing effect, no effect, or a suppressive effect on its own secretion. Thus, we aimed to evaluate short-term effects of human insulin infusion on insulin secretion during normoglycemia in healthy humans and T2DM subjects of both sex. Hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamps with whole-body insulin-sensitivity (M) and C-peptide measurements for insulin secretion modeling were performed in 65 insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects (45 ± 1 year, BMI: 24.8 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)), 17 insulin-resistant (IR) subjects (46 ± 2 years, 28.1 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)), and 20 T2DM patients (56 ± 2 years, 28.0 ± 0.8 kg/m(2); HbA(1c) = 6.7 ± 0.1%). IS subjects (M = 8.8 ± 0.3 mg · min(-1) · kg(-1)) had higher (P < 0.00001) whole-body insulin sensitivity than IR subjects (M = 4.0 ± 0.2) and T2DM patients (M = 4.3 ± 0.5). Insulin secretion profiles during clamp were different (P < 0.00001) among the groups, increasing in IS subjects (slope: 0.56 ± 0.11 pmol/min(2)) but declining in IR (-0.41 ± 0.14) and T2DM (-0.87 ± 0.12, P < 0.00002 IR and T2DM vs. IS) subjects. Insulin secretion changes during clamp directly correlated with M (r = 0.6, P < 0.00001). Insulin release during normoglycemia can be modulated by exogenous insulin infusion and directly depends on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Thus, in highly sensitive subjects, insulin increases its own secretion. On the other hand, a suppressive effect of insulin on its own secretion occurs in IR and T2DM subjects.

  15. Nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse islets is critically dependent on intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Rocheleau, Jonathan V; Head, W Steven; Piston, David W

    2004-01-01

    Background Many mechanistic steps underlying nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (NSIS) are poorly understood. The influence of intracellular pH (pHi) on insulin secretion is widely documented, and can be used as an investigative tool. This study demonstrates previously unknown effects of pHi-alteration on insulin secretion in mouse islets, which may be utilized to correct defects in insulin secretion. Methods Different components of insulin secretion in mouse islets were monitored in the presence and absence of forced changes in pHi. The parameters measured included time-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion by glucose, and direct insulin secretion by different mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial secretagogues. Islet pHi was altered using amiloride, removal of medium Cl-, and changing medium pH. Resulting changes in islet pHi were monitored by confocal microscopy using a pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of pHi-alteration, cellular NAD(P)H levels were measured using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM). Data were analyzed using Student's t test. Results Time-dependent potentiation, a function normally absent in mouse islets, can be unmasked by a forced decrease in pHi. The optimal range of pHi for NSIS is 6.4–6.8. Bringing islet pHi to this range enhances insulin secretion by all mitochondrial fuels tested, reverses the inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by mitochondrial inhibitors, and is associated with increased levels of cellular NAD(P)H. Conclusions Pharmacological alteration of pHi is a potential means to correct the secretory defect in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since forcing islet pHi to the optimal range enhances NSIS and induces secretory functions that are normally absent. PMID:15193158

  16. Nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse islets is critically dependent on intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Rocheleau, Jonathan V; Head, W Steven; Piston, David W

    2004-06-11

    BACKGROUND: Many mechanistic steps underlying nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (NSIS) are poorly understood. The influence of intracellular pH (pHi) on insulin secretion is widely documented, and can be used as an investigative tool. This study demonstrates previously unknown effects of pHi-alteration on insulin secretion in mouse islets, which may be utilized to correct defects in insulin secretion. METHODS: Different components of insulin secretion in mouse islets were monitored in the presence and absence of forced changes in pHi. The parameters measured included time-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion by glucose, and direct insulin secretion by different mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial secretagogues. Islet pHi was altered using amiloride, removal of medium Cl-, and changing medium pH. Resulting changes in islet pHi were monitored by confocal microscopy using a pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of pHi-alteration, cellular NAD(P)H levels were measured using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM). Data were analyzed using Student's t test. RESULTS: Time-dependent potentiation, a function normally absent in mouse islets, can be unmasked by a forced decrease in pHi. The optimal range of pHi for NSIS is 6.4-6.8. Bringing islet pHi to this range enhances insulin secretion by all mitochondrial fuels tested, reverses the inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by mitochondrial inhibitors, and is associated with increased levels of cellular NAD(P)H. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological alteration of pHi is a potential means to correct the secretory defect in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since forcing islet pHi to the optimal range enhances NSIS and induces secretory functions that are normally absent.

  17. Protein histidine [de]phosphorylation in insulin secretion: abnormalities in models of impaired insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Susanne; Krieglstein, Josef

    2011-01-01

    In the majority of cell types, including the islet β-cell, transduction of extracellular signals involves ligand binding to a receptor, often followed by the activation G proteins and their effector modules. The islet β-cell is unusual in that glucose lacks an extracellular receptor. Instead, events consequent to glucose metabolism promote insulin secretion via the generation of diffusible second messengers and mobilization of calcium. A selective increase in intracellular calcium has been shown to regulate the phosphorylation status key islet proteins thereby facilitating insulin secretion. In addition to classical protein kinases [e.g., protein kinases A and C], recent studies from our laboratory have focused on the expression and function of various forms of NDPK/nm23-like histidine kinases in clonal β-cells, normal rodent, and human islets. Further, we recently reported localization of a cytosolic protein histidine phosphatase [PHP] in INS 832/13 cells, normal rat islets, and human islets. siRNA-mediated knock down of nm23-H1 and PHP in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 cells significantly attenuated glucose-induced insulin secretion. We also observed significant alterations in the expression and function of nm23-H1/PHP in β-cells chronically exposed to elevated levels of glucose and saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate (i.e., glucolipotoxicity). Similar changes were also noted in islets from the Goto-Kakizaki and Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, two known models for type 2 diabetes. It is concluded that protein histidine phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycles play novel regulatory roles in G protein-mediated physiological insulin secretion and that abnormalities in this signaling axis lead to impaired insulin secretion in glucolipo-toxicity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21626002

  18. The possible mechanisms by which maternal hypothyroidism impairs insulin secretion in adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Godini, Aliashraf; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have recently shown that maternal hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose metabolism and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring in rats. The aim of this study was to locate the defect in the insulin secretion pathway induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid (FH) group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out on 5-month-old male offspring. In in vitro studies, the effects of various secretagogues and inhibitors acting at different levels of the insulin secretion cascade were investigated, and insulin content, insulin secretion and glucokinase activity of the islets were compared. Although insulin content of the FH islets did not differ from that of control islets, insulin secretion from FH islets was reduced when it was challenged by glucose or arginine. Compared with control islets, activities of both hexokinase and glucokinase were also significantly decreased in the FH islets. Although, in both groups, increasing glibenclamide and nifedipine concentrations in the presence of 16.7 mmol l(-1) glucose increased and decreased insulin secretion, respectively, the percentage of changes in secretion of FH islets was significantly lower compared with control islets. The response of FH islets to high extracellular potassium concentration and diazoxide was also significantly lower than that of the control islets. These findings demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion in the FH group is probably related to alterations in different steps of the insulin secretion pathway and not in the insulin pool of β-cells.

  19. Hyperglycaemia is associated with impaired pulsatile insulin secretion: effect of basal insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Meier, J J; Pennartz, C; Schenker, N; Menge, B A; Schmidt, W E; Heise, T; Kapitza, C; Veldhuis, J D

    2013-03-01

    Postprandial insulin pulsatility is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the effects of exogenous insulin therapy on pulsatile insulin secretion are not known. We addressed, whether pulsatile insulin secretion is related to glycaemic control, whether basal insulin supplementation increases postprandial insulin secretion, and if so, is this accomplished by a specific improvement in pulsatile insulin secretion? Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a mixed meal test before and after an 8-week treatment period with insulin glargine. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured, and insulin pulsatility was determined by deconvolution analysis. Insulin treatment lowered fasting glycaemia from 179.6 ± 7.5 mg/dl to 117.6 ± 6.5 mg/dl (p < 0.001). Postprandial insulin and C-peptide levels increased significantly after the treatment period (p < 0.0001). The total calculated insulin secretion rate increased with insulin treatment (p = 0.0039), with non-significant increases in both pulsatile and non-pulsatile insulin secretion. Insulin pulse frequency was unchanged by the intervention. There was an inverse relationship between fasting and postprandial glycaemia and insulin pulse mass (r(2) = 0.51 and 0.56, respectively), whereas non-pulsatile insulin secretion was unrelated to either fasting or postprandial glucose concentrations (r(2) = 0.0073 and 0.031). Hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes is associated with a reduction in postprandial insulin secretion, specifically through a reduction in insulin pulsatility. Reducing chronic hyperglycaemia by basal insulin therapy enhances endogenous β-cell function in the postprandial state. These data support the use of basal insulin regimens in the pharmacotherapy of overtly hyperglycaemic patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The significance of impaired fasting glucose versus impaired glucose tolerance: importance of insulin secretion and resistance.

    PubMed

    Carnevale Schianca, Gian Piero; Rossi, Antonello; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo; Maduli, Elisabetta; Bartoli, Ettore

    2003-05-01

    The American Diabetes Association recommended substituting 2hBS (glycemia at the second hour of an oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) for fasting blood glucose (FBS) in screening for glucose intolerance. It is debated whether these tests measure the same abnormality and relate to defective insulin secretion or resistance. This study examines the diagnostic effectiveness of FBS versus 2hBS and their relationship with insulin secretion and resistance. Based on history or physical findings suggesting glucose intolerance, we enrolled 398 unselected subjects admitted to a general Internal Medicine ward. After 5 days of a weight-maintaining diet, FBS, 2hBS, and insulin were measured during OGTT. The homeostatic model assessment was used to assess beta-cell function and insulin resistance. Excluding 19 patients with diabetes (5%), we identified 284 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 22 with isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 59 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 with associated IFG/IGT. The sensitivity of FBS in predicting 2hBS was 19%, specificity 93%. Positive and negative predictive values were 39% and 83%, respectively. Insulin resistance was absent in NGT and IFG and markedly elevated in IGT and IFG/IGT, whereas defective insulin release was significant only in isolated IFG. In unselected patients, elevated FBS depends primarily on defective insulin secretion, and impaired 2hBS on insulin resistance. Because these tests measure different alterations, they are useful in combination.

  1. Determination of Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, J; Ahmed, S; Laila, R; Islam, M T; Rahaman, M F; Snigdha, K R; Sarkar, S; Khan, A S; Sarkar, A K

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study was undertaken to explore the basic defect in type 2 diabetes patients in Bangladesh. This was an observational study with case control design, was conducted in the Biomedical Research Group, Research Division, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of July 2008 to June 2009. A total of 153 subjects were included in study of which 63 belonged to type 2 diabetes mellitus group and 90 were healthy controls. Fasting and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, QuickI, Glucose /insulin ratio, TG were measured and age, BMI, WHR were recorded. Waist-hip ratio (WHR), was significantly higher in T2DM as compared to control subjects [WHR, mean±SD, 0.94±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.06, p<0.001]; Glucose and insulin ratio of T2DM was significantly higher as compared to control subject [Glu: Ins, Median (range) of 0.54 (0.17-2.33) vs. 0.37(0.06-1.52)]. Insulin secretion (HOMA%B) was significantly lower in diabetic as compared to control subjects [HOMA%B, median (range), 71(4.90-391) vs. 180(59-634) p<0.001]; The quantitative insulin sensitivity check Index (QUICKI) of diabetic subjects were significantly higher as compared to control [QUICKI median (range) 39.90(4.80-138.10) vs. 0.55(0.36-0.85), <0.001]. Triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (Chol) were significantly higher [(mg/dl), (mean±SD), TG (142±80.14) vs. (142±80.14); Chol (189±50.76) vs. (172±45), p=0.029] in T2DM as compared to control subjects. Those with diabetes showed significant association with insulin secretory defect (HOMA%B, p=0.006) and insulin resistance as assessed by GINR (p<0.001) and QuickI (p<0.001) but not by HOMA%S (p=0.127). The present data suggest that both insulin secretory defect and insulin

  2. Central nervous system nitric oxide synthase activity regulates insulin secretion and insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, R; Zhu, J S; Ladd, B; Henry, D; Shen, H Q; Baron, A D

    1998-01-01

    Systemic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) causes acute insulin resistance (IR), but the mechanism is unknown. We tested whether L-NMMA-induced IR occurs via NOS blockade in the central nervous system (CNS). Six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied after chronic implantation of an intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheter into the lateral ventricle and catheters into the carotid artery and jugular vein. Animals were studied after overnight food deprivation, awake, unrestrained, and unstressed; all ICV infusion of L-NMMA or D-NMMA (control) were performed with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. ICV administration of L-NMMA resulted in a 30% rise in the basal glucose level after 2 h, while ICV D-NMMA had no effect on glucose levels. Insulin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels were unchanged from baseline in both groups. Tracer (3H-3-glucose)-determined glucose disposal rates during 2 h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (300 microU/ml) clamps performed after ICV administration of L-NMMA were reduced by 22% compared with D-NMMA. Insulin secretory responses to a hyperglycemic clamp and to a superimposed arginine bolus were reduced by 28% in L-NMMA-infused rats compared with D-NMMA. In conclusion, ICV administration of L-NMMA causes hyperglycemia via the induction of defects in insulin secretion and insulin action, thus recapitulating abnormalities observed in type 2 diabetes. The data suggest the novel concept that central NOS-dependent pathways may control peripheral insulin action and secretion. This control is not likely to be mediated via adrenergic mechanisms and could occur via nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nitrergic neural and/or endocrine pathways. These data support previously published data suggesting that CNS mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of some forms of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes independent of adiposity. PMID:9769333

  3. [Effect of arotinolol on insulin secretion and insulin clearance rate in patients with Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Ohguni, S; Notsu, K; Tanaka, J; Sato, T; Kato, Y

    1993-08-20

    Glucose-induced insulin secretion, 24-h urinary C-peptide (CPR) and euglycemic clamp were examined in five patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease before and 2 weeks after treatment with arotinolol (20 mg/day, p.o.). Plasma glucose and insulin responses to oral administration of 75 g glucose were not changed by arotinolol treatment. 24-h urinary CPR and basal posthepatic insulin delivery rate (BPIDR) as an indicator of insulin secretion were significantly suppressed by arotinolol. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) as an indicator of insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance rate (GCR) were not influenced by arotinolol therapy. Insulin clearance rate (ICR) was significantly suppressed by arotinolol. These findings suggest that arotinolol inhibits insulin secretion by decreasing ICR but does not attenuate insulin release induced by glucose in hyperthyroid patients, and that insulin sensitivity and GCR are not affected by arotinolol.

  4. Suppression of Insulin Production and Secretion by a Decretin Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Alfa, Ronald W.; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying; Kockel, Lutz; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yinghua; Powers, Alvin C.; Kim, Seung K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Decretins, hormones induced by fasting that suppress insulin production and secretion, have been postulated from classical human metabolic studies. From genetic screens, we identified Drosophila Limostatin (Lst), a peptide hormone that suppresses insulin secretion. Lst is induced by nutrient restriction in gut-associated endocrine cells. limostatin deficiency led to hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and excess adiposity. A conserved 15-residue polypeptide encoded by limostatin suppressed secretion by insulin-producing cells. Targeted knockdown of CG9918, a Drosophila orthologue of Neuromedin U receptors (NMUR), in insulin-producing cells phenocopied limostatin deficiency, and attenuated insulin suppression by purified Lst, suggesting CG9918 encodes an Lst receptor. NMUR1 is expressed in islet β-cells, and purified NMU suppresses insulin secretion from human islets. A human mutant NMU variant that co-segregates with familial early-onset obesity and hyperinsulinemia fails to suppress insulin secretion. We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. PMID:25651184

  5. Streptozotocin, an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor, blunts insulin and growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Paterson, Andrew J; Konrad, Robert J; Parlow, A F; Jimi, Shiro; Roh, Meejeon; Chin, Edward; Kudlow, Jeffrey E

    2002-08-30

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from a complex interaction between nutritional excess and multiple genes. Whereas pancreatic beta-cells normally respond to glucose challenge by rapid insulin release (first phase insulin secretion), there is a loss of this acute response in virtually all of the type 2 diabetes patients with significant fasting hyperglycemia. Our previous studies demonstrated that irreversible intracellular accumulation of a glucose metabolite, protein O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAc), is associated with pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis. In the present study, we show that streptozotocin (STZ), a non-competitive chemical blocker of O-GlcNAcase, induces an insulin secretory defect in isolated rat islet cells. In contrast, transgenic mice with down-regulated glucose to glucosamine metabolism in beta-cells exhibited an enhanced insulin secretion capacity. Interestingly, the STZ blockade of O-GlcNAcase activity is also associated with a growth hormone secretory defect and impairment of intracellular secretory vesicle trafficking. These results provide evidence for the roles of O-GlcNAc in the insulin secretion and possible involvement of O-GlcNAc in general glucose-regulated hormone secretion pathways.

  6. Insulin analog therapy: improving the match with physiologic insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Among the growing population of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, many patients are failing to meet glycemic targets and are therefore at increased risk of complications. Rapid-acting insulin analogs (ie, aspart, lispro, glulisine) have a pharmacokinetic profile that mirrors endogenous insulin more closely than regular human insulin. These insulin analogs can also be given closer to mealtimes and are less likely to cause hypoglycemia. Long-acting insulin analogs (ie, detemir, glargine) have relatively flat time-action profiles and last up to 24 hours, thus simulating endogenous basal insulin more precisely than neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin and producing less nocturnal hypoglycemia. The simplicity and efficacy of insulin analogs should help facilitate a patient's transition to insulin therapy. Current guidelines advocate starting insulin therapy in patients who have not achieved glycemic targets or those with glycated hemoglobin greater than 8.5% and adjusting doses as necessary. Two case studies illustrate the benefits of insulin analog therapy. Insulin analogs offer many benefits over human insulins, including improved physiologic profile, greater convenience, reduced risk of hypoglycemia, and, in some instances, less weight gain. Combined, these elements may increase a patient's adherence to treatment, potentially increasing the level of glycemic control and improving the prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Evaluation of insulin secretion and action in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Firshman, Anna M; Cebra, Christopher K; Schanbacher, Barbara J; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    To measure and compare insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy alpacas and llamas via glucose clamping techniques. 8 llamas and 8 alpacas. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping (HEC) and hyperglycemic clamping (HGC) were performed on each camelid in a crossover design with a minimum 48-hour washout period between clamping procedures. The HEC technique was performed to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin was infused IV at 6 mU/min/kg for 4 hours, and an IV infusion of glucose was adjusted to maintain blood glucose concentration at 150 mg/dL. Concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. The HGC technique was performed to assess insulin secretion in response to exogenous glucose infusion. An IV infusion of glucose was administered to maintain blood glucose concentration at 320 mg/dL for 3 hours, and concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. Alpacas and llamas were not significantly different with respect to whole-body insulin sensitivity during HEC or in pancreatic β-cell response during HGC. Alpacas and llamas had markedly lower insulin sensitivity during HEC and markedly lower pancreatic β-cell response during HGC, in comparison with many other species. New World camelids had lower glucose-induced insulin secretion and marked insulin resistance in comparison with other species. This likely contributes to the disorders of fat and glucose metabolism that are common to camelids.

  8. Influence of Flavonoids on Mechanism of Modulation of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Juliana Mikaelly Dias; Pereira Leal, Ana Ediléia Barbosa; Silva, Juliane Cabral; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; de Oliveira, Helinando Pequeno

    2017-01-01

    Background: The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. Objective: To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. Methods: The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells. Results: Twelve articles were included and represent the basis of discussion on mechanisms of insulin secretion of flavonoids. Papers in ISI Web of Knowledge were in number of 1, Scopus 44, PubMed 264, ScienceDirect 511, and no papers from LILACS and SciELO databases. Conclusion: According to the literature, the majority of flavonoid subclasses can modulate insulin secretion through several pathways, in an indication that corresponding molecule is a potential candidate for active materials to be applied in the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The action of natural products on insulin secretion represents an important investigation topic due to their importance in the diabetes controlIn addition to their typical antioxidant properties, flavonoids contribute to the insulin secretionThe modulation of insulin secretion is induced by flavonoids according to different mechanisms. Abbreviations used: KATP channels: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, GLUT4: Glucose transporter 4, ERK1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, L-VDCCs: L-type voltage-dependent Ca+2 channels, GLUT1: Glucose transporter 1, AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, PTP1B: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, GLUT2: Glucose transporter 2, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, PKA: Protein kinase A, PTK

  9. Functional Role of Serotonin in Insulin Secretion in a Diet-Induced Insulin-Resistant State

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuho; Oh, Chang-Myung; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Park, Sangkyu; Namkung, Jun; Yadav, Vijay K.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Roe, Michael W.; Philipson, Louis H.; Karsenty, Gerard; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), in pancreatic β-cell function was previously elucidated using a pregnant mouse model. During pregnancy, 5-HT increases β-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through the Gαq-coupled 5-HT2b receptor (Htr2b) and the 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3), a ligand-gated cation channel, respectively. However, the role of 5-HT in β-cell function in an insulin-resistant state has yet to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of β-cell-specific Htr2b−/− (Htr2b βKO), Htr3a−/− (Htr3a knock-out [KO]), and β-cell-specific tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1)−/− (Tph1 βKO) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Htr2b βKO, Htr3a KO, and Tph1 βKO mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance on a standard chow diet. After 6 weeks on an HFD, beginning at 4 weeks of age, both Htr3a KO and Tph1 βKO mice developed glucose intolerance, but Htr2b βKO mice remained normoglycemic. Pancreas perfusion assays revealed defective first-phase insulin secretion in Htr3a KO mice. GSIS was impaired in islets isolated from HFD-fed Htr3a KO and Tph1 βKO mice, and 5-HT treatment improved insulin secretion from Tph1 βKO islets but not from Htr3a KO islets. Tph1 and Htr3a gene expression in pancreatic islets was not affected by an HFD, and immunostaining could not detect 5-HT in pancreatic islets from mice fed an HFD. Taken together, these results demonstrate that basal 5-HT levels in β-cells play a role in GSIS through Htr3, which becomes more evident in a diet-induced insulin-resistant state. PMID:25426873

  10. Pulsatile insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Satin, Leslie S.; Butler, Peter C.; Ha, Joon; Sherman, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results when increases in beta cell function and/or mass cannot compensate for rising insulin resistance. Numerous studies have documented the longitudinal changes in metabolism that occur during the development of glucose intolerance and lead to T2DM. However, the role of changes in insulin secretion, both amount and temporal pattern has been understudied. Most of the insulin secreted from pancreatic beta cells of the pancreas is released in a pulsatile pattern, which is disrupted in T2DM. Here we review the evidence that changes in beta cell pulsatility occur during the progression from glucose intolerance to T2DM in humans, and contribute significantly to the etiology of the disease. We review the evidence that insulin pulsatility improves the efficacy of secreted insulin on its targets, particularly hepatic glucose production, but also examine evidence that pulsatility alters or is altered by changes in peripheral glucose uptake. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for oscillatory insulin secretion. Understanding how insulin pulsatility contributes to normal glucose homeostasis and is altered in metabolic disease states may help improve the treatment of T2DM. PMID:25637831

  11. Online fluorescence anisotropy immunoassay for monitoring insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Schrell, Adrian M; Mukhitov, Nikita; Yi, Lian; Adablah, Joel E; Menezes, Joshua; Roper, Michael G

    2017-01-07

    Insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans is a dynamic process that is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis. The ability to measure dynamic changes in insulin levels upon glucose stimulation from single islets will allow testing of therapeutics and investigating mechanisms of defective secretion observed in metabolic diseases. Most approaches to date for measurement of rapid changes in insulin levels rely on separations, making the assays difficult to translate to non-specialist laboratories. To enable rapid measurements of secretion dynamics from a single islet in a manner that will be more suitable for transfer to non-specialized laboratories, a microfluidic online fluorescence anisotropy immunoassay was developed. A single islet was housed inside a microfluidic chamber and stimulated with varying glucose levels from a gravity-based perfusion system. The total effluent of the islet chamber containing the islet secretions was mixed with gravity-driven solutions of insulin antibody and Cy5-labeled insulin. After mixing was complete, a linearly polarized 635 nm laser was used to excite the immunoassay mixture and the emission was split into parallel and perpendicular components for determination of anisotropy. Key factors for reproducible anisotropy measurements, including temperature homogeneity and flow rate stability were optimized, which resulted in a 4 nM limit of detection for insulin with <1% RSD of anisotropy values. The capability of this system for measuring insulin secretion from single islets was shown by stimulating an islet with varying glucose levels. As the entire analysis is performed optically, this system should be readily transferable to other laboratories.

  12. A subcellular model of glucose-stimulated pancreatic insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Corradin, Alberto; Toffolo, Gianna M; Cobelli, Claudio

    2008-10-13

    When glucose is raised from a basal to stimulating level, the pancreatic islets respond with a typical biphasic insulin secretion pattern. Moreover, the pancreas is able to recognize the rate of change of the glucose concentration. We present a relatively simple model of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, yet founded on solid physiological grounds and capable of reproducing a series of secretion patterns from perfused pancreases as well as from stimulated islets. The model includes the notion of distinct pools of granules as well as mechanisms such as mobilization, priming, exocytosis and kiss-and-run. Based on experimental data, we suggest that the individual beta-cells activate at different glucose concentrations. The model reproduces most of the data it was tested against very well, and can therefore serve as a general model of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Simulations predict that the effect of an increased frequency of kiss-and-run exocytotic events is a reduction in insulin secretion without modification of the qualitative pattern. Our model also appears to be the first physiology-based one to reproduce the staircase experiment, which underlies 'derivative control', i.e. the pancreatic capacity of measuring the rate of change of the glucose concentration.

  13. Effect of avocado soybean unsaponifiables on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R; Reynoso-von-Drateln, Claudia; Moreno-Andrade, Aureliano

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out in 14 obese adult volunteers. After random allocation of the intervention, 7 patients received 300 mg of ASU or placebo during a fasting state for 3 months. A metabolic profile including IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels was carried out prior to the intervention. A hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was used to assess insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity phases. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test were performed for statistical analyses. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of our institution. At baseline, both groups were similar according to clinical and laboratory characteristics. There was no significant difference in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity with ASU. ASU administration for 3 months did not modify insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. The Possible Mechanisms of the Impaired Insulin Secretion in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godini, Aliashraf; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Although the insulin secretion deficit in hypothyroid male rats has been documented, the underling mechanisms of the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin secretion are not clear. Isolated islets of the PTU-induced hypothyroid and control rats were exposed to glibenclamide, acetylcholine, and nifedipine in the presence of glucose concentrations of 2.8 or 8.3 and 16.7 mmol/L. Glucokinase and hexokinase specific activity, glucokinase content, and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were also determined in the isolated islets. Isolated islets from the hypothyroid rats showed a defect in insulin secretion in response to high glucose. In the presence of glibenclamide or acetylcholine, the isolated islets from the hypothyroid and control rats stimulated by glucose concentration of 16.7 mmol/L secreted similar amounts of insulin. In the presence of glucose concentrations of 8.3 mmol/L and 16.7 mmol/L, nifedipine was able to diminish insulin secretion from isolated islets of both groups, indicating that probably the defect may not arise from L type calcium channels or the steps beyond depolarization or the elements involved in the acetylcoline signaling pathway. Glucokinase content and hexokinase specific activity were also the same in the control and hypothyroid groups. On the other hand, glucokinase specific activity and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were significantly (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) lower in the islets isolated from the hypothyroid rats (6.50 ± 0.46 mU/min/mg protein and 0.55 ± 0.09 arbitrary unit) compared to the controls (10.93 ± 0.83 mU/min/mg protein and 0.98 ± 0.07 arbitrary unit) respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that hypothyroidism reduced insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, which confirms the finding of the previous studies; in addition, the insulin secretion deficit observed in hypothyroid rats may arise from the abnormalities in some parts of the glucose sensor apparatus of the

  15. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  16. Glycemia, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and risk of depressive symptoms in middle age.

    PubMed

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Kumari, Meena; Head, Jenny; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Tabák, Adam G; Brunner, Eric; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Marmot, Michael G; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-04-01

    The extent to which abnormal glucose metabolism increases the risk of depression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated prospective associations of levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin and indices of insulin resistance and secretion with subsequent new-onset depressive symptoms (DepS). In this prospective cohort study of 3,145 adults from the Whitehall II Study (23.5% women, aged 60.6 ± 5.9 years), baseline examination included fasting glucose and insulin level, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-%IR), and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell insulin secretion (HOMA2-%B). DepS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ≥16 or use of antidepressive drugs) were assessed at baseline and at 5-year follow-up. Over the 5-year follow-up, DepS developed in 142 men and 84 women. Women in the lowest quintile of insulin secretion (HOMA2-%B ≤55.3%) had 2.18 (95% CI 1.25-3.78) times higher odds of developing DepS than those with higher insulin secretion. This association was not accounted for by inflammatory markers, cortisol secretion, or menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy. Fasting insulin measures were not associated with DepS in men, and fasting glucose measures were not associated with new-onset DepS in either sex. Low insulin secretion appears to be a risk factor for DepS in middle-aged women, although further work is required to confirm this finding.

  17. Glycemia, Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, and Risk of Depressive Symptoms in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Kumari, Meena; Head, Jenny; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Tabák, Adam G.; Brunner, Eric; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Marmot, Michael G.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Shipley, Martin J.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The extent to which abnormal glucose metabolism increases the risk of depression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated prospective associations of levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin and indices of insulin resistance and secretion with subsequent new-onset depressive symptoms (DepS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this prospective cohort study of 3,145 adults from the Whitehall II Study (23.5% women, aged 60.6 ± 5.9 years), baseline examination included fasting glucose and insulin level, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-%IR), and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell insulin secretion (HOMA2-%B). DepS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ≥16 or use of antidepressive drugs) were assessed at baseline and at 5-year follow-up. RESULTS Over the 5-year follow-up, DepS developed in 142 men and 84 women. Women in the lowest quintile of insulin secretion (HOMA2-%B ≤55.3%) had 2.18 (95% CI 1.25–3.78) times higher odds of developing DepS than those with higher insulin secretion. This association was not accounted for by inflammatory markers, cortisol secretion, or menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy. Fasting insulin measures were not associated with DepS in men, and fasting glucose measures were not associated with new-onset DepS in either sex. CONCLUSIONS Low insulin secretion appears to be a risk factor for DepS in middle-aged women, although further work is required to confirm this finding. PMID:23230097

  18. Alcohol consumption alters insulin secretion and cardiac autonomic activity.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, D E H; Pratt, E; Murphy, J; Vaile, J C; Petley, G W; Godsland, I F; Kerr, D

    2002-03-01

    Alcohol may have a cardioprotective effect. One possible mechanism is by modifying insulin resistance/secretion. The aims of this study were: (i) to examine the effect of short-term alcohol consumption on the metabolic control of glucose tolerance; (ii) to study the influence of short-term alcohol consumption on cardiac autonomic activity using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Twenty-one healthy subjects, in a randomized crossover design, either received three units of ethanol daily for 1 week or abstained from ethanol. The control of glucose tolerance was assessed using the intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modelling. There was no difference in fasting glucose, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity between the two groups. Alcohol showed a lower insulin first phase insulin response (no alcohol 659.0 +/- 394.1 SD, alcohol 535.2 +/- 309.1) pmol L-1 min-1, P = 0.027). There was no difference in heart rate or blood pressure but a significant difference in the ratio of high to low frequency spectral power of heart rate variability; (no alcohol 4.55 +/- 3.78, alcohol 8.16 +/- 6.77, P = 0.033). This suggests decreased sympathetic and/or increased vagal modulation of heart rate in the alcohol group. The finding of no difference in insulin sensitivity between the two groups contrasts with, but does not entirely contradict, the results of previous epidemiological studies--perhaps suggesting that longer term changes such as liver enzyme induction may be important. The difference in insulin secretion questions the validity of previous studies of the influence of alcohol on insulin sensitivity, where insulin levels were used as a surrogate for insulin resistance.

  19. Key proteins involved in insulin vesicle exocytosis and secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qian-Yin; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Yao; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Lizhuo; Gao, Jia-Lin

    2017-01-01

    In vivo insulin secretion is predominantly affected by blood glucose concentration, blood concentration of amino acids, gastrointestinal hormones and free nerve functional status, in addition to other factors. Insulin is one of the most important hormones in the body, and its secretion is precisely controlled by nutrients, neurotransmitters and hormones. The insulin exocytosis process is similar to the neurotransmitter release mechanism. There are various types of proteins and lipids that participate in the insulin secretory vesicle fusion process, such as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, Ras-related proteins and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Notably, the SNARE protein is the molecular basis of exocytotic activity. In the current review, the role of the vesicle membrane proteins (synaptobrevins, vesicle associated membrane proteins and target membrane proteins) and auxiliary proteins (Rab proteins and Munc-18 proteins) in vesicle fusion activity were summarized. A summary of these key proteins involved in insulin granule secretion will facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:28357064

  20. Somatostatin-secreting Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Shinichi; Sasano, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the findings of a 42-year-old woman with either adrenal pheochromocytoma or intraadrenal paraganglioma that simultaneously secreted somatostatin, thus mimicking insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pheochromocytoma was clinically diagnosed based on scintigraphy, elevated catecholamine levels, and finally a histopathological analysis of resected specimens. The patient had diabetic ketosis, requiring 40 U insulin for treatment. Following laparoscopic adrenalectomy, insulin therapy was discontinued and the urinary c-peptide levels changed from 5.5-9.0 to 81.3-87.0 μg/day. Histologically, somatostatin immunoreactivity was detected and the somatostatin levels were elevated in the serum-like fluid obtained from the tumor. Clinicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of simultaneous ectopic hormone secretion in patients with pheochromocytoma. PMID:27746437

  1. A Genetic Strategy to Measure Circulating Drosophila Insulin Reveals Genes Regulating Insulin Production and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangbin; Alfa, Ronald W.; Topper, Sydni M.; Kim, Grace E. S.; Kockel, Lutz; Kim, Seung K.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a major regulator of metabolism in metazoans, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest a genetic basis for reductions of both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, phenotypes commonly observed in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify molecular functions of genes linked to T2DM risk, we developed a genetic tool to measure insulin-like peptide 2 (Ilp2) levels in Drosophila, a model organism with superb experimental genetics. Our system permitted sensitive quantification of circulating Ilp2, including measures of Ilp2 dynamics during fasting and re-feeding, and demonstration of adaptive Ilp2 secretion in response to insulin receptor haploinsufficiency. Tissue specific dissection of this reduced insulin signaling phenotype revealed a critical role for insulin signaling in specific peripheral tissues. Knockdown of the Drosophila orthologues of human T2DM risk genes, including GLIS3 and BCL11A, revealed roles of these Drosophila genes in Ilp2 production or secretion. Discovery of Drosophila mechanisms and regulators controlling in vivo insulin dynamics should accelerate functional dissection of diabetes genetics. PMID:25101872

  2. A systematic review of in vitro studies conducted on effect of herbal products on secretion of insulin from Langerhans islets.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most important health problem that its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes is characterized by defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Recent studies provided evidences that loss of functional β-cell mass through apoptosis is central to the development of diabetes. The management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. Recently, there has been a special interest to herbal medicine in care and management of diabetes due to their natural origin and less side effects. The current systematic review focuses on main component of antidiabetic plants with directly effect on insulin secretion of pancreas. All in vitro studies which assessed the potential effect of, main components, multi herbal, whole plant, or extract of the plants directly on pancreatic insulin secretion published from 2001 to November 2011 were included. Exclusion criteria were clinical trial studies that did not assess insulin secretion, and review articles, or letters to the editor. The majority of these studies showed that the improvement of β-cell function and insulin secretion is possible with antioxidant compounds. Suppression of oxidative stress, cytokine-induced impairment, suppression of nuclear factor κB a key regulator of endothelial activation, activation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), insulin-like activity and increasing intracellular calcium, were among the most important indicated pathways. By considering the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction, antioxidant compounds could be helpful in management of diabetes and its complications.

  3. Role of nuclear receptors in the modulation of insulin secretion in lipid-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sugden, Mary C; Holness, Mark J

    2008-10-01

    In healthy individuals, a hyperbolic relationship exists between whole-body insulin-sensitivity and insulin secretion. Thus, for any difference in insulin-sensitivity, a reciprocal proportionate change occurs in insulin secretion. Such a feedback loop is evident in healthy individuals ingesting diets high in saturated fat and in late pregnancy where, despite lipid-induced insulin resistance, glucose tolerance is maintained through augmented GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion). NRs (nuclear receptors) are members of a superfamily of ligand-regulated and orphan transcription factors. On activation by a cognate ligand, many ligand-activated NRs recruit the RXR (retinoid X receptor) for heterodimer formation. Such NRs include the PPARs (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors), which are involved in lipid sensing and liporegulation. PPARs exert important lipid-lowering effects in vivo, thereby opposing the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance by relieving the inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by muscle and lowering the necessity for augmented GSIS to counter lipid-induced insulin resistance. Long-chain fatty acids are proposed as natural PPAR ligands and some specific endogenous pathways of lipid metabolism are believed to generate PPAR agonists. Other NRs, e.g. the LXR (liver X receptor), which senses expansion of the metabolically active pool of cholesterol, and the FXR (farnesoid X receptor; NR1H4), which, like the LXR, is involved in sterol metabolism, also modulate systemic lipid levels and insulin-sensitivity. In this review, we discuss how these NRs impact insulin secretion via effects on the insulin-sensitivity-insulin secretion feedback loop and, in some cases, via direct effects on the islet itself. In addition, we discuss interactions between these nutrient/metabolite-responsive NRs and NRs that are central to the action of metabolically important hormones, including (i) the glucocorticoid receptor, critical for

  4. Signalling satiety and starvation to β-Cell insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Holness, Mark J; Hegazy, Sharif; Sugden, Mary C

    2011-09-01

    The impact of bariatric surgery on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance has refocused interest in the role of gut-derived factors in the regulation of insulin secretion and action. The incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released from endocrine cells in the small intestinal mucosa primarily in response to oral nutrient ingestion. They have various effects, including augmentation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), actions that promote the cellular assimilation and storage of dietary glucose and lipid as liver and skeletal muscle glycogen and adipocyte triacylglycerol (TAG) respectively. Similarly, increased delivery of fatty acids (FA) acutely augments GSIS, and the resultant enhancement of GSIS facilitates FA storage as adipocyte TAG. Leptin secretion from white adipocytes curbs appetite to limit dietary nutrient intake and adipocyte TAG storage and, potentially, GSIS, thereby curtailing insulin-dependent TAG storage. On fasting, GSIS is curbed, an effect the mechanism of which is even now incompletely understood, but which may reflect augmented β-cell FA oxidation. The orexigen ghrelin, systemic concentrations of which increase with fasting, exerts enigmatic effects on GSIS, in that acylated ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin exert opposing effects on GSIS, whereas acylated ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin share protective effects on islet survival. This review will build on these emerging studies to evaluate the roles of the incretins, leptin, lipids and acylated and unacylated ghrelin in modulating islet function and survival during feasting and fasting.

  5. Dual Effect of Rosuvastatin on Glucose Homeostasis Through Improved Insulin Sensitivity and Reduced Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal A; Mollet, Inês G; Ofori, Jones K; Malm, Helena A; Esguerra, Jonathan L S; Reinbothe, Thomas M; Stenkula, Karin G; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena; Vikman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Statins are beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but these lipid-lowering drugs are associated with increased incidence of new on-set diabetes. The cellular mechanisms behind the development of diabetes by statins are elusive. Here we have treated mice on normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD) with rosuvastatin. Under ND rosuvastatin lowered blood glucose through improved insulin sensitivity and increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue. In vitro rosuvastatin reduced insulin secretion and insulin content in islets. In the beta cell Ca(2+) signaling was impaired and the density of granules at the plasma membrane was increased by rosuvastatin treatment. HFD mice developed insulin resistance and increased insulin secretion prior to administration of rosuvastatin. Treatment with rosuvastatin decreased the compensatory insulin secretion and increased glucose uptake. In conclusion, our data shows dual effects on glucose homeostasis by rosuvastatin where insulin sensitivity is improved, but beta cell function is impaired. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Unifying Organ Model of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Gaz, Claudio; Palumbo, Pasquale; Panunzi, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of insulin by the pancreas has been the object of much attention over the past several decades. Insulin is known to be secreted by pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia: its blood concentrations however exhibit both high-frequency (period approx. 10 minutes) and low-frequency oscillations (period approx. 1.5 hours). Furthermore, characteristic insulin secretory response to challenge maneuvers have been described, such as frequency entrainment upon sinusoidal glycemic stimulation; substantial insulin peaks following minimal glucose administration; progressively strengthened insulin secretion response after repeated administration of the same amount of glucose; insulin and glucose characteristic curves after Intra-Venous administration of glucose boli in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects as well as in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Previous modeling of β-cell physiology has been mainly directed to the intracellular chain of events giving rise to single-cell or cell-cluster hormone release oscillations, but the large size, long period and complex morphology of the diverse responses to whole-body glucose stimuli has not yet been coherently explained. Starting with the seminal work of Grodsky it was hypothesized that the population of pancreatic β-cells, possibly functionally aggregated in islets of Langerhans, could be viewed as a set of independent, similar, but not identical controllers (firing units) with distributed functional parameters. The present work shows how a single model based on a population of independent islet controllers can reproduce very closely a diverse array of actually observed experimental results, with the same set of working parameters. The model’s success in reproducing a diverse array of experiments implies that, in order to understand the macroscopic behaviour of the endocrine pancreas in regulating glycemia, there is no need to hypothesize intrapancreatic pacemakers, influences between different islets of Langerhans

  7. Genetic Evidence That Carbohydrate-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Leads to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Astley, Christina M; Todd, Jennifer N; Salem, Rany M; Vedantam, Sailaja; Ebbeling, Cara B; Huang, Paul L; Ludwig, David S; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Florez, Jose C

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental precept of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity is that insulin secretion drives weight gain. However, fasting hyperinsulinemia can also be driven by obesity-induced insulin resistance. We used genetic variation to isolate and estimate the potentially causal effect of insulin secretion on body weight. Genetic instruments of variation of insulin secretion [assessed as insulin concentration 30 min after oral glucose (insulin-30)] were used to estimate the causal relationship between increased insulin secretion and body mass index (BMI), using bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis of genome-wide association studies. Data sources included summary results from the largest published metaanalyses of predominantly European ancestry for insulin secretion (n = 26037) and BMI (n = 322154), as well as individual-level data from the UK Biobank (n = 138541). Data from the Cardiology and Metabolic Patient Cohort study at Massachusetts General Hospital (n = 1675) were used to validate genetic associations with insulin secretion and to test the observational association of insulin secretion and BMI. Higher genetically determined insulin-30 was strongly associated with higher BMI (β = 0.098, P = 2.2 × 10 -21 ), consistent with a causal role in obesity. Similar positive associations were noted in sensitivity analyses using other genetic variants as instrumental variables. By contrast, higher genetically determined BMI was not associated with insulin-30. Mendelian randomization analyses provide evidence for a causal relationship of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on body weight, consistent with the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Adenosine diphosphate as an intracellular regulator of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C G; Shyng, S L; Nestorowicz, A; Glaser, B; Clement, J P; Gonzalez, G; Aguilar-Bryan, L; Permutt, M A; Bryan, J

    1996-06-21

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin secretion. A mutation in the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF2) of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of an individual diagnosed with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy generated KATP channels that could be opened by diazoxide but not in response to metabolic inhibition. The hamster SUR, containing the analogous mutation, had normal ATP sensitivity, but unlike wild-type channels, inhibition by ATP was not antagonized by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Additional mutations in NBF2 resulted in the same phenotype, whereas an equivalent mutation in NBF1 showed normal sensitivity to MgADP. Thus, by binding to SUR NBF2 and antagonizing ATP inhibition of KATP++ channels, intracellular MgADP may regulate insulin secretion.

  9. MiR-184 regulates insulin secretion through repression of Slc25a22

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Sumiyo; Horii, Takuro; Kimura, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells plays an essential role in blood glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes. Many genes are involved in the secretion of insulin and most of these genes can be targeted by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the role of miRNAs in insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes has not been exhaustively studied. The expression miR-184, a miRNA enriched in pancreatic islets, negatively correlates with insulin secretion, suggesting that it is a good candidate for miRNA-mediated regulation of insulin secretion. Here we report that miR-184 inhibits insulin secretion in the MIN6 pancreatic β-cell line through the repression of its target Slc25a22, a mitochondrial glutamate carrier. Our study provides new insight into the regulation of insulin secretion by glutamate transport in mitochondria. PMID:24109547

  10. Nestin action during insulin-secreting cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yoon; Lee, Song; Hong, Seok-Woo; Min, Bon-Hong; Lee, Ki-Up; Bendayan, Moise; Park, In-Sun

    2010-06-01

    Nestin, which was initially identified as a marker of neural stem cells, has been reported in regenerating pancreas as well as in early embryonic stem (ES) cell derivatives. However, little is known about its specific roles in stem cells as a functional regulator. We investigated the source of the action of nestin in ES and adult pancreatic ductal stem (PDS) cells in regard to the neogenesis of insulin-secreting beta-cells. In ES cells, suppression of nestin by gene silencing led to an increased expression of the pluripotency-associated genes, including Oct 4, Nanog, and SSEA-1, before embryoid body (EB) formation, whereas it reduced endodermal and pancreatic transcription factors in EBs. Inhibition of nestin expression in adult PDS cells caused a low expression of pancreatic transcription factors and islet hormones, leading to poor beta-cell development and insulin secretion. These data may indicate not only that nestin is a simple stem cell marker, but also that it constitutes a functional factor at the time of stem cell differentiation. We suggest that nestin plays pivotal roles as an intermediate regulator governing both stemness and differentiation of stem cells in the process of their differentiation into insulin-secreting cells.

  11. Differences in insulin biosynthesis pathway between small and large islets do not correspond to insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Hung; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of mammalian species, small islets secrete more insulin per volume than large islets. This difference may be due to diffusional limitations of large islets, or inherent differences in the insulin production pathways. The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences in the early phase of glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis between large and small islets. Isolated small and large rat islets were challenged with 30 minutes of high glucose. The expression of insulin gene transcription factors (MafA, NeuroD/ Beta2, and PDX-1), preproinsulin mRNA, proinsulin and insulin were compared between large and small islets. Under basal (low glucose) conditions, MafA and NeuroD had higher mRNA levels and greater protein amounts in large islets compared to small when normalized to GAPDH levels. 30 minutes of high glucose stimulation failed to alter the mRNA or subsequent protein levels of either gene. However, 30 minutes of high glucose suppressed activated PDX-1 protein levels in both small and large islets. High glucose stimulation did not statistically alter the preproinsulin mRNA (insulin 1 and insulin 2) levels. At the translational level, high glucose increased the proinsulin levels, and large islets showed a higher proinsulin content per cell than small islets. Insulin content per cell was not significantly different between small and large islets under basal or high glucose levels. The results fail to explain the higher level of insulin secretion noted in small versus large islets and may suggest that possible differences lie downstream in the secretory pathway rather than insulin biosynthesis.

  12. Differences in insulin biosynthesis pathway between small and large islets do not correspond to insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Hung; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of mammalian species, small islets secrete more insulin per volume than large islets. This difference may be due to diffusional limitations of large islets, or inherent differences in the insulin production pathways. The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences in the early phase of glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis between large and small islets. Isolated small and large rat islets were challenged with 30 minutes of high glucose. The expression of insulin gene transcription factors (MafA, NeuroD/ Beta2, and PDX-1), preproinsulin mRNA, proinsulin and insulin were compared between large and small islets. Under basal (low glucose) conditions, MafA and NeuroD had higher mRNA levels and greater protein amounts in large islets compared to small when normalized to GAPDH levels. 30 minutes of high glucose stimulation failed to alter the mRNA or subsequent protein levels of either gene. However, 30 minutes of high glucose suppressed activated PDX-1 protein levels in both small and large islets. High glucose stimulation did not statistically alter the preproinsulin mRNA (insulin 1 and insulin 2) levels. At the translational level, high glucose increased the proinsulin levels, and large islets showed a higher proinsulin content per cell than small islets. Insulin content per cell was not significantly different between small and large islets under basal or high glucose levels. The results fail to explain the higher level of insulin secretion noted in small versus large islets and may suggest that possible differences lie downstream in the secretory pathway rather than insulin biosynthesis. PMID:26752360

  13. Urocortin3 mediates somatostatin-dependent negative feedback control of insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Donaldson, Cynthia J.; Cáceres, Elena; Hunter, Anna E.; Cowing–Zitron, Christopher; Pound, Lynley D.; Adams, Michael W.; Zembrzycki, Andreas; Grove, Kevin L.; Huising, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone Urocortin3 (Ucn3) is abundantly expressed by mature beta cells, yet its physiological role is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Ucn3 is stored and co–released with insulin and potentiates glucose–stimulated somatostatin secretion via cognate receptor on delta cells. Further, we found that islets lacking endogenous Ucn3 demonstrate fewer delta cells, reduced somatostatin content, impaired somatostatin secretion and exaggerated insulin release, and that these defects are rectified by synthetic Ucn3 in vitro. Our observations indicate that the paracrine actions of Ucn3 activate a negative feedback loop that promotes somatostatin release to ensure the timely reduction of insulin secretion upon normalization of plasma glucose. Moreover, Ucn3 is markedly depleted from beta cells in mouse and macaque diabetes models and in human diabetic islets. This suggests that Ucn3 is a key contributor to stable glycemic control whose reduction during diabetes aggravates glycemic volatility and contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26076035

  14. Critical Role of Gap Junction Coupled KATP Channel Activity for Regulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rocheleau, Jonathan V; Remedi, Maria S; Granada, Butch; Head, W. Steven; Koster, Joseph C

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin in response to closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which causes membrane depolarization and a concomitant rise in intracellular Ca2+ (Cai). In intact islets, β-cells are coupled by gap junctions, which are proposed to synchronize electrical activity and Cai oscillations after exposure to stimulatory glucose (>7 mM). To determine the significance of this coupling in regulating insulin secretion, we examined islets and β-cells from transgenic mice that express zero functional KATP channels in approximately 70% of their β-cells, but normal KATP channel density in the remainder. We found that KATP channel activity from approximately 30% of the β-cells is sufficient to maintain strong glucose dependence of metabolism, Cai, membrane potential, and insulin secretion from intact islets, but that glucose dependence is lost in isolated transgenic cells. Further, inhibition of gap junctions caused loss of glucose sensitivity specifically in transgenic islets. These data demonstrate a critical role of gap junctional coupling of KATP channel activity in control of membrane potential across the islet. Control via coupling lessens the effects of cell–cell variation and provides resistance to defects in excitability that would otherwise lead to a profound diabetic state, such as occurs in persistent neonatal diabetes mellitus. PMID:16402858

  15. Critical role of gap junction coupled KATP channel activity for regulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Jonathan V; Remedi, Maria S; Granada, Butch; Head, W Steven; Koster, Joseph C; Nichols, Colin G; Piston, David W

    2006-02-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which causes membrane depolarization and a concomitant rise in intracellular Ca2+ (Cai). In intact islets, beta-cells are coupled by gap junctions, which are proposed to synchronize electrical activity and Cai oscillations after exposure to stimulatory glucose (>7 mM). To determine the significance of this coupling in regulating insulin secretion, we examined islets and beta-cells from transgenic mice that express zero functional KATP channels in approximately 70% of their beta-cells, but normal KATP channel density in the remainder. We found that KATP channel activity from approximately 30% of the beta-cells is sufficient to maintain strong glucose dependence of metabolism, Cai, membrane potential, and insulin secretion from intact islets, but that glucose dependence is lost in isolated transgenic cells. Further, inhibition of gap junctions caused loss of glucose sensitivity specifically in transgenic islets. These data demonstrate a critical role of gap junctional coupling of KATP channel activity in control of membrane potential across the islet. Control via coupling lessens the effects of cell-cell variation and provides resistance to defects in excitability that would otherwise lead to a profound diabetic state, such as occurs in persistent neonatal diabetes mellitus.

  16. Assessment of the Role of Metabolic Determinants on the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Jose E; Gómez, Carmen; Mizgier, Maria L; Gutierrez, Juan; Santos, Jose L; Olmos, Pablo; Mari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Insulin secretion correlates inversely with insulin sensitivity, which may suggest the existence of a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such interaction might be mediated through glucose oxidation that may drive the release of circulating factors with action on insulin secretion. To evaluate the association between whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and circulating factors with insulin secretion to consecutive oral glucose loading in non-diabetic individuals. Carbohydrate oxidation was measured after an overnight fast and for 6 hours after two 3-h apart 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in 53 participants (24/29 males/females; 34±9 y; 27±4 kg/m2). Insulin secretion was estimated by deconvolution of serum C-peptide concentration, β cell function by mathematical modelling and insulin sensitivity from an OGTT. Circulating lactate, free-fatty acids (FFA) and candidate chemokines were assessed before and after OGTT. The effect of recombinant RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and IL8 (interleukin 8) on insulin secretion from isolated mice islets was also measured. Carbohydrate oxidation assessed over the 6-h period did not relate with insulin secretion (r = -0.11; p = 0.45) or β cell function indexes. Circulating lactate and FFA showed no association with 6-h insulin secretion. Circulating chemokines concentration increased upon oral glucose stimulation. Insulin secretion associated with plasma IL6 (r = 0.35; p<0.05), RANTES (r = 0.30; p<0.05) and IL8 (r = 0.41; p<0.05) determined at 60 min OGTT. IL8 was independently associated with in vivo insulin secretion; however, it did not affect in vitro insulin secretion. Whole-body carbohydrate oxidation appears to have no influence on insulin secretion or putative circulating mediators. IL8 may be a potential factor influencing insulin secretion.

  17. Assessment of the Role of Metabolic Determinants on the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, Jose E.; Gómez, Carmen; Mizgier, Maria L.; Gutierrez, Juan; Santos, Jose L.; Olmos, Pablo; Mari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion correlates inversely with insulin sensitivity, which may suggest the existence of a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such interaction might be mediated through glucose oxidation that may drive the release of circulating factors with action on insulin secretion. Aim To evaluate the association between whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and circulating factors with insulin secretion to consecutive oral glucose loading in non-diabetic individuals. Methods Carbohydrate oxidation was measured after an overnight fast and for 6 hours after two 3-h apart 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in 53 participants (24/29 males/females; 34±9 y; 27±4 kg/m2). Insulin secretion was estimated by deconvolution of serum C-peptide concentration, β cell function by mathematical modelling and insulin sensitivity from an OGTT. Circulating lactate, free-fatty acids (FFA) and candidate chemokines were assessed before and after OGTT. The effect of recombinant RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and IL8 (interleukin 8) on insulin secretion from isolated mice islets was also measured. Results Carbohydrate oxidation assessed over the 6-h period did not relate with insulin secretion (r = -0.11; p = 0.45) or β cell function indexes. Circulating lactate and FFA showed no association with 6-h insulin secretion. Circulating chemokines concentration increased upon oral glucose stimulation. Insulin secretion associated with plasma IL6 (r = 0.35; p<0.05), RANTES (r = 0.30; p<0.05) and IL8 (r = 0.41; p<0.05) determined at 60 min OGTT. IL8 was independently associated with in vivo insulin secretion; however, it did not affect in vitro insulin secretion. Conclusion Whole-body carbohydrate oxidation appears to have no influence on insulin secretion or putative circulating mediators. IL8 may be a potential factor influencing insulin secretion. PMID:28002466

  18. The role of taste in cephalic phase of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Dušková, M; Macourek, M; Šrámková, M; Hill, M; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a short gustatory signal of a sweet solution was tested on 15 young male volunteers. The experiment consisted of mouth rinsing with either a sucrose or aspartate solution or pure water as a placebo. Blood was then taken in short intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Blood glucose, C-peptide, insulin and cortisol were determined. While C-peptide and glucose were unaffected, a short-term increase in insulin was observed after the sucrose, but not after the aspartate or placebo. The increase in insulin was significant, though it amounted to only 0.5 mIU/l and lasted approx. 15 min reaching then the starting value. The decline of cortisol level within 20 min of the experiment was approx. 40 nmol/l, although it was also observed after aspartate or placebo mouth rinsing and was probably caused by stress factors or anticipation. In conclusion, the contribution of taste to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion is small yet significant, and mouth rinsing with 5% sucrose causes an insulin increase of just under 1 IU/l, which returns to starting level within 15 min.

  19. High isoflavone soy diet increases insulin secretion without decreasing insulin sensitivity in premenopausal nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Jones, Kate L; Zhang, Li; Flynn, David M; Shadoan, Melanie K; Wagner, Janice D

    2008-06-01

    Consuming soy and soy isoflavones has been shown to cause modest improvements in plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and indices of insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. The effect of soy on such end points is attributed often to estrogen receptor agonism by isoflavones. Recent in vitro studies suggest that isoflavones, in combination with high estrogen concentrations (within the range seen circulating in premenopausal women), function as estrogen receptor antagonists that potentially may counteract the beneficial effects seen with soy consumption. We studied insulin sensitivity in 15 premenopausal nonhuman primates consuming either a high isoflavone soy diet or a soy-free casein/lactalbumin diet for 4 months. Insulin sensitivity was measured by intravenous glucose tolerance testing, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, and insulin-stimulated insulin receptor and protein kinase B phosphorylation levels in muscle. In addition, plasma lipids, adiponectin, thyroid hormone, and body weights are reported. We show that high isoflavones do not adversely affect insulin sensitivity but do significantly alter insulin secretion to glucose stimulation. Small but significant increases in thyroxine and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed as has been reported commonly with soy intake. These study results demonstrate that consumption of soy containing high isoflavone levels is not associated with changes in insulin sensitivity in the high estrogen milieu of the premenopausal female.

  20. Postreceptor defects causing insulin resistance in normoinsulinemic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinder, J.; Ostman, J.; Arner, P.

    1982-10-01

    The mechanisms of the diminished hypoglycemic response to insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with normal levels of circulating plasma insulin were investigated. Specific binding of mono-/sup 125/I (Tyr A14)-insulin to isolated adipocytes and effects of insulin (5--10,000 microunits/ml) on glucose oxidation and lipolysis were determined simultaneously in subcutaneous adipose tissue of seven healthy subjects of normal weight and seven untreated NIDDM patients with normal plasma insulin levels. The two groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. Insulin binding, measured in terms of receptor number and affinity, was normal in NIDDM, the total number of receptors averaging 350,000 per cell. Neither sensitivity nor the maximum antilipolytic effect of insulin was altered in NIDDM patients as compared with control subjects; the insulin concentration producing half the maximum effect (ED50) was 10 microunits/ml. As regards the effect of insulin on glucose oxidation, for the control subjects ED50 was 30 microunits/ml, whereas in NIDDM patients, insulin exerted no stimulatory effect. The results obtained suggest that the effect of insulin on glucose utilization in normoinsulinemic NIDDM may be diminished in spite of normal insulin binding to receptors. The resistance may be due solely to postreceptor defects, and does not involve antilipolysis.

  1. Neural control of pancreatic insulin and somatostatin secretion.

    PubMed

    Roy, M W; Lee, K C; Jones, M S; Miller, R E

    1984-08-01

    This study had a dual purpose. First, the effects of pancreatic buffer flow on whole organ hormone output were investigated. Second, the receptor mechanisms by which sympathetic nerve stimulation alters the secretion rates of somatostatin and insulin were assessed. Pancreata of mongrel puppies were perfused in situ with nonrecirculated Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (150 mg/dl glucose). Buffer flow was adjusted between 0.2 and 4 ml/min X g pancreas. Insulin secretion rate (nanograms per min/g pancreas; ISR) as well as pancreatic O2 and glucose consumption increased as flow increased between 1 and 2 ml/min X g, where each reached a maximum plateau. Thus, ISR was shown to be dependent on flow over the middle range of flow investigated. In separate experiments, bilateral stimulation of the splanchnic nerves or pancreatic arterial infusion of norepinephrine to a final concentration of 60 microM decreased ISR and the somatostatin secretion rate (SSR). Adrenergic suppression of ISR was antagonized by phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine. Adrenergic inhibition of SSR was blocked only by phenoxybenzamine. Propranolol had no effects. We conclude that norepinephrine is sufficient to account for sympathetic inhibition of ISR and SSR (e.g. it is not necessary to postulate another transmitter) and that this inhibition may be transmitted through an effect on the islet vasculature or an effect on the islet cells themselves. The types of alpha-adrenoceptors mediating the adrenergically induced decrease in ISR differ from those causing the decrease in SSR.

  2. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-08-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a medicinal plant whose consumption has demonstrated benefits on lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight (BWt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of G. sylvestre administration on metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients (without pharmacological treatment), 30-60 years old, with diagnosis of MetS in accordance with the modified International Diabetes Federation criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive G. sylvestre or placebo twice daily before breakfast and dinner in 300 mg capsules for a total of 600 mg per day for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, the components of MetS were evaluated as well as BWt, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Area under the curve of glucose and insulin, phases of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests; P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. After G. sylvestre administration, significant decreases in BWt (81.3 ± 10.6 kg vs. 77.9 ± 8.4 kg, P = .02), BMI (31.2 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 vs. 30.4 ± 2.2 kg/m 2 , P = .02), and VLDL levels (0.45 ± 0.15 mmol/dL vs. 0.35 ± 0.15 mmol/dL, P = .05) were observed, without modifying the components of MetS, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, G. sylvestre administration decreased BWt, BMI, and VLDL levels in subjects with MetS, without changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.

  3. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  4. Insulin and growth hormone secretion in the nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, J F; Summerskill, J; Buckler, J M; Hellman, B; Rosen, S M

    1975-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a series of patients with the nephrotic syndrome and compared with a similar number of normal controls. The nephrotic syndrome was associated with a smaller secretion of insulin in response to intravenous glucose and tolbutamide than occurred in normals. In the syndrom fasting serum growth hormone (G.H.) concentrations were increased and did not show the characteristic suppression after glucose administration, and the disappearance rate of glucose (k value) was lower. well marked correlation existed between serum G.H. concentrations and the total urinary protein excreted. These abnormal findings returned to normal in a patient who underwent a repeat study when the nephrotic syndrome had resolved.

  5. Studies on the mechanism of salicylate-induced increase of insulin secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Ceriello, A; Cerciello, T; Varano, R; Saccomanno, F; Torella, R

    1988-01-01

    Salicylate compounds are known to increase basal and stimulated insulin secretion in man. In our studies, infusion of lysine acetylsalicylate (72 mg/min) increased basal insulin levels and amplified insulin responses to glucose (5 g i.v.), arginine (5 g i.v.) and tolbutamide (1 g i.v.). Verapamil, an organic calcium antagonist, did not modify LAS-induced increase of basal insulin levels, but reduced the effect of LAS on glucose-induced insulin secretion. Calcitonin and somatostatin, two agents that inhibit basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inhibited the insulin response to glucose in presence of LAS infusion. The ability of salicylate compounds to augment insulin secretion might be due to multiple sites of action in the Beta-cells.

  6. Autonomic Control of Insulin Secretion and the Treatment of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Majid, P. A.; Saxton, C.; Dykes, J. R. W.; Galvin, M. C.; Taylor, S. H.

    1970-01-01

    To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in controlling insulin secretion 13 normal subjects and 5 patients with heart failure underwent insulin secretion tests. Alpha-adrenergic stimulation and beta-receptor blockade significantly depressed the secretion of insulin in response to intravenous tolbutamide in normal subjects, while both alpha-blockade and beta-stimulation significantly increased the insulin secretion response in both normal subjects and patients in heart failure. Parasympathetic stimulation and blockade had no significant effect on the insulin secretion response. These findings suggest that drugs that block the alpha-adrenergic receptors or stimulate the beta-adrenergic receptors by their ability to counteract the insulin suppression resulting from increased sympathetic nervous activity may play a vital metabolic part in the deranged metabolism of the failing heart in addition to their direct haemodynamic benefits. PMID:4394368

  7. Associations Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion, and β-Cell Function According to Glucose Tolerance Status.

    PubMed

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Tardio, Vanessa; Weisnagel, John; Lemieux, Simone; Bergeron, Jean; Gagnon, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether glucose tolerance status influences the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and β-cell function. This cross-sectional study included 112 French Canadian postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 65) or abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT; n = 47). Estimates of insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA %S) and glucose disposal rate (GDR)], insulin secretion [area under the curve of C-peptide (AUC C-peptide)], and β-cell function (GDR × AUC C-peptide) were derived from a 2-hr euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and a 75-gram 3-hr oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Measures of adiposity were taken (waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass by the hydrostatic weighting technique, and computed tomography (CT)-derived total and visceral adiposity), questionnaires on physical activity, dietary calcium, and vitamin D intake were administered, and blood was sampled for measurement of parathyroid hormone, interleukin-6, and adiponectin. AGT status was significantly associated with lower insulin sensitivity and β-cell function (P ≤ 0.01 for all) but not with insulin secretion. Lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly associated with lower insulin sensitivity and secretion (P ≤ 0.01 for all) but not with β-cell function. The interaction between glucose tolerance status and serum 25(OH)D concentration was not significant for either insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or β-cell function, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Vitamin D and glucose tolerance status are both independently associated with measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and β-cell function. However, the association between serum 25(OH)D and these surrogate markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk is not influenced by glucose tolerance status.

  8. Effect of Irvingia gabonensis on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis on metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with MetS in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Twelve patients received I. gabonensis (150 mg) twice a day during 90 days, and 12 patients received placebo. Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Also, lipid profile, creatinine, uric acid, and hepatic enzymes were determined. The area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Data were tested using non-parametric tests. The Ethics Committee approved the protocol. After I. gabonensis administration, significant decreases in waist circumference (WC) (94.0 ± 8.0 vs. 91.0 ± 8.2 cm, P < .01), glucose 90' (10.0 ± 2.5 vs. 8.6 ± 2.7 mmol/L, P < .05), glucose 120' (8.8 ± 2.4 vs. 7.6 ± 2.7 mmol/L, P < .05), triglycerides (2.5 ± 1.2 vs. 2.0 ± 1.1 mmol/L, P < .05), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) (0.5 ± 0.2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P < .05), and AUC of glucose (694 ± 142 vs. 629 ± 172 mmol/L/min, P < .05) were found. Seven patients (58.3%) of the I. gabonensis group showed remission of MetS and two patients (16.7%) of the placebo group (P = .045). I. gabonensis lead to remission of MetS in 58.3% of the patients and significantly decreased WC, glucose 90', glucose 120', triglycerides, VLDL, and AUC of glucose.

  9. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3B in insulin-secreting cells of normal and streptozocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats: implications for insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zywert, A; Szkudelska, K; Szkudelski, T

    2014-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays important role in the potentiation of insulin secretion in pancreatic B-cells. However, the relevance of cAMP-degrading enzymes in the regulation of insulin secretion is not fully elucidated. The present work was undertaken to determine effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) by amrinone on insulin secretion from pancreatic islets and perfused pancreas of normal and mildly diabetic rats. Inhibition of this enzyme was demonstrated to substantially increase insulin-secretory response to 6.7 mM glucose in the isolated islets and perfused pancreas of non-diabetic rats. Increment in glucose-induced insulin secretion resulting from inhibition of PDE3B was accompanied by an increase in islet cAMP levels and was suppressed by inhibition of protein kinase A. It was also demonstrated that insulin secretion stimulated by glucose and 1 μM forskolin was only slightly elevated in the presence of amrinone. Moreover, insulin release induced by succinate instead of glucose was also augmented by inhibition of PDE3B in rat islets. However, exposure of the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats to amrinone appeared to be without any effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar lack of response was shown in the perfused pancreas of diabetic rats. These results indicate that inhibition of PDE3B by amrinone significantly augments insulinotropic action of physiological glucose in B-cells of normal rats. This effect is mediated via protein kinase A and may be also induced in the presence of metabolizable stimuli other than glucose. Effects generated by amrinone were demonstrated to be, however, insufficient to enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion in B-cells of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Role of islet structure and cellular interactions in the control of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Catriona; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Close cellular proximity and correct anatomical arrangement within islets are essential for normal patterns of insulin secretion. Thus, segregation of islets into single cells is associated with a dramatic decline in stimulus secretion-coupling and glucose-induced insulin release. Generation of pseudoislets from clonal islet cell lines provides a useful model to examine islet cell interactions and insulin secretion. Such studies have highlighted the functional importance of cell adhesion molecules and connexins. Pseudoislets comprising insulin-secreting cell lines have been shown to closely mimic primary islets in both size and morphology, displaying a significantly enhanced response to glucose, nutrients and drugs over equivalent monolayer cultures. Here, we consider the influence of islet structure and cellular interactions in the control of insulin secretion. The functional characteristics of pseudoislets derived from clonal beta-cell lines or a combination of alpha-, beta- and delta-cell lines are discussed in light of normal islet function and possible therapeutic application.

  11. VAMP7 Regulates Autophagy to Maintain Mitochondrial Homeostasis and to Control Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Kyota; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Itakura, Makoto; Torii, Seiji; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Nakamichi, Yoko; Kishimoto, Takuma; Kawakami, Hayato; Harada, Akihiro; Takahashi, Masami; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    VAMP7 is a SNARE protein that mediates specific membrane fusions in intracellular trafficking and was recently reported to regulate autophagosome formation. However, its function in pancreatic β-cells is largely unknown. To elucidate the physiological role of VAMP7 in β-cells, we generated pancreatic β-cell-specific VAMP7 knockout (Vamp7(flox/Y);Cre) mice. VAMP7 deletion impaired glucose-stimulated ATP production and insulin secretion, though VAMP7 was not localized to insulin granules. VAMP7-deficient β-cells showed defective autophagosome formation and reduced mitochondrial function. p62/SQSTM1, a marker protein for defective autophagy, was selectively accumulated on mitochondria in VAMP7-deficient β-cells. These findings suggest that accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that are degraded by autophagy caused impairment of glucose-stimulated ATP production and insulin secretion in Vamp7(flox/Y);Cre β-cells. Feeding a high-fat diet to Vamp7(flox/Y);Cre mice exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction, further decreased ATP production and insulin secretion, and consequently induced glucose intolerance. Moreover, we found upregulated VAMP7 expression in wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet and in db/db mice, a model for diabetes. Thus our data indicate that VAMP7 regulates autophagy to maintain mitochondrial quality and insulin secretion in response to pathological stress in β-cells. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Studies on the dynamics and mechanism of glibenclamide-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Basabe, J C; Farina, J M; Chieri, R A

    1976-11-01

    Sustained, 60-minute perfusion of glibenclamide (0.5, 1.5 and 10 mug/ml) elicits a one-phase insulin release profile, formed by a rapid secretion peak followed by a second peak with lower insulin levels than the former. Basal insulin secretion values are observed during the period comprised between 13 and 60 minutes of perfusion. Concurrent stimulation with glucose (100, 150, 200 and 300 mg%) plus glibenclamide (1 mug/ml) causes a marked rise in both phases of insulin secretion. The addition of glibenclamide does not modify the biphasic secretion pattern caused by maximal glucose concentration (400 mg%). The maximal values of both phases of secretion in the dose-response curve elicited by different glucose concentrations shift to the left when glibenclamide is added to the perfusate. The increase in insulin secretion caused by glibenclamide is not inhibited by puromycin. Both theophylline and phentolamine modify and increase the glibenclamide-induced insulin release pattern. Propranolol and imidazole inhibit glibenclamide-induced insulin release. Our results suggest that: 1. Glibenclamide increases beta cell sensitivity to glucose stimulation. 2. Glibenclamide and glucose induce secretion of insulin originating in the same compartment. 3. Modification of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors may modify glibodulate the beta cell response to glibenclamide.

  13. CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Abels, Mia; Riva, Matteo; Bennet, Hedvig; Ahlqvist, Emma; Dyachok, Oleg; Nagaraj, Vini; Shcherbina, Liliya; Fred, Rikard G; Poon, Wenny; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Fadista, Joao; Lindqvist, Andreas; Kask, Lena; Sathanoori, Ramasri; Dekker-Nitert, Marloes; Kuhar, Michael J; Ahrén, Bo; Wollheim, Claes B; Hansson, Ola; Tengholm, Anders; Fex, Malin; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Wierup, Nils

    2016-09-01

    Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart (-/-) mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes. Insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in isolated islets and in vivo in mice. Ca(2+) oscillation patterns and exocytosis were studied in mouse islets. We report an important role of CART in human islet function and glucose homeostasis in mice. CART was found to be expressed in human alpha and beta cells and in a subpopulation of mouse beta cells. Notably, CART expression was several fold higher in islets of type 2 diabetic humans and rodents. CART increased insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in human and mouse islets. Furthermore, CART increased beta cell exocytosis, altered the glucose-induced Ca(2+) signalling pattern in mouse islets from fast to slow oscillations and improved synchronisation of the oscillations between different islet regions. Finally, CART reduced glucagon secretion in human and mouse islets, as well as in vivo in mice via diminished alpha cell exocytosis. We conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.

  14. In vitro generation of insulin-secreting cells from human pancreatic exocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kohtaro; Doi, Ryuichiro; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Nukaya, Daiki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Seino, Susumu

    2011-08-02

    Transplantation of surrogate β-cells is a promising option for the treatment of insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus in the future. Although pancreatic exocrine cells of rodents have been shown to transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting cells, no studies are reported on human exocrine cells. Here, we report the generation of insulin-secreting cells from exocrine cells of the human pancreas. When cultured in suspension with epidermal growth factor, human pancreatic exocrine cells readily formed spherical cell clusters. Expression of Pdx1 was induced in all 19 cases in which we successfully isolated exocrine cells, and insulin expression was induced in 11 cases. In addition, insulin secretion was evaluated in four cases, and the newly-made cells were found to secrete insulin in response to various stimuli. Although further studies are required to improve both the quality and quantity of such insulin-secreting cells, our data suggest that pancreatic exocrine cells represent a potential source of insulin-secreting cells for treatment of type 1 diabetes. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00095.x, 2011).

  15. Interleukin-33-Activated Islet-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Insulin Secretion through Myeloid Cell Retinoic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Dalmas, Elise; Lehmann, Frank M; Dror, Erez; Wueest, Stephan; Thienel, Constanze; Borsigova, Marcela; Stawiski, Marc; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Lucchini, Fabrizio C; Dapito, Dianne H; Kallert, Sandra M; Guigas, Bruno; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Maechler, Pierre; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Konrad, Daniel; Wolfrum, Christian; Böni-Schnetzler, Marianne; Finke, Daniela; Donath, Marc Y

    2017-11-21

    Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2. In turn, local RA signaled to the β cells to increase insulin secretion. This IL-33-ILC2 axis was activated after acute β cell stress but was defective during chronic obesity. Accordingly, IL-33 injections rescued islet function in obese mice. Our findings provide evidence that an immunometabolic crosstalk between islet-derived IL-33, ILC2s, and myeloid cells fosters insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain glucagon-like peptide–1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D.; Perrin, Christophe; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Maury, Jean François; Bernard, Elodie; Benhamed, Fadilha; Grémeaux, Thierry; Drucker, Daniel J.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Girard, Jean; Tanti, Jean François; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Postic, Catherine; Burcelin, Rémy

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal glucagon-like peptide–1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released into the hepatoportal circulation that stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion. GLP-1 also acts as a neuropeptide to control food intake and cardiovascular functions, but its neural role in glucose homeostasis is unknown. We show that brain GLP-1 controlled whole-body glucose fate during hyperglycemic conditions. In mice undergoing a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, icv administration of the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9–39 (Ex9) increased muscle glucose utilization and glycogen content. This effect did not require muscle insulin action, as it also occurred in muscle insulin receptor KO mice. Conversely, icv infusion of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin 4 (Ex4) reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose utilization. In hyperglycemia achieved by i.v. infusion of glucose, icv Ex4, but not Ex9, caused a 4-fold increase in insulin secretion and enhanced liver glycogen storage. However, when glucose was infused intragastrically, icv Ex9 infusion lowered insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen levels, whereas no effects of icv Ex4 were observed. In diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet, a 1-month chronic i.p. Ex9 treatment improved glucose tolerance and fasting glycemia. Our data show that during hyperglycemia, brain GLP-1 inhibited muscle glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion to favor hepatic glycogen stores, preparing efficiently for the next fasting state. PMID:16322793

  17. Regulation of Insulin Synthesis and Secretion and Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhuo; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Insulin, which is produced in β-cells, is a critical regulator of metabolism. Insulin is synthesized as preproinsulin and processed to proinsulin. Proinsulin is then converted to insulin and C-peptide and stored in secretary granules awaiting release on demand. Insulin synthesis is regulated at both the transcriptional and translational level. The cis-acting sequences within the 5′ flanking region and trans-activators including paired box gene 6 (PAX6), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1(PDX-1), MafA, and B-2/Neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) regulate insulin transcription, while the stability of preproinsulin mRNA and its untranslated regions control protein translation. Insulin secretion involves a sequence of events in β-cells that lead to fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane. Insulin is secreted primarily in response to glucose, while other nutrients such as free fatty acids and amino acids can augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. In addition, various hormones, such as melatonin, estrogen, leptin, growth hormone, and glucagon like peptide-1 also regulate insulin secretion. Thus, the β-cell is a metabolic hub in the body, connecting nutrient metabolism and the endocrine system. Although an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] is the primary insulin secretary signal, cAMP signaling-dependent mechanisms are also critical in the regulation of insulin secretion. This article reviews current knowledge on how β-cells synthesize and secrete insulin. In addition, this review presents evidence that genetic and environmental factors can lead to hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and autoimmunity, resulting in β-cell dysfunction, thereby triggering the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:22974359

  18. Association of nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in nondiabetic young women.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Curhan, Gary C; Schernhammer, Eva S; Forman, John P

    2013-07-15

    Exogenous melatonin ameliorates insulin resistance in animals, while among humans, polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor gene are associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the association of endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in humans. We analyzed the association between endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion, estimated by measuring the main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, from the first morning urinary void, and the prevalence of insulin resistance based on fasting blood samples collected in a cross-sectional study of 1,075 US women (1997-1999) without diabetes, hypertension, or malignancy. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was standardized to urinary creatinine level; insulin resistance was defined as an insulin sensitivity index value (using the McAuley formula) less than 7.85. Logistic regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary glycemic index, family history of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, uric acid, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Higher nocturnal melatonin secretion was inversely associated with insulin levels and insulin resistance. In fully adjusted models, the odds ratio for insulin resistance was 0.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.74) among women in the highest quartile of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin:creatinine ratio compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nocturnal melatonin secretion is independently and inversely associated with insulin resistance.

  19. Effect of Histalog, Insulin and Reserpine on Gastric Emptying and Secretion in Man

    PubMed Central

    Khan, H.; Bingham, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Four different groups of subjects were given Histalog, insulin or reserpine or acted as controls. Changes were noted in gastric emptying, acid, chloride, parietal and non-parietal secretions and neutral chloride. Gastric emptying and secretion were measured by the Hunt and Spurrell test meal as modified by us for drug testing. Histalog stimulated gastric secretion but not emptying. Insulin stimulated both secretion and emptying. Reserpine stimulated secretion but it stimulated emptying only in one-half of the subjects. After Histalog and reserpine the rise in hydrogen and chloride secretion was equal, so the neutral chloride did not increase. After insulin the rise of chloride was proportionately greater than the rise of hydrogen, so that neutral chloride was increased. PMID:5348493

  20. Dietary composition and its associations with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mélanie; Benedetti, Andrea; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the associations between macronutrient intake and insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion (ISct), taking into consideration moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fitness and sedentary behaviour. Caucasian youth (n 630) aged 8-10 years at recruitment, with at least one obese biological parent, were studied (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort). IS was measured using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and Matsuda IS index. ISct was measured using HOMA2%-β, the ratio of the AUC of insulin:glucose over the first 30 min (AUC I/G(t= 30 min)) of the oral glucose tolerance test and AUC I/G(t= 120 min) over 2 h. Fitness was measured using VO₂(peak), percentage of fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7 d MVPA using accelerometry; screen time (ST) by average daily hours of self-reported television, video game or computer use. Dietary composition was measured using three non-consecutive dietary recalls. Non-parametric smoothing splines were used to model non-linear associations; all models were adjusted for age, sex, season, pubertal stage, MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. The percentage of total daily energy from dietary protein, fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate and the consumption of dietary vitamin D, sugar-sweetened beverages, fibre and portions of fruits and vegetables were taken into consideration. No dietary component was associated with any measure of IS after adjusting for MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. For every 1% increase in daily protein intake (%), AUC I/G(t= 30 min) decreased by 1·1% (P= 0·033). Otherwise, dietary composition was not associated with ISct. While long-term excess of energy intake has been shown to lead to overweight and obesity, dietary macronutrient composition is not independently correlated with IS or ISct in youth.

  1. l-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Increase in the concentration of plasma l-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged l-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged l-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued l-cysteine–induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, l-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. l-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N′-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in l-cysteine–treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to l-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:25713368

  2. Serpine1 Mediates Porphyromonas gingivalis Induced Insulin Secretion in the Pancreatic Beta Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of gingiva and alveolar bone caused by an exuberant host immunological response to periodontal pathogens. Results from a number of epidemiological studies indicate a close association between diabetes and periodontitis. Results from cross-sectional studies indicate that subjects with periodontitis have a higher odds ratio of developing insulin resistance (IR). However, the mechanisms by which periodontitis influences the development of diabetes are not known. Results from our previous studies using an animal model of periodontitis suggest that periodontitis accelerates the onset of hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, LPS from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), stimulates Serpine1 expression in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that a periodontal pathogen induces hyperinsulinemia and Serpine1 may be involved in this process. To test this hypothesis, we co-incubated Pg with the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6 and measured the effect on insulin secretion by MIN6 cells. We further determined the involvement of Serpine1 in insulin secretion by downregulating Serpine1 expression. Our results indicated that Pg stimulated insulin secretion by approximately 3.0 fold under normoglycemic conditions. In a hyperglycemic state, Pg increased insulin secretion by 1.5 fold. Pg significantly upregulated expression of the Serpine1 gene and this was associated with increased secretion of insulin by MIN6 cells. However, cells with downregulated Serpine1 expression were resistant to Pg stimulated insulin secretion under normoglycemic conditions. We conclude that the periodontal pathogen, Pg, induced insulin secretion by MIN6 cells and this induction was, in part, Serpine1 dependent. Thus, Serpine1 may play a pivotal role in insulin secretion during the accelerated development of hyperinsulinemia and the resulting IR in the setting of periodontitis. PMID

  3. Large human islets secrete less insulin per islet equivalent than smaller islets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasutaka; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Itoh, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Islet yield is a critical parameter to determine clinical use of isolated islets. Because islet equivalent (IEQ) is used to evaluate islet yield, it is important to know the function per IEQ. In this study, we assessed insulin secretion per IEQ by our newly developed single islet glucose-stimulated insulin release test (SI-GSIRT). For SI-GSIRT, an individual islet was classified by its diameter from the area of a digital image and calculated IEQ. Each single islet was incubated with low glucose followed by high glucose solutions. Insulin secretions by SI-GSIRT were compared based on diameter of islets. There was a significantly strong correlation between insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose solution and low glucose solution (R(2) =0.90, p< 0.001) confirming our technical applicability for SI-GSIRT. Insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose per IEQ was significantly lower in larger islets compared to smaller islets. This means that one IEQ from a large islet secretes less insulin than one IEQ from a small islet. In conclusion, we developed SI-GSIRT to evaluate single islets. This method revealed that large human islets secrete less insulin per IEQ. Thus the distribution of islet size must be monitored when the glucose stimulation test is conducted.

  4. Defective cholinergic Cl(-) secretion and detection of K(+) secretion in rectal biopsies from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mall, M; Wissner, A; Seydewitz, H H; Kuehr, J; Brandis, M; Greger, R; Kunzelmann, K

    2000-04-01

    Rectal biopsies from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients show defective cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion and an inverse response of the short-circuit current (I(sc)) toward stimulation with carbachol (CCh). Alternative Cl(-) channels are found in airway epithelia and have been attributed to residual Cl(-) secretion in CF colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate ion conductances causing reversed I(sc) upon cholinergic stimulation. Furthermore, the putative role of an alternative Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) conductance in human distal colon was examined. Cholinergic ion secretion was assessed in the absence and presence of cAMP-dependent stimulation. Transepithelial voltage and I(sc) were measured in rectal biopsies from non-CF and CF individuals by means of a perfused micro-Ussing chamber. Under baseline conditions, CCh induced a positive I(sc) in CF rectal biopsies but caused a negative I(sc) in non-CF subjects. The CCh-induced negative I(sc) in non-CF biopsies was gradually reversed to a positive response by incubating the biopsies in indomethacin. The positive I(sc) was significantly enhanced in CF and was caused by activation of a luminal K(+) conductance, as shown by the use of the K(+) channel blockers Ba(2+) and tetraethylammonium. Moreover, a cAMP-dependent luminal K(+) conductance was detected in CF individuals. We conclude that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is the predominant Cl(-) channel in human distal colon. Unlike human airways, no evidence was found for an alternative Cl(-) conductance in native tissues from CF patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent K(+) secretion are present in human distal colon, which are unmasked in rectal biopsies from CF patients.

  5. Effect of Human Myotubes-Derived Media on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizgier, Maria L; Cataldo, Luis R; Gutierrez, Juan; Santos, José L; Casas, Mariana; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel E; Moro, Cedric; Bouzakri, Karim; Galgani, Jose E

    2017-01-01

    Fasting to postprandial transition requires a tight adjustment of insulin secretion to its demand, so tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle) glucose supply is assured while hypo-/hyperglycemia are prevented. High muscle glucose disposal after meals is pivotal for adapting to increased glycemia and might drive insulin secretion through muscle-released factors (e.g., myokines). We hypothesized that insulin influences myokine secretion and then increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In conditioned media from human myotubes incubated with/without insulin (100 nmol/L) for 24 h, myokines were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using an antibody-based array and ELISA-based technology, respectively. C57BL6/J mice islets and Wistar rat beta cells were incubated for 24 h with control and conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes prior to GSIS determination. Conditioned media from insulin-treated versus nontreated myotubes had higher RANTES but lower IL6, IL8, and MCP1 concentration. Qualitative analyses revealed that conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes expressed 32 and 23 out of 80 myokines, respectively. Islets incubated with conditioned media from noninsulin-treated myotubes had higher GSIS versus control islets ( p < 0.05). Meanwhile, conditioned media from insulin-treated myotubes did not influence GSIS. In beta cells, GSIS was similar across conditions. In conclusion, factors being present in noninsulin-stimulated muscle cell-derived media appear to influence GSIS in mice islets.

  6. Vagal regulation of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in vitro in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, S; Seino, Y; Ishida, H; Seno, M; Taminato, T; Sakurai, H; Imura, H

    1987-01-01

    Using a new in vitro procedure of the isolated perfused rat pancreas with vagal innervation, electrical vagal stimulation produced an increase in both insulin and glucagon secretion in proportion to the pulse frequency, but an inhibition in somatostatin release. When atropine was infused, both insulin and glucagon responses to vagal stimulation were partially suppressed, whereas somatostatin release was enhanced. In the presence of hexamethonium, vagal stimulation failed to affect insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin secretion. Propranolol partially blocked both insulin and glucagon responses but did not influence somatostatin response. Phentolamine had no significant effect on release of hormones. Simultaneous administration of propranolol and phentolamine tended to inhibit both insulin and glucagon responses to vagal stimulation. These findings suggest that not only a cholinergic but also a noncholinergic neuron may be involved in vagal regulation of pancreatic hormone secretion and that these neurons may be under the control of preganglionic vagal fibers via nicotinic receptors. PMID:2881948

  7. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26561346

  8. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR ( n = 7) were compared with control lambs ( n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less ( P < 0.05) than controls at birth. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Neuromedin U suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Miura, Ayako; Shimizu, Koichiro; Mori, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya; Takayama, Kentaro; Hayashi, Yoshio; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-11-04

    Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly conserved peptide in mammals, is implicated in energy homeostasis and glycemic control, and may also be involved in the regulation of adipoinsular axis function. However, the role of NMU in regulating insulin secretion has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigated the role of NMU in the regulation of insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo. We found that NMU and NMU receptor (NMUR) 1 were expressed in mouse islets and β cell-derived MIN6-K8 cells. In mice, NMU suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, an NMUR1 agonist inhibited GSIS in both MIN6-K8 cells and mice islets. Moreover, NMU attenuated intracellular Ca 2+ influx in MIN6-K8 cells, potentially causing a decrease in insulin secretion. siNmu-transfected MIN6-K8 cells showed elevated GSIS. Treatment with anti-NMU IgG increased GSIS in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. These results suggested that NMU can act directly on β cells through NMUR1 in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to suppress insulin secretion. Collectively, our results highlight the crucial role of NMU in suppressing pancreatic insulin secretion, and may improve our understanding of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The contribution of endogenous insulin secretion to the ketogenic response to glucagon in man.

    PubMed

    Schade, D S; Eaton, R P

    1975-12-01

    The magnitude and direction of the lipolytic and ketogenic responses following exogenous glucagon administration is controversial and consideration of the possible role of endogenous insulin secretion upon these events has not been clarified. The present study examines the role of endogenous insulin secretion in modulating the net lipolytic and ketogenic activity of glucagon. Three groups characterized by different levels of endogenous insulin secretory capacity were studied. In all three groups, the responses in plasma insulin, betahydroxybutyrate, and free fatty acids were observed following bolus administration of 1.0 mug/kg glucagon. In the obese subjects with increased endogenous insulin secretion, glucagon administration resulted in a decline below basal levels of both free fatty acid and betahydroxybutyrate. In the diabetic subjects with no demonstrable endogenous insulin secretion, glucagon administration was followed by a rise in plasma free fatty acids and an exaggerated rise in plasma betahydroxybutyrate. The normal control group exhibited a response in betahydroxybutyrate midway between the obese and diabetic groups. These obwervations support the thesis that the magnitude of endogenous insulin secretion modulates the lipolytic and ketogenic actions of glucagon in man.

  11. Quantitative monitoring of insulin secretion from single islets of Langerhans in parallel on a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Dishinger, John F; Reid, Kendra R; Kennedy, Robert T

    2009-04-15

    Quantification of insulin release from pancreatic islets of Langerhans is of interest for diabetes research. Typical insulin secretion experiments are performed using offline techniques that are expensive, slow, have low-throughput, and require multiple islets. We have developed a microfluidic device for high-throughput, automated, and online monitoring of insulin secretion from individual islets in parallel. This chip consists of 15 channel networks each capable of superfusing a single islet and mixing superfusate from each islet online with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled insulin and anti-insulin antibody for a competitive immunoassay. The resulting continuous reaction streams are periodically injected onto parallel electrophoresis channels where the mixtures are separated. The resulting traces are used to quantify relative insulin released from islets. Serial immunoassays were performed at 10 s intervals on all 15 channels, corresponding to 5400 immunoassays per hour, to create temporally resolved insulin release profiles that captured single islet secretion dynamics. The chip was used to demonstrate that free fatty acid induced lipotoxicity in islets eliminates pulsatile insulin secretion.

  12. Indices of insulin secretion during a liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare indices of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity (IS),and oral disposition index (oDI) during the liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and negative autoantibodies (Ab-) versus those with T2DM and positive autoantibodies (Ab+) to ...

  13. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Are Obligatory Signals for Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Leloup, Corinne; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Magnan, Christophe; Karaca, Melis; Castel, Julien; Carneiro, Lionel; Colombani, Anne-Laure; Ktorza, Alain; Casteilla, Louis; Pénicaud, Luc

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Insulin secretion involves complex events in which the mitochondria play a pivotal role in the generation of signals that couple glucose detection to insulin secretion. Studies on the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generally focus on chronic nutrient exposure. Here, we investigate whether transient mitochondrial ROS production linked to glucose-induced increased respiration might act as a signal for monitoring insulin secretion. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—ROS production in response to glucose was investigated in freshly isolated rat islets. ROS effects were studied using a pharmacological approach and calcium imaging. RESULTS—Transient glucose increase from 5.5 to 16.7 mmol/l stimulated ROS generation, which was reversed by antioxidants. Insulin secretion was dose dependently blunted by antioxidants and highly correlated with ROS levels. The incapacity of β-cells to secrete insulin in response to glucose with antioxidants was associated with a decrease in ROS production and in contrast to the maintenance of high levels of ATP and NADH. Then, we investigated the mitochondrial origin of ROS (mROS) as the triggering signal. Insulin release was mimicked by the mitochondrial-complex blockers, antimycin and rotenone, that generate mROS. The adding of antioxidants to mitochondrial blockers or to glucose was used to lower mROS reversed insulin secretion. Finally, calcium imaging on perifused islets using glucose stimulation or mitochondrial blockers revealed that calcium mobilization was completely reversed using the antioxidant trolox and that it was of extracellular origin. No toxic effects were present using these pharmacological approaches. CONCLUSIONS—Altogether, these complementary results demonstrate that mROS production is a necessary stimulus for glucose-induced insulin secretion. PMID:19073765

  14. Adiponectin increases glucose-induced insulin secretion through the activation of lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Patané, G; Caporarello, N; Marchetti, P; Parrino, C; Sudano, D; Marselli, L; Vigneri, R; Frittitta, L

    2013-12-01

    The expression of adiponectin receptors has been demonstrated in human and rat pancreatic beta cells, where globular (g) adiponectin rescues rat beta cells from cytokine and fatty acid-induced apoptosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether adiponectin has a direct effect on insulin secretion and the metabolic pathways involved. Purified human pancreatic islets and rat beta cells (INS-1E) were exposed (1 h) to g-adiponectin, and glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured. A significant increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion was observed in the presence of g-adiponectin (1 nmol/l) with respect to control cells in both human pancreatic islets (n = 5, p < 0.05) and INS-1E cells (n = 5, p < 0.001). The effect of globular adiponectin on insulin secretion was independent of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or glucose oxidation. In contrast, g-adiponectin significantly increased oleate oxidation (n = 5, p < 0.05), and the effect of g-adiponectin (p < 0.001) on insulin secretion by INS-1E was significantly reduced in the presence of etomoxir (1 μmol/l), an inhibitor of fatty acid beta oxidation. g-Adiponectin potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion in both human pancreatic islets and rat beta cells via an AMPK independent pathway. Increased fatty acid oxidation rather than augmented glucose oxidation is the mechanism responsible. Overall, our data indicate that, in addition to its anti-apoptotic action, g-adiponectin has another direct effect on beta cells by potentiating insulin secretion. Adiponectin, therefore, in addition to its well-known effect on insulin sensitivity, has important effects at the pancreatic level.

  15. The effect of thyroidectomy and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on insulin secretion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Godini, A; Ghasemi, A; Karbalaei, N; Zahediasl, S

    2014-09-01

    Data available on thyroid dysfunction and insulin secretion are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin secretion, in vivo and in vitro, in rats. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into 4 groups, the control, the propylthiouracyl (PTU)-treated hypothyroid, the surgically thyroidectomized, and the sham-operated thyroidectomized. After 5 weeks, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed and 3 weeks later pancreatic islets were isolated to assess glucose induced insulin secretion and insulin content. Fasting serum glucose and insulin levels did not differ between the groups, but serum glucose concentration during IVGTT in the PTU-induced hypothyroid group was significantly higher as compared to controls, throughout 5-60 min. The serum glucose concentration during IVGTT in the thyroidectomized rats was also significantly higher than in the sham-operated ones, except at 10 and 60 min. The area under the curve of the serum insulin was significantly lower during IVGTT in the PTU-treated (10,010 ± 1,380 pmol/l/60 min) and thyroidectomized (13,930 ± 2,786) groups vs. their comparable groups (19,150 ± 2,110), p<0.01 and (20,650 ± 1,601), p<0.05, respectively. In the PTU-treated, but not in thyroidectomized animals, insulin secretion in response to glucose 8.3 and 16.7 mM was significantly lower than their comparable group. The results show that PTU- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose tolerance due to reduced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Islets insulin secretion is positively correlated with serum T3 and T4 concentrations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Mark K.; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M.; Ebbesen, Lene H.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Jessen, Niels; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is seen with obesity and is suggested to be a mediator of insulin resistance. The eliciting factor of low-grade inflammation is unknown but increased permeability of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulting in endotoxemia could be a candidate. Here we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was increased despite similar plasma glucose level resulting in an increase in the insulinogenic index (IGI; delta0-15insulin / delta0-15glucose) from 13.73 to 22.40 pmol/mmol (P < 0.001). This aberration in insulin and glucose homeostasis was normalized by resveratrol. In conclusion: Low-dose LPS enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without affecting the blood glucose suggesting increased insulin resistance. Resveratrol restored LPS-induced alteration of the insulin secretion and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects specifically in epididymal adipose tissue possibly due to preferential accumulation of resveratrol metabolites pointing towards a possible important involvement of this tissue for the effects on insulin resistance and insulin

  17. Measuring phospholipase D activity in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-responsive muscle cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, Rosanna; Huang, Ping; Teng, Shuzhi; Hughes, William E

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme producing phosphatidic acid and choline through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. The enzyme has been identified as a member of a variety of signal transduction cascades and as a key regulator of numerous intracellular vesicle trafficking processes. A role for PLD in regulating glucose homeostasis is emerging as the enzyme has recently been identified in events regulating exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and also in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through controlling GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in muscle and adipose tissue. We present methodologies for assessing cellular PLD activity in secretagogue-stimulated insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and also insulin-stimulated adipocyte and muscle cells, two of the principal insulin-responsive cell types controlling blood glucose levels.

  18. Snapin Mediates Incretin Action And Augments Glucose-dependent Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jin; Seshadri, Madhav; Ashraf, Uzair; Mdluli, Thembi; Mondal, Prosenjit; Keil, Meg; Azevedo, Monalisa; Kirschner, Lawrence S.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Hussain, Mehboob A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Impaired insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with the incretin hormone glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) potentiates insulin secretion and improves metabolic control in humans with T2DM. GLP-1 receptor-mediated signaling leading to insulin secretion occurs via cyclic AMP stimulated protein kinase A (PKA)- as well as guanine nucleotide exchange factor- mediated pathways. However, how these two pathways integrate and coordinate insulin secretion remains poorly understood. Here, we show that these incretin-stimulated pathways converge at the level of snapin, and that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of snapin increases interaction among insulin secretory vesicle-associated proteins, thereby potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In diabetic islets with impaired GSIS, snapin phosphorylation is reduced, and expression of a snapin mutant, which mimics site-specific phosphorylation, restores GSIS. Thus, snapin is a critical node in GSIS regulation and provides a potential therapeutic target to improve ϐ-cell function in T2DM. PMID:21356520

  19. Lysosomal integral membrane protein Sidt2 plays a vital role in insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jialin; Yu, Cui; Xiong, Qianyin; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Lizhuo

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal insulin secretion results in impaired glucose tolerance and is one of the causal factors in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sidt2, a lysosomal integral membrane protein, plays a critical role in insulin secretion. Here, we further investigate its regulation in insulin secretion. We show that Sidt2-/- mice exhibit weight loss, decreased postnatal survival rate with aging, increased fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. After loading high levels of glucose in their diet, Sidt2-/- mice produce notably lower insulin levels at the first-phase secretion compared with Sidt2+/+ mice. Consistent with the in vivo study, INS-1 cells treated with Sidt2 siRNA produced less insulin when loaded with 16.7 mM of glucose. Only 2 of the 13 genes, synap1 and synap3 which encode soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins, showed significantly decreased expression in Sidt2-/- mice. In conclusion, Sdit2 may play a vital role in the regulation of insulin secretion via two SNARE proteins synap1 and syanp3. PMID:26884831

  20. Glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lundell, K H; Sabel, K G; Eriksson, B O; Mellgren, G

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal differences in carbohydrate metabolism in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD). Thirteen children with diseases of these kinds were investigated with regard to glucose tolerance and insulin secretion and comparisons were made with healthy controls of the same age. Investigations included an intravenous glucose tolerance test, insulin response to the glucose load in plasma and insulin secretion rate. The results reveal lower fasting glucose levels and signs of a higher insulin secretion rate in the relatively few patients in the CHD group where C-peptide measurements were performed, but no differences in glucose tolerance. The reasons for the differences are unclear, but the chronic increases in circulating catecholamines in combination with the impaired nutritional status of these children with CHD are probably the most important factors. We conclude that these divergences in carbohydrate metabolism should be emphasized in the care of children with CHD.

  1. Lineage tracing and characterization of insulin-secreting cells generated from adult pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Kohtaro; Okuno, Masaaki; Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Okumachi, Akinori; Ishizaki, Katsuhiko; Oyama, Kazunobu; Kawaguchi, Miho; Ishizuka, Nobuko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Seino, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that insulin-secreting cells can be generated in vitro from cells residing in adult exocrine pancreas, neither the origin of these cells nor their precise insulin secretory properties was obtained. We show here that insulin-secreting cells can be derived from adult mouse pancreatic exocrine cells by suspension culture in the presence of EGF and nicotinamide. The frequency of insulin-positive cells was only 0.01% in the initial preparation and increased to ≈5% in the culture conditions. Analysis by the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicates that these newly made cells originate from amylase/elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, sulfonylurea, and carbachol, and potentiation by glucagon-like peptide-1 also occurs. Insulin-containing secretory granules are present in these cells. In addition, we found that the enzymatic dissociation of pancreatic acini itself leads to activation of EGF signaling, and that inhibition of EGF receptor kinase blocks the transdifferentiation. These data demonstrate that pancreatic acinar cells can transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting cells with secretory properties similar to those of native pancreatic β cells, and that activation of EGF signaling is required in such transdifferentiation. PMID:16210247

  2. The Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels, Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Women 3 Years after Delivery.

    PubMed

    Tänczer, Tímea; Magenheim, Rita; Fürst, Ágnes; Domján, Beatrix; Janicsek, Zsófia; Szabó, Eszter; Ferencz, Viktória; Tabák, Ádám G

    2017-12-01

    There is a direct correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, women with gestational diabetes (GDM) may have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to controls. The present study intended to investigate 25(OH)D levels and their association with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with prior GDM and in controls 3.2 years after delivery. A total of 87 patients with prior GDM and 45 randomly selected controls (age range, 22 to 44 years) with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy nested within a cohort of all deliveries at Saint Margit Hospital, Budapest, between January 1 2005, and December 31 2006, were examined. Their 25(OH) D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin secretion were estimated using the homeostasis model asssessment (HOMA) calculator and early insulin secretion by the insulinogenic index based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between cases and controls (27.2±13.1 [±SD] vs. 26.9±9.8 ng/L). There was a positive association between HOMA insulin sensitivity and 25(OH)D levels (beta = 0.017; 95% CI 0.001 to 0.034/1 ng/mL) that was robust to adjustment for age and body mass index. There was a nonsignificant association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D (p=0.099), while no association was found with the insulinogenic index. Prior GDM status was not associated with 25(OH)D levels; however, 25(OH) D levels were associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity. It is hypothesized that the association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D levels is related to the autoregulation of fasting glucose levels because no association between 25(OH)D and insulinogenic index was found. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian disease after inhibition of ovarian steroid secretion.

    PubMed

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Bersch, N; Golde, D W; Landaw, E M; Chang, R J

    1986-03-01

    Six nonobese women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) showed significant hyperinsulinemia, compared with controls after oral glucose (P less than 0.05). As an indicator of insulin sensitivity, in vitro proliferation of erythrocyte progenitor cells of PCOD subjects exposed to physiologic concentrations of insulin was significantly blunted (P less than 0.001). Monocyte insulin receptor binding was not impaired in the PCOD subjects. Three of the PCOD patients were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for 6 months, which resulted in marked suppression of ovarian androgen secretion but no demonstrable changes in in vivo or in vitro indicators of insulin resistance. Thus insulin resistance in PCOD subjects appears to be unrelated to ovarian hyperandrogenism (or acanthosis or obesity). Although certain tissues are insulin-resistant in PCOD patients, the ovary may remain sensitive and overproduce androgens in response to high circulating insulin levels.

  4. CNC-bZIP protein Nrf1-dependent regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Rui; Dong, Jian; Liu, Dianxin; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tong, Qingchun; Teng, Weiping; Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-04-01

    The inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient insulin in response to glucose stimulation is a major contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of deficiency of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) in β-cells on β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Silencing of Nrf1 in β-cells leads to a pre-T2D phenotype with disrupted glucose metabolism and impaired insulin secretion. Specifically, MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf1 (Nrf1-KD) and isolated islets from β-cell-specific Nrf1-knockout [Nrf1(b)-KO] mice displayed impaired glucose responsiveness, including elevated basal insulin release and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Nrf1(b)-KO mice exhibited severe fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced GSIS, and glucose intolerance. Silencing of Nrf1 in MIN6 cells resulted in oxidative stress and altered glucose metabolism, with increases in both glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with the elevated basal insulin release and reduced glucose responsiveness. The elevated glycolysis and reduced glucose responsiveness due to Nrf1 silencing likely result from altered expression of glucose metabolic enzymes, with induction of high-affinity hexokinase 1 and suppression of low-affinity glucokinase. Our study demonstrated a novel role of Nrf1 in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in β-cells and characterized Nrf1 as a key transcription factor that regulates the coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism and GSIS. Nrf1 plays critical roles in regulating glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion, suggesting that Nrf1 may be a novel target to improve the function of insulin-secreting β-cells.

  5. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists stimulate insulin secretion from isolated human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bowe, J E; Huang, G C; Amiel, S A; Jones, P M; Persaud, S J

    2011-10-01

    The role of cannabinoid receptors in human islets of Langerhans has not been investigated in any detail, so the current study examined CB1 and CB2 receptor expression by human islets and the effects of pharmacological cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists on insulin secretion. Human islets were isolated from pancreases retrieved from heart-beating organ donors. Messenger RNAs encoding human CB1 and CB2 receptors were amplified from human islet RNA by RT-PCR and receptor localization within islets was identified by immunohistochemistry. Dynamic insulin secretion from human islets perifused with buffers supplemented with CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists and antagonists was quantified by radioimmunoassay. RT-PCR showed that both CB1 and CB2 receptors are expressed by human islets and immunohistochemistry indicated that receptor expression co-localized with insulin-expressing β-cells. Perifusion experiments using isolated human islets showed that insulin secretion was reversibly stimulated by both CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, with CB1 receptor activation associated with increased basal secretion whereas CB2 receptors were coupled to initiation and potentiation of insulin secretion. Antagonists at CB1 (N-(Piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) and CB2 (N-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-1,2-dihydro-7-methoxy-2-oxo-8-(pentyloxy)-3-quinoline carboxamide) receptors failed to inhibit the stimulatory effects of the respective agonists and, unexpectedly, reversibly stimulated insulin secretion. These data confirm the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors by human islets and indicate that both receptor subtypes are coupled to the stimulation of insulin secretion. They also implicate involvement of CB1/2 receptor-independent pathways in the antagonist-induced stimulatory effects. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Control of Insulin Secretion by Cholinergic Signaling in the Human Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Judith; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Fachado, Alberto; Jacques-Silva, M. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine regulates hormone secretion from the pancreatic islet and is thus crucial for glucose homeostasis. Little is known, however, about acetylcholine (cholinergic) signaling in the human islet. We recently reported that in the human islet, acetylcholine is primarily a paracrine signal released from α-cells rather than primarily a neural signal as in rodent islets. In this study, we demonstrate that the effects acetylcholine produces in the human islet are different and more complex than expected from studies conducted on cell lines and rodent islets. We found that endogenous acetylcholine not only stimulates the insulin-secreting β-cell via the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M3 and M5, but also the somatostatin-secreting δ-cell via M1 receptors. Because somatostatin is a strong inhibitor of insulin secretion, we hypothesized that cholinergic input to the δ-cell indirectly regulates β-cell function. Indeed, when all muscarinic signaling was blocked, somatostatin secretion decreased and insulin secretion unexpectedly increased, suggesting a reduced inhibitory input to β-cells. Endogenous cholinergic signaling therefore provides direct stimulatory and indirect inhibitory input to β-cells to regulate insulin secretion from the human islet. PMID:24658304

  7. Insulin secretion in the hibernating edible dormouse (Glis glis): in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Castex, C; Tahri, A; Hoo-Paris, R; Sutter, B C

    1984-01-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin have been studied during lethargy and spontaneous arousal of hibernating edible dormouse. During lethargy blood glucose was low while plasma insulin remained at the same level as in other seasons. Plasma glucose and insulin did not fluctuate along the phase of lethargy. During spontaneous arousal plasma insulin rose strongly from the 17 degrees C stage, reaching the higher values at 26 degrees C while blood glucose was only 85 mg/100 ml, then decreased at 37 degrees C. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion was studied using perfused pancreas preparation from hibernating edible dormice. During the rewarming of the edible dormouse pancreas the insulin release did not occur in response to the absolute extracellular glucose level but occurred in response to a B cell membrane phenomenon which was dependent on the changing rate of glucose level. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion from perfused pancreas was compared between edible dormouse and homeotherm permanent, the rat. The B cell response to glucose of the dormouse pancreas increased up to 15 degrees C whereas that of the rat only from 25 degrees C. The dormouse insulin secretion reached a peak value at the 30 degrees C of temperature, whereas that of the rat progressively increased until 37 degrees C. These results showed that some biochemical adjustment or process of acclimatization took place in the B cells of the hibernators.

  8. Islet secretory defect in insulin receptor substrate 1 null mice is linked with reduced calcium signaling and expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-2b and -3.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rohit N; Roper, Michael G; Dahlgren, Gabriella; Shih, David Q; Kauri, Lisa M; Peters, Jennifer L; Stoffel, Markus; Kennedy, Robert T

    2004-06-01

    Mice with deletion of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (IRS-1 knockout [KO] mice) show mild insulin resistance and defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduced insulin synthesis. To further define the role of IRS-1 in islet function, we examined the insulin secretory defect in the knockouts using freshly isolated islets and primary beta-cells. IRS-1 KO beta-cells exhibited a significantly shorter increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) than controls when briefly stimulated with glucose or glyceraldehyde and when l-arginine was used to potentiate the stimulatory effect of glucose. These changes were paralleled by a lower number of exocytotic events in the KO beta-cells in response to the same secretagogues, indicating reduced insulin secretion. Furthermore, the normal oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+) and O(2) consumption after glucose stimulation were dampened in freshly isolated KO islets. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a dramatically reduced islet expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)-2b and -3 in the mutants. These data provide evidence that IRS-1 modulation of insulin secretion is associated with Ca(2+) signaling and expression of SERCA-2b and -3 genes in pancreatic islets and provides a direct link between insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion.

  9. The complex effects of cannabinoids on insulin secretion from rat isolated islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Randall, Michael D; Chan, Susan L F

    2013-04-15

    Recent interest in the endocrine pancreas has revealed the presence of a functional endocannabinoid system in pancreatic islets, however, the effects of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid CB receptor activation on downstream signalling and on insulin release still remains unclear. In the current study, a variety of purported cannabinoid CB receptor agonists and antagonists were evaluated for their effects on insulin secretion. In fresh rat isolated islets, the endocannabinoid anandamide caused a glucose-dependent, concentration-dependent inhibition of insulin release, with two populations of islets being identified based on their sensitivity to anandamide. Methanandamide (a non-hydrolysable analogue of anandamide) elicited similar inhibition of insulin secretion, comparable to the responses obtained with anandamide-sensitive islets, suggesting that the islet responsiveness may be due to differences in local metabolism of anandamide. The antagonists O-2050 (CB1) and AM630 (CB2) failed to reveal the involvement of cannabinoid receptors in the inhibitory activity of anandamide on insulin release. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) with URB597 did not alter basal or glucose-induced insulin secretion, suggesting that endogenous islet endocannabinoids do not affect insulin release, or that islet FAAH content is low. URB597 also failed to affect the inhibitory actions of anandamide on insulin release in fresh isolated islets. However, in islets following overnight culture, anandamide caused augmentation of basal and glucose-mediated insulin release. The effects of cannabinoid agents on insulin secretion described in this study does not identify a precise mode of action but points to important modulation which may be dependent on local metabolism and prevailing cellular conditions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The mTORC2/PKC pathway sustains compensatory insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells in response to metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Cui, Canqi; Nie, Aifang; Wang, Yan; Ni, Qicheng; Liu, Yun; Yin, Qinglei; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Yong; Wang, Qidi; Gu, Yanyun; Ning, Guang

    2017-08-01

    Compensation of the pancreatic β cell functional mass in response to metabolic stress is key to the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. The mTORC2 pathway governs fuel metabolism and β cell functional mass. It is unknown whether mTORC2 is required for regulating metabolic stress-induced β cell compensation. We challenged four-week-old β-cell-specific Rictor (a key component of mTORC2)-knockout mice with a high fat diet (HFD) for 4weeks and measured metabolic and pancreatic morphological parameters. We performed ex vivo experiments to analyse β cell insulin secretion and electrophysiology characteristics. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression and lentiviral-ShRNA-mediated knocking down proteins were applied in Min6 cells and cultured primary mouse islets. βRicKO mice showed a significant glucose intolerance and a reduced plasma insulin level and an unchanged level β cell mass versus the control mice under HFD. A HFD or palmitate treatment enhanced both glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and the PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-induced insulin secretion in the control islets but not in the βRicKO islets. The KO β cells showed similar glucose-induced Ca 2+ influx but lower membrane capacitance increments versus the control cells. The enhanced mTORC2/PKC proteins levels in the control HFD group were ablated by Rictor deletion. Replenishing PKCα by overexpression of PKCα-T638D restored the defective GIIS in βRicKO islets. The mTORC2/Rictor pathway modulates β cell compensatory GIIS under nutrient overload mediated by its phosphorylation of PKCα. This study suggests that the mTORC2/PKC pathway in β cells is involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. HDAC7 is overexpressed in human diabetic islets and impairs insulin secretion in rat islets and clonal beta cells.

    PubMed

    Daneshpajooh, Mahboubeh; Bacos, Karl; Bysani, Madhusudhan; Bagge, Annika; Ottosson Laakso, Emilia; Vikman, Petter; Eliasson, Lena; Mulder, Hindrik; Ling, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell dysfunction is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) may affect pancreatic endocrine function and glucose homeostasis through alterations in gene regulation. Our aim was to investigate the role of HDAC7 in human and rat pancreatic islets and clonal INS-1 beta cells (INS-1 832/13). To explore the role of HDAC7 in pancreatic islets and clonal beta cells, we used RNA sequencing, mitochondrial functional analyses, microarray techniques, and HDAC inhibitors MC1568 and trichostatin A. Using RNA sequencing, we found increased HDAC7 expression in human pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic compared with non-diabetic donors. HDAC7 expression correlated negatively with insulin secretion in human islets. To mimic the situation in type 2 diabetic islets, we overexpressed Hdac7 in rat islets and clonal beta cells. In both, Hdac7 overexpression resulted in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, it reduced insulin content, mitochondrial respiration and cellular ATP levels in clonal beta cells. Overexpression of Hdac7 also led to changes in the genome-wide gene expression pattern, including increased expression of Tcf7l2 and decreased expression of gene sets regulating DNA replication and repair as well as nucleotide metabolism. In accordance, Hdac7 overexpression reduced the number of beta cells owing to enhanced apoptosis. Finally, we found that inhibiting HDAC7 activity with pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells that were overexpressing Hdac7. Taken together, these results indicate that increased HDAC7 levels caused beta cell dysfunction and may thereby contribute to defects seen in type 2 diabetic islets. Our study supports HDAC7 inhibitors as a therapeutic option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Resistin is produced by rat pancreatic islets and regulates insulin and glucagon in vitro secretion.

    PubMed

    Sassek, Maciej; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Kołodziejski, Paweł A; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Przemyslaw; Wieloch, Marianna; Kurto, Katarzyna; Nogowski, Leszek; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Strowski, Mathias Z; Mackowiak, Pawel

    2016-11-01

    Resistin participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The potential expression in pancreas, and modulation of the endocrine pancreas secretion by resistin is not well characterized, therefore, we examined it on several levels. We examined the localization of resistin in rat pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and the potential presence of resistin mRNA by RT-PCR and protein by Western Blot in these structures. In addition, we studied the regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion by resistin in pancreatic INS-1E β- and InR-G9 α-cell lines as well as isolated rat pancreatic islets. We identified resistin immunoreactivity in the periphery of rat pancreatic islets and confirmed the expression of resistin at mRNA and protein level. Obtained data indicated that resistin is co-localized with glucagon in pancreatic α-cells. In addition, we found that in vitro resistin decreased insulin secretion from INS-1E cells and pancreatic islets at normal (6 mM) and high (24 mM) glucose concentrations, and also decreased glucagon secretion from G9 cells and pancreatic islets at 1 mM, whereas a stimulation of glucagon secretion was observed at 6 mM glucose. Our results suggest that resistin can modulate the secretion of insulin and glucagon from clonal β or α cells, and from pancreatic islets.

  13. Involvement of a central nervous pathway in yohimbine-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ribes, G; Hillaire-Buys, D; Gross, R; Blayac, J P; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1989-03-21

    Yohimbine hydrochloride, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, was administered (3.3 mg/kg i.v.) to anesthetized normal dogs provided with a T-shaped catheter inserted in the pancreaticoduodenal vein. The effects on blood glucose levels and pancreatic hormones were investigated. We show that yohimbine induced an immediate and pronounced stimulatory effect on insulin secretion accompanied by a clear decrease in blood glucose levels. Yohimbine also stimulated the pancreatic secretion of somatostatin and glucagon. However, the secretion kinetics were not the same for the three hormones: the stimulation was rapid and immediate for insulin and somatostatin, whereas it was progressive for glucagon. All these stimulatory effects were suppressed by propranolol, thus implicating beta-adrenergic mechanisms. Bilateral cervical vagotomy markedly reduced the immediate effect of yohimbine on insulin secretion, suggesting that a central neural pathway was implicated. In contrast, the progressive elevation in glucagon secretion was not decreased by vagotomy. Our results suggest that yohimbine stimulates, at least in part, insulin secretion by blocking central alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  14. Integrated perfusion and separation systems for entrainment of insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lian; Wang, Xue; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Schrell, Adrian M; Mukhitov, Nikita; Roper, Michael G

    2015-02-07

    A microfluidic system was developed to investigate the entrainment of insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans to oscillatory glucose levels. A gravity-driven perfusion system was integrated with a microfluidic system to deliver sinusoidal glucose waveforms to the islet chamber. Automated manipulation of the height of the perfusion syringes allowed precise control of the ratio of two perfusion solutions into a chamber containing 1-10 islets. Insulin levels in the perfusate were measured using an online competitive electrophoretic immunoassay with a sampling period of 10 s. The insulin immunoassay had a detection limit of 3 nM with RSDs of calibration points ranging from 2-8%. At 11 mM glucose, insulin secretion from single islets was oscillatory with a period ranging from 3-6 min. Application of a small amplitude sinusoidal wave of glucose with a period of 5 or 10 min, shifted the period of the insulin oscillations to this forcing period. Exposing groups of 6-10 islets to a sinusoidal glucose wave synchronized their behavior, producing a coherent pulsatile insulin response from the population. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed system for the study of oscillatory insulin secretion and can be easily modified for investigating the dynamic nature of other hormones released from different cell types.

  15. Testing the plasticity of insulin secretion and β-cell function in vivo: responses to chronic hyperglycaemia in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Gatford, Kathryn L; De Blasio, Miles J; How, Tasma A; Harland, M Lyn; Summers-Pearce, Brooke L; Owens, Julie A

    2012-05-01

    Plasticity of insulin secretion is essential to maintain the action of insulin during insulin resistance and to prevent diabetes. Investigation of the plasticity of insulin secretion and its regulation is challenging, and the objective of this study was to develop a novel large-animal-based model. The effect of chronic moderate hyperglycaemia on the plasticity of insulin secretion, β-cell mass and function was determined in sheep. Adolescent sheep (120 days old) were infused with 25% glucose for 16 days to increase blood glucose by 50% (n = 10), and control animals (n = 9) were infused with saline. Glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness were measured in vivo before and during treatment (days 10-14), and β-cell mass was measured at the end of treatment. Hyperglycaemia increased blood glucose (+53%) and plasma insulin (+403%; each P < 0.003) and did not alter whole-body insulin sensitivity. Hyperglycaemia increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (particularly second phase; five-fold) and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (particularly first phase; four-fold). Hyperglycaemia reduced β-cell mass (∼50%, P = 0.038) and increased glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion relative to β-cell mass five-fold (P = 0.060) and 20-fold (P = 0.007), respectively. Chronic hyperglycaemia therefore induces marked adaptation and upregulation of glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion by enhancing β-cell function rather than increasing β-cell mass in the sheep, consistent with long-term adaptations seen in humans. This marked plasticity of insulin secretion in response to moderate hyperglycaemia provides a novel model for the investigation of factors affecting its capacity and underlying determinants.

  16. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  17. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} ormore » DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The

  18. Heterozygous SOD2 Deletion Impairs Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion, but Not Insulin Action, in High-Fat–Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chunhua; Lustig, Mary E.; Bonner, Jeffrey S.; Mayes, Wesley H.; Mokshagundam, Shilpa; James, Freyja D.; Thompson, Courtney S.; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G.R.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Wasserman, David H.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to insulin resistance and islet dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a primary defense against mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin action, wild-type (sod2+/+) and heterozygous knockout mice (sod2+/−) were fed a chow or high-fat (HF) diet, which accelerates ROS production. Hyperglycemic (HG) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI) clamps were performed to assess GSIS and insulin action in vivo. GSIS during HG clamps was equal in chow-fed sod2+/− and sod2+/+ but was markedly decreased in HF-fed sod2+/−. Remarkably, this impairment was not paralleled by reduced HG glucose infusion rate (GIR). Decreased GSIS in HF-fed sod2+/− was associated with increased ROS, such as superoxide ion. Surprisingly, insulin action determined by HI clamps did not differ between sod2+/− and sod2+/+ of either diet. Since insulin action was unaffected, we hypothesized that the unchanged HG GIR in HF-fed sod2+/− was due to increased glucose effectiveness. Increased GLUT-1, hexokinase II, and phospho-AMPK protein in muscle of HF-fed sod2+/− support this hypothesis. We conclude that heterozygous SOD2 deletion in mice, a model that mimics SOD2 changes observed in diabetic humans, impairs GSIS in HF-fed mice without affecting insulin action. PMID:24947366

  19. Hydrogel encapsulation environments functionalized with extracellular matrix interactions increase islet insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Laney M.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2009-01-01

    The individual and synergistic effects of extracellular matrix interactions on isolated islet function in culture were investigated within a three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel encapsulation environment. First, we observed similar glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from unencapsulated murine islets and islets photoencapsulated in PEG gels. Then islets were encapsulated in gels containing the basement membrane proteins collagen type IV and laminin, individually and in combination, at a total protein concentration of 100 μg/ml, and islet insulin secretion in response to high glucose was measured over time. Specific laminin interactions were investigated via islet encapsulation with adhesive peptide sequences found in laminin as well as via functional blocking of cell surface receptors known to bind laminin. Over 32 days, islet interactions with collagen type IV and laminin localized within the three-dimensional extracellular environment contributed to two-fold and four-fold increases in insulin secretion, respectively, relative to islets encapsulated without matrix proteins. Hydrogel compositions containing both matrix proteins and > 75% laminin further increased islet insulin secretion to approximately six-fold that of islets encapsulated in the absence of matrix proteins. Encapsulation with the peptide sequence IKVAV resulted in increased islet insulin secretion, but not to the extent observed in the presence of whole laminin. Increased insulin secretion in the presence of laminin was eliminated when islets were exposed to functionally blocking anti-α6 integrin antibody prior to islet encapsulation with laminin. Our results demonstrate the potential of specific matrix interactions within an islet encapsulation microenvironment to promote encapsulated islet function. PMID:18773957

  20. GRP94 Is Essential for Mesoderm Induction and Muscle Development Because It Regulates Insulin-like Growth Factor Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wanderling, Sherry; Simen, Birgitte B.; Ostrovsky, Olga; Ahmed, Noreen T.; Vogen, Shawn M.; Gidalevitz, Tali

    2007-01-01

    Because only few of its client proteins are known, the physiological roles of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) are poorly understood. Using targeted disruption of the murine GRP94 gene, we show that it has essential functions in embryonic development. grp94−/− embryos die on day 7 of gestation, fail to develop mesoderm, primitive streak, or proamniotic cavity. grp94−/− ES cells grow in culture and are capable of differentiation into cells representing all three germ layers. However, these cells do not differentiate into cardiac, smooth, or skeletal muscle. Differentiation cultures of mutant ES cells are deficient in secretion of insulin-like growth factor II and their defect can be complemented with exogenous insulin-like growth factors I or II. The data identify insulin-like growth factor II as one developmentally important protein whose production depends on the activity of GRP94. Keywords: chaperone/HSP90/Insulin-like growth factors/mouse development. PMID:17634284

  1. Synthesis and glucose-stimulate insulin secretion (GSIS) evaluation of vindoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chengqian; Tian, Yunan; Lei, Min; Chen, Fanglei; Gan, Xianwen; Yao, Xingang; Shen, Xu; Chen, Jing; Hu, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    It is demonstrated that natural product vindoline can enhance the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in MIN6 cells with the EC50 value of 50.2μM. In order to improve the activities, a series of vindoline derivatives are synthesized and evaluated in MIN6 cells. Compounds 4, 8, 17 and 24 show about 4.5 times more effective stimulation insulin secretion ability (EC50: 10.4, 14.2, 11.0 and 12.7μM, respectively) than vindoline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and fatty acids amplify pulsatile insulin secretion from perifused rat islets.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Barbara A; Richard, Ann-Marie T; Dillon, Joseph S; Daley, Jennifer T; Civelek, Vildan N; Deeney, Jude T; Yaney, Gordon C; Corkey, Barbara E; Tornheim, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Glucose-induced insulin secretion from isolated, perifused rat islets is pulsatile with a period of about 5-10 min, similar to the insulin oscillations that are seen in healthy humans but which are impaired in Type II diabetes. We evaluated the pattern of enhancement by the potent incretin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 increased the amplitude of pulses and the magnitude of insulin secretion from the perifused islets, without affecting the average time interval between pulses. Forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine had the same effect, suggesting that the effect was due to elevated cAMP levels. The possibility that cAMP might enhance the amplitude of pulses by reducing phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2) activity was eliminated when the liver isoform of PFK-2 was shown to be absent from beta-cells. The possibility that cAMP enhanced pulsatile secretion, at least in part, by stimulating lipolysis was supported by the observations that added oleate had a similar effect on secretion, and that the incretin effect of GLP-1 was inhibited by the lipase inhibitor orlistat. These data show that the physiological incretin GLP-1 preserves and enhances normal pulsatile insulin secretion, which may be essential in proposed therapeutic uses of GLP-1 or its analogues. PMID:12356335

  3. Protein deficiency attenuates the effects of alloxan on insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Prada, F J; Luciano, E; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Mello, M A

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of alloxan on insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in rats maintained on a 17% protein (normal protein, NP) or 6% protein (low protein, LP) diet from weaning (21 days old) to adulthood (90 days old). The incidence of alloxan diabetes was higher in the NP (3.5 times) than in the LP group. During an oral glucose tolerance test, the area under serum glucose curve was lower in LP (57%) than in NP rats while there were no differences between the two groups in the area under serum insulin curve. The serum glucose disappearance rate (Kitt) after exogenous insulin administration was higher in LP (50%) than in NP rats. In pancreatic islets isolated from rats not injected with alloxan, acute exposure to alloxan (0.05 mmol/L) reduced the glucose- or arginine-stimulated insulin secretion of NP islets by 78% and 56%, respectively, whereas for islets from LP rats, the reduction was 47% and 17% in the presence of glucose and arginine, respectively. Alloxan treatment reduced the glucose oxidation in islets from LP rats to a lesser extent than in NP islets (23% vs. 56%). In conclusion, alloxan was less effective in producing hyperglycemia in rats fed a low protein diet than in normal diet rats. This effect is attributable to an increased peripheral sensivity to insulin in addition to a better preservation of glucose oxidation and insulin secretion in islets from rats fed a low protein diet.

  4. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Upregulates Insulin Secretion From Pancreatic β Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Ilievski, Vladimir; Unterman, Terry G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Background A close association between periodontitis and diabetes has been demonstrated in human cross-sectional studies, but an exact relationship between periodontitis and prediabetes has not been established. Previous studies using animal model systems consistently have shown that hyperinsulinemia occurs in animals with periodontitis compared to animals with healthy periodontium (while maintaining normoglycemia). Because bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, we hypothesized that LPS may stimulate insulin secretion through a direct effect on β cell function. To test this hypothesis, pancreatic β cell line MIN6 cells were used to determine the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) LPS on insulin secretion. Furthermore, expression of genes altered by Pg LPS in innate immunity and insulin-signaling pathways was determined. Methods MIN6 cells were grown in medium with glucose concentration of normoglycemia (5.5 mM). Pg LPS was added to each well at final concentrations of 50, 200, and 500 ng/mL. Insulin secretion was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression levels altered by Pg LPS were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array for mouse innate and adaptive immunity response and mouse insulin-signaling pathways, and results were confirmed for specific genes of interest by quantitative PCR. Results Pg LPS stimulated insulin secretion in the normoglycemic condition by ≈1.5- to 3.0-fold depending on the concentration of LPS. Pg LPS treatment altered the expression of several genes involved in innate and adaptive immune response and insulin-signaling pathway. Pg LPS upregulated the expression of the immune response–related genes cluster of differentiation 8a (Cd8a), Cd14, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (Icam1) by about two-fold. LPS also increased the expression of two insulin signaling–related genes, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6pc) and insulin

  6. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel

    2008-03-10

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice.more » Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells.« less

  7. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Bedoya, Francisco J.; Soria, Bernat; Martin, Franz

    2008-03-10

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells.

  8. Inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingying; Zhong, Xiangqin; Ding, Yaqin; Bai, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Hongbin; Liu, Yunfeng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is important to maintain glucose homeostasis and is regulated by electrical activities. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a bone-derived protein, has been reported to regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion, stimulating β cell proliferation and improving insulin sensitivity. But the underlying mechanisms of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion and voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, voltage-gated calcium channels in rat β cells. Insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. Channel currents and membrane action potentials were recorded using the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Calcium imaging system was used to analyze intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). The data show that under 16.7mmol/l glucose conditions uncarboxylated osteocalcin alone increased insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i, but with no such effects on insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i in the presence of a KV channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride. In the patch-clamp experiments, uncarboxylated osteocalcin lengthened action potential duration and significantly inhibited KV currents, but had no influence on the characteristics of voltage-gated calcium channels. These results indicate that KV channels are involved in uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells. By inhibiting KV channels, uncarboxylated osteocalcin prolongs action potential duration, increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and finally promotes insulin secretion. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and glucose dynamics in Thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Staniar, W Burton; Cubitt, Tania A; Treiber, Kibby H; Harris, Patricia A; Geor, Raymond J

    2011-05-01

    To characterize the effects of pregnancy on insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose dynamics in pasture-maintained mares fed supplemental feeds of differing energy composition. Pregnant (n = 22) and nonpregnant (10) healthy Thoroughbred mares. Pregnant and nonpregnant mares underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests at 2 times (period 1, 25 to 31 weeks of gestation; period 2, 47 weeks of gestation). Following period 1 measurements, mares were provided a high-starch (HS; 39% starch) or high-fat and -fiber (14% fat and 70% fiber) supplemental feed. From a subset of mares (n = 12), blood samples were collected hourly for 24 hours to assess glycemic and insulinemic response to feeding while pastured. The minimal model of glucose and insulin dynamics was used to estimate SI, glucose effectiveness, and acute insulin response to glucose from tolerance testing data. Pregnant mares during period 1 had a lower SI and glucose effectiveness and higher acute insulin response to glucose than did nonpregnant mares. The SI value decreased in nonpregnant but not pregnant mares from periods 1 to 2. Pregnant mares fed HS feed had a greater glycemic and insulinemic response to feeding than did any other group. Pregnant mares had slower glucose clearance and greater insulin secretion at 28 weeks of gestation than did nonpregnant mares. Glucose and insulin responses to meal feeding, particularly with HS feed, were greater in pregnant mares, indicating that pregnancy enhanced the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic effects of starch-rich feed supplements.

  10. Effect of Endogenous GLP-1 on Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Aulinger, Benedict; Prigeon, Ronald L.; D'Alessio, David A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) account for up to 60% of postprandial insulin release in healthy people. Previous studies showed a reduced incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes but a robust response to exogenous GLP-1. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether endogenous GLP-1 regulates insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. METHODS Twelve patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and eight matched nondiabetic subjects consumed a breakfast meal containing d-xylose during fixed hyperglycemia at 5 mmol/l above fasting levels. Studies were repeated, once with infusion of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin-(9–39) (Ex-9), and once with saline. RESULTS The relative increase in insulin secretion after meal ingestion was comparable in diabetic and nondiabetic groups (44 ± 4% vs. 47 ± 7%). Blocking the action of GLP-1 suppressed postprandial insulin secretion similarly in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (25 ± 4% vs. 27 ± 8%). However, Ex-9 also reduced the insulin response to intravenous glucose (25 ± 5% vs. 26 ± 7%; diabetic vs. nondiabetic subjects), when plasma GLP-1 levels were undetectable. The appearance of postprandial ingested d-xylose in the blood was not affected by Ex-9. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that in patients with well-controlled diabetes, the relative effects of enteral stimuli and endogenous GLP-1 to enhance insulin release are retained and comparable with those in nondiabetic subjects. Surprisingly, GLP-1 receptor signaling promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion independent of the mode of glucose entry. Based on rates of d-xylose absorption, GLP-1 receptor blockade did not affect gastric emptying of a solid meal. PMID:20215429

  11. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B; Friis-Møller, Nina; Storgaard, Heidi; Vølund, Aage; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Iversen, Johan; Madsbad, Sten

    2003-10-01

    The pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is not fully clarified. We investigated 18 men with HALS and 18 HIV-positive males without lipodystrophy (control subjects). Duration and modality of antiretroviral therapy were similar between study groups. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp showed an impaired glucose disposal rate (GDR) in HALS patients (5.6 v 8.3 mg glucose/min. kg(FFM), P =.0006). As demonstrated by indirect calorimetry, HALS patients showed an impaired nonoxidative glucose metabolism (NOGM, 2.2 v 4.2, P =.006), whereas levels of basal and insulin-stimulated oxidative glucose metabolism (OGM) (2.4 v 2.3, P =.55, and 3.3 v 4.0, P =.064, respectively) were not significantly different between groups. Despite comparable total fat masses, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans showed that the percentage of limb fat (ie, peripheral-fat-mass/[peripheral-fat-mass + trunk-fat-mass]. 100%) was reduced in HALS patients (36% v 46%, P =.0002). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that percentage of limb fat explained 53% of the variability of GDR and 45% of the variability of NOGM in HALS patients. In HALS patients, leg fat mass correlated positively with NOGM (r =.51, P <.05), whereas abdominal fat mass and NOGM did not correlate (P =.91). Analyzing the relationship between first phase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, 6 HALS patients compared with none of the control subjects exhibited impaired insulin secretion (P <.05). Our data suggest that fat redistribution independently of antiretroviral therapy is highly related to insulin resistance in HALS patients. Furthermore, in HALS patients, impaired glucose metabolism most likely relates to decreased NOGM and to defects in beta-cell function.

  12. Insulin Signaling in α-cells Modulates Glucagon Secretion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kawamori, Dan; Kurpad, Amarnath J.; Hu, Jiang; Liew, Chong Wee; Shih, Judy L.; Ford, Eric L.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Glucagon plays an important role in glucose homeostasis by regulating hepatic glucose output in both normo- and hypo-glycemic conditions. In this study, we created and characterized α-cell specific insulin receptor knockout (αIRKO) mice to directly explore the role of insulin signaling in the regulation of glucagon secretion in vivo. Adult male αIRKO mice exhibited mild glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia in the fed state, and enhanced glucagon secretion in response to L-Arginine stimulation. Hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp studies revealed an enhanced glucagon secretory response and an abnormal norepinephrine response to hypoglycemia in αIRKO mice. The mutants also exhibited an age-dependent increase in β-cell mass. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of insulin receptor in glucagon-secreting InR1G cells promoted enhanced glucagon secretion and complemented our in vivo findings. Together, these data indicate a significant role for intra-islet insulin signaling in the regulation of α-cell function in both normo- and hypo-glycemic conditions. PMID:19356716

  13. Effects of fluoroquinolones on insulin secretion and beta-cell ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Atsunori; Yokokura, Masaaki; Gonoi, Tohru; Seino, Susumu

    2004-08-16

    Although fluoroquinolones are used widely in the treatment of various infectious diseases, some of the drugs are known to cause hypoglycemia as a side-effect. We have investigated the effects of three fluoroquinolone derivatives, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and temafloxacin, on insulin secretion and pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP) channel) activity. While levofloxacin had only a small effect on insulin secretion and K(ATP) currents, gatifloxacin and temafloxacin stimulated insulin secretion and inhibited K(ATP) channel currents in a dose-dependent manner. We also determined the site of action of gatifloxacin and temafloxacin on the K(ATP) channel. In a reconstituted system, gatifloxacin and temafloxacin inhibited Kir6.2 Delta C26 channels, which function in the absence of the SUR subunit, indicating direct action of the drugs on the Kir6.2 subunits. These results suggest that stimulation of insulin secretion by inhibition of pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channels underlies the hypoglycemia caused by certain fluoroquinolones.

  14. Neuronostatin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via direct action on the pancreatic α-cell.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Alison S; Elrick, Mollisa M; Samson, Willis K; Corbett, John A; Yosten, Gina L C

    2014-06-01

    Neuronostatin is a recently described peptide hormone encoded by the somatostatin gene. We previously showed that intraperitoneal injection of neuronostatin into mice resulted in c-Jun accumulation in pancreatic islets in a pattern consistent with the activation of glucagon-producing α-cells. We therefore hypothesized that neuronostatin could influence glucose homeostasis via a direct effect on the α-cell. Neuronostatin enhanced low-glucose-induced glucagon release in isolated rat islets and in the immortalized α-cell line αTC1-9. Furthermore, incubation with neuronostatin led to an increase in transcription of glucagon mRNA, as determined by RT-PCR. Neuronostatin also inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets. However, neuronostatin did not alter insulin release from the β-cell line INS 832/13, indicating that the effect of neuronostatin on insulin secretion may be secondary to a direct action on the α-cell. In agreement with our in vitro data, intra-arterial infusion of neuronostatin in male rats delayed glucose disposal and inhibited insulin release during a glucose challenge. These studies suggest that neuronostatin participates in maintaining glucose homeostasis through cell-cell interactions between α-cells and β-cells in the endocrine pancreas, leading to attenuation in insulin secretion. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Non-traditional roles of complement in type 2 diabetes: Metabolism, insulin secretion and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    King, Ben C; Blom, Anna M

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a disease of increasing importance and represents a growing burden on global healthcare and human health. In T2D, loss of effectiveness of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues cannot be compensated for by adequate insulin secretion, leading to hyperglycemia and resultant complications. In recent years, inflammation has been identified as a central component of T2D, both in inducing peripheral insulin resistance as well as in the pancreatic islet, where it contributes to loss of insulin secretion and death of insulin-secreting beta cells. In this review we will focus on non-traditional roles of complement proteins which have been identified in T2D-associated inflammation, beta cell secretory function, and in maintaining homeostasis of the pancreatic islet. Improved understanding of both traditional and novel roles of complement proteins in T2D may lead to new therapeutic approaches for this global disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GPR55-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Song, Shuang; Ruz-Maldonado, Inmaculada; Pingitore, Attilio; Huang, Guo C; Baker, David; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2016-12-01

    The novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55 is expressed by rodent islets and it has been implicated in β-cell function in response to a range of ligands. This study evaluated the effects of GPR55 ligands on intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) levels and insulin secretion from islets isolated from GPR55 knockout (GPR55 -/- ) mice, age-matched wildtype (WT) mice and human pancreas. GPR55 expression was determined by Western blotting and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Changes in [Ca2+ ]i were measured by Fura-2 microfluorimetry. Dynamic insulin secretion was quantified by radioimmunoassay following perifusion of isolated islets. RhoA activity was monitored using a Rho binding domain pull down assay. Western blotting indicated that MIN6 β-cells, mouse and human islets express GPR55 and its localization on human β-cells was demonstrated by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The pharmacological GPR55 agonist O-1602 (10 μM) significantly stimulated [Ca2+ ]i and insulin secretion from WT mouse islets and these stimulatory effects were abolished in islets isolated from GPR55 -/- mice. In contrast, while the putative endogenous GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI, 5 µM) and the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD, 1 µM) also elevated [Ca2+ ]i and insulin secretion, these effects were sustained in islets from GPR55 -/- mice. Stimulatory effects of O-1602 on [Ca2+ ]i and insulin secretion were also observed in experiments using human islets, but O-1602 did not activate RhoA in MIN6 β-cells. Our results therefore suggest that GPR55 plays an important role in the regulation of mouse and human islet physiology, but LPI and CBD exert stimulatory effects on islet function by a GPR55-independent pathway(s). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Modeling beta-cell insulin secretion--implications for closed-loop glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Rebrin, Kerstin; Janowski, Robert; Darwin, Christine; Saad, Mohammed F

    2003-01-01

    Glucose sensing and insulin delivery technology can potentially be linked to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system. Ideally, such a system would establish normal physiologic glucose profiles. To this end, a model of beta-cell secretion can potentially provide insight into the preferred structure of the insulin delivery algorithm. Two secretion models were evaluated for their ability to describe plasma insulin dynamics during hyperglycemic clamps (humans; n=7), and for their ability to establish and maintain fasting euglycemia under conditions simulated by the minimal model. The first beta-cell model (SD) characterized insulin secretion as a static component that had a delayed response to glucose, and a dynamic component that responded to the rate of increase of glucose. The second model (PID) described the response in terms of a proportional component without delay, an integral component that adjusted basal delivery in proportion to hyper/hypoglycemia, and a derivative component that responded to the rate of glucose change. Both models fit the beta-cell response during the clamp, and established fasting euglycemia under simulated closed-loop conditions; however, the SD model did not maintain euglycemia following simulated changes in insulin sensitivity or glucose appearance, whereas the PID model did. The PID model was more stable under the simulated closed-loop conditions. Both the SD and PID models described beta-cell secretion in response to a rapid increase in glucose. However, the PID model could maintain fasting euglycemia and was more stable under closed-loop conditions, and thus is more suited for such conditions.

  18. Insulin Secretion Improves in Cystic Fibrosis Following Ivacaftor Correction of CFTR: A Small Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Laguna, Theresa; Leschyshyn, Janice; Regelmann, Warren; Dunitz, Jordan; Billings, JoAnne; Moran, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in human insulin secretion by assessing the metabolic impact of the new CFTR corrector, ivacaftor. Methods This open-label pilot study was conducted in CF patients with the G551D mutation given new prescriptions for ivacaftor. At baseline and 4 weeks after daily ivacaftor therapy, intravenous (IVGTT) and oral glucose (OGTT) tolerance tests were performed. Results Five patients age 6–52 were studied. After 1 month on ivacaftor, the insulin response to oral glucose improved by 66–178% in all subjects except one with long-standing diabetes. OGTT glucose levels were not lower in the two individuals with diabetes or the two with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), but the glucose tolerance category in the subject with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) improved to NGT after treatment. In response to intravenous glucose, the only patient whose acute insulin secretion did not improve had newly diagnosed, untreated CFRD. The others improved by 51–346%. Acute insulin secretion was partially restored in two subjects with no measurable acute insulin response at baseline, including the one with IGT and the one with long-standing diabetes. Conclusions This small pilot study suggests there is a direct role of CFTR in human insulin secretion. Larger, long-term longitudinal studies are necessary to determine whether early initiation of CFTR correction, particularly in young children with CF who have not yet lost considerable beta-cell mass, will delay or prevent development of diabetes in this high risk population. PMID:23952705

  19. Moringa Oleifera Leaf Increases Insulin Secretion after Single Dose Administration: A Preliminary Study in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Anthanont, Pimjai; Lumlerdkij, Natchagorn; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Vannasaeng, Sathit; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee

    2016-03-01

    Herbal medicine has long been used as an alternative medicine for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, Moringa oleifera (MO or ma-rum in Thai) leaf has been widely used in T2DM patients. Several studies in diabetes rat model have shown that MO had effect on glucose metabolism. However study in humans is lacking. Examine effects of MO on plasma glucose and insulin secretion. Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study (mean age 29 ± 5 years; BMI 20.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2; FPG 81 ± 5 mg/dl). After an overnight fast and every two weeks, subjects received an oral dose of MO at increasing dosages of 0, 1, 2, and 4 g. Plasma glucose (PG) and insulin were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 6 hours after each MO dosage administration. Insulin secretion rate was measured using area under the curve (AUC) of insulin and AUC of insulin/glucose ratio. After doses of 0, 1, 2, and 4 g MO, mean plasma insulin increased (2.3 ± 0.9, 2.7 ± 1.0, 3.3 ± 1.4, and 4.1 ± 1.7 μU/ml, respectively) despite there being no differences in mean PG (77 ± 6, 78 ± 5, 79 ± 6, and 79 ± 5 mg/dl, respectively). AUC of insulin was greater after high-dose MO (4 g) than after baseline or low-dose MO capsule (1 g) (24.0 ± 3.5 vs. 14.5 ± 1.8 or 16.1 ± 2.0, respectively; p = 0.03), while there was no difference in AUC of glucose. Accordingly, insulin secretion rate represented by AUC of insulin/glucose ratio after high-dose MO was significantly increased by 74% (P = 0.041), as compared with that of baseline. We concluded that high-dose (4 g) MO leaf powder capsules significantly increased insulin secretion in healthy subjects. These results suggest that MO leaf may be a potential agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Further studies of MO in patients with T2DM are needed.

  20. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  1. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Anja; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto; Holst, Jens Juul; Gallwitz, Baptist; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). Fourteen common (minor allele frequencies ≥0.05) DPP4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,976 non-diabetic TÜF participants characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance measurements. In a subgroup of 168 subjects, plasma incretin levels were determined. We identified a variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in intron 2 of the DPP4 gene that, after correction for multiple comparisons and appropriate adjustment, revealed a significant genotype-body fat interaction effect on glucose-stimulated plasma GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0021). Notably, no genotype-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. A common variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. Whether this SNP underlies the reported inter-individual variance in responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors, at least in subjects with high body fat content, remains to be shown.

  2. Insulin regulation of beta-cell function involves a feedback loop on SERCA gene expression, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and insulin expression and secretion.

    PubMed

    Xu, G G; Gao, Z Y; Borge, P D; Jegier, P A; Young, R A; Wolf, B A

    2000-12-05

    The insulin receptor signaling pathway is present in beta-cells and is believed to be important in beta-cell function. We show here that insulin directly regulates beta-cell function in isolated rodent islets. Long-term insulin treatment caused a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rat islets, but failed to increase insulin content. Chronic activation of insulin receptor signaling by IRS-1 overexpression in the beta-cell inhibited gene expression of SERCA3, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Insulin gene transcription was stimulated by insulin receptor signaling and insulin mimetic compound (L-783 281) in a glucose- and Grb2-dependent manner. Thus, beta-cell SERCA3 is a target for insulin regulation, which implies that beta-cell Ca(2+) homeostasis is regulated in an autocrine feedback loop by insulin. This study identifies a novel regulatory pathway of insulin secretion at the molecular level with two main components: (1) regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis via SERCA3 and (2) regulation of insulin gene expression.

  3. Galanin inhibits caerulein-stimulated pancreatic amylase secretion via cholinergic nerves and insulin.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Woods, Charmaine M; Carati, Colin J; Schloithe, Ann C; Jaya, Surendra R; Toouli, James; Saccone, Gino T P

    2009-08-01

    Pancreatic exocrine secretion is affected by galanin, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We aimed to determine the effect and elucidate the mechanism of action of exogenous galanin on basal and stimulated pancreatic amylase secretion in vitro. The effect of galanin on basal-, carbachol-, and caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion from isolated murine pancreatic lobules was measured. Carbachol and caerulein concentration-response relationships were established. Lobules were coincubated with galanin (10(-12) M to 10(-7) M), carbachol (10(-6) M), or caerulein (10(-10) M). Lobules were preincubated with atropine (10(-5) M), tetrodotoxin (10(-5) M), hexamethonium (10(-5) M), or diazoxide (10(-7) M and 10(-4) M) for 30 min followed by incubation with caerulein (10(-10) M) alone or combined with galanin (10(-12) M). Amylase secretion was expressed as percent of total lobular amylase. Immunohistochemical studies used the antigen retrieval technique and antisera for galanin receptor (GALR) 1, 2, and 3. Carbachol and caerulein stimulated amylase secretion in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal responses of two- and 1.7-fold over control evoked at 10(-6) M and 10(-10) M, respectively. Galanin (10(-12) M) completely inhibited caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion but had no effect on carbachol-stimulated or basal secretion. Atropine and tetrodotoxin pretreatment abolished the caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion, whereas hexamethonium had no significant effect. Diazoxide significantly reduced caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion by approximately 80%. Galanin did not affect caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion in the presence of hexamethonium or diazoxide. Glucose-stimulated amylase secretion was also inhibited by galanin. Immunohistochemistry revealed islet cells labeled for GALR2. These data suggest that galanin may modulate caerulein-stimulated amylase secretion by acting on cholinergic nerves and/or islet cells possibly via GALR2 to regulate insulin

  4. Preptin derived from proinsulin-like growth factor II (proIGF-II) is secreted from pancreatic islet beta-cells and enhances insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, C M; Phillips, A R; Cooper, G J

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cells secrete the hormones insulin, amylin and pancreastatin. To search for further beta-cell hormones, we purified peptides from secretory granules isolated from cultured murine beta TC6-F7 beta-cells. We identified a 34-amino-acid peptide (3948 Da), corresponding to Asp(69)-Leu(102) of the proinsulin-like growth factor II E-peptide, which we have termed 'preptin'. Preptin, is present in islet beta-cells and undergoes glucose-mediated co-secretion with insulin. Synthetic preptin increases insulin secretion from glucose-stimulated beta TC6-F7 cells in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner. Preptin infusion into the isolated, perfused rat pancreas increases the second phase of glucose-mediated insulin secretion by 30%, while anti-preptin immunoglobulin infusion decreases the first and second phases of insulin secretion by 29 and 26% respectively. These findings suggest that preptin is a physiological amplifier of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:11716772

  5. Modulation of Ionic Channels and Insulin Secretion by Drugs and Hormones in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Myrian; Díaz-García, Carlos Manlio; Larqué, Carlos; Hiriart, Marcia

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells, unique cells that secrete insulin in response to an increase in glucose levels, play a significant role in glucose homeostasis. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta cells has been extensively explored. In this mechanism, glucose enters the cells and subsequently the metabolic cycle. During this process, the ATP/ADP ratio increases, leading to ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel closure, which initiates depolarization that is also dependent on the activity of TRP nonselective ion channels. Depolarization leads to the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) and subsequently voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (Cav). The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) triggers the exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Thus, electrical activity of pancreatic beta cells plays a central role in GSIS. Moreover, many growth factors, incretins, neurotransmitters, and hormones can modulate GSIS, and the channels that participate in GSIS are highly regulated. In this review, we focus on the principal ionic channels (KATP, Nav, and Cav channels) involved in GSIS and how classic and new proteins, hormones, and drugs regulate it. Moreover, we also discuss advances on how metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus change channel activity leading to changes in insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Potentiation of Calcium Influx and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cell by the Specific TREK-1 Blocker Spadin.

    PubMed

    Hivelin, Céline; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Devader, Christelle; Abderrahmani, Amar; Moreno, Sébastien; Moha Ou Maati, Hamid; Djillani, Alaeddine; Heurteaux, Catherine; Borsotto, Marc; Mazella, Jean; Coppola, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the potassium channels TREK-1 by spadin (SPA) is currently thought to be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression. Since these channels are expressed in pancreatic β-cells, we investigated their role in the control of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we confirmed the expression of TREK-1 channels in the insulin secreting MIN6-B1 β-cell line and in mouse islets. We found that their blockade by SPA potentiated insulin secretion induced by potassium chloride dependent membrane depolarization. Inhibition of TREK-1 by SPA induced a decrease of the resting membrane potential (ΔVm ~ 12 mV) and increased the cytosolic calcium concentration. In mice, administration of SPA enhanced the plasma insulin level stimulated by glucose, confirming its secretagogue effect observed in vitro. Taken together, this work identifies SPA as a novel potential pharmacological agent able to control insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

  7. Potentiation of Calcium Influx and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cell by the Specific TREK-1 Blocker Spadin

    PubMed Central

    Hivelin, Céline; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Devader, Christelle; Moreno, Sébastien; Moha ou Maati, Hamid; Djillani, Alaeddine; Heurteaux, Catherine; Borsotto, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the potassium channels TREK-1 by spadin (SPA) is currently thought to be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression. Since these channels are expressed in pancreatic β-cells, we investigated their role in the control of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we confirmed the expression of TREK-1 channels in the insulin secreting MIN6-B1 β-cell line and in mouse islets. We found that their blockade by SPA potentiated insulin secretion induced by potassium chloride dependent membrane depolarization. Inhibition of TREK-1 by SPA induced a decrease of the resting membrane potential (ΔVm ~ 12 mV) and increased the cytosolic calcium concentration. In mice, administration of SPA enhanced the plasma insulin level stimulated by glucose, confirming its secretagogue effect observed in vitro. Taken together, this work identifies SPA as a novel potential pharmacological agent able to control insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:28105440

  8. Chloride channels regulate HIT cell volume but cannot fully account for swelling-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Kinard, T A; Goforth, P B; Tao, Q; Abood, M E; Teague, J; Satin, L S

    2001-05-01

    Insulin-secreting pancreatic islet beta-cells possess anion-permeable Cl- channels (I(Cl,islet)) that are swelling-activated, but the role of these channels in the cells is unclear. The Cl- channel blockers 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid were evaluated for their ability to inhibit I(Cl,islet) in clonal beta-cells (HIT cells). Both drugs blocked the channel, but the blockade due to niflumic acid was less voltage-dependent than the blockade due to DIDS. HIT cell volume initially increased in hypotonic solution and was followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The addition of niflumic acid and, to a lesser extent, DIDS to the hypotonic solution potentiated swelling and blocked the RVD. In isotonic solution, niflumic acid produced swelling, suggesting that islet Cl- channels are activated under basal conditions. The channel blockers glyburide, gadolinium, or tetraethylammonium-Cl did not alter hypotonic-induced swelling or volume regulation. The Na/K/2Cl transport blocker furosemide produced cell shrinkage in isotonic solution and blocked cell swelling normally induced by hypotonic solution. Perifused HIT cells secreted insulin when challenged with hypotonic solutions. However, this could not be completely attributed to I(Cl,islet)-mediated depolarization, because secretion persisted even when Cl- channels were fully blocked. To test whether blocker-resistant secretion occurred via a distal pathway, distal secretion was isolated using 50 mmol/l potassium and diazoxide. Under these conditions, glucose-dependent secretion was blunted, but hypotonically induced secretion persisted, even with Cl- channel blockers present. These results suggest that beta-cell swelling stimulates insulin secretion primarily via a distal I(Cl,islet)-independent mechanism, as has been proposed for K(ATP)-independent glucose- and sulfonylurea-stimulated insulin secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of HIT cell mRNA identified

  9. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  10. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell–cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cell–cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca2+]i ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell–cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36−/−), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. KATP loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36−/− islets, elevations in [Ca2+]i persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36−/− islets was minimally altered. [Ca2+]i was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in KATP loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell–cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca2+]i signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion. PMID:21930600

  11. PPARβ/δ affects pancreatic β cell mass and insulin secretion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, José; Barg, Sebastian; Vallois, David; Lahiri, Shawon; Roger, Catherine; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Pradevand, Sylvain; McDonald, Angela; Bonal, Claire; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona; Debril, Marie-Bernard; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Herrera, Pedro; Rutter, Guy A.; Prentki, Marc; Thorens, Bernard; Wahli, Walter

    2012-01-01

    PPARβ/δ protects against obesity by reducing dyslipidemia and insulin resistance via effects in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. However, its function in pancreas remains ill defined. To gain insight into its hypothesized role in β cell function, we specifically deleted Pparb/d in the epithelial compartment of the mouse pancreas. Mutant animals presented increased numbers of islets and, more importantly, enhanced insulin secretion, causing hyperinsulinemia. Gene expression profiling of pancreatic β cells indicated a broad repressive function of PPARβ/δ affecting the vesicular and granular compartment as well as the actin cytoskeleton. Analyses of insulin release from isolated PPARβ/δ-deficient islets revealed an accelerated second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects in PPARβ/δ-deficient islets correlated with increased filamentous actin (F-actin) disassembly and an elevation in protein kinase D activity that altered Golgi organization. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a repressive role for PPARβ/δ in β cell mass and insulin exocytosis, and shed a new light on PPARβ/δ metabolic action. PMID:23093780

  12. Integrative network analysis highlights biological processes underlying GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion: A DIRECT study.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Allebrandt, Karla Viviani; Brorsson, Caroline; van Leeuwen, Nienke; Banasik, Karina; Mahajan, Anubha; Groves, Christopher J; van de Bunt, Martijn; Dawed, Adem Y; Fritsche, Andreas; Staiger, Harald; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M C; Deelen, Joris; Kramer, Mark H H; Dietrich, Axel; Hübschle, Thomas; Willemsen, Gonneke; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M W; Ferrer, Jorge; McCarthy, Mark I; Pearson, Ewan R; Gupta, Ramneek; Brunak, Søren; 't Hart, Leen M

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulated insulin secretion has a considerable heritable component as estimated from twin studies, yet few genetic variants influencing this phenotype have been identified. We performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion in non-diabetic individuals from the Netherlands Twin register (n = 126). This GWAS was enhanced using a tissue-specific protein-protein interaction network approach. We identified a beta-cell protein-protein interaction module that was significantly enriched for low gene scores based on the GWAS P-values and found support at the network level in an independent cohort from Tübingen, Germany (n = 100). Additionally, a polygenic risk score based on SNPs prioritized from the network was associated (P < 0.05) with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion phenotypes in up to 5,318 individuals in MAGIC cohorts. The network contains both known and novel genes in the context of insulin secretion and is enriched for members of the focal adhesion, extracellular-matrix receptor interaction, actin cytoskeleton regulation, Rap1 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Adipose tissue is, like the beta-cell, one of the target tissues of GLP-1 and we thus hypothesized that similar networks might be functional in both tissues. In order to verify peripheral effects of GLP-1 stimulation, we compared the transcriptome profiling of ob/ob mice treated with liraglutide, a clinically used GLP-1 receptor agonist, versus baseline controls. Some of the upstream regulators of differentially expressed genes in the white adipose tissue of ob/ob mice were also detected in the human beta-cell network of genes associated with GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion. The findings provide biological insight into the mechanisms through which the effects of GLP-1 may be modulated and highlight a potential role of the beta-cell expressed genes RYR2, GDI2, KIAA0232, COL4A1 and COL4A2 in GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion.

  13. Integrative network analysis highlights biological processes underlying GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion: A DIRECT study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Allebrandt, Karla Viviani; Brorsson, Caroline; van Leeuwen, Nienke; Banasik, Karina; Mahajan, Anubha; Groves, Christopher J.; van de Bunt, Martijn; Dawed, Adem Y.; Fritsche, Andreas; Staiger, Harald; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M. C.; Deelen, Joris; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Dietrich, Axel; Hübschle, Thomas; Willemsen, Gonneke; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Ferrer, Jorge; McCarthy, Mark I.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Gupta, Ramneek; Brunak, Søren; ‘t Hart, Leen M.

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulated insulin secretion has a considerable heritable component as estimated from twin studies, yet few genetic variants influencing this phenotype have been identified. We performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion in non-diabetic individuals from the Netherlands Twin register (n = 126). This GWAS was enhanced using a tissue-specific protein-protein interaction network approach. We identified a beta-cell protein-protein interaction module that was significantly enriched for low gene scores based on the GWAS P-values and found support at the network level in an independent cohort from Tübingen, Germany (n = 100). Additionally, a polygenic risk score based on SNPs prioritized from the network was associated (P < 0.05) with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion phenotypes in up to 5,318 individuals in MAGIC cohorts. The network contains both known and novel genes in the context of insulin secretion and is enriched for members of the focal adhesion, extracellular-matrix receptor interaction, actin cytoskeleton regulation, Rap1 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Adipose tissue is, like the beta-cell, one of the target tissues of GLP-1 and we thus hypothesized that similar networks might be functional in both tissues. In order to verify peripheral effects of GLP-1 stimulation, we compared the transcriptome profiling of ob/ob mice treated with liraglutide, a clinically used GLP-1 receptor agonist, versus baseline controls. Some of the upstream regulators of differentially expressed genes in the white adipose tissue of ob/ob mice were also detected in the human beta-cell network of genes associated with GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion. The findings provide biological insight into the mechanisms through which the effects of GLP-1 may be modulated and highlight a potential role of the beta-cell expressed genes RYR2, GDI2, KIAA0232, COL4A1 and COL4A2 in GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion

  14. Role of Islet Glucokinase, Glucose Metabolism, and Insulin Pathway in the Enhancing Effect of Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein on Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Maiztegui, Bárbara; Román, Carolina L; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2015-08-01

    To demonstrate the role of islet glucokinase, glucose metabolism, and intracellular insulin mediators in the enhancing effect of islet neogenesis-associated protein pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP) on glucose-induced insulin secretion. Islets from normal rats were cultured for 4 days in the absence or presence of 10 μg/mL INGAP-PP, with/without Wortmannin or LY294002. Islets were incubated with different glucose concentrations to measure insulin secretion and content, hexokinase and glucokinase activity, glucose oxidation and utilization, glucokinase, insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2, and PI3K concentration and phosphorylation. The INGAP-PP significantly increased insulin release at high but not at low glucose concentration, glucokinase activity, glucose metabolism, glucokinase, insulin receptor, IRS-2 and PI3K protein concentration, insulin receptor and IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and the association of p85 with IRS-1. Wortmannin and LY294002 blocked INGAP-PP effect on insulin secretion and glucokinase protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancing effect of INGAP-PP on glucose-induced insulin release could be partly ascribed to its effect on glucokinase activity and glucose metabolism and is mainly mediated by the PI3K/AKT pathway. These results, together with the low hypoglycemia risk associated with the use of INGAP-PP, offer a new alternative for diabetes prevention and treatment.

  15. Exposure to static magnetic fields increases insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Mao, Libin; Wang, Huiqin; Ma, Fenghui; Guo, Zhixia; He, Hongpeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on insulin secretion and explore the mechanisms underlying exposure to SMF-induced insulin secretion in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells were exposed to a 400 mT SMF for 72 h, and the proliferation of INS-1 cells was detected by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The secretion of insulin was measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the expression of genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins was measured by Western blotting. Exposure to an SMF increased the expression and secretion of insulin by INS-1 cells but did not affect cell proliferation. Moreover, SMF exposure up-regulated the expression of several pancreas-specific transcriptional factors. Specifically, the activity of the rat insulin promoter was enhanced in INS-1 cells exposed to an SMF, and the expression levels of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and syntaxin-1A were up-regulated after exposure to an SMF. SMF exposure can promote insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

  16. OPA1 deficiency promotes secretion of FGF21 from muscle that prevents obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata Oliveira; Tadinada, Satya M; Zasadny, Frederick M; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Olvera, Angela; Jeffers, Jennifer; Souvenir, Rhonda; Mcglauflin, Rose; Seei, Alec; Funari, Trevor; Sesaki, Hiromi; Potthoff, Matthew J; Adams, Christopher M; Anderson, Ethan J; Abel, E Dale

    2017-07-14

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. OPA1-elicited mitochondrial dysfunction activates an integrated stress response that locally induces muscle atrophy, but via secretion of FGF21 acts distally to modulate whole-body metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Cafestol, a Bioactive Substance in Coffee, Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Increases Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells: Studies in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Mellbye, Fredrik Brustad; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Hermansen, Kjeld; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-10-23

    Diet and exercise intervention can delay or prevent development of type-2-diabetes (T2D), and high habitual coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of developing T2D. This study aimed to test whether selected bioactive substances in coffee acutely and/or chronically increase insulin secretion from β-cells and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Insulin secretion from INS-1E rat insulinoma cells was measured after acute (1-h) and long-term (72-h) incubation with bioactive substances from coffee. Additionally, we measured uptake of radioactive glucose in human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) after incubation with cafestol. Cafestol at 10(-8) and 10(-6) M acutely increased insulin secretion by 12% (p < 0.05) and 16% (p < 0.001), respectively. Long-term exposure to 10(-10) and 10(-8) M cafestol increased insulin secretion by 34% (p < 0.001) and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Caffeic acid also increased insulin secretion acutely and chronically. Chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, oxokahweol, and secoisolariciresinol did not significantly alter insulin secretion acutely. Glucose uptake in SkMC was significantly enhanced by 8% (p < 0.001) in the presence of 10(-8) M cafestol. This newly demonstrated dual action of cafestol suggests that cafestol may contribute to the preventive effects on T2D in coffee drinkers and be of therapeutic interest.

  18. Differential effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on insulin secretion from pancreatic islets isolated from rat and man.

    PubMed

    Lacey, R J; Berrow, N S; London, N J; Lake, S P; James, R F; Scarpello, J H; Morgan, N G

    1990-08-01

    The selective beta 2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol was ineffective as a stimulus for insulin secretion when isolated rat pancreatic islets were incubated with glucose at concentrations between 4 and 20 mM. Inclusion of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine led to potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion, but did not facilitate stimulation by clenbuterol. Furthermore, maintenance of isolated rat islets for up to 3 days in tissue culture also failed to result in the appearance of a secretory response to beta-agonists. By contrast, clenbuterol induced a dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated human islets incubated with 20 mM glucose. Clenbuterol did not increase the basal rate of insulin secretion (4 mM glucose) in human islets. Under perifusion conditions, the secretory response of human islets to clenbuterol was rapid, of similar magnitude to that seen under static incubation conditions and could be sustained for at least 30 min. The increase in insulin secretion induced by clenbuterol was inhibited by propranolol, indicating that the response was mediated by activation of beta-receptors. In support of this, a similar enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion was elicited by a different beta 2-agonist, salbutamol, in human islets. The results indicate that the B cells of isolated rat islets are unresponsive to beta-agonists, whereas those of human islets are equipped with functional beta-receptors which can directly influence the rate of insulin secretion.

  19. [Effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on insulin secretion patterns in morbidly obese patients].

    PubMed

    Qian, Chunhua; Zhu, Cuiling; Gao, Jingyang; Bu, Le; Zhou, Donglei; Li, Ning; Qu, Shen

    2018-01-25

    To assess the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on insulin secretion mode and metabolism of glucose and lipid in morbidly obese patients. Clinical data of 65 morbidly obese patients [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] undergoing LSG at Shanghai 10th People's Hospital from August 2012 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the result of OGTT, these obese patients were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 23 cases), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 22 cases) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, 20 cases) groups. Twenty-two healthy people [BMI (23.1±1.4) kg/m2] were used as control group. The anthropometries parameters [weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage, excess weight loss(%EWL)], glucose metabolic indices [fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR)], lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C) and inflammatory factor (UA, TNF-α) of 3 groups were detected before operation and at postoperative 1-, 3-, 6-month. These variables were analyzed among morbidly obese groups before and after surgery and compared to control group. Clinical registration number of this study was ChiCTROCSl2002381. Body weight, waist circumference and BMI of morbidly obese patients all decreased at postoperative 1-, 3-, 6-month. Postoperative %EWL increased obviously to (71.5±24.7)% with the highest range in DM group. Percentage of successful weight loss (%EWL>50%) in NGT, IGT and DM groups was 63.6%, 83.9% and 90.0% at postoperative 6-month respectively, and DM group was also the highest. At postoperative 6-month, HbA1c of 3 morbidly obese groups became normal; FPG and postprandial 2-hour glucose of IGT and DM group decreased to normal level; insulin level of 3 morbidly obese groups decreased obviously compared to pre-operation (all P<0.05), especially FINS and postprandial 2-hour insulin became normal without

  20. Circulating triacylglycerols but not pancreatic fat associate with insulin secretion in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Bettina; Kahl, Sabine; Klüppelholz, Birgit; Hoffmann, Barbara; Giani, Guido; Livingstone, Roshan; Nowotny, Peter J; Stamm, Valerie; Herder, Christian; Tura, Andrea; Pacini, Giovanni; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Roden, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating lipids, adipocytokines or pancreatic fat primarily associate with lower insulin secretion. Nondiabetic persons (n=73), recruited from the general population, underwent clinical examinations, fasting blood drawing to measure TG and adipocytokines and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to assess basal and dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity indices. Magnetic resonance imaging and 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure body fat distribution and ectopic fat content in liver and pancreas. In age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted analyses, total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin were the strongest negative predictors of fasting beta-cell function (BCF; β=-0.403, p=0.0003 and β=-0.237, p=0.01, respectively) and adaptation index (AI; β=-0.210, p=0.006 and β=-0.133, p=0.02, respectively). Circulating TG, but not pancreatic fat content, related positively to BCF (β=0.375, p<0.0001) and AI (β=0.192, p=0.003). Similar results were obtained for the disposition index (DI). The association of serum lipids and adiponectin with beta-cell function may represent a compensatory response to adapt for lower insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic humans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 increases β-cell proliferation and enhances insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Mori, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mitsuzaki-Miyoshi, Keiko; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Ono, Hiraku; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2017-07-14

    The prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds to the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motif of target proteins and enhances their cis-trans conversion. This report is the first to show that Pin1 expression in pancreatic β cells is markedly elevated by high-fat diet feeding and in ob/ob mice. To elucidate the role of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells, we generated β-cell-specific Pin1 KO (βPin1 KO) mice. These mutant mice showed exacerbation of glucose intolerance but had normal insulin sensitivity. We identified two independent factors underlying impaired insulin secretion in the βPin1 KO mice. Pin1 enhanced pancreatic β-cell proliferation, as indicated by a reduced β-cell mass in βPin1 KO mice compared with control mice. Moreover, a diet high in fat and sucrose failed to increase pancreatic β-cell growth in the βPin1 KO mice, an observation to which up-regulation of the cell cycle protein cyclin D appeared to contribute. The other role of Pin1 was to activate the insulin-secretory step: Pin1 KO β cells showed impairments in glucose- and KCl-induced elevation of the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and insulin secretion. We also identified salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) as a Pin1-binding protein that affected the regulation of Ca 2+ influx and found Pin1 to enhance SIK2 kinase activity, resulting in a decrease in p35 protein, a negative regulator of Ca 2+ influx. Taken together, our observations demonstrate critical roles of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells and that Pin1 both promotes β-cell proliferation and activates insulin secretion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Insulin Secretion and Resistance in Normoglycemic Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Yavropoulou, Maria P; Pikilidou, Maria; Pantelidou, Despoina; Tsalikakis, Dimitrios G; Mousiolis, Athanasios; Chalkia, Panagiota; Yovos, John G; Zebekakis, Pantelis

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been described in chronic hemolytic anemias, but data are scarce regarding glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients. To address this issue, we evaluated insulin sensitivity and secretion in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Forty-five adult patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and Hb S/β-thalassemia (β-thal) (mean age 42.5 ± 9.5 years) and 45 healthy individuals matched for age and body mass index (BMI) were included in the study. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after an overnight fast. All patients had normal OGTT. Fasting glucose values did not differ significantly between groups, however, fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group (5.1 ± 2.7 μUI/mL vs. 11.3 ± 6.6 μUI/mL, p <0.005, respectively). Pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion index in the fasting state was significantly lower in patients with sickle cell disease compared with controls as assessed by calculations of the homeostatic model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA β%) (77.0 vs. 106.0%, respectively, p <0.001), while HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA IR), was lower in the sickle cell disease patients, albeit not statistically significant (0.8 vs. 1.1, respectively, p = 0.054). The HOMA β% was significantly correlated with ferritin levels (r = -526, p <0.001) (negative correlation) and with 25-hydroxy (OH)-vitamin D levels (r = 0.479, p <0.001) (positive correlation), even when adjusted for serum ferritin levels. Normoglycemic patients with sickle cell disease demonstrated impaired β-cell function with reduced insulin secretion even before OGTT was impaired.

  3. Interaction of Munc18 and Syntaxin in the regulation of insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yongming; Wan, Qunfang; Yang, Xiaofei; Bai, Li; Xu, Pingyong . E-mail: pyxu@moon.ibp.ac.cn

    2007-08-31

    Syntaxin1A and Munc18-1 play essential roles in exocytosis. However, the molecular mechanism and the functional roles of their interaction in insulin secretion remain to be explored. Using membrane capacitance measurement, we examine effect of overexpressing Munc18-1 on exocytosis in pancreatic {beta} cells. The results show that Munc18-1 negatively regulates vesicle fusion. To probe the interaction between Munc18-1 and Syntaxin1A, Munc18-1-Tdimer2 and EGFP-Syntaxin1A were co-transfected into INS-1 cells. FRET measurement confirmed that Munc18-1 interacted with wild type Syntaxin 1A, but not the constitutively open form (DM) of Syntaxin1A. Overexpressing DM in primary pancreatic {beta} cells augmented insulin secretion, and this effect can overcome the inhibitory effect of Munc18-1 overexpression. We propose that Munc18-1 inhibitis the SNARE complex assembly by stabilizing Syntaxin1A in a closed conformation in vesicle priming process, therefore negatively regulates insulin secretion.

  4. Genetic Defects in Human Pericentrin Are Associated With Severe Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Bicknell, Louise S.; Finucane, Francis M.; Rocha, Nuno; Porter, Keith M.; Tung, Y.C. Loraine; Szekeres, Ferenc; Krook, Anna; Nolan, John J.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Bober, Michael; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Jackson, Andrew P.; Semple, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Genetic defects in human pericentrin (PCNT), encoding the centrosomal protein pericentrin, cause a form of osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism that is sometimes reported to be associated with diabetes. We thus set out to determine the prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance among patients with PCNT defects and examined the effects of pericentrin depletion on insulin action using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a model system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional metabolic assessment of 21 patients with PCNT mutations was undertaken. Pericentrin expression in human tissues was profiled using quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of pericentrin knockdown on insulin action and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was determined using Oil red O staining, gene-expression analysis, immunoblotting, and glucose uptake assays. Pericentrin expression and localization also was determined in skeletal muscle. RESULTS Of 21 patients with genetic defects in PCNT, 18 had insulin resistance, which was severe in the majority of subjects. Ten subjects had confirmed diabetes (mean age of onset 15 years [range 5–28]), and 13 had metabolic dyslipidemia. All patients without insulin resistance were younger than 4 years old. Knockdown of pericentrin in adipocytes had no effect on proximal insulin signaling but produced a twofold impairment in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, approximately commensurate with an associated defect in cell proliferation and adipogenesis. Pericentrin was highly expressed in human skeletal muscle, where it showed a perinuclear distribution. CONCLUSIONS Severe insulin resistance and premature diabetes are common features of PCNT deficiency but are not congenital. Partial failure of adipocyte differentiation may contribute to this, but pericentrin deficiency does not impair proximal insulin action in adipocytes. PMID:21270239

  5. Stimulation of insulin secretion reveals heterogeneity of pancreatic B cells in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Y; Meda, P; Neufeld, M; Orci, L

    1987-01-01

    We examined the immunofluorescence and ultrastructural changes of insulin-producing B cells in the center and at the periphery of islets of Langerhans during in vivo stimulation by glucose and glibenclamide. A decreased insulin immunostaining was detected in islets from the splenic rat pancreas after 1.5 h of glucose stimulation. By contrast, immunofluorescence changes became apparent in islets from the duodenal pancreas only after greater than 3 h of hyperglycemia. In both cases, the immunolabeling of central B cells decreased before that of peripheral B cells. Similar changes were seen following in vivo stimulation of insulin secretion by glibenclamide. At the ultrastructural level, hyperglycemia decreased the volume density of B cell secretory granules and increased that of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. These changes were also detected earlier in central than in peripheral B cells and earlier in splenic than in duodenal islets. The data show that B cells form a heterogeneous population in vivo. Images PMID:3110211

  6. A novel Gymnema sylvestre extract stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Asare-Anane, H; Maity, C R; Chatterjee, S K; Koley, N; Biswas, T; Chatterji, A K; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S A; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2010-09-01

    Many plant-based products have been suggested as potential antidiabetic agents, but few have been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in human studies, and little is known of their mechanisms of action. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have been used for the treatment of T2DM in India for centuries. The effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract, Om Santal Adivasi, (OSA(R)) on plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose in a small cohort of patients with T2DM are reported here. Oral administration of OSA(R) (1 g/day, 60 days) induced significant increases in circulating insulin and C-peptide, which were associated with significant reductions in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose. In vitro measurements using isolated human islets of Langerhans demonstrated direct stimulatory effects of OSA(R) on insulin secretion from human ß-cells, consistent with an in vivo mode of action through enhancing insulin secretion. These in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that OSA(R) may provide a potential alternative therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with T2DM. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Does epigenetic dysregulation of pancreatic islets contribute to impaired insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    β cell dysfunction is central to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D develops when β cells are not able to compensate for the increasing demand for insulin caused by insulin resistance. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in establishing and maintaining β cell identity and function in physiological conditions. On the other hand, epigenetic dysregulation can cause a loss of β cell identity, which is characterized by reduced expression of genes that are important for β cell function, ectopic expression of genes that are not supposed to be expressed in β cells, and loss of genetic imprinting. Consequently, this may lead to β cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. Risk factors that can cause epigenetic dysregulation include parental obesity, an adverse intrauterine environment, hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, aging, physical inactivity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These risk factors can affect the epigenome at different time points throughout the lifetime of an individual and even before an individual is conceived. The plasticity of the epigenome enables it to change in response to environmental factors such as diet and exercise, and also makes the epigenome a good target for epigenetic drugs that may be used to enhance insulin secretion and potentially treat diabetes.

  8. Gastrin releasing peptide augments glucose mediated 45Ca2+ uptake, electrical activity, and insulin secretion of mouse pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, M.A.; Plehn, R.J.; Landsbeck, E.A.; Verspohl, E.J.; Ammon, H.P. )

    1991-06-01

    Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) has recently been shown to increase glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo. Being present in pancreatic tissue, the 27-amino acid peptide could play a role in the control of the glucose-induced insulin secretion of islets of Langerhans. In the presence of a stimulatory glucose concentration, GRP augmented insulin secretion of isolated islets in batch incubations. The peptide did not affect 86Rb+ efflux in the presence of 3 or 5.6 mM glucose but reduced the increase of 86Rb+ efflux evoked by the calcium ionophore A23187. 45Ca2+ uptake and intracellular recorded electrical activity induced by glucose were amplified by GRP. It is suggested that GRP plays a role in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by increasing the uptake of Ca2+ directly or by inhibition of the Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel activity and reduced repolarization of the cell.

  9. Theophylline prevents the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Salvatore, T; Giunta, R; Torella, R

    1988-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism by which prostaglandins of the E series inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion in man. Acute insulin response (mean change 3-10 min) to iv glucose (0.33 g/kg) was decreased by 40% during the infusion of prostaglandin E2 (10 micrograms/min) and glucose disappearance rates were reduced (P less than 0.05). Insulin response to arginine (5 g iv) and tolbutamide (1 g iv) were not affected by the same rate of prostaglandin E2 infusion. The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion was prevented by theophylline (100 mg as a loading dose followed by a 5 mg/min infusion), a drug that increases the intracellular cAMP concentrations by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity. Our data suggest the involvement of the adenylate cyclase system in the inhibitory action of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

  10. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yunli, E-mail: chrisyu1255@yahoo.com.cn; Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009; Wang, Xinting, E-mail: wxinting1986@yahoo.com.cn

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-daymore » gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may

  11. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores. Images PMID:7635965

  12. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-08-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores.

  13. Direct effect of cholesterol on insulin secretion: a novel mechanism for pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Mingming; Head, W Steven; Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Hasty, Alyssa H; Piston, David W

    2007-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by abnormal blood lipid and lipoprotein levels, but most studies on the link between hyperlipidemia and diabetes have focused on free fatty acids (FFAs). In this study, we examined the relationship between cholesterol and insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells that is independent of the effects of FFAs. Several methods were used to modulate cholesterol levels in intact islets and cultured beta-cells, including a recently developed mouse model that exhibits elevated cholesterol but normal FFA levels. Acute and metabolic alteration of cholesterol was done using pharmacological reagents. We found a direct link between elevated serum cholesterol and reduced insulin secretion, with normal secretion restored by cholesterol depletion. We further demonstrate that excess cholesterol inhibits secretion by downregulation of metabolism through increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase dimerization. This direct effect of cholesterol on beta-cell metabolism opens a novel set of mechanisms that may contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and the onset of diabetes in obese patients.

  14. Fluoxetine impairs insulin secretion without modifying extracellular serotonin levels in MIN6 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, L R; Cortés, V A; Mizgier, M L; Aranda, E; Mezzano, D; Olmos, P; Galgani, J E; Suazo, J; Santos, J L

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic β-cells synthetize and store Serotonin (5-Hydroxytriptamine, 5HT) which is co-released with insulin. It has been proposed that extracellular 5HT binds to specific cell surface receptors and modulate insulin secretion. On the other hand, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine seems to reduce Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion (GSIS). However, it is unknown whether this effect results from changes in extracellular 5HT concentration owed to the blockade of 5HT transporter (SERT) or from non-5HT dependent actions. The aims of this work were: 1) to quantify extracellular 5HT levels and GSIS in β-cell lines, 2) to determine whether extracellular 5HT levels and GSIS are changed by fluoxetine or 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5HTP, the immediate 5HT biosynthetic precursor), and 3) to quantify the expression of Slc6a4 gene (encoding SERT) in β-cell lines in relation to other genes involved in 5HT system. β-cell lines MIN6 and RINm5f were subjected to GSIS protocols, after treatment with fluoxetine, 5HTP or 5HT. Insulin and 5HT were quantified by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. Relative mRNA expression was quantified by RT-qPCR. MIN6 β-cells secretes 5HT in response to glucose, showing a sharp increase in 5HT release when cells were preloaded with 5HTP. Treatment with 5HT or fluoxetine reduces GSIS. Fluoxetine fails to further increases 5HTP-induced elevation of secreted 5HT. MIN6 β-cells express both isoforms of Tryptophan Hydroxylase (Tph1 and Tph2), and have high expression levels of L-Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), both enzymes involved in 5HT biosynthetic pathway, but do not express the 5HT transporters Slc6a4 or Slc6a3 (the Dopamine-5HT transporter) genes. The inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on β-cell glucose stimulated insulin secretion is not mediated by blockage of 5HT transporter through SERT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Diet, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity--the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training (DR's EXTRA) Study (ISRCTN45977199).

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Harri M; Krachler, Benno; Rauramaa, Rainer; Schwab, Ursula S

    2014-11-14

    Intakes of saturated fat (SF) and dietary fibre, body mass and physical activity are all associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Their relative importance for the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism is not fully known. In a population-based sample of 1114 individuals, aged 58-78 years, dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d food records and cardiorespiratory fitness as maximal oxygen uptake. Insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, the early-phase disposition index (DI30) and the total disposition index (DI120) were assessed based on an oral glucose tolerance test. Linear associations were modelled using linear regression. Combined effects were studied by introducing SF and fibre intakes, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference (WC) as dichotomised variables in general linear models. Intakes of dietary fibre and whole-grain bread were positively associated with insulin sensitivity, independent of physical fitness and WC. In women, dietary fibre intake was also positively associated with DI30. The negative association of high WC with DI30 was attenuated by a combination of low SF intake and high cardiorespiratory fitness. In conclusion, dietary fibre and a combination of low SF intake and high cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism, independent of WC.

  16. Engineered Commensal Bacteria Reprogram Intestinal Cells Into Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Franklin F.; Liu, Joy H.

    2015-01-01

    The inactive full-length form of GLP-1(1-37) stimulates conversion of both rat and human intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-secreting cells. We investigated whether oral administration of human commensal bacteria engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37) could ameliorate hyperglycemia in a rat model of diabetes by reprogramming intestinal cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells. Diabetic rats were fed daily with human lactobacilli engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37). Diabetic rats fed GLP-1–secreting bacteria showed significant increases in insulin levels and, additionally, were significantly more glucose tolerant than those fed the parent bacterial strain. These rats developed insulin-producing cells within the upper intestine in numbers sufficient to replace ∼25–33% of the insulin capacity of nondiabetic healthy rats. Intestinal tissues in rats with reprogrammed cells expressed MafA, PDX-1, and FoxA2. HNF-6 expression was observed only in crypt epithelia expressing insulin and not in epithelia located higher on the villous axis. Staining for other cell markers in rats treated with GLP-1(1-37)–secreting bacteria suggested that normal function was not inhibited by the close physical proximity of reprogrammed cells. These results provide evidence of the potential for a safe and effective nonabsorbed oral treatment for diabetes and support the concept of engineered commensal bacterial signaling to mediate enteric cell function in vivo. PMID:25626737

  17. Family history of diabetes and its relationship with insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Iraqi immigrants and native Swedes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Louise; Franks, Paul W; Zöller, Bengt; Groop, Leif

    2018-03-01

    Middle Eastern immigrants to western countries are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the heritability and impact of first-degree family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes on insulin secretion and action have not been adequately described. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-75 years born in Iraq or Sweden were invited to participate in this population-based study. Insulin secretion (corrected insulin response and oral disposition index) and action (insulin sensitivity index) were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. In total, 45.7% of Iraqis (616/1348) and 27.4% of native Swedes (201/733) had FH in parent(s), sibling(s) or single parent and sibling, i.e., FH+. Approximately 8% of Iraqis and 0.7% of Swedes had ≥ 3 sibling(s) and parent(s) with diabetes, i.e., FH++. Irrespective of family size, prediabetes and diabetes increased with family burden (FH- 29.4%; FH+ 38.8%; FH++ 61.7%) without significant differences across ethnicities. With increasing level of family burden, insulin secretion rather than insulin action decreased. Individuals with a combination of ≥ 3 siblings and parents with diabetes presented with the lowest levels of insulin secretion. The Iraqi immigrant population often present with a strong familial burden of type 2 diabetes with the worst glycemic control and highest diabetes risk in individuals with ≥ 3 siblings and parents with diabetes. Our data show that in a population still free from diabetes familial burden influences insulin secretion to a higher degree than insulin action and may be a logical target for intervention.

  18. Defective insulin signaling in placenta from pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colomiere, Michelle; Permezel, Michael; Riley, Clyde; Desoye, Gernot; Lappas, Martha

    2009-04-01

    Studies in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle suggest that impaired insulin action is due to defects in the insulin signaling pathway and may play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous expression levels in the human term placenta of insulin signaling components are altered in placental tissue from GDM women in comparison with normal controls and maternal obesity. Placental tissue was collected from normal, diet-controlled GDM, and insulin-controlled GDM in both non-obese and obese women (n=6-7 per group). Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to determine the level of expression in the insulin signaling pathway. There was a significant increase in insulin receptor (IR) substrate (IRS)-1 protein expression with a concurrent decrease in IRS-2 protein expression in non-obese women with insulin-controlled GDM compared with diet-controlled GDM and normal controls. Furthermore, a decrease in both protein and mRNA expression of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) p85alpha and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 was observed in non-obese and obese women with insulin controlled GDM compared with normal controls. When comparing non-obese to obese patients, significant decreases in mRNA expression of IR-beta, PI3K p85alpha and GLUT-4 was found in obese patients. Our results suggest that post receptor defects are present in the insulin signaling pathway in placenta of women with pregnancies complicated by diabetes and obesity. In addition, expression studies demonstrate post receptor alterations in insulin signaling possibly under selective maternal regulation and not fetal regulation.

  19. Angiotensin IV stimulates high atrial stretch-induced ANP secretion via insulin regulated aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung Mun; Cha, Seung Ah; Han, Bo Ram; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) is formed by aminopeptidase N (APN) from angiotensin III (Ang III) by removing the first N-terminal amino acid. Previously, we reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and Ang III stimulate ANP secretion via Mas receptor (Mas R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R), respectively. However, it is not known whether there is any relationship between Ang IV and ANP secretion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Ang IV on ANP secretion and to find its downstream signaling pathway using in isolated perfused beating atria. Ang IV (0.1, 1 and 10μM) stimulated high atrial stretch-induced ANP secretion and ANP concentration in a dose-dependent manner. The augmented effect of Ang IV (1μM) on high atrial stretch-induced ANP secretion and concentration was attenuated by pretreatment with insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) antagonist but not by AT1R or AT2R antagonist. Pretreatment with inhibitors of downstream signaling pathway including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) blocked Ang IV-induced ANP secretion and concentration. Therefore, these results suggest that Ang IV stimulates ANP secretion and concentration via IRAP and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P.

    2016-01-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10−8M to 10−5M] for various time (5–60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10−5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10−5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5–60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10−5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors. PMID:27429837

  1. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P

    2012-04-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10-8M to 10-5M] for various time (5-60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10-5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10-5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5-60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10-5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors.

  2. Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue Secretions from Extremely Obese Men and Women both Acutely Suppress Muscle Insulin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Ousseynou; Strohm, Rachel Joyce; MacDonald, Tara Lynn; Gaudio, Nicholas; Reed, John Kenneth; Foute-Nelong, Jules; Dyck, David James; Mutch, David Michael

    2017-05-02

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of type-2 diabetes via the secretion of adipokines. The current study investigated if secretion media derived from intact visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from extremely obese men and women differently suppressed insulin signaling in human skeletal myotubes derived from a healthy, non-diabetic male and female donor, respectively. Adipose tissue samples were collected from men and women during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In general, secretion media collected from both SAT and VAT depots caused impaired insulin signaling in myotubes, independent of sex. In females, this was true regardless of the protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation site (Akt Thr308 and Akt Ser473 ) assessed ( p < 0.01). In males, both SAT and VAT secretion media reduced Akt Thr308 activation in insulin-stimulated myotubes compared to controls ( p < 0.001); however, only the VAT secretion media impaired Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Independent of sex, 13 out of 18 detected cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were more abundant in VAT versus SAT secretion media ( p < 0.01). Both SAT and VAT secretion media from obese men and women acutely suppress insulin signaling in myotubes, despite different secretion profiles. We propose that this crosstalk model will help to extend our understanding of the interplay between adipose and muscle, as well as the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes.

  3. Insulin sensitivity and secretion changes after gastric bypass in normotolerant and diabetic obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Salinari, Serenella; Bertuzzi, Alessandro; Guidone, Caterina; Previti, Elena; Rubino, Francesco; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of improvement/reversal of type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Fourteen morbidly obese subjects, 7 with normal glucose tolerance and 7 with type 2 diabetes, were studied before and 1 month after RYGB by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC), by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 3 different sessions. Intravenous glucose tolerance test IVGTT and OGTT insulin secretion rate (ISR) and sensitivity were obtained by the minimal model. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Six healthy volunteers were used as controls. Total ISR largely increased in diabetic subjects only when glucose was administered orally (37.8 ± 14.9 vs 68.3 ± 22.8 nmol; P < 0.05, preoperatively vs postoperatively). The first-phase insulin secretion was restored in type 2 diabetic after the IVGTT (Φ1 × 10: 104 ± 54 vs 228 ± 88; P < 0.05, preoperatively vs postoperatively; 242 ± 99 in controls). Insulin sensitivity by EHC (M × 10) was slightly but significantly improved in both normotolerant and diabetic subjects (1.46 ± 0.22 vs 1.37 ± 0.55 mmol·min·kg; P < 0.05 and 1.53 ± 0.23 vs 1.28 ± 0.62 mmol·min·kg; P < 0.05, respectively). Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was improved in all normotolerant (0.32 ± 0.02 vs 0.30 ± 0.02; P < 0.05) and diabetic subjects (0.33 ± 0.03 vs 0.31 ± 0.02; P < 0.05). GIP and GLP-1 levels increased both at fast and after OGTT mainly in type 2 diabetic subjects. The large increase of ISR response to the OGTT together with the restoration of the first-phase insulin secretion in diabetic subjects might explain the reversal of type 2 diabetes after RYGB. The large incretin secretion after the oral glucose load might contribute to the increased ISR.

  4. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24–48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  5. Chronic intermittent hypoxia disturbs insulin secretion and causes pancreatic injury via the MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeying; Hai, Bing; Niu, Xiaoqun; Ai, Li; Cao, Yu; Li, Ran; Li, Yongxia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder during sleep, with a most prominent character of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damages multiple tissues and causes metabolic disorders. In this study, we established a rat model of varying OSA with different grades of CIH (12.5% O 2 , 10% O 2 , 7.5% O 2 , and 5% O 2 ) for 12 weeks, and found that CIH stimulated insulin secretion, reduced the insulin:proinsulin ratio in pancreatic tissue, and caused pancreatic tissue lesions and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CIH promoted the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members, extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and P38, depending on the O 2 concentration. In summary, CIH disturbed insulin secretion, and caused inflammation, lesions, and cell apoptosis in pancreatic tissue via the MAPK signaling pathway, which may be of great significance for clinical treatment of OSA and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

  6. Block of Kv1.7 potassium currents increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K; Remedi, Maria S; Raasch, Walter; Becker, Stefan; Clark, Robert B; Strüver, Nina; Pavlov, Evgeny; Nichols, Colin G; French, Robert J; Terlau, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) relies on repetitive, electrical spiking activity of the beta cell membrane. Cyclic activation of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) generates an outward, ‘delayed rectifier’ potassium current, which drives the repolarizing phase of each spike and modulates insulin release. Although several Kv channels are expressed in pancreatic islets, their individual contributions to GSIS remain incompletely understood. We take advantage of a naturally occurring cone-snail peptide toxin, Conkunitzin-S1 (Conk-S1), which selectively blocks Kv1.7 channels to provide an intrinsically limited, finely graded control of total beta cell delayed rectifier current and hence of GSIS. Conk-S1 increases GSIS in isolated rat islets, likely by reducing Kv1.7-mediated delayed rectifier currents in beta cells, which yields increases in action potential firing and cytoplasmic free calcium. In rats, Conk-S1 increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion without decreasing basal glucose. Thus, we conclude that Kv1.7 contributes to the membrane-repolarizing current of beta cells during GSIS and that block of this specific component of beta cell Kv current offers a potential strategy for enhancing GSIS with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia during metabolic disorders such as Type 2 diabetes. PMID:22438204

  7. Influence of the sympatho-adrenal system and somatostatin on the secretion of insulin in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ahrén, B.; Järhult, J.; Lundquist, I.

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of somatostatin on insulin secretion in anaesthetized rats subjected to different manipulations of the sympatho-adrenal system have been investigated. 2. Somatostatin (0·1 μg/min) inhibited the secretion of insulin in intact rats both in the basal state and after inducing an enhanced insulin release by infusion of the α-adrenoceptor-blocker phentolamine. 3. Combined surgical splanchnicotomy and adrenalectomy caused an increase in the basal plasma insulin concentration. Somatostatin (0·1 μg/min) inhibited basal insulin release also in these rats. After infusion of phentolamine, however, the dose of somatostatin had to be raised five fold (0·5 μg/min) to achieve a comparable inhibition of insulin release. On the other hand, a similar rate of insulin secretion induced by glucose in intact rats could be inhibited by the lower dose of somatostatin. 4. Administration of the β-adrenoceptor-blocking agent propranolol to splanchnicotomized—adrenalectomized rats lowered basal insulin secretion to the same level as seen in intact rats. In these β-adrenoceptor-blocked rats somatostatin (0·1 μg/min) inhibited insulin release both in the presence and absence of α-adrenoceptor blockade. 5. Rats subjected to chemical sympathectomy through pre-treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine together with adrenalectomy displayed plasma insulin concentrations slightly above the normal range, but the values were much lower than in splanchnicotomized—adrenalectomized rats. Infusion of phentolamine to the chemically sympathectomized rats did not further increase insulin secretion, and somatostatin (0·1 μg/min) depressed insulin release both in the absence and presence of α-adrenoceptor blockade. 6. It is suggested that an inhibitory tone exerted by the splanchnic nerves modulates the basal insulin secretion in the rat. Somatostatin and the sympathoadrenal system show a complex interaction on the insulin cells in that the sensitivity to somatostatin in

  8. Insulin Modulates Cytokine Release, Collagen and Mucus Secretion in Lung Remodeling of Allergic Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina S; Nunes, Fernanda P B; Casagrande, Felipe B; Martins, Joilson O

    2017-01-01

    secretion into the lungs. The results suggest that insulin modulates the production/release of cytokines, cell migration, deposition of collagen, and mucus secretion in lung remodeling of a mouse model of asthma.

  9. Protein Fractions from Korean Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) Extract Induce Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2014-01-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) has been known as a medicinal plant in European and Asian countries. Recent data show that biological activity of mistletoe alleviates hypertension, heart disease, renal failure, and cancer development. In this study, we report the antidiabetic effect of Korean mistletoe extract (KME). KME treatments enhanced the insulin secretion from the pancreatic β -cell without any effects of cytotoxicity. PDX-1 and beta2/neuroD known as transcription factors that regulate the expression of insulin gene were upregulated by treatment of the KME protein fractions isolated by ion-exchange chromatography after ammonium sulfate precipitation. Furthermore, these KME protein fractions significantly lowered the blood glucose level and the volume of drinking water in alloxan induced hyperglycemic mice. Taken together with the findings, it provides new insight that KME might be served as a useful source for the development of medicinal reagent to reduce blood glucose level of type I diabetic patients.

  10. [Stimulation of insulin secretion by medium-chain fatty acids in the diet of young rabbits].

    PubMed

    Perret, J P; Guiffray, N; Mottaz, P

    1983-01-01

    In the young rabbit, immunoreactive serum insulin (IRI) significantly rises during the first 5 min after suckling and then 20-60 min later, at which time the maximum level is reached. Blood glucose levels remain stable, blood ketone bodies increase 2.7 times and the liver glycogen levels decrease. Replacement of maternal milk by an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl, 2% lactose or 3.5% glycerol does not induce any change in IRI. IRI significantly rises if solutions of bovine milk proteins or skimmed rabbit's milk are administered. This effect is quickened and strengthened by the addition of coconut oil or lipids of rabbit's milk whereas sunflower oil is ineffective. It is suggested that medium-chain fatty acids, major components of rabbit's milk lipids, play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion in the young rabbit.

  11. Differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor β-cells into insulin secreting cells in mice with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Ermakova, N N; Khmelevskaya, E S; Pershina, O V; Krupin, V A; Ermolaeva, L A; Dygai, A M

    2014-04-01

    We studied in vitro differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor cells into insulin secreting cells in the model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in C57Bl/6 mice. Streptozotocin was shown to increase the population of pancreatic oligopotent β-cell precursors (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD133(+), and CD49f(low)) and did not affect multipotent (stem) progenitor cells (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), CD309(-)). During long-term culturing, diabetic multipotent progenitor cells showed high capacity for self-renewal. A population of dithizone-positive (insulin secreting cells) mononuclear cells was obtained releasing insulin after prolonged culturing in suspension enriched with diabetic CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), and CD309(-) cells. The rate of generation of "new" insulin-producing cells and insulin release in the samples of experimental group considerably exceeded activity of the corresponding processes in the control group.

  12. Overexpression of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase protects insulin-secreting cells against cytokine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Claudine; Tyka, Karolina; Saba, Julie D; Lenzen, Sigurd; Gurgul-Convey, Ewa

    2017-12-08

    Increasing evidence suggests a crucial role of inflammation in cytokine-mediated β-cell dysfunction and death in type 1 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a multifunctional bioactive sphingolipid involved in the development of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the role of intracellular S1P in insulin-secreting INS1E cells by genetically manipulating the S1P-metabolizing enzyme S1P lyase (SPL). The expression of spl was down-regulated by cytokines in INS1E cells and rat islets. Overexpression of SPL protected against cytokine toxicity. Interestingly, the SPL overexpression did not suppress the cytokine-induced NFκB-iNOS-NO pathway but attenuated calcium leakage from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores as manifested by lower cytosolic calcium levels, higher expression of the ER protein Sec61a, decreased dephosphorylation of Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) protein, and weaker caspase-3 activation in cytokine-treated (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ) cells. This coincided with reduced cytokine-mediated ER stress, indicated by measurements of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein ( chop ) and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein ( bip ) levels. Moreover, cytokine-treated SPL-overexpressing cells exhibited increased expression of prohibitin 2 (Phb2), involved in the regulation of mitochondrial assembly and respiration. SPL-overexpressing cells were partially protected against cytokine-mediated ATP reduction and inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion. siRNA-mediated spl suppression resulted in effects opposite to those observed for SPL overexpression. Knockdown of phb2 partially reversed beneficial effects of SPL overexpression. In conclusion, the relatively low endogenous Spl expression level in insulin-secreting cells contributes to their extraordinary vulnerability to proinflammatory cytokine toxicity and may therefore represent a promising

  13. Enhancesβ-Cell Mass Proliferation and Insulin Secretion in Streptozotocin Evokedβ-Cell Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Patial, Vikram; Soni, Sourabh; Sharma, Supriya; Pratap, Kunal; Kumar, Dinesh; Padwad, Yogendra

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells leads to insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Regeneration of β-cells is one of the proposed treatment for type 1 diabetes and insulin insufficiency. Picrorhiza kurroa is a medicinal herb and is traditionally being used for the treatment of various diseases. Previous studies reported the hypoglycemic potential of P. kurroa . However, its potential role in β-cell induction in insulin secretion have not been fully investigated. Here, we characterized the hydro alcoholic extract of P. kurroa rhizome (PKRE) and further studied its β-cell regeneration and induction of insulin secretion potential in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats as well as in insulin producing Rin5f cells. 1 H-NMR revealed the presence of more than thirty metabolites including picroside I and II in PKRE. Further, we found that PKRE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg dose for 30 days) significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) protected the pancreatic β-cells against streptozotocin (STZ) evoked damage and inhibited the glucagon receptor expression (Gcgr) in hepatic and renal tissues. It significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) enhanced the insulin expression and aids in proliferation of insulin producing Rin5f cells with elevated insulin secretion. Furthermore it significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) increased insulin mediated glucose uptake in 3T3L1 and L6 cells. On the contrary, in diabetic rats, PKRE significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) decreased high blood glucose and restored the normal levels of serum biochemicals. Altogether, our results showed that PKRE displayed β-cell regeneration with enhanced insulin production and antihyperglycemic effects. PKRE also improves hepatic and renal functions against oxidative damage.

  14. Picrorhiza kurroa Enhances β-Cell Mass Proliferation and Insulin Secretion in Streptozotocin Evoked β-Cell Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shiv; Patial, Vikram; Soni, Sourabh; Sharma, Supriya; Pratap, Kunal; Kumar, Dinesh; Padwad, Yogendra

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells leads to insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Regeneration of β-cells is one of the proposed treatment for type 1 diabetes and insulin insufficiency. Picrorhiza kurroa is a medicinal herb and is traditionally being used for the treatment of various diseases. Previous studies reported the hypoglycemic potential of P. kurroa. However, its potential role in β-cell induction in insulin secretion have not been fully investigated. Here, we characterized the hydro alcoholic extract of P. kurroa rhizome (PKRE) and further studied its β-cell regeneration and induction of insulin secretion potential in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats as well as in insulin producing Rin5f cells. 1H-NMR revealed the presence of more than thirty metabolites including picroside I and II in PKRE. Further, we found that PKRE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg dose for 30 days) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) protected the pancreatic β-cells against streptozotocin (STZ) evoked damage and inhibited the glucagon receptor expression (Gcgr) in hepatic and renal tissues. It significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced the insulin expression and aids in proliferation of insulin producing Rin5f cells with elevated insulin secretion. Furthermore it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased insulin mediated glucose uptake in 3T3L1 and L6 cells. On the contrary, in diabetic rats, PKRE significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased high blood glucose and restored the normal levels of serum biochemicals. Altogether, our results showed that PKRE displayed β-cell regeneration with enhanced insulin production and antihyperglycemic effects. PKRE also improves hepatic and renal functions against oxidative damage. PMID:28878669

  15. Quercetin induces insulin secretion by direct activation of L-type calcium channels in pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, G; Virsolvy, A; Quignard, J F; Ravier, M A; Bertrand, G; Dalle, S; Cros, G; Magous, R; Richard, S; Oiry, C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Quercetin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid that displays anti-diabetic properties in vivo. Its mechanism of action on insulin-secreting beta cells is poorly documented. In this work, we have analysed the effects of quercetin both on insulin secretion and on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in beta cells, in the absence of any co-stimulating factor. Experimental Approach Experiments were performed on both INS-1 cell line and rat isolated pancreatic islets. Insulin release was quantified by the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Variations in [Ca2+]i were measured using the ratiometric fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fura-2. Ca2+ channel currents were recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key Results Quercetin concentration-dependently increased insulin secretion and elevated [Ca2+]i. These effects were not modified by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol·L−1), but were nearly abolished by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine (1 μmol·L−1). Similar to the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644, quercetin enhanced the L-type Ca2+ current by shifting its voltage-dependent activation towards negative potentials, leading to the increase in [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion. The effects of quercetin were not inhibited in the presence of a maximally active concentration of Bay K 8644 (1 μmol·L−1), with the two drugs having cumulative effects on [Ca2+]i. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, our results show that quercetin stimulates insulin secretion by increasing Ca2+ influx through an interaction with L-type Ca2+ channels at a site different from that of Bay K 8644. These data contribute to a better understanding of quercetin's mechanism of action on insulin secretion. PMID:23530660

  16. Overall and central obesity with insulin sensitivity and secretion in a Han Chinese population: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Ma, X; Tang, T; Jin, L; Peng, D; Zhang, R; Chen, M; Yan, J; Wang, S; Yan, D; He, Z; Jiang, F; Cheng, X; Bao, Y; Liu, Z; Hu, C; Jia, W

    2016-11-01

    Clinical heterogeneity exists in overall obesity and obesity in terms of susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, but the relationship is vulnerable to be confounded by traditional risk factors in epidemiological studies. We aimed to characterize the impact of obesity in insulin secretion and sensitivity by using Mendelian randomization (MR) approach with genetic variants. We first constructed two genetic risk scores based on 38 established loci for body mass index (BMI; a surrogate of overall obesity) and 13 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; a surrogate of central obesity) to assess the causal effects of BMI and WHR on several glycaemic-related traits in 2884 community-based Han Chinese individuals. Both of BMI and WHR were observationally correlated with insulin secretion and sensitivity indices. The MR analysis demonstrated that a genetically determined 1 s.d. (3.35 kg m-2) higher BMI caused a unit of 178.18 pmol l-1 higher Stumvoll first-phase and 35.52 pmol l-1 higher Stumvoll second-phase insulin secretion (P=0.001 and 0.002, respectively), which were even independent of central obesity (P=0.019 and 0.039, respectively). In contrast, a genetically determined 1 s.d. higher WHR (a change of 0.002 in WHR) caused a unit of 1.21 higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and 18.40 lower Gutt index (representing the insulin sensitivity) (P=0.048 and 0.028, respectively). No substantial heterogeneity existed between the observed associations and the genetic estimated associations (P for difference >0.05). We provide new causal evidence that the impact of obesity on insulin secretion and sensitivity could vary between overall obesity and central obesity in Han Chinese populations and also identify the extent to which overall obesity affects compensatory insulin secretion and central obesity inversely links to insulin sensitivity.

  17. Chromogranin A regulates vesicle storage and mitochondrial dynamics to influence insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wollam, Joshua; Mahata, Sumana; Riopel, Matthew; Hernandez-Carretero, Angelina; Biswas, Angshuman; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Chi, Nai-Wen; Eiden, Lee E; Mahapatra, Nitish R; Corti, Angelo; Webster, Nicholas J G; Mahata, Sushil K

    2017-06-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells. CgA deficiency in Chga-KO islets leads to compensatory overexpression of chromogranin B, secretogranin II, SNARE proteins and insulin genes, as well as increased insulin protein content. Ultrastructural studies of pancreatic islets revealed that Chga-KO β-cells contain fewer immature secretory granules than wild-type (WT) control but increased numbers of mature secretory granules and plasma membrane-docked vesicles. Compared to WT control, CgA-deficient β-cells exhibited increases in mitochondrial volume, numerical densities and fusion, as well as increased expression of nuclear encoded genes (Ndufa9, Ndufs8, Cyc1 and Atp5o). These changes in secretory vesicles and the mitochondria likely contribute to the increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion observed in Chga-KO mice. We conclude that CgA is an important regulator for coordination of mitochondrial dynamics, secretory vesicular quanta and GSIS for optimal secretory functioning of β-cells, suggesting a strong, CgA-dependent positive link between mitochondrial fusion and GSIS.

  18. Multiple sites of purinergic control of insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, C R; Bokvist, K; Olsen, H L; Høy, M; Capito, K; Gilon, P; Gromada, J

    1999-11-01

    In mouse pancreatic beta-cells, extracellular ATP (0.1 mmol/l) effectively reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion. This inhibitory action resulted from a direct interference with the secretory machinery, and ATP suppressed depolarization-induced exocytosis by 60% as revealed by high-resolution capacitance measurements. Suppression of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis was mediated via binding to P2Y1 purinoceptors but was not associated with inhibition of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents or adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibition of exocytosis by ATP resulted from G-protein-dependent activation of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase calcineurin and was abolished by cyclosporin A and deltamethrin. In contrast to the direct inhibitory action on exocytosis, ATP reduced the whole-cell ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) current by 30% (via activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2), leading to membrane depolarization and stimulation of electrical activity. The stimulatory effect of ATP also involved mobilization of Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores. We propose that the inhibitory action of ATP, by interacting with the secretory machinery at a level downstream to an elevation in [Ca2+]i, is important for autocrine regulation of insulin secretion in mouse beta-cells.

  19. [Role of peripheral serotonin in the insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Cortés, Víctor Antonio; Galgani, José Eduardo; Olmos, Pablo Roberto; Santos, José Luis

    2014-09-01

    The most studied roles of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) have been related to its action in the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, most of 5HT is produced outside the CNS, mainly in the enterochromaffin cells of the gut. Additionally, other tissues such as the endocrine pancreas, particularly β-cells, have its own serotonin system able to synthesize, secrete and respond to extracellular 5HT through cell surface receptors subtypes that have been grouped in 7 families (HTR1-7). Interestingly, 5HT is stored in granules and released together with insulin from β-cells and its biological significance is likely a combination of intra and extracellular actions. The expression of enzymes involved in 5HT synthesis and their receptors varied markedly in β-pancreatic cells during pregnancy, in parallel with an increase in their insulin secretion potential (probably through the action of Htr3a) and an increase in β-cell mass (through the action of Htr2b and Htr1d). In addition, it has been suggested that gut-derived 5HT may promote hepatic gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting through Htr2b receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that peripheral 5HT plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through the differential expression and activation of 5-HT membrane receptors on the surface of hepatocytes, adipocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Host Genotype and Gut Microbiome Modulate Insulin Secretion and Diet-Induced Metabolic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kreznar, Julia H; Keller, Mark P; Traeger, Lindsay L; Rabaglia, Mary E; Schueler, Kathryn L; Stapleton, Donald S; Zhao, Wen; Vivas, Eugenio I; Yandell, Brian S; Broman, Aimee Teo; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Attie, Alan D; Rey, Federico E

    2017-02-14

    Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease. Animals harboring microbial communities with enhanced capacity for processing dietary sugars and for generating hydrophobic bile acids showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease. Notably, differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion between different mouse strains were partially recapitulated via gut microbiota transfer. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome contributes to the genetic and phenotypic diversity observed among mouse strains and provide a link between the gut microbiome and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of severe diabetes mellitus early in pregnancy in the rat: effects on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Grill, V; Johansson, B; Jalkanen, P; Eriksson, U J

    1991-06-01

    We studied the influence of severe diabetes early in pregnancy on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the offspring. Diabetes (blood glucose greater than 20 mmol/l) was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats before mating. Diabetic dams were insulin treated during the second half of pregnancy (mean blood glucose 10.6 mmol/l). The offspring were reared by foster mothers. Offspring of both sexes were insulin resistant at four and seven months of age as evidenced by normal glucose tolerance after glucose (2 g/kg body weight intraperitoneally) concomitant with higher than normal rises in insulin levels. Regardless of fetal environment the male rats had higher glucose and insulin levels than the female rats. Insulin responses to glucose (27 mmol/l) in vitro in perfused pancreases were not increased by maternal diabetes, male gender or higher age. Conversely responses to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1.0 mmol/l) were enhanced by all three conditions. The pancreatic content of insulin was only marginally affected by maternal diabetes. We conclude that severe diabetes during early pregnancy affects glucose homeostasis in the offspring primarily by diminishing insulin sensitivity and that susceptibility to this effect is not sex- or age-dependent.

  2. Homology modeling of FFA2 identifies novel agonists that potentiate insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Villa, Stephanie R; Mishra, Rama K; Zapater, Joseph L; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gilchrist, Annette; Mancebo, Helena; Schiltz, Gary E; Layden, Brian T

    2017-12-01

    Critical aspects of maintaining glucose homeostasis in the face of chronic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increased insulin secretion and adaptive expansion of beta cell mass. Nutrient and hormone sensing G protein-coupled receptors are important mediators of these properties. A growing body of evidence now suggests that the G protein-coupled receptor, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), is capable of contributing to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis by acting at the pancreatic beta cell as well as at other metabolically active tissues. We have previously demonstrated that Gα q/11 -biased agonism of FFA2 can potentiate glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) as well as promote beta cell proliferation. However, the currently available Gα q/11 -biased agonists for FFA2 exhibit low potency, making them difficult to examine in vivo. This study sought to identify Gα q/11 -biased FFA2-selective agonists with potent GSIS-stimulating effects. To do this, we generated an FFA2 homology model that was used to screen a library of 10 million drug-like compounds. Although FFA2 and the related short chain fatty acid receptor FFA3 share 52% sequence similarity, our virtual screen identified over 50 compounds with predicted selectivity and increased potency for FFA2 over FFA3. Subsequent in vitro calcium mobilization assays and GSIS assays resulted in the identification of a compound that can potentiate GSIS via activation of Gα q/11 with 100-fold increased potency compared with previously described Gα q/11 -biased FFA2 agonists. These methods and findings provide a foundation for future discovery efforts to identify biased FFA2 agonists as potential T2D therapeutics. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. GATA6 Controls Insulin Biosynthesis and Secretion in Adult ß cell.

    PubMed

    Villamayor, Laura; Rodríguez-Seguel, Elisa; Araujo, Raquel; Carrasco, Manuel; Bru-Tarí, Eva; Mellado-Gil, José Manuel; Gauthier, Benoit R; Martinelli, Paola; Quesada, Iván; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz; Cano, David A; Rojas, Anabel

    2017-12-20

    GATA4 and GATA6 play essential, but redundant, roles in pancreas formation in mice and GATA6 mutations cause pancreatic agenesis in humans. Recently, GATA6 mutations have also been linked to adult-onset diabetes with subclinical or no exocrine insufficiency suggesting an important role for GATA6 in human ß cell physiology. To investigate the role of GATA6 in adult endocrine pancreas, we generated mice in which Gata6 is specifically inactivated in the pancreas. These mice develop glucose intolerance. Islets deficient in GATA6 activity display decreased insulin content and impaired insulin secretion. Gata6-deficient ß cells exhibit ultrastructural abnormalities including increased immature insulin granules, swollen mitochondria and disorganized endoplasmic reticulum. We also demonstrate that Pdx1 expression in adult ß cells depends on GATA sites in transgenic reporter mice and loss of GATA6 greatly impacts ß cell specific gene expression. These findings demonstrate the essential role of GATA6 in ß cell function. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Adipocytes secrete leukotrienes: contribution to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Filloux, Chantal; Amghar, Hind; Pons, Catherine; Bourlier, Virginie; Galitzky, Jean; Grimaldi, Paul A; Féral, Chloé C; Bouloumié, Anne; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Neels, Jaap G

    2012-09-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are potent proinflammatory mediators, and many important aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses are regulated by LTs. Key members of the LT synthesis pathway are overexpressed in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity, resulting in increased LT levels in this tissue. We observed that several mouse adipocyte cell lines and primary adipocytes from mice and humans both can secrete large amounts of LTs. Furthermore, this production increases with a high-fat diet (HFD) and positively correlates with adipocyte size. LTs produced by adipocytes play an important role in attracting macrophages and T cells in in vitro chemotaxis assays. Mice that are deficient for the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and therefore lack LTs, exhibit a decrease in HFD-induced AT macrophage and T-cell infiltration and are partially protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Similarly, treatment of HFD-fed wild-type mice with the 5-LO inhibitor Zileuton also results in a reduction of AT macrophages and T cells, accompanied by a decrease in insulin resistance. Together, these findings suggest that LTs represent a novel target in the prevention or treatment of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance.

  5. TRPM2 activation by cyclic ADP-ribose at body temperature is involved in insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Kazuya; Hara, Yuji; Tominaga, Tomoko; Higashi, Tomohiro; Konishi, Yasunobu; Mori, Yasuo; Tominaga, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    There are eight thermosensitive TRP (transient receptor potential) channels in mammals, and there might be other TRP channels sensitive to temperature stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that TRPM2 can be activated by exposure to warm temperatures (>35°C) apparently via direct heat-evoked channel gating. β-NAD+- or ADP-ribose-evoked TRPM2 activity is robustly potentiated at elevated temperatures. We also show that, even though cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) does not activate TRPM2 at 25°C, co-application of heat and intracellular cADPR dramatically potentiates TRPM2 activity. Heat and cADPR evoke similar responses in rat insulinoma RIN-5F cells, which express TRPM2 endogenously. In pancreatic islets, TRPM2 is coexpressed with insulin, and mild heating of these cells evokes increases in both cytosolic Ca2+ and insulin release, which is KATP channel-independent and protein kinase A-mediated. Heat-evoked responses in both RIN-5F cells and pancreatic islets are significantly diminished by treatment with TRPM2-specific siRNA. These results identify TRPM2 as a potential molecular target for cADPR, and suggest that TRPM2 regulates Ca2+ entry into pancreatic β-cells at body temperature depending on the production of cADPR-related molecules, thereby regulating insulin secretion. PMID:16601673

  6. Assessment of benzene induced oxidative impairment in rat isolated pancreatic islets and effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Benzene (C6H6) is an organic compound used in petrochemicals and numerous other industries. It is abundantly released to our environment as a chemical pollutant causing widespread human exposure. This study mainly focused on benzene induced toxicity on rat pancreatic islets with respect to oxidative damage, insulin secretion and glucokinase (GK) activity. Benzene was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally at doses 200, 400 and 800mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In rats, benzene significantly raised the concentration of plasma insulin. Also the effect of benzene on the release of glucose-induced insulin was pronounced in isolated islets. Benzene caused oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, and also reduced the cell viability and total thiols groups, in the islets of exposed rats. In conclusion, the current study revealed that pancreatic glucose metabolism is susceptible to benzene toxicity and the resultant oxidative stress could lead to functional abnormalities in the pancreas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Opiate-prostaglandin interactions in the regulation of insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Green, I.C.; Tadayyon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The inadequate insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation in non-insulin dependent diabetes has been attributed to many factors including high PGE/sub 2/ levels blunting the secretory response, and to the existence of inhibitory opiate activity in vivo. The purpose of the present work was to see if there was a connection between these two independent theories. Radioimmunoassayable PGE/sub 2/ in islets of Langerhans was found to be proportional to islet number and protein content and was typically 4 to 5pg/..mu..g islet protein. Indomethacin sodium salicylate and chlorpropamide all lowered islet PGE/sub 2/ levels and stimulated insulin release in vitro. Dynorphin stimulated insulin release at a concentration of 6 x 10/sup -9/M, while lowering islet PGE/sub 2/. Conversely, at a higher concentration, dynorphin had no stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and did not lower PGE/sub 2/ levels in islets or in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of dynorphin and sodium salicylate on insulin secretion were blocked by exogenous PGE/sub 2/. PGE/sub 2/ at a lower concentration did not exert any inhibitory effect on dynorphin- or sodium salicylate-induced insulin release. This concentration of exogenous PGE/sub 2/ stimulated insulin release in the presence of 6mM glucose.

  8. cAMP-mediated and metabolic amplification of insulin secretion are distinct pathways sharing independence of β-cell microfilaments.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Nizar I; Nenquin, Myriam; Henquin, Jean-Claude

    2012-10-01

    Insulin secretion is triggered by an increase in the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in β-cells. Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis of insulin granules can be augmented by metabolic amplification (unknown signals generated through glucose metabolism) or neurohormonal amplification (in particular cAMP mediated). Functional actin microfilaments are not required for metabolic amplification, but their possible role in cAMP-mediated amplification is unknown. It is also uncertain whether cAMP (generated in response to glucose) is implicated in metabolic amplification. These questions were addressed using isolated mouse islets. cAMP levels were increased by phosphodiesterase inhibition (with isobutylmethylxanthine) and adenylate-cyclase stimulation (with forskolin or glucagon-like peptide-1, 7-36 amide). Raising cAMP levels had no steady-state impact on actin polymerization in control islets. Neither disruption (depolymerization by latrunculin) nor stabilization (polymerization by jasplakinolide) of actin microfilaments was counteracted by cAMP. Both changes increased both phases of glucose- or tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion but did not prevent further amplification by cAMP. These large changes in secretion were not caused by changes in [Ca(2+)](c), which was only slightly increased by cAMP. Both phases of insulin secretion were larger in response to glucose than tolbutamide, although [Ca(2+)](c) was lower. This difference in secretion, which reflects metabolic amplification, was independent of microfilaments, was not attributable to differences in cAMP, and persisted in presence of dibutyryl-cAMP or when cAMP levels were variably raised by isobutylmethylxanthine + forskolin or glucagon-like peptide-1, 7-36 amide. We conclude that metabolic and cAMP-mediated amplification of insulin secretion are distinct pathways that accelerate acquisition of release competence by insulin granules that can access exocytotic sites without intervention of microfilaments.

  9. Possible involvement of transient receptor potential channels in electrophile-induced insulin secretion from RINm5F cells.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, Satoshi; Takase, Makiko; Ahiko, Tomomi; Ishii, Masakazu; Shimizu, Shun-ichi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    Endogenously produced reactive oxygen species reportedly stimulate insulin secretion from islet β-cells. However, the molecular machinery that governs the oxidant-induced insulin secretion has yet to be determined. The present study demonstrates, using rat islet β-cell-derived RINm5F cells, the involvement of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels in the insulin secretion induced by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Short-term (1 h) exposure of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal induced a transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and subsequent insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration seemed to be due to an influx through the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel, since it was not observed when extracellular Ca(2+) was absent and was inhibited almost completely by diltiazem or nifedipine. Ruthenium red, a non-specific inhibitor of TRP channels, inhibited the Ca(2+) influx and insulin secretion evoked by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Among the TRP channels, TRPA1 was found to be predominantly expressed, not only in RINm5F cells, but also rat islets. TRPA1 agonists, allylisothiocyanate and 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2), significantly induced Ca(2+) influx, and a specific inhibitor TRPA1, HC-030031, blocked the effects elicited by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. These results suggest that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal induces Ca(2+) influx via the activation of TRP channels, including TRPA1, which appears to be coupled with the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel, and ultimately insulin secretion in RINm5F cells.

  10. Over-expression of ZnT7 increases insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells by promoting insulin gene transcription

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanism by which zinc regulates insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells is still unclear. Cellular zinc homeostasis is largely maintained by zinc transporters and intracellular zinc binding proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that zinc transporter 7 (ZnT7, Slc30a7) was co...

  11. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gulseth, Hanne L; Wium, Cecilie; Angel, Kristin; Eriksen, Erik F; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2017-07-01

    In observational studies, low vitamin D levels are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), impaired glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. We evaluated the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in subjects with T2D and low vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L). Sixty-two men and women with T2D and vitamin D deficiency participated in a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received a single dose of 400,000 IU oral vitamin D 3 or placebo, and the vitamin D group received an additional 200,000 IU D 3 if serum 25(OH)D was <100 nmol/L after 4 weeks. Primary end points were total R d by euglycemic clamp with assessment of endogenous glucose production and first-phase insulin secretion by intravenous glucose tolerance test. In the vitamin D group, the mean ± SD baseline serum 25(OH)D of 38.0 ± 12.6 nmol/L increased to 96.9 ± 18.3 nmol/L after 4 weeks, 73.2 ± 13.7 nmol/L after 3 months, and 53.7 ± 9.2 nmol/L after 6 months. The total exposure to 25(OH)D during 6 months (area under the curve) was 1,870 ± 192 and 1,090 ± 377 nmol/L per week in the vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively ( P < 0.001). Insulin sensitivity, endogenous glucose production, and glycemic control did not differ between or within groups after treatment ( P = 0.52). First-phase insulin secretion did not change significantly after treatment ( P = 0.10). Replenishment with a large dose of vitamin D 3 to patients with T2D and vitamin D deficiency did not change insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion. These findings do not support such use of therapeutic vitamin D 3 supplementation to improve glucose homeostasis in patients with T2D. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Characterization of the Insulin Reservoir in Rat Islets of Langerhans: Evaluation of Hormone Synthesis, Processing, Storage and Secretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gishizky, Mikhail Lev

    1988-12-01

    It has been reported that acute glucose stimulation of islets results in the preferential release of newly synthesized insulin. This suggests that the large islet hormone reservoir may represent a heterogeneous pool. In these investigation we characterized the nature of the islet hormone reservoir and evaluated possible mechanisms responsible for its regulation. Our studies demonstrated that under stimulated secretory conditions normal pancreatic islets secreted newly synthesized insulin in preference to their large stored hormone content. The preferential release pattern was observed with all secretogogues tested and was not restricted to a specific subset of islets. Aided by computer model analysis, we proposed that the islet insulin reservoir represented a heterogeneous pool composed of at least two hypothetical compartments--labile and stable. Evaluation of the islet hormone reservoir under different in vivo and in vitro conditions demonstrated that in response to prolonged stimulation, the hypothetical labile compartment apparently decreased in size. This augmentation in the compartmental character was associated with (1) decreased amount of insulin secreted, (2) increased proportion of newly synthesized insulin secreted, and (3) an increased rate of prohormone conversion with no alteration in the rate of hormone synthesis. Thus parameters which defined the islet hormone reservoir represented a dynamic system that responded to the islets milieu. Preferential release of newly synthesized insulin was not an intrinsic property of insulin secreting cells. Furthermore, the mechanism responsible for the compartmentalization of the insulin reservoir did not discriminate between the two non-allelic murine insulins. Our studies indicated that differences in the amino acid structure of the two prohormones apparently resulted in proinsulin I being transported to the conversion compartment faster than proinsulin II. However, glucose regulation of the synthesis and

  13. Pulsatile Portal Vein Insulin Delivery Enhances Hepatic Insulin Action and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Liuwantara, David; Gurlo, Tatyana; Kirakossian, David; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; White, Morris F.; Copps, Kyle D.; Volpi, Elena; Fujita, Satoshi; Butler, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin is secreted as discrete insulin secretory bursts at ∼5-min intervals into the hepatic portal vein, these pulses being attenuated early in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intraportal insulin infusions (pulsatile, constant, or reproducing that in T2DM) indicated that the pattern of pulsatile insulin secretion delivered via the portal vein is important for hepatic insulin action and, therefore, presumably for hepatic insulin signaling. To test this, we examined hepatic insulin signaling in rat livers exposed to the same three patterns of portal vein insulin delivery by use of sequential liver biopsies in anesthetized rats. Intraportal delivery of insulin in a constant versus pulsatile pattern led to delayed and impaired activation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 signaling, impaired activation of downstream insulin signaling effector molecules AKT and Foxo1, and decreased expression of glucokinase (Gck). We further established that hepatic Gck expression is decreased in the HIP rat model of T2DM, a defect that correlated with a progressive defect of pulsatile insulin secretion. We conclude that the physiological pulsatile pattern of insulin delivery is important in hepatic insulin signaling and glycemic control. Hepatic insulin resistance in diabetes is likely in part due to impaired pulsatile insulin secretion. PMID:22688333

  14. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin secretion: interaction between zinc and SLC30A8 genotype in Old Order Amish.

    PubMed

    Maruthur, Nisa M; Clark, Jeanne M; Fu, Mao; Linda Kao, W H; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2015-02-01

    SLC30A8 encodes a zinc transporter in the beta cell; individuals with a common missense variant (rs13266634; R325W) in SLC30A8 demonstrate a lower early insulin response to glucose and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that zinc supplementation may improve insulin secretion in a genotype-dependent manner. We evaluated the early insulin response to glucose (using frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing) by R325W genotype before and after 14 days of supplementation with oral zinc acetate (50 mg elemental zinc) twice daily in healthy non-diabetic Amish individuals (N = 55). Individuals with RW/WW genotypes (n = 32) had the lowest insulin response to glucose at 5 and 10 min at baseline (vs RR homozygotes [n = 23]). After zinc supplementation, the RW/WW group experienced 15% and 14% increases in the insulin response to glucose at 5 and 10 min, respectively (p ≤ 0.04), and, compared with RR homozygotes, experienced a 26% (p = 0.04) increase in insulin at 5 min. We observed reciprocal decreases in proinsulin:insulin in the RW/WW (p = 0.002) vs RR group (p = 0.048), suggesting a genotype-specific improvement in insulin processing. Zinc supplementation appears to affect the early insulin response to glucose differentially by rs13266634 genotype and could be beneficial for diabetes prevention and/or treatment for some individuals based on SLC30A8 variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00981448.

  15. Modeling of the gap junction of pancreatic β-cells and the robustness of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Tomoki; Murakami, Noriaki; Nagano, Seido

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells are interconnected by gap junctions, which allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell. In spite of the importance of the gap junctions in cellular communication, modeling studies have been limited by the complexity of the system. Here, we propose a mathematical gap junction model that properly takes into account biological functions, and apply this model to the study of the β-cell cluster. We consider both electrical and metabolic features of the system. Then, we find that when a fraction of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels are damaged, robust insulin secretion can only be achieved by gap junctions. Our finding is consistent with recent experiments conducted by Rocheleau et al. Our study also suggests that the free passage of potassium ions through gap junctions plays an important role in achieving metabolic synchronization between β-cells.

  16. Chronic DPP-IV inhibition with PKF-275-055 attenuates inflammation and improves gene expressions responsible for insulin secretion in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Akarte, Atul Sureshrao; Srinivasan, B P; Gandhi, Sonia; Sole, Sushant

    2012-09-29

    Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV), a key regulator of the actions of incretin hormones, exert antihyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic patients. A major question concerns the potential ability of long term DPP-IV inhibition to have beneficial disease-modifying effects, specifically to attenuate loss of pancreatic β-cell mass due to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Here, we investigated the effects of a potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor, an analog of vildagliptin (PKF-275-055), on glycemic control, pancreatic β-cell mass, genes and proteins expressions, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide in an n2-STZ diabetic model of rat with defects in insulin sensitivity and secretion. To induce NIDDM, streptozotocin (STZ) 90 mg/kg was administered i.p. to a group of 2 days old pups. Diabetic rats were administered orally with vildagliptin analog PKF-275-055. Saline treated animals served as diabetic control. Significant and dose-dependent correction of postprandial hyperglycemia was observed in diabetic rats following 8 weeks of chronic therapy. Treatment with PKF-275-055 showed increased the number of insulin-positive β-cells in islets and improved the expressions of genes and proteins are responsible for insulin secretions. In addition, treatment of rats with PKF-275-055 significantly increased insulin content, glycogen content and total proteins content; and decreased the inflammatory markers i.e. nitric oxide and TNF-alpha. The present studies indicate that PKF-275-055 is a novel selective DPP-IV inhibitor having potential to reduce inflammation that might be a potential agent for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in combination with other metabolites release insulin from INS-1 cells and provide clues about pathways in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Michael J; Longacre, Melissa J; Stoker, Scott W; Brown, Laura J; Hasan, Noaman M; Kendrick, Mindy A

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondrial anaplerosis is important for insulin secretion, but only some of the products of anaplerosis are known. We discovered novel effects of mitochondrial metabolites on insulin release in INS-1 832/13 cells that suggested pathways to some of these products. Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), and monomethyl succinate (MMS) alone did not stimulate insulin release. Lactate released very little insulin. When acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, or KIC were combined with MMS, or either ketone body was combined with lactate, insulin release was stimulated 10-fold to 20-fold the controls (almost as much as with glucose). Pyruvate was a potent stimulus of insulin release. In rat pancreatic islets, beta-hydroxybutyrate potentiated MMS- and glucose-induced insulin release. The pathways of their metabolism suggest that, in addition to producing ATP, the ketone bodies and KIC supply the acetate component and MMS supplies the oxaloacetate component of citrate. In line with this, citrate was increased by beta-hydroxybutyrate plus MMS in INS-1 cells and by beta-hydroxybutyrate plus succinate in mitochondria. The two ketone bodies and KIC can also be metabolized to acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, which are precursors of other short-chain acyl-CoAs (SC-CoAs). Measurements of SC-CoAs by LC-MS/MS in INS-1 cells confirmed that KIC, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and pyruvate increased the levels of acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA. MMS increased incorporation of (14)C from beta-hydroxybutyrate into citrate, acid-precipitable material, and lipids, suggesting that the two molecules complement one another to increase anaplerosis. The results suggest that, besides citrate, some of the products of anaplerosis are SC-CoAs, which may be precursors of molecules involved in insulin secretion.

  18. Novel Protein Glycan-Derived Markers of Systemic Inflammation and C-Reactive Protein in Relation to Glycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Festa, Andreas; Hanley, Anthony J; Rewers, Marian J; Escalante, Agustin; Haffner, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    N-acetylglucosamine/galactosamine (GlycA) and sialic acid (GlycB) moieties of glycosylated serum proteins are nonspecific measures of inflammation, but conclusive data on their relationship with insulin resistance or insulin secretion are missing. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relation of GlycA, GlycB, and C-reactive protein (CRP) to direct measures of insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [SI]) and insulin secretion (acute insulin response [AIR]). This study used cross-sectional analyses and included 1,225 participants with and without type 2 diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). SI and AIR were measured using the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, and GlycA and GlycB were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GlycA and GlycB had a strong correlation with CRP (r = 0.60 [P < 0.001] and r = 0.46 [P < 0.001], respectively). In a linear regression model with both GlycA and CRP as independent variables, GlycA (β × 1 SD, -0.04 ± 0.02; P < 0.01) and CRP (-0.06 ± 0.02; P < 0.001) were independently associated with SI even after adjusting for demographics, smoking, physical activity, plasma glucose, and BMI. However, neither CRP nor GlycA had an independent relationship with AIR. GlycA may complement CRP in evaluating the relationship between inflammation, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Bone marrow fat contributes to insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ermetici, Federica; Briganti, Silvia; Delnevo, Alessandra; Cannaò, Paola; Leo, Giovanni Di; Benedini, Stefano; Terruzzi, Ileana; Sardanelli, Francesco; Luzi, Livio

    2018-02-01

    Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin were measured; the insulin resistance index HOMA (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index were similar in obese and non-obese women (38.5 ± 0.1 vs. 38.6 ± 0.1%, p = 0.994; 0.162 ± 0.065 vs. 0.175 ± 0.048, p = 0.473, respectively). Bone marrow fat content negatively correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR (r = -0.342, r = -0.352, respectively, p = 0.01) and positively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.270, p = 0.043). From a multivariate regression model including lnHOMA-IR as a dependent variable and visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial fat, and bone marrow fat as independent variables, lnHOMA-IR was significantly associated with bone marrow fat (β = -0.008 ± 0.004, p = 0.04) and subcutaneous fat (β = 0.003 ± 0.001, p = 0.04). Bone marrow fat, among the other adipose depots, was a significant predictor of circulating adiponectin (β = 0.147 ± 0.060, p = 0.021). Bone marrow fat unsaturation index negatively correlated with visceral fat (r = -0.316, p = 0.026). There is a relationship between bone marrow fat content and insulin sensitivity in obese and non-obese premenopausal women, possibly mediated by adiponectin secretion

  20. Clinical application of the different cross-reactivities of anti-insulin antibodies to insulin lispro to evaluate endogenous insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Ohkubo, Kumiko; Akehi, Yuko; Harada, Sadako; Shinohara, Katsuyuki; Kawashima, Hironobu; Ono, Junko; Matsunaga, Akira

    2013-01-16

    Insulin analogs are often used to treat patients with diabetes. We evaluated the cross-reactivities of anti-insulin antibodies in two insulin immunoassay kits (Architect and ECLusys) against recombinant human insulin and insulin analogs, and measured insulin concentrations in the serum of the diabetic patients treated with only insulin lispro. Ten-fold dilutions of recombinant human insulins and insulin analogs were measured using Architect and ECLusys kits. The serum samples of 4 type 2 diabetic patients at fasting, and several time points after breakfast (25 kcal/kg) following subcutaneous injection of insulin lispro were measured by Architect, ECLusys and LISPro RIA kit. The ECLusys kit could detect human insulin but not insulin analogs. The Architect kit detected human insulin and insulin analogs with similar recovery ratios. The difference in serum insulin concentrations measured by Architect and ECLusys assays reflected the concentration measured by LISPro insulin kit in the patients. The differences in the AUC between Architect and ECLusys assays were significantly correlated with the AUC for LISPro assay (p<0.01). By exploiting the different cross-reactivities of anti-insulin antibodies to insulin analogs, it may be possible to measure the endogenous and exogenous insulin concentrations in diabetic patients treated with insulin analogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion in low-protein-fed rats is associated with altered pancreatic islets redox status.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Ana Paula G; Zoppi, Claudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Batista, Thiago M; Paula, Flávia M; da Silva, Priscilla M R; Rafacho, Alex; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between early life protein malnutrition-induced redox imbalance, and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. After weaning, male Wistar rats were submitted to a normal-protein-diet (17%-protein, NP) or to a low-protein-diet (6%-protein, LP) for 60 days. Pancreatic islets were isolated and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione content, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and catalase (CAT) gene expression, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities were quantified. Islets that were pre-incubated with H 2 O 2 and/or N-acetylcysteine, were subsequently incubated with glucose for insulin secretion measurement. Protein malnutrition increased CAT mRNA content by 100%. LP group SOD1 and CAT activities were 50% increased and reduced, respectively. H 2 O 2 production was more than 50% increased whereas GSH/GSSG ratio was near 60% lower in LP group. Insulin secretion was, in most conditions, approximately 50% lower in LP rat islets. When islets were pre-incubated with H 2 O 2 (100 μM), and incubated with glucose (33 mM), LP rats showed significant decrease of insulin secretion. This effect was attenuated when LP islets were exposed to N-acetylcysteine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: Sex Differences in Insulin Action and Secretion.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ananda; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Sex difference plays a substantial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy glucose-tolerant humans. The factors which may contribute to the sex-related differences in glucose metabolism include differences in lifestyle (diet and exercise), sex hormones, and body composition. Several epidemiological and observational studies have noted that impaired glucose tolerance is more common in women than men. Some of these studies have attributed this to differences in body composition, while others have attributed impaired insulin sensitivity as a cause of impaired glucose tolerance in women. We studied postprandial glucose metabolism in 120 men and 90 women after ingestion of a mixed meal. Rates of meal glucose appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance were calculated using a novel triple-tracer isotope dilution method. Insulin action and secretion were calculated using validated physiological models. While rate of meal glucose appearance was higher in women than men, rates of glucose disappearance were higher in elderly women than elderly men while young women had lower rates of glucose disappearance than young men. Hence, sex has an impact on postprandial glucose metabolism, and sex differences in carbohydrate metabolism may have important implications for approaches to prevent and manage diabetes in an individual.

  3. A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; King, A J; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines, especially plant-derived extracts, have been used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for many centuries, and offer the potential of cheap and readily available alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals in developing countries. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have anti-diabetic activities and have been used as a folk medicine in India for centuries. We have investigated the effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract termed OSA® on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, and on insulin secretion and synthesis by isolated mouse islets. Single administration of OSA® (500 mg/kg) to ob/ob mice 30 min before an intraperitoneal glucose load improved their abnormal glucose tolerance. In vitro studies indicated that OSA® (0.25 mg/ml) initiated rapid and reversible increases in insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets at substimulatory (2 mM) and stimulatory (20 mM) glucose concentrations. In addition, prolonged treatment (24-48 h) of mouse islets with OSA® elevated the expression of preproinsulin mRNA and maintained the total insulin content of mouse islets in the presence of stimulated insulin secretion. These effects of OSA® are consistent with its potential use as a therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with obesity-related T2DM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Studies With Leucine, β-Hydroxybutyrate and ATP Citrate Lyase Deficient Beta Cells Support the Acetoacetate Pathway of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Michael J.; Hasan, Noaman M.; Longacre, Melissa J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We hypothesized that contrasting leucine with its non-metabolizable analog 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) might provide new information about metabolic pathways involved in insulin secretion. Both compounds stimulate insulin secretion by allosterically activating glutamate dehydrogenase, which enhances glutamate metabolism. However, we found that leucine was a stronger secretagogue in rat pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells. This suggested leucine’s metabolism contributed to its insulinotropism. Indeed, we found that leucine increased acetoacetate and was metabolized to CO2 in pancreatic islets and increased short chain acyl-CoAs (SC-CoAs) in INS-1 cells. We then used the leucine-BCH difference to study the hypothesis that acyl groups derived from secretagogue carbon can be transferred as acetoacetate, in addition to citrate, from mitochondria to the cytosol where they can be converted to SCCoAs. Since BCH cannot form sufficient acetoacetate from glutamate, transport of any glutamate-derived acyl groups to the cytosol in BCH-stimulated cells must proceed mainly via citrate. In ATP citrate lyase deficient INS-1 cells, which are unable to convert citrate into cytosolic acetyl-CoA, insulin release by BCH was decreased and adding β-hydroxybutyrate or α-ketoisocaproate, which increase mitochondrial acetoacetate, normalized BCH-induced insulin release. This strengthens the concept that acetoacetate-transferred acyl carbon can be converted to cytosolic SC-CoAs to stimulate insulin secretion. PMID:18439432

  5. Endogenous α2A-Adrenoceptor-Operated Sympathoadrenergic Tones Attenuate Insulin Secretion via cAMP/TRPM2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiyonori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Yoshida, Masashi; Yamada, Hodaka; Miura, Rina; Rita, Rauza Sukma; Ookawara, Susumu; Tabei, Kaoru; Kawakami, Masanobu; Hara, Kazuo; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, pharmacological concentrations of catecholamines, including adrenaline, have been used to inhibit insulin release and explore the multiple mechanisms involved. However, the significance of these signaling pathways for physiological adrenergic functions in β-cells is largely unknown. In the process of glucose-induced insulin secretion, opening of background current through nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) might facilitate membrane depolarization by closure of the ATP-sensitive K + channels. Here, we examined whether physiological insulinostatic adrenaline action is mediated via the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel, a type of NSCC, in β-cells. Results showed that physiological concentrations of adrenaline strongly suppressed glucose-induced and incretin-potentiated cAMP production and insulin secretion and inhibited NSCCs current and membrane excitability via the α2A-adrenoceptor in wild-type mice; however, insulin secretion was not attenuated in TRPM2-knockout (KO) mice. Administration of yohimbine, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, failed to affect glucose tolerance in TRPM2-KO mice, in contrast to an improved glucose tolerance in wild-type mice receiving the antagonist. The current study demonstrated that a physiological concentration of adrenaline attenuates insulin release via coupling of α2A-adrenoceptor to cAMP/TRPM2 signaling, thereby providing a potential therapeutic tool to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong; Gao, Ying-Tang; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.

  7. Imeglimin lowers glucose primarily by amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in high-fat-fed rodents.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Cardone, Rebecca L; Petersen, Max C; Zhang, Dongyan; Fouqueray, Pascale; Hallakou-Bozec, Sophie; Bolze, Sébastien; Shulman, Gerald I; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Kibbey, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Imeglimin is a promising new oral antihyperglycemic agent that has been studied in clinical trials as a possible monotherapy or add-on therapy to lower fasting plasma glucose and improve hemoglobin A1c (1-3, 9). Imeglimin was shown to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemia and to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose during a hyperglycemic clamp after 1-wk of treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. However, whether the β-cell stimulatory effect of imeglimin is solely or partially responsible for its effects on glycemia remains to be fully confirmed. Here, we show that imeglimin directly activates β-cell insulin secretion in awake rodents without affecting hepatic insulin sensitivity, body composition, or energy expenditure. These data identify a primary amplification rather than trigger the β-cell mechanism that explains the acute, antidiabetic activity of imeglimin. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulatesmore » insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.« less

  9. Imeglimin lowers glucose primarily by amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in high-fat-fed rodents

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Rachel J.; Cardone, Rebecca L.; Petersen, Max C.; Zhang, Dongyan; Fouqueray, Pascale; Hallakou-Bozec, Sophie; Bolze, Sébastien; Shulman, Gerald I.; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2016-01-01

    Imeglimin is a promising new oral antihyperglycemic agent that has been studied in clinical trials as a possible monotherapy or add-on therapy to lower fasting plasma glucose and improve hemoglobin A1c (1–3, 9). Imeglimin was shown to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemia and to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose during a hyperglycemic clamp after 1-wk of treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. However, whether the β-cell stimulatory effect of imeglimin is solely or partially responsible for its effects on glycemia remains to be fully confirmed. Here, we show that imeglimin directly activates β-cell insulin secretion in awake rodents without affecting hepatic insulin sensitivity, body composition, or energy expenditure. These data identify a primary amplification rather than trigger the β-cell mechanism that explains the acute, antidiabetic activity of imeglimin. PMID:27406738

  10. Secretion of total pepsin and pepsin 1 in healthy volunteers in response to pentagastrin and to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Norman Bryson; Sheers, Roger; Taylor, William Halstead

    2007-05-01

    Human gastric juice contains a multiplicity of proteinases, and one enzyme (pepsin 1) is increased in patients with peptic ulcer disease. However, little is known about its secretion in health. The purpose of this study was to determine the pepsin 1 content in relation to the total pepsin of human gastric juice in healthy volunteers and the effect of different stimuli on secretion. Human gastric juice from healthy volunteers was collected at 10-min intervals over a period of 30 min basally and up to 60 min after continuous intravenous pentagastrin administration (n=13) or insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (n=11). Pepsin 1 was measured by semiquantitative agar gel electrophoresis and the total pepsin as the proteolytic activity calibrated against pig pepsin A. Pepsin 1 was present in 23 out of 24 basal gastric juice samples at a mean concentration of approximately 12 microg/ml. During continuous intravenous pentagastrin to 11 subjects for 60 min, the mean concentration and secretion rates per minute rose to 24 microg/ml and 122 microg/min at 60 min; the proportion of pepsin 1 to total pepsin was 2.8% in basal secretions increasing to 7.8% in the 60 to 70-min samples. Following intravenous insulin administration to 11 subjects, the mean concentration and secretion rates of pepsin 1 rose to 33 microg/ml and 127 microg/min at 60 min: the proportion of pepsin 1 to total pepsin was 0.8% in basal secretions and 3.1% in the 50 to 60-min samples. Both pentagastrin and hypoglycaemia caused similar maximal secretion rates of pepsin 1, but hypoglycaemia caused greater secretion rates of total pepsin. The maximum concentrations and secretion rates of pepsin 1 occurred at different times from those of total pepsin and there is a threshold of total pepsin secretion below which pepsin 1 was not released.

  11. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, whichmore » has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.« less

  12. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  13. Evaluation of platelet function with the PFA-100 system in patients with congenital defects of platelet secretion.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, M; Lecchi, A; Agati, B; Lombardi, R; Zighetti, M L

    1999-11-01

    The template bleeding time is still the screening test for defects of platelet function, although it is an invasive and poorly reproducible technique. The PFA-100 measures platelet function at high shear. Whole blood is aspirated through a capillary to an aperture of a membrane coated with platelet agonists. The system measures the time required to obtain occlusion of the aperture by a platelet plug (closure time). We measured the closure times in the PFA-100 system and the bleeding time in seven patients with delta-storage pool deficiency, 10 patients with "primary secretion defect" (not due to abnormalities of platelet granules or the arachidonate pathway), and 40 controls. Measurements were repeated I and 4 hours after intravenous infusion of desmopressin in six delta-storage pool deficiency and eight primary secretion defect patients. Baseline bleeding time and closure times with the collagen/epinephrine cartridge were longer in delta-storage pool deficiency and primary secretion defect patients than in controls. In contrast, closure times with the collagen/adenosine diphosphate cartridge were normal in both delta-storage pool deficiency and primary secretion defect patients. Treatment with desmopressin increased the plasma von Willebrand Factor levels, shortened the prolonged bleeding time, shortened the closure times with the collagen/adenosine diphosphate cartridge, and normalized the closure times with the collagen/ epinephrine cartridge. Therefore, the PFA-100 test may be a less invasive alternative to the bleeding time in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients with platelet secretion defects. The collagen/epinephrine cartridge is more sensitive than the collagen/adenosine diphosphate cartridge to defects of platelet secretion.

  14. Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 2b activation augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human and mouse islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Hedvig; Mollet, Inês G; Balhuizen, Alexander; Medina, Anya; Nagorny, Cecilia; Bagge, Annika; Fadista, Joao; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Vikman, Petter; Dekker-Nitert, Marloes; Eliasson, Lena; Wierup, Nils; Artner, Isabella; Fex, Malin

    2016-04-01

    The Gq-coupled 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B (5-HT2B) receptor is known to regulate the proliferation of islet beta cells during pregnancy. However, the role of serotonin in the control of insulin release is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of the 5-HT2B receptor in the regulation of insulin secretion in mouse and human islets, as well as in clonal INS-1(832/13) cells. Expression of HTR2B mRNA and 5-HT2B protein was examined with quantitative real-time PCR, RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry. α-Methyl serotonin maleate salt (AMS), a serotonin receptor agonist, was employed for robust 5-HT2B receptor activation. Htr2b was silenced with small interfering RNA in INS-1(832/13) cells. Insulin secretion, Ca(2+) response and oxygen consumption rate were determined. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 5-HT2B is expressed in human and mouse islet beta cells. Activation of 5-HT2B receptors by AMS enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in human and mouse islets as well as in INS-1(832/13) cells. Silencing Htr2b in INS-1(832/13) cells led to a 30% reduction in GSIS. 5-HT2B receptor activation produced robust, regular and sustained Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse islets with an increase in both peak distance (period) and time in the active phase as compared with control. Enhanced insulin secretion and Ca(2+) changes induced by AMS coincided with an increase in oxygen consumption in INS-1(832/13) cells. Activation of 5-HT2B receptors stimulates GSIS in beta cells by triggering downstream changes in cellular Ca(2+) flux that enhance mitochondrial metabolism. Our findings suggest that serotonin and the 5-HT2B receptor stimulate insulin release.

  15. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. Estimation of insulin secretion, glucose uptake by tissues, and liver handling of glucose using a mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis in lean and obese mice.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael; Abadi, Sakineh Esmaeili Mohsen; Balouchzadeh, Ramin; Lee, H Felix; Ko, Hoo Sang; Johns, Michael; Malik, Nehal; Lee, Joshua J; Kwon, Guim

    2017-06-01

    Destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells is the key determinant of diabetes mellitus regardless of their types. Due to their anatomical location within the islets of Langerhans scattered throughout the pancreas, it is difficult to monitor β-cell function and mass clinically. To this end, we propose to use a mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis to estimate insulin secretion, glucose uptake by tissues, and hepatic handling of glucose. We applied the mathematical model by Lombarte et al. (2013) to compare various rate constants representing glucose-insulin homeostasis between lean (11% fat)- and high fat diet (HFD; 45% fat)-fed mice. Mice fed HFD (n = 12) for 3 months showed significantly higher body weights (49.97 ± 0.52 g vs. 29.86 ± 0.46 g), fasting blood glucose levels (213.08 ± 10.35 mg/dl vs. 121.91 ± 2.26 mg/dl), and glucose intolerance compared to mice fed lean diet (n = 12). Mice were injected with 1 g/kg glucose intraperitoneally and blood glucose levels were measured at various intervals for 120 min. We performed simulation using Arena™ software based on the mathematical model and estimated the rate constants (9 parameters) for various terms in the differential equations using OptQuest™. The simulated data fit accurately to the observed data for both lean and obese mice, validating the use of the mathematical model in mice at different stages of diabetes progression. Among 9 parameters, 5 parameters including basal insulin, k 2 (rate constant for insulin-dependent glucose uptake to tissues), k 3 (rate constant for insulin-independent glucose uptake to tissues), k 4 (rate constant for liver glucose transfer), and I pi (rate constant for insulin concentration where liver switches from glucose release to uptake) were significantly different between lean- and HFD-fed mice. Basal blood insulin levels, k 3 , and I pi were significantly elevated but k 2 and k 4 were reduced in mice fed a HFD compared to those fed a lean diet. Non

  17. Somatostatin and insulin mediate glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion in the pancreatic α-cell by lowering cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amicia D.; Ustione, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion from the pancreatic islet α-cell is a critical component of diabetes pathology and metabolic disease. We show a previously uncharacterized [Ca2+]i-independent mechanism of glucagon suppression in human and murine pancreatic islets whereby cAMP and PKA signaling are decreased. This decrease is driven by the combination of somatostatin, which inhibits adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP via the Gαi subunit of the SSTR2, and insulin, which acts via its receptor to activate phosphodiesterase 3B and degrade cytosolic cAMP. Our data indicate that both somatostatin and insulin signaling are required to suppress cAMP/PKA and glucagon secretion from both human and murine α-cells, and the combination of these two signaling mechanisms is sufficient to reduce glucagon secretion from isolated α-cells as well as islets. Thus, we conclude that somatostatin and insulin together are critical paracrine mediators of glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion and function by lowering cAMP/PKA signaling with increasing glucose. PMID:25406263

  18. Connexin-36 Gap Junctions Regulate In Vivo First- and Second-Phase Insulin Secretion Dynamics and Glucose Tolerance in the Conscious Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Head, W. Steven; Orseth, Meredith L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Satin, Leslie S.; Piston, David W.; Benninger, Richard K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin release in isolated islets, however a role in vivo has not been shown. We test whether loss of gap-junction coupling disrupts plasma insulin oscillations and whether this impacts glucose tolerance. We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36−/−) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36−/− and control mice. Our results show that Cx36−/− mice are glucose intolerant, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. However, Cx36−/− mice exhibit reduced insulin pulse amplitudes and a reduction in first-phase insulin secretion. These changes are similarly found in isolated Cx36−/− islets. We conclude that Cx36 gap junctions regulate the in vivo dynamics of insulin secretion, which in turn is important for glucose homeostasis. Coordinated pulsatility of individual islets enhances the first-phase elevation and second-phase pulses of insulin. Because these dynamics are disrupted in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, dysregulation of gap-junction coupling could be an important factor in the development of this disease. PMID:22511206

  19. Connexin-36 gap junctions regulate in vivo first- and second-phase insulin secretion dynamics and glucose tolerance in the conscious mouse.

    PubMed

    Head, W Steven; Orseth, Meredith L; Nunemaker, Craig S; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W; Benninger, Richard K P

    2012-07-01

    Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin release in isolated islets, however a role in vivo has not been shown. We test whether loss of gap-junction coupling disrupts plasma insulin oscillations and whether this impacts glucose tolerance. We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36(-/-) and control mice. Our results show that Cx36(-/-) mice are glucose intolerant, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. However, Cx36(-/-) mice exhibit reduced insulin pulse amplitudes and a reduction in first-phase insulin secretion. These changes are similarly found in isolated Cx36(-/-) islets. We conclude that Cx36 gap junctions regulate the in vivo dynamics of insulin secretion, which in turn is important for glucose homeostasis. Coordinated pulsatility of individual islets enhances the first-phase elevation and second-phase pulses of insulin. Because these dynamics are disrupted in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, dysregulation of gap-junction coupling could be an important factor in the development of this disease.

  20. Primary hypercholesterolaemia impairs glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice independently of high-fat diet and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonfleur, Maria Lúcia; Vanzela, Emerielle Cristine; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; de Gabriel Dorighello, Gabriel; de França Carvalho, Carolina Prado; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira, Helena Coutinho Franco

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether primary hypercholesterolaemia per se affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLR(-/-)). Glucose plasma levels were increased and insulin decreased in LDLR(-/-) compared to the wild-type mice. LDLR(-/-) mice presented impaired glucose tolerance, but normal whole body insulin sensitivity. The dose-response curve of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was shifted to the right in LDLR(-/-) islets. Significant reductions in insulin secretion in response to l-leucine or 2-ketoisocaproic acid were also observed in LDLR(-/-). Islet morphometric parameters, total insulin and DNA content were similar in both groups. Glucose uptake and oxidation were reduced in LDLR(-/-) islets. Removal of cholesterol from LDLR(-/-) islets corrected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These results indicate that enhanced membrane cholesterol content due to hypercholesterolaemia leads to a lower insulin secretion and glucose intolerance without affecting body insulin sensitivity. This represents an additional risk factor for diabetes and atherosclerosis in primary hypercholesterolaemia. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum fixed combination on lipid profile and insulin secretion in dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Aldo; Bianchi, Lucio; Romano, Davide; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Maffioli, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    Relatively large number of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals have been studied for their supposed or demonstrated ability to reduce cholesterolemia in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy as antihypercholesterolemic and insulin-sensitizing agent of a combination of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum extract (Berberol®) in a sample of dyslipidemic patients. A total of 102 dyslipidemic subjects were enrolled. After a 6 months run-in period of diet and physical activity, the patients were randomized to placebo or Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum extract 588 mg/105 mg, twice a day for 3 months. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum and placebo were then interrupted for 2 months (washout period), and then restarted for further 3 months. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were assessed; moreover, all patients underwent a glucagon stimulation test. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 3 months from randomization and compared to placebo group. When Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum was interrupted, lipid profile worsened, and it improved again when nutraceutical combination was reintroduced. During the glucagon stimulation test, a higher increase of C-peptide levels and a lower increase in glycemia after the test with Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum compared to placebo, to baseline and to randomization were recorded. No patients had serious adverse events in both groups. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum is effective and safe in improving lipid profile and insulin secretion in euglycemic dyslipidemic patients.

  2. Walking Reduces Postprandial Insulin Secretion in Obese Adolescents Consuming a High-Fructose or High-Glucose Diet.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Young-Min; Winn, Nathan C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-08-01

    This study assessed if walking at a self-selected pace could improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets. Seven obese male and female adolescents (18 ± 1 yr) performed 4, 15-day trials in a random order, including 1) HF-diet (50 g fructose/d added to normal diet) while being sedentary, 2) HG-diet (50 g glucose/d) while sedentary, 3) HF-diet with additional walking, and 4) HG-diet with additional walking. On the 15th day of each trial, the participants performed mixed meal testing in the laboratory in which they consumed three liquid shakes (either HF or HG) and during the HF and HG sedentary trials, the participants took < 4000 steps while in the laboratory but during the walking trials took ≥ 13,000 steps during testing. Walking did not alter postprandial glucose concentrations. Although walking reduced insulin secretion by 34% and 25% during the HF- and HG-diet, respectively (P < .05), total insulin concentrations were only significantly reduced (P > .05) with walking during the HF trial, possibly because walking enhanced insulin clearance to a greater extent during the HF-diet. Walking reduces postprandial insulin secretion in obese adolescents consuming a high-fructose or high-glucose diet.

  3. Comparison of the effects of the L-dopa and insulin tolerance tests on cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Acar, S; Paketçi, A; Tuhan, H; Demir, K; Böber, E; Abaci, A

    2018-01-20

    The aims of the present study are to evaluate the effect of L-dopa on the secretion of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in short children and compare the performance of this test with the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in a large number of patients. A total of 29 short but otherwise healthy children [mean age 9.5 ± 3.1 years (range 3.7-14.9 years)] who had inadequate growth hormone (GH) responses to ITT, which was performed as the first test, were consecutively enrolled in this study. GH, cortisol, and ACTH levels were measured just before administration of L-dopa and then at 30-min intervals afterward over a total time of 120 min. Peak concentrations of cortisol and ACTH exceeding 18 µg/dL (496 mmol/L) and 46 pg/mL (10.2 pmol/L), respectively, were defined as an adequate response. While the L-dopa test revealed that 26 of the 29 children (89.7%) had peak serum cortisol levels of > 18 µg/dL, the ITT revealed that only 23 children (79.3%) had adequate cortisol responses. The L-dopa test revealed normal ACTH responses (> 46 pg/mL) in 24 (82.8%) patients. Peak cortisol levels were higher in children with normal ACTH responses than in those with subnormal ACTH responses (25.6 ± 6.2 vs. 19.5 ± 6.4 µg/dL, p = 0.054), but the difference observed was statistically insignificant. The results of the current study confirm that the L-dopa test is a reliable test of cortisol secretion. As such, this test may be applicable to assessments of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  4. Use of First-phase Insulin Secretion in Early Diagnosis of Thyroid Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Li-Heng; Huang, Yao; Zhou, Jia; Liang, Xing-Huan; Xian, Jing; Li, Li; Qin, Ying-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: A relationship between hyperthyroidism and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. Therefore, this study explored the use of first-phase insulin secretion in the differential diagnosis of thyroid diabetes (TDM) and T2DM. Methods: In total, 101 patients with hyperthyroidism were divided into hyperthyroidism with normal glucose tolerance (TNGT), hyperthyroidism with impaired glucose regulation (TIGR), and diabetes (TDM) groups. Furthermore, 96 patients without hyperthyroidism were recruited as control groups (normal glucose tolerance [NGT], impaired glucose regulation [IGR], and T2DM). The following parameters were evaluated: homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR, HOMA-β, modified β-cell function index (MBCI), peak insulin/fasting insulin (IP/I0), AUCins-OGTT, and AUCins-OGTT/AUCglu-OGTT from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) insulin release test were utilized to assess the second-phase insulin secretion, while the IP/I0, AIR0′~10′, and AUCins-IVGTT from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) insulin release test were used to assess the first-phase insulin secretion. Results: In the OGTT, the HOMA-β values of the TNGT and TDM groups were higher than those of the NGT and T2DM groups (all P < 0.05). In the hyperthyroidism groups, the MBCI of the TDM group was lower than that of the TNGT and TIGR groups (all P < 0.05). Among the control groups, the MBCI values of the IGR and T2DM groups were lower than that of the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group (all P < 0.05). In the IVGTT, insulin secretion peaked for all groups at 2–4 min, except for the T2DM group, which showed a low plateau and no secretion peak. The IP values of the TNGT, TIGR, and TDM groups were higher than those of the NGT, IGR, and T2DM groups (all P < 0.05). The Ip/I0, AIR0′~10′, and AUCins-IVGTT values of the TDM group were higher than those of the T2DM group but were lower than those of the TNGT, TIGR, NGR, and IGR groups (all P < 0

  5. Body weight, not insulin sensitivity or secretion, may predict spontaneous weight changes in nondiabetic and prediabetic subjects: the RISC study.

    PubMed

    Rebelos, Eleni; Muscelli, Elza; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley; Mingrone, Geltrude; Piatti, Piermarco; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have found that high insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain; this association has not been confirmed. Our aim was to systematically analyze metabolic predictors of spontaneous weight changes. In 561 women and 467 men from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort (mean age 44 years, BMI range 19-44 kg/m(2), 9% impaired glucose tolerance) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by a euglycemic clamp) and β-cell function (by modeling of the C-peptide response to oral glucose and by acute insulin response to intravenous glucose). Insulin sensitivity was similar in weight gainers (top 20% of the distribution of BMI changes), weight losers (bottom 20%), and weight stable subjects across quartiles of baseline BMI. By multiple logistic or linear regression analyses controlling for center, age, sex, and baseline BMI, neither insulin sensitivity nor any β-cell function parameter showed an independent association with weight gain; this was true in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and whether subjects progressed to dysglycemia or not. Baseline BMI was significantly higher in gainers (26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) and losers (26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) than in weight stable subjects (24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), P<0.0001 for both gainers and losers). Baseline waist circumference (or equivalently, BMI or weight) was a positive, independent predictor of both weight gain and weight loss (odds ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-1.97]) in men and (1.67 [1.28-2.12]) in women. In men only, better insulin sensitivity was an additional independent predictor of weight loss. Neither insulin sensitivity nor insulin secretion predicts spontaneous weight gain. Individuals who have attained a higher weight are prone to either gaining or losing weight regardless of their glucose tolerance. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin secretion: interaction between zinc and SLC30A8 genotype in Old Order Amish

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Fu, Mao; Kao, W. H. Linda; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis SLC30A8 encodes a zinc transporter in the beta cell; individuals with a common missense variant (rs13266634; R325W) in SLC30A8 demonstrate a lower early insulin response to glucose and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that zinc supplementation may improve insulin secretion in a genotype-dependent manner. Methods We evaluated the early insulin response to glucose (using frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing) by R325W genotype before and after 14 days of supplementation with oral zinc acetate (50 mg elemental zinc) twice daily in healthy non-diabetic Amish individuals (N=55). Results Individuals with RW/WW genotypes (n=32) had the lowest insulin response to glucose at 5 and 10 min at baseline (vs RR homozygotes [n=23]). After zinc supplementation, the RW/WW group experienced 15% and 14% increases in the insulin response to glucose at 5 and 10 min, respectively (p≤0.04), and, compared with RR homozygotes, experienced a 26% (p=0.04) increase in insulin at 5 min. We observed reciprocal decreases in proinsulin:insulin in the RW/WW (p=0.002) vs RR group (p=0.048), suggesting a genotype-specific improvement in insulin processing. Conclusions/interpretation Zinc supplementation appears to affect the early insulin response to glucose differentially by rs13266634 genotype and could be beneficial for diabetes prevention and/or treatment for some individuals based on SLC30A8 variation. PMID:25348609

  7. Effectiveness of Nateglinide on In Vitro Insulin Secretion from Rat Pancreatic Islets Desensitized to Sulfonylureas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuya; Dunning, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to sulfonylureas (SUs) is known to impair the ability of islets to respond to subsequent acute stimulation by SUs or glucose. Nateglinide (NAT) is a novel insulinotropic agent with a primarily site of action at β-cell KATP channels, which is common to the structurally diverse drugs like repaglinide (REP) and the SUs. Earlier studies on the kinetics, glucosedependence and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors of the interaction between NAT and KATP channels suggested a distinct signaling pathways with NAT compared to REP, glyburide (GLY) or glimepiride (GLI). To obtain further evidence for this concept, the present study compared the insulin secretion in vitro from rat islets stimulated acutely by NAT, GLY, GLI or REP at equipotent concentrations during 1-hr static incubation following overnight treatment with GLY or tolbutamide (TOL). The islets fully retained the responsiveness to NAT stimulation after prolonged pretreatment with both SUs, while their acute response to REP, GLY, and GLI was markedly attenuated, confirming the desensitization of islets. The insulinotropic efficacy of NAT in islets desensitized to SUs may result from a distinct receptor/effector mechanism, which contributes to the unique pharmacological profile of NAT. PMID:12369729

  8. GAD-alum (Diamyd)--a new concept for preservation of residual insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2010-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a common and very serious disease. There has been very active research going on for a long time aiming at preservation of the residual insulin secretion by some kind of intervention to stop the destructive autoimmune process. This review covers a new type of immune intervention using auto-antigen treatment. Immune interventions in type 1 diabetes have been tried during the last 30 years, this review mentions some of them, but the main topic is the use of the auto-antigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) to create tolerance to stop the autoimmune process. The clinical trials have been performed during the last 15 years and are all covered. This review will give the reader a picture of the research behind treatment with GAD as an immune intervention in type 1 diabetes. The key finding so far is that treatment with Diamyd has not only been shown to preserve residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes, but this treatment may be the proof in humans of a new concept of treating and perhaps even preventing autoimmune diseases.

  9. Solution composition impacts fibronectin immobilization on carboxymethyl-dextran surfaces and INS-1 insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Dubiel, Evan A; Vermette, Patrick

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that solution composition during immobilization plays a critical role in the properties of fibronectin (FN) surfaces and their bioactivity towards insulinoma (INS-1) cell function. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed FN grafting onto low-fouling carboxymethyl-dextran (CMD) surfaces was successful with solutions composed of 10 μM CaCl(2), 10 μM MgCl(2), 10 μM MnCl(2), and 10 μM and 1mM NaCl, but unsuccessful with those made of 150 mM NaCl or 1× PBS. Circular dichroism and photon correlation spectroscopy revealed that regardless of solution composition, no measurable differences in free FN conformation prevail. AFM imaging of FN-CMD revealed, while there are no quantitative differences in surface roughness, there are some subtle qualitative differences in topography. FN surface immobilization scheme does not influence INS-1 cell growth after 3 and 7 days regardless of the underlying substrate or solution composition. INS-1 cell insulin secretion in response to glucose is affected by the substrate and solution composition during FN immobilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Insulin and C-peptide secretion in non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Mahabeer, S; Jialal, I; Norman, R J; Naidoo, C; Reddi, K; Joubert, S M

    1989-09-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) were assessed in 11 non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and 11 reference subjects matched for age, height and weight. Also, 6 patients with PCOD and 6 normal women were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ivGTT) On oGTT, all subjects exhibited normal glucose tolerance; however, PCOD patients had significantly higher mean plasma glucose levels at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and higher mean incremental glucose areas. In addition the patients with polycystic ovaries showed higher mean basal IRI and C-peptide levels, higher mean glucose stimulated IRI and C-peptide levels and higher mean incremental IRI and C-peptide values. The molar ratios of C-peptide/IRI were significantly lower in the PCOD group at all time intervals after glucose stimulation when compared to the normal women. During ivGTT, there were significantly higher mean glucose levels at 5, 40, 50 and 60 min in the PCOD group when compared to the reference group. The IRI response to intravenous glucose in the PCOD women was similar to the reference group. The findings on oGTT suggest that non-obese patients with PCOD have increased pancreatic IRI secretion as well as impaired hepatic extraction of the hormone.

  11. A role for trans-caryophyllene in the moderation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Suijun, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Ying, Gao; Yanfang, Wang

    2014-02-21

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is essential for the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis and its impairment is a key element in the failure of β-cells in type 2 diabetes. Trans-caryophyllene (TC), an important constituent of the essential oil of several species of plants, has been reported to activate the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). The effects of TC on GSIS are still unknown. Our results demonstrate that administration of TC in MIN6 cells promotes GSIS in a dose dependent manner. However, inhibition of CB2R by a specific inhibitor or specific RNA interference abolished the effects of TC on GSIS, which suggests that the effects of TC on GSIS are dependent on activation of CB2R. Further study demonstrated that treatment with TC leads to the activation of small G protein Arf6 as well as Rac1 and Cdc42. Importantly, Arf6 silencing abolished the effects of TC on GSIS, which suggests that Arf6 participates in mediating the effects of TC on GSIS. We conclude from these data that TC has a novel role in regulating GSIS in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of voltage operated R-type Ca2+ channels in modulating somatostatin receptor subtype 2- and 3-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Singh, Vandana; Grötzinger, Carsten; Kaczmarek, Przemyslaw; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Strowski, Mathias Z

    2008-12-01

    Somatostatin (SST) inhibits Ca(2+) entry into pancreatic B-cells via voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs) of L-type, leading to the suppression of insulin secretion. Activation of R-type channels increases insulin secretion. However, the role of R-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(V)2.3) in mediating the effects of SST on insulin secretion has not been so far investigated. Here, we identify the SST-receptor subtypes (SSTR) expressed on insulin-producing INS-1 cells by RT-PCR and by functional assays. The role of R-type channels in regulating [Ca(2+)](i) in response to SST-treatment was detected by cell fluorescence imaging and patch-clamp technique. INS-1 expressed SSTR2 and SSTR3 and agonists (ag.) selective for these receptors reduced 10 nM exendin-4/20 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Surprisingly, SST and SST2-ag. transiently increased [Ca(2+)](i). Subsequently, these agonists led to a decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) below the basal levels. In contrast, SST3-ag. failed to induce a transient peak of [Ca(2+)](i). Instead, a persistent minor suppression of [Ca(2+)](i) was detected from 25 min. R-type channel blocker SNX-482 altered [Ca(2+)](i) in SST- and SST2-ag.-treated cells. Notably, the inhibition of insulin secretion by SST and SST2-ag., but not SST3-ag. was attenuated by SNX-482. Taken together, SST and SSTR2 regulate [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion in INS-1 cells via R-type channels. In contrast, the R-type calcium channel does not mediate the effects of SST3-ag. on insulin secretion. We conclude that R-type channels play a major role in the inhibition of insulin secretion by somatostatin in INS-1 cells.

  13. Toxins from Physalia physalis (Cnidaria) raise the intracellular Ca(2+) of beta-cells and promote insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, C M; Fuentes-Silva, D; Sanchez-Soto, C; Domínguez-Pérez, D; García-Delgado, N; Varela, C; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Rodriguez-Romero, A; Castaneda, O; Hiriart, M

    2012-01-01

    Physalia physalis is a marine cnidarian from which high molecular weight toxins with hemolytic and neurotoxic effects have been isolated. In the present work, two novel toxins, PpV9.4 and PpV19.3 were purified from P. physalis by bioactive guideline isolation. It involved two steps of column chromatography, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The molecular weights were 550.7 and 4720.9 Da for PpV9.4 and PpV19.3, respectively. In the light of the Edman sequencing results, the structure of these toxins included the presence of modified amino acids. Both toxins increased the percentage of insulin secreting beta-cells and induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. To date, this is the first report of low molecular weight toxins increasing insulin secretion purified from cnidarians, by constituting a new approach to the study of beta-cells physiology.

  14. Sasa borealis leaves extract improves insulin resistance by modulating inflammatory cytokine secretion in high fat diet-induced obese C57/BL6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Hwa; Lim, Hyeon-Sook

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is considered a mild inflammatory state, and the secretion of inflammation-related cytokines rises as adipose tissue expands. Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), are modulated by adipose tissue and known to play an important role in insulin resistance which is the common characteristics of obesity related disorders. In this study we analyzed the effects of Sasa borealis leaves extract on inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice. The obese state was induced by a high fat diet for 20 weeks and then the mice were divided into two groups; obese control group (OBC, n = 7) and experimental group (OB-SBE, n = 7). The OBC group was fed a high fat diet and the OB-SBE group was fed a high fat diet containing 5% Sasa borealis leaves extract (SBE) for 12 weeks. We also used mice fed a standard diet as a normal control (NC, n = 7). The body weight and adipose tissue weight in the OB group were significantly higher than those in the NC group. The effects of the high fat diet were reduced by SBE treatments, and the body weight and adipose tissue deposition in the OB-SBE group were significantly decreased compared to the OBC group. The OBC group showed higher serum glucose and insulin levels which resulted in a significant increase of incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and HOMA-IR than the NC group. Also, serum leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the OBC group than in the NC group. In contrast, the OB-SBE group showed a reversal in the metabolic defects, including a decrease in glucose, insulin, IAUC, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin levels. These results suggest that BSE can suppress increased weight gain and/or fat deposition induced by a high fat diet and theses effects are accompanied by modulation of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion resulting in improved insulin resistance. PMID

  15. Downregulation of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 is associated with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yakun; Sheng, Miaomiao; Huang, Fengming; Bu, Dechao; Liu, Xiaohai; Yao, Yong; Dai, Congxin; Sun, Bowen; Zhu, Jindong; Jiao, Yonghui; Wei, Zhenqing; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Lin; Zhao, Yi; Jiang, Chengyu; Wang, Renzhi

    2014-12-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, called Cushing disease, is caused by a corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), which regulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activity and inhibits several IGF2-dependent cancer growths, plays a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis of malignancy, but its roles in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas remain unclear. To investigate IGFBP6 expression in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, and its involvement in tumor growth. Sporadic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas specimens (n = 41) and adjacent non-tumorous pituitary tissues (n = 9) were collected by transphenoidal surgery. IGFBP6 expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and validated by Western blotting. Associations of IGFBP6 expression with maximum tumor diameter or Ki-67 labeling index were evaluated in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. IGFBP6 mRNA and protein expression were both decreased in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, compared to adjacent non-tumorous pituitary tissues (P < 0.01). IGFBP6 expression was correlated inversely with maximum tumor diameter (Rho = -0.53, P < 0.0001) and Ki-67 levels (Rho = -0.52, P < 0.05). Moreover, IGFBP6 downregulation activated PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. IGFBP6 attenuation in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas is associated with tumor growth, through activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. The finding underlies IGFBP6 roles in Cushing disease and would potentially provide a novel target of medical therapies.

  16. 13C NMR isotopomer analysis reveals a connection between pyruvate cycling and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Danhong; Mulder, Hindrik; Zhao, Piyu; Burgess, Shawn C.; Jensen, Mette V.; Kamzolova, Svetlana; Newgard, Christopher B.; Sherry, A. Dean

    2002-01-01

    Cellular metabolism of glucose is required for stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, but the precise metabolic coupling factors involved in this process are not known. In an effort to better understand mechanisms of fuel-mediated insulin secretion, we have adapted 13C NMR and isotopomer methods to measure influx of metabolic fuels into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in insulinoma cells. Mitochondrial metabolism of [U-13C3]pyruvate, derived from [U-13C6]glucose, was compared in four clonal rat insulinoma cell 1-derived cell lines with varying degrees of glucose responsiveness. A 13C isotopomer analysis of glutamate isolated from these cells showed that the fraction of acetyl-CoA derived from [U-13C6]glucose was the same in all four cell lines (44 ± 5%, 70 ± 3%, and 84 ± 4% with 3, 6, or 12 mM glucose, respectively). The 13C NMR spectra also demonstrated the existence of two compartmental pools of pyruvate, one that exchanges with TCA cycle intermediates and a second pool derived from [U-13C6]glucose that feeds acetyl-CoA into the TCA cycle. The 13C NMR spectra were consistent with a metabolic model where the two pyruvate pools do not randomly mix. Flux between the mitochondrial intermediates and the first pool of pyruvate (pyruvate cycling) varied in proportion to glucose responsiveness in the four cell lines. Furthermore, stimulation of pyruvate cycling with dimethylmalate or its inhibition with phenylacetic acid led to proportional changes in insulin secretion. These findings indicate that exchange of pyruvate with TCA cycle intermediates, rather than oxidation of pyruvate via acetyl-CoA, correlates with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PMID:11880625

  17. Elevated Glucose Oxidation, Reduced Insulin Secretion, and a Fatty Heart May Be Protective Adaptions in Ischemic CAD.

    PubMed

    Hannukainen, J C; Lautamäki, R; Mari, A; Pärkkä, J P; Bucci, M; Guzzardi, M A; Kajander, S; Tuokkola, T; Knuuti, J; Iozzo, P

    2016-07-01

    Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and ectopic fat deposition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, which is common in CAD patients. We investigated whether CAD is an independent predictor of these metabolic abnormalities and whether this interaction is influenced by superimposed myocardial ischemia. We studied CAD patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 14) myocardial ischemia and eight non-CAD controls. Insulin sensitivity and secretion and substrate oxidation were measured during fasting and oral glucose tolerance testing. We used magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission and computerized tomography to characterize CAD, cardiac function, pericardial and abdominal adipose tissue, and myocardial, liver, and pancreatic triglyceride contents. Ischemic CAD was characterized by elevated oxidative glucose metabolism and a proportional decline in β-cell insulin secretion and reduction in lipid oxidation. Cardiac function was preserved in CAD groups, whereas cardiac fat depots were elevated in ischemic CAD compared to non-CAD subjects. Liver and pancreatic fat contents were similar in all groups and related with surrounding adipose masses or systemic insulin sensitivity. In ischemic CAD patients, glucose oxidation is enhanced and correlates inversely with insulin secretion. This can be seen as a mechanism to prevent glucose lowering because glucose is required in oxygen-deprived tissues. On the other hand, the accumulation of cardiac triglycerides may be a physiological adaptation to the limited fatty acid oxidative capacity. Our results underscore the urgent need of clinical trials that define the optimal/safest glycemic range in situations of myocardial ischemia.

  18. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  19. Islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP): the role of its endogenous production as a positive modulator of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Flores, Luis E; Del Zotto, Héctor; Fragapane, Florencia; Maiztegui, Bárbara; Román, Carolina L; Boschero, Antonio C; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) is a peptide found in pancreatic exocrine-, duct- and islet- non-β-cells from normal hamsters. Its increase induced by either its exogenous administration or by the overexpression of its gene enhances β-cell secretory function and increases β-cell mass by a combination of stimulation of cell replication and islet neogenesis and reduction of β-cell apoptosis. We studied the potential modulatory role of endogenous INGAP in insulin secretion using two different experimental approaches. Hamster islets transfected with INGAP-small interfering RNA (INGAP-siRNA) were used to study glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In parallel, freshly isolated islets were incubated with high glucose and the same concentration of either a specific anti-INGAP rabbit serum or normal rabbit serum. INGAP-siRNA transfected islets reduced their INGAP mRNA and protein content by 35.1% and 47.2%, respectively whereas GSIS decreased by 25.8%. GSIS by transfected islets attained levels comparable to those recorded in control islets when INGAP pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP) was added to the culture medium. INGAP antibody in the medium decreased significantly GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that endogenous INGAP plays a "physiological" positive modulatory role in insulin secretion, supporting its possible use in the treatment of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of islet neogenesis-associated protein pentadecapeptide on cell mass and insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, M; Zhang, M; Shan, S; Xu, K-F; Chen, H; Xu, X-Y; Qian, L; Han, X; Yang, T

    2012-07-01

    To explore the effects of islet neogenesis- associated protein pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP) on proliferation and secretion function of β-cells. Islets of adult Sprague Dawley rats were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated with 10 μg/ml INGAP-PP, after 12, 24, 48 h, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and acridine orange/pro pidium iodide (AO/PI) staining were used to detect the secretion function and cell viability. The INS-1 cells were treated with 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml INGAP-PP for 24 or 48 h, MTT cell proliferation assay was adopted to survey the dose-response relationship between INGAP-PP and cell proliferation. The mRNA expression of roliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin D1, Cdk4, P27, p38MAPK, and JNK in INS-1 cells were examined by RT-PCR, and the protein expression of PCNA was examined by Western blot. The statistical significance was determined by Student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance. The insulin secreted by islets and the cell viability were increased by INGAP-PP. MTT indicated a dose-response relationship between INGAP-PP and quantity of INS-1 cells, and treatment for 48 h had a stronger effect on cell proliferation than the 24 h. INGAP-PP up-regulated the mRNA expression of PCNA, Cyclin D1, Cdk4 and downregulated P27, p38MAPK, and JNK. Moreover, the protein expression of PCNA was up-regulated by 45% after INGAPPP exposure for 48 h. INGAP-PP increased the insulin secretion, enhanced the proliferation and might reduce apop tosis of β-cells. The mechanism may contribute to the changed expression of some genes related to cell cycle.

  1. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lep{sup ob/ob} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; and others

    2009-09-25

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic {beta}-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-}) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic {beta}-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-} developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup +/+} in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep{sup +/+} background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep{sup ob/ob} islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep{sup ob/ob} mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  2. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 and saturated long chain monoacylglycerol regulate insulin secretion promoted by both fuel and non-fuel stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Poursharifi, Pegah; Mugabo, Yves; Levens, Emily J; Vivot, Kevin; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2015-12-01

    α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 (ABHD6) is a newly identified monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. We recently reported that it negatively regulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the β cells by hydrolyzing lipolysis-derived MAG that acts as a metabolic coupling factor and signaling molecule via exocytotic regulator Munc13-1. Whether ABHD6 and MAG play a role in response to all classes of insulin secretagogues, in particular various fuel and non-fuel stimuli, is unknown. Insulin secretion in response to various classes of secretagogues, exogenous MAG and pharmacological agents was measured in islets of mice deficient in ABHD6 specifically in the β cell (BKO). Islet perifusion experiments and determinations of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, cytosolic Ca(2+) and MAG species levels were carried out. Deletion of ABHD6 potentiated insulin secretion in response to the fuels glutamine plus leucine and α-ketoisocaproate and to the non-fuel stimuli glucagon-like peptide 1, carbamylcholine and elevated KCl. Fatty acids amplified GSIS in control and BKO mice to the same extent. Exogenous 1-MAG amplified insulin secretion in response to fuel and non-fuel stimuli. MAG hydrolysis activity was greatly reduced in BKO islets without changes in total diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol lipase activity. ABHD6 deletion induced insulin secretion independently from KATP channels and did not alter the glucose induced rise in intracellular Ca(2+). Perifusion studies showed elevated insulin secretion during second phase of GSIS in BKO islets that was not due to altered cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling or because of changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Glucose increased islet saturated long chain 1-MAG species and ABHD6 deletion caused accumulation of these 1-MAG species at both low and elevated glucose. ABHD6 regulates insulin secretion in response to fuel stimuli at large and some non-fuel stimuli by controlling long chain saturated 1-MAG levels that synergize with other

  3. Chromanol 293B, an inhibitor of KCNQ1 channels, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases glucagon-like peptide-1 level in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijie; Wang, Fanfan; Lu, Haiying; Ren, Xiaomei; Zou, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is a highly regulated process involving complex interaction of multiple factors. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1 (KCNQ1) is a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the risk alleles of the KCNQ1 gene appear to be associated with impaired insulin secretion. The role of KCNQ1 channel in insulin secretion has been explored by previous work in clonal pancreatic β-cells but has yet to be investigated in the context of primary islets as well as intact animals. Genetic studies suggest that altered incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion might be a potential link between KCNQ1 variants and impaired insulin secretion, but this hypothesis has not been verified so far. In the current study, we examined KCNQ1 expression in pancreas and intestine from normal mice and then investigated the effects of chromanol 293B, a KCNQ1 channel inhibitor, on insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. By double-immunofluorescence staining, KCNQ1 was detected in insulin-positive β-cells and GLP-1-positive L-cells. Administration of chromanol 293B enhanced GSIS in cultured islets and intact animals. Along with the potentiated insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), plasma GLP-1 level after gastric glucose load was increased in 293B treated mice. These data not only provided new evidence for the participation of KCNQ1 in GSIS at the level of pancreatic islet and intact animal but also indicated the potential linking role of GLP-1 between KCNQ1 and insulin secretion.

  4. CFTR and Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) contribute to cAMP amplified exocytosis and insulin secretion in human and murine pancreatic beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene lead to the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Although patients with CF often have disturbances in glucose metabolism including impaired insulin release, no previous studies have tested the hypothesis that CFTR has a biological function in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods Experiments were performed on islets and single beta-cells from human donors and NMRI-mice. Detection of CFTR was investigated using PCR and confocal microscopy. Effects on insulin secretion were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). The patch-clamp technique was used to measure ion channel currents and calcium-dependent exocytosis (as changes in membrane capacitance) on single cells with high temporal resolution. Analysis of ultrastructure was done on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Results We detected the presence of CFTR and measured a small CFTR conductance in both human and mouse beta-cells. The augmentation of insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose by activation of CFTR by cAMP (forskolin (FSK) or GLP-1) was significantly inhibited when CFTR antagonists (GlyH-101 and/or CFTRinh-172) were added. Likewise, capacitance measurements demonstrated reduced cAMP-dependent exocytosis upon CFTR-inhibition, concomitant with a decreased number of docked insulin granules. Finally, our studies demonstrate that CFTR act upstream of the chloride channel Anoctamin 1 (ANO1; TMEM16A) in the regulation of cAMP- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion Our work demonstrates a novel function for CFTR as a regulator of pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretion and exocytosis, and put forward a role for CFTR as regulator of ANO1 and downstream priming of insulin granules prior to fusion and release of insulin. The pronounced regulatory effect of CFTR on insulin secretion is consistent with impaired insulin secretion in patients with CF. PMID:24885604

  5. Routine OGTT: a robust model including incretin effect for precise identification of insulin sensitivity and secretion in a single individual.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Matone, Alice; Samson, Adeline; Vrbikova, Jana; Bendlova, Bela; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5)±9.36×10(-5) min(-1)pM(-1)), IFG (5.30×10(-5)±5.18×10(-5)) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5)±1.95×10(-5), 2.38×10(-5)±2.28×10(-5) and 2.38×10(-5)±2.09×10(-5) respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  6. Drp1 guarding of the mitochondrial network is important for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Florian; Schultz, Julia; Waterstradt, Rica

    2016-06-10

    Mitochondria form a tubular network in mammalian cells, and the mitochondrial life cycle is determined by fission, fusion and autophagy. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has a pivotal role in these processes because it alone is able to constrict mitochondria. However, the regulation and function of Drp1 have been shown to vary between cell types. Mitochondrial morphology affects mitochondrial metabolism and function. In pancreatic beta cells mitochondrial metabolism is a key component of the glucose-induced cascade of insulin secretion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the action of Drp1 in pancreatic beta cells. For this purpose Drp1 wasmore » down-regulated by means of shDrp1 in insulin-secreting INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In INS1 cells reduced Drp1 expression resulted in diminished expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial fusion, namely mitofusin 1 and 2, and optic atrophy protein 1. Diminished mitochondrial dynamics can therefore be assumed. After down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells and spread mouse islets the initially homogenous mitochondrial network characterised by a moderate level of interconnections shifted towards high heterogeneity with elongated, clustered and looped mitochondria. These morphological changes were found to correlate directly with functional alterations. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation were significantly reduced in INS1 cells after Drp1down-regulation. Finally, a significant loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was demonstrated in INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In conclusion, Drp1 expression is important in pancreatic beta cells to maintain the regulation of insulin secretion. -- Highlights: •Down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells reduces mitochondrial fusion protein expression. •Mitochondrial membrane potential in INS1 cells is diminished after Drp1 down-regulation. •Mitochondria become elongated after down-regulation of Drp1 in beta cells.

  7. Acute effect of 3β-hidroxihop-22(29)ene on insulin secretion is mediated by GLP-1, potassium and calcium channels for the glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Allisson Jhonatan Gomes; Cazarolli, Luisa Helena; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; da Luz, Gabrielle; Altenhofen, Delsi; dos Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2015-06-01

    The effect of 3β-hidroxihop-22(29)ene (3-BHO) on insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion as well as the mechanism of action of the compound in pancreatic islet on glucose homeostasis was investigated. The data from in vivo treatment show that 3-BHO significantly reduces the hyperglycemia by increasing the insulin and GLP-1 secretion, as well as by accumulating hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic rats. In rat pancreatic β-cell, 3-BHO stimulates the glucose uptake, insulin vesicles translocation to the plasma membrane and thus the insulin secretion through the involvement of potassium channels (ATP- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels) and calcium channels (L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC)). Furthermore, this study also provides evidence for a crosstalk between intracellular high calcium concentration, PKA and PKC in the signal transduction of 3-BHO to stimulate insulin secretion. In conclusion, 3-BHO diminishes glycaemia, stimulates GLP-1 secretion and potentiates insulin secretion and increase hepatic glycogen content. Moreover, this triterpene modulates calcium influx characterizing ATP-K(+), Ca(2+)-K(+) and L-VDCC channels-dependent pathways as well as PKA and PKC activity in pancreatic islets underlying the signaling of 3-BHO for the secretory activity and contribution on glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enterovirus infection of human islets of Langerhans affects β-cell function resulting in disintegrated islets, decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion and loss of Golgi structure.

    PubMed

    Hodik, M; Skog, O; Lukinius, A; Isaza-Correa, J M; Kuipers, J; Giepmans, B N G; Frisk, G

    2016-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), most insulin-producing β cells are destroyed, but the trigger is unknown. One of the possible triggers is a virus infection and the aim of this study was to test if enterovirus infection affects glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the effect of virus replication on cellular macromolecules and organelles involved in insulin secretion. Isolated human islets were infected with different strains of coxsackievirus B (CVB) virus and the glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIS) was measured in a dynamic perifusion system. Classical morphological electron microscopy, large-scale electron microscopy, so-called nanotomy, and immunohistochemistry were used to study to what extent virus-infected β cells contained insulin, and real-time PCR was used to analyze virus induced changes of islet specific genes. In islets infected with CVB, GSIS was reduced in correlation with the degree of virus-induced islet disintegration. The expression of the gene encoding insulin was decreased in infected islets, whereas the expression of glucagon was not affected. Also, in islets that were somewhat disintegrated, there were uninfected β cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that virus particles and virus replication complexes were only present in β cells. There was a significant number of insulin granules remaining in the virus-infected β cells, despite decreased expression of insulin mRNA. In addition, no typical Golgi apparatus was detected in these cells. Exposure of islets to synthetic dsRNA potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; organelles involved in insulin secretion and gene expression were all affected by CVB replication in β cells.

  9. Enterovirus infection of human islets of Langerhans affects β-cell function resulting in disintegrated islets, decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion and loss of Golgi structure

    PubMed Central

    Hodik, M; Skog, O; Lukinius, A; Isaza-Correa, J M; Kuipers, J; Giepmans, B N G; Frisk, G

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In type 1 diabetes (T1D), most insulin-producing β cells are destroyed, but the trigger is unknown. One of the possible triggers is a virus infection and the aim of this study was to test if enterovirus infection affects glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the effect of virus replication on cellular macromolecules and organelles involved in insulin secretion. Methods Isolated human islets were infected with different strains of coxsackievirus B (CVB) virus and the glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIS) was measured in a dynamic perifusion system. Classical morphological electron microscopy, large-scale electron microscopy, so-called nanotomy, and immunohistochemistry were used to study to what extent virus-infected β cells contained insulin, and real-time PCR was used to analyze virus induced changes of islet specific genes. Results In islets infected with CVB, GSIS was reduced in correlation with the degree of virus-induced islet disintegration. The expression of the gene encoding insulin was decreased in infected islets, whereas the expression of glucagon was not affected. Also, in islets that were somewhat disintegrated, there were uninfected β cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that virus particles and virus replication complexes were only present in β cells. There was a significant number of insulin granules remaining in the virus-infected β cells, despite decreased expression of insulin mRNA. In addition, no typical Golgi apparatus was detected in these cells. Exposure of islets to synthetic dsRNA potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions/interpretation Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; organelles involved in insulin secretion and gene expression were all affected by CVB replication in β cells. PMID:27547409

  10. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu; Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455; Pongratz, Rebecca L.

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as amore » surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria

  11. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  12. Downregulation of Long Noncoding RNA Gas5 Affects Cell Cycle and Insulin Secretion in Mouse Pancreatic β Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Feiyan; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yanan; You, Lianghui; Wang, Lintao; De, Wei; Tang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in individual development, cell differentiation, cell cycle processes and other important life processes and are closely related to major human diseases, including diabetes. Recent studies have reported that lncRNAs are involved in β cell functions and that lncRNA Gas5 levels decreased in T2DM patients' serum. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of lncRNA Gas5 in mouse β cell functions in vitro and in vivo. lncRNA Gas5 expression in T2DM and normal mouse tissues was analyzed using qRT-PCR. RNAi, qRT-PCR, Annexin V-FITC assays, western blot, GSIS and RIA were performed to detect the effects of lncRNA Gas5 on insulin synthesis and secretion in vitro and in vivo. The lncRNA Gas5 level was significantly decreased in db/db mice. However, lncRNA Gas5 expression was relatively high in the pancreas of normal mice. Knockdown of lncRNA Gas5 expression led to cell cycle G1 arrest and impaired insulin synthesis and secretion in Min6 cells. Further, knockdown of lncRNA Gas5 expression in primary isolated islets resulted in decreased expression of insulin gene and transcription factors, Pdx1 and MafA. These results indicate that lncRNA Gas5 might perform as a new regulator, maintaining β cell identity and function by affecting insulin synthesis and secretion. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Changes in pancreatic histology, insulin secretion and oxidative status in diabetic rats following treatment with Ficus deltoidea and vitexin.

    PubMed

    Nurdiana, Samsulrizal; Goh, Yong Meng; Ahmad, Hafandi; Dom, Sulaiman Md; Syimal'ain Azmi, Nur; Noor Mohamad Zin, Noor Syaffinaz; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-06-02

    The potential application of Ficus deltoidea and vitexin for the management of symptomatologies associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) has gained much attention. However, less firm evidence comes from data to augment our understanding of the role of F. deltoidea and vitexin in protecting pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to assess histological and oxidative stress changes in the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats following F. deltoidea extract and vitexin treatment. F. deltoidea and vitexin was administrated orally to six-weeks STZ-induced diabetic rats over 8 weeks period. The glucose and insulin tolerances were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose (2 g/kg) tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin (0.65 U/kg) tolerance test (IPITT), respectively. Subsequently, insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and the insulin/triglyceride-derived McAuley index. The histological changes in the pancreas were then observed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Further, the pattern of fatty acid composition and infrared (IR) spectra of the serum and pancreas were monitored by gas chromatography (GC) method and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. F. deltoidea and vitexin increased pancreatic antioxidant enzymes and promoted islet regeneration. However, a significant increase in insulin secretion was observed only in rats treated with F. deltoidea. More importantly, reduction of fasting blood glucose is consistent with reduced FT-IR peaks at 1200-1000 cm -1 . These results accentuate that F. deltoidea and vitexin could be a potential agent to attenuate pancreatic oxidative damage and advocate their therapeutic potential for treating DM.

  14. PPARalpha activation and increased dietary lipid oppose thyroid hormone signaling and rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Holness, Mark J; Greenwood, Gemma K; Smith, Nicholas D; Sugden, Mary C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the characteristics of the islet insulin secretory response to glucose, particularly the consequences of competition between thyroid hormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha in the regulation of islet adaptations to starvation and dietary lipid-induced insulin resistance. Rats maintained on standard (low-fat/high-carbohydrate) diet or high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet were rendered hyperthyroid (HT) by triiodothyronine (T(3)) administration (1 mg.kg body wt(-1).day(-1) sc, 3 days). The PPARalpha agonist WY14643 (50 mg/kg body wt ip) was administered 24 h before sampling. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was assessed during hyperglycemic clamps or after acute glucose bolus injection in vivo and with step-up and step-down islet perifusions. Hyperthyroidism decreased the glucose responsiveness of GSIS, precluding sufficient enhancement of insulin secretion for the degree of insulin resistance, in rats fed either standard diet or high-fat diet. Hyperthyroidism partially opposed the starvation-induced increase in the glucose threshold for GSIS and decrease in glucose responsiveness. WY14643 administration restored glucose tolerance by enhancing GSIS in fed HT rats and relieved the impact of hyperthyroidism to partially oppose islet starvation adaptations. Competition between thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and PPARalpha influences the characteristics of GSIS, such that hyperthyroidism impairs GSIS while PPARalpha activation (and increased dietary lipid) opposes TR signaling and restores GSIS in the fed hyperthyroid state. Increased islet PPARalpha signaling and decreased TR signaling during starvation facilitates appropriate modification of islet function.

  15. Simultaneous monitoring of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide secretion from islets of Langerhans on a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Lomasney, Anna R; Yi, Lian; Roper, Michael G

    2013-08-20

    A method was developed that allowed simultaneous monitoring of the acute secretory dynamics of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) from islets of Langerhans using a microfluidic system with two-color detection. A flow-switching feature enabled changes in the perfusion media within 5 s, allowing rapid exchange of the glucose concentrations delivered to groups of islets. The perfusate was continuously sampled by electroosmotic flow and mixed online with Cy5-labeled insulin, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled IAPP, anti-insulin, and anti-IAPP antibodies in an 8.15 cm mixing channel maintained at 37 °C. The immunoassay mixture was injected for 0.3 s onto a 1.5 cm separation channel at 11.75 s intervals and immunoassay reagents detected using 488 and 635 nm lasers with two independent photomultiplier tubes for detection of the FITC and Cy5 signal. RSD of the bound-to-free immunoassay ratios ranged from 2 to 7% with LODs of 20 nM for insulin and 1 nM for IAPP. Simultaneous secretion profiles of the two peptides were monitored from groups of 4-10 islets during multiple step changes in glucose concentration. Insulin and IAPP were secreted in an approximately 10:1 ratio and displayed similar responses to step changes from 3 to 11 or 20 mM glucose. The ability to monitor the secretory dynamics of multiple peptides from islets of Langerhans in a highly automated fashion is expected to be a useful tool for investigating hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  16. Adult Pancreas Side Population Cells Expand after β Cell Injury and Are a Source of Insulin-Secreting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Banakh, Ilia; Gonez, Leonel J.; Sutherland, Robyn M.; Naselli, Gaetano; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas stem cells are a potential source of insulin-producing β cells for the therapy of diabetes. In adult tissues the ‘side population’ (SP) of cells that effluxes the DNA binding dye Hoechst 33342 through ATP-binding cassette transporters has stem cell properties. We hypothesised therefore that the SP would expand in response to β cell injury and give rise to functional β cells. SP cells were flow sorted from dissociated pancreas cells of adult mice, analysed for phenotype and cultured with growth promoting and differentiation factors before analysis for hormone expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. SP cell number and colony forming potential (CFP) increased significantly in models of type diabetes, and after partial pancreatectomy, in the absence of hyperglycaemia. SP cells, ∼1% of total pancreas cells at 1 week of age, were enriched >10-fold for CFP compared to non-SP cells. Freshly isolated SP cells contained no insulin protein or RNA but expressed the homeobox transcription factor Pdx1 required for pancreas development and β cell function. Pdx1, along with surface expression of CD326 (Ep-Cam), was a marker of the colony forming and proliferation potential of SP cells. In serum-free medium with defined factors, SP cells proliferated and differentiated into islet hormone-expressing cells that secreted insulin in response to glucose. Insulin expression was maintained when tissue was transplanted within vascularised chambers into diabetic mice. SP cells in the adult pancreas expand in response to β cell injury and are a source of β cell progenitors with potential for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23152835

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Topical Insulin for Healing Corneal Epithelial Defects Induced During Vitreoretinal Surgery in Diabetics.

    PubMed

    Fai, Seng; Ahem, Amin; Mustapha, Mushawiathi; Mohd Noh, Umi Kalthum; Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of topical insulin of 3 concentrations [0.5, 1, and 2 units per drop 4 times per day (QID)] on postoperative corneal epithelial wound healing in diabetic patients. A double blind randomized controlled hospital-based study involving diabetic patients with postoperative corneal epithelial defect after vitreoretinal surgery. Diabetic patients were randomized to 3 different concentrations of topical insulin (DTI 0.5, DTI 1, and DTI 2) or placebo in the control group (DNS). Primary outcome measure was the rate of corneal epithelial wound healing (mm² per hour) over pre-set interval and time from baseline to minimum size of epithelial defect on fluorescein stained anterior segment digital camera photography. Secondary outcome measure was any adverse effect of topical insulin. Follow-up was 1 month. Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients undergoing intraoperative corneal debridement with resultant epithelial defect (8 eyes per group) were analyzed. DTI 0.5 was superior to other concentrations achieving 100% healing rate within 72 hours of treatment compared with 62.5% in DNS, 75% in DTI 1, and 62.5% in DTI 2. Statistically, DTI 0.5 achieved significant results (P = 0.036) compared with the diabetic control group (DNS) in terms of mean rate of corneal epithelial wound healing from maximum to minimum defect size. No adverse effect of topical insulin was reported. Topical insulin 0.5 units QID is most effective for healing corneal epithelial defect in diabetic patients after vitrectomy surgery compared with placebo and higher concentrations. Topical insulin is safe for human ocular usage. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  18. Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2008-09-15

    An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca{sup 2+}]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite dosesmore » (0.5-2 {mu}M). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 {mu}M arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 {mu}M arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the {beta} cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca{sup 2+}]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion.« less

  19. The effect of insulin on bile-salt-independent canalicular secretion.

    PubMed

    Snow, J R; Jones, R S

    1978-04-01

    Mongrel dogs were prepared by cholecystectomy, ligation of the lesser pancreatic duct, and insertion of gastric and duodenal cannulas. The common bile duct was cannulated through the duodenal fistula. After stabilization of bile flow by intravenous infusion of sodium taurocholate, the dogs received an intravenous injection of insulin or 0.9% NaCl (control). This procedure was repeated with varying concentrations of sodium taurocholate to obtain taurocholate dose-response tests with and without insulin. Insulin caused marked increases in bile flow and the biliary clearance of erythritol, with no increase in bile-salt output The regression of bile-salt output on erythritol clearance was calculated for experiments with and without insulin. The resulting lines were compared by covariate analysis, which revealed a significantly higher intercept during insulin choleresis. This observation demonstrated that insulin stimulated the bile-salt-independent fraction of canalicular bile formation.

  20. MSC attenuate diabetes-induced functional impairment in adipocytes via secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongyun; Xie, Jiangfan; Zhang, Junhua; Feng, Changjiang; Yao, Bin; Ma, Kui; Li, Jiwei; Wu, Xu; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-09-12

    The function of subcutaneous adipocytes in promoting wound healing is significantly suppressed in diabetic wounds. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to ameliorate impaired diabetic wound healing. We hypothesized that MSC function may involve subcutaneous adipocytes. The abnormal function of subcutaneous adipocytes from STZ induced diabetic mice including glucose uptake and free fatty acid (FFA) secretion level were assessed. Then these cells were co-cultured with MSC via a transwell system to observe the changes of metabolic index and glucose transporter four (GLUT4) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway expression. The results of metabolic index suggest that MSC obviously attenuated the diabetes-induced functional impairment. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses showed that PI3K/AKT insulin signaling pathway and GLUT4 expression were up-regulated. These changes were substantially associated with a increased level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion from MSC. These findings suggest that MSC could attenuate abnormal function of diabetic adipocytes by IGF-1secretion, which was more or less associated with the beneficial effects of MSC on improving diabetic wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat with Insulin Resistance and Secretion Differ Between Men and Women: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study.

    PubMed

    de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin; Widya, Ralph; de Koning, Eelco; Jazet, Ingrid; Lamb, Hildo; le Cessie, Saskia; de Roos, Albert; Smit, Jan; Rosendaal, Frits; den Heijer, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women). With linear regression analysis, we examined associations of abdominal SAT and VAT with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women, while adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, menopausal state and hormone use in women, and models with VAT additionally for total body fat. Participants had a mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of 56 (6) years, body mass index: 25.9 (3.9) kg/m 2 , VAT: 89 (55) cm 2 , and SAT: 235 (95) cm 2 . In the multivariate models in men, per SD of VAT the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 20% (95% CI: 14-26) higher, and per SD SAT 21% (15-27) higher. In women, per SD of VAT the HOMA-IR was 40% (29-52) higher, and per SD SAT 12% (6-19) higher. Associations with measures of insulin secretion were weaker than with insulin resistance. In men, abdominal SAT and VAT were associated with insulin resistance to a similar extent, whereas in women particularly VAT was associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Future studies need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the metabolic effects of visceral fat in women. Simple and less expensive measures that can distinct abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat are needed for an improved metabolic risk stratification.

  2. Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets

    SciTech Connect

    Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decreasemore » in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.« less

  3. The triggering pathway to insulin secretion: Functional similarities and differences between the human and the mouse β cells and their translational relevance

    PubMed Central

    Skelin Klemen, Maša; Dolenšek, Jurij; Stožer, Andraž

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In β cells, stimulation by metabolic, hormonal, neuronal, and pharmacological factors is coupled to secretion of insulin through different intracellular signaling pathways. Our knowledge about the molecular machinery supporting these pathways and the patterns of signals it generates comes mostly from rodent models, especially the laboratory mouse. The increased availability of human islets for research during the last few decades has yielded new insights into the specifics in signaling pathways leading to insulin secretion in humans. In this review, we follow the most central triggering pathway to insulin secretion from its very beginning when glucose enters the β cell to the calcium oscillations it produces to trigger fusion of insulin containing granules with the plasma membrane. Along the way, we describe the crucial building blocks that contribute to the flow of information and focus on their functional role in mice and humans and on their translational implications. PMID:28662366

  4. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  5. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligationmore » of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly

  6. Syndrome of Extreme Insulin Resistance (Rabson-Mendenhall Phenotype) with Atrial Septal Defect: Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    Syndrome of extreme insulin resistance (SEIR) is a rare spectrum disorder with a primary defect in insulin receptor signalling, noted primarily in children, and is often difficult to diagnose due to the clinical heterogeneity. SEIR was diagnosed in an adolescent girl with facial dysmorphism, exuberant scalp and body hair, severe acanthosis, lipoatrophy, dental abnormalities, and short stature (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype). She had elevated fasting (422.95 pmol/L) and post-glucose insulin levels (>2083 pmol/L). Total body fat was decreased (11%; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Basal growth hormone (GH) was increased (7.9 μg/L) with normal insuline-like growth factor 1 (37.6 nmol/L) suggestive of GH resistance. She had fatty liver and polycystic ovaries. Echocardiography revealed ostium secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD). Blood glucose normalized with pioglitazone (30 mg/day). Delayed development, severe insulin resistance, mild hyperglycemia, absence of ketosis, and remarkable response of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia to pioglitazone which persisted even after 1 year of diagnosis are some of the notable features of this patient. This is perhaps the first report of occurrence of congenital heart disease (ASD) in a patient of SEIR (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype). This report highlights the clinical features of SEIR and the role of insulin sensitizers like pioglitazone in the management of such patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23367497

  7. Syndrome of extreme insulin resistance (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype) with atrial septal defect: clinical presentation and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    Syndrome of extreme insulin resistance (SEIR) is a rare spectrum disorder with a primary defect in insulin receptor signalling, noted primarily in children, and is often difficult to diagnose due to the clinical heterogeneity.SEIR was diagnosed in an adolescent girl with facial dysmorphism,exuberant scalp and body hair, severe acanthosis, lipoatrophy, dental abnormalities, and short stature (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype). She had elevated fasting (422.95 pmol/L) and post-glucose insulin levels(>2083 pmol/L). Total body fat was decreased (11%; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Basal growth hormone (GH) was increased (7.9 μg/L)with normal insuline-like growth factor 1 (37.6 nmol/L) suggestive of GH resistance. She had fatty liver and polycystic ovaries. Echocardiography revealed ostium secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD). Blood glucose normalized with pioglitazone (30 mg/day). Delayed development, severe insulin resistance, mild hyperglycemia, absence of ketosis, and remarkable response of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia to pioglitazone which persisted even after 1 year of diagnosis are some of the notable features of this patient. This is perhaps the first report of occurrence of congenital heart disease (ASD) in a patient of SEIR (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype). This report highlights the clinical features of SEIR and the role of insulin sensitizers like pioglitazone in the management of such patients.

  8. Body Weight, Not Insulin Sensitivity or Secretion, May Predict Spontaneous Weight Changes in Nondiabetic and Prediabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rebelos, Eleni; Muscelli, Elza; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley; Mingrone, Geltrude; Piatti, Piermarco; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous studies have found that high insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain; this association has not been confirmed. Our aim was to systematically analyze metabolic predictors of spontaneous weight changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 561 women and 467 men from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort (mean age 44 years, BMI range 19–44 kg/m2, 9% impaired glucose tolerance) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by a euglycemic clamp) and β-cell function (by modeling of the C-peptide response to oral glucose and by acute insulin response to intravenous glucose). RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was similar in weight gainers (top 20% of the distribution of BMI changes), weight losers (bottom 20%), and weight stable subjects across quartiles of baseline BMI. By multiple logistic or linear regression analyses controlling for center, age, sex, and baseline BMI, neither insulin sensitivity nor any β-cell function parameter showed an independent association with weight gain; this was true in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and whether subjects progressed to dysglycemia or not. Baseline BMI was significantly higher in gainers (26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2) and losers (26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2) than in weight stable subjects (24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2, P < 0.0001 for both gainers and losers). Baseline waist circumference (or equivalently, BMI or weight) was a positive, independent predictor of both weight gain and weight loss (odds ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.12–1.97]) in men and (1.67 [1.28–2.12]) in women. In men only, better insulin sensitivity was an additional independent predictor of weight loss. CONCLUSIONS Neither insulin sensitivity nor insulin secretion predicts spontaneous weight gain. Individuals who have attained a higher weight are prone to either gaining or losing weight regardless of their glucose tolerance. PMID:21617179

  9. Endogenous and synthetic agonists of GPR119 differ in signalling pathways and their effects on insulin secretion in MIN6c4 insulinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Y; O'Neill, K; Lan, H; Pang, L; Shan, L X; Hawes, B E; Hedrick, J A

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: GPR119 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is preferentially expressed in islet cells and mediates insulin secretion. Oleoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) act as endogenous ligands for this receptor, whereas PSN375963 and PSN632408 are two recently reported synthetic agonists. In this study, we explored mechanisms underlying GPR119-induced insulin secretion. In addition, we assessed the potential utility of the synthetic agonists as tools for exploring GPR119 biology. Experimental approach: We examined natural and synthetic GPR119 agonist activity at GPR119 in MIN6c4 and RINm5f insulinoma cells. We evaluated insulin secretion, intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, ion channel involvement and levels of cAMP. Key results: We report that increases in insulin secretion induced by OEA were associated with increased cAMP and a potentiation of glucose-stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i. We also demonstrate that ATP-sensitive K+ and voltage-dependent calcium channels were required for GPR119-mediated increases in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In contrast to OEA, the synthetic GPR119 agonist PSN375963 and PSN632408 have divergent effects on insulin secretion, cAMP and intracellular calcium in MIN6c4 cells. Conclusions and implications: The endogenous ligand OEA signals through GPR119 in a manner similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor with respect to insulin secretion, [Ca2+]i and cAMP. In addition, PSN375963 and PSN632408 substantially differ from OEA and from one another. These studies suggest that the commercially available synthetic agonists, although they do activate GPR119, may also activate GPR119-independent pathways and are thus unsuitable as GPR119-specific pharmacological tools. PMID:18724386

  10. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gradmark, Anna; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Renström, Frida; Steiginga, Susanne; Persson, Margareta; Wright, Antony; Bluck, Les; Domellöf, Magnus; Kahn, Steven E; Mogren, Ingrid; Franks, Paul W

    2011-06-16

    Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant.Insulin sensitivity and β-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.

  11. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion, and pancreatic islets morphology of adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Farahani, H; Ghasemi, A; Roghani, M; Zahediasl, S

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hypothyroidism has serious effects on growth, development, and metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of the neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, islet insulin secretion and morphology of the pancreatic islets in adult male offspring. Lactating mothers of Wistar rats consumed 0.02% solution of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during the weaning period (neonatal hypothyroid group), while mothers of the control group drank merely tap water. Body weight and survival of pups were followed up. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in adult male offspring and 5-6 weeks later, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was evaluated. During the glucose tolerance test, plasma glucose level of the neonatal hypothyroid group (13.18 ± 0.59 mmol/l) was significantly higher at 5 min compared to the control group (11.54 ± 0.47 mmol/l), whereas plasma insulin concentrations and GSIS of the groups was not significantly different. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of adult male offspring of the hypothyroid group (9.1 ± 1.0) was significantly higher as compared to the control group (4.5 ± 0.6). Area (14,613.0 ± 2646.3 μm2) and the diameter of the islets (147 ± 3.0 μm) of the neonatal hypothyroid group were significantly lower, as compared to the control group (32,886.3 ± 4690.3 and 206.6 ± 5.9 μm2 and μm, respectively). Neonatal hypothyroidism can alter carbohydrate metabolism in euthyroid adult offspring, which may increase susceptibility to the development of glucose intolerance and occurrence of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

  12. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  13. Tight Coupling between Glucose and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Clonal β-Cells Is Required for Robust Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Malmgren, Siri; Nicholls, David G.; Taneera, Jalal; Bacos, Karl; Koeck, Thomas; Tamaddon, Ashkan; Wibom, Rolf; Groop, Leif; Ling, Charlotte; Mulder, Hindrik; Sharoyko, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms underlying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells are not completely understood. To identify metabolic disturbances in β-cells that impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, we compared two INS-1-derived clonal β-cell lines, which are glucose-responsive (832/13 cells) or glucose-unresponsive (832/2 cells). To this end, we analyzed a number of parameters in glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, including mRNA expression of genes involved in cellular energy metabolism. We found that despite a marked impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, 832/2 cells exhibited a higher rate of glycolysis. Still, no glucose-induced increases in respiratory rate, ATP production, or respiratory chain complex I, III, and IV activities were seen in the 832/2 cells. Instead, 832/2 cells, which expressed lactate dehydrogenase A, released lactate regardless of ambient glucose concentrations. In contrast, the glucose-responsive 832/13 line lacked lactate dehydrogenase and did not produce lactate. Accordingly, in 832/2 cells mRNA expression of genes for glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated, whereas mitochondria-related genes were down-regulated. This could account for a Warburg-like effect in the 832/2 cell clone, lacking in 832/13 cells as well as primary β-cells. In human islets, mRNA expression of genes such as lactate dehydrogenase A and hexokinase I correlated positively with HbA1c levels, reflecting perturbed long term glucose homeostasis, whereas that of Slc2a2 (glucose transporter 2) correlated negatively with HbA1c and thus better metabolic control. We conclude that tight metabolic regulation enhancing mitochondrial metabolism and restricting glycolysis in 832/13 cells is required for clonal β-cells to secrete insulin robustly in response to glucose. Moreover, a similar expression pattern of genes controlling glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism in clonal β-cells and human islets was observed, suggesting that

  14. Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Zambrana, Silvia; Lundqvist, Lena C. E.; Veliz, Virginia; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Gonzales, Eduardo; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor). PMID:29342984

  15. Insulin-like peptide 3 stimulates testosterone secretion in mouse Leydig cells via cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, Indunil N; Kawate, Noritoshi; Büllesbach, Erika E; Takahashi, Masahiro; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-10-10

    Testicular Leydig cells secrete insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and express its receptor, RXFP2. However, the effects of INSL3 on endocrine function of Leydig cells are unknown. The present study examines the effects of INSL3 on mouse Leydig cells taking testosterone and cAMP secretions as endpoints. Leydig cells were isolated from testicular interstitial cells obtained from 8-week-old male mice. Cells were then plated in the presence or absence of mouse, human, canine or bovine INSL3 (0-100 ng/ml) for 18 h in multiwell-plates (96 wells) in different cell densities (2500, 5000, 10,000 or 20,000 cells per well). The effects of bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) on testosterone secretion by Leydig cells were examined in the presence or absence of, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22536 (1μM) or INSL3 antagonist (bovine and human; 100 ng/ml). Testosterone and cAMP in spent medium were measured by enzyme immunoassay. All INSL3 species tested significantly stimulated the testosterone secretion in Leydig cells, and the maximum stimulation was observed with 100 ng/ml bovine INSL3 at the lowest Leydig cell density (2500 cells per well). Moreover, bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) significantly stimulated the cAMP production from Leydig cells maximally at 1h, and remained significantly elevated even at 18 h. SQ 22536 and INSL3 antagonists (bovine and human) significantly reduced INSL3-stimulated testosterone secretion from Leydig cells. Taken together, stimulatory effects of INSL3 on testosterone secretion in Leydig cells are exerted via the activation of cAMP, suggesting a new autocrine function of INSL3 in males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets

    PubMed Central

    Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, Martin G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Ronald Kahn, C.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The G-protein–coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in GPR40 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates by hyperglycemic clamps and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis, metabolic studies, and lipid profiling were used to ascertain whether GPR40 modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. RESULTS Both glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo were decreased by ∼60% in GPR40 knockout fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity. Neither gene expression profiles nor intracellular metabolism of glucose and palmitate in isolated islets were affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling of isolated islets revealed that the increase in triglyceride and decrease in lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine species in response to palmitate in vitro was similar in wild-type and knockout islets. In contrast, the increase in intracellular inositol phosphate levels observed in wild-type islets in response to fatty acids in vitro was absent in knockout islets. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that deletion of GPR40 impairs insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism in islets, via a mechanism that may involve the generation of inositol phosphates downstream of GPR40 activation. PMID:19720802

  17. Mathematical Model of Metabolism and Electrophysiology of Amino Acid and Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion: In Vitro Validation Using a β-Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, Manuela; Neufeld, Zoltan; Newsholme, Philip

    2013-01-01

    We integrated biological experimental data with mathematical modelling to gain insights into the role played by L-alanine in amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion (AASIS) and in D-glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), details important to the understanding of complex β-cell metabolic coupling relationships. We present an ordinary differential equations (ODEs) based simplified kinetic model of core metabolic processes leading to ATP production (glycolysis, TCA cycle, L-alanine-specific reactions, respiratory chain, ATPase and proton leak) and Ca2+ handling (essential channels and pumps in the plasma membrane) in pancreatic β-cells and relate these to insulin secretion. Experimental work was performed using a clonal rat insulin-secreting cell line (BRIN-BD11) to measure the consumption or production of a range of important biochemical parameters (D-glucose, L-alanine, ATP, insulin secretion) and Ca2+ levels. These measurements were then used to validate the theoretical model and fine-tune the parameters. Mathematical modelling was used to predict L-lactate and L-glutamate concentrations following D-glucose and/or L-alanine challenge and Ca2+ levels upon stimulation with a non metabolizable L-alanine analogue. Experimental data and mathematical model simulations combined suggest that L-alanine produces a potent insulinotropic effect via both a stimulatory impact on β-cell metabolism and as a direct result of the membrane depolarization due to Ca2+ influx triggered by L-alanine/Na+ co-transport. Our simulations indicate that both high intracellular ATP and Ca2+ concentrations are required in order to develop full insulin secretory responses. The model confirmed that K+ATP channel independent mechanisms of stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels, via generation of mitochondrial coupling messengers, are essential for promotion of the full and sustained insulin secretion response in β-cells. PMID:23520444

  18. How metformin acts in PCOS pregnant women: insights into insulin secretion and peripheral action at each trimester of gestation.

    PubMed

    Romualdi, Daniela; De Cicco, Simona; Gagliano, Donatella; Busacca, Matteo; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio; Guido, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Metformin has been reported to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GD) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of this drug during pregnancy. In the attempt to fill this gap, we performed a prospective longitudinal study providing a detailed examination of glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnant women with PCOS undergoing metformin therapy. We enrolled 60 women with PCOS who conceived while undergoing metformin treatment. An oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed at each trimester of gestation in 47 ongoing pregnancies. Twenty-two of the study subjects had development of GD despite the treatment. At baseline, insulin sensitivity was comparable between women who had development of GD and women who did not. A progressive decline in this parameter occurred in all subjects, independently of the trimester of GD diagnosis. Insulin secretion was significantly higher during the first trimester in patients with an early failure of metformin treatment. Women with third trimester GD and women with no GD exhibited a significant increase in insulin output as gestation proceeded. All newborns were healthy and only one case of macrosomia was observed. Women with PCOS who enter pregnancy in a condition of severe hyperinsulinemia have development of GD earlier, independently of metformin treatment. The physiologic deterioration of insulin sensitivity is not affected by the drug and does not predict the timing and severity of the glycemic imbalance. Despite the high incidence of GD observed, the drug itself or the intensive monitoring probably accounted for the good neonatal outcome.

  19. Glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia: role of 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Allegra, V; Luisetto, G; Mengozzi, G; Martimbianco, L; Vasile, A

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role and mechanism of action of calcitriol on glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia, 17 patients with severe chronic renal failure were studied. Glucose metabolism was investigated by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) before and after treatment for 21 days with 0.5 microgram/day of calcitriol and 500 mg/day of calcium (C+Ca) (6 cases) or 0.5 microgram/day of calcitriol alone (C) (11 cases). After these evaluations the patients on C+Ca were shifted to C and 6 patients on C were shifted to C+Ca, and IVGTT was repeated 21 days after the shift. For each test plasma glucose (G), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide (C-p) were measured at -30, 0, 2, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 min, and baseline plasma values of 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3, C-terminal parathyroid hormone (PTH-C), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH-I), calcitonin, and serum values of total and ionized calcium were dosed. Also, glucose constant decay (K-G), insulin response (IRI area), C-p production (C-p area), insulinogenic index (IGI) and insulin resistance index (RI) were calculated. A historical group of 21 healthy volunteers formed the normal controls. 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3 plasma levels in uremic patients before treatment were significantly lower than normal range. As compared to controls, uremic patients showed significantly lower K-G, IRI area and IGI values and significantly higher RI values. After treatment with C or C+Ca, the insulin response improved significantly at 2 and 5 min and G decrement was more marked at 30, 45 and 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  1. Stimulation of insulin secretion by medium-chain triglycerides in patients with cirrhosis 1

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Frank S.; Tzagournis, Manuel; Greenberger, Norton J.; Linscheer, Willem G.

    1971-01-01

    Oral medium-chain triglycerides were given to 10 normal volunteers, 12 cirrhotics (group I) without and 28 cirrhotics (group II) with abnormal portal systemic communications (ascites, splenomegaly, oesophageal varices, or surgically-created portacaval shunts). After 30 ml of medium-chain triglyceride oil there was no appreciable change in serum glucose levels in any of the three groups nor in serum insulin levels in the normals and in cirrhotics in group I. However, there was a significant increase in serum insulin levels in the cirrhotic patients in group II. It is suggested that the rise in serum insulin levels after medium-chain triglycerides noted in the cirrhotics with shunts is due to shunting of insulin-containing portal blood around the liver (anatomical shunts) and to a diminished hepatic cell mass capable of extracting insulin (functional shunt). This differential response of serum insulin levels to medium-chain triglycerides may prove to be of value in detecting the presence of abnormal portal systemic communications in cirrhotic patients. PMID:5548559

  2. Flavobacterium columnare type IX secretion system mutations result in defects in gliding motility and virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The gliding bacterium Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. The related bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae uses a type IX secretion system (T9SS) to secrete enzy...

  3. Thyroid hormone promotes postnatal rat pancreatic β-cell development and glucose-responsive insulin secretion through MAFA.

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; El Khattabi, Ilham; Marsili, Alessandro; Weir, Gordon C; Sharma, Arun; Larsen, P Reed; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal β cells do not secrete glucose-responsive insulin and are considered immature. We previously showed the transcription factor MAFA is key for the functional maturation of β cells, but the physiological regulators of this process are unknown. Here we show that postnatal rat β cells express thyroid hormone (TH) receptor isoforms and deiodinases in an age-dependent pattern as glucose responsiveness develops. In vivo neonatal triiodothyronine supplementation and TH inhibition, respectively, accelerated and delayed metabolic development. In vitro exposure of immature islets to triiodothyronine enhanced the expression of Mafa, the secretion of glucose-responsive insulin, and the proportion of responsive cells, all of which are effects that were abolished in the presence of dominant-negative Mafa. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we show that TH has a direct receptor-ligand interaction with the Mafa promoter and, using a luciferase reporter, that this interaction was functional. Thus, TH can be considered a physiological regulator of functional maturation of β cells via its induction of Mafa.

  4. Baseline IGF-I levels determine insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity during the first year on growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age. Results from a North European Multicentre Study (NESGAS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M; Salgin, Burak; Kirk, Jeremy; Donaldson, Malcolm; Ivarsson, Sten-A; Söder, Olle; Roche, Edna; Hoey, Hilary; Dunger, David B; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Developmental programming alters growth and metabolic outcome in children born small for gestational age (SGA). We explored insulin and glucose metabolism in SGA children treated with a fixed GH dose over 1 year. In the North European Small for Gestational Age Study (NESGAS), 110 short SGA children received GH at 67 µg/kg/day for 1 year. Insulin secretion was assessed by acute insulin response (AIR), insulin sensitivity (IS) by HOMA and disposition index (DI) by insulin secretion adjusted for IS. First-year GH therapy led to increases in height and IGF-I standard deviation score (SDS), and reductions in IS (p < 0.0001). Compensatory increases in AIR (p < 0.0001) were insufficient and resulted in reduced DI (p = 0.032). Children in the highest IGF-I SDS tertile at baseline were the least insulin sensitive at baseline (p = 0.024) and 1 year (p = 0.006). IGF-I responses after 1 year were positively related to AIR (r = 0.30, p = 0.007) and DI (r = 0.29, p = 0.005). In SGA children treated with a high GH dose for 1 year, baseline IGF-I levels were related to IS whilst gains in height and IGF-I responses were associated with insulin secretion. Defining heterogeneity in IGF-I in SGA children may be useful in predicting growth and metabolic response. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Hydrogel Microencapsulated Insulin-Secreting Cells Increase Keratinocyte Migration, Epidermal Thickness, Collagen Fiber Density, and Wound Closure in a Diabetic Mouse Model of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Faulknor, Renea; Berthiaume, François; Olabisi, Ronke M.

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a hierarchical process of intracellular and intercellular signaling. Insulin is a potent chemoattractant and mitogen for cells involved in wound healing. Insulin's potential to promote keratinocyte growth and stimulate collagen synthesis in fibroblasts is well described. However, there currently lacks an appropriate delivery mechanism capable of consistently supplying a wound environment with insulin; current approaches require repeated applications of insulin, which increase the chances of infecting the wound. In this study, we present a novel cell-based therapy that delivers insulin to the wound area in a constant or glucose-dependent manner by encapsulating insulin-secreting cells in nonimmunogenic poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microspheres. We evaluated cell viability and insulin secretory characteristics of microencapsulated cells. Glucose stimulation studies verified free diffusion of glucose and insulin through the microspheres, while no statistical difference in insulin secretion was observed between cells in microspheres and cells in monolayers. Scratch assays demonstrated accelerated keratinocyte migration in vitro when treated with microencapsulated cells. In excisional wounds on the dorsa of diabetic mice, microencapsulated RIN-m cells accelerated wound closure by postoperative day 7; a statistically significant increase over AtT-20ins-treated and control groups. Histological results indicated significantly greater epidermal thickness in both microencapsulated RIN-m and AtT-20ins-treated wounds. The results suggest that microencapsulation enables insulin-secreting cells to persist long enough at the wound site for a therapeutic effect and thereby functions as an effective delivery vehicle to accelerate wound healing. PMID:26239745

  6. Impaired insulin secretion in perfused pancreases isolated from offspring of female rats fed a low protein whey-based diet.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Phillips, Anthony R J; Harris, Patricia M; Cooper, Garth J S

    2008-07-10

    Insufficient maternal protein intake has been postulated to cause impaired fuel metabolism and diabetes mellitus in adult mammalian progeny, but the mechanism remains unclear. To investigate the effect of a maternal low protein whey-based diet during pregnancy and lactation on pancreatic function and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats: 8 mothers and 46 offspring. Female rats were fed throughout pregnancy and lactation with otherwise-complete isoenergetic diets sufficient (20% whey protein; control: n=3) or insufficient (5% whey protein; low-protein: n=5) in whey protein. From weaning all offspring ate control diet. Food intake and weight gain were measured for both mothers and offspring, and in vitro functional studies of endocrine pancreas and skeletal muscle were performed on offspring at 40 and 50 days of age, respectively. Food intake (P=0.004) and weight gain (P=0.006) were lower in low protein than control mothers during early gestation. Offspring of low protein mothers had significant lower body weight from 5 to 15 days of age, although there was no significant difference in food consumption. Glucose, arginine- and glucose/arginine-stimulated insulin secretion from perfused pancreases isolated from low protein offspring were decreased by between 55 and 65% compared with control values. Studies in skeletal muscle demonstrated no difference in insulin sensitivity between the two groups. Dietary whey protein insufficiency in female rats during pregnancy and lactation can evoke major changes in insulin secretion in progeny, and these changes represent a persistent functional abnormality in the endocrine pancreas.

  7. Microcystin-LR induces dysfunction of insulin secretion in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells: Implications for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Shi, Kun; Su, Xiaomei; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2016-08-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequent cyanobacterial toxins observed in freshwater systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that MCs pose a serious threat to public health. However, the contributions of the exposure of MCs to the occurrence of human diseases remain largely unknown. This study provides the evidence of the effects of MC-LR on pancreatic β-cell function through the exposure of rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells to 0, 10, 20, or 40μM MC-LR for 72h and explores the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR for 72h suppresses cell viability, disturbs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and decreases the expression of insulin protein. Moreover, MC-LR disrupts the cell cycle distribution and increases cell apoptosis at 20 or 40μM for 72h, respectively, indicating that the β-cell mass would be decreased by MC-LR exposure. A transcriptomic analysis revealed several key genes (e.g., Pdx-1, Neurod1, and Abcc8) involved in insulin secretion are significantly differentially expressed in INS-1 cells in response to MC-LR exposure. In addition, several signal transduction pathways associated with diabetes (e.g., type 1 and 2 diabetes) were also identified compared with the control cells. We recommend that MC be considered as a new environmental factor that promotes diabetes development. The identified key genes or pathways may potentially contribute to the future therapies in the environmental contaminants induced β-cell damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The cytoprotective effects of oleoylethanolamide in insulin-secreting cells do not require activation of GPR119.

    PubMed

    Stone, Virginia M; Dhayal, Shalinee; Smith, David M; Lenaghan, Carol; Brocklehurst, Katy J; Morgan, Noel G

    2012-04-01

    β-cells express a range of fatty acid-responsive G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR119, which regulates insulin secretion and is seen as a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. The long-chain unsaturated fatty acid derivative oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous agonist of GPR119 and, under certain conditions, some long-chain unsaturated fatty acids can promote β-cell cytoprotection. It is not known, however, if OEA is cytoprotective in β-cells. The present study has examined this and determined whether GPR119 is involved. Clonal rat insulin-secreting cell lines, BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E, were exposed to fatty acids complexed with BSA. cAMP levels, insulin release and cell viability were measured. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting and receptor expression by RT-PCR. GPR119 was expressed in both BRIN-BD11 and INS-1E cells and OEA was cytoprotective in these cells. However, cytoprotection was not reproduced by any of a range of selective, synthetic ligands of GPR119. The cytoprotective response to OEA was lost during exposure to inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) suggesting that OEA per se is not the cytoprotective species but that release of free oleate is required. Similar data were obtained with anandamide, which was cytoprotective only under conditions favouring release of free arachidonate. Activation of GPR119 is not required to mediate the cytoprotective actions of OEA in BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E cells. Rather, OEA is internalised and subjected to hydrolysis by FAAH to release free oleate, which then mediates the cytoprotection. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. The cytoprotective effects of oleoylethanolamide in insulin-secreting cells do not require activation of GPR119

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Virginia M; Dhayal, Shalinee; Smith, David M; Lenaghan, Carol; Brocklehurst, Katy J; Morgan, Noel G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE β-cells express a range of fatty acid-responsive G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR119, which regulates insulin secretion and is seen as a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. The long-chain unsaturated fatty acid derivative oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous agonist of GPR119 and, under certain conditions, some long-chain unsaturated fatty acids can promote β-cell cytoprotection. It is not known, however, if OEA is cytoprotective in β-cells. The present study has examined this and determined whether GPR119 is involved. METHODS Clonal rat insulin-secreting cell lines, BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E, were exposed to fatty acids complexed with BSA. cAMP levels, insulin release and cell viability were measured. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting and receptor expression by RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS GPR119 was expressed in both BRIN-BD11 and INS-1E cells and OEA was cytoprotective in these cells. However, cytoprotection was not reproduced by any of a range of selective, synthetic ligands of GPR119. The cytoprotective response to OEA was lost during exposure to inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) suggesting that OEA per se is not the cytoprotective species but that release of free oleate is required. Similar data were obtained with anandamide, which was cytoprotective only under conditions favouring release of free arachidonate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Activation of GPR119 is not required to mediate the cytoprotective actions of OEA in BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E cells. Rather, OEA is internalised and subjected to hydrolysis by FAAH to release free oleate, which then mediates the cytoprotection. PMID:22029844

  10. SGA children with moderate catch-up growth are showing the impaired insulin secretion at the age of 4.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Ivana; Njuieyon, Falucar; Deghmoun, Samia; Chevenne, Didier; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Beltrand, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a risk factor for later development of type 2 diabetes. The development of glucose tolerance disorders in adults involves insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. To evaluate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in a 4-yr old cohort of SGA. 85 children were prospectively followed from mid-gestation to 4 years of age. Fetal growth velocity (FGV) was measured using ultrasound measurements. Body composition and hormonal profile were measured at birth, 1 and 4 years. 23 SGA babies had lower birth weight compared to 62 AGA (-1.9±0.3 vs. -0.6±0.8 z-score; p<0.0001) and they were thinner at birth (ponderal index 24.8±1.8 vs. 26.3±3.1 kg/m3; p = 0.01 and fat mass 11±2.6 vs. 12.9±3.1%; p = 0.01). No significant differences in other measured metabolic and hormonal parameters were observed between two groups at birth. SGA infants experienced an early catch-up growth in weight (mean gain of 1.1±0.6 SD) during the first year of life. At 4 years, SGA children remain lighter than AGA, but with weight z-score in the normal range (-0.1±1.3 vs. 0.5±1.3 z-score; p = 0.05). No excess of fat mass was observed (19±4.8 vs. 19.7±4.1%; p = 0.45). 120-min plasma glucose was significantly higher (6.2±1.1 vs. 5.6±0.9 mmol/l; p = 0.006) and insulinogenic index was significantly lower (0.28±0.15 vs. 0.40±2.4; p = 0.02) in the SGA group at 4-yrs of life contrasting with a preserved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI 0.47±0.09 vs. 0.43±0.05; p = 0.06). SGA children with compensatory catch-up growth in first year of life show mild disturbances of glucose tolerance associated to a lower insulinogenic index at 4-yrs of age suggesting impairment of β-cell function.

  11. Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Islet protective and insulin secretion property of Murraya koenigii and Ocimum tenuflorum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Dusane, Menakshi Bhat; Joshi, Bimba N

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigates the antidiabetogenic effects of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spr. and Ocimum tenuflorum L. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Swiss mice. Treatment with extracts of M. koenigii (chloroform; MKC) and O. tenuflorum (aqueous; OTA) resulted in proper glucose utilization with an increase in liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity, and normal glycogenesis in hepatic and muscle tissues. Pancreatic and intestinal glucosidase inhibitory activity observed with MKC and OTA treatment indicated beneficial effects in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia with concomitant improvement in glucose metabolism. The glucosidase inhibition was prolonged, even after discontinuation of MKC and OTA treatment. Normalization of plasma insulin and C-peptide levels was observed in diabetic mice, indicating endogenous insulin secretion after treatment. The histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets suggests the role of MKC and OTA in pancreatic β-cell protection and the functional pancreatic islets that produce insulin. The study demonstrates the significance of MKC and OTA in glucosidase inhibition and islet protection in the murine diabetic model. These findings suggest the potential of the extracts in adjuvant therapy for the treatment of diabetes and the possible development of potential neutraceuticals.

  13. Effects of acarbose on proinsulin and insulin secretion and their potential significance for the intermediary metabolism and cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Rosak, Christoph; Mertes, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is administered to control blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients and, in several countries, in those with impaired glucose tolerance. The efficacy and safety of the drug has been well established in these patient populations. Acarbose shows no weakening of efficacy in long-term diabetes treatment, reduces the development of type 2 diabetes in those with impaired glucose tolerance, and also appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of its effect on the risk of developing macrovascular complications have still to be elucidated. The mode of action of acarbose, which precedes all other metabolic processes involved in blood glucose regulation, inhibits high increases in postprandial blood glucose. Due to this early mode of action, acarbose also modifies insulin and proinsulin secretion which are both involved in ss-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and may be independent risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Based on the literature available the present state of knowledge on insulin and proinsulin as risk factors for cardiovascular mortality is reviewed as well as the effect of acarbose on the regulation of the ss-cells as monotherapy and in combination regimens. Possible associated interactions with the cardiovascular system are identified.

  14. Defective Insulin Signalling, Mediated by Inflammation, Connects Obesity to Alzheimer Disease; Relevant Pharmacological Therapies and Preventive Dietary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Toledano, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's disease. This review relates extensive research literature on facts linking nutrients and dietary patterns to obesity and Alzheimer's disease. In addition briefly presents molecular mechanisms involved in obesity- induced insulin resistance and the contribution of peripheral inflammatory and defective insulin signalling pathways, as well as ectopic lipids accumulation to Alzheimer's development through brain inflammation, neuronal insulin resistance, and cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease. The work relates current and emerging pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the management of obesity, insulin resistance and Alzheimer's considering them as disorders with common molecular features. The findings of this review validate the importance of some nutritional interventions as possible approach to prevent or delay simultaneously progression of Alzheimer's disease and obesity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Leucine Stimulates Insulin Secretion via Down-regulation of Surface Expression of Adrenergic α2A Receptor through the mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Dolinger, Michael; Ritaccio, Gabrielle; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph; Conti, David; Zhu, Xinjun; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid leucine is a potent secretagogue, capable of inducing insulin secretion. It also plays an important role in the regulation of mTOR activity, therefore, providing impetus to investigate if a leucine-sensing mechanism in the mTOR pathway is involved in insulin secretion. We found that leucine-induced insulin secretion was inhibited by both the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin as well as the adrenergic α2 receptor agonist clonidine. We also demonstrated that leucine down-regulated the surface expression of adrenergic α2A receptor via activation of the mTOR pathway. The leucine stimulatory effect on insulin secretion was attenuated in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats that overexpress adrenergic α2A receptors, confirming the role of leucine in insulin secretion. Thus, our data demonstrate that leucine regulates insulin secretion by modulating adrenergic α2 receptors through the mTOR pathway. The role of the mTOR pathway in metabolic homeostasis led us to a second important finding in this study; retrospective analysis of clinical data showed that co-administration of rapamycin and clonidine was associated with an increased incidence of new-onset diabetes in renal transplantation patients over those receiving rapamycin alone. We believe that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin along with activation of adrenergic α2 receptors by clonidine represents a double-hit to pancreatic islets that synergistically disturbs glucose homeostasis. This new insight may have important implications for the clinical management of renal transplant patients. PMID:22645144

  16. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS. PMID:26046640

  17. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.

  18. Regulation of glucose- and mitochondrial fuel-induced insulin secretion by a cytosolic protein histidine phosphatase in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Vasudeva; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara N.; Jayaram, Bhavaani; Syed, Ismail; Olson, Lawrence Karl; Ludwig, Katrin; Klumpp, Susanne; Krieglstein, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We report localization of a cytosolic protein histidine phosphatase (PHP; ∼16 kDa) in INS 832/13 cells, normal rat islets, and human islets. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHP markedly reduced glucose- or mitochondrial fuel-induced but not KCl-induced insulin secretion. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHP also attenuated mastoparan-induced insulin secretion, suggesting its participation in G protein-sensitive signaling steps, leading to insulin secretion. Functional assays revealed that the β-cell PHP catalyzes the dephosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL). Silencing of PHP expression markedly reduced ACL activity, suggesting functional regulation of ACL by PHP in β-cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed modest effects of glucose on the interaction between PHP and ACL. Confocal microscopic evidence indicated that glucose promotes association between ACL and nm23-H1, a known kinase histidine kinase, but not between PHP and ACL. Furthermore, metabolic viability of INS 832/13 cells was resistant to siRNA-PHP, suggesting no regulatory roles of PHP in cell viability. Finally, long-term exposure (24 h) of INS 832/13 cells or rat islets to high glucose (30 mM) increased the expression of PHP. Such increases in PHP expression were also seen in islets derived from the Zucker diabetic fatty rat compared with islets from the lean control animals. Together, these data implicate regulatory roles for PHP in a G protein-sensitive step involved in nutrient-induced insulin secretion. In light of the current debate on putative regulatory roles of ACL in insulin secretion, additional studies are needed to precisely identify the phosphoprotein substrate(s) for PHP in the cascade of events leading to nutrient-induced insulin secretion. PMID:20501872

  19. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion: Cross-sectional and prospective data from the RISC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud; Konrad, Thomas; Mingrone, Geltrude; Højlund, Kurt

    2018-01-03

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to determine if bone turnover markers predict changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity. The study population encompassed 576 non-diabetic adult men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=503) or impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n=73). Baseline markers of bone resorption (CTX) and formation (P1NP) were determined in the fasting state and after a 2-h hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamp. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed at baseline, and the OGTT was repeated after 3years. There were no differences in bone turnover marker levels between NGT and IGR. CTX and P1NP levels decreased by 8.0% (p<0.001) and 1.9% (p<0.01) between baseline and steady-state during the clamp. Fasting plasma glucose was inversely associated with CTX and P1NP both before and after adjustment for recruitment centre, age, BMI, smoking and physical activity. However, baseline bone turnover markers were neither associated with insulin sensitivity (assessed using hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and OGTT) nor with insulin secretion capacity (based on IVGTT and OGTT) at baseline or at follow-up. Although inverse associations between fasting glucose and markers of bone turnover were identified, this study cannot support an association between insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy, non-diabetic men. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Insulin

    MedlinePlus

    ... pump is connected to your body by a flexible tube that has a tip that sticks under your skin. A cartridge of insulin is put in the pump. The insulin flows through the tube into your body. The pump controls how much insulin goes into your body. The ...

  1. GTPase ARFRP1 Is Essential for Normal Hepatic Glycogen Storage and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jaschke, Alexander; Kanzleiter, Timo; Witte, Nicole; Augustin, Robert; Hommel, Angela; Püschel, Gerhard Paul; Petzke, Klaus-Jürgen; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) is located at the trans-Golgi compartment and regulates the recruitment of Arf-like 1 (ARL1) and its effector golgin-245 to this compartment. Here, we show that liver-specific knockout of Arfrp1 in the mouse (Arfrp1liv−/−) resulted in early growth retardation, which was associated with reduced hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) secretion. Accordingly, suppression of Arfrp1 in primary hepatocytes resulted in a significant reduction of IGF1 release. However, the hepatic secretion of IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) was not affected in the absence of ARFRP1. In addition, Arfrp1liv−/− mice exhibited decreased glucose transport into the liver, leading to a 50% reduction of glycogen stores as well as a marked retardation of glycogen storage after fasting and refeeding. These abnormalities in glucose metabolism were attributable to reduced protein levels and intracellular retention of the glucose transporter GLUT2 in Arfrp1liv−/− livers. As a consequence of impaired glucose uptake into the liver, the expression levels of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a transcription factor regulated by glucose concentration, and its target genes (glucokinase and pyruvate kinase) were markedly reduced. Our data indicate that ARFRP1 in the liver is involved in the regulation of IGF1 secretion and GLUT2 sorting and is thereby essential for normal growth and glycogen storage. PMID:22927645

  2. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by amore » high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.« less

  3. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease.

  4. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  5. Delayed onset of hyperglycaemia in a mouse model with impaired glucagon secretion demonstrates that dysregulated glucagon secretion promotes hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, N; Seah, T; Lao, Y; Radda, G K; Südhof, T C; Han, W

    2011-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is caused by relative deficiency of insulin secretion and is associated with dysregulation of glucagon secretion during the late stage of diabetes development. Like insulin secretion from beta cells, glucagon secretion is dependent on calcium signals and a calcium sensing protein, synaptotagmin-7. In this study, we tested the relative contribution of dysregulated glucagon secretion and reduced insulin release in the development of hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes by using synaptotagmin-7 knockout (KO) mice, which exhibit glucose intolerance, reduced insulin secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+)-stimulated glucagon secretion. We fed the synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, and compared their body weight, glucose levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, and insulin and glucagon secretion. On the HFD, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice showed progressive impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, along with continued maintenance of a low glucagon level. The control mice were less affected in terms of glucose intolerance, and showed enhanced insulin secretion with a concurrent increase in glucagon levels. Unexpectedly, after 14 weeks of HFD feeding, only the control mice displayed resting hyperglycaemia, whereas in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice defective insulin secretion and reduced insulin sensitivity were not sufficient to cause hyperglycaemia in the absence of enhanced glucagon secretion. Our data uncover a previously overlooked role of dysregulated glucagon secretion in promoting hyperglycaemia and the ensuing diabetes, and strongly suggest maintenance of adequate regulation of glucagon secretion as an important therapeutic target in addition to the preservation of beta cell function and mass in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  6. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is essential for normal cholesterol metabolism and glucose-induced insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Takahiro; Asaba, Hiroshi; Kang, Man-Jong; Ikeda, Yukio; Sone, Hideyuki; Takada, Shinji; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ioka, Ryoichi X.; Ono, Masao; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Okubo, Minoru; Murase, Toshio; Kamataki, Akihisa; Yamamoto, Joji; Magoori, Kenta; Takahashi, Sadao; Miyamoto, Yoshiharu; Oishi, Hisashi; Nose, Masato; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Usui, Shinichi; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sakai, Juro; Yamamoto, Tokuo T.

    2003-01-01

    A Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) plays an essential role in bone accrual and eye development. Here, we show that LRP5 is also required for normal cholesterol and glucose metabolism. The production of mice lacking LRP5 revealed that LRP5 deficiency led to increased plasma cholesterol levels in mice fed a high-fat diet, because of the decreased hepatic clearance of chylomicron remnants. In addition, when fed a normal diet, LRP5-deficient mice showed a markedly impaired glucose tolerance. The LRP5-deficient islets had a marked reduction in the levels of intracellular ATP and Ca2+ in response to glucose, and thereby glucose-induced insulin secretion was decreased. The intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production in response to glucose was also reduced in LRP5−/− islets. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a marked reduction of various transcripts for genes involved in glucose sensing in LRP5−/− islets. Furthermore, exposure of LRP5+/+ islets to Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion and this stimulation was blocked by the addition of a soluble form of Wnt receptor, secreted Frizzled-related protein-1. In contrast, LRP5-deficient islets lacked the Wnt-3a-stimulated insulin secretion. These data suggest that Wnt/LRP5 signaling contributes to the glucose-induced insulin secretion in the islets. PMID:12509515

  7. Maternal Moderate Physical Training during Pregnancy Attenuates the Effects of a Low-Protein Diet on the Impaired Secretion of Insulin in Rats: Potential Role for Compensation of Insulin Resistance and Preventing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Leandro, Carol Góis; Fidalgo, Marco; Bento-Santos, Adriano; Falcão-Tebas, Filippe; Vasconcelos, Diogo; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Curi, Rui

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pregestational and gestational low-to-moderate physical training on insulin secretion in undernourished mothers were evaluated. Virgin female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: control (C, n = 5); trained (T, n = 5); low-protein diet (LP, n = 5); trained with a low-protein diet (T + LP, n = 5). Trained rats ran on a treadmill over a period of 4 weeks before mate (5 days week−1 and 60 min day−1, at 65% of VO2max). At pregnancy, the intensity and duration of the exercise were reduced. Low-protein groups were provided with an 8% casein diet, and controls were provided with a 17% casein diet. At third day after delivery, mothers and pups were killed and islets were isolated by collagenase digestion of pancreas and incubated for a further 1 h with medium containing 5.6 or 16.7 mM glucose. T mothers showed increased insulin secretion by isolated islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose, whereas LP group showed reduced secretion of insulin by isolated islets when compared with both C and LP + T groups. Physical training before and during pregnancy attenuated the effects of a low-protein diet on the secretion of insulin, suggesting a potential role for compensation of insulin resistance and preventing gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:22927722

  8. Zinc Up-Regulates Insulin Secretion from β Cell-Like Cells Derived from Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Tooth (SHED).

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyuyoup; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Pae, Eung-Kwon

    2016-12-13

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) offer several advantages over other stem cell sources. Using SHED, we examined the roles of zinc and the zinc uptake transporter ZIP8 (Zrt- and irt-like protein 8) while inducing SHED into insulin secreting β cell-like stem cells (i.e., SHED-β cells). We observed that ZIP8 expression increased as SHED differentiated into SHED-β cells, and that zinc supplementation at day 10 increased the levels of most pancreatic β cell markers-particularly Insulin and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). We confirmed that SHED-β cells produce insulin successfully. In addition, we note that zinc supplementation significantly increases insulin secretion with a significant elevation of ZIP8 transporters in SHED-β cells. We conclude that SHED can be converted into insulin-secreting β cell-like cells as zinc concentration in the cytosol is elevated. Insulin production by SHED-β cells can be regulated via modulation of zinc concentration in the media as ZIP8 expression in the SHED-β cells increases.

  9. Impact of 9 Days of Bed Rest on Hepatic and Peripheral Insulin Action, Insulin Secretion, and Whole-Body Lipolysis in Healthy Young Male Offspring of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alibegovic, Amra C.; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P.; van Hall, Gerrit; Stallknecht, Bente; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 9 days of bed rest on insulin secretion, insulin action, and whole-body glucose and fat metabolism in first-degree relative (FDR) and matched control (CON) subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 13 FDR and 20 CON subjects participated in the study. All were studied before and after 9 days of bed rest using the clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Glucose and glycerol turnover rates were studied using stable isotope kinetics. RESULTS Bed rest caused a significant decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in both groups. Hepatic insulin resistance was elevated in FDR subjects prior to bed rest and was significantly augmented by bed rest in FDR (P < 0.01) but not in CON (P = NS) subjects. The rate of whole-body lipolysis decreased during bed rest in both FDR and CON subjects, with no significant differences between the groups. Insulin resistance induced by bed rest was fully accounted for by the impairment of nonoxidative glucose metabolism in both groups (overall P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Whole-body insulin action in both insulin-resistant FDR and healthy CON subjects deteriorates with 9 days of bed rest, converging toward similar degrees of whole-body insulin resistance. FDR subjects exhibit hepatic insulin resistance (HIR), which, in contrast to CON subjects, deteriorates in response to physical inactivity. FDR subjects exhibit reduced insulin secretion when seen in relation to their degree of HIR but not peripheral insulin resistance. PMID:19720789

  10. Basal insulin secretion, PCL-R and recidivism among impulsive violent alcoholic offenders.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Kari P T; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tikkanen, Roope; Virkkunen, Matti

    2015-02-28

    Current risk assessment tools have a moderate predicting value for violence. Their power may be enhanced with certain biological indicators, which may serve as predictors of recidivistic violence itself. The aim of our study was to determine the strength of serum insulin levels to predict violence, and compare these results with those from the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). The study population consisted of 105 Finnish alcoholics who were severely violent offenders, recruited from 1991 to 1998. After exclusion, 75 cases were followed until March 2008, or until a new offense was registered. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of recidivism. The age and weight adjusted effect of insulin to recidivism risk showed a 7.2% increase for each International Unit (IU), or 19% for the mean difference (2.5IU) between recidivists and non-recidivist, which corresponds to a medium effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.46). Adjusting the insulin model with PCL-R factor 1 enhanced the predictive power slightly. Serum fasting insulin level was equivalent to the PCL-R factor 2 score as a predictor, and better than the total PCL-R score. However, the significance of these results was too low for predicting recidivism in the process of judicial decision-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A.; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Genieser, Hans-G.; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  12. Beta-endorphin-induced inhibition and stimulation of insulin secretion in normal humans is glucose dependent.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Salvatore, T; Torella, R; D'Onofrio, F

    1988-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of human beta-endorphin on pancreatic hormone levels and their responses to nutrient challenges in normal subjects. Infusion of 0.5 mg/h beta-endorphin caused a significant rise in plasma glucose concentrations preceded by a significant increase in peripheral glucagon levels. No changes occurred in the plasma concentrations of insulin and C-peptide. Acute insulin and C-peptide responses to intravenous pulses of different glucose amounts (0.33 g/kg and 5 g) and arginine (3 g) were significantly reduced by beta-endorphin infusion (P less than .01). This effect was associated with a significant reduction of the glucose disappearance rates, suggesting that the inhibition of insulin was of biological relevance. beta-Endorphin also inhibited glucose suppression of glucagon levels and augmented the glucagon response to arginine. To verify whether the modification of prestimulus glucose level could be important in these hormonal responses to beta-endorphin, basal plasma glucose concentrations were raised by a primed (0.5 g/kg) continuous (20 mg kg-1.min-1) glucose infusion. After stabilization of plasma glucose levels (350 +/- 34 mg/dl, t = 120 min), beta-endorphin infusion caused an immediate and marked increase in plasma insulin level (peak response 61 +/- 9 microU/ml, P less than .01), which remained elevated even after the discontinuation of opioid infusion. Moreover, the acute insulin response to a glucose pulse (0.33 g/kg i.v.) given during beta-endorphin infusion during hyperglycemia was significantly higher than the response obtained during euglycemia (171 +/- 32 vs. 41 +/- 7 microU/ml, P less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Evidence for defects in the trafficking and translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters in skeletal muscle as a cause of human insulin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, W T; Maianu, L; Zhu, J H; Brechtel-Hook, G; Wallace, P; Baron, A D

    1998-01-01

    insulin in insulin-resistant subgroups. In conclusion, insulin alters the subcellular localization of GLUT4 vesicles in human muscle, and this effect is impaired equally in insulin-resistant subjects with and without diabetes. This translocation defect is associated with abnormal accumulation of GLUT4 in a dense membrane compartment demonstrable in basal muscle. We have previously observed a similar pattern of defects causing insulin resistance in human adipocytes. Based on these data, we propose that human insulin resistance involves a defect in GLUT4 traffic and targeting leading to accumulation in a dense membrane compartment from which insulin is unable to recruit GLUT4 to the cell surface. PMID:9616209

  14. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin sensitivity or secretion in vitamin D-deficient, overweight or obese adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Aya; Naderpoor, Negar; de Courten, Maximilian Pj; Teede, Helena; Kellow, Nicole; Walker, Karen; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Existing clinical trials have been limited by short duration, low doses of vitamin D, variability in participants' vitamin D-deficiency status, and the use of surrogate measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Objective: To address existing knowledge gaps, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation that is provided in a sufficient dose and duration to vitamin D-deficient individuals would improve insulin sensitivity or secretion as measured with the use of gold-standard methods. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation would improve insulin sensitivity and secretion compared with placebo. Design: Sixty-five overweight or obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration ≤50 nmol/L) adults were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 wk. Before and after the intervention, participants received gold-standard assessments of body composition (via dual X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), and insulin secretion [via intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests (IVGTTs)]. Results: Fifty-four participants completed the study [35 men and 19 women; mean ± SD age: 31.9 ± 8.5 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 30.9 ± 4.4]. 25(OH)D increased with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (57.0 ± 21.3 compared with 1.9 ± 15.1 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.02). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in change in insulin sensitivity (0.02 ± 2.0 compared with -0.03 ± 2.8 mg · kg -1 · min -1 , respectively; P = 0.9) or first-phase insulin secretion (-21 ± 212 compared with 24 ± 184 mU/L, respectively; P = 0.9). Results remained nonsignificant after adjustment for age, sex

  15. Olive Component Oleuropein Promotes β-Cell Insulin Secretion and Protects β-Cells from Amylin Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Velander, Paul; Liu, Dongmin; Xu, Bin

    2017-09-26

    Oleuropein, a natural product derived from olive leaves, has reported anti-diabetic functions. However, detailed molecular mechanisms for how it affects β-cell functions remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that oleuropein promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β-cells. The effect is dose-dependent and stimulates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that oleuropein inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by amylin amyloids, a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrated that these dual functions are structure-specific: we identified the 3-hydroxytyrosol moiety of oleuropein as the main functional entity responsible for amyloid inhibition, but the novel GSIS function requires the entire structure scaffold of the molecule.

  16. Addition of n-3 fatty acids to a 4-hour lipid infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mostad, Ingrid L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Basu, Samar; Sutton, Pauline; Frayn, Keith N; Grill, Valdemar

    2009-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA) can impair glucose metabolism to a varying degree depending on time of exposure and also of type of FA. Here we tested for acute effects of marine n-3 FA on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in 11 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A 4-hour lipid infusion (Intralipid [Fresenius Kabi, Halden, Norway], total of 384 mL) was compared with a similar lipid infusion partly replaced by Omegaven (Fresenius Kabi) that contributed a median of 0.1 g fish oil per kilogram body weight, amounting to 0.04 g/kg of marine n-3 FA. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps; insulin secretion (measured after the clamps), by C-peptide glucagon tests; and energy metabolism, by indirect calorimetry. Infusion of Omegaven increased the proportion of n-3 FA in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) compared with Intralipid alone (20:5n-3: median, 1.5% [interquartile range, 0.6%] vs -0.2% [0.2%], P = .001; 22:6n-3: 0.8% [0.4%] vs -0.7% [0.2%], P = .001). However, glucose utilization was not affected; neither was insulin secretion or total energy production (P = .966, .210, and .423, respectively, for the differences between the lipid clamps). Omegaven tended to lower oxidation of fat (P = .062) compared with Intralipid only, correlating with the rise in individual n-3 NEFA (r = 0.627, P = .039). The effects of clamping on phospholipid FA composition, leptin, adiponectin, or F(2)-isoprostane concentrations were not affected by Omegaven. Enrichment of NEFA with n-3 FA during a 4-hour infusion of Intralipid failed to affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Genetic markers of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are associated with spontaneous postnatal growth and response to growth hormone treatment in short SGA children: the North European SGA Study (NESGAS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Kirk, Jeremy; Donaldson, Malcolm; Ivarsson, Sten-A; Söder, Olle; Roche, Edna; Hoey, Hilary; Juul, Anders; Ong, Ken K; Dunger, David B

    2015-03-01

    The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during GH therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. Combined multiallele single nucleotide polymorphism scores with known associations with insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion were analyzed for their relationships with spontaneous postnatal growth and first-year responses to GH therapy in 96 short SGA children. The insulin sensitivity allele score (GS-InSens) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (regression coefficient [B]: 0.12 SD scores per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.23; P = .03) and also in response to GH therapy with first-year height velocity (B: 0.18 cm/y per allele; 95% CI, 0.02-0.35; P = .03) and change in IGF-1 (B: 0.17 SD scores per allele; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32; P = .03). The association with first-year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted P = .04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (B: 0.15; 95% CI, 0.01-0.30; P = .03) and disposition index both before (B: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.04; P = .04) and after 1 year of GH therapy (B: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.05; P = .002), but not with growth and IGF-1 responses to GH therapy. Neither of the allele scores was associated with size at birth. Genetic allele scores indicative of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were associated with spontaneous postnatal growth and responses to GH therapy in short SGA children. Further pharmacogenetic studies may support the rationale for adjuvant therapies by informing the mechanisms of treatment response.

  18. Structure-dependent inhibitory effects of green tea catechins on insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukiko K; Takii, Miki; Kojima, Yumiko; Yokosawa, Hiroko; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of green tea catechins on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were investigated in the β-cell line INS-1D. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) at 10 µM or gallocatechin gallate (GCG) at 30 µM caused significant inhibitory effects on GSIS, and each of these at 100 µM almost abolished it. In contrast, epicatechin (EC) or catechin (CA) had no effect on GSIS at concentrations up to 100 µM. We thus investigated the structure-activity relationship by using epigallocatechin (EGC) and gallocatechin (GC) containing a trihydroxyl group in the B-ring, and epicatechin gallate (ECG) and catechin gallate (CG) containing the gallate moiety. EGC, GC, and ECG caused an inhibition of GSIS, although significant effects were obtained only at 100 µM. At this concentration, EGC almost abolished GSIS, whereas GC and ECG partially inhibited it. In contrast, CG did not affect GSIS at concentrations up to 100 µM. EGCG also abolished the insulin secretion induced by tolbutamide, an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, and partially inhibited that induced by 30 mM K(+). Moreover, EGCG, but not EC, inhibited the oscillation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by 11.1 mM glucose. These results suggest that some catechins at supraphysiological concentrations have inhibitory effects on GSIS, the potency of which depends on their structure; the order of potency was EGCG>GCG>EGC>GC≈ECG. The inhibitory effects seem to be mediated by the inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, which is caused, at least in part, by membrane hyperpolarization resulting from the activation of K(+) channels.

  19. The role of pancreatic insulin secretion in neonatal glucoregulation. II. Infants with disordered blood glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Hawdon, J M; Aynsley-Green, A; Bartlett, K; Ward Platt, M P

    1993-01-01

    Some neonates, such as those who are preterm or small for dates, become hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. These disorders represent a failure of neonatal metabolic adaptation, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Data from studies of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic infants were reviewed in the light of new data from studies of healthy neonates. Data from 28 neonates, who had disordered blood glucose homoeostasis, were analysed to determine the interrelationships between circulating concentrations of glucose, intermediary metabolites, glucagon and insulin, and glucose production rates. Blood glucose concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 26.1 mmol/l, and glucose production rates from 0 to 19.2 mg/kg/min. Blood glucose concentrations were positively related to intravenous glucose infusion rates and to glucose production rates. A negative relationship existed between plasma glucagon and blood glucose concentrations, but there was a wide variation in plasma insulin levels at all blood glucose concentrations. No relationship between either plasma insulin or glucagon concentration and glucose production rate was shown. It is concluded that in neonates with disordered blood glucose homoeostasis, blood glucose concentration is influenced by the rate of administration of glucose, with less precise internal control mechanisms than older subjects. This emphasises the importance of blood glucose monitoring and careful prescribing of exogenous glucose by clinicians caring for such infants. PMID:8466263

  20. Deleterious effect of dithizone-DMSO staining on insulin secretion in rat and human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Conget, J I; Sarri, Y; González-Clemente, J M; Casamitjana, R; Vives, M; Gomis, R

    1994-03-01

    Dithizone (DTZ) is a selective stain for pancreatic islets which facilitates their identification, being of special interest in human islet isolation assessment. Nevertheless, there are few studies concerning its potential toxic effects on islet function. In our study, we have evaluated the effects of DTZ (dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] 1% w/v) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 100 micrograms/ml) on insulin response to glucose in human and rat islets. Likewise, we studied the effect of incubation time, in the presence of DTZ at the above-mentioned concentrations, on insulin release. Only when DTZ was employed at low concentrations and for a short period of incubation (10 min) was there no impairment of pancreatic islet function. Moreover, even at this low concentration, DTZ became deleterious for islet function when the incubation period with the dye was prolonged for 30 min. Culture (24 h) of previously stained islets produced a partial recovery of insulin response. In conclusion, our findings indicate (a) DTZ should not be employed to collect islets for functional studies because of its deleterious effect on beta-cell function, (b) DTZ's deleterious effects on beta-cell function should be considered if this dye is used to purify islets by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for transplantation.

  1. A matlab framework for estimation of NLME models using stochastic differential equations: applications for estimation of insulin secretion rates.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stig B; Klim, Søren; Dammann, Bernd; Kristensen, Niels R; Madsen, Henrik; Overgaard, Rune V

    2007-10-01

    The non-linear mixed-effects model based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs) provides an attractive residual error model, that is able to handle serially correlated residuals typically arising from structural mis-specification of the true underlying model. The use of SDEs also opens up for new tools for model development and easily allows for tracking of unknown inputs and parameters over time. An algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the model has earlier been proposed, and the present paper presents the first general implementation of this algorithm. The implementation is done in Matlab and also demonstrates the use of parallel computing for improved estimation times. The use of the implementation is illustrated by two examples of application which focus on the ability of the model to estimate unknown inputs facilitated by the extension to SDEs. The first application is a deconvolution-type estimation of the insulin secretion rate based on a linear two-compartment model for C-peptide measurements. In the second application the model is extended to also give an estimate of the time varying liver extraction based on both C-peptide and insulin measurements.

  2. SNAP-25b-deficiency increases insulin secretion and changes spatiotemporal profile of Ca2+oscillations in β cell networks.

    PubMed

    Daraio, Teresa; Bombek, Lidija Križančić; Gosak, Marko; Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Klemen, Maša Skelin; Refai, Essam; Berggren, Per-Olof; Brismar, Kerstin; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Bark, Christina

    2017-08-10

    SNAP-25 is a protein of the core SNARE complex mediating stimulus-dependent release of insulin from pancreatic β cells. The protein exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, differing in 9 out of 206 amino acids, yet their specific roles in pancreatic β cells remain unclear. We explored the effect of SNAP-25b-deficiency on glucose-stimulated insulin release in islets and found increased secretion both in vivo and in vitro. However, slow photo-release of caged Ca 2+ in β cells within pancreatic slices showed no significant differences in Ca 2+ -sensitivity, amplitude or rate of exocytosis between SNAP-25b-deficient and wild-type littermates. Therefore, we next investigated if Ca 2+ handling was affected in glucose-stimulated β cells using intracellular Ca 2+ -imaging and found premature activation and delayed termination of [Ca 2+ ] i elevations. These findings were accompanied by less synchronized Ca 2+ -oscillations and hence more segregated functional β cell networks in SNAP-25b-deficient mice. Islet gross morphology and architecture were maintained in mutant mice, although sex specific compensatory changes were observed. Thus, our study proposes that SNAP-25b in pancreatic β cells, except for participating in the core SNARE complex, is necessary for accurate regulation of Ca 2+ -dynamics.

  3. Ichthyosis in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, William B; S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Elias, Peter M

    2010-08-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion.

  4. Extracts of Rehmanniae radix, Ginseng radix and Scutellariae radix improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation through IRS2 induction

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang Mee; Sung, So Ra; Lee, Ji Eun; Kwon, Dae Young

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that β-cell dysfunction is an important factor in developing type 2 diabetes. β-cell dysfunction is related to impairment of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade through insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2). The induction of IRS2 in β-cells plays an important role in potentiating β-cell function and mass. In this study, we investigated whether herbs used for treating diabetes in Chinese medicine—Galla rhois, Rehmanniae radix, Machilus bark, Ginseng radix, Polygonatum radix, and Scutellariae radix—improved IRS2 induction in rat islets, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and β-cell survival. R. radix, Ginseng radix and S. radix significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to the control, i.e., by 49, 67 and 58%, respectively. These herbs induced the expression of IRS2, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1), and glucokinase. The increased level of glucokinase could explain the enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with these extracts. Increased PDX-1 expression was associated with β-cell proliferation, which was consistent with the cell viability assay. In conclusion, R. radix, Ginseng radix and S. radix had an insulinotropic action similar to that of exendin-4. PMID:18850229

  5. Impact of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Japanese population: the Saku study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Deura, Kijyo; Mizuno, Shoichi; Ohno, Yuko; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2013-08-01

    To assess the impact of impaired insulin secretion (IIS) and insulin resistance (IR) on type 2 diabetes incidence in a Japanese population. This 4 year cohort study included 3,059 participants aged 30-69 without diabetes at baseline who underwent comprehensive medical check-ups between April 2006 and March 2007 at Saku Central Hospital. Based on their insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR values, participants were classified by the criteria of the Japan Diabetes Society into four categories: normal; isolated IIS (i-IIS); isolated IR (i-IR); and IIS plus IR. They were followed up until March 2011. The incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined from fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose concentrations and from receiving medical treatment for diabetes. At baseline, 1,550 individuals (50.7%) were classified as normal, 900 (29.4%) i-IIS, 505 (16.5%) i-IR, and 104 (3.4%) IIS plus IR. During 10,553 person-years of follow-up, 219 individuals developed type 2 diabetes, with 126 (57.5%) having i-IIS at baseline. Relative to the normal group, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for type 2 diabetes in the i-IIS, i-IR and IIS plus IR groups were 8.27 (95% CI 5.33, 12.83), 4.90 (95% CI 2.94, 8.17) and 16.93 (95% CI 9.80, 29.25), respectively. The population-attributable fractions of type 2 diabetes onset due to i-IIS, i-IR, and IIS plus IR were 50.6% (95% CI 46.7%, 53.0%), 14.2% (95% CI 11.8%, 15.6%) and 12.9% (95% CI 12.3%, 13.2%), respectively. Compared with IR, IIS had a greater impact on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

  6. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: Role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Heart, Emma; Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce

    2012-01-15

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4–7 mM) to stimulatory (8–16 mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H{sub 2}O{sub 2} via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cellmore » line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1–10 μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and menadione on insulin secretion. -- Highlights: ► Menadione stimulation or inhibition of insulin secretion is dependent upon applied glucose levels. ► Menadione-dependent H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is proportional to applied glucose levels. ► Quinone-mediated redox

  7. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Insulin and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the complex biological mechanisms of insulin action and insulin resistance, we need to consider the dramatic social changes of the past century with respect to physical activity, diet, work, socialisation and sleep patterns. Rapid globalisation, urbanisation and industrialisation have spawned epidemics of obesity, diabetes and their attendant co-morbidities, as physical inactivity and dietary imbalance unmask latent predisposing genetic traits. PMID:16278749

  9. Galpha(i2)-mRNA and -protein regulation as a mechanism for heterologous sensitization and desensitization of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Kesper, S; Rucha, J; Neye, H; Mazenot, C; Verspohl, E J

    1999-10-01

    Prolonged exposure of cells to an agonist of a G-protein-coupled receptor usually results in an attenuation of the cellular response. To elucidate the cellular mechanisms of sensitization or desensitization in an insulin secretory cell system (INS-1 cells), we investigated a regulatory link between G-protein alpha(s)- and alpha(i2)-subunits mRNA, their protein levels and insulin secretion as the biological effect using various compounds. Incubation with epinephrine (50 microM) for 8 h decreased alpha(s)- and alpha(i2)-mRNA levels to 58% and 72%, respectively, which is reversed after a longer incubation. From results using isoprenaline and the alpha2-agonist UK 14,304 epinephrine is shown to mediate its actions via alpha2- but not beta-adrenoceptors. The insulin inhibitory neuropeptide galanin (50 nM) caused a decrease of alpha(s)- and alpha(i2)-mRNA levels, whereas insulinotropic compounds (incretin hormones) such as GIP or GLP-1 (both 10 nM) led to an increase of alpha(s)- and alpha(i2)-mRNA levels. By using the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil (50 microM) alpha(i2)-mRNA changes clearly depend on Ca2+ influx. The effects on alpha(i2)-mRNA were accompanied by a parallel, albeit weaker effect on the protein level (only GIP and UK 14,304 were investigated). The changes in alpha(i2)-mRNA levels by either compound were paralleled by inverse changes in insulin secretion: preincubation with UK 14,304 for 8 h led to an increased insulin secretion when challenged by either GLP-1, GIP or glucose (8.3 mM). This was similar for galanin, another potent inhibitor of insulin release. On the other hand, exposure to the incretins GIP or GLP-1 for 8 h induced a smaller insulin release when challenged afterwards by either UK 14,304, galanin, GIP, GLP-1, or glucose. Thus the influence on insulin secretion of various compounds is reciprocal to the regulation of alpha(i2)-mRNA levels but not alpha(s)-mRNA levels. There is, therefore, evidence from all the manoeuvres used that alpha(i2)-m

  10. Role of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 signal transduction pathway in insulin secretion by β‑TC6 cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ben; Liu, Lijuan; Su, Heng; Xia, Xueshan; He, Qiu; Feng, Yue; Xue, Yuanming; Yan, Xinming

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signal transduction pathway in glucose‑stimulated insulin secretion in β‑TC6 mouse pancreatic cells. Insulin production by β‑TC6 cells was stimulated with various concentrations of glucose, which was dose-dependently inhibited by mitogen‑activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059, as indicated by a radioimmunoassay. Furthermore, glucose stimulation enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was dose-dependently inhibited by PD98059, as indicated by western blot analysis. These results indicated that the activation of the ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway may have an important role in glucose‑stimulated insulin secretion in β‑TC6 cells.

  11. Syntaxin-4 mediates exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer insulin granules underlying biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Zhu, Dan; Dolai, Subhankar; Liang, Tao; Qin, Tairan; Kang, Youhou; Xie, Huanli; Huang, Ya-Chi; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2015-06-01

    Of the four exocytotic syntaxins (Syns), much is now known about the role of Syn-1A (pre-docked secretory granules [SGs]) and Syn-3 (newcomer SGs) in insulin exocytosis. Some work was reported on Syn-4's role in biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but its precise role in insulin SG exocytosis remains unclear. In this paper we examine this role in human beta cells. Endogenous function of Syn-4 in human islets was assessed by knocking down its expression with lentiviral single hairpin RNA (lenti-shRNA)-RFP. Biphasic GSIS was determined by islet perifusion assay. Single-cell analysis of exocytosis of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-positive beta cells (exhibiting near-total depletion of Syn-4) was by patch clamp capacitance measurements (Cm) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), the latter to further assess single SG behaviour. Co-immunoprecipitations were conducted on INS-1 cells to assess exocytotic complexes. Syn-4 knockdown (KD) of 77% in human islets caused a concomitant reduction in cognate Munc18c expression (46%) without affecting expression of other exocytotic proteins; this resulted in reduction of GSIS in the first phase (by 42%) and the second phase (by 40%). Cm of RFP-tagged Syn-4-KD beta cells showed severe inhibition in the readily releasable pool (by 71%) and mobilisation from reserve pools (by 63%). TIRFM showed that Syn-4-KD-induced inhibition of first-phase GSIS was attributed to reduction in exocytosis of both pre-docked and newcomer SGs (which undergo minimal residence or docking time at the plasma membrane before fusion). Second-phase inhibition was attributed to reduction in newcomer SGs. Stx-4 co-immunoprecipitated Munc18c, VAMP2 and VAMP8, suggesting that these exocytotic complexes may be involved in exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer SGs. Syn-4 is involved in distinct molecular machineries that influence exocytosis of both pre-docked and newcomer SGs in a manner functionally redundant to Syn-1A and

  12. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Androgen receptor-deficient islet β-cells exhibit alteration in genetic markers of insulin secretion and inflammation. A transcriptome analysis in the male mouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiwei; Niu, Tianhua; Xu, Beibei; Navarro, Guadalupe; Schipma, Matthew J; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2017-05-01

    Testosterone action is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). We have reported that male mice lacking AR selectively in β-cells (βARKO -/y ) develop decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), producing glucose intolerance. We showed that testosterone action on AR in β-cells amplifies the insulinotropic action of GLP-1 on its receptor via a cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A pathway. To investigate AR-dependent gene networks in β-cells, we performed a high throughput whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) in islets from male βARKO -/y and control mice. We identified 214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (158 up- and 56 down-regulated) with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 and a fold change (FC) > 2. Our analysis of individual transcripts revealed alterations in β-cell genes involved in cellular inflammation/stress and insulin secretion. Based on 312 DEGs with an FDR < 0.05, the pathway analysis revealed 23 significantly enriched pathways, including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling, insulin signaling, MAPK signaling, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and pancreatic secretion. The gene ontology analysis confirmed the results of the individual DEGs and the pathway analysis in showing enriched biological processes encompassing inflammation, ion transport, exocytosis and insulin secretion. AR-deficient islets exhibit altered expression of genes involved in inflammation and insulin secretion demonstrating the importance of androgen action in β-cell health in the male with implications for T2D development in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 induces a cAMP-dependent increase of [Na+]i associated with insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshikazu; Matsui, Hisao

    2003-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) elevates the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion in a Na+-dependent manner. To investigate a possible role of Na ion in the action of GLP-1 on pancreatic islet cells, we measured the glucose-and GLP-1-induced intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i), [Ca2+]i, and insulin secretion in hamster islet cells in various concentrations of Na+. The [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i were monitored in islet cells loaded with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and fura 2, respectively. In the presence of 135 mM Na+ and 8 mM glucose, GLP-1 (10 nM) strongly increased the [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i, and insulin secretion. In the presence of 13.5 mM Na+, both glucose and GLP-1 increased neither the [Na+]i nor the [Ca2+]i. In a Na+-free medium, GLP-1 and glucose did not increase the [Na+]i. SQ-22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, incompletely inhibited the response. In the presence of both 8 mM glucose and H-89, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, a PKA-independent cAMP analog, increased the insulin secretion and the [Na+]i. Therefore, we conclude that GLP-1 increases the cAMP level via activation of adenylate cyclase, which augments the membrane Na+ permeability through PKA-dependent and PKA-independent mechanisms, thereby increasing the [Ca2+]i and promoting insulin secretion from hamster islet cells.

  15. Common Variants in the Type 2 Diabetes KCNQ1 Gene Are Associated with Impairments in Insulin Secretion During Hyperglycaemic Glucose Clamp

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; van Haeften, Timon W.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Reiling, Erwin; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Klungel, Olaf H.; de Boer, Anthonius; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Boezen, H. Marike; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; van 't Riet, Esther; Nijpels, Giel; Welschen, Laura M. C.; Zavrelova, Hata; Bruin, Elinda J.; Elbers, Clara C.; Bauer, Florianne; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Diamant, Michaela; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P. Eline

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on insulin secretion and metabolic traits and on the risk of developing complications in type 2 diabetes patients. Methodology The KCNQ1 variants rs151290, rs2237892, and rs2237895 were genotyped in a total of 4620 type 2 diabetes patients and 5285 healthy controls from the Netherlands. Data on macrovascular complications, nephropathy and retinopathy were available in a subset of diabetic patients. Association between genotype and insulin secretion/action was assessed in the additional sample of 335 individuals who underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp. Principal Findings We found that all the genotyped KCNQ1 variants were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in our Dutch population, and the association of rs151290 was the strongest (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07–1.35, p = 0.002). The risk C-allele of rs151290 was nominally associated with reduced first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while the non-risk T-allele of rs2237892 was significantly correlated with increased second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.025 and 0.0016, respectively). In addition, the risk C-allele of rs2237892 was associated with higher LDL and total cholesterol levels (p = 0.015 and 0.003, respectively). We found no evidence for an association of KCNQ1 with diabetic complications. Conclusions Common variants in the KCNQ1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, which can be explained at least in part by an effect on insulin secretion. Furthermore, our data suggest that KCNQ1 is also associated with lipid metabolism. PMID:22403629

  16. In Vitro Differentiation of Insulin Secreting Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 1 Positive Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abouzaripour, Morteza; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Atlasi, Nader; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Mahmoudi, Reza; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow has recently been recognized as a novel source of stem cells for the treatment of wide range of diseases. A number of studies on murine bone mar- row have shown a homogenous population of rare stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1) positive cells that express markers of pluripotent stem cells. This study focuses on SSEA-1 positive cells isolated from murine bone marrow in an attempt to differentiate them into insulin-secreting cells (ISCs) in order to investigate their differentiation potential for future use in cell therapy. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research. Mouse SSEA-1 positive cells were isolated by Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) followed by characteriza- tion with flow cytometry. Induced SSEA-1 positive cells were differentiated into ISCs with specific differentiation media. In order to evaluate differentiation quality and analysis, dithizone (DTZ) staining was use, followed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry and insulin secretion assay. Statistical results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results The results achieved in this study reveal that mouse bone marrow contains a population of SSEA-1 positive cells that expresses pluripotent stem cells markers such as SSEA-1, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4) detected by immunocytochem- istry and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and stem cell antigen-1 (SCA-1) detected by flow cytometric analysis. SSEA-1 positive cells can differentiate into ISCs cell clusters as evidenced by their DTZ positive staining and expression of genes such as Pdx1 (pancreatic transcription factors), Ngn3 (endocrine progenitor marker), Insulin1 and Insulin2 (pancreaticβ-cell markers). Additionally, our results demonstrate expression of Pdx1 and Glut2 protein and insulin secretion in response to a glucose challenge in the differentiated cells. Conclusion Our study clearly demonstrates the potential of SSEA-1 positive

  17. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  18. The T-Allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 Associates With a Reduced Compensation of Insulin Secretion for Insulin Resistance Induced by 9 Days of Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Alibegovic, Amra C.; Sonne, Mette P.; Højbjerre, Lise; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; van Hall, Gerrit; Holst, Jens J.; Stallknecht, Bente; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether the type 2 diabetes–associated T-allele of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 associates with impaired insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance induced by bed rest. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 38 healthy young Caucasian men were studied before and after bed rest using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The TCF7L2 rs7903146 was genotyped using allelic discrimination performed with an ABI 7900 system. The genetic analyses were done assuming a dominant model of inheritance. RESULTS The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele compared with carriers of the CC genotype before bed rest, with and without correction for insulin resistance. The incremental rise of FPIR in response to insulin resistance induced by bed rest was lower in carriers of the T-allele (P < 0.001). Fasting plasma glucagon levels were significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele before and after bed rest. While carriers of the CC genotype developed increased hepatic insulin resistance, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 did not influence peripheral insulin action or the rate of lipolysis before or after bed rest. CONCLUSIONS Healthy carriers of the T-allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 exhibit a diminished increase of insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose to compensate for insulin resistance as induced by bed rest. Reduced paracrine glucagon stimulation may contribute to the impairment of β-cell function in the carriers TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20107109

  19. The T-allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 associates with a reduced compensation of insulin secretion for insulin resistance induced by 9 days of bed rest.

    PubMed

    Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P; Højbjerre, Lise; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; van Hall, Gerrit; Holst, Jens J; Stallknecht, Bente; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the type 2 diabetes-associated T-allele of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 associates with impaired insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance induced by bed rest. A total of 38 healthy young Caucasian men were studied before and after bed rest using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The TCF7L2 rs7903146 was genotyped using allelic discrimination performed with an ABI 7900 system. The genetic analyses were done assuming a dominant model of inheritance. The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele compared with carriers of the CC genotype before bed rest, with and without correction for insulin resistance. The incremental rise of FPIR in response to insulin resistance induced by bed rest was lower in carriers of the T-allele (P < 0.001). Fasting plasma glucagon levels were significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele before and after bed rest. While carriers of the CC genotype developed increased hepatic insulin resistance, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 did not influence peripheral insulin action or the rate of lipolysis before or after bed rest. Healthy carriers of the T-allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 exhibit a diminished increase of insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose to compensate for insulin resistance as induced by bed rest. Reduced paracrine glucagon stimulation may contribute to the impairment of beta-cell function in the carriers TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Claudia; Daly, Robin M; Carpentier, André; Lu, Zhong X; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Sikaris, Ken; Jean, Sonia; Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000-6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes

  1. Evidence of a distinct derangement of opioid tone in hyperinsulinemic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome: relationship with insulin and luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Lanzone, A; Fulghesu, A M; Cucinelli, F; Ciampelli, M; Caruso, A; Mancuso, S

    1995-12-01

    Recent data indicate that an altered opioid tone could be involved in the LH hypersecretion and metabolic alterations seen in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a common mechanism of action of opioids on altered insulin and gonadotropin release in patients suffering from PCOS. Twenty-eight women affected by PCOS and 8 normal ovulatory women were studied; an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and GnRH tests were performed during the follicular phase before and after 6 weeks of naltrexone treatment (50 mg/day, orally). Plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and steroids were assayed in the basal samples, whereas FSH and LH were analyzed during the GnRH stimulus. Insulin and glucose were assayed by the OGTT. Based on the insulinemic response to OGTT, 17 women were classified as hyperinsulinemic and 11 as normoinsulinemic. No difference in glucose and hormone plasma concentrations was observed before and after naltrexone treatment in both groups. Only basal sex hormone-binding globulin values were higher in normoinsulinemic compared to hyperinsulinemic subjects. Administration of the opioid antagonist significantly reduced the insulin response to OGTT only in the hyperinsulinemic group. No difference were found in the LH increment after the GnRH stimulus in both group of patients before treatment; on the contrary, naltrexone administration reduced the LH response to GnRH in hyperinsulinemic women but failed to be effective in normoinsulinemic subjects. Only 5 patients showed no concordance of drug-induced changes in insulin and LH secretion. In control subjects, naltrexone failed to have any effect on insulin or LH secretion. These data support the involvement of endogenous opioids in the regulation of insulin and LH secretion in a specific group of PCOS patients exhibiting an exaggerated insulin response to OGTT.

  2. Serum Levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Insulin Secretion among Children Age 7–9 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Hyun; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Young Sun; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are endocrine disruptors and have been suggested as possible risk factors for diabetes. Few studies have been performed to investigate this association among children. Objectives: In this study, we prospectively examined the relationship between the serum concentration of POPs and glucose metabolism in children. Methods: Data were collected from the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort Study, an ongoing birth cohort study initially constructed between 2001 and 2006. In 2010–2012, the POP concentration was measured in serum from a total of 214 children, 7–9 years of age. Using fasting glucose and insulin measurements at both baseline and the second year of follow-up, the homeostatic model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-β) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis and a linear mixed-effects model were used to determine the relationship between POP tertiles and metabolic biomarkers. Results: Compared with the lowest tertile of total marker PCBs, participants in the third tertile had decreased HOMA-β values, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index z-score, mother’s education, ponderal index, and history of breastfeeding (–18.94%; 95% CI: –32.97%, –1.98%). In a linear mixed model, the HOMA-β values were still lower in subjects in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of total PCBs at the 2-year follow-up period (108.3 vs. 135.0, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the study suggested that exposure to POPs among children might affect insulin secretory function, which could lead to an increased risk of developing diabetes. Citation: Park SH, Ha EH, Hong YS, Park H. 2016. Serum levels of persistent organic pollutants and insulin secretion among children age 7–9 years: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1924–1930; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP147 PMID:27266903

  3. Investigation of intracellular signalling cascades mediating stimulatory effect of a Gymnema sylvestre extract on insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Docherty, R; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional plant-based remedies such as Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extracts have been used to treat diabetes mellitus for many centuries. We have shown previously that a novel GS extract, OSA®, has a direct effect on insulin secretion but its mode of action has not been studied in detail Thus this study investigated the possible underlying mechanism(s) by which OSA® exerts its action. The effects of OSA® on [Ca(2+)]i and K(+) conductances were assessed by Ca(2+) microfluorimetry and electrophysiology in dispersed mouse islets and MIN6 β-cells, respectively. Isolated mouse (from 20 to 25 mice) and human (from 3 donors) islets, and MIN6 β-cells, were used to investigate whether the stimulatory effect of OSA® on insulin secretion was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and protein kinase activation. OSA ®-induced insulin secretion from mouse islets and MIN6 β-cells was inhibited by nifedipine, a voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker, and by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+), respectively. OSA® did not affect the activities of KATP channels or voltage-dependent K(+) channels in MIN6 β-cells but it caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in Fura-2-loaded mouse islet cells. The insulin secretagogue effect of OSA® was dependent, in part, on protein kinase activation since incubating mouse or human islets with staurosporine, a general protein kinase inhibitor, resulted in partial inhibition of OSA®-induced insulin secretion. Experiments using permeabilized, Ca(2+)-clamped MIN6 β-cells revealed a Ca(2+)-independent component action of OSA® at a late stage in the stimulus-response coupling pathway. OSA®-induced insulin secretion was unexpectedly associated with a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels. These data indicate that the GS isolate OSA® stimulates insulin secretion from mouse and human islets in vitro, at least in part as a consequence of Ca(2+) influx and protein kinase activation. © 2012 Blackwell

  4. Measurement of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin in hypothalamic-portal plasma of unanesthetized sheep. Spontaneous secretion and response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, L A; Downs, T R; Clarke, I J; Thomas, G B

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the role of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin (SRIH) in the regulation of the growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern, we collected portal blood from five unanesthetized ovariectomized ewes for repeated measurements of GRH and SRIH simultaneous with those of peripheral GH. Hormones were measured at 10-min intervals for 5.5 h and their interrelationships analyzed. Mean portal GRH was 20.4 +/- 6.7 (SD) pg/ml and the estimated overall secretion rate was 13 pg/min. GRH secretion was pulsatile with peaks of 25-40 pg/ml and a mean pulse interval of 71 min. Mean portal SRIH was 72 +/- 33 pg/ml and the estimated overall secretion rate was 32 pg/min. SRIH secretion was also pulsatile with peaks of 65-160 pg/ml and a mean pulse interval of 54 min. The GH pulse interval was 62 min. A significant association was present between GRH and GH secretory peaks though not between GRH and SRIH or SRIH and GH. Insulin hypoglycemia resulted in a rapid and brief stimulation of SRIH secretion followed by a decline in GH levels. No effect was observed on GRH secretion until 90 min, when a slight increase occurred. The results suggest (a) the presence of an independent neural rhythmicity of GRH and SRIH secretion with a primary role of GRH in determining pulsatile GRH secretion, and (b) that the inhibitory effects of insulin hypoglycemia on GH in this species are attributable to a combination of enhanced SRIH secretion and possibly other factors, though without significant inhibition of GRH. PMID:1973173

  5. A low dose euglycemic infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I rapidly suppresses fasting-enhanced pulsatile growth hormone secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, M L; Clayton, P E; Johnson, M L; Celniker, A; Perlman, A J; Alberti, K G; Thorner, M O

    1993-01-01

    To determine if insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) inhibits pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion in man, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was infused for 6 h at 10 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 during a euglycemic clamp in 10 normal men who were fasted for 32 h to enhance GH secretion. Saline alone was infused during an otherwise identical second admission as a control. As a result of rhIGF-I infusion, total and free IGF-I concentrations increased three- and fourfold, respectively. Mean GH concentrations fell from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 0.59 +/- 0.07 micrograms/liter after 120 min. GH secretion rates, calculated by a deconvolution algorithm, decreased with a t 1/2 of 16.6 min and remained suppressed thereafter. Suppression of GH secretion rates occurred within 60 min when total and free IGF-I concentrations were 1.6-fold and 2-fold above baseline levels, respectively, and while glucose infusion rates were < 1 mumol.kg-1.min-1. During saline infusion, GH secretion rates remained elevated. Infusion of rhIGF-I decreased the mass of GH secreted per pulse by 84% (P < 0.01) and the number of detectable GH secretory pulses by 32% (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin and glucagon decreased to nearly undetectable levels after 60 min of rhIGF-I. Serum free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were unaffected during the first 3 h of rhIGF-I but decreased thereafter to 52, 32, and 50% of levels observed during saline. We conclude that fasting-enhanced GH secretion is rapidly suppressed by a low-dose euglycemic infusion of rhIGF-I. This effect of rhIGF-I is likely mediated through IGF-I receptors independently of its insulin-like metabolic actions. PMID:8514857

  6. Monkey retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro synthesize, secrete, and degrade insulin-like growth factor binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Waldbillig, R J; Schoen, T J; Chader, G J; Pfeffer, B A

    1992-01-01

    Cultured monkey retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells rapidly secrete large amounts of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs). IGF-II tracer binding activity in conditioned media is two to three times greater than that of IGF-I. Under reducing SDS-PAGE conditions, 125I-IGF affinity-crosslinked binding protein (BP) is visualized as a broad band between 36 +/- 2.9 and 49 +/- 3.3 kDa. Because the electrophoretic mobility of the crosslinked BP is increased under non-reducing conditions (33-45 kDa), intramolecular sulfhydryl bonding may be present. Frequently, the radiographic band representing affinity-crosslinked binding protein exhibits a complex pattern of non-uniform densities that suggests structural or functional IGF-BP micro-heterogeneity. IGF-BPs synthesized by RPE also exhibit heterogeneity with respect to the absence or presence of oligosaccharide side chains. In particular, the larger, but not the mid-sized or smaller IGF-BPs exhibit side chains linked to the core protein with N-glycosidic linkage. None of the crosslinked IGF-BPs exhibit O-linked side chains. Long-term (12, 24, 48 hr) conditioning studies revealed that IGF-BP fails to accumulate in culture media beyond 12 hr, but that replacement of conditioned media with fresh media allows a second period of binding protein accumulation. Other short-term (12 hr) experiments indicate that, in fresh medium, the levels of IGF-BP increase during the first 6-8 hr and then remain stable. To examine the processes contributing to these steady state levels of IGF-BP, aliquots of 8-hr conditioned medium were removed from the cells and either frozen on dry ice or incubated at 37 degrees C for 16 hr. Importantly, it was found that incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in a near total loss of binding activity. This is the first report of IGF-BP degrading activity in a cell culture system. These findings indicate that 1) primate RPE cells rapidly secrete a complex mixture of N-glycosylated and non

  7. Chronic High Glucose and Pyruvate Levels Differentially Affect Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Fuel-stimulated Insulin Secretion from Clonal INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Isabel; Sharoyko, Vladimir V.; Malmgren, Siri; Andersson, Lotta E.; Spégel, Peter; Nicholls, David G.; Mulder, Hindrik

    2014-01-01

    Glucotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells is a well established pathogenetic process in type 2 diabetes. It has been suggested that metabolism-derived reactive oxygen species perturb the β-cell transcriptional machinery. Less is known about altered mitochondrial function in this condition. We used INS-1 832/13 cells cultured for 48 h in 2.8 mm glucose (low-G), 16.7 mm glucose (high-G), or 2.8 mm glucose plus 13.9 mm pyruvate (high-P) to identify metabolic perturbations. High-G cells showed decreased responsiveness, relative to low-G cells, with respect to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, plasma membrane depolarization, and insulin secretion, when stimulated acutely with 16.7 mm glucose or 10 mm pyruvate. In contrast, high-P cells were functionally unimpaired, eliminating chronic provision of saturating mitochondrial substrate as a cause of glucotoxicity. Although cellular insulin content was depleted in high-G cells, relative to low-G and high-P cells, cellular functions were largely recovered following a further 24-h culture in low-G medium. After 2 h at 2.8 mm glucose, high-G cells did not retain increased levels of glycolytic or TCA cycle intermediates but nevertheless displayed increased glycolysis, increased respiration, and an increased mitochondrial proton leak relative to low-G and high-P cells. This notwithstanding, titration of low-G cells with low protonophore concentrations, monitoring respiration and insulin secretion in parallel, showed that the perturbed insulin secretion of high-G cells could not be accounted for by increased proton leak. The present study supports the idea that glucose-induced disturbances of stimulus-secretion coupling by extramitochondrial metabolism upstream of pyruvate, rather than exhaustion from metabolic overload, underlie glucotoxicity in insulin-producing cells. PMID:24356960

  8. The two pore channel TPC2 is dispensable in pancreatic β-cells for normal Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cane, Matthew C.; Parrington, John; Rorsman, Patrik; Galione, Antony; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are central to the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by glucose and other agents, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whilst Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane is a key trigger for glucose-stimulated secretion, mobilisation of Ca2+ from acidic stores has been implicated in the control of more localised Ca2+ changes and membrane potential. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), generated in β-cells in response to high glucose, is a potent mobiliser of these stores, and has been proposed to act through two pore channels (TPC1 and TPC2, murine gene names Tpcn1 and Tpcn2). Whilst the role of TPC1 in the control of Ca2+ mobilisation and insulin secretion was recently confirmed, conflicting data exist for TPC2. Here, we used the selective and efficient deleter strain, Ins1Cre to achieve β-cell selective deletion of the Tpcn2 gene in mice. βTpcn2 KO mice displayed normal intraperitoneal and oral glucose tolerance, and glucose-stimulated Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion from islets were similarly normal. GLP-1-induced Ca2+ increases involved an increase in oscillation frequency from 4.35 to 4.84 per minute (p = 0.04) at 8 mM glucose, and this increase was unaffected by the absence of Tpcn2. The current data thus indicate that TPC2 is not absolutely required for normal glucose- or incretin-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell. Our findings suggest that TPC1, whose expression tended to increase in Tpcn2 null islets, might be sufficient to support normal Ca2+ dynamics in response to stimulation by nutrients or incretins. PMID:26769314

  9. The effect of the putative endogenous imidazoline receptor ligand, clonidine-displacing substance, on insulin secretion from rat and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Chan, S L; Atlas, D; James, R F; Morgan, N G

    1997-03-01

    1. The effects of a rat brain extract containing clonidine-displacing substance (CDS), a putative endogenous imidazoline receptor ligand, on insulin release from rat and human isolated islets of Langerhans were investigated. 2. CDS was able to potentiate the insulin secretory response of rat islets incubated at 6 mM glucose, in a dose-dependent manner. The magnitude of this effect was similar to that in response to the well-characterized imidazoline secretagogue, efaroxan. 3. CDS, like other imidazoline secretagogues, was also able to reverse the inhibitory action of diazoxide on glucose-induced insulin release, in both rat and human islets. 4. These effects of CDS on secretion were reversed by the imidazoline secretagogue antagonists, RX801080 and the newly defined KU14R, providing the first evidence that imidazoline-mediated actions of CDS can be blocked by specific imidazoline antagonists. 5. The effects of CDS on insulin secretion were unaffected when the method of preparation involved centri-filtration through a 3,000 Da cut-off membrane or when the extract was treated with protease. These results confirm that the active principle is of low molecular weight and is not a peptide. 6. Overall, the data suggest that CDS behaves as a potent endogenous insulin secretagogue acting at the islet imidazoline receptor.

  10. The effect of the putative endogenous imidazoline receptor ligand, clonidine-displacing substance, on insulin secretion from rat and human islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Susan L F; Atlas, Daphne; James, Roger F L; Morgan, Noel G

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a rat brain extract containing clonidine-displacing substance (CDS), a putative endogenous imidazoline receptor ligand, on insulin release from rat and human isolated islets of Langerhans were investigated.CDS was able to potentiate the insulin secretory response of rat islets incubated at 6 mM glucose, in a dose-dependent manner. The magnitude of this effect was similar to that in response to the well-characterized imidazoline secretagogue, efaroxan.CDS, like other imidazoline secretagogues, was also able to reverse the inhibitory action of diazoxide on glucose-induced insulin release, in both rat and human islets.These effects of CDS on secretion were reversed by the imidazoline secretagogue antagonists, RX801080 and the newly defined KU14R, providing the first evidence that imidazoline-mediated actions of CDS can be blocked by specific imidazoline antagonists.The effects of CDS on insulin secretion were unaffected when the method of preparation involved centri-filtration through a 3,000 Da cut-off membrane or when the extract was treated with protease. These results confirm that the active principle is of low molecular weight and is not a peptide.Overall, the data suggest that CDS behaves as a potent endogenous insulin secretagogue acting at the islet imidazoline receptor. PMID:9138700

  11. Dogfish glucagon analogues counter hyperglycaemia and enhance both insulin secretion and action in diet-induced obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    O'Harte, F P M; Ng, M T; Lynch, A M; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the antidiabetic actions of three dogfish glucagon peptide analogues [known glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptor co-agonists] after chronic administration in diet-induced high-fat-diet-fed diabetic mice. National Institutes of Health Swiss mice were pre-conditioned to a high-fat diet (45% fat) for 100 days, and control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). Normal diet control and high-fat-fed control mice received twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline injections, while the high-fat-fed treatment groups (n = 8) received twice-daily injections of exendin-4(1-39), [S2a]dogfish glucagon, [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) or [S2a]dogfish glucagon-Lys(30) -γ-glutamyl-PAL (25 nmol/kg body weight) for 51 days. After dogfish glucagon analogue treatment, there was a rapid and sustained decrease in non-fasting blood glucose and an associated insulinotropic effect (analysis of variance, p < .05 to <.001) compared with saline-treated high-fat-fed controls. All peptide treatments significantly improved i.p. and oral glucose tolerance with concomitant increased insulin secretion compared with saline-treated high-fat-fed controls (p <.05 to <.001). After chronic treatment, no receptor desensitization was observed but insulin sensitivity was enhanced for all peptide-treated groups (p < .01 to <.001) except [S2a]dogfish glucagon. Both exendin-4 and [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) significantly reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations compared with those found in lean controls (p = .0105 and p = .0048, respectively). Pancreatic insulin content was not affected by peptide treatments but [S2a]dogfish glucagon and [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) decreased pancreatic glucagon by 28%-34% (p = .0221 and p = .0075, respectively). The percentage of β-cell area within islets was increased by exendin-4 and peptide analogue treatment groups compared with high-fat-fed controls and the β-cell area decreased

  12. Phospholipase C-ε links Epac2 activation to the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Dzhura, Igor; Chepurny, Oleg G; Leech, Colin A; Roe, Michael W; Dzhura, Elvira; Xu, Xin; Lu, Youming; Schwede, Frank; Genieser, Hans-G; Smrcka, Alan V

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is potentiated by cAMP-elevating agents, such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cAMP exerts its insulin secretagogue action by activating both protein kinase A (PKA) and the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor designated as Epac2. Although prior studies of mouse islets demonstrated that Epac2 acts via Rap1 GTPase to potentiate GSIS, it is not understood which downstream targets of Rap1 promote the exocytosis of insulin. Here, we measured insulin secretion stimulated by a cAMP analog that is a selective activator of Epac proteins in order to demonstrate that a Rap1-regulated phospholipase C-epsilon (PLC-ε) links Epac2 activation to the potentiation of GSIS. Our analysis demonstrates that the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiates GSIS from the islets of wild-type (WT) mice, whereas it has a greatly reduced insulin secretagogue action in the islets of Epac2 (−/−) and PLC-ε (−/−) knockout (KO) mice. Importantly, the insulin secretagogue action of 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM in WT mouse islets cannot be explained by an unexpected action of this cAMP analog to activate PKA, as verified through the use of a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR3) that reports PKA activation. Since the KO of PLC-ε disrupts the ability of 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate GSIS, while also disrupting its ability to stimulate an increase of β-cell [Ca2+]i, the available evidence indicates that it is a Rap1-regulated PLC-ε that links Epac2 activation to Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin. PMID:21478675

  13. Phospholipase C-ε links Epac2 activation to the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Dzhura, Igor; Chepurny, Oleg G; Leech, Colin A; Roe, Michael W; Dzhura, Elvira; Xu, Xin; Lu, Youming; Schwede, Frank; Genieser, Hans-G; Smrcka, Alan V; Holz, George G

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is potentiated by cAMP-elevating agents, such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and cAMP exerts its insulin secretagogue action by activating both protein kinase A (PKA) and the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor designated as Epac2. Although prior studies of mouse islets demonstrated that Epac2 acts via Rap1 GTPase to potentiate GSIS, it is not understood which downstream targets of Rap1 promote the exocytosis of insulin. Here, we measured insulin secretion stimulated by a cAMP analog that is a selective activator of Epac proteins in order to demonstrate that a Rap1-regulated phospholipase C-epsilon (PLC-ε) links Epac2 activation to the potentiation of GSIS. Our analysis demonstrates that the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiates GSIS from the islets of wild-type (WT) mice, whereas it has a greatly reduced insulin secretagogue action in the islets of Epac2 (-/-) and PLC-ε (-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Importantly, the insulin secretagogue action of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM in WT mouse islets cannot be explained by an unexpected action of this cAMP analog to activate PKA, as verified through the use of a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR3) that reports PKA activation. Since the KO of PLC-ε disrupts the ability of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate GSIS, while also disrupting its ability to stimulate an increase of β-cell [Ca2+]i, the available evidence indicates that it is a Rap1-regulated PLC-ε that links Epac2 activation to Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin.

  14. Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The manipulation of organic materials--cells, tissues, and even living organisms--offers many exciting possibilities for the future from organic computers to improved aquaculture. Commercial researchers are using the microgravity environment to produce large near perfect protein crystals Research on insulin has yielded crystals that far surpass the quality of insulin crystals grown on the ground. Using these crystals industry partners are working to develop new and improved treatments for diabetes. Other researchers are exploring the possibility of producing antibiotics using plant cell cultures which could lead to both orbital production and the improvement of ground-based antibiotic production.

  15. Encapsulation of Insulin-Secreting Cells Expressing a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Calcium Indicator for Cell-Based Sensing In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Boss, Christophe; De Marchi, Umberto; Hermant, Aurélie; Conrad, Mouna; Sizzano, Federico; Palini, Alessio; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Bouche, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    The development of cell-based biosensors that give insight into cell and tissue function in vivo is an attractive technology for biomedical research. Here, the development of a cell line expressing a fluorescent calcium sensor for the study of beta-cell function in vivo is reported. The bioresponsive cell model is based on INS-1E pancreatic beta-cells, stably expressing the genetically encoded cameleon-based fluorescent sensor YC3.6cyto . Following single-cell selection and expansion, functional testing and in vitro encapsulation experiments are used to identify a suitable clone of INS-1E cells expressing the calcium sensor. This clone is transplanted subcutaneous in mouse using a cell macroencapsulation system based on flat sheet porous membranes. Cells in the implanted capsules are able to respond to glucose in vivo by secreting insulin and thereby contributing to the regulation of glycaemia in the mice. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging of explanted devices shows that encapsulated cells maintain high level expression of YC3.6cyto in vivo. In conclusion, these data show that encapsulated INS-1E cells stably expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor can be successfully implanted in vivo, and therefore serve as biosensing element or in vivo model to longitudinally monitor the function of pancreatic beta-cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie.wang2@osumc.edu; Osei, Kwame

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Primary proinsulin maturation disorder is inherent in Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells. {yields} A consequence is the inefficient conversion of proinsulin to insulin. {yields} Post-translational defects occur as well in the involved PC1/3 and PC2 convertases. {yields} Proinsulin maturation chaos results in defects in the following conversion process. {yields} A link of the proinsulin maturation disorder and hyperproinsulinemia is suggested. -- Abstract: Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia is an indicator of {beta}-cell dysfunction in diabetes and the basis underlying this abnormality remains obscure. Recently, we have found proinsulin is an aggregation-prone molecule inherent with a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostaticmore » balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) in normal {beta}-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to environmental and genetic influences. Perturbation of PIHO produces a number of toxic consequences with known association to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes. To explore whether the perturbation of PIHO has a link to disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia, we investigated proinsulin conversion and the involved prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) in mouse Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells that preserve a primary PIHO disorder due to a mutation (C96Y) in the insulin 2 (Ins2) gene. Our metabolic-labeling studies found an increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin in the cellular or released proteins of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets. Histological, metabolic-labeling, and RT-PCR analyses revealed decreases of the PC1/3 and PC2 immunoreactivities in the {beta}-cells of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets in spite of no declines of these two convertases at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analyses in cloned Ins2{sup +/Akita} {beta}-cells further confirmed the increased ratio of

  17. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie; Osei, Kwame

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Primary proinsulin maturation disorder is inherent in Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells. {yields} A consequence is the inefficient conversion of proinsulin to insulin. {yields} Post-translational defects occur as well in the involved PC1/3 and PC2 convertases. {yields} Proinsulin maturation chaos results in defects in the following conversion process. {yields} A link of the proinsulin maturation disorder and hyperproinsulinemia is suggested. -- Abstract: Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia is an indicator of {beta}-cell dysfunction in diabetes and the basis underlying this abnormality remains obscure. Recently, we have found proinsulin is an aggregation-prone molecule inherent with a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) in normal {beta}-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to environmental and genetic influences. Perturbation of PIHO produces a number of toxic consequences with known association to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes. To explore whether the perturbation of PIHO has a link to disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia, we investigated proinsulin conversion and the involved prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) in mouse Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells that preserve a primary PIHO disorder due to a mutation (C96Y) in the insulin 2 (Ins2) gene. Our metabolic-labeling studies found an increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin in the cellular or released proteins of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets. Histological, metabolic-labeling, and RT-PCR analyses revealed decreases of the PC1/3 and PC2 immunoreactivities in the {beta}-cells of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets in spite of no declines of these two convertases at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analyses in cloned Ins2{sup +/Akita} {beta}-cells further confirmed the increased ratio of proinsulin

  18. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Courville, Clifford A; Tidwell, Sherry; Liu, Bo; Accurso, Frank J; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2014-02-25

    Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P < 0.05, ± SEM) and COPD former smokers (39.0 ± 5.4, P < 0.05) compared to healthy controls (53.6 ± 3.4). Similarly, sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and COPD former smokers (37.8 ± 6.0, P < 0.01) vs. healthy controls (19.1 ± 2.5). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between β-adrenergic sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (-0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (-0.3), and history of smoking (-0.27; each P < 0.05). Stepwise multivariate regression included gender (0.39) and COPD (-0.43) in the final model (R()2 = 0.266, P < 0.0001). β-adrenergic sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements have a causative role in COPD pathogenesis.

  19. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. Objectives To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. Methods We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). Measurements and main results β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P < 0.05, ± SEM) and COPD former smokers (39.0 ± 5.4, P < 0.05) compared to healthy controls (53.6 ± 3.4). Similarly, sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and COPD former smokers (37.8 ± 6.0, P < 0.01) vs. healthy controls (19.1 ± 2.5). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between β-adrenergic sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (−0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (−0.3), and history of smoking (−0.27; each P < 0.05). Stepwise multivariate regression included gender (0.39) and COPD (−0.43) in the final model (R2 = 0.266, P < 0.0001). Conclusions β-adrenergic sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements

  20. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché increases insulin secretion in RINm5F cells through an influx of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Perez, Maria Elizabeth; Ortega-Camarillo, Clara; Del Carmen Escobar-Villanueva, Maria; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-21

    Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché(C. ficifolia) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to control type 2 diabetes (T2D). The hypoglycemic effect of the fruit of C. ficifolia has been demonstrated in different experimental models and in T2D patients. It has been proposed that D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is the active compound of the fruit. Additionally, it has been reported that C. ficifolia increases the mRNA expression of insulin and Kir 6.2 (a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)ATP) channel, which is activated by sulphonylurea) in RINm5F cells. However, it remains unclear whether C. ficifolia and DCI causes the secretion of insulin by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) through K(+)ATP channel blockage or from the reservoir in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aqueous extract of C. ficifolia was obtained and standardized with regard to its DCI content. RINm5F pancreatic β-cells were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400μM) of DCI alone or C. ficifolia (9, 18, 36 and 72µg of extract/mL), and the [Ca(2+)]i of the cells was quantified. The cells were preloaded with the Ca(2+) fluorescent dye fluo4-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) and visualized by confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion was measured by an ELISA method. Subsequently, the effect of C. ficifolia on the K(+)ATP channel was evaluated. In this case, the blocker activator diazoxide was used to inhibit the C. ficifolia-induced calcium influx. In addition, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-receptor-selective inhibitor 2-amino-thoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) was used to inhibit the influx of calcium from the ER that was induced by C. ficifolia. It was found that DCI alone did not increase [Ca(2+)]i or insulin secretion. In contrast, treatment with C. ficifolia increased [Ca(2+)]i 10-fold compared with the control group. Insulin secretion increased by 46.9%. In the presence of diazoxide, C. ficifolia decreased [Ca(2+)]i by 50%, while insulin secretion

  1. Vasopressin secretion in progressive autonomic failure: evidence for defective afferent cardiovascular pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T D; Lightman, S L; Bannister, R

    1985-01-01

    Patients with progressive autonomic failure with multiple system atrophy show a severely blunted response of plasma arginine vasopressin to the stimulus of head-up tilt. Whether this could be due to lesions either at one or more sites within ascending neural pathways from cardiovascular stretch receptors in the thorax or, alternatively, to lesions affecting vasopressin secreting cells within the hypothalamus was investigated. The arginine vasopressin response to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline was determined in six patients with progressive autonomic failure. The mean plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin rose from 1.0 to 3.7 pmol/l, a change comparable to that observed in normal controls. This demonstrates normal functioning of the efferent connections from the osmoreceptors within the hypothalamus and suggests that the loss of vasopressin response to head-up tilt is due to lesions in ascending pathways from cardiovascular receptors. There was a significant rise in mean blood pressure during the infusions on patients with progressive autonomic failure, a change which was not observed with the controls. This may have been at least partly caused by the rise in circulating arginine vasopressin concentrations, since these patients have been reported to be extremely sensitive to the pressor effects of arginine vasopressin. Images PMID:3981190

  2. 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with early-phase insulin secretion in chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojing; Hao, Yaping; Hu, Xiang; Luo, Yuqi; Deng, Zixuan; Zhou, Jian; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the correlations of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (l,5-AG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin (GA) with insulin sensitivity and secretion. In total, 302 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (166 men, 136 women) were enrolled in this study. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated to determine the basal insulin sensitivity and secretion. The insulinogenic index (IGI) was used to evaluate early-phase insulin secretion. 1,5-AG and GA were assayed via the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among all 302 subjects, the serum 1,5-AG level was 13.1±7.2 μg/mL, and the HbA1c and GA levels [median (interquartile range)] were 6.7% (6.2-7.3%) and 17.7% (16.0-19.5%), respectively. Increased 1,5-AG quartiles were accompanied by trends toward a decreased HOMA-IR and an increased HOMA-β and IGI (for all trends, P<0.001). 1,5-AG was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.200, P<0.001) and positively associated with HOMA-β and IGI (r=0.210 and 0.413, respectively; both P<0.001). 1,5-AG was independently related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-β and exhibited an independent positive association with IGI (standardized β=0.242, P<0.001). Additionally, both HbA1c and GA were independently correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. 1,5-AG is not only correlated with basal insulin sensitivity and secretion, but also closely associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Sweet Taste Receptor Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells Activates the Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signaling Systems and Stimulates Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Mogami, Hideo; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and cAMP ([cAMP]c) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca2+]c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca2+]c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a Gq inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions Sweet taste receptor is expressed in β-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:19352508

  4. Triterpene derivative: A potential signaling pathway for the fern-9(11)-ene-2α,3β-diol on insulin secretion in pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Gabrielle; Frederico, Marisa Jádna Silva; Castro, Allisson Jhonatan Gomes; Moraes, Ana Luiza Ludwig; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Espíndola, Leandro; Schmidt, Éder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2016-06-01

    Triterpenes and their derivatives influence on carbohydrate metabolism. In vivo and in vitro treatment investigated the effect of the natural triterpene fern-9(11)-ene-2α,3β-diol (1), isolated from Croton heterodoxus, and a derivative triterpene (2) on glucose homeostasis. The antidiabetic effect of the crude extract from C. heterodoxus leaves, the natural triterpene (1) as well as the derivative triterpene (2) were assayed on glucose tolerance. The effect and the mechanism of action on in vivo treatment with triterpene 2 on glycaemia and insulin secretion were studied. In addition, in vitro studies investigated the mechanism of triterpene 2 on glucose uptake and calcium influx on insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. The results show the extract slightly reduced the glycaemia when compared with hyperglycemic group. However, the presence of the substituent electron-withdrawing 4-nitrobenzoyl group in the A-ring of triterpene 2 powered the serum glucose lowering compared to triterpene 1. In addition, in vivo treatment with triterpene 2 significantly increased the insulin secretion induced by glucose and stimulated the glucose uptake and calcium influx in pancreatic islet. The effect of triterpene on calcium influx was completely inhibited by diazoxide, nifedipine and stearoylcarnitine treatment. The stimulatory effect of triterpene 2 on glucose uptake, calcium influx, regulation of potassium (K(+)-ATP) and calcium (L-VDCCs) channels activity as well as the pathway of PKC highlights the mechanism of action of the compound in pancreatic islets on insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. In addition, this compound did not induce toxicity in this experimental condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya; Hirose, Takahisa; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  6. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4more » daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.« less

  7. Intraportal administration of DPP-IV inhibitor regulates insulin secretion and food intake mediated by the hepatic vagal afferent nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kansuke; Gotoh, Koro; Chiba, Seiichi; Masaki, Takayuki; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2012-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion and suppresses food intake. Recent studies indicate that the hepatic vagal afferent nerve is involved in this response. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor extends the half-life of endogenous GLP-1 by preventing its degradation. This study aimed to determine whether DPP-IV inhibitor-induced elevation of portal GLP-1 levels affect insulin secretion and feeding behavior via the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus. The effect of DPP-IV inhibitor infusion into the portal vein or peritoneum on portal and peripheral GLP-1 levels, food intake, and plasma insulin and glucose was examined in sham-operated and vagotomized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Analyses of neuronal histamine turnover and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the CNS pathway that mediated the response. Intraportal administration of the DPP-IV inhibitor significantly increased portal (but not peripheral) GLP-1 levels, increased insulin levels, and decreased glucose levels. The DPP-IV inhibitor suppressed 1- and 12- but not 24-h cumulative food intake. Intraportal infusion of the DPP-IV inhibitor increased hypothalamic neuronal histamine turnover and increased c-fos expression in several areas of the brain. These responses were blocked by vagotomy. Our results indicate that DPP-IV inhibitor-induced changes in portal but not systemic GLP-1 levels affect insulin secretion and food intake. Furthermore, our findings suggest that a neuronal pathway that includes the hepatic vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamic neuronal histamine plays an important role in the pharmacological actions of DPP-IV inhibitor. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. The diet-derived short chain fatty acid propionate improves beta-cell function in humans and stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Attilio; Chambers, Edward S; Hill, Thomas; Maldonado, Inmaculada Ruz; Liu, Bo; Bewick, Gavin; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom; Wallis, Gareth A; Tedford, Catriona; Castañera González, Ramón; Huang, Guo C; Choudhary, Pratik; Frost, Gary; Persaud, Shanta J

    2017-02-01

    Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon. Acute insulin, GLP-1 and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were quantified pre- and post-supplementation in response to a mixed meal test. Expression of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 in human islets was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Dynamic insulin secretion from perifused human islets was quantified by radioimmunoassay and islet apoptosis was determined by quantification of caspase 3/7 activities. Colonic propionate delivery in vivo was associated with improved β-cell function with increased insulin secretion that was independent of changes in GLP-1 levels. Human islet β-cells expressed FFAR2 and propionate potentiated dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signalling via protein kinase C. Propionate also protected human islets from apoptosis induced by the NEFA sodium palmitate and inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that propionate has beneficial effects on β-cell function in vivo, and in vitro analyses demonstrated that it has direct effects to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin release and maintain β-cell mass through inhibition of apoptosis. These observations support ingestion of propiogenic dietary fibres to maintain healthy glucose homeostasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Activation of FoxM1 Revitalizes the Replicative Potential of Aged β-Cells in Male Mice and Enhances Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Golson, Maria L.; Dunn, Jennifer C.; Maulis, Matthew F.; Dadi, Prasanna K.; Osipovich, Anna B.; Magnuson, Mark A.; Jacobson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes incidence increases with age, while β-cell replication declines. The transcription factor FoxM1 is required for β-cell replication in various situations, and its expression declines with age. We hypothesized that increased FoxM1 activity in aged β-cells would rejuvenate proliferation. Induction of an activated form of FoxM1 was sufficient to increase β-cell mass and proliferation in 12-month-old male mice after just 2 weeks. Unexpectedly, at 2 months of age, induction of activated FoxM1 in male mice improved glucose homeostasis with unchanged β-cell mass. Cells expressing activated FoxM1 demonstrated enhanced glucose-stimulated Ca2+ influx, which resulted in improved glucose tolerance through enhanced β-cell function. Conversely, our laboratory has previously demonstrated that mice lacking FoxM1 in the pancreas display glucose intolerance or diabetes with only a 60% reduction in β-cell mass, suggesting that the loss of FoxM1 is detrimental to β-cell function. Ex vivo insulin secretion was therefore examined in size-matched islets from young mice lacking FoxM1 in β-cells. Foxm1-deficient islets indeed displayed reduced insulin secretion. Our studies reveal that activated FoxM1 increases β-cell replication while simultaneously enhancing insulin secretion and improving glucose homeostasis, making FoxM1 an attractive therapeutic target for diabetes. PMID:26251404

  10. Calcium Current Inactivation Rather than Pool Depletion Explains Reduced Exocytotic Rate with Prolonged Stimulation in Insulin-Secreting INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Salunkhe, Vishal Ashok; Svedin, Emma; Edlund, Anna; Eliasson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in beta-cell exocytosis is associated with reduced insulin secretion and diabetes. Here we aimed to investigate the dynamics of Ca2+-dependent insulin exocytosis with respect to pool depletion and Ca2+-current inactivation. We studied exocytosis, measured as increase in membrane capacitance (ΔCm), as a function of calcium entry (Q) in insulin secreting INS-1 832/13 cells using patch clamp and mixed-effects statistical analysis. The observed linear relationship between ΔCm and Q suggests that Ca2+-channel inactivation rather than granule pool restrictions is responsible for the decline in exocytosis observed at longer depolarizations. INS-1 832/13 cells possess an immediately releasable pool (IRP) of ∼10 granules and most exocytosis of granules occurs from a large pool. The latter is attenuated by the calcium-buffer EGTA, while IRP is unaffected. These findings suggest that most insulin release occurs away from Ca2+-channels, and that pool depletion plays a minor role in the decline of exocytosis upon prolonged stimulation. PMID:25105407

  11. Preclinical characterization of 55P0251, a novel compound that amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and counteracts hyperglycaemia in rodents.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Karin; Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Adorjan, Immanuel; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

    2017-08-01

    55P0251 is a novel compound with blood glucose lowering activity in mice, which has been developed from a molecular backbone structure found in herbal remedies. We here report its basic pharmacological attributes and initial progress in unmasking the mode of action. Pharmacokinetic properties of 55P0251 were portrayed in several species. First efforts to elucidate the glucose lowering mechanism in rodents included numerous experimental protocols dealing with glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets and comparison to established drugs. A single oral dose of 55P0251 improved glucose tolerance in mice with an ED 50 between 1.5 and 2 mg/kg (reductions in areas under the curve, 1 mg/kg, -18%; 5 mg/kg, -30%; 27 mg/kg, -47%). Pharmacokinetic studies revealed attractive attributes, including a plasma half-life of approximately 3 hours and a bioavailability of approximately 58% in rats. 55P0251 amplified glucose stimulated insulin release from isolated mouse islets and improved glucose tolerance via increased insulin secretion in rats (increase in area under the insulin curve, +184%). Unlike sulfonylureas and glinides, 55P0251 hardly stimulated insulin release under basal conditions and did not induce hypoglycaemia in vivo, but it amplified the secretory response to glucose and other insulinotropic stimuli (KCl, glucagon-like peptide-1). Comparison to established anti-diabetic agents and examination of interaction with molecular targets (K ATP channel, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) excluded molecular mechanisms addressed by presently marketed drugs. 55P0251 is a novel compound that potently counteracts hyperglycaemia in rodents via amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin release. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Najem, Dema; Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Yang, Ze; Zhang, Wandong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity, tau pathology, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, all of which play roles in neurodegeneration. Insulin has polytrophic effects on neurons and may be at the center of these pathophysiological changes. In this study, we investigated possible relationships among insulin signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis, along with the effects of Aβ42 on these pathways in vitro. We found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) (N2a-AβPP) produced Aβ and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 (p-IRS-S612) as compared to parental N2a cells. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ42 also increased p-IRS-S612, suggesting that Aβ42 is responsible for insulin resistance. The insulin resistance was alleviated when N2a-AβPP cells were treated with higher insulin concentrations. Insulin increased Aβ release from N2a-AβPP cells, by which it may promote Aβ clearance. Insulin increased cholesterol-synthesis gene expression in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, including 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2). While Aβ42-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited increased HMGCR expression and c-Jun phosphorylation as pro-inflammatory responses, they also showed down-regulation of neuro-protective/anti-inflammatory DHCR24. These results suggest that Aβ42 may cause insulin resistance, activate JNK for c-Jun phosphorylation, and lead to dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, and that enhancing insulin signaling may relieve the insulin-resistant phenotype and the dysregulated cholesterol-synthesis pathway to promote A

  13. Deletion of Protein Kinase D1 in Pancreatic β-Cells Impairs Insulin Secretion in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Valérie; Ghislain, Julien; Vivot, Kevin; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H; Fielitz, Jens; Poitout, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Ββ-Cell adaptation to insulin resistance is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in obesity. Failure of this mechanism is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hence, factors controlling functional β-cell compensation are potentially important targets for the treatment of T2D. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) integrates diverse signals in the β-cell and plays a critical role in the control of insulin secretion. However, the role of β-cell PKD1 in glucose homeostasis in vivo is essentially unknown. Using β-cell-specific, inducible PKD1 knockout mice (βPKD1KO), we examined the role of β-cell PKD1 under basal conditions and during high-fat feeding. βPKD1KO mice under a chow diet presented no significant difference in glucose tolerance or insulin secretion compared with mice expressing the Cre transgene alone; however, when compared with wild-type mice, both groups developed glucose intolerance. Under a high-fat diet, deletion of PKD1 in β-cells worsened hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. This was accompanied by impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion both in vivo in hyperglycemic clamps and ex vivo in isolated islets from high-fat diet-fed βPKD1KO mice without changes in islet mass. This study demonstrates an essential role for PKD1 in the β-cell adaptive secretory response to high-fat feeding in mice. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Poor pubertal protein nutrition disturbs glucose-induced insulin secretion process in pancreatic islets and programs rats in adulthood to increase fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Malta, Ananda; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida da Silva; Torrezan, Rosana; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Similar to gestation/lactation, puberty is also a critical phase in which neuronal connections are still being produced and during which metabolic changes may occur if nutrition is disturbed. In the present study we aimed to determine whether peripubertal protein restriction induces metabolic programming. Thirty-day-old male rats were fed either a low protein (LP group) diet (4% w/w protein) or a normal protein (NP group) diet (23%) until 60 days of age, when they received the NP diet until they were 120 days old. Body weight (BW), food intake, fat tissue accumulation, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion were evaluated. The nerve electrical activity was recorded to evaluate autonomous nervous system (ANS) function. Adolescent LP rats presented hypophagia and lower BW gain during the LP diet treatment (P<0.001). However, the food intake and BW gain by the LP rats were increased (P<0.001) after the NP diet was resumed. The LP rats presented mild hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, severe hyperleptinemia upon fasting, peripheral insulin resistance and increased fat tissue accumulation and vagus nerve activity (P<0.05). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was greater in the LP islets than in the NP islets; however, the cholinergic response was decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the islets from the NP rats, the LP islets showed changes in the activity of muscarinic receptors (P<0.05); in addition, the inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion by epinephrine was attenuated (P<0.001). Protein restriction during adolescence caused high-fat tissue accumulation in adult rats. Islet dysfunction could be related to an ANS imbalance.

  15. The effect of ghrelin on Kiss-1 and KissR gene transcription and insulin secretion in rat islets of Langerhans and CRI-D2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Sagheb, Mandana Mahmoodzaeh; Azarpira, Negar; Mokhtary, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been shown to have numerous central and peripheral effects. The central effects including GH secretion, food intake, and energy homeostasis are partly mediated by Kiss1- KissR signaling pathway. Ghrelin and its receptor are also expressed in the pancreatic islets. Ghrelin is one of the key metabolic factors controlling insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on KiSS-1 and KissR in the islet cells may be similar to the same inhibitory effect of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of ghrelin, we isolated the islets from adult male rats by collagenase and cultured CRI-D2 cell lines. Then, we incubated them with different concentrations of ghrelin for 24 hr. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis from both islets and CRI-D2 cells, the relative expression of KiSS-1 and KissR was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Furthermore, we measured the amount of insulin secreted by the islets after incubation in different concentrations of ghrelin and glucose after 1 hr. Besides, we checked the viability of the cells after 24 hr cultivation. Ghrelin significantly decreased the KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA transcription in rat islets and CRI-D2 cells. Besides, Ghrelin suppressed insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and CRI-D2 cells. These findings indicate the possibility that KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA expression is mediator of ghrelin function in the islets of Langerhans.

  16. Decreased insulin secretion and increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with allelic variations of the WFS1 gene: the Data from Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cheurfa, N; Brenner, G M; Reis, A F; Dubois-Laforgue, D; Roussel, R; Tichet, J; Lantieri, O; Balkau, B; Fumeron, F; Timsit, J; Marre, M; Velho, G

    2011-03-01

    We investigated associations of allelic variations in the WFS1 gene with insulin secretion and risk of type 2 diabetes in a general population prospective study. We studied 5,110 unrelated French men and women who participated in the prospective Data from Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) study. Additional cross-sectional analyses were performed on 4,472 French individuals with type 2 diabetes and 3,065 controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped: rs10010131, rs1801213/rs7672995 and rs734312. We observed statistically significant associations between the major alleles of the three variants and prevalent type 2 diabetes in the DESIR cohort at baseline. Cox analyses showed an association between the G-allele of rs10010131 and incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.70, p = 0.007). Similar results were observed for the G-allele of rs1801213 and the A-allele of rs734312. The GGA haplotype was associated with an increased risk of diabetes as compared with the ACG haplotype (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.42, p = 0.02). We also observed statistically significant associations of the three SNPs with plasma glucose, HbA(1c) levels and insulin secretion at baseline and throughout the study in individuals with type 2 diabetes or at risk of developing diabetes. However, no association was observed in those who remained normoglycaemic at the end of the follow-up. Associations between the three variants and type 2 diabetes were replicated in cross-sectional studies of type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with a non-diabetic control group. The most frequent haplotype at the haplotype block containing the WFS1 gene modulated insulin secretion and was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  17. miR-124a expression contributes to the monophasic pattern of insulin secretion in islets from pregnant rats submitted to a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Kariny Cassia; de Lima, Faena Moura; Lima, Fernanda Souza; Taki, Marina Satie; da Cunha, Clarissa Felfili; de Lima Reis, Sílvia Regina; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vanzela, Emerielle Cristine; Nardelli, Tarlliza Romanna; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Bordin, Silvana; Ignáci