Science.gov

Sample records for defective ribosome biogenesis

  1. Mutations of ribosomal protein S5 suppress a defect in late-30S ribosomal subunit biogenesis caused by lack of the RbfA biogenesis factor

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Stefan; Bhatt, Monika J.; Tükenmez, Hasan; Farabaugh, Philip J.; Wikström, P. Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits requires assistance by maturation proteins that are not part of mature ribosomes. One such protein, RbfA, associates with the 30S ribosomal subunits. Loss of RbfA causes cold sensitivity and defects of the 30S subunit biogenesis and its overexpression partially suppresses the dominant cold sensitivity caused by a C23U mutation in the central pseudoknot of 16S rRNA, a structure essential for ribosome function. We have isolated suppressor mutations that restore partially the growth of an RbfA-lacking strain. Most of the strongest suppressor mutations alter one out of three distinct positions in the carboxy-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S5 (S5) in direct contact with helix 1 and helix 2 of the central pseudoknot. Their effect is to increase the translational capacity of the RbfA-lacking strain as evidenced by an increase in polysomes in the suppressed strains. Overexpression of RimP, a protein factor that along with RbfA regulates formation of the ribosome's central pseudoknot, was lethal to the RbfA-lacking strain but not to a wild-type strain and this lethality was suppressed by the alterations in S5. The S5 mutants alter translational fidelity but these changes do not explain consistently their effect on the RbfA-lacking strain. Our genetic results support a role for the region of S5 modified in the suppressors in the formation of the central pseudoknot in 16S rRNA. PMID:26089326

  2. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. PMID:26801560

  3. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

  4. [About the ribosomal biogenesis in human].

    PubMed

    Tafforeau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomes are cellular ribonucleoprotein particles required for a fundamental mechanism, translation of the genetic information into proteins. Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex pathway involving many maturation steps: ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, rRNA processing, pre-rRNA modifications, its assembly with ribosomal proteins in the nuceolus, export of the subunit precursors to the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. Ribosome biogenesis has mainly being investigated in yeast during these last 25 years. However, recent works have shown that, despite many similarities between yeast and human ribosome structure and biogenesis, human pre-rRNA processing is far more complex than in yeast. In order to better understand diseases related to a malfunction in ribosome synthesis, the ribosomopathies, research should be conducted directly in human cells and animal models. PMID:26152166

  5. Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K.; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C.; Wek, Ronald C.; Ellis, Steven R.; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in down-regulation of transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including diamond blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494

  6. Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C; Wek, Ronald C; Ellis, Steven R; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-01

    While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in decreased transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494

  7. Ribosome biogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Woolford, John L; Baserga, Susan J

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  8. Ribosome defects in disorders of erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Narla, Anupama; Hurst, Slater N; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2011-02-01

    Over the past decade, genetic lesions that cause ribosome dysfunction have been identified in both congenital and acquired human disorders. These discoveries have established a new category of disorders, known as ribosomopathies, in which the primary pathophysiology is related to impaired ribosome function. The protoptypical disorders are Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome, and the 5q- syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome. In both of these disorders, impaired ribosome function causes a severe macrocytic anemia. In this review, we will discuss the evidence that defects in ribosomal biogenesis cause the hematologic phenotype of Diamond-Blackfan anemia and the 5q- syndrome. We will also explore the potential mechanisms by which a ribosomal defect, which would be expected to have widespread consequences, may lead to specific defects in erythropoiesis. PMID:21279816

  9. Activation of the tumor suppressor p53 upon impairment of ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bursac, Sladana; Brdovcak, Maja Cokaric; Donati, Giulio; Volarevic, Sinisa

    2014-06-01

    Errors in ribosome biogenesis can result in quantitative or qualitative defects in protein synthesis and consequently lead to improper execution of the genetic program and the development of specific diseases. Evidence has accumulated over the last decade suggesting that perturbation of ribosome biogenesis triggers a p53-activating checkpoint signaling pathway, often referred to as the ribosome biogenesis stress checkpoint pathway. Although it was originally suggested that p53 has a prominent role in preventing diseases by monitoring the fidelity of ribosome biogenesis, recent work has demonstrated that p53 activation upon impairment of ribosome biogenesis also mediates pathological manifestations in humans. Perturbations of ribosome biogenesis can trigger a p53-dependent checkpoint signaling pathway independent of DNA damage and the tumor suppressor ARF through inhibitory interactions of specific ribosomal components with the p53 negative regulator, Mdm2. Here we review the recent advances made toward understanding of this newly-recognized checkpoint signaling pathway, its role in health and disease, and discuss possible future directions in this exciting research field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. PMID:24514102

  10. Evolution of the holozoan ribosome biogenesis regulon

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Seth J; Cole, Michael D; Erives, Albert J

    2008-01-01

    Background The ribosome biogenesis (RiBi) genes encode a highly-conserved eukaryotic set of nucleolar proteins involved in rRNA transcription, assembly, processing, and export from the nucleus. While the mode of regulation of this suite of genes has been studied in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, how this gene set is coordinately regulated in the larger and more complex metazoan genomes is not understood. Results Here we present genome-wide analyses indicating that a distinct mode of RiBi regulation co-evolved with the E(CG)-binding, Myc:Max bHLH heterodimer complex in a stem-holozoan, the ancestor of both Metazoa and Choanoflagellata, the protozoan group most closely related to animals. These results show that this mode of regulation, characterized by an E(CG)-bearing core-promoter, is specific to almost all of the known genes involved in ribosome biogenesis in these genomes. Interestingly, this holozoan RiBi promoter signature is absent in nematode genomes, which have not only secondarily lost Myc but are marked by invariant cell lineages typically producing small body plans of 1000 somatic cells. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of 10 fungal genomes shows that this holozoan signature in RiBi genes is not found in hemiascomycete fungi, which evolved their own unique regulatory signature for the RiBi regulon. Conclusion These results indicate that a Myc regulon, which is activated in proliferating cells during normal development as well as during tumor progression, has primordial roots in the evolution of an inducible growth regime in a protozoan ancestor of animals. Furthermore, by comparing divergent bHLH repertoires, we conclude that regulation by Myc but not by other bHLH genes is responsible for the evolutionary maintenance of E(CG) sites across the RiBi suite of genes. PMID:18816399

  11. Essential ribosome assembly factor Fap7 regulates a hierarchy of RNA–protein interactions during small ribosomal subunit biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Ute A.; Weis, Benjamin L.; Lioutikov, Anatoli; Wurm, Jan Philip; Kaiser, Marco; Christ, Nina A.; Hantke, Katharina; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico; Wöhnert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Factor activating Pos9 (Fap7) is an essential ribosome biogenesis factor important for the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit with an uncommon dual ATPase and adenylate kinase activity. Depletion of Fap7 or mutations in its ATPase motifs lead to defects in small ribosomal subunit rRNA maturation, the absence of ribosomal protein Rps14 from the assembled subunit, and retention of the nascent small subunit in a quality control complex with the large ribosomal subunit. The molecular basis for the role of Fap7 in ribosome biogenesis is, however, not yet understood. Here we show that Fap7 regulates multiple interactions between the precursor rRNA, ribosomal proteins, and ribosome assembly factors in a hierarchical manner. Fap7 binds to Rps14 with a very high affinity. Fap7 binding blocks both rRNA-binding elements of Rps14, suggesting that Fap7 inhibits premature interactions of Rps14 with RNA. The Fap7/Rps14 interaction is modulated by nucleotide binding to Fap7. Rps14 strongly activates the ATPase activity but not the adenylate kinase activity of Fap7, identifying Rps14 as an example of a ribosomal protein functioning as an ATPase-activating factor. In addition, Fap7 inhibits the RNA cleavage activity of Nob1, the endonuclease responsible for the final maturation step of the small subunit rRNA, in a nucleotide independent manner. Thus, Fap7 may regulate small subunit biogenesis at multiple stages. PMID:24003121

  12. Chemical modulators of ribosome biogenesis as biological probes.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jonathan M; Brown, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of protein biosynthesis have been instrumental in the dissection of the complexities of ribosome structure and function. Ribosome biogenesis, on the other hand, is a complex and largely enigmatic process for which there is a paucity of chemical probes. Indeed, ribosome biogenesis has been studied almost exclusively using genetic and biochemical approaches without the benefit of small-molecule inhibitors of this process. Here, we provide a perspective on the promise of chemical inhibitors of ribosome assembly for future research. We explore key obstacles that complicate the interpretation of studies aimed at perturbing ribosome biogenesis in vivo using genetic methods, and we argue that chemical inhibitors are especially powerful because they can be used to induce perturbations in a manner that obviates these difficulties. Thus, in combination with leading-edge biochemical and structural methods, chemical probes offer unique advantages toward elucidating the molecular events that define the assembly of ribosomes. PMID:26575239

  13. The emerging roles of ribosome biogenesis in craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Ross, Adam P; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient, migratory cell population, which originates during neurulation at the neural folds and contributes to the majority of tissues, including the mesenchymal structures of the craniofacial skeleton. The deregulation of the complex developmental processes that guide migration, proliferation, and differentiation of NCCs may result in a wide range of pathological conditions grouped together as neurocristopathies. Recently, due to their multipotent properties neural crest stem cells have received considerable attention as a possible source for stem cell based regenerative therapies. This exciting prospect underlines the need to further explore the developmental programs that guide NCC differentiation. This review explores the particular importance of ribosome biogenesis defects in this context since a specific interface between ribosomopathies and neurocristopathies exists as evidenced by disorders such as Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome (TCS) and Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). PMID:24550838

  14. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-09-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  15. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  16. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

  17. The tails of ubiquitin precursors are ribosomal proteins whose fusion to ubiquitin facilitates ribosome biogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Daniel; Bartel, Bonnie; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1989-03-01

    Three of the four yeast ubiquitin genes encode hybrid proteins which are cleaved to yield ubiquitin and previously unidentified ribosomal proteins. The transient association between ubiquitin and these proteins promotes their incorporation into nascent ribosomes and is required for efficient ribosome biogenesis. These results suggest a novel 'chaperone' function for ubiquitin, in which its covalent association with other proteins promotes the formation of specific cellular structures.

  18. Potent, Reversible, and Specific Chemical Inhibitors of Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Chen, Zhen; Aoi, Yuki; Patgiri, Anupam; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nurse, Paul; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2016-10-01

    All cellular proteins are synthesized by ribosomes, whose biogenesis in eukaryotes is a complex multi-step process completed within minutes. Several chemical inhibitors of ribosome function are available and used as tools or drugs. By contrast, we lack potent validated chemical probes to analyze the dynamics of eukaryotic ribosome assembly. Here, we combine chemical and genetic approaches to discover ribozinoindoles (or Rbins), potent and reversible triazinoindole-based inhibitors of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. Analyses of Rbin sensitivity and resistance conferring mutations in fission yeast, along with biochemical assays with recombinant proteins, provide evidence that Rbins' physiological target is Midasin, an essential ∼540-kDa AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein. Using Rbins to acutely inhibit or activate Midasin function, in parallel experiments with inhibitor-sensitive or inhibitor-resistant cells, we uncover Midasin's role in assembling Nsa1 particles, nucleolar precursors of the 60S subunit. Together, our findings demonstrate that Rbins are powerful probes for eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  19. Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits bacterial ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Jonathan M; Davis, Joseph H; Mangat, Chand S; Williamson, James R; Brown, Eric D

    2014-01-01

    While small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome have been instrumental in understanding protein translation, no such probes exist to study ribosome biogenesis. We screened a diverse chemical collection that included previously approved drugs for compounds that induced cold sensitive growth inhibition in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. Among the most cold sensitive was lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant drug. Lamotrigine treatment resulted in the rapid accumulation of immature 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits at 15°C. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro. This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E. coli IF2 in ribosome assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03574.001 PMID:25233066

  20. Interrelationships between Yeast Ribosomal Protein Assembly Events and Transient Ribosome Biogenesis Factors Interactions in Early Pre-Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Steffen; Ohmayer, Uli; Neueder, Andreas; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Perez-Fernandez, Jorge; Hochmuth, Eduard; Deutzmann, Rainer; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Early steps of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis require a large set of ribosome biogenesis factors which transiently interact with nascent rRNA precursors (pre-rRNA). Most likely, concomitant with that initial contacts between ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosome precursors (pre-ribosomes) are established which are converted into robust interactions between pre-rRNA and r-proteins during the course of ribosome maturation. Here we analysed the interrelationship between r-protein assembly events and the transient interactions of ribosome biogenesis factors with early pre-ribosomal intermediates termed 90S pre-ribosomes or small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processome in yeast cells. We observed that components of the SSU processome UTP-A and UTP-B sub-modules were recruited to early pre-ribosomes independently of all tested r-proteins. On the other hand, groups of SSU processome components were identified whose association with early pre-ribosomes was affected by specific r-protein assembly events in the head-platform interface of the SSU. One of these components, Noc4p, appeared to be itself required for robust incorporation of r-proteins into the SSU head domain. Altogether, the data reveal an emerging network of specific interrelationships between local r-protein assembly events and the functional interactions of SSU processome components with early pre-ribosomes. They point towards some of these components being transient primary pre-rRNA in vivo binders and towards a role for others in coordinating the assembly of major SSU domains. PMID:22431976

  1. The Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Nol11 Is Required for Optimal rDNA Transcription and Craniofacial Development in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, John N.; Sondalle, Samuel B.; del Viso, Florencia; Baserga, Susan J.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2015-01-01

    The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC) of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival. PMID:25756904

  2. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John N; Sondalle, Samuel B; Del Viso, Florencia; Baserga, Susan J; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2015-03-01

    The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC) of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival. PMID:25756904

  3. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bielczyk-Maczyńska, Ewa; Lam Hung, Laure; Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate. PMID:26624285

  4. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A.; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J.; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L.; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9 sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9 sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9 sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9 sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9 sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate. PMID:26624285

  5. Ribosome biogenesis in replicating cells: Integration of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Tyler M; Cole, John A; Peterson, Joseph R; Hallock, Michael J; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-10-01

    Ribosomes-the primary macromolecular machines responsible for translating the genetic code into proteins-are complexes of precisely folded RNA and proteins. The ways in which their production and assembly are managed by the living cell is of deep biological importance. Here we extend a recent spatially resolved whole-cell model of ribosome biogenesis in a fixed volume [Earnest et al., Biophys J 2015, 109, 1117-1135] to include the effects of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. All biological processes are described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations and solved stochastically using the Lattice Microbes simulation software. In order to determine the replication parameters, we construct and analyze a series of Escherichia coli strains with fluorescently labeled genes distributed evenly throughout their chromosomes. By measuring these cells' lengths and number of gene copies at the single-cell level, we could fit a statistical model of the initiation and duration of chromosome replication. We found that for our slow-growing (120 min doubling time) E. coli cells, replication was initiated 42 min into the cell cycle and completed after an additional 42 min. While simulations of the biogenesis model produce the correct ribosome and mRNA counts over the cell cycle, the kinetic parameters for transcription and degradation are lower than anticipated from a recent analytical time dependent model of in vivo mRNA production. Describing expression in terms of a simple chemical master equation, we show that the discrepancies are due to the lack of nonribosomal genes in the extended biogenesis model which effects the competition of mRNA for ribosome binding, and suggest corrections to parameters to be used in the whole-cell model when modeling expression of the entire transcriptome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 735-751, 2016. PMID:27294303

  6. Ribosome biogenesis in replicating cells: Integration of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Tyler M; Cole, John A; Peterson, Joseph R; Hallock, Michael J; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-10-01

    Ribosomes-the primary macromolecular machines responsible for translating the genetic code into proteins-are complexes of precisely folded RNA and proteins. The ways in which their production and assembly are managed by the living cell is of deep biological importance. Here we extend a recent spatially resolved whole-cell model of ribosome biogenesis in a fixed volume [Earnest et al., Biophys J 2015, 109, 1117-1135] to include the effects of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. All biological processes are described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations and solved stochastically using the Lattice Microbes simulation software. In order to determine the replication parameters, we construct and analyze a series of Escherichia coli strains with fluorescently labeled genes distributed evenly throughout their chromosomes. By measuring these cells' lengths and number of gene copies at the single-cell level, we could fit a statistical model of the initiation and duration of chromosome replication. We found that for our slow-growing (120 min doubling time) E. coli cells, replication was initiated 42 min into the cell cycle and completed after an additional 42 min. While simulations of the biogenesis model produce the correct ribosome and mRNA counts over the cell cycle, the kinetic parameters for transcription and degradation are lower than anticipated from a recent analytical time dependent model of in vivo mRNA production. Describing expression in terms of a simple chemical master equation, we show that the discrepancies are due to the lack of nonribosomal genes in the extended biogenesis model which effects the competition of mRNA for ribosome binding, and suggest corrections to parameters to be used in the whole-cell model when modeling expression of the entire transcriptome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 735-751, 2016.

  7. Ribosome biogenesis requires a highly diverged XRN family 5'->3' exoribonuclease for rRNA processing in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Sakyiama, Joseph; Zimmer, Sara L; Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen; Read, Laurie K

    2013-10-01

    Although biogenesis of ribosomes is a crucial process in all organisms and is thus well conserved, Trypanosoma brucei ribosome biogenesis, of which maturation of rRNAs is an early step, has multiple points of divergence. Our aim was to determine whether in the processing of the pre-rRNA precursor molecule, 5'→3' exoribonuclease activity in addition to endonucleolytic cleavage is necessary in T. brucei as in other organisms. Our approach initiated with the bioinformatic identification of a putative 5'→3' exoribonuclease, XRNE, which is highly diverged from the XRN2/Rat1 enzyme responsible for rRNA processing in other organisms. Tagging this protein in vivo allowed us to classify XRNE as nucleolar by indirect immunofluorescence and identify by copurification interacting proteins, many of which were ribosomal proteins, ribosome biogenesis proteins, and/or RNA processing proteins. To determine whether XRNE plays a role in ribosome biogenesis in procyclic form cells, we inducibly depleted the protein by RNA interference. This resulted in the generation of aberrant preprocessed 18S rRNA and 5' extended 5.8S rRNA, implicating XRNE in rRNA processing. Polysome profiles of XRNE-depleted cells demonstrated abnormal features including an increase in ribosome small subunit abundance, a decrease in large subunit abundance, and defects in polysome assembly. Furthermore, the 5' extended 5.8S rRNA in XRNE-depleted cells was observed in the large subunit, monosomes, and polysomes in this gradient. Therefore, the function of XRNE in rRNA processing, presumably due to exonucleolytic activity very early in ribosome biogenesis, has consequences that persist throughout all biogenesis stages.

  8. Defective ribosome assembly in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi C; Traynor, David; Basse, Nicolas; Kay, Robert R; Warren, Alan J

    2011-10-20

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a recessive leukemia predisposition disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal abnormalities and poor growth, is caused by mutations in the highly conserved SBDS gene. Here, we test the hypothesis that defective ribosome biogenesis underlies the pathogenesis of SDS. We create conditional mutants in the essential SBDS ortholog of the ancient eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum using temperature-sensitive, self-splicing inteins, showing that mutant cells fail to grow at the restrictive temperature because ribosomal subunit joining is markedly impaired. Remarkably, wild type human SBDS complements the growth and ribosome assembly defects in mutant Dictyostelium cells, but disease-associated human SBDS variants are defective. SBDS directly interacts with the GTPase elongation factor-like 1 (EFL1) on nascent 60S subunits in vivo and together they catalyze eviction of the ribosome antiassociation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6), a prerequisite for the translational activation of ribosomes. Importantly, lymphoblasts from SDS patients harbor a striking defect in ribosomal subunit joining whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the level of SBDS protein. These findings in Dictyostelium and SDS patient cells provide compelling support for the hypothesis that SDS is a ribosomopathy caused by corruption of an essential cytoplasmic step in 60S subunit maturation.

  9. The 5S RNP couples p53 homeostasis to ribosome biogenesis and nucleolar stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Bohnsack, Markus T; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-10-17

    Several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the production of ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis is a major consumer of cellular energy, and defects result in p53 activation via repression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog by the ribosomal proteins RPL5 and RPL11. Here, we report that RPL5 and RPL11 regulate p53 from the context of a ribosomal subcomplex, the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We provide evidence that the third component of this complex, the 5S rRNA, is critical for p53 regulation. In addition, we show that the 5S RNP is essential for the activation of p53 by p14(ARF), a protein that is activated by oncogene overexpression. Our data show that the abundance of the 5S RNP, and therefore p53 levels, is determined by factors regulating 5S complex formation and ribosome integration, including the tumor suppressor PICT1. The 5S RNP therefore emerges as the critical coordinator of signaling pathways that couple cell proliferation with ribosome production.

  10. New tricks for an old dog: ribosome biogenesis contributes to stem cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Brombin, Alessandro; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Jamen, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Although considered a 'house-keeping' function, ribosome biogenesis is regulated differently between cells and can be modulated in a cell-type-specific manner. These differences are required to generate specialized ribosomes that contribute to the translational control of gene expression by selecting mRNA subsets to be translated. Thus, differences in ribosome biogenesis between stem and differentiated cells indirectly contribute to determine cell identity. The concept of the existence of stem cell-specific mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis has progressed from an attractive theory to a useful working model with important implications for basic and medical research. PMID:26343009

  11. Eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments function in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Madhumitha; Woolford, John L

    2016-08-01

    The secondary structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is largely conserved across all kingdoms of life. However, eukaryotes have evolved extra blocks of rRNA sequences, relative to those of prokaryotes, called expansion segments (ES). A thorough characterization of the potential roles of ES remains to be done, possibly because of limitations in the availability of robust systems to study rRNA mutants. We sought to systematically investigate the potential functions, if any, of the ES in 25S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deletion mutagenesis. We deleted 14 of the 16 different eukaryote-specific ES in yeast 25S rRNA individually and assayed their phenotypes. Our results show that all but two of the ES tested are necessary for optimal growth and are required for production of 25S rRNA, suggesting that ES play roles in ribosome biogenesis. Further, we classified expansion segments into groups that participate in early nucleolar, middle, and late nucleoplasmic steps of ribosome biogenesis, by assaying their pre-rRNA processing phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to systematically identify the functions of eukaryote-specific expansion segments by showing that they play roles in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. The catalog of phenotypes we identified, combined with previous investigations of the roles ribosomal proteins in large subunit biogenesis, leads us to infer that assembling ribosomes are composed of distinct RNA and protein structural neighborhood clusters that participate in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27317789

  12. A liaison between mTOR signaling, ribosome biogenesis and cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Gentilella, Antonio; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    The ability to translate genetic information into functional proteins is considered a landmark in evolution. Ribosomes have evolved to take on this responsibility and, although there are some differences in their molecular make-up, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes share a common structural architecture and similar underlying mechanisms of protein synthesis. Understanding ribosome function and biogenesis has been the focus of extensive research since the early days of their discovery. In the last decade however, new and unexpected roles have emerged that place deregulated ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis at the crossroads of pathological settings, particularly cancer, revealing a set of novel cellular checkpoints. Moreover, it is also becoming evident that mTOR signaling, which regulates an array of anabolic processes, including ribosome biogenesis, is often exploited by cancer cells to sustain proliferation through the upregulation of global protein synthesis. The use of pharmacological agents that interfere with ribosome biogenesis and mTOR signaling has proven to be an effective strategy to control cancer development clinically. Here we discuss the most recent findings concerning the underlying mechanisms by which mTOR signaling controls ribosome production and the potential impact of ribosome bio-genesis in tumor development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. PMID:25735853

  13. A liaison between mTOR signaling, ribosome biogenesis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gentilella, Antonio; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George

    2015-07-01

    The ability to translate genetic information into functional proteins is considered a landmark in evolution. Ribosomes have evolved to take on this responsibility and, although there are some differences in their molecular make-up, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes share a common structural architecture and similar underlying mechanisms of protein synthesis. Understanding ribosome function and biogenesis has been the focus of extensive research since the early days of their discovery. In the last decade however, new and unexpected roles have emerged that place deregulated ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis at the crossroads of pathological settings, particularly cancer, revealing a set of novel cellular checkpoints. Moreover, it is also becoming evident that mTOR signaling, which regulates an array of anabolic processes, including ribosome biogenesis, is often exploited by cancer cells to sustain proliferation through the upregulation of global protein synthesis. The use of pharmacological agents that interfere with ribosome biogenesis and mTOR signaling has proven to be an effective strategy to control cancer development clinically. Here we discuss the most recent findings concerning the underlying mechanisms by which mTOR signaling controls ribosome production and the potential impact of ribosome biogenesis in tumor development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer.

  14. A liaison between mTOR signaling, ribosome biogenesis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gentilella, Antonio; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George

    2015-07-01

    The ability to translate genetic information into functional proteins is considered a landmark in evolution. Ribosomes have evolved to take on this responsibility and, although there are some differences in their molecular make-up, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes share a common structural architecture and similar underlying mechanisms of protein synthesis. Understanding ribosome function and biogenesis has been the focus of extensive research since the early days of their discovery. In the last decade however, new and unexpected roles have emerged that place deregulated ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis at the crossroads of pathological settings, particularly cancer, revealing a set of novel cellular checkpoints. Moreover, it is also becoming evident that mTOR signaling, which regulates an array of anabolic processes, including ribosome biogenesis, is often exploited by cancer cells to sustain proliferation through the upregulation of global protein synthesis. The use of pharmacological agents that interfere with ribosome biogenesis and mTOR signaling has proven to be an effective strategy to control cancer development clinically. Here we discuss the most recent findings concerning the underlying mechanisms by which mTOR signaling controls ribosome production and the potential impact of ribosome biogenesis in tumor development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. PMID:25735853

  15. Proteome distribution between nucleoplasm and nucleolus and its relation to ribosome biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Palm, Denise; Simm, Stefan; Darm, Katrin; Weis, Benjamin L; Ruprecht, Maike; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is an essential process initiated in the nucleolus. In eukaryotes, multiple ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) can be found in the nucleolus, the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. They act in processing, folding and modification of the pre-ribosomal (r)RNAs, incorporation of ribosomal proteins (RPs), export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm, and quality control mechanisms. Ribosome biogenesis is best established for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant ortholog assignment to yeast RBFs revealed the absence of about 30% of the yeast RBFs in plants. In turn, few plant specific proteins have been identified by biochemical experiments to act in plant ribosome biogenesis. Nevertheless, a complete inventory of plant RBFs has not been established yet. We analyzed the proteome of the nucleus and nucleolus of Arabidopsis thaliana and the post-translational modifications of these proteins. We identified 1602 proteins in the nucleolar and 2544 proteins in the nuclear fraction with an overlap of 1429 proteins. For a randomly selected set of proteins identified by the proteomic approach we confirmed the localization inferred from the proteomics data by the localization of GFP fusion proteins. We assigned the identified proteins to various complexes and functions and found about 519 plant proteins that have a potential to act as a RBFs, but which have not been experimentally characterized yet. Last, we compared the distribution of RBFs and RPs in the various fractions with the distribution established for yeast. PMID:26980300

  16. Toward a Whole-Cell Model of Ribosome Biogenesis: Kinetic Modeling of SSU Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Lai, Jonathan; Chen, Ke; Hallock, Michael J.; Williamson, James R.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    Central to all life is the assembly of the ribosome: a coordinated process involving the hierarchical association of ribosomal proteins to the RNAs forming the small and large ribosomal subunits. The process is further complicated by effects arising from the intracellular heterogeneous environment and the location of ribosomal operons within the cell. We provide a simplified model of ribosome biogenesis in slow-growing Escherichia coli. Kinetic models of in vitro small-subunit reconstitution at the level of individual protein/ribosomal RNA interactions are developed for two temperature regimes. The model at low temperatures predicts the existence of a novel 5′→3′→central assembly pathway, which we investigate further using molecular dynamics. The high-temperature assembly network is incorporated into a model of in vivo ribosome biogenesis in slow-growing E. coli. The model, described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations, contains 1336 reactions and 251 species that dynamically couple transcription and translation to ribosome assembly. We use the Lattice Microbes software package to simulate the stochastic production of mRNA, proteins, and ribosome intermediates over a full cell cycle of 120 min. The whole-cell model captures the correct growth rate of ribosomes, predicts the localization of early assembly intermediates to the nucleoid region, and reproduces the known assembly timescales for the small subunit with no modifications made to the embedded in vitro assembly network. PMID:26333594

  17. Ribosome biogenesis in skeletal development and the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Paul A; Merrill, Amy E

    2014-06-01

    The skeleton affords a framework and structural support for vertebrates, while also facilitating movement, protecting vital organs, and providing a reservoir of minerals and cells for immune system and vascular homeostasis. The mechanical and biological functions of the skeleton are inextricably linked to the size and shape of individual bones, the diversity of which is dependent in part upon differential growth and proliferation. Perturbation of bone development, growth and proliferation, can result in congenital skeletal anomalies, which affect approximately 1 in 3000 live births [1]. Ribosome biogenesis is integral to all cell growth and proliferation through its roles in translating mRNAs and building proteins. Disruption of any steps in the process of ribosome biogenesis can lead to congenital disorders termed ribosomopathies. In this review, we discuss the role of ribosome biogenesis in skeletal development and in the pathogenesis of congenital skeletal anomalies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. PMID:24252615

  18. The NF45/NF90 Heterodimer Contributes to the Biogenesis of 60S Ribosomal Subunits and Influences Nucleolar Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wandrey, Franziska; Montellese, Christian; Koos, Krisztian; Badertscher, Lukas; Bammert, Lukas; Cook, Atlanta G.; Zemp, Ivo; Horvath, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin enhancer binding factors ILF2 (NF45) and ILF3 (NF90/NF110) have been implicated in various cellular pathways, such as transcription, microRNA (miRNA) processing, DNA repair, and translation, in mammalian cells. Using tandem affinity purification, we identified human NF45 and NF90 as components of precursors to 60S (pre-60S) ribosomal subunits. NF45 and NF90 are enriched in nucleoli and cosediment with pre-60S ribosomal particles in density gradient analysis. We show that association of the NF45/NF90 heterodimer with pre-60S ribosomal particles requires the double-stranded RNA binding domains of NF90, while depletion of NF45 and NF90 by RNA interference leads to a defect in 60S biogenesis. Nucleoli of cells depleted of NF45 and NF90 have altered morphology and display a characteristic spherical shape. These effects are not due to impaired rRNA transcription or processing of the precursors to 28S rRNA. Consistent with a role of the NF45/NF90 heterodimer in nucleolar steps of 60S subunit biogenesis, downregulation of NF45 and NF90 leads to a p53 response, accompanied by induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/CIP1, which can be counteracted by depletion of RPL11. Together, these data indicate that NF45 and NF90 are novel higher-eukaryote-specific factors required for the maturation of 60S ribosomal subunits. PMID:26240280

  19. Interplay between trigger factor and other protein biogenesis factors on the ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Thomas; Holtkamp, Wolf; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Nascent proteins emerging from translating ribosomes in bacteria are screened by a number of ribosome-associated protein biogenesis factors, among them the chaperone trigger factor (TF), the signal recognition particle (SRP) that targets ribosomes synthesizing membrane proteins to the membrane and the modifying enzymes, peptide deformylase (PDF) and methionine aminopeptidase (MAP). Here, we examine the interplay between these factors both kinetically and at equilibrium. TF rapidly scans the ribosomes until it is stabilized on ribosomes presenting TF-specific nascent chains. SRP binding to those complexes is strongly impaired. Thus, TF in effect prevents SRP binding to the majority of ribosomes, except those presenting SRP-specific signal sequences, explaining how the small amount of SRP in the cell can be effective in membrane targeting. PDF and MAP do not interfere with TF or SRP binding to translating ribosomes, indicating that nascent-chain processing can take place before or in parallel with TF or SRP binding.

  20. Measuring the dynamics of E. coli ribosome biogenesis using pulse-labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen S.; Sperling, Edit; Silverman, Joshua M.; Davis, Joseph H.; Williamson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is an essential organelle responsible for cellular protein synthesis. Until recently, the study of ribosome assembly has been largely limited to in vitro assays, with few attempts to reconcile these results with the more complex in vivo ribosome biogenesis process. Here, we characterize the ribosome synthesis and assembly pathway for each E. coli ribosomal protein (r-protein) in vivo using a stable isotope pulse-labeling timecourse. Isotope incorporation into assembled ribosomes was measured by quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) and fit using steady-state flux models. Most r-proteins exhibit precursor pools ranging in size from 0% to 7% of completed ribosomes, and that the sizes of these individual r-protein pools correlate well with the order of r-protein binding in vitro. Additionally, we observe anomalously large precursor pools for specific r-proteins with known extra-ribosomal functions and we have detected three r-proteins with significant turnover during steady-state growth. Taken together, this highly precise, time-dependent proteomic qMS approach should prove useful in future studies of ribosome biogenesis and could be easily extended to explore other complex biological processes in a cellular context. PMID:23090316

  1. Insertion of the Biogenesis Factor Rei1 Probes the Ribosomal Tunnel during 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Greber, Basil Johannes; Gerhardy, Stefan; Leitner, Alexander; Leibundgut, Marc; Salem, Michèle; Boehringer, Daniel; Leulliot, Nicolas; Aebersold, Ruedi; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ban, Nenad

    2016-01-14

    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis depends on several hundred assembly factors to produce functional 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. The final phase of 60S subunit biogenesis is cytoplasmic maturation, which includes the proofreading of functional centers of the 60S subunit and the release of several ribosome biogenesis factors. We report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the yeast 60S subunit in complex with the biogenesis factors Rei1, Arx1, and Alb1 at 3.4 Å resolution. In addition to the network of interactions formed by Alb1, the structure reveals a mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. Arx1 probes the entire set of inner-ring proteins surrounding the tunnel exit, and the C terminus of Rei1 is deeply inserted into the ribosomal tunnel, where it forms specific contacts along almost its entire length. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that failure to insert the C terminus of Rei1 precludes subsequent steps of 60S maturation. PMID:26709046

  2. Characterization of the Ribosome Biogenesis Landscape in E. coli using Quantitative Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen S.; Williamson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is an essential and highly complex biological system in all living cells. A large body of literature is available on the assembly of the ribosome in vitro, but a clear picture of this process inside the cell has yet to emerge. Here, we directly characterized in vivo ribosome assembly intermediates and associated assembly factors from wild-type E. coli cells using a general quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) approach. The presence of distinct populations of ribosome assembly intermediates was verified using an in vivo stable isotope pulse-labeling approach, and their exact ribosomal protein (r-protein) contents were characterized against an isotopically labeled standard. The model-free clustering analysis of the resultant protein levels for the different ribosomal particles produced four 30S assembly groups that correlate very well with previous in vitro assembly studies of the small ribosomal subunit, and six 50S assembly groups that clearly define an in vivo assembly landscape for the larger ribosomal subunit. In addition, de novo proteomics identified a total of 21 known and potentially new ribosome assembly factors co-localized with various ribosomal particles. These results represent new in vivo assembly maps of the E. coli 30S and 50S subunits, and the general qMS approach should be a solid platform for future studies of ribosome biogenesis across a host of model organisms. PMID:23228329

  3. The human WBSCR22 protein is involved in the biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Õunap, Kadri; Käsper, Ly; Kurg, Ants; Kurg, Reet

    2013-01-01

    The human WBSCR22 protein was previously shown to be up-regulated in invasive breast cancer and its ectopic expression enhances tumor cell survival in the vasculature. In the current study, we show that the WBSCR22 protein is important for cell growth. Knock-down of WBSCR22 with siRNA results in slower growth of WBSCR22-depleted cells. Treatment with siWBSCR22 causes defects in the processing of pre-rRNAs and reduces the level of free 40S ribosomal subunit, suggesting that WBSCR22 is involved in ribosome small subunit biosynthesis. The human WBSCR22 partially complements the growth of WBSCR22 yeast homologue, bud23 deletion mutant suggesting that the human WBSCR22 is a functional homologue of yeast Bud23. WBSCR22 is localized throughout the cell nucleus and is not stably associated with ribosomal subunits within the cell nucleus. We also show that the WBSCR22 protein level is decreased in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from William-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) patients compared to healthy controls. Our data suggest that the WBSCR22 protein is a ribosome biogenesis factor involved in the biosynthesis of 40S ribosomal particles in mammalian cells.

  4. The Drug Diazaborine Blocks Ribosome Biogenesis by Inhibiting the AAA-ATPase Drg1*

    PubMed Central

    Loibl, Mathias; Klein, Isabella; Prattes, Michael; Schmidt, Claudia; Kappel, Lisa; Zisser, Gertrude; Gungl, Anna; Krieger, Elmar; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The drug diazaborine is the only known inhibitor of ribosome biogenesis and specifically blocks large subunit formation in eukaryotic cells. However, the target of this drug and the mechanism of inhibition were unknown. Here we identify the AAA-ATPase Drg1 as a target of diazaborine. Inhibitor binding into the second AAA domain of Drg1 requires ATP loading and results in inhibition of ATP hydrolysis in this site. As a consequence the physiological activity of Drg1, i.e. the release of Rlp24 from pre-60S particles, is blocked, and further progression of cytoplasmic preribosome maturation is prevented. Our results identify the first target of an inhibitor of ribosome biogenesis and provide the mechanism of inhibition of a key step in large ribosomal subunit formation. PMID:24371142

  5. Ribosome biogenesis adaptation in resistance training-induced human skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Vandre C; Caldow, Marissa K; Massie, Vivien; Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Resistance training (RT) has the capacity to increase skeletal muscle mass, which is due in part to transient increases in the rate of muscle protein synthesis during postexercise recovery. The role of ribosome biogenesis in supporting the increased muscle protein synthetic demands is not known. This study examined the effect of both a single acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) and a chronic RT program on the muscle ribosome biogenesis response. Fourteen healthy young men performed a single bout of RE both before and after 8 wk of chronic RT. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased by 6 ± 4.5% in response to 8 wk of RT. Acute RE-induced activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways were similar before and after RT, as assessed by phosphorylation of ERK, MNK1, p70S6K, and S6 ribosomal protein 1 h postexercise. Phosphorylation of TIF-IA was also similarly elevated following both RE sessions. Cyclin D1 protein levels, which appeared to be regulated at the translational rather than transcriptional level, were acutely increased after RE. UBF was the only protein found to be highly phosphorylated at rest after 8 wk of training. Also, muscle levels of the rRNAs, including the precursor 45S and the mature transcripts (28S, 18S, and 5.8S), were increased in response to RT. We propose that ribosome biogenesis is an important yet overlooked event in RE-induced muscle hypertrophy that warrants further investigation.

  6. Concerted removal of the Erb1-Ytm1 complex in ribosome biogenesis relies on an elaborate interface.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Matthias; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Maddi, Karthik; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-01-29

    The complicated process of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves about 200 assembly factors that transiently associate with the nascent pre-ribosome in a spatiotemporally ordered way. During the early steps of 60S subunit formation, several proteins, collectively called A3 cluster factors, participate in the removal of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from 27SA3 pre-rRNA. Among these factors is the conserved hetero-trimeric Nop7-Erb1-Ytm1 complex (or human Pes1-Bop1-Wdr12), which is removed from the evolving pre-60S particle by the AAA ATPase Rea1 to allow progression in the pathway. Here, we clarify how Ytm1 and Erb1 interact, which has implications for the release mechanism of both factors from the pre-ribosome. Biochemical studies show that Ytm1 and Erb1 bind each other via their ß-propeller domains. The crystal structure of the Erb1-Ytm1 heterodimer determined at 2.67Å resolution reveals an extended interaction surface between the propellers in a rarely observed binding mode. Structure-based mutations in the interface that impair the Erb1-Ytm1 interaction do not support growth, with specific defects in 60S subunit synthesis. Under these mutant conditions, it becomes clear that an intact Erb1-Ytm1 complex is required for 60S maturation and that loss of this stable interaction prevents ribosome production. PMID:26657628

  7. Blunted hypertrophic response in aged skeletal muscle is associated with decreased ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Tyler J.; Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Chaillou, Thomas; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of skeletal muscle to hypertrophy in response to a growth stimulus is known to be compromised in older individuals. We hypothesized that a change in the expression of protein-encoding genes in response to a hypertrophic stimulus contributes to the blunted hypertrophy observed with aging. To test this hypothesis, we determined gene expression by microarray analysis of plantaris muscle from 5- and 25-mo-old mice subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of synergist ablation to induce hypertrophy. Overall, 1,607 genes were identified as being differentially expressed across the time course between young and old groups; however, the difference in gene expression was modest, with cluster analysis showing a similar pattern of expression between the two groups. Despite ribosome protein gene expression being higher in the aged group, ribosome biogenesis was significantly blunted in the skeletal muscle of aged mice compared with mice young in response to the hypertrophic stimulus (50% vs. 2.5-fold, respectively). The failure to upregulate pre-47S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression in muscle undergoing hypertrophy of old mice indicated that rDNA transcription by RNA polymerase I was impaired. Contrary to our hypothesis, the findings of the study suggest that impaired ribosome biogenesis was a primary factor underlying the blunted hypertrophic response observed in skeletal muscle of old mice rather than dramatic differences in the expression of protein-encoding genes. The diminished increase in total RNA, pre-47S rRNA, and 28S rRNA expression in aged muscle suggest that the primary dysfunction in ribosome biogenesis occurs at the level of rRNA transcription and processing. PMID:26048973

  8. Dominant Rio1 kinase/ATPase catalytic mutant induces trapping of late pre-40S biogenesis factors in 80S-like ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Cerca, Sébastien; Kiburu, Irene; Thomson, Emma; LaRonde, Nicole; Hurt, Ed

    2014-07-01

    During eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, members of the conserved atypical serine/threonine protein kinase family, the RIO kinases (Rio1, Rio2 and Rio3) function in small ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Structural analysis of Rio2 indicated a role as a conformation-sensing ATPase rather than a kinase to regulate its dynamic association with the pre-40S subunit. However, it remained elusive at which step and by which mechanism the other RIO kinase members act. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the human Rio1-ATP-Mg(2+) complex carrying a phosphoaspartate in the active site indicative of ATPase activity. Structure-based mutations in yeast showed that Rio1's catalytic activity regulates its pre-40S association. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Rio1 associates with a very late pre-40S via its conserved C-terminal domain. Moreover, a rio1 dominant-negative mutant defective in ATP hydrolysis induced trapping of late biogenesis factors in pre-ribosomal particles, which turned out not to be pre-40S but 80S-like ribosomes. Thus, the RIO kinase fold generates a versatile ATPase enzyme, which in the case of Rio1 is activated following the Rio2 step to regulate one of the final 40S maturation events, at which time the 60S subunit is recruited for final quality control check.

  9. The nucleolar GTPase nucleostemin-like 1 plays a role in plant growth and senescence by modulating ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young; Park, Yong-Joon; Cho, Hui Kyung; Jung, Hyun Ju; Ahn, Tae-Kyu; Kang, Hunseung; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Nucleostemin is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein that is involved in stem cell proliferation, embryonic development, and ribosome biogenesis in mammals. Plant nucleostemin-like 1 (NSN1) plays a role in embryogenesis, and apical and floral meristem development. In this study, a nucleolar function of NSN1 in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis was identified. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NSN1 localized to the nucleolus, which was primarily determined by its N-terminal domain. Recombinant NSN1 and its N-terminal domain (NSN1-N) bound to RNA in vitro. Recombinant NSN1 expressed GTPase activity in vitro. NSN1 silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana led to growth retardation and premature senescence. NSN1 interacted with Pescadillo and EBNA1 binding protein 2 (EBP2), which are nucleolar proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, and with several ribosomal proteins. NSN1, NSN1-N, and EBP2 co-fractionated primarily with the 60S ribosomal large subunit in vivo. Depletion of NSN1 delayed 25S rRNA maturation and biogenesis of the 60S ribosome subunit, and repressed global translation. NSN1-deficient plants exhibited premature leaf senescence, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and senescence-related gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that NSN1 plays a crucial role in plant growth and senescence by modulating ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26163696

  10. Methylation of ribosomal protein S10 by protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Yaqing; Liang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yongqing; Bao, Shilai; Xu, Zhiheng

    2010-04-23

    Modulation of ribosomal assembly is a fine tuning mechanism for cell number and organ size control. Many ribosomal proteins undergo post-translational modification, but their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report that ribosomal protein s10 (RPS10) is a novel substrate of an oncoprotein, protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). We show that PRMT5 interacts with RPS10 and catalyzes its methylation at the Arg(158) and Arg(160) residues. The methylation of RPS10 at Arg(158) and Arg(160) plays a role in the proper assembly of ribosomes, protein synthesis, and optimal cell proliferation. The RPS10-R158K/R160K mutant is not efficiently assembled into ribosomes and is unstable and prone to degradation by the proteasomal pathway. In nucleoli, RPS10 interacts with nucleophosmin/B23 and is predominantly concentrated in the granular component region, which is required for ribosome assembly. The RPS10 methylation mutant interacts weakly with nucleophosmin/B23 and fails to concentrate in the granular component region. Our results suggest that PRMT5 is likely to regulate cell proliferation through the methylation of ribosome proteins, and thus reveal a novel mechanism for PRMT5 in tumorigenesis.

  11. Identification and Expression Analysis of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Co-orthologs in Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Paul, Puneet; Keller, Mario; Einloft, Jens; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:25698879

  12. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of ribosome biogenesis and protein translation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianjun; Jin, Zhaoqing; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Jian-Feng; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) as one of the molecular links between abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and its regulation on protein translation. Moreover, we identified Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 (eIF6) as an interacting partner of RACK1. Because the interaction between RACK1 and eIF6 in mammalian cells is known to regulate the ribosome assembly step of protein translation initiation, it was hypothesized that the same process of protein translation in Arabidopsis is also regulated by RACK1 and eIF6. In this article, we analyzed the amino acid sequences of eIF6 in different species from different lineages and discovered some intriguing differences in protein phosphorylation sites that may contribute to its action in ribosome assembly and biogenesis. In addition, we discovered that, distinct from non-plant organisms in which eIF6 is encoded by a single gene, all sequenced plant genomes contain two or more copies of eIF6 genes. While one copy of plant eIF6 is expressed ubiquitously and might possess the conserved function in ribosome biogenesis and protein translation, the other copy seems to be only expressed in specific organs and therefore may have gained some new functions. We proposed some important studies that may help us better understand the function of eIF6 in plants.

  13. Concerted removal of the Erb1–Ytm1 complex in ribosome biogenesis relies on an elaborate interface

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Matthias; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Maddi, Karthik; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The complicated process of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves about 200 assembly factors that transiently associate with the nascent pre-ribosome in a spatiotemporally ordered way. During the early steps of 60S subunit formation, several proteins, collectively called A3 cluster factors, participate in the removal of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from 27SA3 pre-rRNA. Among these factors is the conserved hetero-trimeric Nop7–Erb1–Ytm1 complex (or human Pes1–Bop1–Wdr12), which is removed from the evolving pre-60S particle by the AAA ATPase Rea1 to allow progression in the pathway. Here, we clarify how Ytm1 and Erb1 interact, which has implications for the release mechanism of both factors from the pre-ribosome. Biochemical studies show that Ytm1 and Erb1 bind each other via their ß-propeller domains. The crystal structure of the Erb1–Ytm1 heterodimer determined at 2.67Å resolution reveals an extended interaction surface between the propellers in a rarely observed binding mode. Structure-based mutations in the interface that impair the Erb1–Ytm1 interaction do not support growth, with specific defects in 60S subunit synthesis. Under these mutant conditions, it becomes clear that an intact Erb1–Ytm1 complex is required for 60S maturation and that loss of this stable interaction prevents ribosome production. PMID:26657628

  14. Combinatorial action of transcription factors orchestrates cell cycle-dependent expression of the ribosomal protein genes and ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Nagisa; Kapoor, Neetu R; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    Nucleolar assembly begins at the early G1 phase of the cell cycle and is a hub of ribosomal DNA transcription and rRNA biosynthesis. The newly-formed rRNAs together with ribosomal proteins (RPs) constitute the building block of the ribosomal machinery. Although RPs play a major role in protein biosynthesis, their own regulation and expression is rather poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of RP genes RPS27a, RPS24, RPS6, RPL9 and RPL4 in synchronized mammalian cell culture. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated their expression during the mid to late G1 phase, whereas the rRNA genes were expressed during the early G1 phase of the cell cycle. The promoter reporter analysis of the RPS27a gene revealed that it could be synergistically stimulated by the transcription factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). However, E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) appeared to negatively regulate gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the promoter occupancy of Sp1, CREB and E2F1. Although Sp1 and CREB binding enhanced the promoter occupancy of histone acetyltransferases PCAF, p300 and CREB binding protein, E2F1 facilitated the recruitment of histone deacetylases. Both acetylation (histone H4 pan-acetyl, histone H3 acetyl Lys 14) and methylation (histone H3 trimethyl Lys 9) marks were observed in the RPS27a promoter region, suggesting their important regulatory role in gene expression. Because the promoter regions of most RP genes are well conserved, we propose that their orchestrated regulation and synthesis during the cell cycle facilitates ribosome biogenesis. PMID:24646001

  15. Runx1 deficiency decreases ribosome biogenesis and confers stress resistance to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiongwei; Gao, Long; Teng, Li; Ge, Jingping; Oo, Zaw Min; Kumar, Ashish R.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Mason, Philip J.; Tan, Kai; Speck, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor RUNX1 is frequently mutated in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. RUNX1 mutations can be early events, creating pre-leukemic stem cells that expand in the bone marrow. Here we show, counter-intuitively, that Runx1 deficient hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have a slow growth, low biosynthetic, small cell phenotype and markedly reduced ribosome biogenesis (Ribi). The reduced Ribi involved decreased levels of rRNA and many mRNAs encoding ribosome proteins. Runx1 appears to directly regulate Ribi; Runx1 is enriched on the promoters of genes encoding ribosome proteins, and binds the ribosomal DNA repeats. Runx1 deficient HSPCs have lower p53 levels, reduced apoptosis, an attenuated unfolded protein response, and accordingly are resistant to genotoxic and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The low biosynthetic activity and corresponding stress resistance provides a selective advantage to Runx1 deficient HSPCs, allowing them to expand in the bone marrow and outcompete normal HSPCs. PMID:26165925

  16. Stage-specific assembly events of the 6-MDa small-subunit processome initiate eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chaker-Margot, Malik; Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Dill, Brian D; Klinge, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves a plethora of ribosome-assembly factors, and their temporal order of association with preribosomal RNA is largely unknown. By using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism, we developed a system that recapitulates and arrests ribosome assembly at early stages, thus providing in vivo snapshots of nascent preribosomal particles. Here we report the stage-specific order in which 70 ribosome-assembly factors associate with preribosomal RNA domains, thereby forming the 6-MDa small-subunit processome. PMID:26479197

  17. Inhibition of Human Dyskerin as a New Approach to Target Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Onofrillo, Carmine; Del Rio, Alberto; Montanaro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The product of the DKC1 gene, dyskerin, is required for both ribosome biogenesis and telomerase complex stabilization. Targeting these cellular processes has been explored for the development of drugs to selectively or preferentially kill cancer cells. Presently, intense research is conducted involving the identification of new biological targets whose modulation may simultaneously interfere with multiple cellular functions that are known to be hyper-activated by neoplastic transformations. Here, we report, for the first time, the computational identification of small molecules able to inhibit dyskerin catalytic activity. Different in silico techniques were applied to select compounds and analyze the binding modes and the interaction patterns of ligands in the human dyskerin catalytic site. We also describe a newly developed and optimized fast real-time PCR assay that was used to detect dyskerin pseudouridylation activity in vitro. The identification of new dyskerin inhibitors constitutes the first proof of principle that the pseudouridylation activity can be modulated by means of small molecule agents. Therefore, the presented results, obtained through the usage of computational tools and experimental validation, indicate an alternative therapeutic strategy to target ribosome biogenesis pathway. PMID:25010840

  18. The conserved interaction of C7orf30 with MRPL14 promotes biogenesis of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit and mitochondrial translation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Stephen; Nishimura, Tamiko; Sasarman, Florin; Shoubridge, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondria harbor a dedicated translation apparatus that is required for the synthesis of 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded polypeptides, all of which are essential components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. Little is known about the mechanism of assembly of the mitoribosomes that catalyze this process. Here we show that C7orf30, a member of the large family of DUF143 proteins, associates with the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (mt-LSU). Knockdown of C7orf30 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) does not alter the sedimentation profile of the mt-LSU, but results in the depletion of several mt-LSU proteins and decreased monosome formation. This leads to a mitochondrial translation defect, involving the majority of mitochondrial polypeptides, and a severe OXPHOS assembly defect. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses identified mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP)L14 as the specific interacting protein partner of C7orf30 in the mt-LSU. Reciprocal experiments in which MRPL14 was depleted by small interfering RNA (siRNA) phenocopied the C7orf30 knockdown. Members of the DUF143 family have been suggested to be universally conserved ribosomal silencing factors, acting by sterically inhibiting the association of the small and large ribosomal subunits. Our results demonstrate that, although the interaction between C7orf30 and MRPL14 has been evolutionarily conserved, human C7orf30 is, on the contrary, essential for mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis and mitochondrial translation. PMID:23171548

  19. The structure of Rpf2–Rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kharde, Satyavati; Calviño, Fabiola R.; Gumiero, Andrea; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. The 5S RNP consisting of the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and RpL11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60S ribosomal subunit. Rpf2 and Rrs1 have been implicated in 5S RNP biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex from Aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 Å resolution and describe it as Brix domain of Rpf2 completed by Rrs1 to form two anticodon-binding domains with functionally important tails. Fitting the X-ray structure into the cryo-EM density of a previously described pre-60S particle correlates with biochemical data. The heterodimer forms specific contacts with the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and the biogenesis factor Rsa4. The flexible protein tails of Rpf2–Rrs1 localize to the central protuberance. Two helices in the Rrs1 C-terminal tail occupy a strategic position to block the rotation of 25S rRNA and the 5S RNP. Our data provide a structural model for 5S RNP recruitment to the pre-60S particle and explain why removal of Rpf2–Rrs1 is necessary for rearrangements to drive 60S maturation. PMID:26117542

  20. Autophagy induction is a Tor- and Tp53-independent cell survival response in a zebrafish model of disrupted ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boglev, Yeliz; Badrock, Andrew P; Trotter, Andrew J; Du, Qian; Richardson, Elsbeth J; Parslow, Adam C; Markmiller, Sebastian J; Hall, Nathan E; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A; Ng, Annie Y; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Shin, Donghun; Shin, Chong H; Hannan, Katherine M; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Ess, Kevin C; Lieschke, Graham J; Stainier, Didier Y R; Heath, Joan K

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (tti(s450)), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In tti(s450), the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in tti(s450) larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in tti(s450) larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death. PMID:23408911

  1. Impaired Telomere Maintenance and Decreased Canonical WNT Signaling but Normal Ribosome Biogenesis in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from X-Linked Dyskeratosis Congenita Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Bai-Wei; Apicella, Marisa; Mills, Jason; Fan, Jian-Meng; Reeves, Dara A.; French, Deborah; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Bessler, Monica; Mason, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by the presence of short telomeres at presentation. Mutations in ten different genes, whose products are involved in the telomere maintenance pathway, have been shown to cause DC. The X-linked form is the most common form of the disease and is caused by mutations in the gene DKC1, encoding the protein dyskerin. Dyskerin is required for the assembly and stability of telomerase and is also involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing where it converts specific uridines to pseudouridine. DC is thought to result from failure to maintain tissues, like blood, that are renewed by stem cell activity, but research into pathogenic mechanisms has been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining stem cells from patients. We reasoned that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from X-linked DC patients may provide information about the mechanisms involved. Here we describe the production of iPS cells from DC patients with DKC1 mutations Q31E, A353V and ΔL37. In addition we constructed “corrected” lines with a copy of the wild type dyskerin cDNA expressed from the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. We show that in iPS cells with DKC1 mutations telomere maintenance is compromised with short telomere lengths and decreased telomerase activity. The degree to which telomere lengths are affected by expression of telomerase during reprograming, or with ectopic expression of wild type dyskerin, is variable. The recurrent mutation A353V shows the most severe effect on telomere maintenance. A353V cells but not Q31E or ΔL37 cells, are refractory to correction by expression of wild type DKC1 cDNA. Because dyskerin is involved in both telomere maintenance and ribosome biogenesis it has been postulated that defective ribosome biogenesis and translation may contribute to the disease phenotype. Evidence from mouse and zebra fish models has supported the involvement of ribosome biogenesis but primary cells from human

  2. Deficiency of the ribosome biogenesis gene Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells causes neutropenia in mice by attenuating lineage progression in myelocytes.

    PubMed

    Zambetti, Noemi A; Bindels, Eric M J; Van Strien, Paulina M H; Valkhof, Marijke G; Adisty, Maria N; Hoogenboezem, Remco M; Sanders, Mathijs A; Rommens, Johanna M; Touw, Ivo P; Raaijmakers, Marc H G P

    2015-10-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by debilitating neutropenia. The disease is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the SBDS gene, implicated in ribosome biogenesis, but the cellular and molecular events driving cell specific phenotypes in ribosomopathies remain poorly defined. Here, we established what is to our knowledge the first mammalian model of neutropenia in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome through targeted downregulation of Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells expressing the myeloid transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (Cebpa). Sbds deficiency in the myeloid lineage specifically affected myelocytes and their downstream progeny while, unexpectedly, it was well tolerated by rapidly cycling hematopoietic progenitor cells. Molecular insights provided by massive parallel sequencing supported cellular observations of impaired cell cycle exit and formation of secondary granules associated with the defect of myeloid lineage progression in myelocytes. Mechanistically, Sbds deficiency activated the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and induced apoptosis in these cells. Collectively, the data reveal a previously unanticipated, selective dependency of myelocytes and downstream progeny, but not rapidly cycling progenitors, on this ubiquitous ribosome biogenesis protein, thus providing a cellular basis for the understanding of myeloid lineage biased defects in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. PMID:26185170

  3. Deficiency of the ribosome biogenesis gene Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells causes neutropenia in mice by attenuating lineage progression in myelocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zambetti, Noemi A.; Bindels, Eric M. J.; Van Strien, Paulina M. H.; Valkhof, Marijke G.; Adisty, Maria N.; Hoogenboezem, Remco M.; Sanders, Mathijs A.; Rommens, Johanna M.; Touw, Ivo P.; Raaijmakers, Marc H. G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by debilitating neutropenia. The disease is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the SBDS gene, implicated in ribosome biogenesis, but the cellular and molecular events driving cell specific phenotypes in ribosomopathies remain poorly defined. Here, we established what is to our knowledge the first mammalian model of neutropenia in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome through targeted downregulation of Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells expressing the myeloid transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (Cebpa). Sbds deficiency in the myeloid lineage specifically affected myelocytes and their downstream progeny while, unexpectedly, it was well tolerated by rapidly cycling hematopoietic progenitor cells. Molecular insights provided by massive parallel sequencing supported cellular observations of impaired cell cycle exit and formation of secondary granules associated with the defect of myeloid lineage progression in myelocytes. Mechanistically, Sbds deficiency activated the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and induced apoptosis in these cells. Collectively, the data reveal a previously unanticipated, selective dependency of myelocytes and downstream progeny, but not rapidly cycling progenitors, on this ubiquitous ribosome biogenesis protein, thus providing a cellular basis for the understanding of myeloid lineage biased defects in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. PMID:26185170

  4. Pre-40S ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr1 is an inactive structural mimic of translational GTPases.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Urszula M; Jayachandran, Uma; Shchepachev, Vadim; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Rappsilber, Juri; Tollervey, David; Cook, Atlanta G

    2016-01-01

    Budding yeast Tsr1 is a ribosome biogenesis factor with sequence similarity to GTPases, which is essential for cytoplasmic steps in 40S subunit maturation. Here we present the crystal structure of Tsr1 at 3.6 Å. Tsr1 has a similar domain architecture to translational GTPases such as EF-Tu and the selenocysteine incorporation factor SelB. However, active site residues required for GTP binding and hydrolysis are absent, explaining the lack of enzymatic activity in previous analyses. Modelling of Tsr1 into cryo-electron microscopy maps of pre-40S particles shows that a highly acidic surface of Tsr1 is presented on the outside of pre-40S particles, potentially preventing premature binding to 60S subunits. Late pre-40S maturation also requires the GTPase eIF5B and the ATPase Rio1. The location of Tsr1 is predicted to block binding by both factors, strongly indicating that removal of Tsr1 is an essential step during cytoplasmic maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. PMID:27250689

  5. Pre-40S ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr1 is an inactive structural mimic of translational GTPases

    PubMed Central

    McCaughan, Urszula M.; Jayachandran, Uma; Shchepachev, Vadim; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Rappsilber, Juri; Tollervey, David; Cook, Atlanta G.

    2016-01-01

    Budding yeast Tsr1 is a ribosome biogenesis factor with sequence similarity to GTPases, which is essential for cytoplasmic steps in 40S subunit maturation. Here we present the crystal structure of Tsr1 at 3.6 Å. Tsr1 has a similar domain architecture to translational GTPases such as EF-Tu and the selenocysteine incorporation factor SelB. However, active site residues required for GTP binding and hydrolysis are absent, explaining the lack of enzymatic activity in previous analyses. Modelling of Tsr1 into cryo-electron microscopy maps of pre-40S particles shows that a highly acidic surface of Tsr1 is presented on the outside of pre-40S particles, potentially preventing premature binding to 60S subunits. Late pre-40S maturation also requires the GTPase eIF5B and the ATPase Rio1. The location of Tsr1 is predicted to block binding by both factors, strongly indicating that removal of Tsr1 is an essential step during cytoplasmic maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. PMID:27250689

  6. RNA mimicry by the fap7 adenylate kinase in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Loc'h, Jérôme; Blaud, Magali; Réty, Stéphane; Lebaron, Simon; Deschamps, Patrick; Bareille, Joseph; Jombart, Julie; Robert-Paganin, Julien; Delbos, Lila; Chardon, Florian; Zhang, Elodie; Charenton, Clément; Tollervey, David; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    During biogenesis of the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, the pre-40S particles are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA to mature 18S rRNA. Amongst the factors involved in this maturation step, Fap7 is unusual, as it both interacts with ribosomal protein Rps14 and harbors adenylate kinase activity, a function not usually associated with ribonucleoprotein assembly. Human hFap7 also regulates Cajal body assembly and cell cycle progression via the p53-MDM2 pathway. This work presents the functional and structural characterization of the Fap7-Rps14 complex. We report that Fap7 association blocks the RNA binding surface of Rps14 and, conversely, Rps14 binding inhibits adenylate kinase activity of Fap7. In addition, the affinity of Fap7 for Rps14 is higher with bound ADP, whereas ATP hydrolysis dissociates the complex. These results suggest that Fap7 chaperones Rps14 assembly into pre-40S particles via RNA mimicry in an ATP-dependent manner. Incorporation of Rps14 by Fap7 leads to a structural rearrangement of the platform domain necessary for the pre-rRNA to acquire a cleavage competent conformation.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nip7p is required for efficient 60S ribosome subunit biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zanchin, N I; Roberts, P; DeSilva, A; Sherman, F; Goldfarb, D S

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive (ts) allele nip7-1 exhibits phenotypes associated with defects in the translation apparatus, including hypersensitivity to paromomycin and accumulation of halfmer polysomes. The cloned NIP7+ gene complemented the nip7-1 ts growth defect, the paromomycin hypersensitivity, and the halfmer defect. NIP7 encodes a 181-amino-acid protein (21 kDa) with homology to predicted products of open reading frames from humans, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that Nip7p function is evolutionarily conserved. Gene disruption analysis demonstrated that NIP7 is essential for growth. A fraction of Nip7p cosedimented through sucrose gradients with free 60S ribosomal subunits but not with 80S monosomes or polysomal ribosomes, indicating that it is not a ribosomal protein. Nip7p was found evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus by indirect immunofluorescence; however, in vivo localization of a Nip7p-green fluorescent protein fusion protein revealed that a significant amount of Nip7p is present inside the nucleus, most probably in the nucleolus. Depletion of Nip7-1p resulted in a decrease in protein synthesis rates, accumulation of halfmers, reduced levels of 60S subunits, and, ultimately, cessation of growth. Nip7-1p-depleted cells showed defective pre-rRNA processing, including accumulation of the 35S rRNA precursor, presence of a 23S aberrant precursor, decreased 20S pre-rRNA levels, and accumulation of 27S pre-rRNA. Delayed processing of 27S pre-rRNA appeared to be the cause of reduced synthesis of 25S rRNA relative to 18S rRNA, which may be responsible for the deficit of 60S subunits in these cells. PMID:9271378

  8. WHITE PANICLE1, a Val-tRNA Synthetase Regulating Chloroplast Ribosome Biogenesis in Rice, Is Essential for Early Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunming; Zheng, Ming; Lyu, Jia; Xu, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Niu, Mei; Long, Wuhua; Wang, Di; Wang, Yihua; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genomes and transcriptional and translational systems. Establishing these genetic systems is essential for plant growth and development. Here we characterized a mutant form of a Val-tRNA synthetase (OsValRS2) from Oryza sativa that is targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. A single base change in OsValRS2 caused virescent to albino phenotypes in seedlings and white panicles at heading. We therefore named this mutant white panicle 1 (wp1). Chlorophyll autofluorescence observations and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated that wp1 mutants are defective in early chloroplast development. RNA-seq analysis revealed that expression of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic genes is significantly repressed, while expression of many chloroplast-encoded genes also changed significantly in wp1 mutants. Western-blot analyses of chloroplast-encoded proteins showed that chloroplast protein levels were reduced in wp1 mutants, although mRNA levels of some genes were higher in wp1 than in wild type. We found that wp1 was impaired in chloroplast ribosome biogenesis. Taken together, our results show that OsValRS2 plays an essential role in chloroplast development and regulating chloroplast ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26839129

  9. Nuclear ribosome biogenesis mediated by the DIM1A rRNA dimethylase is required for organized root growth and epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John

    2012-07-01

    Position-dependent patterning of hair and non-hair cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is a powerful system to study the molecular basis of cell fate specification. Here, we report an epidermal patterning mutant affecting the ADENOSINE DIMETHYL TRANSFERASE 1A (DIM1A) rRNA dimethylase gene, predicted to participate in rRNA posttranscriptional processing and base modification. Consistent with a role in ribosome biogenesis, DIM1A is preferentially expressed in regions of rapid growth, and its product is nuclear localized with nucleolus enrichment. Furthermore, DIM1A preferentially accumulates in the developing hair cells, and the dim1A point mutant alters the cell-specific expression of the transcriptional regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE, and WEREWOLF. Together, these findings suggest that establishment of cell-specific gene expression during root epidermis development is dependent upon proper ribosome biogenesis, possibly due to the sensitivity of the cell fate decision to relatively small differences in gene regulatory activities. Consistent with its effect on the predicted S-adenosyl-l-Met binding site, dim1A plants lack the two 18S rRNA base modifications but exhibit normal pre-rRNA processing. In addition to root epidermal defects, the dim1A mutant exhibits abnormal root meristem division, leaf development, and trichome branching. Together, these findings provide new insights into the importance of rRNA base modifications and translation regulation for plant growth and development.

  10. Identification of nucleolus-localized PTEN and its function in regulating ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingdong; Wang, Danni; Li, Haiyang; Yu, Zhenkun; Chen, Xiaohong; Fang, Jugao

    2014-10-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a lipid phosphatase that is found mutated in different types of human cancers. PTEN suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway at the cell membrane. However, PTEN is also demonstrated to localize in the cell nucleus where it exhibits tumor suppressive activity via a different, unknown mechanism. In this study we report that PTEN also localizes to the nucleolus and that nucleolar PTEN plays an important role in regulating nucleolar homeostasis and maintaining nucleolar morphology. Overexpression of nuclear PTEN in PTEN null cells inhibits Akt phosphorylation and reduces cell size. Knockdown of PTEN in PTEN positive cells leads to nucleolar morphologic changes and an increase in the proportion of cells with a greater number of nucleoli. In addition, knockdown of PTEN in PTEN positive cells increased ribosome biogenesis. These findings expand current understanding of function and relevance of nuclear localized PTEN and provide a foundation for the development of novel therapies targeting PTEN.

  11. Chloroplast RH3 DEAD box RNA helicases in maize and Arabidopsis function in splicing of specific group II introns and affect chloroplast ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yukari; Galarneau, Erin; Watkins, Kenneth P; Barkan, Alice; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2012-07-01

    Chloroplasts in angiosperms contain at least seven nucleus-encoded members of the DEAD box RNA helicase family. Phylogenetic analysis shows that five of these plastid members (RH22, -39, -47, -50, and -58) form a single clade and that RH3 forms a clade with two mitochondrial RH proteins (PMH1 and -2) functioning in intron splicing. The function of chloroplast RH3 in maize (Zea mays; ZmRH3) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtRH3) was determined. ZmRH3 and AtRH3 are both under strong developmental control, and ZmRH3 abundance sharply peaked in the sink-source transition zone of developing maize leaves, coincident with the plastid biogenesis machinery. ZmRH3 coimmunoprecipitated with a specific set of plastid RNAs, including several group II introns, as well as pre23S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), but not 16S rRNA. Furthermore, ZmRH3 associated with 50S preribosome particles as well as nucleoids. AtRH3 null mutants are embryo lethal, whereas a weak allele (rh3-4) results in pale-green seedlings with defects in splicing of several group II introns and rRNA maturation as well as reduced levels of assembled ribosomes. These results provide strong evidence that RH3 functions in the splicing of group II introns and possibly also contributes to the assembly of the 50S ribosomal particle. Previously, we observed 5- to 10-fold up-regulation of AtRH3 in plastid Caseinolytic protease mutants. The results shown here indicate that AtRH3 up-regulation was not a direct consequence of reduced proteolysis but constituted a compensatory response at both RH3 transcript and protein levels to impaired chloroplast biogenesis; this response demonstrates that cross talk between the chloroplast and the nucleus is used to regulate RH3 levels.

  12. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization involves IGF1 signaling: implications in ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-10-01

    One of the most fundamental biological processes in living organisms that are affected by environmental fluctuations is growth. In fish, skeletal muscle accounts for the largest proportion of body mass, and the growth of this tissue is mainly controlled by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. By using the carp (Cyprinus carpio), a fish that inhabits extreme conditions during winter and summer, we assessed the skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization and the relation of IGF signaling with protein synthesis and ribosomal biogenesis. The expression of igf1 in muscle decreased during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the expression for both paralogues of igf2 did not change significantly between seasons. The expression of igf1 receptor a (igf1ra), but not of igf1rb, was down-regulated in muscle during the winter as compared to the summer. A decrease in protein contents and protein phosphorylation for IGF signaling molecules in muscle was observed in winter-acclimatized carp. This was related with a decreased expression in muscle for markers of myogenesis (myoblast determination factor (myod), myogenic factor 5 (myf5), and myogenin (myog)); protein synthesis (myosin heavy chain (mhc) and myosin light chain (mlc3 and mlc1b)); and ribosomal biogenesis (pre-rRNA and ribosomal proteins). IGF signaling, and key markers of ribosomal biogenesis, protein synthesis, and myogenesis were affected by seasonal acclimatization, with differential regulation in gene expression and signaling pathway activation observed in muscle between both seasons. This suggests that these molecules are responsible for the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp.

  13. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Kawada, Shigeo; Maekawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Naokata

    2016-01-01

    External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK), moderate (MO), middle (MI), and strong (ST) overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity) increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO), 2.2-fold (MI), and 2.5-fold (ST), respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL) in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98). The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency) showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO), 17.4-fold (MI), and 18.2-fold (ST), respectively, relative to NL in the WK group). These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size. PMID:26824605

  14. Meristematic cell proliferation and ribosome biogenesis are decoupled in diamagnetically levitated Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell growth and cell proliferation are intimately linked in the presence of Earth’s gravity, but are decoupled under the microgravity conditions present in orbiting spacecraft. New technologies to simulate microgravity conditions for long-duration experiments, with stable environmental conditions, in Earth-based laboratories are required to further our understanding of the effect of extraterrestrial conditions on the growth, development and health of living matter. Results We studied the response of transgenic seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana, containing either the CycB1-GUS proliferation marker or the DR5-GUS auxin-mediated growth marker, to diamagnetic levitation in the bore of a superconducting solenoid magnet. As a control, a second set of seedlings were exposed to a strong magnetic field, but not to levitation forces. A third set was exposed to a strong field and simulated hypergravity (2 g). Cell proliferation and cell growth cytological parameters were measured for each set of seedlings. Nucleolin immunodetection was used as a marker of cell growth. Collectively, the data indicate that these two fundamental cellular processes are decoupled in root meristems, as in microgravity: cell proliferation was enhanced whereas cell growth markers were depleted. These results also demonstrated delocalisation of auxin signalling in the root tip despite the fact that levitation of the seedling as a whole does not prevent the sedimentation of statoliths in the root cells. Conclusions In our model system, we found that diamagnetic levitation led to changes that are very similar to those caused by real- [e.g. on board the International Space Station (ISS)] or mechanically-simulated microgravity [e.g. using a Random Positioning Machine (RPM)]. These changes decoupled meristematic cell proliferation from ribosome biogenesis, and altered auxin polar transport. PMID:24006876

  15. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M.; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J.; Hartman, John L.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect. PMID:27168400

  16. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Lin, Sheng-Ting; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J; Hartman Iv, John L; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2016-05-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  17. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Lin, Sheng-Ting; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J; Hartman Iv, John L; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2016-05-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect. PMID:27168400

  18. Ribosomal Biogenesis and Translational Flux Inhibition by the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) XPO1 Antagonist KPT-185

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinichi; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Davis, Richard Eric; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Ishizawa, Jo; Kazuno, Saiko; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Miida, Takashi; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the aberrant expression of several growth-regulating, oncogenic effectors. Exportin 1 (XPO1) mediates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of numerous molecules including oncogenic growth-regulating factors, RNAs, and ribosomal subunits. In MCL cells, the small molecule KPT-185 blocks XPO1 function and exerts anti-proliferative effects. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this putative anti-tumor effect on MCL cells using cell growth/viability assays, immunoblotting, gene expression analysis, and absolute quantification proteomics. KPT-185 exhibited a p53-independent anti-lymphoma effect on MCL cells, by suppression of oncogenic mediators (e.g., XPO1, cyclin D1, c-Myc, PIM1, and Bcl-2 family members), repression of ribosomal biogenesis, and downregulation of translation/chaperone proteins (e.g., PIM2, EEF1A1, EEF2, and HSP70) that are part of the translational/transcriptional network regulated by heat shock factor 1. These results elucidate a novel mechanism in which ribosomal biogenesis appears to be a key component through which XPO1 contributes to tumor cell survival. Thus, we propose that the blockade of XPO1 could be a promising, novel strategy for the treatment of MCL and other malignancies overexpressing XPO1. PMID:26340096

  19. Ribosomal Biogenesis and Translational Flux Inhibition by the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) XPO1 Antagonist KPT-185.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Yoko; Kojima, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Davis, Richard Eric; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Ishizawa, Jo; Kazuno, Saiko; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Miida, Takashi; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the aberrant expression of several growth-regulating, oncogenic effectors. Exportin 1 (XPO1) mediates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of numerous molecules including oncogenic growth-regulating factors, RNAs, and ribosomal subunits. In MCL cells, the small molecule KPT-185 blocks XPO1 function and exerts anti-proliferative effects. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this putative anti-tumor effect on MCL cells using cell growth/viability assays, immunoblotting, gene expression analysis, and absolute quantification proteomics. KPT-185 exhibited a p53-independent anti-lymphoma effect on MCL cells, by suppression of oncogenic mediators (e.g., XPO1, cyclin D1, c-Myc, PIM1, and Bcl-2 family members), repression of ribosomal biogenesis, and downregulation of translation/chaperone proteins (e.g., PIM2, EEF1A1, EEF2, and HSP70) that are part of the translational/transcriptional network regulated by heat shock factor 1. These results elucidate a novel mechanism in which ribosomal biogenesis appears to be a key component through which XPO1 contributes to tumor cell survival. Thus, we propose that the blockade of XPO1 could be a promising, novel strategy for the treatment of MCL and other malignancies overexpressing XPO1. PMID:26340096

  20. Spi-1 and Fli-1 directly activate common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis in Friend erythroleukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Juban, Gaëtan; Giraud, Guillaume; Guyot, Boris; Belin, Stéphane; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Starck, Joëlle; Guillouf, Christel; Moreau-Gachelin, Françoise; Morlé, François

    2009-05-01

    Spi-1 and Fli-1 are ETS transcription factors recurrently deregulated in mouse erythroleukemia induced by Friend viruses. Since they share the same core DNA binding site, we investigated whether they may contribute to erythroleukemia by common mechanisms. Using inducible knockdown, we demonstrated that Fli-1 contributes to proliferation, survival, and differentiation arrest of erythroleukemic cells harboring an activated fli-1 locus. Similarly, we used inducible Fli-1 knockdown and either hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA)- or small interfering RNA-mediated Spi-1 knockdown to investigate their respective contributions in erythroleukemic cells harboring an activated spi-1 locus. In these cells, simple or double knockdown of both Spi-1 and Fli-1 additively contributed to induce proliferation arrest and differentiation. Transcriptome profiling revealed that virtually all transcripts affected by both Fli-1 knockdown and HMBA are affected in an additive manner. Among these additively downregulated transcripts, more than 20% encode proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, and conserved ETS binding sites are present in their gene promoters. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated the association of Spi-1 and Fli-1 on these promoters in Friend erythroleukemic cells. These data lead us to propose that the oncogenicity of Spi-1, Fli-1, and possibly other ETS transcription factors may involve their ability to stimulate ribosome biogenesis.

  1. Cooling-induced SUMOylation of EXOSC10 down-regulates ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bastide, Amandine; Peretti, Diego; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Mallucci, Giovanna R.; Smales, C. Mark; Willis, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA exosome is essential for 3′ processing of functional RNA species and degradation of aberrant RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Recent reports have defined the substrates of the exosome catalytic domains and solved the multimeric structure of the exosome complex. However, regulation of exosome activity remains poorly characterized, especially in response to physiological stress. Following the observation that cooling of mammalian cells results in a reduction in 40S:60S ribosomal subunit ratio, we uncover regulation of the nuclear exosome as a result of reduced temperature. Using human cells and an in vivo model system allowing whole-body cooling, we observe reduced EXOSC10 (hRrp6, Pm/Scl-100) expression in the cold. In parallel, both models of cooling increase global SUMOylation, leading to the identification of specific conjugation of SUMO1 to EXOSC10, a process that is increased by cooling. Furthermore, we define the major SUMOylation sites in EXOSC10 by mutagenesis and show that overexpression of SUMO1 alone is sufficient to suppress EXOSC10 abundance. Reducing EXOSC10 expression by RNAi in human cells correlates with the 3′ preribosomal RNA processing defects seen in the cold as well as reducing the 40S:60S ratio, a previously uncharacterized consequence of EXOSC10 suppression. Together, this work illustrates that EXOSC10 can be modified by SUMOylation and identifies a physiological stress where this regulation is prevalent both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26857222

  2. Cooling-induced SUMOylation of EXOSC10 down-regulates ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Knight, John R P; Bastide, Amandine; Peretti, Diego; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Mallucci, Giovanna R; Smales, C Mark; Willis, Anne E

    2016-04-01

    The RNA exosome is essential for 3' processing of functional RNA species and degradation of aberrant RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Recent reports have defined the substrates of the exosome catalytic domains and solved the multimeric structure of the exosome complex. However, regulation of exosome activity remains poorly characterized, especially in response to physiological stress. Following the observation that cooling of mammalian cells results in a reduction in 40S:60S ribosomal subunit ratio, we uncover regulation of the nuclear exosome as a result of reduced temperature. Using human cells and an in vivo model system allowing whole-body cooling, we observe reduced EXOSC10 (hRrp6, Pm/Scl-100) expression in the cold. In parallel, both models of cooling increase global SUMOylation, leading to the identification of specific conjugation of SUMO1 to EXOSC10, a process that is increased by cooling. Furthermore, we define the major SUMOylation sites in EXOSC10 by mutagenesis and show that overexpression of SUMO1 alone is sufficient to suppress EXOSC10 abundance. Reducing EXOSC10 expression by RNAi in human cells correlates with the 3' preribosomal RNA processing defects seen in the cold as well as reducing the 40S:60S ratio, a previously uncharacterized consequence of EXOSC10 suppression. Together, this work illustrates that EXOSC10 can be modified by SUMOylation and identifies a physiological stress where this regulation is prevalent both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26857222

  3. The ribosome biogenesis pathway as an early target of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is a ubiquitous contaminant whose presence in the environment is expected for decades, since it has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products. In the present study, the interaction of BBP with the ribosome biogenesis pathway and the general transcriptional profile of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae were investigated by means of changes in the rDNA activity (through the study of the internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and variations in the expression profile of ribosomal protein genes (rpL4, rpL11, and rpL13) after acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses. Furthermore, cytogenetic assays were conducted to evaluate the transcriptional activity of polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells, with special attention to the nucleolus and the Balbiani rings (BRs) of chromosome IV. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers, with a general depletion in the gene expression levels and the activity of BR2 after 48-h treatments. At the same time, decondensation and activation of some centromeres took place, while the activity of nucleolus remained unaltered. Withdrawal of the xenobiotic allowed the larvae to reach control levels in the case of rpL4 and rpL13 genes, which were previously slightly downregulated in 24-h tests. These data provide the first evidence on the interaction of BBP with the ribosome synthesis pathways, which results in a significant impairment of the functional activity of ribosomal protein genes. Thus, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of BBP-induced cellular damage. These findings may have important implications for understanding the adverse biological effects of BBP in C. riparius, since they provide new sensitive biomarkers of BBP exposure and highlight the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic

  4. Structure of ERA in complex with the 3′ end of 16S rRNA: Implications for ribosome biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2009-10-09

    ERA, composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain followed by an RNA-binding KH domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It binds to 16S rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit. However, its RNA-binding site, the functional relationship between the two domains, and its role in ribosome biogenesis remain unclear. We have determined two crystal structures of ERA, a binary complex with GDP and a ternary complex with a GTP-analog and the {sub 1531}AUCACCUCCUUA{sub 1542} sequence at the 3' end of 16S rRNA. In the ternary complex, the first nine of the 12 nucleotides are recognized by the protein. We show that GTP binding is a prerequisite for RNA recognition by ERA and that RNA recognition stimulates its GTP-hydrolyzing activity. Based on these and other data, we propose a functional cycle of ERA, suggesting that the protein serves as a chaperone for processing and maturation of 16S rRNA and a checkpoint for assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. The AUCA sequence is highly conserved among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, whereas the CCUCC, known as the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, is conserved in noneukaryotes only. Therefore, these data suggest a common mechanism for a highly conserved ERA function in all three kingdoms of life by recognizing the AUCA, with a 'twist' for noneukaryotic ERA proteins by also recognizing the CCUCC.

  5. Structure of ERA in Complex with the 3 End of 16s rRNBA Implications for Ribosome Biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, C.; Zhou, X; Tropea, J; Austin, B; Waugh, D; Court, D; Ji, X

    2009-01-01

    ERA, composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain followed by an RNA-binding KH domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It binds to 16S rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit. However, its RNA-binding site, the functional relationship between the two domains, and its role in ribosome biogenesis remain unclear. We have determined two crystal structures of ERA, a binary complex with GDP and a ternary complex with a GTP-analog and the 1531AUCACCUCCUUA1542 sequence at the 3? end of 16S rRNA. In the ternary complex, the first nine of the 12 nucleotides are recognized by the protein. We show that GTP binding is a prerequisite for RNA recognition by ERA and that RNA recognition stimulates its GTP-hydrolyzing activity. Based on these and other data, we propose a functional cycle of ERA, suggesting that the protein serves as a chaperone for processing and maturation of 16S rRNA and a checkpoint for assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. The AUCA sequence is highly conserved among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, whereas the CCUCC, known as the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, is conserved in noneukaryotes only. Therefore, these data suggest a common mechanism for a highly conserved ERA function in all three kingdoms of life by recognizing the AUCA, with a 'twist' for noneukaryotic ERA proteins by also recognizing the CCUCC.

  6. Cockayne syndrome protein A is a transcription factor of RNA polymerase I and stimulates ribosomal biogenesis and growth.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sylvia; Garcia Gonzalez, Omar; Assfalg, Robin; Schelling, Adrian; Schäfer, Patrick; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Iben, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) protein account for 20% of Cockayne syndrome (CS) cases, a childhood disorder of premature aging and early death. Hitherto, CSA has exclusively been described as DNA repair factor of the transcription-coupled branch of nucleotide excision repair. Here we show a novel function of CSA as transcription factor of RNA polymerase I in the nucleolus. Knockdown of CSA reduces pre-rRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase I. CSA associates with RNA polymerase I and the active fraction of the rDNA and stimulates re-initiation of rDNA transcription by recruiting the Cockayne syndrome proteins TFIIH and CSB. Moreover, compared with CSA deficient parental CS cells, CSA transfected CS cells reveal significantly more rRNA with induced growth and enhanced global translation. A previously unknown global dysregulation of ribosomal biogenesis most likely contributes to the reduced growth and premature aging of CS patients.

  7. Cockayne syndrome protein A is a transcription factor of RNA polymerase I and stimulates ribosomal biogenesis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sylvia; Garcia Gonzalez, Omar; Assfalg, Robin; Schelling, Adrian; Schäfer, Patrick; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Iben, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) protein account for 20% of Cockayne syndrome (CS) cases, a childhood disorder of premature aging and early death. Hitherto, CSA has exclusively been described as DNA repair factor of the transcription-coupled branch of nucleotide excision repair. Here we show a novel function of CSA as transcription factor of RNA polymerase I in the nucleolus. Knockdown of CSA reduces pre-rRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase I. CSA associates with RNA polymerase I and the active fraction of the rDNA and stimulates re-initiation of rDNA transcription by recruiting the Cockayne syndrome proteins TFIIH and CSB. Moreover, compared with CSA deficient parental CS cells, CSA transfected CS cells reveal significantly more rRNA with induced growth and enhanced global translation. A previously unknown global dysregulation of ribosomal biogenesis most likely contributes to the reduced growth and premature aging of CS patients. PMID:24781187

  8. Ribosomal Protein Gene Knockdown Causes Developmental Defects in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Uechi, Tamayo; Nakajima, Yukari; Nakao, Akihiro; Torihara, Hidetsugu; Chakraborty, Anirban; Inoue, Kunio; Kenmochi, Naoya

    2006-01-01

    The ribosomal proteins (RPs) form the majority of cellular proteins and are mandatory for cellular growth. RP genes have been linked, either directly or indirectly, to various diseases in humans. Mutations in RP genes are also associated with tissue-specific phenotypes, suggesting a possible role in organ development during early embryogenesis. However, it is not yet known how mutations in a particular RP gene result in specific cellular changes, or how RP genes might contribute to human diseases. The development of animal models with defects in RP genes will be essential for studying these questions. In this study, we knocked down 21 RP genes in zebrafish by using morpholino antisense oligos to inhibit their translation. Of these 21, knockdown of 19 RPs resulted in the development of morphants with obvious deformities. Although mutations in RP genes, like other housekeeping genes, would be expected to result in nonspecific developmental defects with widespread phenotypes, we found that knockdown of some RP genes resulted in phenotypes specific to each gene, with varying degrees of abnormality in the brain, body trunk, eyes, and ears at about 25 hours post fertilization. We focused further on the organogenesis of the brain. Each knocked-down gene that affected the morphogenesis of the brain produced a different pattern of abnormality. Among the 7 RP genes whose knockdown produced severe brain phenotypes, 3 human orthologs are located within chromosomal regions that have been linked to brain-associated diseases, suggesting a possible involvement of RP genes in brain or neurological diseases. The RP gene knockdown system developed in this study could be a powerful tool for studying the roles of ribosomes in human diseases. PMID:17183665

  9. The Stability of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor WBSCR22 Is Regulated by Interaction with TRMT112 via Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Õunap, Kadri; Leetsi, Lilian; Matsoo, Maarja; Kurg, Reet

    2015-01-01

    The human WBSCR22 protein is a 18S rRNA methyltransferase involved in pre-rRNA processing and ribosome 40S subunit biogenesis. Recent studies have shown that the protein function in ribosome synthesis is independent of its enzymatic activity. In this work, we have studied the WBSCR22 protein interaction partners by SILAC-coupled co-immunoprecipitation assay and identified TRMT112 as the interaction partner of WBSCR22. Knock-down of TRMT112 expression decreased the WBSCR22 protein level in mammalian cells, suggesting that the stability of WBSCR22 is regulated through the interaction with TRMT112. The localization of the TRMT112 protein is determined by WBSCR22, and the WBSCR22-TRMT112 complex is localized in the cell nucleus. We provide evidence that the interaction between WBSCR22/Bud23 and TRMT112/Trm112 is conserved between mammals and yeast, suggesting that the function of TRMT112 as a co-activator of methyltransferases is evolutionarily conserved. Finally, we show that the transiently expressed WBSCR22 protein is ubiquitinated and degraded through the proteasome pathway, revealing the tight control of the WBSCR22 protein level in the cells. PMID:26214185

  10. The ribosome biogenesis pathway as an early target of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is a ubiquitous contaminant whose presence in the environment is expected for decades, since it has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products. In the present study, the interaction of BBP with the ribosome biogenesis pathway and the general transcriptional profile of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae were investigated by means of changes in the rDNA activity (through the study of the internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and variations in the expression profile of ribosomal protein genes (rpL4, rpL11, and rpL13) after acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses. Furthermore, cytogenetic assays were conducted to evaluate the transcriptional activity of polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells, with special attention to the nucleolus and the Balbiani rings (BRs) of chromosome IV. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers, with a general depletion in the gene expression levels and the activity of BR2 after 48-h treatments. At the same time, decondensation and activation of some centromeres took place, while the activity of nucleolus remained unaltered. Withdrawal of the xenobiotic allowed the larvae to reach control levels in the case of rpL4 and rpL13 genes, which were previously slightly downregulated in 24-h tests. These data provide the first evidence on the interaction of BBP with the ribosome synthesis pathways, which results in a significant impairment of the functional activity of ribosomal protein genes. Thus, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of BBP-induced cellular damage. These findings may have important implications for understanding the adverse biological effects of BBP in C. riparius, since they provide new sensitive biomarkers of BBP exposure and highlight the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic

  11. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, a nuclear ribosome biogenesis-related protein in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ji, M-M; Liu, A-Q; Sima, Y-H; Xu, S-Q

    2016-10-01

    The pathway of communication between endocrine hormones and ribosome biogenesis critical for physiological adaptation is largely unknown. Nucleolar essential protein 1 (Nep1) is an essential gene for ribosome biogenesis and is functionally conserved in many in vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we cloned Bombyx mori Nep1 (BmNep1) due to its high expression in silk glands of silkworms on day 3 of the fifth instar. We found that BmNep1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in silk glands during fourth-instar ecdysis and larval-pupal metamorphosis. By immunoprecipitation with the anti-BmNep1 antibody and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses, it was shown that BmNep1 probably interacts with proteins related to ribosome structure formation. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed that BmNep1 is localized to the nuclei in Bombyx cells. Using BmN cells originally derived from ovaries, we demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced BmNep1 expression and stimulated nuclear accumulation of BmNep1. Under physiological conditions, BmNep1 was also upregulated in ovaries during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Overall, our results indicate that the endocrine hormone 20E facilitates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, which is involved in nuclear ribosome biogenesis in Bombyx. PMID:27329527

  12. Fluorescence bimolecular complementation enables facile detection of ribosome assembly defects in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu; Anand, Baskaran

    2016-09-01

    Assembly factors promote the otherwise non-spontaneous maturation of ribosome under physiological conditions inside the cell. Systematic identification and characterization of candidate assembly factors are fraught with bottlenecks due to lack of facile assay system to capture assembly defects. Here, we show that bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) allows detection of assembly defects that are induced by the loss of assembly factors. The fusion of N and C-terminal fragments of Venus fluorescent protein to the ribosomal proteins uS13 and uL5, respectively, in Escherichia coli facilitated the incorporation of the tagged uS13 and uL5 onto the respective ribosomal subunits. When the ribosomal subunits associated to form the 70S particle, the complementary fragments of Venus were brought into proximity and rendered the Venus fluorescent. Assembly defects that inhibit the subunits association were provoked by either the loss of the known assembly factors such as RsgA and SrmB or the presence of small molecule inhibitors of ribosome maturation such as Lamotrigine and several ribosome-targeting antibiotics and these showed abrogation of the fluorescence complementation. This suggests that BiFC can be employed as a surrogate measure to detect ribosome assembly defects proficiently by circumventing the otherwise cumbersome procedures. BiFC thus offers a facile platform not only for systematic screening to validate potential assembly factors but also to discover novel small molecule inhibitors of ribosome assembly toward mapping the complex assembly landscape of ribosome.

  13. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Fabiola R; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-07

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  14. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calviño, Fabiola R.; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-01

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  15. A nuclear transcription factor related to plastid ribosome biogenesis is synthesised early during germination and priming.

    PubMed

    Achard, Patrick; Job, Dominique; Mache, Régis

    2002-05-01

    Germination is a short developmental process during which many new proteins are synthesised. We have chosen the previously characterised RPL21 gene encoding plastid-localised ribosomal proteins RPL21, to analyse activation of gene expression during germination. Transcription activation occurs at the P1 promoter during the first hours following imbibition and coincides with the appearance of a trans-acting factor that we named AUBE1. AUBE1 binds specifically to a short DNA fragment that encompasses the P1 promoter of the RPL21 gene. The protein has a size of 28-30 kDa and is transiently expressed during the early phase of germination. Using the properties of primed seeds we show that AUBE1 is maintained after desiccation of primed seeds. We conclude that AUBE1 can be used as a marker in spinach seed priming.

  16. Rrp12 and the Exportin Crm1 participate in late assembly events in the nucleolus during 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moriggi, Giulia; Nieto, Blanca; Dosil, Mercedes

    2014-12-01

    During the biogenesis of small ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes, the pre-40S particles formed in the nucleolus are rapidly transported to the cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear export of these particles and its coordination with other biogenesis steps are mostly unknown. Here we show that yeast Rrp12 is required for the exit of pre-40S particles to the cytoplasm and for proper maturation dynamics of upstream 90S pre-ribosomes. Due to this, in vivo elimination of Rrp12 leads to an accumulation of nucleoplasmic 90S to pre-40S transitional particles, abnormal 35S pre-rRNA processing, delayed elimination of processing byproducts, and no export of intermediate pre-40S complexes. The exportin Crm1 is also required for the same pre-ribosome maturation events that involve Rrp12. Thus, in addition to their implication in nuclear export, Rrp12 and Crm1 participate in earlier biosynthetic steps that take place in the nucleolus. Our results indicate that, in the 40S subunit synthesis pathway, the completion of early pre-40S particle assembly, the initiation of byproduct degradation and the priming for nuclear export occur in an integrated manner in late 90S pre-ribosomes.

  17. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N6-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N7-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. PMID:25851604

  18. Fluorescence bimolecular complementation enables facile detection of ribosome assembly defects in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu; Anand, Baskaran

    2016-09-01

    Assembly factors promote the otherwise non-spontaneous maturation of ribosome under physiological conditions inside the cell. Systematic identification and characterization of candidate assembly factors are fraught with bottlenecks due to lack of facile assay system to capture assembly defects. Here, we show that bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) allows detection of assembly defects that are induced by the loss of assembly factors. The fusion of N and C-terminal fragments of Venus fluorescent protein to the ribosomal proteins uS13 and uL5, respectively, in Escherichia coli facilitated the incorporation of the tagged uS13 and uL5 onto the respective ribosomal subunits. When the ribosomal subunits associated to form the 70S particle, the complementary fragments of Venus were brought into proximity and rendered the Venus fluorescent. Assembly defects that inhibit the subunits association were provoked by either the loss of the known assembly factors such as RsgA and SrmB or the presence of small molecule inhibitors of ribosome maturation such as Lamotrigine and several ribosome-targeting antibiotics and these showed abrogation of the fluorescence complementation. This suggests that BiFC can be employed as a surrogate measure to detect ribosome assembly defects proficiently by circumventing the otherwise cumbersome procedures. BiFC thus offers a facile platform not only for systematic screening to validate potential assembly factors but also to discover novel small molecule inhibitors of ribosome assembly toward mapping the complex assembly landscape of ribosome. PMID:27388791

  19. Ccr4-Not Regulates RNA Polymerase I Transcription and Couples Nutrient Signaling to the Control of Ribosomal RNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Laribee, R. Nicholas; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Workman, Jason J.; Chen, Hongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA synthesis is controlled by nutrient signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1 regulates ribosomal RNA expression by affecting RNA Polymerase I (Pol I)-dependent transcription of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. This study provides evidence that the Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) transcription, also functions downstream of mTORC1 to control Pol I activity. Ccr4-Not localizes to the rDNA and physically associates with the Pol I holoenzyme while Ccr4-Not disruption perturbs rDNA binding of multiple Pol I transcriptional regulators including core factor, the high mobility group protein Hmo1, and the SSU processome. Under nutrient rich conditions, Ccr4-Not suppresses Pol I initiation by regulating interactions with the essential transcription factor Rrn3. Additionally, Ccr4-Not disruption prevents reduced Pol I transcription when mTORC1 is inhibited suggesting Ccr4-Not bridges mTORC1 signaling with Pol I regulation. Analysis of the non-essential Pol I subunits demonstrated that the A34.5 subunit promotes, while the A12.2 and A14 subunits repress, Ccr4-Not interactions with Pol I. Furthermore, ccr4Δ is synthetically sick when paired with rpa12Δ and the double mutant has enhanced sensitivity to transcription elongation inhibition suggesting that Ccr4-Not functions to promote Pol I elongation. Intriguingly, while low concentrations of mTORC1 inhibitors completely inhibit growth of ccr4Δ, a ccr4Δ rpa12Δ rescues this growth defect suggesting that the sensitivity of Ccr4-Not mutants to mTORC1 inhibition is at least partially due to Pol I deregulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for Ccr4-Not in Pol I transcriptional regulation that is required for bridging mTORC1 signaling to ribosomal RNA synthesis. PMID:25815716

  20. Pharmacologic inhibition of the CK2-mediated phosphorylation of B23/NPM in cancer cells selectively modulates genes related to protein synthesis, energetic metabolism, and ribosomal biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Yasser; Pedroso, Seidy; Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Vázquez, Dania M; Miranda, Jamilet; Villareal, Adelaida; Falcón, Viviana; Cruz, Luis D; Farinas, Hernán G; Perea, Silvio E

    2015-06-01

    B23/NPM is a multifunctional nucleolar protein frequently overexpressed, mutated, or rearranged in neoplastic tissues. B23/NPM is involved in diverse biological processes and is mainly regulated by heteroligomer association and posttranslational modification, phosphorylation being a major posttranslational event. While the role of B23/NPM in supporting and/or driving malignant transformation is widely recognized, the particular relevance of its CK2-mediated phosphorylation remains unsolved. Interestingly, the pharmacologic inhibition of such phosphorylation event by CIGB-300, a clinical-grade peptide drug, was previously associated to apoptosis induction in tumor cell lines. In this work, we sought to identify the biological processes modulated by CIGB-300 in a lung cancer cell line using subtractive suppression hybridization and subsequent functional annotation clustering. Our results indicate that CIGB-300 modulates a subset of genes involved in protein synthesis (ES = 8.4, p < 0.001), mitochondrial ATP metabolism (ES = 2.5, p < 0.001), and ribosomal biogenesis (ES = 1.5, p < 0.05). The impairment of these cellular processes by CIGB-300 was corroborated at the molecular and cellular levels by Western blot (P-S6/P-4EBP1, translation), confocal microscopy (JC-1, mitochondrial potential), qPCR (45SrRNA/p21, ribosome biogenesis), and electron microscopy (nucleolar structure, ribosome biogenesis). Altogether, our findings provide new insights on the potential relevance of the CK2-mediated phosphorylation of B23/NPM in cancer cells, revealing at the same time the potentialities of its pharmacological manipulation for cancer therapy. Finally, this work also suggests several candidate gene biomarkers to be evaluated during the clinical development of the anti-CK2 peptide CIGB-300.

  1. The complexity of human ribosome biogenesis revealed by systematic nucleolar screening of Pre-rRNA processing factors.

    PubMed

    Tafforeau, Lionel; Zorbas, Christiane; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Mullineux, Sahra-Taylor; Stamatopoulou, Vassiliki; Mullier, Romain; Wacheul, Ludivine; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2013-08-22

    Mature ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are produced from polycistronic precursors following complex processing. Precursor (pre)-rRNA processing has been extensively characterized in yeast and was assumed to be conserved in humans. We functionally characterized 625 nucleolar proteins in HeLa cells and identified 286 required for processing, including 74 without a yeast homolog. For selected candidates, we demonstrated that pre-rRNA processing defects are conserved in different cell types (including primary cells), defects are not due to activation of a p53-dependent nucleolar tumor surveillance pathway, and they precede cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. We also investigated the exosome's role in processing internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) and report that 3' end maturation of 18S rRNA involves EXOSC10/Rrp6, a yeast ITS2 processing factor. We conclude that human cells adopt unique strategies and recruit distinct trans-acting factors to carry out essential processing steps, posing fundamental implications for understanding ribosomopathies at the molecular level and developing effective therapeutic agents. PMID:23973377

  2. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huayan; Lü, Shiyou; Li, Ruixi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Liu, Pei; Wang, Guangchao; Xia, Yiji; Running, Mark P; Xiong, Liming

    2015-11-01

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  3. Ribosomopathies: human disorders of ribosome dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Narla, Anupama; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2010-04-22

    Ribosomopathies compose a collection of disorders in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis and function, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. Congenital mutations in RPS19 and other genes encoding ribosomal proteins cause Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a disorder characterized by hypoplastic, macrocytic anemia. Mutations in other genes required for normal ribosome biogenesis have been implicated in other rare congenital syndromes, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, cartilage hair hypoplasia, and Treacher Collins syndrome. In addition, the 5q- syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome, is caused by a somatically acquired deletion of chromosome 5q, which leads to haploinsufficiency of the ribosomal protein RPS14 and an erythroid phenotype highly similar to Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Acquired abnormalities in ribosome function have been implicated more broadly in human malignancies. The p53 pathway provides a surveillance mechanism for protein translation as well as genome integrity and is activated by defects in ribosome biogenesis; this pathway appears to be a critical mediator of many of the clinical features of ribosomopathies. Elucidation of the mechanisms whereby selective abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis cause specific clinical syndromes will hopefully lead to novel therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:20194897

  4. Perturbation of ribosome biogenesis drives cells into senescence through 5S RNP-mediated p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuho; Kumazawa, Takuya; Kuroda, Takao; Katagiri, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Mai; Goto, Natsuka; Furumai, Ryohei; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn; Kimura, Keiji

    2015-03-01

    The 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complex, consisting of RPL11, RPL5, and 5S rRNA, is implicated in p53 regulation under ribotoxic stress. Here, we show that the 5S RNP contributes to p53 activation and promotes cellular senescence in response to oncogenic or replicative stress. Oncogenic stress accelerates rRNA transcription and replicative stress delays rRNA processing, resulting in RPL11 and RPL5 accumulation in the ribosome-free fraction, where they bind MDM2. Experimental upregulation of rRNA transcription or downregulation of rRNA processing, mimicking the nucleolus under oncogenic or replicative stress, respectively, also induces RPL11-mediated p53 activation and cellular senescence. We demonstrate that exogenous expression of certain rRNA-processing factors rescues the processing defect, attenuates p53 accumulation, and increases replicative lifespan. To summarize, the nucleolar-5S RNP-p53 pathway functions as a senescence inducer in response to oncogenic and replicative stresses.

  5. The histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation pathway is regulated by target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and functions directly in ribosomal RNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongfeng; Fan, Meiyun; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Laribee, R Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Epigenetic changes in chromatin through histone post-translational modifications are essential for altering gene transcription in response to environmental cues. How histone modifications are regulated by environmental stimuli remains poorly understood yet this process is critical for delineating how epigenetic pathways are influenced by the cellular environment. We have used the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, which transmits environmental nutrient signals to control cell growth, as a model to delineate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. A chemical genomics screen using the TOR inhibitor rapamycin against a histone H3/H4 mutant library identified histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) as a chromatin modification regulated by TOR signaling. We demonstrate this acetylation pathway functions in TOR-dependent cell growth in part by contributing directly to ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Specifically, H3K56ac creates a chromatin environment permissive to RNA polymerase I transcription and nascent rRNA processing by regulating binding of the high mobility group protein Hmo1 and the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processome complex. Overall, these studies identify a novel chromatin regulatory role for TOR signaling and support a specific function for H3K56ac in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene transcription and nascent rRNA processing essential for cell growth.

  6. Splicing Factor 2-Associated Protein p32 Participates in Ribosome Biogenesis by Regulating the Binding of Nop52 and Fibrillarin to Preribosome Particles*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Komatsu, Wataru; Hayano, Toshiya; Miura, Yutaka; Homma, Keiichi; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Isobe, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis starts with transcription of the large ribosomal RNA precursor (47S pre-rRNA), which soon combines with numerous factors to form the 90S pre-ribosome in the nucleolus. Although the subsequent separation of the pre-90S particle into pre-40S and pre-60S particles is critical for the production process of mature small and large ribosomal subunits, its molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. Here, we present evidence that p32, fibrillarin (FBL), and Nop52 play key roles in this separation step. Mass-based analyses combined with immunoblotting showed that p32 associated with 155 proteins including 31 rRNA-processing factors (of which nine were components of small subunit processome, and six were those of RIX1 complex), 13 chromatin remodeling components, and six general transcription factors required for RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription. Of these, a late rRNA-processing factor Nop52 interacted directly with p32. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that p32 colocalized with an early rRNA-processing factor FBL or Nop52 in the nucleolus and Cajal bodies, but was excluded from the nucleolus after actinomycin D treatment. p32 was present in the pre-ribosomal fractions prepared by cell fractionation or separated by ultracentrifugation of the nuclear extract. p32 also associated with pre-rRNAs including 47S/45S and 32S pre-rRNAs. Furthermore, knockdown of p32 with a small interfering RNA slowed the early processing from 47S/45S pre-rRNAs to 18S rRNA and 32S pre-rRNA. Finally, Nop52 was found to compete with FBL for binding to p32 probably in the nucleolus. Given the fact that FBL and Nop52 are associated with pre-ribosome particles distinctly different from each other, we suggest that p32 is a new rRNA maturation factor involved in the remodeling from pre-90S particles to pre-40S and pre-60S particles that requires the exchange of FBL for Nop52. PMID:21536856

  7. Probing the mechanisms underlying human diseases in making ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Farley, Katherine I; Baserga, Susan J

    2016-08-15

    Ribosomes are essential, highly complex machines responsible for protein synthesis in all growing cells. Because of their importance, the process of building these machines is intricately regulated. Although the proteins involved in regulating ribosome biogenesis are just beginning to be understood, especially in human cells, the consequences for dysregulating this process have been even less studied. Such interruptions in ribosome synthesis result in a collection of human disorders known as ribosomopathies. Ribosomopathies, which occur due to mutations in proteins involved in the global process of ribosome biogenesis, result in tissue-specific defects. The questions posed by this dichotomy and the steps taken to address these questions are therefore the focus of this review: How can tissue-specific disorders result from alterations in global processes? Could ribosome specialization account for this difference? PMID:27528749

  8. Structural insight into the functional mechanism of Nep1/Emg1 N1-specific pseudouridine methyltransferase in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Seth R.; Keller, Christopher A.; Szyk, Agnieszka; Cannon, Joe R.; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole A.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleolar Essential Protein 1 (Nep1) is required for small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation and is mutated in Bowen–Conradi Syndrome. Although yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Nep1 interacts with a consensus sequence found in three regions of SSU rRNA, the molecular details of the interaction are unknown. Nep1 is a SPOUT RNA methyltransferase, and can catalyze methylation at the N1 of pseudouridine. Nep1 is also involved in assembly of Rps19, an SSU ribosomal protein. Mutations in Nep1 that result in decreased methyl donor binding do not result in lethality, suggesting that enzymatic activity may not be required for function, and RNA binding may play a more important role. To study these interactions, the crystal structures of the scNep1 dimer and its complexes with RNA were determined. The results demonstrate that Nep1 recognizes its RNA site via base-specific interactions and stabilizes a stem-loop in the bound RNA. Furthermore, the RNA structure observed contradicts the predicted structures of the Nep1-binding sites within mature rRNA, suggesting that the Nep1 changes rRNA structure upon binding. Finally, a uridine base is bound in the active site of Nep1, positioned for a methyltransfer at the C5 position, supporting its role as an N1-specific pseudouridine methyltransferase. PMID:21087996

  9. Reduction in Ribosomal Protein Synthesis Is Sufficient To Explain Major Effects on Ribosome Production after Short-Term TOR Inactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Alarich; Steinbauer, Robert; Philippi, Anja; Gerber, Jochen; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis depends on nutrient availability, sensed by the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in eukaryotes. TOR inactivation affects ribosome biogenesis at the level of rRNA gene transcription, expression of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and biogenesis factors, preribosome processing, and transport. Here, we demonstrate that upon TOR inactivation, levels of newly synthesized ribosomal subunits drop drastically before the integrity of the RNA polymerase I apparatus is severely impaired but in good correlation with a sharp decrease in r-protein production. Inhibition of translation by cycloheximide mimics the rRNA maturation defect observed immediately after TOR inactivation. Both cycloheximide addition and the depletion of individual r-proteins also reproduce TOR-dependent nucleolar entrapment of specific ribosomal precursor complexes. We suggest that shortage of newly synthesized r-proteins after short-term TOR inactivation is sufficient to explain most of the observed effects on ribosome production. PMID:21149576

  10. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  11. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-05-19

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes.

  12. Defective pigment granule biogenesis and aberrant behavior caused by mutations in the Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin gene ruby.

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, D; Poeck, B; Roth, H; Ernst, R; Keller, A; Porsch, M; Strauss, R; Pflugfelder, G O

    2000-01-01

    Lysosomal protein trafficking is a fundamental process conserved from yeast to humans. This conservation extends to lysosome-like organelles such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. Recently, eye and coat color mutations in mouse (mocha and pearl) and Drosophila (garnet and carmine) were shown to affect subunits of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 involved in vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila eye color mutant ruby is defective in the AP-3beta subunit gene. ruby expression was found in retinal pigment and photoreceptor cells and in the developing central nervous system. ruby mutations lead to a decreased number and altered size of pigment granules in various cell types in and adjacent to the retina. Humans with lesions in the related AP-3betaA gene suffer from Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, which is caused by defects in a number of lysosome-related organelles. Hermansky-Pudlak patients have a reduced skin pigmentation and suffer from internal bleeding, pulmonary fibrosis, and visual system malfunction. The Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin also appears to be involved in processes other than eye pigment granule biogenesis because all ruby allele combinations tested exhibited defective behavior in a visual fixation paradigm. PMID:10790396

  13. The importance of ribosome production, and the 5S RNP-MDM2 pathway, in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pelava, Andria; Schneider, Claudia; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2016-08-15

    Ribosomes are abundant, large RNA-protein complexes that are the source of all protein synthesis in the cell. The production of ribosomes is an extremely energetically expensive cellular process that has long been linked to human health and disease. More recently, it has been shown that ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to multiple cellular signalling pathways and that defects in ribosome production can lead to a wide variety of human diseases. Furthermore, changes in ribosome production in response to nutrient levels in the diet lead to metabolic re-programming of the liver. Reduced or abnormal ribosome production in response to cellular stress or mutations in genes encoding factors critical for ribosome biogenesis causes the activation of the tumour suppressor p53, which leads to re-programming of cellular transcription. The ribosomal assembly intermediate 5S RNP (ribonucleoprotein particle), containing RPL5, RPL11 and the 5S rRNA, accumulates when ribosome biogenesis is blocked. The excess 5S RNP binds to murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the main p53-suppressor in the cell, inhibiting its function and leading to p53 activation. Here, we discuss the involvement of ribosome biogenesis in the homoeostasis of p53 in the cell and in human health and disease. PMID:27528756

  14. The importance of ribosome production, and the 5S RNP-MDM2 pathway, in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pelava, Andria; Schneider, Claudia; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2016-08-15

    Ribosomes are abundant, large RNA-protein complexes that are the source of all protein synthesis in the cell. The production of ribosomes is an extremely energetically expensive cellular process that has long been linked to human health and disease. More recently, it has been shown that ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to multiple cellular signalling pathways and that defects in ribosome production can lead to a wide variety of human diseases. Furthermore, changes in ribosome production in response to nutrient levels in the diet lead to metabolic re-programming of the liver. Reduced or abnormal ribosome production in response to cellular stress or mutations in genes encoding factors critical for ribosome biogenesis causes the activation of the tumour suppressor p53, which leads to re-programming of cellular transcription. The ribosomal assembly intermediate 5S RNP (ribonucleoprotein particle), containing RPL5, RPL11 and the 5S rRNA, accumulates when ribosome biogenesis is blocked. The excess 5S RNP binds to murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the main p53-suppressor in the cell, inhibiting its function and leading to p53 activation. Here, we discuss the involvement of ribosome biogenesis in the homoeostasis of p53 in the cell and in human health and disease.

  15. The importance of ribosome production, and the 5S RNP–MDM2 pathway, in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pelava, Andria; Schneider, Claudia; Watkins, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomes are abundant, large RNA–protein complexes that are the source of all protein synthesis in the cell. The production of ribosomes is an extremely energetically expensive cellular process that has long been linked to human health and disease. More recently, it has been shown that ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to multiple cellular signalling pathways and that defects in ribosome production can lead to a wide variety of human diseases. Furthermore, changes in ribosome production in response to nutrient levels in the diet lead to metabolic re-programming of the liver. Reduced or abnormal ribosome production in response to cellular stress or mutations in genes encoding factors critical for ribosome biogenesis causes the activation of the tumour suppressor p53, which leads to re-programming of cellular transcription. The ribosomal assembly intermediate 5S RNP (ribonucleoprotein particle), containing RPL5, RPL11 and the 5S rRNA, accumulates when ribosome biogenesis is blocked. The excess 5S RNP binds to murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the main p53-suppressor in the cell, inhibiting its function and leading to p53 activation. Here, we discuss the involvement of ribosome biogenesis in the homoeostasis of p53 in the cell and in human health and disease. PMID:27528756

  16. Disruption of the Rice Plastid Ribosomal Protein S20 Leads to Chloroplast Developmental Defects and Seedling Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaodi; Jiang, Quan; Xu, Jianlong; Zhang, Jianhui; Teng, Sheng; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) are essential for ribosome biogenesis, plastid protein biosynthesis, chloroplast differentiation, and early chloroplast development. This study identifies the first rice PRP mutant, asl1 (albino seedling lethality1), which exhibits an albino lethal phenotype at the seedling stage. This albino phenotype was associated with altered chlorophyll (Chl) content and chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that ASL1 encodes PRP S20 (PRPS20), which localizes to the chloroplast. ASL1 showed tissue-specific expression, as it was highly expressed in plumule and young seedlings but expressed at much lower levels in other tissues. In addition, ASL1 expression was regulated by light. The transcript levels of nuclear genes for Chl biosynthesis and chloroplast development were strongly affected in asl1 mutants; transcripts of some plastid genes for photosynthesis were undetectable. Our findings indicate that nuclear-encoded PRPS20 plays an important role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:23979931

  17. Mice with a Mutation in the Mdm2 Gene That Interferes with MDM2/Ribosomal Protein Binding Develop a Defect in Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kamio, Takuya; Gu, Bai-wei; Olson, Timothy S.; Zhang, Yanping; Mason, Philip J.; Bessler, Monica

    2016-01-01

    MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important negative regulator of tumor suppressor p53. In turn the Mdm2 gene is a transcriptional target of p53, forming a negative feedback loop that is important in cell cycle control. It has recently become apparent that the ubiquitination of p53 by MDM2 can be inhibited when certain ribosomal proteins, including RPL5 and RPL11, bind to MDM2. This inhibition, and the resulting increase in p53 levels has been proposed to be responsible for the red cell aplasia seen in Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). DBA and 5q- MDS are associated with inherited (DBA) or acquired (5q- MDS) haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins. A mutation in Mdm2 causing a C305F amino acid substitution blocks the binding of ribosomal proteins. Mice harboring this mutation (Mdm2C305F), retain a normal p53 response to DNA damage, but lack the p53 response to perturbations in ribosome biogenesis. While studying the interaction between RP haploinsufficiency and the Mdm2C305F mutation we noticed that Mdm2C305F homozygous mice had altered hematopoiesis. These mice developed a mild macrocytic anemia with reticulocytosis. In the bone marrow (BM), these mice showed a significant decrease in Ter119hi cells compared to wild type (WT) littermates, while no decrease in the number of mature erythroid cells (Ter119hiCD71low) was found in the spleen, which showed compensated bone marrow hematopoiesis. In methylcellulose cultures, BFU-E colonies from the mutant mice were slightly reduced in number and there was a significant reduction in CFU-E colony numbers in mutant mice compared with WT controls (p < 0.01). This erythropoietic defect was abrogated by concomitant p53 deficiency (Trp53ko/ko). Further investigation revealed that in Mdm2C305F animals, there was a decrease in Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells, accompanied by significant decreases in multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells (p < 0.01). Competitive BM repopulation experiments showed

  18. The gene mutated in cocoa mice, carrying a defect of organelle biogenesis, is a homologue of the human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome-3 gene.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Li, W; Zhang, Q; Novak, E K; Sviderskaya, E V; Wilson, A; Bennett, D C; Roe, B A; Swank, R T; Spritz, R A

    2001-11-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a group of human disorders of organelle biogenesis characterized by defective synthesis of melanosomes, lysosomes, and platelet dense granules. In the mouse, at least 15 loci are associated with mutant phenotypes similar to human HPS. We have identified the gene mutated in cocoa (coa) mice, which is associated with an HPS-like mutant phenotype and thus represents a strong candidate for human HPS. Analysis of coa-mutant mice and cultured coa-mutant mouse melanocytes indicates that the normal coa gene product is involved in early stages of melanosome biogenesis and maturation.

  19. Defects in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis result in failure of multiple aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kursu, V A Samuli; Pietikäinen, Laura P; Fontanesi, Flavia; Aaltonen, Mari J; Suomi, Fumi; Raghavan Nair, Remya; Schonauer, Melissa S; Dieckmann, Carol L; Barrientos, Antoni; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) shares acetyl-CoA with the Krebs cycle as a common substrate and is required for the production of octanoic acid (C8) precursors of lipoic acid (LA) in mitochondria. MtFAS is a conserved pathway essential for respiration. In a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae designed to further elucidate the physiological role of mtFAS, we isolated mutants with defects in mitochondrial post-translational gene expression processes, indicating a novel link to mitochondrial gene expression and respiratory chain biogenesis. In our ensuing analysis, we show that mtFAS, but not lipoylation per se, is required for respiratory competence. We demonstrate that mtFAS is required for mRNA splicing, mitochondrial translation and respiratory complex assembly, and provide evidence that not LA per se, but fatty acids longer than C8 play a role in these processes. We also show that mtFAS- and LA-deficient strains suffer from a mild haem deficiency that may contribute to the respiratory complex assembly defect. Based on our data and previously published information, we propose a model implicating mtFAS as a sensor for mitochondrial acetyl-CoA availability and a co-ordinator of nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression by adapting the mitochondrial compartment to changes in the metabolic status of the cell.

  20. Defect in the Formation of 70S Ribosomes Caused by Lack of Ribosomal Protein L34 Can Be Suppressed by Magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ako; Suzuki, Shota; Kawamura, Fujio; Shiwa, Yuh; Watanabe, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hanai, Ryo; Ishizuka, Morio

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the biological functions of the ribosomal protein L34, which is encoded by the rpmH gene, the rpmH deletion mutant of Bacillus subtilis and two suppressor mutants were characterized. Although the ΔrpmH mutant exhibited a severe slow-growth phenotype, additional mutations in the yhdP or mgtE gene restored the growth rate of the ΔrpmH strain. Either the disruption of yhdP, which is thought to be involved in the efflux of Mg2+, or overexpression of mgtE, which plays a major role in the import of Mg2+, could suppress defects in both the formation of the 70S ribosome and growth caused by the absence of L34. Interestingly, the Mg2+ content was lower in the ΔrpmH cells than in the wild type, and the Mg2+ content in the ΔrpmH cells was restored by either the disruption of yhdP or overexpression of mgtE. In vitro experiments on subunit association demonstrated that 50S subunits that lacked L34 could form 70S ribosomes only at a high concentration of Mg2+. These results showed that L34 is required for efficient 70S ribosome formation and that L34 function can be restored partially by Mg2+. In addition, the Mg2+ content was consistently lower in mutants that contained significantly reduced amounts of the 70S ribosome, such as the ΔrplA (L1) and ΔrplW (L23) strains and mutant strains with a reduced number of copies of the rrn operon. Thus, the results indicated that the cellular Mg2+ content is influenced by the amount of 70S ribosomes. PMID:25182490

  1. Defect in the formation of 70S ribosomes caused by lack of ribosomal protein L34 can be suppressed by magnesium.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Genki; Kobayashi, Ako; Suzuki, Shota; Kawamura, Fujio; Shiwa, Yuh; Watanabe, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hanai, Ryo; Ishizuka, Morio

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the biological functions of the ribosomal protein L34, which is encoded by the rpmH gene, the rpmH deletion mutant of Bacillus subtilis and two suppressor mutants were characterized. Although the ΔrpmH mutant exhibited a severe slow-growth phenotype, additional mutations in the yhdP or mgtE gene restored the growth rate of the ΔrpmH strain. Either the disruption of yhdP, which is thought to be involved in the efflux of Mg(2+), or overexpression of mgtE, which plays a major role in the import of Mg(2+), could suppress defects in both the formation of the 70S ribosome and growth caused by the absence of L34. Interestingly, the Mg(2+) content was lower in the ΔrpmH cells than in the wild type, and the Mg(2+) content in the ΔrpmH cells was restored by either the disruption of yhdP or overexpression of mgtE. In vitro experiments on subunit association demonstrated that 50S subunits that lacked L34 could form 70S ribosomes only at a high concentration of Mg(2+). These results showed that L34 is required for efficient 70S ribosome formation and that L34 function can be restored partially by Mg(2+). In addition, the Mg(2+) content was consistently lower in mutants that contained significantly reduced amounts of the 70S ribosome, such as the ΔrplA (L1) and ΔrplW (L23) strains and mutant strains with a reduced number of copies of the rrn operon. Thus, the results indicated that the cellular Mg(2+) content is influenced by the amount of 70S ribosomes.

  2. Identification of six loci in which mutations partially restore peroxisome biogenesis and/or alleviate the metabolic defect of pex2 mutants in podospora.

    PubMed Central

    Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Panvier-Adoutte, Arlette; Picard, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Peroxins (PEX) are proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in PEX genes cause lethal diseases in humans, metabolic defects in yeasts, and developmental disfunctions in plants and filamentous fungi. Here we describe the first large-scale screening for suppressors of a pex mutation. In Podospora anserina, pex2 mutants exhibit a metabolic defect [inability to grow on medium containing oleic acid (OA medium) as sole carbon source] and a developmental defect (inability to differentiate asci in homozygous crosses). Sixty-three mutations able to restore growth of pex2 mutants on OA medium have been analyzed. They fall in six loci (suo1 to suo6) and act as dominant, allele-nonspecific suppressors. Most suo mutations have pleiotropic effects in a pex2(+) background: formation of unripe ascospores (all loci except suo5 and suo6), impaired growth on OA medium (all loci except suo4 and suo6), or sexual defects (suo4). Using immunofluorescence and GFP staining, we show that peroxisome biogenesis is partially restored along with a low level of ascus differentiation in pex2 mutant strains carrying either the suo5 or the suo6 mutations. The data are discussed with respect to beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome biogenesis, and cell differentiation. PMID:12136013

  3. Maize reas1 Mutant Stimulates Ribosome Use Efficiency and Triggers Distinct Transcriptional and Translational Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Qun; Li, Xia; Yao, Dongsheng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process in all cells. Impaired ribosome biogenesis causes developmental defects; however, its molecular and cellular bases are not fully understood. We cloned a gene responsible for a maize (Zea mays) small seed mutant, dek* (for defective kernel), and found that it encodes Ribosome export associated1 (ZmReas1). Reas1 is an AAA-ATPase that controls 60S ribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after ribosome maturation. dek* is a weak mutant allele with decreased Reas1 function. In dek* cells, mature 60S ribosome subunits are reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the proportion of actively translating polyribosomes in cytosol is significantly increased. Reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and the increased elongation factor 1α level indicate an enhancement of general translational efficiency in dek* cells. The mutation also triggers dramatic changes in differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs. Discrepancy was observed between differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs, indicating distinct cellular responses at transcription and translation levels to the stress of defective ribosome processing. DNA replication and nucleosome assembly-related gene expression are selectively suppressed at the translational level, resulting in inhibited cell growth and proliferation in dek* cells. This study provides insight into cellular responses due to impaired ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26645456

  4. Ubiquitous Autofragmentation of Fluorescent Proteins Creates Abundant Defective Ribosomal Products (DRiPs) for Immunosurveillance*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiajie; Gibbs, James S.; Hickman, Heather D.; Cush, Stephanie S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other fluorescent proteins are essential tools for biological research. When fused to peptides or proteins as a reporter, GFP enables localization and quantitation of gene products in otherwise unmanipulated live cells or organisms. We previously reported that a sizable fraction of nascent GFP is post-translationally converted into a 20-kDa Triton X-100-insoluble proteasome substrate (Qian, S. B., Princiotta, M. F., Bennink, J. R., and Yewdell, J. W. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 392–400; Dolan, B. P., Li, L., Veltri, C. A., Ireland, C. M., Bennink, J. R., and Yewdell, J. W. (2011) J. Immunol. 186, 2065–2072). Here, we show that a similarly sized fragment is generated by all GFP and red fluorescent protein family members we examined. We demonstrate that fragmentation is a by-product of GFP chromophore rearrangement. A non-rearranging GFP mutant fails to fragment and generates diminished levels of Kb-SIINFEKL complexes when SIINFEKL is genetically fused to either the C- or N-terminal domains of GFP fusion proteins. Instructively, another fragmenting GFP mutant that cannot create the functional chromophore but still generates fragments also demonstrates diminished Kb-SIINFEKL generation. However, the mutant and wild-type fragments differ fundamentally in that wild-type fragments are rapidly liberated from the intact molecule and degraded quickly, accounting for increased Kb-SIINFEKL generation. In the fragmenting mutant, the fragments are generated slowly and remain associated, likely in a native conformation based on their original structural description (Barondeau, D. P., Kassmann, C. J., Tainer, J. A., and Getzoff, E. D. (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 4685–4693). The wild-type GFP fragments represent the first biochemically defined natural defective ribosomal products to contribute peptides for immunosurveillance, enabling quantitation of peptide generation efficiency from this source of defective ribosomal products. More

  5. Tagging ribosomal protein S7 allows rapid identification of mutants defective in assembly and function of 30 S subunits.

    PubMed

    Fredrick, K; Dunny, G M; Noller, H F

    2000-05-01

    Ribosomal protein S7 nucleates folding of the 16 S rRNA 3' major domain, which ultimately forms the head of the 30 S ribosomal subunit. Recent crystal structures indicate that S7 lies on the interface side of the 30 S subunit, near the tRNA binding sites of the ribosome. To map the functional surface of S7, we have tagged the protein with a Protein Kinase A recognition site and engineered alanine substitutions that target each exposed, conserved residue. We have also deleted conserved features of S7, using its structure to guide our design. By radiolabeling the tag sequence using Protein Kinase A, we are able to track the partitioning of each mutant protein into 30 S, 70 S, and polyribosome fractions in vivo. Overexpression of S7 confers a growth defect, and we observe a striking correlation between this phenotype and proficiency in 30 S subunit assembly among our collection of mutants. We find that the side chain of K35 is required for efficient assembly of S7 into 30 S subunits in vivo, whereas those of at least 17 other conserved exposed residues are not required. In addition, an S7 derivative lacking the N-terminal 17 residues causes ribosomes to accumulate on mRNA to abnormally high levels, indicating that our approach can yield interesting mutant ribosomes.

  6. Mitochondrial ribosome assembly in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Tu, Ya-Ting; Amunts, Alexey; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome is a structurally and functionally conserved macromolecular machine universally responsible for catalyzing protein synthesis. Within eukaryotic cells, mitochondria contain their own ribosomes (mitoribosomes), which synthesize a handful of proteins, all essential for the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of the yeast, porcine and human mitoribosomal subunits and of the entire human mitoribosome have uncovered a wealth of new information to illustrate their evolutionary divergence from their bacterial ancestors and their adaptation to synthesis of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. With such structural data becoming available, one of the most important remaining questions is that of the mitoribosome assembly pathway and factors involved. The regulation of mitoribosome biogenesis is paramount to mitochondrial respiration, and thus to cell viability, growth and differentiation. Moreover, mutations affecting the rRNA and protein components produce severe human mitochondrial disorders. Despite its biological and biomedical significance, knowledge on mitoribosome biogenesis and its deviations from the much-studied bacterial ribosome assembly processes is scarce, especially the order of rRNA processing and assembly events and the regulatory factors required to achieve fully functional particles. This article focuses on summarizing the current available information on mitoribosome assembly pathway, factors that form the mitoribosome assembly machinery, and the effect of defective mitoribosome assembly on human health. PMID:26030272

  7. Mitochondrial ribosome assembly in health and disease.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Tu, Ya-Ting; Amunts, Alexey; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome is a structurally and functionally conserved macromolecular machine universally responsible for catalyzing protein synthesis. Within eukaryotic cells, mitochondria contain their own ribosomes (mitoribosomes), which synthesize a handful of proteins, all essential for the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of the yeast, porcine and human mitoribosomal subunits and of the entire human mitoribosome have uncovered a wealth of new information to illustrate their evolutionary divergence from their bacterial ancestors and their adaptation to synthesis of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. With such structural data becoming available, one of the most important remaining questions is that of the mitoribosome assembly pathway and factors involved. The regulation of mitoribosome biogenesis is paramount to mitochondrial respiration, and thus to cell viability, growth and differentiation. Moreover, mutations affecting the rRNA and protein components produce severe human mitochondrial disorders. Despite its biological and biomedical significance, knowledge on mitoribosome biogenesis and its deviations from the much-studied bacterial ribosome assembly processes is scarce, especially the order of rRNA processing and assembly events and the regulatory factors required to achieve fully functional particles. This article focuses on summarizing the current available information on mitoribosome assembly pathway, factors that form the mitoribosome assembly machinery, and the effect of defective mitoribosome assembly on human health.

  8. Single mutations introduced in the essential ribosomal proteins L3 and S10 cause a sporulation defect in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Genki; Suzuki, Shota; Yano, Koichi; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Natori, Yousuke; Namba, Eri; Watanabe, Kazuya; Tagami, Kazumi; Takeda, Takuya; Iizuka, Yuka; Kobayashi, Ako; Ishizuka, Morio; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Fujio

    2013-01-01

    We introduced single mutations into the rplC and rpsJ genes, which encode the essential ribosomal proteins L3 (RplC) and S10 (RpsJ), respectively, and are located in the S10 gene cluster of the gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and examined whether these mutations affected their growth rate, sporulation, competence development and 70S ribosome formation. Mutant cells harboring the G52D mutation in the L3 ribosomal protein, which is located at the peptidyl transferase center of 50S, accumulated 30S subunit at 45°C, probably due to a defect in 50S formation, and exhibited a reduction in the sporulation frequency at high temperature. On the other hand, mutant cells harboring the H56R mutation in the S10 protein, which is located near the aminoacyl-tRNA site of 30S, showed severe growth defect and deficiency in spore formation, and also exhibited significant delay in competence development.

  9. Bms1p, a novel GTP-binding protein, and the related Tsr1p are required for distinct steps of 40S ribosome biogenesis in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Gelperin, D; Horton, L; Beckman, J; Hensold, J; Lemmon, S K

    2001-01-01

    Bms1p and Tsr1p define a novel family of proteins required for synthesis of 40S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both are essential and localize to the nucleolus. Tsr1p shares two extended regions of similarity with Bms1p, but the two proteins function at different steps in 40S ribosome maturation. Inactivation of Bms1p blocks at an early step, leading to disappearance of 20S and 18S rRNA precursors. Also, slight accumulation of an aberrant 23S product and significant 35S accumulation are observed, indicating that pre-rRNA processing at sites A0, A1, and A2 is inhibited. In contrast, depletion of Tsr1p results in accumulation of 20S rRNA. Because processing of 20S to 18S rRNA occurs in the cytoplasm, this suggests that Tsr1p is required for assembly of a transport- or maturation-competent particle or is specifically required for transport of 43S pre-ribosomal particles, but not 60S ribosome precursors, from the nucleus to the cytosol. Finally, Bms1p is a GTP-binding protein, the first found to function in ribosome assembly or rRNA processing. PMID:11565749

  10. Yeast Ribosomal Protein L40 Assembles Late into Precursor 60 S Ribosomes and Is Required for Their Cytoplasmic Maturation*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Most ribosomal proteins play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and function. Here, we have examined the contribution of the essential ribosomal protein L40 in these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of either the RPL40A or RPL40B gene and in vivo depletion of L40 impair 60 S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Polysome profile analyses reveal the accumulation of half-mers and a moderate reduction in free 60 S ribosomal subunits. Pulse-chase, Northern blotting, and primer extension analyses in the L40-depleted strain clearly indicate that L40 is not strictly required for the precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing reactions but contributes to optimal 27 SB pre-rRNA maturation. Moreover, depletion of L40 hinders the nucleo-cytoplasmic export of pre-60 S ribosomal particles. Importantly, all these defects most likely appear as the direct consequence of impaired Nmd3 and Rlp24 release from cytoplasmic pre-60 S ribosomal subunits and their inefficient recycling back into the nucle(ol)us. In agreement, we show that hemagglutinin epitope-tagged L40A assembles in the cytoplasm into almost mature pre-60 S ribosomal particles. Finally, we have identified that the hemagglutinin epitope-tagged L40A confers resistance to sordarin, a translation inhibitor that impairs the function of eukaryotic elongation factor 2, whereas the rpl40a and rpl40b null mutants are hypersensitive to this antibiotic. We conclude that L40 is assembled at a very late stage into pre-60 S ribosomal subunits and that its incorporation into 60 S ribosomal subunits is a prerequisite for subunit joining and may ensure proper functioning of the translocation process. PMID:22995916

  11. Human C4orf14 interacts with the mitochondrial nucleoid and is involved in the biogenesis of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit

    PubMed Central

    He, J.; Cooper, H. M.; Reyes, A.; Di Re, M.; Kazak, L.; Wood, S. R.; Mao, C. C.; Fearnley, I. M.; Walker, J. E.; Holt, I. J.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial homologue of C4orf14, YqeH, has been linked to assembly of the small ribosomal subunit. Here, recombinant C4orf14 isolated from human cells, co-purified with the small, 28S subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the endogenous protein co-fractionated with the 28S subunit in sucrose gradients. Gene silencing of C4orf14 specifically affected components of the small subunit, leading to decreased protein synthesis in the organelle. The GTPase of C4orf14 was critical to its interaction with the 28S subunit, as was GTP. Therefore, we propose that C4orf14, with bound GTP, binds to components of the 28S subunit facilitating its assembly, and GTP hydrolysis acts as the release mechanism. C4orf14 was also found to be associated with human mitochondrial nucleoids, and C4orf14 gene silencing caused mitochondrial DNA depletion. In vitro C4orf14 is capable of binding to DNA. The association of C4orf14 with mitochondrial translation factors and the mitochondrial nucleoid suggests that the 28S subunit is assembled at the mitochondrial nucleoid, enabling the direct transfer of messenger RNA from the nucleoid to the ribosome in the organelle. PMID:22447445

  12. Haploinsufficiency of RPS14 in 5q− syndrome is associated with deregulation of ribosomal- and translation-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Pellagatti, Andrea; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Perry, Janet; Malcovati, Luca; Della Porta, Matteo G; Jädersten, Martin; Killick, Sally; Fidler, Carrie; Cazzola, Mario; Wainscoat, James S; Boultwood, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated haploinsufficiency of the ribosomal gene RPS14, which is required for the maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits and maps to the commonly deleted region, in the 5q− syndrome. Patients with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) show haploinsufficiency of the closely related ribosomal protein RPS19, and show a consequent downregulation of multiple ribosomal- and translation-related genes. By analogy with DBA, we have investigated the expression profiles of a large group of ribosomal- and translation-related genes in the CD34+ cells of 15 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with 5q− syndrome, 18 MDS patients with refractory anaemia (RA) and a normal karyotype, and 17 healthy controls. In this three-way comparison, 55 of 579 ribosomal- and translation-related probe sets were found to be significantly differentially expressed, with approximately 90% of these showing lower expression levels in the 5q− syndrome patient group. Using hierarchical clustering, patients with the 5q− syndrome could be separated both from other patients with RA and healthy controls solely on the basis of the deregulated expression of ribosomal- and translation-related genes. Patients with the 5q− syndrome have a defect in the expression of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and in the control of translation, suggesting that the 5q− syndrome represents a disorder of aberrant ribosome biogenesis. PMID:18477045

  13. Bypass of the pre-60S ribosomal quality control as a pathway to oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sulima, Sergey O; Patchett, Stephanie; Advani, Vivek M; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Johnson, Arlen W; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2014-04-15

    Ribosomopathies are a class of diseases caused by mutations that affect the biosynthesis and/or functionality of the ribosome. Although they initially present as hypoproliferative disorders, such as anemia, patients have elevated risk of hyperproliferative disease (cancer) by midlife. Here, this paradox is explored using the rpL10-R98S (uL16-R98S) mutant yeast model of the most commonly identified ribosomal mutation in acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. This mutation causes a late-stage 60S subunit maturation failure that targets mutant ribosomes for degradation. The resulting deficit in ribosomes causes the hypoproliferative phenotype. This 60S subunit shortage, in turn, exerts pressure on cells to select for suppressors of the ribosome biogenesis defect, allowing them to reestablish normal levels of ribosome production and cell proliferation. However, suppression at this step releases structurally and functionally defective ribosomes into the translationally active pool, and the translational fidelity defects of these mutants culminate in destabilization of selected mRNAs and shortened telomeres. We suggest that in exchange for resolving their short-term ribosome deficits through compensatory trans-acting suppressors, cells are penalized in the long term by changes in gene expression that ultimately undermine cellular homeostasis. PMID:24706786

  14. Paradigms of ribosome synthesis: Lessons learned from ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome in all cells is manufactured via the intricate process of translation by multimolecular factories called ribosomes. Nevertheless, these ribonucleoprotein particles, the largest of their kind, also have an elaborate assembly line of their own. Groundbreaking discoveries that bacterial ribosomal subunits can be self-assembled in vitro jumpstarted studies on how ribosomes are constructed. Until recently, ribosome assembly has been investigated almost entirely in vitro with bacterial small subunits under equilibrium conditions. In light of high-resolution ribosome structures and a more sophisticated toolkit, the past decade has been defined by a burst of kinetic studies in vitro and, importantly, also a shift to examining ribosome maturation in living cells, especially in eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize the principles governing ribosome assembly that emerged from studies focusing on ribosomal proteins and their interactions with rRNA. Understanding these paradigms has taken center stage, given the linkage between anomalous ribosome biogenesis and proliferative disorders. PMID:26779413

  15. Tertiary interactions within the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Deutsch, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Although tertiary folding of whole protein domains is prohibited by the cramped dimensions of the ribosomal tunnel, dynamic tertiary interactions may permit folding of small elementary units within the tunnel. To probe this possibility, we used a beta-hairpin and an alpha-helical hairpin from the cytosolic N terminus of a voltage-gated potassium channel and determined a probability of folding for each at defined locations inside and outside the tunnel. Minimalist tertiary structures can form near the exit port of the tunnel, a region that provides an entropic window for initial exploration of local peptide conformations. Tertiary subdomains of the nascent peptide fold sequentially, but not independently, during translation. These studies offer an approach for diagnosing the molecular basis for folding defects that lead to protein malfunction and provide insight into the role of the ribosome during early potassium channel biogenesis.

  16. Tertiary Interactions within the Ribosomal Exit Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Deutsch, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Although tertiary folding of whole protein domains is prohibited by the cramped dimensions of the ribosomal tunnel, dynamic tertiary interactions may permit folding of small elementary units within the tunnel. To probe this possibility, we used a β-hairpin as well as an α-helical hairpin from the cytosolic N-terminus of a voltage-gated potassium channel and determined a probability of folding for each at defined locations inside and outside the tunnel. Minimalist tertiary structures can form near the exit port of the tunnel, a region that provides an entropic window for initial exploration of local peptide conformations. Tertiary subdomains of the nascent peptide fold sequentially, but not independently, during translation. These studies offer an approach for diagnosing the molecular basis for folding defects that lead to protein malfunction and provide insight into the role of the ribosome during early potassium channel biogenesis. PMID:19270700

  17. Orthotopic liver transplantation from a living-related donor in an infant with a peroxisome biogenesis defect of the infantile Refsum disease type.

    PubMed

    Van Maldergem, L; Moser, A B; Vincent, M-F; Roland, D; Reding, R; Otte, J-B; Wanders, R J; Sokal, E

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis defects include a number of severe neurodevelopmental disorders, among which infantile Refsum disease (IRD) occupies the mildest end of the spectrum. Although high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and low phytanic acid diets can correct some of the biochemical defects, they have not consistently altered the progressive course of the disease. We carried out orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a mildly symptomatic 6-month-old infant who was a sibling of a severely neurologically impaired older sister. After transplantation the clinical course of this young child appeared much improved by comparison to her older sister. She walked alone at 4 years, had acceptable social interaction and had a noticeable recovery of audition. After transplantation her biochemical parameters were significantly improved: phytanic acid and very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) serum concentrations decreased. Abnormal bile acids disappeared from plasma. Although the OLT did not result in a cure of the disorder, the clinical and biochemical results suggest that OLT should be considered in mildly symptomatic patients.

  18. PIM1 destabilization activates a p53-dependent response to ribosomal stress in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Vinay; Caldarola, Sara; Aria, Valentina; Monteleone, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Gargioli, Cesare; Cannata, Stefano; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis triggers a stress response (ribosomal stress) that can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. Signaling pathways activated by ribosomal stress are specifically involved in the pathological mechanism of a group of disorders defined as ribosomopathies. However, more generally, the quality control of ribosome synthesis is part of the regulatory circuits that control cell metabolism. A number of studies identified tumor suppressor p53 as a central player in ribosomal stress. We have previously reported that the kinase PIM1 plays a role as a sensor for ribosome deficiency. In this report we address the relationship between PIM1 and p53 in cancer cell lines after depletion of a ribosomal protein. We identified a novel signaling pathway that includes the kinase AKT and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. In fact, our results indicate that the lower level of PIM1, induced by ribosomal stress, causes inactivation of AKT, inhibition of MDM2 and a consequent p53 stabilization. Therefore, we propose that activation of p53 in response to ribosomal stress, is dependent on the pathway PIM1-AKT-MDM2. In addition, we report evidence that PIM1 level may be relevant to assess the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ribosomal stress. PMID:26993775

  19. PIM1 destabilization activates a p53-dependent response to ribosomal stress in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Vinay; Caldarola, Sara; Aria, Valentina; Monteleone, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Gargioli, Cesare; Cannata, Stefano; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-04-26

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis triggers a stress response (ribosomal stress) that can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. Signaling pathways activated by ribosomal stress are specifically involved in the pathological mechanism of a group of disorders defined as ribosomopathies. However, more generally, the quality control of ribosome synthesis is part of the regulatory circuits that control cell metabolism. A number of studies identified tumor suppressor p53 as a central player in ribosomal stress. We have previously reported that the kinase PIM1 plays a role as a sensor for ribosome deficiency. In this report we address the relationship between PIM1 and p53 in cancer cell lines after depletion of a ribosomal protein. We identified a novel signaling pathway that includes the kinase AKT and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. In fact, our results indicate that the lower level of PIM1, induced by ribosomal stress, causes inactivation of AKT, inhibition of MDM2 and a consequent p53 stabilization. Therefore, we propose that activation of p53 in response to ribosomal stress, is dependent on the pathway PIM1-AKT-MDM2. In addition, we report evidence that PIM1 level may be relevant to assess the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ribosomal stress. PMID:26993775

  20. Ribosomopathies: Global process, tissue specific defects

    PubMed Central

    Yelick, Pamela C; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in ribosomal biogenesis would be expected to have global and in fact lethal effects on a developing organism. However, mutations in ribosomal protein genes have been shown in to exhibit tissue specific defects. This seemingly contradictory finding - that globally expressed genes thought to play fundamental housekeeping functions can in fact exhibit tissue and cell type specific functions ‐ provides new insight into roles for ribosomes, the protein translational machinery of the cell, in regulating normal development and disease. Furthermore it illustrates the surprisingly dynamic nature of processes regulating cell type specific protein translation. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of a variety of ribosomal protein mutations associated with human disease, and models to better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with each. We use specific examples to emphasize both the similarities and differences between the effects of various human ribosomal protein mutations. Finally, we discuss areas of future study that are needed to further our understanding of the role of ribosome biogenesis in normal development, and possible approaches that can be used to treat debilitating ribosomopathy diseases. PMID:26442198

  1. Ribosomopathies: Global process, tissue specific defects.

    PubMed

    Yelick, Pamela C; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in ribosomal biogenesis would be expected to have global and in fact lethal effects on a developing organism. However, mutations in ribosomal protein genes have been shown in to exhibit tissue specific defects. This seemingly contradictory finding - that globally expressed genes thought to play fundamental housekeeping functions can in fact exhibit tissue and cell type specific functions - provides new insight into roles for ribosomes, the protein translational machinery of the cell, in regulating normal development and disease. Furthermore it illustrates the surprisingly dynamic nature of processes regulating cell type specific protein translation. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of a variety of ribosomal protein mutations associated with human disease, and models to better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with each. We use specific examples to emphasize both the similarities and differences between the effects of various human ribosomal protein mutations. Finally, we discuss areas of future study that are needed to further our understanding of the role of ribosome biogenesis in normal development, and possible approaches that can be used to treat debilitating ribosomopathy diseases. PMID:26442198

  2. The nucleolus and transcription of ribosomal genes.

    PubMed

    Raska, Ivan; Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Fidlerová, Helena; Masata, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly dynamic, steady-state nucleolar process that involves synthesis and maturation of rRNA, its transient interactions with non-ribosomal proteins and RNPs and assembly with ribosomal proteins. In the few years of the 21st century, an exciting progress in the molecular understanding of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis has taken place. In this review, we discuss the recent results on the regulation of rRNA synthesis in relation to the functional organization of the nucleolus, and put an emphasis on the situation encountered in mammalian somatic cells.

  3. The emerging importance of ribosomal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Raiser, David M; Narla, Anupama; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2014-03-01

    More than a decade has passed since the initial identification of ribosomal protein gene mutations in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a hematologic disorder that became the founding member of a class of diseases known as ribosomopathies. In these diseases, genetic abnormalities that result in defective ribosome biogenesis cause strikingly tissue-specific phenotypes in patients, specifically bone marrow failure, craniofacial abnormalities and skeletal defects. Several animal models and numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the p53 pathway is central to the ribosomopathy phenotype. Additionally, there is mounting evidence of a link between the dysregulation of components of the translational machinery and the pathology of various malignancies. The importance of the role of ribosomal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of hematologic disorders is becoming clearer, and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms could have broad implications for both basic cellular biology and clinical intervention strategies. PMID:23863123

  4. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  5. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    ), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1α axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other

  6. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    ), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1α axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  8. Both endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic cleavage mediate ITS1 removal during human ribosomal RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Mattijssen, Sandy; Lebaron, Simon; Tollervey, David; Pruijn, Ger J M; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-03-01

    Human ribosome production is up-regulated during tumorogenesis and is defective in many genetic diseases (ribosomopathies). We have undertaken a detailed analysis of human precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing because surprisingly little is known about this important pathway. Processing in internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) is a key step that separates the rRNA components of the large and small ribosomal subunits. We report that this was initiated by endonuclease cleavage, which required large subunit biogenesis factors. This was followed by 3' to 5' exonucleolytic processing by RRP6 and the exosome, an enzyme complex not previously linked to ITS1 removal. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the endoribonuclease MRP did not result in a clear defect in ITS1 processing. Despite the apparently high evolutionary conservation of the pre-rRNA processing pathway and ribosome synthesis factors, each of these features of human ITS1 processing is distinct from those in budding yeast. These results also provide significant insight into the links between ribosomopathies and ribosome production in human cells. PMID:23439679

  9. A conserved domain important for association of eukaryotic J-protein co-chaperones Jjj1 and Zuo1 with the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Kaschner, Lindsey A; Sharma, Ruchika; Shrestha, Om Kumar; Meyer, Alison E; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2015-05-01

    J-proteins, obligate co-chaperones, provide specialization for Hsp70 function in a variety of cellular processes. Two of the 13 J-proteins of the yeast cytosol/nucleus, Zuo1 and Jjj1, are associated with 60S ribosomal subunits. Abundant Zuo1 facilitates folding of nascent polypeptides; Jjj1, of much lower abundance, functions in ribosome biogenesis. However, overexpression of Jjj1 substantially rescues growth defects of cells lacking Zuo1. We analyzed a region held in common by Zuo1 and Jjj1, outside the signature J-domain found in all J-proteins. This shared "zuotin homology domain" (ZHD) is important for ribosome association of both proteins. An N-terminal segment of Jjj1, containing the J-domain and ZHD, is ribosome-associated and, like full-length Jjj1, is competent to rescue both the cold- and cation-sensitivity of ∆zuo1. However, this fragment, when expressed at normal levels, cannot rescue the cytosolic ribosome biogenesis defect of ∆jjj1. Our results are consistent with a model in which the primary functions of Zuo1 and Jjj1 occur in the cytosol. In addition, our data suggest that Zuo1 and Jjj1 bind overlapping sites on ribosomes due to an interaction via their common ZHDs, but Jjj1 binds primarily to pre-60S particles and Zuo1 to mature subunits. We hypothesize that ZUO1 and JJJ1, which are conserved throughout eukaryotes, arose from an ancient duplication of a progenitor J-protein gene that encoded the ZHD ribosome-binding region; subsequently, specialized roles and additional ribosome interaction sites evolved.

  10. The eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension of ribosomal protein S31 contributes to the assembly and function of 40S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Martín-Villanueva, Sara; Murat, Guillaume; Lacombe, Thierry; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2016-09-19

    The archaea-/eukaryote-specific 40S-ribosomal-subunit protein S31 is expressed as an ubiquitin fusion protein in eukaryotes and consists of a conserved body and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. In yeast, S31 is a practically essential protein, which is required for cytoplasmic 20S pre-rRNA maturation. Here, we have studied the role of the N-terminal extension of the yeast S31 protein. We show that deletion of this extension partially impairs cell growth and 40S subunit biogenesis and confers hypersensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Moreover, the extension harbours a nuclear localization signal that promotes active nuclear import of S31, which associates with pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleus. In the absence of the extension, truncated S31 inefficiently assembles into pre-40S particles and two subpopulations of mature small subunits, one lacking and another one containing truncated S31, can be identified. Plasmid-driven overexpression of truncated S31 partially suppresses the growth and ribosome biogenesis defects but, conversely, slightly enhances the hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides. Altogether, these results indicate that the N-terminal extension facilitates the assembly of S31 into pre-40S particles and contributes to the optimal translational activity of mature 40S subunits but has only a minor role in cytoplasmic cleavage of 20S pre-rRNA at site D. PMID:27422873

  11. The eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension of ribosomal protein S31 contributes to the assembly and function of 40S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Martín-Villanueva, Sara; Murat, Guillaume; Lacombe, Thierry; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The archaea-/eukaryote-specific 40S-ribosomal-subunit protein S31 is expressed as an ubiquitin fusion protein in eukaryotes and consists of a conserved body and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. In yeast, S31 is a practically essential protein, which is required for cytoplasmic 20S pre-rRNA maturation. Here, we have studied the role of the N-terminal extension of the yeast S31 protein. We show that deletion of this extension partially impairs cell growth and 40S subunit biogenesis and confers hypersensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Moreover, the extension harbours a nuclear localization signal that promotes active nuclear import of S31, which associates with pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleus. In the absence of the extension, truncated S31 inefficiently assembles into pre-40S particles and two subpopulations of mature small subunits, one lacking and another one containing truncated S31, can be identified. Plasmid-driven overexpression of truncated S31 partially suppresses the growth and ribosome biogenesis defects but, conversely, slightly enhances the hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides. Altogether, these results indicate that the N-terminal extension facilitates the assembly of S31 into pre-40S particles and contributes to the optimal translational activity of mature 40S subunits but has only a minor role in cytoplasmic cleavage of 20S pre-rRNA at site D. PMID:27422873

  12. The eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension of ribosomal protein S31 contributes to the assembly and function of 40S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Martín-Villanueva, Sara; Murat, Guillaume; Lacombe, Thierry; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2016-09-19

    The archaea-/eukaryote-specific 40S-ribosomal-subunit protein S31 is expressed as an ubiquitin fusion protein in eukaryotes and consists of a conserved body and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. In yeast, S31 is a practically essential protein, which is required for cytoplasmic 20S pre-rRNA maturation. Here, we have studied the role of the N-terminal extension of the yeast S31 protein. We show that deletion of this extension partially impairs cell growth and 40S subunit biogenesis and confers hypersensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Moreover, the extension harbours a nuclear localization signal that promotes active nuclear import of S31, which associates with pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleus. In the absence of the extension, truncated S31 inefficiently assembles into pre-40S particles and two subpopulations of mature small subunits, one lacking and another one containing truncated S31, can be identified. Plasmid-driven overexpression of truncated S31 partially suppresses the growth and ribosome biogenesis defects but, conversely, slightly enhances the hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides. Altogether, these results indicate that the N-terminal extension facilitates the assembly of S31 into pre-40S particles and contributes to the optimal translational activity of mature 40S subunits but has only a minor role in cytoplasmic cleavage of 20S pre-rRNA at site D.

  13. Ribosomal stress activates eEF2K–eEF2 pathway causing translation elongation inhibition and recruitment of Terminal Oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNAs on polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Angelo; Caldarola, Sara; Lisi, Gaia; Juli, Giada; Chellini, Lidia; Iadevaia, Valentina; Proud, Christopher G.; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of adequate amounts of ribosomes is an essential task for the cell. It is therefore not surprising that regulatory circuits exist to organize the synthesis of ribosomal components. It has been shown that defect in ribosome biogenesis (ribosomal stress) induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest through activation of the tumor suppressor p53. This mechanism is thought to be implicated in the pathophysiology of a group of genetic diseases such as Diamond Blackfan Anemia which are called ribosomopathies. We have identified an additional response to ribosomal stress that includes the activation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 kinase with a consequent inhibition of translation elongation. This leads to a translational reprogramming in the cell that involves the structurally defined group of messengers called terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNAs which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. In fact, while general protein synthesis is decreased by the impairment of elongation, TOP mRNAs are recruited on polysomes causing a relative increase in the synthesis of TOP mRNA-encoded proteins compared to other proteins. Therefore, in response to ribosomal stress, there is a change in the translation pattern of the cell which may help restore a sufficient level of ribosomes. PMID:25332393

  14. Ribosomal stress activates eEF2K-eEF2 pathway causing translation elongation inhibition and recruitment of terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNAs on polysomes.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Caldarola, Sara; Lisi, Gaia; Juli, Giada; Chellini, Lidia; Iadevaia, Valentina; Proud, Christopher G; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2014-11-10

    The synthesis of adequate amounts of ribosomes is an essential task for the cell. It is therefore not surprising that regulatory circuits exist to organize the synthesis of ribosomal components. It has been shown that defect in ribosome biogenesis (ribosomal stress) induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest through activation of the tumor suppressor p53. This mechanism is thought to be implicated in the pathophysiology of a group of genetic diseases such as Diamond Blackfan Anemia which are called ribosomopathies. We have identified an additional response to ribosomal stress that includes the activation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 kinase with a consequent inhibition of translation elongation. This leads to a translational reprogramming in the cell that involves the structurally defined group of messengers called terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNAs which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. In fact, while general protein synthesis is decreased by the impairment of elongation, TOP mRNAs are recruited on polysomes causing a relative increase in the synthesis of TOP mRNA-encoded proteins compared to other proteins. Therefore, in response to ribosomal stress, there is a change in the translation pattern of the cell which may help restore a sufficient level of ribosomes. PMID:25332393

  15. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  16. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H.

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  17. Emerging functions of ribosomal proteins in gene-specific transcription and translation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, Mikael S.

    2009-02-06

    Ribosomal proteins have remained highly conserved during evolution presumably reflecting often critical functions in ribosome biogenesis or mature ribosome function. In addition, several ribosomal proteins possess distinct extra-ribosomal functions in apoptosis, DNA repair and transcription. An increasing number of ribosomal proteins have been shown to modulate the trans-activation function of important regulatory proteins such as NF-{kappa}B, p53, c-Myc and nuclear receptors. Furthermore, a subset of ribosomal proteins can bind directly to untranslated regions of mRNA resulting in transcript-specific translational control outside of the ribosome itself. Collectively, these findings suggest that ribosomal proteins may have a wider functional repertoire within the cell than previously thought. The future challenge is to identify and validate these novel functions in the background of an often essential primary function in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth.

  18. Potential extra-ribosomal functions of ribosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yi-Fei; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping

    2015-08-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs), are essential components of the ribosomes, the molecular machines that turn mRNA blueprints into proteins, as they serve to stabilize the structure of the rRNA, thus improving protein biosynthesis. In addition, growing evidence suggests that RPs can function in other cellular roles. In the present review, we summarize several potential extra-ribosomal functions of RPs in ribosomal biogenesis, transcription activity, translation process, DNA repair, replicative life span, adhesive growth, and morphological transformation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the future in-depth studies are needed to identify these novel secondary functions of RPs in S. cerevisiae.

  19. The role of the ribosome in the regulation of longevity and lifespan extension.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Alyson W

    2016-01-01

    The most energy-consuming process that a cell must undertake to stay viable is the continuous biogenesis of ribosomes for the translation of RNA into protein. Given the inextricable links between energy consumption and cellular lifespan, it is not surprising that mutations and environmental cues that reduce ribosome biogenesis result in an extension of eukaryotic lifespan. This review goes into detail describing recent discoveries of different and often unexpected elements that play a role in the regulation of longevity by virtue of their ribosome biogenesis functions. These roles include controlling the transcription and processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the translation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes, and the number of ribosomes overall. Together these findings suggest that a fundamental mechanism across eukaryotic species for extending lifespan is to slow down or halt the expenditure of cellular energy that is normally absorbed by the manufacturing and assembly of new ribosomes. PMID:26732699

  20. Defects of mtDNA Replication Impaired Mitochondrial Biogenesis During Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Human Cardiomyocytes and Chagasic Patients: The Role of Nrf1/2 and Antioxidant Response

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xianxiu; Gupta, Shivali; Zago, Maria P.; Davidson, Mercy M.; Dousset, Pierre; Amoroso, Alejandro; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key determinant in chagasic cardiomyopathy development in mice; however, its relevance in human Chagas disease is not known. We determined if defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1)–regulated transcriptional pathways constitute a mechanism or mechanisms underlying mitochondrial oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency in human Chagas disease. Methods and Results We utilized human cardiomyocytes and left-ventricular tissue from chagasic and other cardiomyopathy patients and healthy donors (n>6/group). We noted no change in citrate synthase activity, yet mRNA and/or protein levels of subunits of the respiratory complexes were significantly decreased in Trypanosoma cruzi–infected cardiomyocytes (0 to 24 hours) and chagasic hearts. We observed increased mRNA and decreased nuclear localization of PGC-1-coactivated transcription factors, yet the expression of genes for PPARγ-regulated fatty acid oxidation and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF1/2)–regulated mtDNA replication and transcription machinery was enhanced in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. The D-loop formation was normal or higher, but mtDNA replication and mtDNA content were decreased by 83% and 40% to 65%, respectively. Subsequently, we noted that reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and mtDNA oxidation were significantly increased, yet NRF1/2-regulated antioxidant gene expression remained compromised in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. Conclusions The replication of mtDNA was severely compromised, resulting in a significant loss of mtDNA and expression of OXPHOS genes in T cruzi–infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. Our data suggest increased ROS generation and selective functional incapacity of NRF2-mediated antioxidant gene expression played a role in the defects in mtDNA replication and unfitness of mtDNA for

  1. [Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome biogenesis in yeasts].

    PubMed

    Sibirnyĭ, A A

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes contain oxidases generating hydrogen peroxide, and catalase degrading this toxic compound. Another characteristic function of each eukaryotic peroxisome, from yeast to man, is fatty acid beta-oxidation. However, in peroxisomes a variety of other metabolic pathways are located. In fungi, peroxisomes contain enzymes involved in catabolism of unusual carbon and nitrogen sources (methanol, purines, D-amino acids, pipecolynic acid, sarcosine, glycolate, spermidine etc) as well as biosynthesis of lysine in yeasts and penicillin in mycelial fungi. Impairment of peroxisomal structure and functions causes many human disorders. The similar defects have been identified in yeast mutants defective in peroxisomal biogenesis. Peroxisomal biogenesis is actively studied during last two decades using uni- and multicellular model systems. It was observed that many aspects of peroxisomal biogenesis and proteins involved in this process display striking similarity between all eukaryotes, from yeasts to humans. Yeast is a convenient model system for this kind of research. Current review summarizes data on molecular events of peroxisomal biogenesis, functions of peroxine proteins, import of peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins and on mechanisms of peroxisomedivision and inheritance. PMID:22642098

  2. The Chaperone Network Connected to Human Ribosome-Associated Complex ▿ ‡ †

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Himjyot; Conz, Charlotte; Otto, Hendrik; Wölfle, Tina; Fitzke, Edith; Mayer, Matthias P.; Rospert, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ribosome-associated complex (mRAC), consisting of the J-domain protein MPP11 and the atypical Hsp70 homolog (70-homolog) Hsp70L1, can partly complement the function of RAC, which is the homologous complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RAC is the J-domain partner exclusively of the 70-homolog Ssb, which directly and independently of RAC binds to the ribosome. We here show that growth defects due to mRAC depletion in HeLa cells resemble those of yeast strains lacking RAC. Functional conservation, however, did not extend to the 70-homolog partner of mRAC. None of the major human 70-homologs was able to complement the growth defects of yeast strains lacking Ssb or was bound to ribosomes in an Ssb-like manner. Instead, our data suggest that mRAC was a specific partner of human Hsp70 but not of its close homolog Hsc70. On a mechanistic level, ATP binding, but not ATP hydrolysis, by Hsp70L1 affected mRAC's function as a J-domain partner of Hsp70. The combined data indicate that, while functionally conserved, yeast and mammalian cells have evolved distinct solutions to ensure that Hsp70-type chaperones can efficiently assist the biogenesis of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. PMID:21245388

  3. Potential Roles for Ubiquitin and the Proteasome during Ribosome Biogenesis‡

    PubMed Central

    Stavreva, Diana A.; Kawasaki, Miyuki; Dundr, Miroslav; Koberna, Karel; Müller, Waltraud G.; Tsujimura-Takahashi, Teruko; Komatsu, Wataru; Hayano, Toshiya; Isobe, Toshiaki; Raska, Ivan; Misteli, Tom; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; McNally, James G.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the possible involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in ribosome biogenesis. We find by immunofluorescence that ubiquitin is present within nucleoli and also demonstrate by immunoprecipitation that complexes associated with pre-rRNA processing factors are ubiquitinated. Using short proteasome inhibition treatments, we show by fluorescence microscopy that nucleolar morphology is disrupted for some but not all factors involved in ribosome biogenesis. Interference with proteasome degradation also induces the accumulation of 90S preribosomes, alters the dynamic properties of a number of processing factors, slows the release of mature rRNA from the nucleolus, and leads to the depletion of 18S and 28S rRNAs. Together, these results suggest that the UPS is probably involved at many steps during ribosome biogenesis, including the maturation of the 90S preribosome. PMID:16782897

  4. Biogenesis of nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Dundr, Miroslav; Misteli, Tom

    2010-12-01

    The nucleus is unique amongst cellular organelles in that it contains a myriad of discrete suborganelles. These nuclear bodies are morphologically and molecularly distinct entities, and they host specific nuclear processes. Although the mode of biogenesis appears to differ widely between individual nuclear bodies, several common design principles are emerging, particularly, the ability of nuclear bodies to form de novo, a role of RNA as a structural element and self-organization as a mode of formation. The controlled biogenesis of nuclear bodies is essential for faithful maintenance of nuclear architecture during the cell cycle and is an important part of cellular responses to intra- and extracellular events.

  5. Human disorders of peroxisome metabolism and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that play an essential role in a variety of cellular catabolic and anabolic metabolic pathways, including fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation, and plasmalogen and bile acid synthesis. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a large variety of peroxisomal disorders either affecting specific metabolic pathways, i.e., the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, or causing a generalized defect in function and assembly of peroxisomes, i.e., peroxisome biogenesis disorders. In this review, we discuss the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of all human peroxisomal disorders currently known.

  6. Human disorders of peroxisome metabolism and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that play an essential role in a variety of cellular catabolic and anabolic metabolic pathways, including fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation, and plasmalogen and bile acid synthesis. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a large variety of peroxisomal disorders either affecting specific metabolic pathways, i.e., the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, or causing a generalized defect in function and assembly of peroxisomes, i.e., peroxisome biogenesis disorders. In this review, we discuss the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of all human peroxisomal disorders currently known. PMID:26611709

  7. The Ribosomal Protein-Mdm2-p53 Pathway and Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Deisenroth, Chad; Zhang, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    Cellular growth and division are two fundamental processes that are exquisitely sensitive and responsive to environmental fluctuations. One of the most energetically demanding functions of these processes is ribosome biogenesis, the key component to regulating overall protein synthesis and cell growth. Perturbations to ribosome biogenesis have been demonstrated to induce an acute stress response leading to p53 activation through the inhibition of Mdm2 by a number of ribosomal proteins. The energy status of a cell is a highly dynamic variable that naturally contributes to metabolic fluctuations, which can affect both the rates of ribosome biogenesis and p53 function. This, in turn, determines whether a cell is in an anabolic, growth-promoting state or a catabolic, growth-suppressing state. Here the authors integrate the known functions of p53 to postulate how changes in nutrient availability may induce the ribosomal protein–Mdm2-p53 signaling pathway to modulate p53-dependent metabolic regulation. PMID:21779508

  8. Peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Yukio; Okumoto, Kanji; Mukai, Satoru; Honsho, Masanori; Tamura, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    To investigate peroxisome assembly and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome, thirteen different complementation groups (CGs) of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants defective in peroxisome biogenesis have been isolated and established as a model research system. Successful gene-cloning studies by a forward genetic approach utilized a rapid functional complementation assay of CHO cell mutants led to isolation of human peroxin (PEX) genes. Search for pathogenic genes responsible for PBDs of all 14 CGs is now completed together with the homology search by screening the human expressed sequence tag database using yeast PEX genes. Peroxins are divided into three groups: (1) peroxins including Pex3p, Pex16p, and Pex19p, are responsible for peroxisome membrane biogenesis via classes I and II pathways; (2) peroxins that function in matrix protein import; (3) those such as three forms of Pex11p, Pex11pα, Pex11pβ, and Pex11pγ, are involved in peroxisome proliferation where DLP1, Mff, and Fis1 coordinately function. In membrane assembly, Pex19p forms complexes in the cytosol with newly synthesized PMPs including Pex16p and transports them to the receptor Pex3p, whereby peroxisomal membrane is formed (Class I pathway). Pex19p likewise forms a complex with newly made Pex3p and translocates it to the Pex3p receptor, Pex16p (Class II pathway). In matrix protein import, newly synthesized proteins harboring peroxisome targeting signal type 1 or 2 are recognized by Pex5p or Pex7p in the cytoplasm and are imported to peroxisomes via translocation machinery. In regard to peroxisome-cytoplasmic shuttling of Pex5p, Pex5p initially targets to an 800-kDa docking complex consisting of Pex14p and Pex13p and then translocates to a 500-kDa RING translocation complex. At the terminal step, Pex1p and Pex6p of the AAA family mediate the export of Pex5p, where Cys-ubiquitination of Pex5p is essential for the Pex5p exit. PMID:25177298

  9. Ribosomal proteins: functions beyond the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Wen-Juan; Liao, Jun-Ming; Liao, Peng; Lu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Although ribosomal proteins are known for playing an essential role in ribosome assembly and protein translation, their ribosome-independent functions have also been greatly appreciated. Over the past decade, more than a dozen of ribosomal proteins have been found to activate the tumor suppressor p53 pathway in response to ribosomal stress. In addition, these ribosomal proteins are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. This review is composed to overview the current understanding of how ribosomal stress provokes the accumulation of ribosome-free ribosomal proteins, as well as the ribosome-independent functions of ribosomal proteins in tumorigenesis, immune signaling, and development. We also propose the potential of applying these pieces of knowledge to the development of ribosomal stress-based cancer therapeutics. PMID:25735597

  10. Non-Diamond Blackfan anemia disorders of ribosome function: Shwachman Diamond syndrome and 5q- syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burwick, Nicholas; Shimamura, Akiko; Liu, Johnson M

    2011-04-01

    A number of human disorders, dubbed ribosomopathies, are linked to impaired ribosome biogenesis or function. These include but are not limited to Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), Shwachman Diamond syndrome (SDS), and the 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This review focuses on the latter two non-DBA disorders of ribosome function. Both SDS and 5q- syndrome lead to impaired hematopoiesis and a predisposition to leukemia. SDS, due to bi-allelic mutations of the SBDS gene, is a multi-system disorder that also includes bony abnormalities, and pancreatic and neurocognitive dysfunction. SBDS associates with the 60S subunit in human cells and has a role in subunit joining and translational activation in yeast models. In contrast, 5q- syndrome is associated with acquired haplo-insufficiency of RPS14, a component of the small 40S subunit. RPS14 is critical for 40S assembly in yeast models, and depletion of RPS14 in human CD34(+) cells is sufficient to recapitulate the 5q- erythroid defect. Both SDS and the 5q- syndrome represent important models of ribosome function and may inform future treatment strategies for the ribosomopathies. PMID:21435510

  11. Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits.

    PubMed

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Erik D; Szal, Teresa; Florin, Tanja; Jewett, Michael C; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-08-01

    The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions.

  12. Hierarchical RNA Processing Is Required for Mitochondrial Ribosome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Oliver; Busch, Jakob D; Matic, Stanka; Siira, Stefan J; Kuznetsova, Irina; Atanassov, Ilian; Ermer, Judith A; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J; Richman, Tara R; Stewart, James B; Mourier, Arnaud; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2016-08-16

    The regulation of mitochondrial RNA processing and its importance for ribosome biogenesis and energy metabolism are not clear. We generated conditional knockout mice of the endoribonuclease component of the RNase P complex, MRPP3, and report that it is essential for life and that heart and skeletal-muscle-specific knockout leads to severe cardiomyopathy, indicating that its activity is non-redundant. Transcriptome-wide parallel analyses of RNA ends (PARE) and RNA-seq enabled us to identify that in vivo 5' tRNA cleavage precedes 3' tRNA processing, and this is required for the correct biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosomal subunits. We identify that mitoribosomal biogenesis proceeds co-transcriptionally because large mitoribosomal proteins can form a subcomplex on an unprocessed RNA containing the 16S rRNA. Taken together, our data show that RNA processing links transcription to translation via assembly of the mitoribosome. PMID:27498866

  13. A general procedure for the production of antibody reagents against eukaryotic ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Dieci, Giorgio; Bottarelli, Lorena; Ottonello, Simone

    2005-08-01

    Despite recent progress in the structural and functional analysis of bacterial and archaeal ribosomes, the structure and biogenesis of eukaryotic ribosomes still awaits a detailed characterization. Ribosomal protein-specific antibodies would be valuable tools for such studies, but their production is commonly hindered by the poor expression and solubility of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in E. coli. We report here an improved general procedure for the over-production of recombinant eukaryotic ribosomal proteins and for the generation of the corresponding polyclonal antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of detection of the antibodies produced by this procedure are documented.

  14. Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

  15. MYC and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morrish, Fionnuala; Hockenbery, David

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, face two imperatives concerning biogenesis. The first is the requirement for dividing cells to replicate their mitochondrial content by growth of existing mitochondria. The second is the dynamic regulation of mitochondrial content in response to organismal and cellular cues (e.g., exercise, caloric restriction, energy status, temperature). MYC provides the clearest example of a programmed expansion of mitochondrial content linked to the cell cycle. As an oncogene, MYC also presents intriguing questions about the role of its mitochondrial targets in cancer-related phenotypes, such as the Warburg effect and MYC-dependent apoptosis. PMID:24789872

  16. Poxvirus Membrane Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses differ from most DNA viruses by replicating entirely within the cytoplasm. The first discernible viral structures are crescents and spherical immature virions containing a single lipoprotein membrane bilayer with an external honeycomb lattice. Because this viral membrane displays no obvious continuity with a cellular organelle, a de novo origin was suggested. Nevertheless, transient connections between viral and cellular membranes could be difficult to resolve. Despite the absence of direct evidence, the intermediate compartment (ERGIC) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus and the ER itself were considered possible sources of crescent membranes. A break-through in understanding poxvirus membrane biogenesis has come from recent studies of the abortive replication of several vaccinia virus null mutants. Novel images showing continuity between viral crescents and the ER and the accumulation of immature virions in the expanded ER lumen provide the first direct evidence for a cellular origin of this poxvirus membrane. PMID:25728299

  17. Human Ribosomal RNA-Derived Resident MicroRNAs as the Transmitter of Information upon the Cytoplasmic Cancer Stress.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masaru; Fujii, Yoichi Robertus

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of ribosome biogenesis induces divergent ribosome-related diseases including ribosomopathy and occasionally results in carcinogenesis. Although many defects in ribosome-related genes have been investigated, little is known about contribution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome-related disorders. Meanwhile, microRNA (miRNA), an important regulator of gene expression, is derived from both coding and noncoding region of the genome and is implicated in various diseases. Therefore, we performed in silico analyses using M-fold, TargetScan, GeneCoDia3, and so forth to investigate RNA relationships between rRNA and miRNA against cellular stresses. We have previously shown that miRNA synergism is significantly correlated with disease and the miRNA package is implicated in memory for diseases; therefore, quantum Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS) was also calculated using MESer program. As a result, seventeen RNA sequences identical with known miRNAs were detected in the human rRNA and termed as rRNA-hosted miRNA analogs (rmiRNAs). Eleven of them were predicted to form stem-loop structures as pre-miRNAs, and especially one stem-loop was completely identical with hsa-pre-miR-3678 located in the non-rDNA region. Thus, these rmiRNAs showed significantly high DNS values, participation in regulation of cancer-related pathways, and interaction with nucleolar RNAs, suggesting that rmiRNAs may be stress-responsible resident miRNAs which transmit stress-tuning information in multiple levels. PMID:27517048

  18. Human Ribosomal RNA-Derived Resident MicroRNAs as the Transmitter of Information upon the Cytoplasmic Cancer Stress

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of ribosome biogenesis induces divergent ribosome-related diseases including ribosomopathy and occasionally results in carcinogenesis. Although many defects in ribosome-related genes have been investigated, little is known about contribution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome-related disorders. Meanwhile, microRNA (miRNA), an important regulator of gene expression, is derived from both coding and noncoding region of the genome and is implicated in various diseases. Therefore, we performed in silico analyses using M-fold, TargetScan, GeneCoDia3, and so forth to investigate RNA relationships between rRNA and miRNA against cellular stresses. We have previously shown that miRNA synergism is significantly correlated with disease and the miRNA package is implicated in memory for diseases; therefore, quantum Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS) was also calculated using MESer program. As a result, seventeen RNA sequences identical with known miRNAs were detected in the human rRNA and termed as rRNA-hosted miRNA analogs (rmiRNAs). Eleven of them were predicted to form stem-loop structures as pre-miRNAs, and especially one stem-loop was completely identical with hsa-pre-miR-3678 located in the non-rDNA region. Thus, these rmiRNAs showed significantly high DNS values, participation in regulation of cancer-related pathways, and interaction with nucleolar RNAs, suggesting that rmiRNAs may be stress-responsible resident miRNAs which transmit stress-tuning information in multiple levels. PMID:27517048

  19. Peroxisomal Biogenesis in Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Nelson, Jonathan W.; Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Wenri; Mader, Sarah; Davis, Catherine M.; Morrison, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Peroxisomes are highly adaptable and dynamic organelles, adjusting their size, number, and enzyme composition to changing environmental and metabolic demands. We determined whether peroxisomes respond to ischemia, and whether peroxisomal biogenesis is an adaptive response to cerebral ischemia. Results: Focal cerebral ischemia induced peroxisomal biogenesis in peri-infarct neurons, which was associated with a corresponding increase in peroxisomal antioxidant enzyme catalase. Peroxisomal biogenesis was also observed in primary cultured cortical neurons subjected to ischemic insult induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). A catalase inhibitor increased OGD-induced neuronal death. Moreover, preventing peroxisomal proliferation by knocking down dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) exacerbated neuronal death induced by OGD, whereas enhancing peroxisomal biogenesis pharmacologically using a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist protected against neuronal death induced by OGD. Innovation: This is the first documentation of ischemia-induced peroxisomal biogenesis in mammalian brain using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach, electron microscopy, high-resolution laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that neurons respond to ischemic injury by increasing peroxisome biogenesis, which serves a protective function, likely mediated by enhanced antioxidant capacity of neurons. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 109–120. PMID:25226217

  20. Ribosome recycling defects modify the balance between the synthesis and assembly of specific subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes in yeast mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Jelena; Panozzo, Cristina; Bourand-Plantefol, Alexa; Herbert, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Geneviève; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria have their own translation machinery that produces key subunits of the OXPHOS complexes. This machinery relies on the coordinated action of nuclear-encoded factors of bacterial origin that are well conserved between humans and yeast. In humans, mutations in these factors can cause diseases; in yeast, mutations abolishing mitochondrial translation destabilize the mitochondrial DNA. We show that when the mitochondrial genome contains no introns, the loss of the yeast factors Mif3 and Rrf1 involved in ribosome recycling neither blocks translation nor destabilizes mitochondrial DNA. Rather, the absence of these factors increases the synthesis of the mitochondrially-encoded subunits Cox1, Cytb and Atp9, while strongly impairing the assembly of OXPHOS complexes IV and V. We further show that in the absence of Rrf1, the COX1 specific translation activator Mss51 accumulates in low molecular weight forms, thought to be the source of the translationally-active form, explaining the increased synthesis of Cox1. We propose that Rrf1 takes part in the coordination between translation and OXPHOS assembly in yeast mitochondria. These interactions between general and specific translation factors might reveal an evolutionary adaptation of the bacterial translation machinery to the set of integral membrane proteins that are translated within mitochondria. PMID:27257059

  1. Ribosome recycling defects modify the balance between the synthesis and assembly of specific subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Jelena; Panozzo, Cristina; Bourand-Plantefol, Alexa; Herbert, Christopher J; Dujardin, Geneviève; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria have their own translation machinery that produces key subunits of the OXPHOS complexes. This machinery relies on the coordinated action of nuclear-encoded factors of bacterial origin that are well conserved between humans and yeast. In humans, mutations in these factors can cause diseases; in yeast, mutations abolishing mitochondrial translation destabilize the mitochondrial DNA. We show that when the mitochondrial genome contains no introns, the loss of the yeast factors Mif3 and Rrf1 involved in ribosome recycling neither blocks translation nor destabilizes mitochondrial DNA. Rather, the absence of these factors increases the synthesis of the mitochondrially-encoded subunits Cox1, Cytb and Atp9, while strongly impairing the assembly of OXPHOS complexes IV and V. We further show that in the absence of Rrf1, the COX1 specific translation activator Mss51 accumulates in low molecular weight forms, thought to be the source of the translationally-active form, explaining the increased synthesis of Cox1. We propose that Rrf1 takes part in the coordination between translation and OXPHOS assembly in yeast mitochondria. These interactions between general and specific translation factors might reveal an evolutionary adaptation of the bacterial translation machinery to the set of integral membrane proteins that are translated within mitochondria. PMID:27257059

  2. Signaling pathways in melanosome biogenesis and pathology.

    PubMed

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-07-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over 100 genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  3. Keeping FIT, storing fat: Lipid droplet biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vineet; Golden, Andy; Prinz, William A

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotes store excess lipids in organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs), which play central roles in lipid metabolism. Understanding LD biogenesis and metabolism is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of lipid metabolic disorders like obesity and atherosclerosis. LDs are composed of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids that often contains coat proteins. Nascent LDs bud from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the mechanism is not known. In this commentary we discuss our recent finding that a conserved family of proteins called fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins is necessary for LDs budding from the ER. In cells lacking FIT proteins, LDs remain in the ER membrane. C. elegans has a single FIT protein (FITM-2), which we found is essential; almost all homozygous fitm-2 animals die as larvae and those that survive to adulthood give rise to embryos that die as L1 and L2 larvae. Homozygous fitm-2 animals have a number of abnormalities including a significant decrease in intestinal LDs and dramatic defects in muscle development. Understanding how FIT proteins mediate LD biogenesis and what roles they play in lipid metabolism and development are fascinating challenges for the future. PMID:27383728

  4. The human Shwachman-Diamond syndrome protein, SBDS, associates with ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, Karthik A; Austin, Karyn M; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha; Malsch, Maggie M; Reed, Robin; Shimamura, Akiko

    2007-09-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, and leukemia predisposition. Mutations in the SBDS gene are identified in most patients with SDS. SBDS encodes a highly conserved protein of unknown function. Data from SBDS orthologs suggest that SBDS may play a role in ribosome biogenesis or RNA processing. Human SBDS is enriched in the nucleolus, the major cellular site of ribosome biogenesis. Here we report that SBDS nucleolar localization is dependent on active rRNA transcription. Cells from patients with SDS or Diamond-Blackfan anemia are hypersensitive to low doses of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of rRNA transcription. The addition of wild-type SBDS complements the actinomycin D hypersensitivity of SDS patient cells. SBDS migrates together with the 60S large ribosomal subunit in sucrose gradients and coprecipitates with 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Loss of SBDS is not associated with a discrete block in rRNA maturation or with decreased levels of the 60S ribosomal subunit. SBDS forms a protein complex with nucleophosmin, a multifunctional protein implicated in ribosome biogenesis and leukemogenesis. Our studies support the addition of SDS to the growing list of human bone marrow failure syndromes involving the ribosome.

  5. The human Shwachman-Diamond syndrome protein, SBDS, associates with ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Austin, Karyn M.; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha; Malsch, Maggie M.; Reed, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, and leukemia predisposition. Mutations in the SBDS gene are identified in most patients with SDS. SBDS encodes a highly conserved protein of unknown function. Data from SBDS orthologs suggest that SBDS may play a role in ribosome biogenesis or RNA processing. Human SBDS is enriched in the nucleolus, the major cellular site of ribosome biogenesis. Here we report that SBDS nucleolar localization is dependent on active rRNA transcription. Cells from patients with SDS or Diamond-Blackfan anemia are hypersensitive to low doses of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of rRNA transcription. The addition of wild-type SBDS complements the actinomycin D hypersensitivity of SDS patient cells. SBDS migrates together with the 60S large ribosomal subunit in sucrose gradients and coprecipitates with 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Loss of SBDS is not associated with a discrete block in rRNA maturation or with decreased levels of the 60S ribosomal subunit. SBDS forms a protein complex with nucleophosmin, a multifunctional protein implicated in ribosome biogenesis and leukemogenesis. Our studies support the addition of SDS to the growing list of human bone marrow failure syndromes involving the ribosome. PMID:17475909

  6. Iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis and human disease

    PubMed Central

    Rouault, Tracey A.; Tong, Wing Hang

    2008-01-01

    Iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters are essential for numerous biological processes, including mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and various other enzymatic and regulatory functions. Human Fe–S cluster assembly proteins are frequently encoded by single genes, and inherited defects in some of these genes cause disease. Recently, the spectrum of diseases attributable to abnormal Fe–S cluster biogenesis has extended beyond Friedreich ataxia to include a sideroblastic anemia with deficiency of glutaredoxin 5 and a myopathy associated with a deficiency of a Fe–S cluster assembly scaffold protein, ISCU. Mutations within other mammalian Fe–S cluster assembly genes could be causative for human diseases that manifest distinctive combinations of tissue-specific impairments. Thus, defects in the iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis pathway could underlie many human diseases. PMID:18606475

  7. Role of ribosomal protein mutations in tumor development (Review).

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Kaveh M; Lindström, Mikael S

    2016-04-01

    Ribosomes are cellular machines essential for protein synthesis. The biogenesis of ribosomes is a highly complex and energy consuming process that initiates in the nucleolus. Recently, a series of studies applying whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing techniques have led to the discovery of ribosomal protein gene mutations in different cancer types. Mutations in ribosomal protein genes have for example been found in endometrial cancer (RPL22), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (RPL10, RPL5 and RPL11), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RPS15), colorectal cancer (RPS20), and glioma (RPL5). Moreover, patients suffering from Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a bone marrow failure syndrome caused by mutant ribosomal proteins are also at higher risk for developing leukemia, or solid tumors. Different experimental models indicate potential mechanisms whereby ribosomal proteins may initiate cancer development. In particular, deregulation of the p53 tumor suppressor network and altered mRNA translation are mechanisms likely to be involved. We envisage that changes in expression and the occurrence of ribosomal protein gene mutations play important roles in cancer development. Ribosome biology constitutes a re-emerging vital area of basic and translational cancer research.

  8. Role of ribosomal protein mutations in tumor development (Review)

    PubMed Central

    GOUDARZI, KAVEH M.; LINDSTRÖM, MIKAEL S.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomes are cellular machines essential for protein synthesis. The biogenesis of ribosomes is a highly complex and energy consuming process that initiates in the nucleolus. Recently, a series of studies applying whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing techniques have led to the discovery of ribosomal protein gene mutations in different cancer types. Mutations in ribosomal protein genes have for example been found in endometrial cancer (RPL22), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (RPL10, RPL5 and RPL11), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RPS15), colorectal cancer (RPS20), and glioma (RPL5). Moreover, patients suffering from Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a bone marrow failure syndrome caused by mutant ribosomal proteins are also at higher risk for developing leukemia, or solid tumors. Different experimental models indicate potential mechanisms whereby ribosomal proteins may initiate cancer development. In particular, deregulation of the p53 tumor suppressor network and altered mRNA translation are mechanisms likely to be involved. We envisage that changes in expression and the occurrence of ribosomal protein gene mutations play important roles in cancer development. Ribosome biology constitutes a re-emerging vital area of basic and translational cancer research. PMID:26892688

  9. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in the nucleolus: multitasking tools for a ribosome factory.

    PubMed

    Shcherbik, Natalia; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis of new ribosomes is an essential process upregulated during cell growth and proliferation. Here, we review our current understanding of the role that ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) play in ribosome biogenesis, with a focus on mammalian cells. One important function of the nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system is to control the supply of ribosomal proteins for the assembly of new ribosomal subunits in the nucleolus. Mutations in ribosomal proteins or ribosome assembly factors, stress, and many anticancer drugs have been shown to disrupt normal ribosome biogenesis, triggering a p53-dependent response. We discuss how p53 can be activated by the aberrant ribosome formation, centering on the current models of the interaction between ribosomal proteins released from the nucleolus and the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. Recent studies also revealed multiple ubiquitin- and UBL-conjugated forms of nucleolar proteins with largely unknown functions, indicating that many new details about the role of these modifications in the nucleolus await to be discovered.

  10. p53- and ERK7-Dependent Ribosome Surveillance Response Regulates Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptide Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hasygar, Kiran; Hietakangas, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like signalling is a conserved mechanism that coordinates animal growth and metabolism with nutrient status. In Drosophila, insulin-producing median neurosecretory cells (IPCs) regulate larval growth by secreting insulin-like peptides (dILPs) in a diet-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that nutrition affects dILP secretion through humoral signals derived from the fat body. Here we uncover a novel mechanism that operates cell autonomously in the IPCs to regulate dILP secretion. We observed that impairment of ribosome biogenesis specifically in the IPCs strongly inhibits dILP secretion, which consequently leads to reduced body size and a delay in larval development. This response is dependent on p53, a known surveillance factor for ribosome biogenesis. A downstream effector of this growth inhibitory response is an atypical MAP kinase ERK7 (ERK8/MAPK15), which is upregulated in the IPCs following impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as starvation. We show that ERK7 is sufficient and essential to inhibit dILP secretion upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, and it acts epistatically to p53. Moreover, we provide evidence that p53 and ERK7 contribute to the inhibition of dILP secretion upon starvation. Thus, we conclude that a cell autonomous ribosome surveillance response, which leads to upregulation of ERK7, inhibits dILP secretion to impede tissue growth under limiting dietary conditions. PMID:25393288

  11. Magnetosome biogenesis in magnetotactic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Uebe, René; Schüler, Dirk

    2016-09-13

    Magnetotactic bacteria derive their magnetic orientation from magnetosomes, which are unique organelles that contain nanometre-sized crystals of magnetic iron minerals. Although these organelles have evident potential for exciting biotechnological applications, a lack of genetically tractable magnetotactic bacteria had hampered the development of such tools; however, in the past decade, genetic studies using two model Magnetospirillum species have revealed much about the mechanisms of magnetosome biogenesis. In this Review, we highlight these new insights and place the molecular mechanisms of magnetosome biogenesis in the context of the complex cell biology of Magnetospirillum spp. Furthermore, we discuss the diverse properties of magnetosome biogenesis in other species of magnetotactic bacteria and consider the value of genetically 'magnetizing' non-magnetotactic bacteria. Finally, we discuss future prospects for this highly interdisciplinary and rapidly advancing field. PMID:27620945

  12. Architecture of the 90S Pre-ribosome: A Structural View on the Birth of the Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, Markus; Turk, Martin; Kellner, Nikola; Cheng, Jingdong; Flemming, Dirk; Koš-Braun, Isabelle; Koš, Martin; Thoms, Matthias; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-07-14

    The 90S pre-ribosome is an early biogenesis intermediate formed during co-transcriptional ribosome formation, composed of ∼70 assembly factors and several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that associate with nascent pre-rRNA. We report the cryo-EM structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S pre-ribosome, revealing how a network of biogenesis factors including 19 β-propellers and large α-solenoid proteins engulfs the pre-rRNA. Within the 90S pre-ribosome, we identify the UTP-A, UTP-B, Mpp10-Imp3-Imp4, Bms1-Rcl1, and U3 snoRNP modules, which are organized around 5'-ETS and partially folded 18S rRNA. The U3 snoRNP is strategically positioned at the center of the 90S particle to perform its multiple tasks during pre-rRNA folding and processing. The architecture of the elusive 90S pre-ribosome gives unprecedented structural insight into the early steps of pre-rRNA maturation. Nascent rRNA that is co-transcriptionally folded and given a particular shape by encapsulation within a dedicated mold-like structure is reminiscent of how polypeptides use chaperone chambers for their protein folding.

  13. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Vasily V.; Yu, Yang; Jankowska, Anna; Luo, Yicheng; Wasik, Kaja A.; Malone, Colin D.; Harrison, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam; Wakimoto, Barbara T.; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Piwi proteins and their associated small RNAs are essential for fertility in animals. In part, this is due to their roles in guarding germ cell genomes against the activity of mobile genetic elements. piRNA populations direct Piwi proteins to silence transposon targets and, as such, form a molecular code that discriminates transposons from endogenous genes. Information ultimately carried by piRNAs is encoded within genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters. These give rise to long, single-stranded, primary transcripts that are processed into piRNAs. Despite the biological importance of this pathway, neither the characteristics that define a locus as a source of piRNAs nor the mechanisms that catalyze primary piRNA biogenesis are well understood. We searched an EMS-mutant collection annotated for fertility phenotypes for genes involved in the piRNA pathway. Twenty-seven homozygous sterile strains showed transposon-silencing defects. One of these, which strongly impacted primary piRNA biogenesis, harbored a causal mutation in CG5508, a member of the Drosophila glycerol-3-phosphate O-acetyltransferase (GPAT) family. These enzymes catalyze the first acylation step on the path to the production of phosphatidic acid (PA). Though this pointed strongly to a function for phospholipid signaling in the piRNA pathway, a mutant form of CG5508, which lacks the GPAT active site, still functions in piRNA biogenesis. We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. PMID:23788724

  14. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  15. The conserved endoribonuclease YbeY is required for chloroplast ribosomal RNA processing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinwen; Zhou, Wenbin; Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping; Sun, Yi; Wu, Wenjuan; Cao, Shenquan; Wang, Chong; Hai, Guanghui; Wang, Zhifeng; Bock, Ralph; Huang, Jirong; Cheng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) comprises several endoribonucleolytic and exoribonucleolytic processing steps. However, little is known about the specific enzymes involved and the cleavage steps they catalyze. Here, we report the functional characterization of the single Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene encoding a putative YbeY endoribonuclease. AtYbeY null mutants are seedling lethal, indicating that AtYbeY function is essential for plant growth. Knockdown plants display slow growth and show pale-green leaves. Physiological and ultrastructural analyses of atybeY mutants revealed impaired photosynthesis and defective chloroplast development. Fluorescent microcopy analysis showed that, when fused with the green fluorescence protein, AtYbeY is localized in chloroplasts. Immunoblot and RNA gel-blot assays revealed that the levels of chloroplast-encoded subunits of photosynthetic complexes are reduced in atybeY mutants, but the corresponding transcripts accumulate normally. In addition, atybeY mutants display defective maturation of both the 5' and 3' ends of 16S, 23S, and 4.5S rRNAs as well as decreased accumulation of mature transcripts from the transfer RNA genes contained in the chloroplast rRNA operon. Consequently, mutant plants show a severe deficiency in ribosome biogenesis, which, in turn, results in impaired plastid translational activity. Furthermore, biochemical assays show that recombinant AtYbeY is able to cleave chloroplast rRNAs as well as messenger RNAs and transfer RNAs in vitro. Taken together, our findings indicate that AtYbeY is a chloroplast-localized endoribonuclease that is required for chloroplast rRNA processing and thus for normal growth and development.

  16. Growth arrest in the ribosomopathy, Bowen-Conradi syndrome, is due to dramatically reduced cell proliferation and a defect in mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    Armistead, Joy; Patel, Nehal; Wu, Xiaoli; Hemming, Richard; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Basra, Gagandeep Singh; Del Bigio, Marc R; Ding, Hao; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a ribosomopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and growth failure that typically leads to death by one year of age. It is caused by a c.257A>G, p.D86G substitution in the ribosomal biogenesis protein, Essential for Mitotic Growth 1 (EMG1). We generated a knock-in of the D86G substitution in mice to characterize the effects of EMG1 deficiency, particularly in the brain, where EMG1 expression is high. Embryos homozygous for the mutation in Emg1 were small for gestational age with neural tube defects, and died between embryonic days 8.5 and 12.5. These embryos exhibited dramatically reduced cell proliferation, which we also detected in autopsy brain tissue and bone marrow of BCS patients, consistent with a requirement for high levels of EMG1 in tissues with rapid cell proliferation. In fibroblasts derived from the BCS mouse embryos, we detected a high proportion of binucleated cells, indicating that a mitotic defect underlies the growth arrest in BCS. These studies add to growing evidence of a link between ribosome biogenesis, mitotic progression, and brain development that is currently unexplored.

  17. Dissociability of free and peptidyl-tRNA bound ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Surguchov, A P; Fominykch, E S; Lyzlova, L V

    1978-06-16

    The influence of peptidyl-tRNA on the dissociation of yeast 80 S ribosomes into subunits was studied. For this purpose temperature-sensitive (ts) suppressor strain of yeast Saccharomyces cervisiae carrying a defect in peptide chain termination was used. It was found that peptidyl-tRNA did not influence the dissociation of ribosomes either at high salt concentration or in the presence of dissociation factor (DF) from yeast. After dissociation of yeast ribosomes in 0.5 M KCl, peptidyl-tRNA remains bound to the 60 S subunit. Some characteristics of the termination process and release of nascent polypeptides from yeast ribosomes are discussed. PMID:355860

  18. Resistance in the Ribosome: RUNX1, pre-LSCs, and HSPCs

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) may be a viable strategy to eradicate residual disease and prevent leukemia relapse. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Cai et al. (2015) show that loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 reduce ribosome biogenesis and provide pre-LSCs a selective advantage over normal hematopoietic cells through increased stress resistance. PMID:26253196

  19. Differential expression of ribosomal proteins in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Elizabeth B; Dueber, Julie C; Qualtieri, Julianne; Tedesco, Jason; Erdogan, Begum; Bosompem, Amma; Kim, Annette S

    2016-02-01

    Aberrations of ribosomal biogenesis have been implicated in several congenital bone marrow failure syndromes, such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Dyskeratosis Congenita. Recent studies have identified haploinsufficiency of RPS14 in the acquired bone marrow disease isolated 5q minus syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, the expression of various proteins comprising the ribosomal subunits and other proteins enzymatically involved in the synthesis of the ribosome has not been explored in non-5q minus MDS. Furthermore, differences in the effects of these expression alterations among myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocyte lineages have not been well elucidated. We examined the expression of several proteins related to ribosomal biogenesis in bone marrow biopsy specimens from patients with MDS (5q minus patients excluded) and controls with no known myeloid disease. Specifically, we found that there is overexpression of RPS24, DKC1 and SBDS in MDS. This overexpression is in contrast to the haploinsufficiency identified in the congenital bone marrow failure syndromes and in acquired 5q minus MDS. Potential mechanisms for these differences and aetiology for these findings in MDS are discussed.

  20. Regulation of chloroplast biogenesis: the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rodermel, Steven

    2015-11-16

    The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis is an ideal model to gain insight into factors that control chloroplast biogenesis. im defines the gene for PTOX, a plastoquinol terminal oxidase that participates in control of thylakoid redox. Here, we report that the im defect can be suppressed during the late stages of plant development by gigantea (gi2), which defines the gene for GIGANTEA (GI), a central component of the circadian clock that plays a poorly-understood role in diverse plant developmental processes. imgi2 mutants are late-flowering and display other well-known phenotypes associated with gi2, such as starch accumulation and resistance to oxidative stress. We show that the restoration of chloroplast biogenesis in imgi2 is caused by a developmental-specific de-repression of cytokinin signaling that involves crosstalk with signaling pathways mediated by gibberellin (GA) and SPINDLY (SPY), a GA response inhibitor. Suppression of the plastid defect in imgi2 is likely caused by a relaxation of excitation pressures in developing plastids by factors contributed by gi2, including enhanced rates of photosynthesis and increased resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the suppression phenotype of imgi can be mimicked by crossing im with the starch accumulation mutant, sex1, perhaps because sex1 utilizes pathways similar to gi. We conclude that our studies provide a direct genetic linkage between GIGANTEA and chloroplast biogenesis, and we construct a model of interactions between signaling pathways mediated by gi, GA, SPY, cytokinins, and sex1 that are required for chloroplast biogenesis.

  1. TORC1 and TORC2 work together to regulate ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yerlikaya, Seda; Meusburger, Madeleine; Kumari, Romika; Huber, Alexandre; Anrather, Dorothea; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Ammerer, Gustav; Baranov, Pavel V.; Loewith, Robbie

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient-sensitive phosphorylation of the S6 protein of the 40S subunit of the eukaryote ribosome is highly conserved. However, despite four decades of research, the functional consequences of this modification remain unknown. Revisiting this enigma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the regulation of Rps6 phosphorylation on Ser-232 and Ser-233 is mediated by both TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2. TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of both sites via the poorly characterized AGC-family kinase Ypk3 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, whereas TORC2 regulates phosphorylation of only the N-terminal phosphosite via Ypk1. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable variant of Rps6 display a reduced growth rate and a 40S biogenesis defect, but these phenotypes are not observed in cells in which Rps6 kinase activity is compromised. Furthermore, using polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, we failed to uncover a role of Rps6 phosphorylation in either global translation or translation of individual mRNAs. Taking the results together, this work depicts the signaling cascades orchestrating Rps6 phosphorylation in budding yeast, challenges the notion that Rps6 phosphorylation plays a role in translation, and demonstrates that observations made with Rps6 knock-ins must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26582391

  2. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  3. Organelle biogenesis and interorganellar connections

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Tiziana; Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) allow the exchange of molecules and information between organelles, even when their membranes cannot fuse directly. In recent years, a number of functions have been attributed to these contacts, highlighting their critical role in cell homeostasis. Although inter-organellar connections typically involve the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we recently reported the presence of a novel MCSs between melanosomes and mitochondria. Melanosome-mitochondrion contacts appear mediated by fibrillar bridges resembling the protein tethers linking mitochondria and the ER, both for their ultrastructural features and the involvement of Mitofusin 2. The frequency of these connections correlates spatially and timely with melanosome biogenesis, suggesting a functional link between the 2 processes and in general that organelle biogenesis in the secretory pathway requires interorganellar crosstalks at multiple steps. Here, we summarize the different functions attributed to MCSs, and discuss their possible relevance for the newly identified melanosome-mitochondrion liaison. PMID:25346798

  4. Dynamic Regulation of a Ribosome Rescue Pathway in Erythroid Cells and Platelets.

    PubMed

    Mills, Eric W; Wangen, Jamie; Green, Rachel; Ingolia, Nicholas T

    2016-09-27

    Protein synthesis continues in platelets and maturing reticulocytes, although these blood cells lack nuclei and do not make new mRNA or ribosomes. Here, we analyze translation in primary human cells from anucleate lineages by ribosome profiling and uncover a dramatic accumulation of post-termination unrecycled ribosomes in the 3' UTRs of mRNAs. We demonstrate that these ribosomes accumulate as a result of the natural loss of the ribosome recycling factor ABCE1 during terminal differentiation. Induction of the ribosome rescue factors PELO and HBS1L is required to support protein synthesis when ABCE1 levels fall and for hemoglobin production during blood cell development. Our observations suggest that this distinctive loss of ABCE1 in anucleate blood lineages could sensitize them to defects in ribosome homeostasis, perhaps explaining in part why genetic defects in the fundamental process of ribosome production ("ribosomopathies") often affect hematopoiesis specifically. PMID:27681415

  5. Deuterosome-mediated centriole biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Klos Dehring, Deborah A; Vladar, Eszter K; Werner, Michael E; Mitchell, Jennifer W; Hwang, Peter; Mitchell, Brian J

    2013-10-14

    The ability of cells to faithfully duplicate their two centrioles once per cell cycle is critical for proper mitotic progression and chromosome segregation. Multiciliated cells represent an interesting variation of centriole duplication in that these cells generate greater than 100 centrioles, which form the basal bodies of their motile cilia. This centriole amplification is proposed to require a structure termed the deuterosome, thought to be capable of promoting de novo centriole biogenesis. Here, we begin to molecularly characterize the deuterosome and identify it as a site for the localization of Cep152, Plk4, and SAS6. Additionally we identify CCDC78 as a centriole-associated and deuterosome protein that is essential for centriole amplification. Overexpression of Cep152, but not Plk4, SAS6, or CCDC78, drives overamplification of centrioles. However, in CCDC78 morphants, Cep152 fails to localize to the deuterosome and centriole biogenesis is impaired, indicating that CCDC78-mediated recruitment of Cep152 is required for deuterosome-mediated centriole biogenesis.

  6. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  7. The effect of ribosome assembly cofactors on in vitro 30S subunit reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Bunner, Anne E; Nord, Stefan; Wikström, P Mikael; Williamson, James R

    2010-04-23

    Ribosome biogenesis is facilitated by a growing list of assembly cofactors, including helicases, GTPases, chaperones, and other proteins, but the specific functions of many of these assembly cofactors are still unclear. The effect of three assembly cofactors on 30S ribosome assembly was determined in vitro using a previously developed mass-spectrometry-based method that monitors the rRNA binding kinetics of ribosomal proteins. The essential GTPase Era caused several late-binding proteins to bind rRNA faster when included in a 30S reconstitution. RimP enabled faster binding of S9 and S19 and inhibited the binding of S12 and S13, perhaps by blocking those proteins' binding sites. RimM caused proteins S5 and S12 to bind dramatically faster. These quantitative kinetic data provide important clues about the roles of these assembly cofactors in the mechanism of 30S biogenesis.

  8. The intriguing realm of protein biogenesis: Facing the green co-translational protein maturation networks.

    PubMed

    Breiman, Adina; Fieulaine, Sonia; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2016-05-01

    The ribosome is the cell's protein-making factory, a huge protein-RNA complex, that is essential to life. Determining the high-resolution structures of the stable "core" of this factory was among the major breakthroughs of the past decades, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2009. Now that the mysteries of the ribosome appear to be more traceable, detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis includes not only the well-known steps of initiation, elongation, and termination but also the less comprehended features of the co-translational events associated with the maturation of the nascent chains. The ribosome is a platform for co-translational events affecting the nascent polypeptide, including protein modifications, folding, targeting to various cellular compartments for integration into membrane or translocation, and proteolysis. These events are orchestrated by ribosome-associated protein biogenesis factors (RPBs), a group of a dozen or more factors that act as the "welcoming committee" for the nascent chain as it emerges from the ribosome. In plants these factors have evolved to fit the specificity of different cellular compartments: cytoplasm, mitochondria and chloroplast. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge of these factors and their interaction around the exit tunnel of dedicated ribosomes. Particular attention has been accorded to the plant system, highlighting the similarities and differences with other organisms.

  9. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  10. The Ribosomal Database Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Marsh, T. L.; McCaughey, M. J.; Maciukenas, M. A.; Kuan, W. M.; Macke, T. J.; Xing, Y.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) complies ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development.

  11. Biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters in mammalian cells: new insights and relevance to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Rouault, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. They are required for the function of proteins involved in a wide range of activities, including electron transport in respiratory chain complexes, regulatory sensing, photosynthesis and DNA repair. The proteins involved in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters are evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans, and many insights into the process of Fe-S cluster biogenesis have come from studies of model organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants. It is now clear that several rare and seemingly dissimilar human diseases are attributable to defects in the basic process of Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Although these diseases –which include Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), ISCU myopathy, a rare form of sideroblastic anemia, an encephalomyopathy caused by dysfunction of respiratory chain complex I and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome – affect different tissues, a feature common to many of them is that mitochondrial iron overload develops as a secondary consequence of a defect in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. This Commentary outlines the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis as they have been defined in model organisms. In addition, it draws attention to refinements of the process that might be specific to the subcellular compartmentalization of Fe-S cluster biogenesis proteins in some eukaryotes, including mammals. Finally, it outlines several important unresolved questions in the field that, once addressed, should offer important clues into how mitochondrial iron homeostasis is regulated, and how dysfunction in Fe-S cluster biogenesis can contribute to disease. PMID:22382365

  12. A Nonradioactive Assay to Measure Production and Processing of Ribosomal RNA by 4sU-Tagging.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kaspar; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In vivo metabolic pulse labeling is a classical approach to assess production and processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). However, conventional labeling techniques can be indirect and require work with radioactivity. Here, we describe in detail a protocol for in vivo metabolic labeling, purification, and readout of nascent rRNA by 4-thiouridine (4sU). We propose 4sU labeling as standard nonradioactive technique for the analysis of rRNA metabolism during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27576715

  13. The fungal vacuole: composition, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, D J; Herman, P K; Emr, S D

    1990-01-01

    The fungal vacuole is an extremely complex organelle that is involved in a wide variety of functions. The vacuole not only carries out degradative processes, the role most often ascribed to it, but also is the primary storage site for certain small molecules and biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and polyphosphate, plays a role in osmoregulation, and is involved in the precise homeostatic regulation of cytosolic ion and basic amino acid concentration and intracellular pH. These many functions necessitate an intricate interaction between the vacuole and the rest of the cell; the vacuole is part of both the secretory and endocytic pathways and is also directly accessible from the cytosol. Because of the various roles and properties of the vacuole, it has been possible to isolate mutants which are defective in various vacuolar functions including the storage and uptake of metabolites, regulation of pH, sorting and processing of vacuolar proteins, and vacuole biogenesis. These mutants show a remarkable degree of genetic overlap, suggesting that these functions are not individual, discrete properties of the vacuole but, rather, are closely interrelated. Images PMID:2215422

  14. Modifying the maker: Oxygenases target ribosome biology

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Qinqin; Feng, Tianshu; Coleman, Mathew L

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the eukaryotic protein synthesis machinery is partly driven by extensive and diverse modifications to associated proteins and RNAs. These modifications can have important roles in regulating translation factor activity and ribosome biogenesis and function. Further investigation of ‘translational modifications’ is warranted considering the growing evidence implicating protein synthesis as a critical point of gene expression control that is commonly deregulated in disease. New evidence suggests that translation is a major new target for oxidative modifications, specifically hydroxylations and demethylations, which generally are catalyzed by a family of emerging oxygenase enzymes that act at the interface of nutrient availability and metabolism. This review summarizes what is currently known about the role or these enzymes in targeting rRNA synthesis, protein translation and associated cellular processes. PMID:26779412

  15. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  16. Membrane dynamics in autophagosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Sven R; Simonsen, Anne

    2015-01-15

    Bilayered phospholipid membranes are vital to the organization of the living cell. Based on fundamental principles of polarity, membranes create borders allowing defined spaces to be encapsulated. This compartmentalization is a prerequisite for the complex functional design of the eukaryotic cell, yielding localities that can differ in composition and operation. During macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components become enclosed by a growing double bilayered membrane, which upon closure creates a separate compartment, the autophagosome. The autophagosome is then primed for fusion with endosomal and lysosomal compartments, leading to degradation of the captured material. A large number of proteins have been found to be essential for autophagy, but little is known about the specific lipids that constitute the autophagic membranes and the membrane modeling events that are responsible for regulation of autophagosome shape and size. In this Commentary, we review the recent progress in our understanding of the membrane shaping and remodeling events that are required at different steps of the autophagy pathway. This article is part of a Focus on Autophagosome biogenesis. For further reading, please see related articles: 'ERES: sites for autophagosome biogenesis and maturation?' by Jana Sanchez-Wandelmer et al. (J. Cell Sci. 128, 185-192) and 'WIPI proteins: essential PtdIns3P effectors at the nascent autophagosome' by Tassula Proikas-Cezanne et al. (J. Cell Sci. 128, 207-217). PMID:25568151

  17. Studies on the Coordination of Ribosomal Protein Assembly Events Involved in Processing and Stabilization of Yeast Early Large Ribosomal Subunit Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Sauert, Martina; Martín-Marcos, Pilar; Tamame, Mercedes; Tschochner, Herbert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Cellular production of ribosomes involves the formation of highly defined interactions between ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Moreover in eukaryotic cells, efficient ribosome maturation requires the transient association of a large number of ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) with newly forming ribosomal subunits. Here, we investigated how r-protein assembly events in the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) rRNA domain II are coordinated with each other and with the association of RBFs in early LSU precursors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specific effects on the pre-ribosomal association of RBFs could be observed in yeast mutants blocked in LSU rRNA domain II assembly. Moreover, formation of a cluster of r-proteins was identified as a downstream event in LSU rRNA domain II assembly. We analyzed in more detail the functional relevance of eukaryote specific bridges established by this r-protein cluster between LSU rRNA domain II and VI and discuss how they can support the stabilization and efficient processing of yeast early LSU precursor RNAs. PMID:26642313

  18. Yeast ribosomal protein L7 and its homologue Rlp7 are simultaneously present at distinct sites on pre-60S ribosomal particles

    PubMed Central

    Babiano, Reyes; Badis, Gwenael; Saveanu, Cosmin; Namane, Abdelkader; Doyen, Antonia; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires >300 assembly factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ribosome assembly factors Imp3, Mrt4, Rlp7 and Rlp24 have sequence similarity to ribosomal proteins S9, P0, L7 and L24, suggesting that these pre-ribosomal factors could be placeholders that prevent premature assembly of the corresponding ribosomal proteins to nascent ribosomes. However, we found L7 to be a highly specific component of Rlp7-associated complexes, revealing that the two proteins can bind simultaneously to pre-ribosomal particles. Cross-linking and cDNA analysis experiments showed that Rlp7 binds to the ITS2 region of 27S pre-rRNAs, at two sites, in helix III and in a region adjacent to the pre-rRNA processing sites C1 and E. However, L7 binds to mature 25S and 5S rRNAs and cross-linked predominantly to helix ES7Lb within 25S rRNA. Thus, despite their predicted structural similarity, our data show that Rlp7 and L7 clearly bind at different positions on the same pre-60S particles. Our results also suggest that Rlp7 facilitates the formation of the hairpin structure of ITS2 during 60S ribosomal subunit maturation. PMID:23945946

  19. Hierarchical recruitment into nascent ribosomes of assembly factors required for 27SB pre-rRNA processing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Talkish, Jason; Zhang, Jingyu; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Horsey, Edward W.; Woolford, John L.

    2012-01-01

    To better define the roles of assembly factors required for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, we have focused on one specific step in maturation of yeast 60 S ribosomal subunits: processing of 27SB pre-ribosomal RNA. At least 14 assembly factors, the ‘B-factor’ proteins, are required for this step. These include most of the major functional classes of assembly factors: RNA-binding proteins, scaffolding protein, DEAD-box ATPases and GTPases. We have investigated the mechanisms by which these factors associate with assembling ribosomes. Our data establish a recruitment model in which assembly of the B-factors into nascent ribosomes ultimately leads to the recruitment of the GTPase Nog2. A more detailed analysis suggests that this occurs in a hierarchical manner via two largely independent recruiting pathways that converge on Nog2. Understanding recruitment has allowed us to better determine the order of association of all assembly factors functioning in one step of ribosome assembly. Furthermore, we have identified a novel subcomplex composed of the B-factors Nop2 and Nip7. Finally, we identified a means by which this step in ribosome biogenesis is regulated in concert with cell growth via the TOR protein kinase pathway. Inhibition of TOR kinase decreases association of Rpf2, Spb4, Nog1 and Nog2 with pre-ribosomes. PMID:22735702

  20. Functional Interaction between Ribosomal Protein L6 and RbgA during Ribosome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joseph H.; Williamson, James R.; Britton, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    RbgA is an essential GTPase that participates in the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit in Bacillus subtilis and its homologs are implicated in mitochondrial and eukaryotic large subunit assembly. How RbgA functions in this process is still poorly understood. To gain insight into the function of RbgA we isolated suppressor mutations that partially restored the growth of an RbgA mutation (RbgA-F6A) that caused a severe growth defect. Analysis of these suppressors identified mutations in rplF, encoding ribosomal protein L6. The suppressor strains all accumulated a novel ribosome intermediate that migrates at 44S in sucrose gradients. All of the mutations cluster in a region of L6 that is in close contact with helix 97 of the 23S rRNA. In vitro maturation assays indicate that the L6 substitutions allow the defective RbgA-F6A protein to function more effectively in ribosome maturation. Our results suggest that RbgA functions to properly position L6 on the ribosome, prior to the incorporation of L16 and other late assembly proteins. PMID:25330043

  1. Disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction significantly improves the erythroid defect in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaako, P; Debnath, S; Olsson, K; Zhang, Y; Flygare, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D; Karlsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by haploinsufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs). Perturbed ribosome biogenesis in DBA has been shown to induce a p53-mediated ribosomal stress response. However, the mechanisms of p53 activation and its relevance for the erythroid defect remain elusive. Previous studies have indicated that activation of p53 is caused by the inhibition of mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), the main negative regulator of p53, by the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). Meanwhile, it is not clear whether this mechanism solely mediates the p53-dependent component found in DBA. To approach this question, we crossed our mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA with Mdm2(C305F) knock-in mice that have a disrupted 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Upon induction of the Rps19 deficiency, Mdm2(C305F) reversed the p53 response and improved expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in vitro, and ameliorated the anemia in vivo. Unexpectedly, disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction also led to selective defect in erythropoiesis. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of erythroid progenitor cells to aberrations in p53 homeostasis mediated by the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that physiological activation of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway may contribute to functional decline of the hematopoietic system in a cell-autonomous manner over time.

  2. FYVE1 is essential for vacuole biogenesis and intracellular trafficking in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Cornelia; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Kalinowska, Kamila; Hagmann, Jörg; Ichikawa, Mie; Anzenberger, Franziska; Alkofer, Angela; Sato, Masa H; Braun, Pascal; Isono, Erika

    2015-04-01

    The plant vacuole is a central organelle that is involved in various biological processes throughout the plant life cycle. Elucidating the mechanism of vacuole biogenesis and maintenance is thus the basis for our understanding of these processes. Proper formation of the vacuole has been shown to depend on the intracellular membrane trafficking pathway. Although several mutants with altered vacuole morphology have been characterized in the past, the molecular basis for plant vacuole biogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. With the aim to identify key factors that are essential for vacuole biogenesis, we performed a forward genetics screen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and isolated mutants with altered vacuole morphology. The vacuolar fusion defective1 (vfd1) mutant shows seedling lethality and defects in central vacuole formation. VFD1 encodes a Fab1, YOTB, Vac1, and EEA1 (FYVE) domain-containing protein, FYVE1, that has been implicated in intracellular trafficking. FYVE1 localizes on late endosomes and interacts with Src homology-3 domain-containing proteins. Mutants of FYVE1 are defective in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, vacuolar transport, and autophagy. Altogether, our results show that FYVE1 is essential for plant growth and development and place FYVE1 as a key regulator of intracellular trafficking and vacuole biogenesis.

  3. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  4. Plant Peroxisomes: Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianping; Baker, Alison; Bartel, Bonnie; Linka, Nicole; Mullen, Robert T.; Reumann, Sigrun; Zolman, Bethany K.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles that are highly dynamic both in morphology and metabolism. Plant peroxisomes are involved in numerous processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Considerable progress has been made in the identification of factors involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, revealing mechanisms that are both shared with and diverged from non-plant systems. Furthermore, recent advances have begun to reveal an unexpectedly large plant peroxisomal proteome and have increased our understanding of metabolic pathways in peroxisomes. Coordination of the biosynthesis, import, biochemical activity, and degradation of peroxisomal proteins allows for highly dynamic responses of peroxisomal metabolism to meet the needs of a plant. Knowledge gained from plant peroxisomal research will be instrumental to fully understanding the organelle’s dynamic behavior and defining peroxisomal metabolic networks, thus allowing the development of molecular strategies for rational engineering of plant metabolism, biomass production, stress tolerance, and pathogen defense. PMID:22669882

  5. Biogenesis of light harvesting proteins.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Bressan, Mauro; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The LHC family includes nuclear-encoded, integral thylakoid membrane proteins, most of which coordinate chlorophyll and xanthophyll chromophores. By assembling with the core complexes of both photosystems, LHCs form a flexible peripheral moiety for enhancing light-harvesting cross-section, regulating its efficiency and providing protection against photo-oxidative stress. Upon its first appearance, LHC proteins underwent evolutionary diversification into a large protein family with a complex genetic redundancy. Such differentiation appears as a crucial event in the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to changing environmental conditions and land colonization. The structure of photosystems, including nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded subunits, presented the cell with a number of challenges for the control of the light harvesting function. Indeed, LHC-encoding messages are translated in the cytosol, and pre-proteins imported into the chloroplast, processed to their mature size and targeted to the thylakoids where are assembled with chromophores. Thus, a tight coordination between nuclear and plastid gene expression, in response to environmental stimuli, is required to adjust LHC composition during photoacclimation. In recent years, remarkable progress has been achieved in elucidating structure, function and regulatory pathways involving LHCs; however, a number of molecular details still await elucidation. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current knowledge on LHC biogenesis, ranging from organization of pigment-protein complexes to the modulation of gene expression, import and targeting to the photosynthetic membranes, and regulation of LHC assembly and turnover. Genes controlling these events are potential candidate for biotechnological applications aimed at optimizing light use efficiency of photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast biogenesis.

  6. Quality control of mRNP biogenesis: networking at the transcription site.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Andrea B; Visa, Neus

    2014-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells carry out quality control (QC) over the processes of RNA biogenesis to inactivate or eliminate defective transcripts, and to avoid their production. In the case of protein-coding transcripts, the quality controls can sense defects in the assembly of mRNA-protein complexes, in the processing of the precursor mRNAs, and in the sequence of open reading frames. Different types of defect are monitored by different specialized mechanisms. Some of them involve dedicated factors whose function is to identify faulty molecules and target them for degradation. Others are the result of a more subtle balance in the kinetics of opposing activities in the mRNA biogenesis pathway. One way or another, all such mechanisms hinder the expression of the defective mRNAs through processes as diverse as rapid degradation, nuclear retention and transcriptional silencing. Three major degradation systems are responsible for the destruction of the defective transcripts: the exosome, the 5'-3' exoribonucleases, and the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) machinery. This review summarizes recent findings on the cotranscriptional quality control of mRNA biogenesis, and speculates that a protein-protein interaction network integrates multiple mRNA degradation systems with the transcription machinery.

  7. The yeast NOP4 gene product is an essential nucleolar protein required for pre-rRNA processing and accumulation of 60S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C; Woolford, J L

    1994-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NOP4 gene was isolated by screening a lambda gt11 yeast genomic DNA library with a monoclonal antibody against a yeast nucleolar protein. NOP4 encodes a 78 kDa protein that contains two prototypical RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) flanking an imperfect RRM lacking characteristic RNP1 and RNP2 motifs. In addition, there is a fourth incomplete RRM. NOP4 is a single copy essential gene present on chromosome XVI, between RAD1 and PEP4. To examine the function of Nop4p, we constructed a conditional null allele of NOP4 by placing this gene under the control of the glucose-repressible GAL1 promoter. When cells are shifted from galactose-containing medium to glucose-containing medium, NOP4 transcription is terminated, Nop4 protein is depleted and cell growth is impaired. Nop4 protein depletion results in diminished accumulation of 60S ribosomal subunits, assignable to a defect in ribosome biogenesis arising from a lack of production of mature 25S rRNA from 27S precursor rRNA. Images PMID:8039505

  8. The K+-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA–protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  9. The K⁺-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-02-29

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA-protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  10. The Roles of Puf6 and Loc1 in 60S Biogenesis Are Interdependent, and Both Are Required for Efficient Accommodation of Rpl43.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Ting, Ya-Han; Liang, Kei-Jen; Lo, Kai-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Puf6 and Loc1 have two important functional roles in the cells, asymmetric mRNA distribution and ribosome biogenesis. Puf6 and Loc1 are localized predominantly in the nucleolus. They bind ASH1 mRNA, repress its translation, and facilitate the transport to the daughter cells. Asymmetric mRNA distribution is important for cell differentiation. Besides their roles in mRNA localization, Puf6 and Loc1 have been shown to be involved in 60S biogenesis. In puf6Δ or loc1Δ cells, pre-rRNA processing and 60S export are impaired and 60S subunits are underaccumulated. The functional studies of Puf6 and Loc1 have been focused on ASH1 mRNA pathway, but their roles in 60S biogenesis are still not clear. In this study, we found that Puf6 and Loc1 interact directly with each other and both proteins interact with the ribosomal protein Rpl43 (L43e). Notably, the roles of Puf6 and Loc1 in 60S biogenesis are interdependent, and both are required for efficient accommodation of Rpl43. Loc1 is further required to maintain the protein level of Rpl43. Additionally, the recruitment of Rpl43 is required for the release of Puf6 and Loc1. We propose that Puf6 and Loc1 facilitate Rpl43 loading and are sequentially released from 60S after incorporation of Rpl43 into ribosomes in yeast. PMID:27458021

  11. Purification of 70S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe the further purification of prokaryotic ribosomal particles obtained after the centrifugation of a crude cell lysate through a sucrose cushion. In this final purification step, a fraction containing ribosomes, ribosomal subunits, and polysomes is centrifuged through a 7%-30% (w/w) linear sucrose gradient to isolate tight couple 70S ribosomes, as well as dissociated 30S and 50S subunits. The tight couples fraction, or translationally active ribosome fraction, is composed of intact vacant ribosomes that can be used in cell-free translation systems.

  12. HDL biogenesis, remodeling, and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Zannis, Vassilis I; Fotakis, Panagiotis; Koukos, Georgios; Kardassis, Dimitris; Ehnholm, Christian; Jauhiainen, Matti; Chroni, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review how HDL is generated, remodeled, and catabolized in plasma. We describe key features of the proteins that participate in these processes, emphasizing how mutations in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and the other proteins affect HDL metabolism. The biogenesis of HDL initially requires functional interaction of apoA-I with the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and subsequently interactions of the lipidated apoA-I forms with lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Mutations in these proteins either prevent or impair the formation and possibly the functionality of HDL. Remodeling and catabolism of HDL is the result of interactions of HDL with cell receptors and other membrane and plasma proteins including hepatic lipase (HL), endothelial lipase (EL), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein M (apoM), scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), the F1 subunit of ATPase (Ecto F1-ATPase), and the cubulin/megalin receptor. Similarly to apoA-I, apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein A-IV were shown to form discrete HDL particles containing these apolipoproteins which may have important but still unexplored functions. Furthermore, several plasma proteins were found associated with HDL and may modulate its biological functions. The effect of these proteins on the functionality of HDL is the topic of ongoing research. PMID:25522986

  13. Crystallography of ribosomal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonath, A.; Frolow, F.; Shoham, M.; Müssig, J.; Makowski, I.; Glotz, C.; Jahn, W.; Weinstein, S.; Wittmann, H. G.

    1988-07-01

    Several forms of three-dimensional crystals and two-dimensional sheets of intact ribosomes and their subunits have been obtained as a result of: (a) an extensive systematic investigation of the parameters involved in crystallization, (b) a development of an experimental procedure for controlling the volumes of the crystallization droplets, (c) a study of the nucleation process, and (d) introducing a delicate seeding procedure coupled with variations in the ratios of mono- and divalent ions in the crystallization medium. In all cases only biologically active particles could be crystallized, and the crystalline material retains its integrity and activity. Crystallographic data have been collected from crystals of 50S ribosomal subunits, using synchrotron radiation at temperatures between + 19 and - 180°C. Although at 4°C the higher resolution reflections decay within minutes in the synchrotron beam, at cryo-temperature there was hardly any radiation damage, and a complete set of data to about 6Åresolution could be collected from a single crystal. Heavy-atom clusters were used for soaking as well as for specific binding to the surface of the ribosomal subunits prior to crystallization. The 50S ribosomal subunits from a mutant of B. stearothermophilus which lacks the ribosomal protein BL11 crystallize isomorphously with in the native ones. Models, aimed to be used for low resolution phasing, have been reconstructed from two-dimensional sheets of 70S ribosomes and 50S subunits at 47 and 30Å, respectively. These models show the overall structure of these particles, the contact areas between the large and small subunits, the space where protein synthesis might take place and a tunnel which may provide the path for the nascent protein chain.

  14. The HIV Tat protein affects processing of ribosomal RNA precursor

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Donatella; Troiano, Maria; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Battaglia, Piero A; Gigliani, Franca

    2008-01-01

    Background Inside the cell, the HIV Tat protein is mainly found in the nucleus and nucleolus. The nucleolus, the site of ribosome biogenesis, is a highly organized, non-membrane-bound sub-compartment where proteins with a high affinity for nucleolar components are found. While it is well known that Tat accumulates in the nucleolus via a specific nucleolar targeting sequence, its function in this compartment it still unknown. Results To clarify the significance of the Tat nucleolar localization, we induced the expression of the protein during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster strain transgenic for HIV-tat gene. Here we show that Tat localizes in the nucleoli of Drosophila oocyte nurse cells, where it specifically co-localizes with fibrillarin. Tat expression is accompanied by a significant decrease of cytoplasmic ribosomes, which is apparently related to an impairment of ribosomal rRNA precursor processing. Such an event is accounted for by the interaction of Tat with fibrillarin and U3 snoRNA, which are both required for pre-rRNA maturation. Conclusion Our data contribute to understanding the function of Tat in the nucleolus, where ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell cycle control take place. The impairment of nucleolar pre-rRNA maturation through the interaction of Tat with fibrillarin-U3snoRNA complex suggests a process by which the virus modulates host response, thus contributing to apoptosis and protein shut-off in HIV-uninfected cells. PMID:18559082

  15. 5S ribosomal RNA is an essential component of a nascent ribosomal precursor complex that regulates the Hdm2-p53 checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giulio; Peddigari, Suresh; Mercer, Carol A; Thomas, George

    2013-07-11

    Recently, we demonstrated that RPL5 and RPL11 act in a mutually dependent manner to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53 following impaired ribosome biogenesis. Given that RPL5 and RPL11 form a preribosomal complex with noncoding 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the three have been implicated in the p53 response, we reasoned they may be part of an Hdm2-inhibitory complex. Here, we show that small interfering RNAs directed against 5S rRNA have no effect on total or nascent levels of the noncoding rRNA, though they prevent the reported Hdm4 inhibition of p53. To achieve efficient inhibition of 5S rRNA synthesis, we targeted TFIIIA, a specific RNA polymerase III cofactor, which, like depletion of either RPL5 or RPL11, did not induce p53. Instead, 5S rRNA acts in a dependent manner with RPL5 and RPL11 to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53. Moreover, depletion of any one of the three components abolished the binding of the other two to Hdm2, explaining their common dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA preribosomal complex is redirected from assembly into nascent 60S ribosomes to Hdm2 inhibition as a consequence of impaired ribosome biogenesis. Thus, the activation of the Hdm2-inhibitory complex is not a passive but a regulated event, whose potential role in tumor suppression has been recently noted.

  16. Human ribosomes from cells with reduced dyskerin levels are intrinsically altered in translation.

    PubMed

    Penzo, Marianna; Rocchi, Laura; Brugiere, Sabine; Carnicelli, Domenica; Onofrillo, Carmine; Couté, Yohann; Brigotti, Maurizio; Montanaro, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Dyskerin is a pseudouridine (ψ) synthase involved in fundamental cellular processes including uridine modification in rRNA and small nuclear RNA and telomere stabilization. Dyskerin functions are altered in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) and cancer. Dyskerin's role in rRNA pseudouridylation has been suggested to underlie the alterations in mRNA translation described in cells lacking dyskerin function, although relevant direct evidences are currently lacking. Our purpose was to establish definitely whether defective dyskerin function might determine an intrinsic ribosomal defect leading to an altered synthetic activity. Therefore, ribosomes from dyskerin-depleted human cells were purified and 1) added to a controlled reticulocyte cell-free system devoid of ribosomes to study mRNA translation; 2) analyzed for protein contamination and composition by mass spectrometry, 3) analyzed for global pseudouridylation levels. Ribosomes purified from dyskerin-depleted cells showed altered translational fidelity and internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. These ribosomes displayed reduced uridine modification, whereas they were not different in terms of protein contamination or ribosomal protein composition with respect to ribosomes from matched control cells with full dyskerin activity. In conclusion, lack of dyskerin function in human cells induces a defect in rRNA uridine modification, which is sufficient to alter ribosome activity.

  17. Probing peroxisome dynamics and biogenesis by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Miluska; Kim, Peter K

    2014-03-03

    Peroxisomes are the most recently discovered classical organelles, and only lately have their diverse functions been truly recognized. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic structures, changing both morphologically and in number in response to both extracellular and intracellular signals. This metabolic organelle came to prominence due to the many genetic disorders caused by defects in its biogenesis or enzymatic functions. There is now growing evidence that suggests peroxisomes are involved in lipid biosynthesis, innate immunity, redox homeostasis, and metabolite scavenging, among other functions. Therefore, it is important to have available suitable methods and techniques to visualize and quantify peroxisomes in response to various cellular signals. This unit includes a number of protocols that will enable researchers to image, qualify, and quantify peroxisome numbers and morphology-with both steady-state and time-lapse imaging using mammalian cells. The use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to detect and measure peroxisome biogenesis is also described. Altogether, the protocols described here will facilitate understanding of the dynamic changes that peroxisomes undergo in response to various cellular signals.

  18. Dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis machinery in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hata, Akiko; Kashima, Risa

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are integral to the gene regulatory network. A single miRNA is capable of controlling the expression of hundreds of protein coding genes and modulate a wide spectrum of biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, stress responses, DNA repair, cell adhesion, motility, inflammation, cell survival, senescence and apoptosis, all of which are fundamental to tumorigenesis. Overexpression, genetic amplification, and gain-of-function mutation of oncogenic miRNAs ("onco-miRs") as well as genetic deletion and loss-of-function mutation of tumor suppressor miRNAs ("suppressor-miRs") are linked to human cancer. In addition to the dysregulation of a specific onco-miR or suppressor-miRs, changes in global miRNA levels resulting from a defective miRNA biogenesis pathway play a role in tumorigenesis. The function of individual onco-miRs and suppressor-miRs and their target genes in cancer has been described in many different articles elsewhere. In this review, we primarily focus on the recent development regarding the dysregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway and its contribution to cancer. PMID:26628006

  19. The DEAD box protein Mrh4 functions in the assembly of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni

    2013-11-01

    Proteins in a cell are universally synthesized by ribosomes. Mitochondria contain their own ribosomes, which specialize in the synthesis of a handful of proteins required for oxidative phosphorylation. The pathway of mitoribosomal biogenesis and factors involved are poorly characterized. An example is the DEAD box proteins, widely known to participate in the biogenesis of bacterial and cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes as either RNA helicases or RNA chaperones, whose mitochondrial counterparts remain completely unknown. Here, we have identified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial DEAD box protein Mrh4 as essential for large mitoribosome subunit biogenesis. Mrh4 interacts with the 21S rRNA, mitoribosome subassemblies, and fully assembled mitoribosomes. In the absence of Mrh4, the 21S rRNA is matured and forms part of a large on-pathway assembly intermediate missing proteins Mrpl16 and Mrpl39. We conclude that Mrh4 plays an essential role during the late stages of mitoribosome assembly by promoting remodeling of the 21S rRNA-protein interactions.

  20. Expanding the ribosomal universe.

    PubMed

    Dinman, Jonathan D; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2009-12-01

    In this issue of Structure, Taylor et al. (2009) present the most complete model of an eukaryotic ribosome to date. This achievement represents a critical milestone along the path to structurally defining the unique aspects of the eukaryotic protein synthetic machinery.

  1. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges.

    PubMed

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-06-29

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of "pathogen-specific antibiotics," in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  2. Ribosome-inactivating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew J; Dodd, Jennifer E; Hautbergue, Guillaume M

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with other potent toxins that abolish protein synthesis: the fungal ribotoxins which directly cleave the 28S rRNA and the newly discovered Burkholderia lethal factor 1 (BLF1). BLF1 presents additional challenges to the current classification system since, like the ribotoxins, it does not possess RNA N-glycosidase activity but does irreversibly inactivate ribosomes. We further discuss whether the RIP classification should be broadened to include toxins achieving irreversible ribosome inactivation with similar turnovers to RIPs, but through different enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:24071927

  3. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges.

    PubMed

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of "pathogen-specific antibiotics," in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification. PMID:27367739

  4. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification. PMID:27367739

  5. Constructing ribosomes along the Danube

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    The EMBO Conference on Ribosome Synthesis held last summer explored the latest breakthroughs in ribosome assembly and how it affects disease. Both of these topics have recently seen important advances that enlighten how almost 200 proteins cooperate to produce a ribosome and how the cell responds to a malfunction in this process. PMID:20010797

  6. PBR1 selectively controls biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes by modulating translation of the large chloroplast gene Ycf1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Si-Ting; Li, Ji-Kai; Shen, Hong-Tao; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The biogenesis of photosystem I (PSI), cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH) complexes relies on the spatially and temporally coordinated expression and translation of both nuclear and chloroplast genes. Here we report the identification of photosystem biogenesis regulator 1 (PBR1), a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RNA-binding protein that regulates the concerted biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb6f complexes. We identified Ycf1, one of the two largest chloroplast genome-encoded open reading frames as the direct downstream target protein of PBR1. Biochemical and molecular analyses reveal that PBR1 regulates Ycf1 translation by directly binding to its mRNA. Surprisingly, we further demonstrate that relocation of the chloroplast gene Ycf1 fused with a plastid-transit sequence to the nucleus bypasses the requirement of PBR1 for Ycf1 translation, which sufficiently complements the defects in biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb6f complexes in PBR1-deficient plants. Remarkably, the nuclear-encoded PBR1 tightly controls the expression of the chloroplast gene Ycf1 at the translational level, which is sufficient to sustain the coordinated biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb6f complexes as a whole. Our findings provide deep insights into better understanding of how a predominant nuclear-encoded factor can act as a migratory mediator and undergoes selective translational regulation of the target plastid gene in controlling biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes. PMID:27462450

  7. PBR1 selectively controls biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes by modulating translation of the large chloroplast gene Ycf1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Si-Ting; Li, Ji-Kai; Shen, Hong-Tao; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The biogenesis of photosystem I (PSI), cytochrome b 6 f (Cytb 6 f) and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH) complexes relies on the spatially and temporally coordinated expression and translation of both nuclear and chloroplast genes. Here we report the identification of photosystem biogenesis regulator 1 (PBR1), a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RNA-binding protein that regulates the concerted biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb 6 f complexes. We identified Ycf1, one of the two largest chloroplast genome-encoded open reading frames as the direct downstream target protein of PBR1. Biochemical and molecular analyses reveal that PBR1 regulates Ycf1 translation by directly binding to its mRNA. Surprisingly, we further demonstrate that relocation of the chloroplast gene Ycf1 fused with a plastid-transit sequence to the nucleus bypasses the requirement of PBR1 for Ycf1 translation, which sufficiently complements the defects in biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb 6 f complexes in PBR1-deficient plants. Remarkably, the nuclear-encoded PBR1 tightly controls the expression of the chloroplast gene Ycf1 at the translational level, which is sufficient to sustain the coordinated biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb 6 f complexes as a whole. Our findings provide deep insights into better understanding of how a predominant nuclear-encoded factor can act as a migratory mediator and undergoes selective translational regulation of the target plastid gene in controlling biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes. PMID:27462450

  8. A hierarchical model for assembly of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit domains.

    PubMed

    Gamalinda, Michael; Ohmayer, Uli; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Woolford, Joshua; Mbom, Bertrade; Lin, Lawrence; Woolford, John L

    2014-01-15

    Despite having high-resolution structures for eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, it remained unclear how these ribonucleoprotein complexes are constructed in living cells. Nevertheless, knowing where ribosomal proteins interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a strategic platform to investigate the connection between spatial and temporal aspects of 60S subunit biogenesis. We previously found that the function of individual yeast large subunit ribosomal proteins (RPLs) in precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing correlates with their location in the structure of mature 60S subunits. This observation suggested that there is an order by which 60S subunits are formed. To test this model, we used proteomic approaches to assay changes in the levels of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors in preribosomes when RPLs functioning in early, middle, and late steps of pre-60S assembly are depleted. Our results demonstrate that structural domains of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are formed in a hierarchical fashion. Assembly begins at the convex solvent side, followed by the polypeptide exit tunnel, the intersubunit side, and finally the central protuberance. This model provides an initial paradigm for the sequential assembly of eukaryotic 60S subunits. Our results reveal striking differences and similarities between assembly of bacterial and eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, providing insights into how these RNA-protein particles evolved.

  9. A hierarchical model for assembly of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit domains

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Ohmayer, Uli; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Woolford, Joshua; Mbom, Bertrade; Lin, Lawrence; Woolford, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite having high-resolution structures for eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, it remained unclear how these ribonucleoprotein complexes are constructed in living cells. Nevertheless, knowing where ribosomal proteins interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a strategic platform to investigate the connection between spatial and temporal aspects of 60S subunit biogenesis. We previously found that the function of individual yeast large subunit ribosomal proteins (RPLs) in precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing correlates with their location in the structure of mature 60S subunits. This observation suggested that there is an order by which 60S subunits are formed. To test this model, we used proteomic approaches to assay changes in the levels of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors in preribosomes when RPLs functioning in early, middle, and late steps of pre-60S assembly are depleted. Our results demonstrate that structural domains of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are formed in a hierarchical fashion. Assembly begins at the convex solvent side, followed by the polypeptide exit tunnel, the intersubunit side, and finally the central protuberance. This model provides an initial paradigm for the sequential assembly of eukaryotic 60S subunits. Our results reveal striking differences and similarities between assembly of bacterial and eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, providing insights into how these RNA–protein particles evolved. PMID:24449272

  10. Mitochondrial biogenesis in plants during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon R; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, James

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria occupy a central role in the eukaryotic cell. In addition to being major sources of cellular energy, mitochondria are also involved in a diverse range of functions including signalling, the synthesis of many essential organic compounds and a role in programmed cell death. The active proliferation and differentiation of mitochondria is termed mitochondrial biogenesis and necessitates the coordinated communication of mitochondrial status within an integrated cellular network. Two models of mitochondrial biogenesis have been defined previously, the growth and division model and the maturation model. The former describes the growth and division of pre-existing mature organelles through a form of binary fission, while the latter describes the propagation of mitochondria from structurally and biochemically simple promitochondrial structures that upon appropriate stimuli, mature into fully functional mitochondria. In the last decade, a number of studies have utilised seed germination in plants as a platform for the examination of the processes occurring during mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies have revealed many new aspects of the tightly regulated procession of events that define mitochondrial biogenesis during this period of rapid development. A model for mitochondrial biogenesis that supports the maturation of mitochondria from promitochondrial structures has emerged, where mitochondrial signalling plays a crucial role in the early steps of seed germination. PMID:24727594

  11. Insights into chloroplast biogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Barry J; Ganguly, Diep; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    In recent years many advances have been made to obtain insight into chloroplast biogenesis and development. In plants several plastids types exist such as the proplastid (which is the progenitor of all plastids), leucoplasts (group of colourless plastids important for storage including elaioplasts (lipids), amyloplasts (starch) or proteinoplasts (proteins)), chromoplasts (yellow to orange-coloured due to carotenoids, in flowers or in old leaves as gerontoplasts), and the green chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are indispensable for plant development; not only by performing photosynthesis and thus rendering the plant photoautotrophic, but also for biochemical processes (which in some instances can also take place in other plastids types), such as the synthesis of pigments, lipids, and plant hormones and sensing environmental stimuli. Although we understand many aspects of these processes there are gaps in our understanding of the establishment of functional chloroplasts and their regulation. Why is that so? Even though chloroplast function is comparable in all plants and most of the algae, ferns and moss, detailed analyses have revealed many differences, specifically with respect to its biogenesis. As an update to our prior review on the genetic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis and development [1] herein we will focus on recent advances in Angiosperms (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants) that provide novel insights and highlight the challenges and prospects for unravelling the regulation of chloroplast biogenesis specifically during the establishment of the young plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

  12. A 'garbage can' for ribosomes: how eukaryotes degrade their ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2010-05-01

    Ribosome synthesis is a major metabolic activity that involves hundreds of individual reactions, each of which is error-prone. Ribosomal insults occur in cis (alteration in rRNA sequences) and in trans (failure to bind to, or loss of, an assembly factor or ribosomal protein). In addition, specific growth conditions, such as starvation, require that excess ribosomes are turned over efficiently. Recent work indicates that cells evolved multiple strategies to recognize specifically, and target for clearance, ribosomes that are structurally and/or functionally deficient, as well as in excess. This surveillance is active at every step of the ribosome synthesis pathway and on mature ribosomes, involves nearly entirely different mechanisms for the small and large subunits, and requires specialized subcellular organelles. PMID:20097077

  13. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R; Kim, Kelly H; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-06-29

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes-UtpA and UtpB-interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA-protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5' end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5' ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3' boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  14. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes--UtpA and UtpB--interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA-protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5' end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5' ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3' boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  15. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes—UtpA and UtpB—interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA–protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5′ end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5′ ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3′ boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly. PMID:27354316

  16. Dissecting the transcriptional phenotype of ribosomal protein deficiency: implications for Diamond-Blackfan Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aspesi, Anna; Pavesi, Elisa; Robotti, Elisa; Crescitelli, Rossella; Boria, Ilenia; Avondo, Federica; Moniz, Hélène; Da Costa, Lydie; Mohandas, Narla; Roncaglia, Paola; Ramenghi, Ugo; Ronchi, Antonella; Gustincich, Stefano; Merlin, Simone; Marengo, Emilio; Ellis, Steven R; Follenzi, Antonia; Santoro, Claudio; Dianzani, Irma

    2014-07-25

    Defects in genes encoding ribosomal proteins cause Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), a red cell aplasia often associated with physical abnormalities. Other bone marrow failure syndromes have been attributed to defects in ribosomal components but the link between erythropoiesis and the ribosome remains to be fully defined. Several lines of evidence suggest that defects in ribosome synthesis lead to "ribosomal stress" with p53 activation and either cell cycle arrest or induction of apoptosis. Pathways independent of p53 have also been proposed to play a role in DBA pathogenesis. We took an unbiased approach to identify p53-independent pathways activated by defects in ribosome synthesis by analyzing global gene expression in various cellular models of DBA. Ranking-Principal Component Analysis (Ranking-PCA) was applied to the identified datasets to determine whether there are common sets of genes whose expression is altered in these different cellular models. We observed consistent changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular amino acid metabolic process, negative regulation of cell proliferation and cell redox homeostasis. These data indicate that cells respond to defects in ribosome synthesis by changing the level of expression of a limited subset of genes involved in critical cellular processes. Moreover, our data support a role for p53-independent pathways in the pathophysiology of DBA.

  17. Isolation of ribosomes and polysomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe a preparative differential centrifugation protocol for the isolation of ribosomes from a crude cell homogenate. The subcellular fraction obtained is enriched in ribosome monomers and polysomes. The protocol has been optimized for the homogenization and collection of the ribosomal fraction from prokaryotic cells, mammalian and plant tissues, reticulocytes, and chloroplasts. The quality of the ribosomal preparation is enhanced by the removal of the remaining cellular components and adsorbed proteins by pelleting through a sucrose cushion with a high concentration of monovalent salts, NH4Cl or KCl. The different components of the ribosomal fraction isolated using this protocol can be further purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  18. Rosiglitazone induces mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Strum, Jay C; Shehee, Ron; Virley, David; Richardson, Jill; Mattie, Michael; Selley, Paula; Ghosh, Sujoy; Nock, Christina; Saunders, Ann; Roses, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Rosiglitazone was found to simulate mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse brain in an apolipoprotein (Apo) E isozyme-independent manner. Rosiglitazone induced both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and estrogen-stimulated related receptor alpha (ESRRA) mRNA, a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Transcriptomics and proteomics analysis suggested the mitochondria produced in the presence of human ApoE3 and E4 were not as metabolically efficient as those in the wild type or ApoE knockout mice. Thus, we propose that PPARgamma agonism induces neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis and improves glucose utilization leading to improved cellular function and provides mechanistic support for the improvement in cognition observed in treatment of Alzheimer's patients with rosiglitazone.

  19. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. PMID:21957041

  20. Myristoylated CIL-7 regulates ciliary extracellular vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Julie E; Silva, Malan; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hellen, Elizabeth; Kern, Andrew D; Hall, David H; Barr, Maureen M

    2015-08-01

    The cilium both releases and binds to extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs may be used by cells as a form of intercellular communication and mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. The mammalian polycystins (PCs) localize to cilia, as well as to urinary EVs released from renal epithelial cells. PC ciliary trafficking defects may be an underlying cause of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and ciliary-EV interactions have been proposed to play a central role in the biology of PKD. In Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals, PC1 and PC2 act in the same genetic pathway, act in a sensory capacity, localize to cilia, and are contained in secreted EVs, suggesting ancient conservation. However, the relationship between cilia and EVs and the mechanisms generating PC-containing EVs remain an enigma. In a forward genetic screen for regulators of C. elegans PKD-2 ciliary localization, we identified CIL-7, a myristoylated protein that regulates EV biogenesis. Loss of CIL-7 results in male mating behavioral defects, excessive accumulation of EVs in the lumen of the cephalic sensory organ, and failure to release PKD-2::GFP-containing EVs to the environment. Fatty acylation, such as myristoylation and palmitoylation, targets proteins to cilia and flagella. The CIL-7 myristoylation motif is essential for CIL-7 function and for targeting CIL-7 to EVs. C. elegans is a powerful model with which to study ciliary EV biogenesis in vivo and identify cis-targeting motifs such as myristoylation that are necessary for EV-cargo association and function. PMID:26041936

  1. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  2. Ribosomal protein S6 is highly expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and associates with mRNA containing a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract.

    PubMed

    Hagner, P R; Mazan-Mamczarz, K; Dai, B; Balzer, E M; Corl, S; Martin, S S; Zhao, X F; Gartenhaus, R B

    2011-03-31

    The molecular mechanism(s) linking tumorigenesis and morphological alterations in the nucleolus are presently coming into focus. The nucleolus is the cellular organelle in which the formation of ribosomal subunits occurs. Ribosomal biogenesis occurs through the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), rRNA processing and production of ribosomal proteins. An error in any of these processes may lead to deregulated cellular translation, evident in multiple cancers and 'ribosomopathies'. Deregulated protein synthesis may be achieved through the overexpression of ribosomal proteins as seen in primary leukemic blasts with elevated levels of ribosomal proteins S11 and S14. In this study, we demonstrate that ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is highly expressed in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) samples. Genetic modulation of RPS6 protein levels with specifically targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses led to a decrease in the actively proliferating population of cells compared with control shRNA. Low-dose rapamycin treatments have been shown to affect the translation of 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (5' TOP) tract mRNA, which encodes the translational machinery, implicating RPS6 in 5' TOP translation. Recently, it was shown that disruption of 40S ribosomal biogenesis through specific small inhibitory RNA knockdown of RPS6 defined RPS6 as a critical regulator of 5' TOP translation. For the first time, we show that RPS6 associates with multiple mRNAs containing a 5' TOP tract. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in ribosomal biogenesis and deregulated protein synthesis in DLBCL. PMID:21102526

  3. The SMC Loader Scc2 Promotes ncRNA Biogenesis and Translational Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Zakari, Musinu; Trimble Ross, Rhonda; Peak, Allison; Blanchette, Marco; Seidel, Chris; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The Scc2-Scc4 complex is essential for loading the cohesin complex onto DNA. Cohesin has important roles in chromosome segregation, DSB repair, and chromosome condensation. Here we report that Scc2 is important for gene expression in budding yeast. Scc2 and the transcriptional regulator Paf1 collaborate to promote the production of Box H/ACA snoRNAs which guide pseudouridylation of RNAs including ribosomal RNA. Mutation of SCC2 was associated with defects in the production of ribosomal RNA, ribosome assembly, and splicing. While the scc2 mutant does not have a general defect in protein synthesis, it shows increased frameshifting and reduced cap-independent translation. These findings suggest Scc2 normally promotes a gene expression program that supports translational fidelity. We hypothesize that translational dysfunction may contribute to the human disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome, which is caused by mutations in NIPBL, the human ortholog of SCC2. PMID:26176819

  4. E3 ubiquitin ligase SP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Ronghui; Satkovich, John; Hu, Jianping

    2016-10-31

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles that play pivotal roles in a suite of metabolic processes and often act coordinately with other organelles, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Peroxisomes import proteins to the peroxisome matrix by peroxins (PEX proteins), but how the function of the PEX proteins is regulated is poorly understood. In this study, we identified the Arabidopsis RING (really interesting new gene) type E3 ubiquitin ligase SP1 [suppressor of plastid protein import locus 1 (ppi1) 1] as a peroxisome membrane protein with a regulatory role in peroxisome protein import. SP1 interacts physically with the two components of the peroxisomemore » protein docking complex PEX13–PEX14 and the (RING)-finger peroxin PEX2. Loss of SP1 function suppresses defects of the pex14-2 and pex13-1 mutants, and SP1 is involved in the degradation of PEX13 and possibly PEX14 and all three RING peroxins. An in vivo ubiquitination assay showed that SP1 has the ability to promote PEX13 ubiquitination. Our study has revealed that, in addition to its previously reported function in chloroplast biogenesis, SP1 plays a role in peroxisome biogenesis. The same E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes the destabilization of components of two distinct protein-import machineries, indicating that degradation of organelle biogenesis factors by the ubiquitin–proteasome system may constitute an important regulatory mechanism in coordinating the biogenesis of metabolically linked organelles in eukaryotes.« less

  5. Positive modulation of RNA polymerase III transcription by ribosomal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dieci, Giorgio; Carpentieri, Andrea; Amoresano, Angela; Ottonello, Simone

    2009-02-06

    A yeast nuclear fraction of unknown composition, named TFIIIE, was reported previously to enhance transcription of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes in vitro. We show that TFIIIE activity co-purifies with a specific subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs) which, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, generally interact with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, but not with a Pol II-specific promoter. Only Rpl6Ap and Rpl6Bp, among the tested RPs, were found associated to a TATA-containing tRNA{sup Ile}(TAT) gene. The RPL6A gene also emerged as a strong multicopy suppressor of a conditional mutation in the basal transcription factor TFIIIC, while RPL26A and RPL14A behaved as weak suppressors. The data delineate a novel extra-ribosomal role for one or a few RPs which, by influencing 5S rRNA and tRNA synthesis, could play a key role in the coordinate regulation of the different sub-pathways required for ribosome biogenesis and functionality.

  6. A tRNA methyltransferase paralog is important for ribosome stability and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Ian M. C.; Paris, Zdeněk; Gaston, Kirk W.; Balakrishnan, R.; Fredrick, Kurt; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic ribosomes contain 26/28S, 5S, and 5.8S large subunit ribosomal RNAs (LSU rRNAs) in addition to the 18S rRNA of the small subunit (SSU rRNA). However, in kinetoplastids, a group of organisms that include medically important members of the genus Trypanosoma and Leishmania, the 26/28S large subunit ribosomal RNA is uniquely composed of 6 rRNA fragments. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of expansion segments in the large ribosomal subunit (60S) of Trypanosoma brucei. Given these differences in structure, processing and assembly, T. brucei ribosomes may require biogenesis factors not found in other organisms. Here, we show that one of two putative 3-methylcytidine methyltransferases, TbMTase37 (a homolog of human methyltransferase-like 6, METTL6), is important for ribosome stability in T. brucei. TbMTase37 localizes to the nucleolus and depletion of the protein results in accumulation of ribosomal particles lacking srRNA 4 and reduced levels of polysome associated ribosomes. We also find that TbMTase37 plays a role in cytokinesis, as loss of the protein leads to multi-flagellated and multi-nucleated cells. PMID:26888608

  7. A tRNA methyltransferase paralog is important for ribosome stability and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ian M C; Paris, Zdeněk; Gaston, Kirk W; Balakrishnan, R; Fredrick, Kurt; Rubio, Mary Anne T; Alfonzo, Juan D

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic ribosomes contain 26/28S, 5S, and 5.8S large subunit ribosomal RNAs (LSU rRNAs) in addition to the 18S rRNA of the small subunit (SSU rRNA). However, in kinetoplastids, a group of organisms that include medically important members of the genus Trypanosoma and Leishmania, the 26/28S large subunit ribosomal RNA is uniquely composed of 6 rRNA fragments. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of expansion segments in the large ribosomal subunit (60S) of Trypanosoma brucei. Given these differences in structure, processing and assembly, T. brucei ribosomes may require biogenesis factors not found in other organisms. Here, we show that one of two putative 3-methylcytidine methyltransferases, TbMTase37 (a homolog of human methyltransferase-like 6, METTL6), is important for ribosome stability in T. brucei. TbMTase37 localizes to the nucleolus and depletion of the protein results in accumulation of ribosomal particles lacking srRNA 4 and reduced levels of polysome associated ribosomes. We also find that TbMTase37 plays a role in cytokinesis, as loss of the protein leads to multi-flagellated and multi-nucleated cells. PMID:26888608

  8. The Ribosome-Sec61 Translocon Complex Forms a Cytosolically Restricted Environment for Early Polytopic Membrane Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa A; Bandyopadhyay, Anannya; Devaraneni, Prasanna K; Woodward, Josha; Rooney, LeeAnn; Yang, Zhongying; Skach, William R

    2015-11-27

    Transmembrane topology of polytopic membrane proteins (PMPs) is established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the ribosome Sec61-translocon complex (RTC) through iterative cycles of translocation initiation and termination. It remains unknown, however, whether tertiary folding of transmembrane domains begins after the nascent polypeptide integrates into the lipid bilayer or within a proteinaceous environment proximal to translocon components. To address this question, we used cysteine scanning mutagenesis to monitor aqueous accessibility of stalled translation intermediates to determine when, during biogenesis, hydrophilic peptide loops of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel are delivered to cytosolic and lumenal compartments. Results showed that following ribosome docking on the ER membrane, the nascent polypeptide was shielded from the cytosol as it emerged from the ribosome exit tunnel. Extracellular loops followed a well defined path through the ribosome, the ribosome translocon junction, the Sec61-translocon pore, and into the ER lumen coincident with chain elongation. In contrast, intracellular loops (ICLs) and C-terminalresidues exited the ribosome into a cytosolically shielded environment and remained inaccessible to both cytosolic and lumenal compartments until translation was terminated. Shielding of ICL1 and ICL2, but not the C terminus, became resistant to maneuvers that disrupt electrostatic ribosome interactions. Thus, the early folding landscape of polytopic proteins is shaped by a spatially restricted environment localized within the assembled ribosome translocon complex. PMID:26254469

  9. Structure of the Bacillus subtilis 70S ribosome reveals the basis for species-specific stalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohmen, Daniel; Chiba, Shinobu; Shimokawa-Chiba, Naomi; Innis, C. Axel; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Ito, Koreaki; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal stalling is used to regulate gene expression and can occur in a species-specific manner. Stalling during translation of the MifM leader peptide regulates expression of the downstream membrane protein biogenesis factor YidC2 (YqjG) in Bacillus subtilis, but not in Escherichia coli. In the absence of structures of Gram-positive bacterial ribosomes, a molecular basis for species-specific stalling has remained unclear. Here we present the structure of a Gram-positive B. subtilis MifM-stalled 70S ribosome at 3.5-3.9 Å, revealing a network of interactions between MifM and the ribosomal tunnel, which stabilize a non-productive conformation of the PTC that prevents aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation and thereby induces translational arrest. Complementary genetic analyses identify a single amino acid within ribosomal protein L22 that dictates the species specificity of the stalling event. Such insights expand our understanding of how the synergism between the ribosome and the nascent chain is utilized to modulate the translatome in a species-specific manner.

  10. Diverse roles of assembly factors revealed by structures of late nuclear pre-60S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Yan, Kaige; Brown, Hailey; Zhang, Yixiao; Tan, Dan; Gamalinda, Michael; Yuan, Yi; Li, Zhifei; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Ma, Chengying; Lei, Jianlin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Woolford, John L; Gao, Ning

    2016-05-25

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex process in eukaryotes, involving temporally and spatially regulated ribosomal protein (r-protein) binding and ribosomal RNA remodelling events in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Hundreds of assembly factors, organized into sequential functional groups, facilitate and guide the maturation process into productive assembly branches in and across different cellular compartments. However, the precise mechanisms by which these assembly factors function are largely unknown. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the structures of yeast nucleoplasmic pre-60S particles affinity-purified using the epitope-tagged assembly factor Nog2. Our data pinpoint the locations and determine the structures of over 20 assembly factors, which are enriched in two areas: an arc region extending from the central protuberance to the polypeptide tunnel exit, and the domain including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) that separates 5.8S and 25S ribosomal RNAs. In particular, two regulatory GTPases, Nog2 and Nog1, act as hub proteins to interact with multiple, distant assembly factors and functional ribosomal RNA elements, manifesting their critical roles in structural remodelling checkpoints and nuclear export. Moreover, our snapshots of compositionally and structurally different pre-60S intermediates provide essential mechanistic details for three major remodelling events before nuclear export: rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein, construction of the active centre and ITS2 removal. The rich structural information in our structures provides a framework to dissect molecular roles of diverse assembly factors in eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  11. MPV17L2 is required for ribosome assembly in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Pearce, Sarah F.; Rorbach, Joanna; Hirst, Elizabeth M.A.; Vidoni, Sara; Reyes, Aurelio; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Minczuk, Michal; Woellhaf, Michael W.; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Holt, Ian J.; Spinazzola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    MPV17 is a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, and mutations in MPV17 are associated with mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) maintenance disorders. Here we investigated its most similar relative, MPV17L2, which is also annotated as a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial fractionation analyses demonstrate MPV17L2 is an integral inner membrane protein, like MPV17. However, unlike MPV17, MPV17L2 is dependent on mitochondrial DNA, as it is absent from ρ0 cells, and co-sediments on sucrose gradients with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the monosome. Gene silencing of MPV17L2 results in marked decreases in the monosome and both subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome, leading to impaired protein synthesis in the mitochondria. Depletion of MPV17L2 also induces mitochondrial DNA aggregation. The DNA and ribosome phenotypes are linked, as in the absence of MPV17L2 proteins of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome are trapped in the enlarged nucleoids, in contrast to a component of the large subunit. These findings suggest MPV17L2 contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome, uniting the two subunits to create the translationally competent monosome, and provide evidence that assembly of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome occurs at the nucleoid. PMID:24948607

  12. Zinc Regulates a Switch between Primary and Alternative S18 Ribosomal Proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Prisic, Sladjana; Hwang, Hyonson; Dow, Allexa; Barnaby, Omar; Pan, Tenny S.; Lonzanida, Jaymes A.; Chazin, Walter J.; Steen, Hanno; Husson, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes five putative “alternative” ribosomal proteins whose expression is repressed at high Zn2+ concentration. Each alternative protein has a primary homolog that is predicted to bind Zn2+. We hypothesized that zinc triggers a switch between these paired homologous proteins and therefore chose one of these pairs, S18-1/S18-2, to study mechanisms of the predicted competition for their incorporation into ribosomes. As predicted, our data show that Zn2+-depletion causes accumulation of both S18-2 mRNA and protein. In contrast, S18-1 mRNA levels are unchanged to slightly elevated under Zn2+-limited conditions. However the amount of S18-1 protein is markedly decreased. We further demonstrate that both S18 proteins interact with ribosomal protein S6, a committed step in ribosome biogenesis. Zn2+ is absolutely required for the S18-1/S6 interaction, while it is dispensable for S18-2/S6 dimer formation. These data suggest a model in which the S18-1 is the dominant ribosome constituent in high zinc conditions, e.g. inside of phagosomes, but that it can be replaced by S18-2 when zinc is deficient, e.g. in the extracellular milieu. Consequently, Zn2+-depletion may serve as a signal for building alternative ribosomes when M. tuberculosis is released from macrophages, to allow survival in the extracellular environment. PMID:25858183

  13. Diverse roles of assembly factors revealed by structures of late nuclear pre-60S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Yan, Kaige; Brown, Hailey; Zhang, Yixiao; Tan, Dan; Gamalinda, Michael; Yuan, Yi; Li, Zhifei; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Ma, Chengying; Lei, Jianlin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Woolford, John L; Gao, Ning

    2016-06-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex process in eukaryotes, involving temporally and spatially regulated ribosomal protein (r-protein) binding and ribosomal RNA remodelling events in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Hundreds of assembly factors, organized into sequential functional groups, facilitate and guide the maturation process into productive assembly branches in and across different cellular compartments. However, the precise mechanisms by which these assembly factors function are largely unknown. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the structures of yeast nucleoplasmic pre-60S particles affinity-purified using the epitope-tagged assembly factor Nog2. Our data pinpoint the locations and determine the structures of over 20 assembly factors, which are enriched in two areas: an arc region extending from the central protuberance to the polypeptide tunnel exit, and the domain including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) that separates 5.8S and 25S ribosomal RNAs. In particular, two regulatory GTPases, Nog2 and Nog1, act as hub proteins to interact with multiple, distant assembly factors and functional ribosomal RNA elements, manifesting their critical roles in structural remodelling checkpoints and nuclear export. Moreover, our snapshots of compositionally and structurally different pre-60S intermediates provide essential mechanistic details for three major remodelling events before nuclear export: rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein, construction of the active centre and ITS2 removal. The rich structural information in our structures provides a framework to dissect molecular roles of diverse assembly factors in eukaryotic ribosome assembly. PMID:27251291

  14. Nucleolin provides a link between RNA polymerase I transcription and pre-ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Roger, Benoit; Moisand, André; Amalric, François; Bouvet, Philippe

    2003-03-01

    Despite the identification of numerous factors involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and maturation, the molecular mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis, and in particular the relationship between the different steps, are still largely unknown. We have investigated the consequences of an increased amount of a major nucleolar non-ribosomal protein, nucleolin, in Xenopus laevisstage VI oocytes on the production of ribosomal subunits. We show that a threefold increase in nucleolin leads to the complete absence of pre-rRNA maturation in addition to significant repression of RNA polymerase I transcription. Observation of "Christmas trees" by electron microscopy and analysis of the sedimentation properties of 40S pre-ribosomal particles suggest that an increased amount of nucleolin leads to incorrect packaging of the 40S particle. Interestingly, nucleolin affects the maturation of the 40S particle only when it is present at the time of transcription. These results indicate that nucleolin participates in the co-transcriptional packaging of the pre-rRNA, and that the quality of this packaging will determine whether the 40S precursor undergoes maturation or is degraded. The interaction of nucleolin with nascent pre-rRNA could help the co-transcriptional assembly on pre-rRNA of factors necessary for the subsequent maturation of the pre-ribosomal particle containing the 40S pre-rRNA.

  15. Isolation of ribosomes by chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Bruce A

    2015-04-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography on cysteine-SulfoLink resin efficiently separates ribosomes from cell lysates and is particularly effective at rapidly removing endogenous proteases and nucleases, resulting in ribosomes of improved purity, integrity, and activity. Binding occurs partly by anion exchange of the RNA of the ribosomes, so that cells must be lysed in a buffer of moderate ionic strength (conductivity no more than 20 mS for chromatography of bacterial ribosomes) without any highly charged additives (e.g., heparin, which is used to inhibit RNases in yeast). A robust protocol for Escherichia coli is given here as an example.

  16. Stimulatory Effects of Balanced Deep Sea Water on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Geun; Park, Jung-Eun; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Shon, Yun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes, is increasing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a core feature of these diseases. Emerging evidence also suggests that defects in mitochondrial biogenesis, number, morphology, fusion, and fission, contribute to the development and progression of metabolic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDSW regulates diabetes and obesity by studying its effects on mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and the expression of transcription factors and mitochondria specific genes, as well as on the phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondria biogenesis and its function in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a time and dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances gene expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM for mitochondrial transcription; MFN1/2 and DRP1 for mitochondrial fusion; OPA1 for mitochondrial fission; TOMM40 and TIMM44 for mitochondrial protein import; CPT-1α and MCAD for fatty acid oxidation; CYTC for oxidative phosphorylation. Upregulation of these genes was validated by increased mitochondria staining, CS activity, CytC oxidase activity, NAD+ to NADH ratio, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as AMPK and SIRT1. Moreover, drinking BDSW remarkably improved mtDNA content in the muscles of HFD-induced obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function may provide further insights into the regulatory mechanism of BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesity action. PMID:26068191

  17. Stimulatory Effects of Balanced Deep Sea Water on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Geun; Park, Jung-Eun; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Shon, Yun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes, is increasing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a core feature of these diseases. Emerging evidence also suggests that defects in mitochondrial biogenesis, number, morphology, fusion, and fission, contribute to the development and progression of metabolic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDSW regulates diabetes and obesity by studying its effects on mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and the expression of transcription factors and mitochondria specific genes, as well as on the phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondria biogenesis and its function in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a time and dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances gene expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM for mitochondrial transcription; MFN1/2 and DRP1 for mitochondrial fusion; OPA1 for mitochondrial fission; TOMM40 and TIMM44 for mitochondrial protein import; CPT-1α and MCAD for fatty acid oxidation; CYTC for oxidative phosphorylation. Upregulation of these genes was validated by increased mitochondria staining, CS activity, CytC oxidase activity, NAD+ to NADH ratio, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as AMPK and SIRT1. Moreover, drinking BDSW remarkably improved mtDNA content in the muscles of HFD-induced obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function may provide further insights into the regulatory mechanism of BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesity action. PMID:26068191

  18. eIF1A augments Ago2-mediated Dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis and RNA interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tingfang; Arthanari, Haribabu; Akabayov, Barak; Song, Huaidong; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Qi, Hank H.; Jedrychowski, Mark; Güttler, Thomas; Guo, Cuicui; Luna, Rafael E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Huang, Stephen A.; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and miRNA-guided RNA interference (RNAi) are essential for gene expression in eukaryotes. Here we report that translation initiation factor eIF1A directly interacts with Ago2 and promotes Ago2 activities in RNAi and miR-451 biogenesis. Biochemical and NMR analyses demonstrate that eIF1A binds to the MID domain of Ago2 and this interaction does not impair translation initiation. Alanine mutation of the Ago2-facing Lys56 in eIF1A impairs RNAi activities in human cells and zebrafish. The eIF1A-Ago2 assembly facilitates Dicer-independent biogenesis of miR-451, which mediates erythrocyte maturation. Human eIF1A (heIF1A), but not heIF1A(K56A), rescues the erythrocyte maturation delay in eif1axb knockdown zebrafish. Consistently, miR-451 partly compensates erythrocyte maturation defects in zebrafish with eif1axb knockdown and eIF1A(K56A) expression, supporting a role of eIF1A in miRNA-451 biogenesis in this model. Our results suggest that eIF1A is a novel component of the Ago2-centred RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) and augments Ago2-dependent RNAi and miRNA biogenesis.

  19. Exploring Ribosome Positioning on Translating Transcripts with Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Spealman, Pieter; Wang, Hao; May, Gemma; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances (e.g., microarrays and massively parallel sequencing) have facilitated genome-wide measurement of many aspects of gene regulation. Ribosome profiling is a high-throughput sequencing method used to measure gene expression at the level of translation. This is accomplished by quantifying both the number of translating ribosomes and their locations on mRNA transcripts. The inventors of this approach have published several methods papers detailing its implementation and addressing the basics of ribosome profiling data analysis. Here we describe our lab's procedure, which differs in some respects from those published previously. In addition, we describe a data analysis pipeline, Ribomap, for ribosome profiling data. Ribomap allocates sequence reads to alternative mRNA isoforms, normalizes sequencing bias along transcripts using RNA-seq data, and outputs count vectors of per-codon ribosome occupancy for each transcript.

  20. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K; Osvath, Sarah R; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H; Charles, Ian G; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2016-01-01

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs. PMID:27075392

  1. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K; Osvath, Sarah R; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H; Charles, Ian G; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2016-04-14

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs.

  2. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L.; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K.; Osvath, Sarah R.; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G.; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H.; Charles, Ian G.; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs. PMID:27075392

  3. HDL genetic defects.

    PubMed

    Nair, Devaki R; Nair, Arun; Jain, Anjly

    2014-01-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its related apolipoproteins form part of the reverse cholesterol transport system that removes excessive cholesterol from the periphery to the liver. Many transport proteins and enzymes that are involved in this process are susceptible to genetic defects that influence plasma HDL-C concentrations and HDL function. The HDL-C concentration in the blood may not be as important as the function of this lipid fraction. The genetic defects affecting plasma HDL-C concentrations do not always show a consistent relationship with atherosclerosis. Familial hypoalphalipoproteinaemia is associated with mutations in genes responsible for the transport proteins or the enzymes involved in the biogenesis of HDL-C. Inheritance of a Milano mutation of apolipoprotein A1 decreases the risk of atherosclerotic disease despite low circulating levels of HDL-C. Tangier disease and Fish Eye disease are caused by mutations in the ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), a transport protein, and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), an enzyme, involved in the esterification of cholesterol, respectively. Patients with these conditions have very low levels of HDL-C concentration. The association between both these conditions and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is variable and inconsistent. Understanding the molecular mechanism of HDL biogenesis not only helped in defining the pathophysiology of low and high HDL-C syndromes, but also in developing new treatment options to raise HDL-C levels. PMID:24953397

  4. SuhB Associates with Nus Factors To Facilitate 30S Ribosome Biogenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navjot; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Smith, Carol; Abbott, David M.; Stringer, Anne M.; Shi, Ronald; Court, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A complex of highly conserved proteins consisting of NusB, NusE, NusA, and NusG is required for robust expression of rRNA in Escherichia coli. This complex is proposed to prevent Rho-dependent transcription termination by a process known as “antitermination.” The mechanism of this antitermination in rRNA is poorly understood but requires association of NusB and NusE with a specific RNA sequence in rRNA known as BoxA. Here, we identify a novel member of the rRNA antitermination machinery: the inositol monophosphatase SuhB. We show that SuhB associates with elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) at rRNA in a NusB-dependent manner. Although we show that SuhB is required for BoxA-mediated antitermination in a reporter system, our data indicate that the major function of the NusB/E/A/G/SuhB complex is not to prevent Rho-dependent termination of rRNA but rather to promote correct rRNA maturation. This occurs through formation of a SuhB-mediated loop between NusB/E/BoxA and RNAP/NusA/G. Thus, we have reassigned the function of these proteins at rRNA and identified another key player in this complex. PMID:26980831

  5. Centriole biogenesis and function in multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwei; Mitchell, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Xenopus embryonic skin as a model system for the development of ciliated epithelia is well established. This tissue is comprised of numerous cell types, most notably the multiciliated cells (MCCs) that each contain approximately 150 motile cilia. At the base of each cilium lies the centriole-based structure called the basal body. Centriole biogenesis is typically restricted to two new centrioles per cell cycle, each templating from an existing “mother” centriole. In contrast, MCCs are post-mitotic cells in which the majority of centrioles arise “de novo” without templating from a mother centriole, instead, these centrioles nucleate from an electron-dense structure termed the deuterostome. How centriole number is regulated in these cells and the mechanism by which the deuterosome templates nascent centrioles is still poorly understood. Here, we describe methods for regulating MCC cell fate as well as for visualizing and manipulating centriole biogenesis. PMID:26175436

  6. Analysis of photosystem II biogenesis in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Steffen; Liauw, Pasqual; Nickelsen, Jörg; Nowaczyk, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit membrane protein complex found in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and plants, catalyzes light-driven oxygen evolution from water and reduction of plastoquinone. Biogenesis of PSII requires coordinated assembly of at least 20 protein subunits, as well as incorporation of various organic and inorganic cofactors. The stepwise assembly process is facilitated by numerous protein factors that have been identified in recent years. Further analysis of this process requires the development or refinement of specific methods for the identification of novel assembly factors and, in particular, elucidation of the unique role of each. Here we summarize current knowledge of PSII biogenesis in cyanobacteria, focusing primarily on the impact of methodological advances and innovations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux.

  7. PPARα in lysosomal biogenesis: A perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunava; Pahan, Kalipada

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes, ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cells. Classically considered to be central to the cellular waste management machinery, recent studies revealed the role of lysosomes in a wide array of cellular processes like, degradation, cellular development, programmed cell death, secretion, plasma membrane repair, nutritional responses, and lipid metabolism. We recently studied the regulation of TFEB, considered to be the master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, by activation of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα), one of the key regulators of lipid metabolism. In this article, we discuss how the recent finding could be put in to perspective with the previous findings that relate lysosomal biogenesis to lipid metabolism, and comment on the possibility of a bi-directional interplay between these two distinct cellular processes upon activation of PPARα. PMID:26621249

  8. Centriole biogenesis and function in multiciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwei; Mitchell, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    The use of Xenopus embryonic skin as a model system for the development of ciliated epithelia is well established. This tissue is comprised of numerous cell types, most notably the multiciliated cells (MCCs) that each contain approximately 150 motile cilia. At the base of each cilium lies the centriole-based structure called the basal body. Centriole biogenesis is typically restricted to two new centrioles per cell cycle, each templating from an existing "mother" centriole. In contrast, MCCs are post-mitotic cells in which the majority of centrioles arise "de novo" without templating from a mother centriole, instead, these centrioles nucleate from an electron-dense structure termed the deuterostome. How centriole number is regulated in these cells and the mechanism by which the deuterosome templates nascent centrioles is still poorly understood. Here, we describe methods for regulating MCC cell fate as well as for visualizing and manipulating centriole biogenesis.

  9. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders.

    PubMed

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin

    2015-08-01

    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  10. The N-terminal extension of yeast ribosomal protein L8 is involved in two major remodeling events during late nuclear stages of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Wu, Shan; Gao, Ning; Woolford, John L

    2016-09-01

    Assaying effects on pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly upon depleting individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) provided an initial paradigm for assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo-that each structural domain of ribosomal subunits assembles in a hierarchical fashion. However, two features suggest that a more complex pathway may exist: (i) Some r-proteins contain extensions that reach long distances across ribosomes to interact with multiple rRNA domains as well as with other r-proteins. (ii) Individual r-proteins may assemble in a stepwise fashion. For example, the globular domain of an r-protein might assemble separately from its extensions. Thus, these extensions might play roles in assembly that could not be revealed by depleting the entire protein. Here, we show that deleting or mutating extensions of r-proteins L7 (uL30) and L35 (uL29) from yeast reveal important roles in early and middle steps during 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Detailed analysis of the N-terminal terminal extension of L8 (eL8) showed that it is necessary for late nuclear stages of 60S subunit assembly involving two major remodeling events: removal of the ITS2 spacer; and reorganization of the central protuberance (CP) containing 5S rRNA and r-proteins L5 (uL18) and L11 (uL5). Mutations in the L8 extension block processing of 7S pre-rRNA, prevent release of assembly factors Rpf2 and Rrs1 from pre-ribosomes, which is required for rotation of the CP, and block association of Sda1, the Rix1 complex, and the Rea1 ATPase involved in late steps of remodeling. PMID:27390266

  11. The N-terminal extension of yeast ribosomal protein L8 is involved in two major remodeling events during late nuclear stages of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Wu, Shan; Gao, Ning; Woolford, John L

    2016-09-01

    Assaying effects on pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly upon depleting individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) provided an initial paradigm for assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo-that each structural domain of ribosomal subunits assembles in a hierarchical fashion. However, two features suggest that a more complex pathway may exist: (i) Some r-proteins contain extensions that reach long distances across ribosomes to interact with multiple rRNA domains as well as with other r-proteins. (ii) Individual r-proteins may assemble in a stepwise fashion. For example, the globular domain of an r-protein might assemble separately from its extensions. Thus, these extensions might play roles in assembly that could not be revealed by depleting the entire protein. Here, we show that deleting or mutating extensions of r-proteins L7 (uL30) and L35 (uL29) from yeast reveal important roles in early and middle steps during 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Detailed analysis of the N-terminal terminal extension of L8 (eL8) showed that it is necessary for late nuclear stages of 60S subunit assembly involving two major remodeling events: removal of the ITS2 spacer; and reorganization of the central protuberance (CP) containing 5S rRNA and r-proteins L5 (uL18) and L11 (uL5). Mutations in the L8 extension block processing of 7S pre-rRNA, prevent release of assembly factors Rpf2 and Rrs1 from pre-ribosomes, which is required for rotation of the CP, and block association of Sda1, the Rix1 complex, and the Rea1 ATPase involved in late steps of remodeling.

  12. Eaf1p Is Required for Recruitment of NuA4 in Targeting TFIID to the Promoters of the Ribosomal Protein Genes for Transcriptional Initiation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Uprety, Bhawana; Sen, Rwik

    2015-01-01

    NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4) promotes transcriptional initiation of TFIID (a complex of TBP and TBP-associated factors [TAFs])-dependent ribosomal protein genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. However, it is not clearly understood how NuA4 regulates the transcription of ribosomal protein genes. Here, we show that NuA4 is recruited to the promoters of ribosomal protein genes, such as RPS5, RPL2B, and RPS11B, for TFIID recruitment to initiate transcription, and the recruitment of NuA4 to these promoters is impaired in the absence of its Eaf1p component. Intriguingly, impaired NuA4 recruitment in a Δeaf1 strain depletes recruitment of TFIID (a TAF-dependent form of TBP) but not the TAF-independent form of TBP to the promoters of ribosomal protein genes. However, in the absence of NuA4, SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) is involved in targeting the TAF-independent form of TBP to the promoters of ribosomal protein genes for transcriptional initiation. Thus, NuA4 plays an important role in targeting TFIID to the promoters of ribosomal protein genes for transcriptional initiation in vivo. Such a function is mediated via its targeted histone acetyltransferase activity. In the absence of NuA4, ribosomal protein genes lose TFIID dependency and become SAGA dependent for transcriptional initiation. Collectively, these results provide significant insights into the regulation of ribosomal protein gene expression and, hence, ribosome biogenesis and functions. PMID:26100014

  13. Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis**

    PubMed Central

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Kreitman, Martin; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In Nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically pure form; however, on occasion Nature is known to produce enantiomerically opposite metabolites. These enantiomeric natural products can arise in Nature from a single species, or from different genera and/or species. Extensive research has been carried out over the years in an attempt to understand the biogenesis of naturally occurring enantiomers, however, many fascinating puzzles and stereochemical anomalies still remain. PMID:22555867

  14. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  15. The Hippo pathway effectors TAZ/YAP regulate dicer expression and microRNA biogenesis through Let-7.

    PubMed

    Chaulk, Steven G; Lattanzi, Victoria J; Hiemer, Samantha E; Fahlman, Richard P; Varelas, Xaralabos

    2014-01-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are genome-encoded small double-stranded RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression and are implicated in most aspects of human development and disease. Canonical miRNA biogenesis involves processing of ∼70-nucleotide pre-miRNA hairpins by Dicer to generate mature ∼22-nucleotide miRNAs, which target complementary RNA sequences. Despite the importance of miRNA biogenesis, signaling mechanisms controlling this process are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the post-transcriptional regulation of Dicer is controlled by the cell density-mediated localization of the Hippo pathway effectors TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) and YAP (Yes-associated protein) (TAZ/YAP). We show that nuclear TAZ/YAP, which are abundant at low cell density, are required for efficient pre-miRNA processing. Knockdown of TAZ/YAP in low density cells, or density-mediated sequestration of TAZ/YAP into the cytoplasm, results in the defective processing of pre-miRNAs. Strikingly, one exception is Let-7, which accumulates upon loss of nuclear TAZ/YAP, leading to Let-7-dependent reduction in Dicer levels. Accordingly, inhibition of Let-7 rescues the miRNA biogenesis defects observed following TAZ/YAP knockdown. Thus, density-regulated TAZ/YAP localization defines a critical and previously unrecognized mechanism by which cells relay cell contact-induced cues to control miRNA biogenesis.

  16. The Hippo Pathway Effectors TAZ/YAP Regulate Dicer Expression and MicroRNA Biogenesis through Let-7

    PubMed Central

    Chaulk, Steven G.; Lattanzi, Victoria J.; Hiemer, Samantha E.; Fahlman, Richard P.; Varelas, Xaralabos

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are genome-encoded small double-stranded RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression and are implicated in most aspects of human development and disease. Canonical miRNA biogenesis involves processing of ∼70-nucleotide pre-miRNA hairpins by Dicer to generate mature ∼22-nucleotide miRNAs, which target complementary RNA sequences. Despite the importance of miRNA biogenesis, signaling mechanisms controlling this process are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the post-transcriptional regulation of Dicer is controlled by the cell density-mediated localization of the Hippo pathway effectors TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) and YAP (Yes-associated protein) (TAZ/YAP). We show that nuclear TAZ/YAP, which are abundant at low cell density, are required for efficient pre-miRNA processing. Knockdown of TAZ/YAP in low density cells, or density-mediated sequestration of TAZ/YAP into the cytoplasm, results in the defective processing of pre-miRNAs. Strikingly, one exception is Let-7, which accumulates upon loss of nuclear TAZ/YAP, leading to Let-7-dependent reduction in Dicer levels. Accordingly, inhibition of Let-7 rescues the miRNA biogenesis defects observed following TAZ/YAP knockdown. Thus, density-regulated TAZ/YAP localization defines a critical and previously unrecognized mechanism by which cells relay cell contact-induced cues to control miRNA biogenesis. PMID:24324261

  17. Bag6/Bat3/Scythe: a novel chaperone activity with diverse regulatory functions in protein biogenesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Gu; Ye, Yihong

    2013-04-01

    Upon emerging from the ribosome exiting tunnel, polypeptide folding occurs immediately with the assistance of both ribosome-associated and free chaperones. While many chaperones known to date are dedicated folding catalysts, recent studies have revealed a novel chaperoning system that functions at the interface of protein biogenesis and quality control by using a special "holdase" activity in order to sort and channel client proteins to distinct destinations. The key component, Bag6/Bat3/Scythe, can effectively shield long hydrophobic segments exposed on the surface of a polypeptide, preventing aggregation or inappropriate interactions before a triaging decision is made. The biological consequences of Bag6-mediated chaperoning are divergent for different substrates, ranging from membrane integration to proteasome targeting and destruction. Accordingly, Bag6 can act in various cellular contexts in order to execute many essential cellular functions, while dysfunctions in the Bag6 system can cause severe cellular abnormalities that may be associated with some pathological conditions. PMID:23417671

  18. Circular non-coding RNA ANRIL modulates ribosomal RNA maturation and atherosclerosis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Holdt, Lesca M.; Stahringer, Anika; Sass, Kristina; Pichler, Garwin; Kulak, Nils A.; Wilfert, Wolfgang; Kohlmaier, Alexander; Herbst, Andreas; Northoff, Bernd H.; Nicolaou, Alexandros; Gäbel, Gabor; Beutner, Frank; Scholz, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Musunuru, Kiran; Krohn, Knut; Mann, Matthias; Teupser, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are broadly expressed in eukaryotic cells, but their molecular mechanism in human disease remains obscure. Here we show that circular antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (circANRIL), which is transcribed at a locus of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease on chromosome 9p21, confers atheroprotection by controlling ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation and modulating pathways of atherogenesis. CircANRIL binds to pescadillo homologue 1 (PES1), an essential 60S-preribosomal assembly factor, thereby impairing exonuclease-mediated pre-rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages. As a consequence, circANRIL induces nucleolar stress and p53 activation, resulting in the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, which are key cell functions in atherosclerosis. Collectively, these findings identify circANRIL as a prototype of a circRNA regulating ribosome biogenesis and conferring atheroprotection, thereby showing that circularization of long non-coding RNAs may alter RNA function and protect from human disease. PMID:27539542

  19. Peroxisome biogenesis disorders: molecular basis for impaired peroxisomal membrane assembly: in metabolic functions and biogenesis of peroxisomes in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yukio; Yagita, Yuichi; Matsuzaki, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Peroxisome is a single-membrane organelle in eukaryotes. The functional importance of peroxisomes in humans is highlighted by peroxisome-deficient peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome (ZS). Gene defects of peroxins required for both membrane assembly and matrix protein import are identified: ten mammalian pathogenic peroxins for ten complementation groups of PBDs, are required for matrix protein import; three, Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are shown to be essential for peroxisome membrane assembly and responsible for the most severe ZS in PBDs of three complementation groups 12, 9, and 14, respectively. Patients with severe ZS with defects of PEX3, PEX16, and PEX19 tend to carry severe mutation such as nonsense mutations, frameshifts and deletions. With respect to the function of these three peroxins in membrane biogenesis, two distinct pathways have been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins in mammalian cells: a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathway. In class II pathway, Pex19p also forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p as the chaperone for Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Pex16p functions as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. A model for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins is suggested, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p. Another model suggests that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomes likely emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation. The caveolae–independent rDNA transcriptional role of PTRF not only explains the lipodystrophy phenotype observed in PTRF deficient mice and humans, but also highlights its crucial physiological role in maintaining adipocyte allostasis. Multiple post-translational modifications of PTRF provide mechanistic bases for its regulation. The role of PTRF in ribosomal transcriptional efficiency is likely relevant to many additional physiological situations of cell growth and organismal metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17508.001 PMID:27528195

  1. Translation initiation requires cell division cycle 123 (Cdc123) to facilitate biogenesis of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2).

    PubMed

    Perzlmaier, Angelika F; Richter, Frank; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2013-07-26

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is central to the onset of protein synthesis and its modulation in response to physiological demands. eIF2, a heterotrimeric G-protein, is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange to deliver the initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosome. Here we report that assembly of the eIF2 complex in vivo depends on Cdc123, a cell proliferation protein conserved among eukaryotes. Mutations of CDC123 in budding yeast reduced the association of eIF2 subunits, diminished polysome levels, and increased GCN4 expression indicating that Cdc123 is critical for eIF2 activity. Cdc123 bound the unassembled eIF2γ subunit, but not the eIF2 complex, and the C-terminal domain III region of eIF2γ was both necessary and sufficient for Cdc123 binding. Alterations of the binding site revealed a strict correlation between Cdc123 binding, the biological function of eIF2γ, and its ability to assemble with eIF2α and eIF2β. Interestingly, high levels of Cdc123 neutralized the assembly defect and restored the biological function of an eIF2γ mutant. Moreover, the combined overexpression of eIF2 subunits rescued an otherwise inviable cdc123 deletion mutant. Thus, Cdc123 is a specific eIF2 assembly factor indispensable for the onset of protein synthesis. Human Cdc123 is encoded by a disease risk locus, and, therefore, eIF2 biogenesis control by Cdc123 may prove relevant for normal cell physiology and human health. This work identifies a novel step in the eukaryotic translation initiation pathway and assigns a biochemical function to a protein that is essential for growth and viability of eukaryotic cells.

  2. Structural Basis for the Rescue of Stalled Ribosomes: Structure of YaeJ Bound to the Ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Matthieu G.; Seetharaman, Sai V.; Bulkley, David; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2012-06-19

    In bacteria, the hybrid transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) rescues ribosomes stalled on defective messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, certain gram-negative bacteria have evolved proteins that are capable of rescuing stalled ribosomes in a tmRNA-independent manner. Here, we report a 3.2 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the rescue factor YaeJ bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome in complex with the initiator tRNA{sub i}{sup fMet} and a short mRNA. The structure reveals that the C-terminal tail of YaeJ functions as a sensor to discriminate between stalled and actively translating ribosomes by binding in the mRNA entry channel downstream of the A site between the head and shoulder of the 30S subunit. This allows the N-terminal globular domain to sample different conformations, so that its conserved GGQ motif is optimally positioned to catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA. This structure gives insights into the mechanism of YaeJ function and provides a basis for understanding how it rescues stalled ribosomes.

  3. Ribosomal Protein Rps26 Influences 80S Ribosome Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Levanova, Nadezhda; Tabakova, Irina; Rospert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The eukaryotic ribosome consists of a small (40S) and a large (60S) subunit. Rps26 is one of the essential ribosomal proteins of the 40S subunit and is encoded by two almost identical genes, RPS26a and RPS26b. Previous studies demonstrated that Rps26 interacts with the 5′ untranslated region of mRNA via the eukaryote-specific 62-YXXPKXYXK-70 (Y62–K70) motif. Those observations suggested that this peptide within Rps26 might play an important and specific role during translation initiation. By using alanine-scanning mutagenesis and engineered strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that single amino acid substitutions within the Y62–K70 motif of Rps26 did not affect the in vivo function of the protein. In contrast, complete deletion of the Y62–K70 segment was lethal. The simultaneous replacement of five conserved residues within the Y62–K70 segment by alanines resulted in growth defects under stress conditions and produced distinct changes in polysome profiles that were indicative of the accumulation of free 60S subunits. Human Rps26 (Rps26-Hs), which displays significant homology with yeast Rps26, supported the growth of an S. cerevisiae Δrps26a Δrps26b strain. However, the Δrps26a Δrps26b double deletion strain expressing Rps26-Hs displayed substantial growth defects and an altered ratio of 40S/60S ribosomal subunits. The combined data strongly suggest that the eukaryote-specific motif within Rps26 does not play a specific role in translation initiation. Rather, the data indicate that Rps26 as a whole is necessary for proper assembly of the 40S subunit and the 80S ribosome in yeast. IMPORTANCE Rps26 is an essential protein of the eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit. Previous experiments demonstrated an interaction between the eukaryote-specific Y62–K70 segment of Rps26 and the 5′ untranslated region of mRNA. The data suggested a specific role of the Y62–K70 motif during translation initiation. Here, we report that single

  4. A Genome-Wide Screen for Bacterial Envelope Biogenesis Mutants Identifies a Novel Factor Involved in Cell Wall Precursor Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Paradis-Bleau, Catherine; Kritikos, George; Orlova, Katya; Typas, Athanasios; Bernhardt, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a formidable barrier that is difficult for antimicrobial drugs to penetrate. Thus, the list of treatments effective against these organisms is small and with the rise of new resistance mechanisms is shrinking rapidly. New therapies to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections are therefore sorely needed. This goal will be greatly aided by a detailed mechanistic understanding of envelope assembly. Although excellent progress in the identification of essential envelope biogenesis systems has been made in recent years, many aspects of the process remain to be elucidated. We therefore developed a simple, quantitative, and high-throughput assay for mutants with envelope biogenesis defects and used it to screen an ordered single-gene deletion library of Escherichia coli. The screen was robust and correctly identified numerous mutants known to be involved in envelope assembly. Importantly, the screen also implicated 102 genes of unknown function as encoding factors that likely impact envelope biogenesis. As a proof of principle, one of these factors, ElyC (YcbC), was characterized further and shown to play a critical role in the metabolism of the essential lipid carrier used for the biogenesis of cell wall and other bacterial surface polysaccharides. Further analysis of the function of ElyC and other hits identified in our screen is likely to uncover a wealth of new information about the biogenesis of the Gram-negative envelope and the vulnerabilities in the system suitable for drug targeting. Moreover, the screening assay described here should be readily adaptable to other organisms to study the biogenesis of different envelope architectures. PMID:24391520

  5. Peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells: The impact of genes and environment.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rebecca L; Lismont, Celien; Terlecky, Stanley R; Fransen, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The initiation and progression of many human diseases are mediated by a complex interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. As all diseases begin with an imbalance at the cellular level, it is essential to understand how various types of molecular aberrations, metabolic changes, and environmental stressors function as switching points in essential communication networks. In recent years, peroxisomes have emerged as important intracellular hubs for redox-, lipid-, inflammatory-, and nucleic acid-mediated signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on how nature and nurture modulate peroxisome biogenesis and function in mammalian cells. First, we review emerging evidence that changes in peroxisome activity can be linked to the epigenetic regulation of cell function. Next, we outline how defects in peroxisome biogenesis may directly impact cellular pathways involved in the development of disease. In addition, we discuss how changes in the cellular microenvironment can modulate peroxisome biogenesis and function. Finally, given the importance of peroxisome function in multiple aspects of health, disease, and aging, we highlight the need for more research in this still understudied field.

  6. Peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells: The impact of genes and environment.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rebecca L; Lismont, Celien; Terlecky, Stanley R; Fransen, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The initiation and progression of many human diseases are mediated by a complex interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. As all diseases begin with an imbalance at the cellular level, it is essential to understand how various types of molecular aberrations, metabolic changes, and environmental stressors function as switching points in essential communication networks. In recent years, peroxisomes have emerged as important intracellular hubs for redox-, lipid-, inflammatory-, and nucleic acid-mediated signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on how nature and nurture modulate peroxisome biogenesis and function in mammalian cells. First, we review emerging evidence that changes in peroxisome activity can be linked to the epigenetic regulation of cell function. Next, we outline how defects in peroxisome biogenesis may directly impact cellular pathways involved in the development of disease. In addition, we discuss how changes in the cellular microenvironment can modulate peroxisome biogenesis and function. Finally, given the importance of peroxisome function in multiple aspects of health, disease, and aging, we highlight the need for more research in this still understudied field. PMID:26305119

  7. Components and dynamics of fiber formation define a ubiquitous biogenesis pathway for bacterial pili

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Matthew; van Putten, Jos P.M.; Hayes, Stanley F.; Dorward, David; Koomey, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are a unique class of multifunctional surface organelles in Gram-negative bacteria, which play important roles in prokaryotic cell biology. Although components of the Tfp biogenesis machinery have been characterized, it is not clear how they function or interact. Using Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model system, we report here that organelle biogenesis can be resolved into two discrete steps: fiber formation and translocation of the fiber to the cell surface. This conclusion is based on the capturing of an intermediate state in which the organelle is retained within the cell owing to the simultaneous absence of the secretin family member and biogenesis component PilQ and the twitching motility/pilus retraction protein PilT. This finding is the first demonstration of a specific translocation defect associated with loss of secretin function, and additionally confirms the role of PilT as a conditional antagonist of stable pilus fiber formation. These findings have important implications for Tfp structure and function and are pertinent to other membrane translocation systems that utilize a highly related set of components. PMID:11101514

  8. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  9. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP).

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Olsen, G J; Larsen, N; Overbeek, R; McCaughey, M J; Woese, C R

    1996-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server@rdp.life.uiuc.edu), gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu) and World Wide Web (WWW)(http://rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu/). The electronic mail and WWW servers provide ribosomal probe checking, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment and approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences on an existing phylogenetic tree. PMID:8594608

  10. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP).

    PubMed

    Maidak, B L; Olsen, G J; Larsen, N; Overbeek, R; McCaughey, M J; Woese, C R

    1996-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server@rdp.life.uiuc.edu), gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu) and World Wide Web (WWW)(http://rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu/). The electronic mail and WWW servers provide ribosomal probe checking, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment and approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences on an existing phylogenetic tree.

  11. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  12. Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA

    PubMed Central

    Patton, James G.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Weaver, Alissa M.; Vickers, Kasey; Zhang, Bing; Coffey, Robert J.; Ansel, K. Mark; Blelloch, Robert; Goga, Andrei; Huang, Bo; L'Etoille, Noelle; Raffai, Robert L.; Lai, Charles P.; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Mateescu, Bogdan; Greiner, Vanille J.; Hunter, Craig; Voinnet, Olivier; McManus, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Extracellular RNA (exRNA) Communication Consortium was launched by the National Institutes of Health to focus on the extent to which RNA might function in a non-cell-autonomous manner. With the availability of increasingly sensitive tools, small amounts of RNA can be detected in serum, plasma, and other bodily fluids. The exact mechanism(s) by which RNA can be secreted from cells and the mechanisms for the delivery and uptake by recipient cells remain to be determined. This review will summarize current knowledge about the biogenesis and delivery of exRNA and outline projects seeking to understand the functional impact of exRNA. PMID:26320939

  13. Genome-Wide Screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Highlight a Role for Cardiolipin in Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Multispan Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sauerwald, Julia; Jores, Tobias; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Chuartzman, Silvia Gabriela; Schuldiner, Maya; Rapaport, Doron

    2015-09-01

    A special group of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins spans the membrane several times via multiple helical segments. Such multispan proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes before their targeting to mitochondria and insertion into the MOM. Previous work recognized the import receptor Tom70 and the mitochondrial import (MIM) complex, both residents of the MOM, as required for optimal biogenesis of these proteins. However, their involvement is not sufficient to explain either the entire import pathway or its regulation. To identify additional factors that are involved in the biogenesis of MOM multispan proteins, we performed complementary high-throughput visual and growth screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cardiolipin (CL) synthase (Crd1) appeared as a candidate in both screens. Our results indeed demonstrate lower steady-state levels of the multispan proteins Ugo1, Scm4, and Om14 in mitochondria from crd1Δ cells. Importantly, MOM single-span proteins were not affected by this mutation. Furthermore, organelles lacking Crd1 had a lower in vitro capacity to import newly synthesized Ugo1 and Scm4 molecules. Crd1, which is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, condenses phosphatidylglycerol together with CDP-diacylglycerol to obtain de novo synthesized CL molecules. Hence, our findings suggest that CL is an important component in the biogenesis of MOM multispan proteins. PMID:26149385

  14. Melanoregulin, product of the dsu locus, links the BLOC-pathway and OA1 in organelle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rachel, Rivka A; Nagashima, Kunio; O'Sullivan, T Norene; Frost, Laura S; Stefano, Frank P; Marigo, Valeria; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Humans with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) or ocular albinism (OA1) display abnormal aspects of organelle biogenesis. The multigenic disorder HPS displays broad defects in biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles including melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. A phenotype of ocular pigmentation in OA1 is a smaller number of macromelanosomes, in contrast to HPS, where in many cases the melanosomes are smaller than normal. In these studies we define the role of the Mreg(dsu) gene, which suppresses the coat color dilution of Myo5a, melanophilin, and Rab27a mutant mice in maintaining melanosome size and distribution. We show that the product of the Mreg(dsu) locus, melanoregulin (MREG), interacts both with members of the HPS BLOC-2 complex and with Oa1 in regulating melanosome size. Loss of MREG function facilitates increase in the size of micromelanosomes in the choroid of the HPS BLOC-2 mutants ruby, ruby2, and cocoa, while a transgenic mouse overexpressing melanoregulin corrects the size of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) macromelanosomes in Oa1(ko/ko) mice. Collectively, these results suggest that MREG levels regulate pigment incorporation into melanosomes. Immunohistochemical analysis localizes melanoregulin not to melanosomes, but to small vesicles in the cytoplasm of the RPE, consistent with a role for this protein in regulating membrane interactions during melanosome biogenesis. These results provide the first link between the BLOC pathway and Oa1 in melanosome biogenesis, thus supporting the hypothesis that intracellular G-protein coupled receptors may be involved in the biogenesis of other organelles. Furthermore these studies provide the foundation for therapeutic approaches to correct the pigment defects in the RPE of HPS and OA1.

  15. Melanoregulin, product of the dsu locus, links the BLOC-pathway and OA1 in organelle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rachel, Rivka A; Nagashima, Kunio; O'Sullivan, T Norene; Frost, Laura S; Stefano, Frank P; Marigo, Valeria; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Humans with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) or ocular albinism (OA1) display abnormal aspects of organelle biogenesis. The multigenic disorder HPS displays broad defects in biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles including melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. A phenotype of ocular pigmentation in OA1 is a smaller number of macromelanosomes, in contrast to HPS, where in many cases the melanosomes are smaller than normal. In these studies we define the role of the Mreg(dsu) gene, which suppresses the coat color dilution of Myo5a, melanophilin, and Rab27a mutant mice in maintaining melanosome size and distribution. We show that the product of the Mreg(dsu) locus, melanoregulin (MREG), interacts both with members of the HPS BLOC-2 complex and with Oa1 in regulating melanosome size. Loss of MREG function facilitates increase in the size of micromelanosomes in the choroid of the HPS BLOC-2 mutants ruby, ruby2, and cocoa, while a transgenic mouse overexpressing melanoregulin corrects the size of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) macromelanosomes in Oa1(ko/ko) mice. Collectively, these results suggest that MREG levels regulate pigment incorporation into melanosomes. Immunohistochemical analysis localizes melanoregulin not to melanosomes, but to small vesicles in the cytoplasm of the RPE, consistent with a role for this protein in regulating membrane interactions during melanosome biogenesis. These results provide the first link between the BLOC pathway and Oa1 in melanosome biogenesis, thus supporting the hypothesis that intracellular G-protein coupled receptors may be involved in the biogenesis of other organelles. Furthermore these studies provide the foundation for therapeutic approaches to correct the pigment defects in the RPE of HPS and OA1. PMID:22984402

  16. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  17. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  18. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S; Okafor, C Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-15

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2'OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  19. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.

    2015-09-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  20. [Ribosomal RNA Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modern organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S rRNA sequence studies). Third, the ribosomal RNAs themselves likely had a very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.During the past year we have ave conducted a comparative study of four completely sequenced bacterial genoames. We have focused initially on conservation of gene order. The second component of the project continues to build on the model system for studying the validity of variant 5S rRNA sequences in the vicinity of the modern Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA that we established earlier. This system has made it possible to conduct a detailed and extensive analysis of a local portion of the sequence space. These core methods have been used to construct numerous mutants during the last several years. Although it has been a secondary focus, this work has continued over the last year such that we now have in excess of 125 V. proteolyticus derived constructs which have been made and characterized. We have also continued high resolution NMR work on RNA oligomers originally initiated by G. Kenneth Smith who was funded by a NASA Graduate Student Researcher's Fellowship Award until May of 1996. Mr. Smith

  1. Unravelling the mechanisms regulating muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hood, David A; Tryon, Liam D; Carter, Heather N; Kim, Yuho; Chen, Chris C W

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle is a tissue with a low mitochondrial content under basal conditions, but it is responsive to acute increases in contractile activity patterns (i.e. exercise) which initiate the signalling of a compensatory response, leading to the biogenesis of mitochondria and improved organelle function. Exercise also promotes the degradation of poorly functioning mitochondria (i.e. mitophagy), thereby accelerating mitochondrial turnover, and preserving a pool of healthy organelles. In contrast, muscle disuse, as well as the aging process, are associated with reduced mitochondrial quality and quantity in muscle. This has strong negative implications for whole-body metabolic health and the preservation of muscle mass. A number of traditional, as well as novel regulatory pathways exist in muscle that control both biogenesis and mitophagy. Interestingly, although the ablation of single regulatory transcription factors within these pathways often leads to a reduction in the basal mitochondrial content of muscle, this can invariably be overcome with exercise, signifying that exercise activates a multitude of pathways which can respond to restore mitochondrial health. This knowledge, along with growing realization that pharmacological agents can also promote mitochondrial health independently of exercise, leads to an optimistic outlook in which the maintenance of mitochondrial and whole-body metabolic health can be achieved by taking advantage of the broad benefits of exercise, along with the potential specificity of drug action. PMID:27470593

  2. Atomic Resolution Insights into Curli Fiber Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan D.; Zhou, Yizhou; Salgado, Paula S.; Patwardhan, Ardan; McGuffie, Matt; Pape, Tillmann; Grabe, Grzegorz; Ashman, Elisabeth; Constable, Sean C.; Simpson, Peter J.; Lee, Wei-chao; Cota, Ernesto; Chapman, Matthew R.; Matthews, Steve J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bacteria produce functional amyloid fibers called curli in a controlled, noncytotoxic manner. These extracellular fimbriae enable biofilm formation and promote pathogenicity. Understanding curli biogenesis is important for appreciating microbial lifestyles and will offer clues as to how disease-associated human amyloid formation might be ameliorated. Proteins encoded by the curli specific genes (csgA-G) are required for curli production. We have determined the structure of CsgC and derived the first structural model of the outer-membrane subunit translocator CsgG. Unexpectedly, CsgC is related to the N-terminal domain of DsbD, both in structure and oxido-reductase capability. Furthermore, we show that CsgG belongs to the nascent class of helical outer-membrane macromolecular exporters. A cysteine in a CsgG transmembrane helix is a potential target of CsgC, and mutation of this residue influences curli assembly. Our study provides the first high-resolution structural insights into curli biogenesis. PMID:21893289

  3. Ribosomes in the balance: structural equilibrium ensures translational fidelity and proper gene expression.

    PubMed

    Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2014-12-01

    At equilibrium, empty ribosomes freely transit between the rotated and un-rotated states. In the cell, the binding of two translation elongation factors to the same general region of the ribosome stabilizes one state over the other. These stabilized states are resolved by expenditure of energy in the form of GTP hydrolysis. A prior study employing mutants of a late assembling peripheral ribosomal protein suggested that ribosome rotational status determines its affinity for elongation factors, and hence translational fidelity and gene expression. Here, mutants of the early assembling integral ribosomal protein uL2 are used to test the generality of this hypothesis. rRNA structure probing analyses reveal that mutations in the uL2 B7b bridge region shift the equilibrium toward the rotated state, propagating rRNA structural changes to all of the functional centers of ribosome. Structural disequilibrium unbalances ribosome biochemically: rotated ribosomes favor binding of the eEF2 translocase and disfavor that of the elongation ternary complex. This manifests as specific translational fidelity defects, impacting the expression of genes involved in telomere maintenance. A model is presented describing how cyclic intersubunit rotation ensures the unidirectionality of translational elongation, and how perturbation of rotational equilibrium affects specific aspects of translational fidelity and cellular gene expression.

  4. Ribosomes in the balance: structural equilibrium ensures translational fidelity and proper gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    At equilibrium, empty ribosomes freely transit between the rotated and un-rotated states. In the cell, the binding of two translation elongation factors to the same general region of the ribosome stabilizes one state over the other. These stabilized states are resolved by expenditure of energy in the form of GTP hydrolysis. A prior study employing mutants of a late assembling peripheral ribosomal protein suggested that ribosome rotational status determines its affinity for elongation factors, and hence translational fidelity and gene expression. Here, mutants of the early assembling integral ribosomal protein uL2 are used to test the generality of this hypothesis. rRNA structure probing analyses reveal that mutations in the uL2 B7b bridge region shift the equilibrium toward the rotated state, propagating rRNA structural changes to all of the functional centers of ribosome. Structural disequilibrium unbalances ribosome biochemically: rotated ribosomes favor binding of the eEF2 translocase and disfavor that of the elongation ternary complex. This manifests as specific translational fidelity defects, impacting the expression of genes involved in telomere maintenance. A model is presented describing how cyclic intersubunit rotation ensures the unidirectionality of translational elongation, and how perturbation of rotational equilibrium affects specific aspects of translational fidelity and cellular gene expression. PMID:25389262

  5. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-01-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through "molecular synapses", ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the "sensory-proteins" innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the "inter-proteins" interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing. PMID:27225526

  6. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-01-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing. PMID:27225526

  7. Biogenesis of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Luirink, Joen; Yu, Zhong; Wagner, Samuel; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2012-06-01

    The inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli is composed of inner membrane proteins, lipoproteins and peripherally attached soluble proteins. Our knowledge of the biogenesis of inner membrane proteins is rapidly increasing. This is in particular true for the early steps of biogenesis - protein targeting to and insertion into the membrane. However, our knowledge of inner membrane protein folding and quality control is still fragmentary. Furthering our knowledge in these areas will bring us closer to understand the biogenesis of individual inner membrane proteins in the context of the biogenesis of the inner membrane proteome of Escherichia coli as a whole. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes.

  8. Kinetic analysis of pre-ribosome structure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska, Agata; Wlotzka, Wiebke; Tuck, Alex; Barrass, J David; Beggs, Jean D; Tollervey, David

    2012-12-01

    Pre-ribosomal particles undergo numerous structural changes during maturation, but their high complexity and short lifetimes make these changes very difficult to follow in vivo. In consequence, pre-ribosome structure and composition have largely been inferred from purified particles and analyzed in vitro. Here we describe techniques for kinetic analyses of the changes in pre-ribosome structure in living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To allow this, in vivo structure probing by DMS modification was combined with affinity purification of newly synthesized 20S pre-rRNA over a time course of metabolic labeling with 4-thiouracil. To demonstrate that this approach is generally applicable, we initially analyzed the accessibility of the region surrounding cleavage site D site at the 3' end of the mature 18S rRNA region of the pre-rRNA. This revealed a remarkably flexible structure throughout 40S subunit biogenesis, with little stable RNA-protein interaction apparent. Analysis of folding in the region of the 18S central pseudoknot was consistent with previous data showing U3 snoRNA-18S rRNA interactions. Dynamic changes in the structure of the hinge between helix 28 (H28) and H44 of pre-18S rRNA were consistent with recently reported interactions with the 3' guide region of U3 snoRNA. Finally, analysis of the H18 region indicates that the RNA structure matures early, but additional protection appears subsequently, presumably reflecting protein binding. The structural analyses described here were performed on total, affinity-purified, newly synthesized RNA, so many classes of RNA and RNA-protein complex are potentially amenable to this approach.

  9. A folding zone in the ribosomal exit tunnel for Kv1.3 helix formation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Li Wei; Deutsch, Carol

    2010-03-12

    Although it is now clear that protein secondary structure can be acquired early, while the nascent peptide resides within the ribosomal exit tunnel, the principles governing folding of native polytopic proteins have not yet been elucidated. We now report an extensive investigation of native Kv1.3, a voltage-gated K(+) channel, including transmembrane and linker segments synthesized in sequence. These native segments form helices vectorially (N- to C-terminus) only in a permissive vestibule located in the last 20 A of the tunnel. Native linker sequences similarly fold in this vestibule. Finally, secondary structure acquired in the ribosome is retained in the translocon. These findings emerge from accessibility studies of a diversity of native transmembrane and linker sequences and may therefore be applicable to protein biogenesis in general.

  10. A Folding Zone in the Ribosomal Exit Tunnel for Kv1.3 Helix Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, LiWei; Deutsch, Carol

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Although it is now clear that protein secondary structure can be acquired early, while the nascent peptide resides within the ribosomal exit tunnel, the principles governing folding of native polytopic proteins have not yet been elucidated. We now report an extensive investigation of native Kv1.3, a voltage-gated K+ channel, including transmembrane and linker segments synthesized in sequence. These native segments form helices vectorially (N- to C-terminus) only in a permissive vestibule located in the last 20Å of the tunnel. Native linker sequences similarly fold in this vestibule. Finally, secondary structure acquired in the ribosome is retained in the translocon. These findings emerge from accessibility studies of a diversity of native transmembrane and linker sequences and may therefore be applicable to protein biogenesis in general. PMID:20060838

  11. Dysfunction in Ribosomal Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus and Hippocampus following Chronic Social Defeat Stress in Male Mice as Revealed by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Smagin, Dmitry A; Kovalenko, Irina L; Galyamina, Anna G; Bragin, Anatoly O; Orlov, Yuriy L; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social defeat stress leads to the development of anxiety- and depression-like states in male mice and is accompanied by numerous molecular changes in brain. The influence of 21-day period of social stress on ribosomal gene expression in five brain regions was studied using the RNA-Seq database. Most Rps, Rpl, Mprs, and Mprl genes were upregulated in the hypothalamus and downregulated in the hippocampus, which may indicate ribosomal dysfunction following chronic social defeat stress. There were no differentially expressed ribosomal genes in the ventral tegmental area, midbrain raphe nuclei, or striatum. This approach may be used to identify a pharmacological treatment of ribosome biogenesis abnormalities in the brain of patients with "ribosomopathies." PMID:26839715

  12. Dysfunction in Ribosomal Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus and Hippocampus following Chronic Social Defeat Stress in Male Mice as Revealed by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Smagin, Dmitry A.; Kovalenko, Irina L.; Galyamina, Anna G.; Bragin, Anatoly O.; Orlov, Yuriy L.; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social defeat stress leads to the development of anxiety- and depression-like states in male mice and is accompanied by numerous molecular changes in brain. The influence of 21-day period of social stress on ribosomal gene expression in five brain regions was studied using the RNA-Seq database. Most Rps, Rpl, Mprs, and Mprl genes were upregulated in the hypothalamus and downregulated in the hippocampus, which may indicate ribosomal dysfunction following chronic social defeat stress. There were no differentially expressed ribosomal genes in the ventral tegmental area, midbrain raphe nuclei, or striatum. This approach may be used to identify a pharmacological treatment of ribosome biogenesis abnormalities in the brain of patients with “ribosomopathies.” PMID:26839715

  13. Neural stem cell transplantation enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Guo-Jun; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Gang-Min; Wang, Pei-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis, is an early and prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that the number of mitochondria is significantly reduced in susceptible hippocampal neurons from AD patients. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in AD-like mice can compensate for the neuronal loss resulting from amyloid-beta protein deposition. The effects of NSC transplantation on mitochondrial biogenesis and cognitive function in AD-like mice, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we injected NSCs or vehicle into 12-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of AD-like pathology. The effects of NSC transplantation on cognitive function, the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondria-related proteins, and mitochondrial morphology were investigated. Our results show that in NSC-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-NSC) mice, the cognitive function, number of mitochondria, and expression of mitochondria-related proteins, specifically the mitochondrial fission factors (dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] and fission 1 [Fis1]) and the mitochondrial fusion factor optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were significantly increased compared with those in age-matched vehicle-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-Veh) mice, whereas the expression of mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusion 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 was significantly decreased. These data indicate that NSC transplantation may enhance mitochondria biogenesis and further rescue cognitive deficits in AD-like mice. PMID:25582749

  14. Neural stem cell transplantation enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Guo-Jun; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Gang-Min; Wang, Pei-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis, is an early and prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that the number of mitochondria is significantly reduced in susceptible hippocampal neurons from AD patients. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in AD-like mice can compensate for the neuronal loss resulting from amyloid-beta protein deposition. The effects of NSC transplantation on mitochondrial biogenesis and cognitive function in AD-like mice, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we injected NSCs or vehicle into 12-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of AD-like pathology. The effects of NSC transplantation on cognitive function, the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondria-related proteins, and mitochondrial morphology were investigated. Our results show that in NSC-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-NSC) mice, the cognitive function, number of mitochondria, and expression of mitochondria-related proteins, specifically the mitochondrial fission factors (dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] and fission 1 [Fis1]) and the mitochondrial fusion factor optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were significantly increased compared with those in age-matched vehicle-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-Veh) mice, whereas the expression of mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusion 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 was significantly decreased. These data indicate that NSC transplantation may enhance mitochondria biogenesis and further rescue cognitive deficits in AD-like mice.

  15. Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in mammalian cells: new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cluster delivery

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Nunziata; Rouault, Tracey. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ancient, ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. The combination of the chemical reactivity of iron and sulfur, together with many variations of cluster composition, oxidation states and protein environments, enables Fe-S clusters to participate in numerous biological processes. Fe-S clusters are essential to redox catalysis in nitrogen fixation, mitochondrial respiration and photosynthesis, to regulatory sensing in key metabolic pathways (i. e. cellular iron homeostasis and oxidative stress response), and to the replication and maintenance of the nuclear genome. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is a multistep process that involves a complex sequence of catalyzed protein- protein interactions and coupled conformational changes between the components of several dedicated multimeric complexes. Intensive studies of the assembly process have clarified key points in the biogenesis of Fe-S proteins. However several critical questions still remain, such as: what is the role of frataxin? Why do some defects of Fe-S cluster biogenesis cause mitochondrial iron overload? How are specific Fe-S recipient proteins recognized in the process of Fe-S transfer? This review focuses on the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis, drawing attention to recent advances achieved on the identification of molecular features that guide selection of specific subsets of nascent Fe-S recipients by the cochaperone HSC20. Additionally, it outlines the distinctive phenotypes of human diseases due to mutations in the components of the basic pathway. PMID:25245479

  16. Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

  17. TIF-IA-dependent regulation of ribosome synthesis in drosophila muscle is required to maintain systemic insulin signaling and larval growth.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Rideout, Elizabeth J; Grewal, Savraj S

    2014-10-01

    The conserved TOR kinase signaling network links nutrient availability to cell, tissue and body growth in animals. One important growth-regulatory target of TOR signaling is ribosome biogenesis. Studies in yeast and mammalian cell culture have described how TOR controls rRNA synthesis-a limiting step in ribosome biogenesis-via the RNA Polymerase I transcription factor TIF-IA. However, the contribution of TOR-dependent ribosome synthesis to tissue and body growth in animals is less clear. Here we show in Drosophila larvae that ribosome synthesis in muscle is required non-autonomously to maintain normal body growth and development. We find that amino acid starvation and TOR inhibition lead to reduced levels of TIF-IA, and decreased rRNA synthesis in larval muscle. When we mimic this decrease in muscle ribosome synthesis using RNAi-mediated knockdown of TIF-IA, we observe delayed larval development and reduced body growth. This reduction in growth is caused by lowered systemic insulin signaling via two endocrine responses: reduced expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dILPs) from the brain and increased expression of Imp-L2-a secreted factor that binds and inhibits dILP activity-from muscle. We also observed that maintaining TIF-IA levels in muscle could partially reverse the starvation-mediated suppression of systemic insulin signaling. Finally, we show that activation of TOR specifically in muscle can increase overall body size and this effect requires TIF-IA function. These data suggest that muscle ribosome synthesis functions as a nutrient-dependent checkpoint for overall body growth: in nutrient rich conditions, TOR is required to maintain levels of TIF-IA and ribosome synthesis to promote high levels of systemic insulin, but under conditions of starvation stress, reduced muscle ribosome synthesis triggers an endocrine response that limits systemic insulin signaling to restrict growth and maintain homeostasis.

  18. Profiling of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Fisunov, G Y; Evsyutina, D V; Arzamasov, A A; Butenko, I O; Govorun, V M

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput technologies is increasingly resulting in identification of numerous cases of low correlation between mRNA and the protein level in cells. These controversial observations were made on various bacteria, such as E. coli, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Lactococcus lactis. Thus, it is important to develop technologies, including high-throughput techniques, aimed at studying gene expression regulation at the level of translation. In the current study, we performed proteomic profiling of M. gallisepticum ribosomes and identified high abundant noncanonical proteins. We found that binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mainly determined by two parameters: (1) abundance of mRNA itself and (2) complimentary interactions between the 3' end of 16S rRNA and the ribosome binding site in the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA. PMID:26798497

  19. Galactolipid synthesis in chloroplast inner envelope is essential for proper thylakoid biogenesis, photosynthesis, and embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Kondo, Maki; Fukuda, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Mikio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-23

    The biogenesis of thylakoid membranes, an indispensable event for the photoautotrophic growth of plants, requires a significant increase in the level of the unique thylakoid membrane lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which constitutes the bulk of membrane lipids in chloroplasts. The final step in MGDG biosynthesis occurs in the plastid envelope and is catalyzed by MGDG synthase. Here we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant showing a complete defect in MGDG synthase 1. The mutant seeds germinated as small albinos only in the presence of sucrose. The seedlings lacked galactolipids and had disrupted photosynthetic membranes, leading to the complete impairment of photosynthetic ability and photoautotrophic growth. Moreover, invagination of the inner envelope, which is not seen in mature WT chloroplasts, was observed in the mutant, supporting an old hypothesis that envelope invagination is a major event in early chloroplast biogenesis. In addition to the defective seedling phenotype, embryo development was arrested in the mutant, although seeds with impaired embryos could germinate heterotrophically. These results demonstrate the importance of galactolipids not only in photosynthetic growth but also in embryogenesis.

  20. Biogenesis and Function of Multivesicular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Robert C.; Katzmann, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The two major cellular sites for membrane protein degradation are the proteasome and the lysosome. Ubiquitin attachment is a sorting signal for both degradation routes. For lysosomal degradation, ubiquitination triggers the sorting of cargo proteins into the lumen of late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes. MVB formation occurs when a portion of the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates and buds into its own lumen. Intralumenal vesicles are degraded when MVBs fuse to lysosomes. The proper delivery of proteins to the MVB interior relies on specific ubiquitination of cargo, recognition and sorting of ubiquitinated cargo to endosomal subdomains, and the formation and scission of cargo-filled intralumenal vesicles. Over the past five years, a number of proteins that may directly participate in these aspects of MVB function and biogenesis have been identified. However, major questions remain as to exactly what these proteins do at the molecular level and how they may accomplish these tasks. PMID:17506697

  1. Computational and Experimental Characterization of Ribosomal DNA and RNA G-Quadruplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Samuel

    DNA G-quadruplexes in human telomeres and gene promoters are being extensively studied for their role in controlling the growth of cancer cells. Recent studies strongly suggest that guanine (G)-rich genes encoding pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) are a potential anticancer target through the inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in ribosome biogenesis. However, the structures of ribosomal G-quadruplexes at atomic resolution are unknown, and very little biophysical characterization has been performed on them to date. Here, we have modeled two putative rDNA G-quadruplex structures, NUC 19P and NUC 23P, which we observe via circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to adopt a predominantly parallel topology, and their counterpart rRNA. To validate and refine the putative ribosomal G-quadruplex structures, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the CHARMM36 force field in the presence and absence of stabilizing K + or Na + ions. We optimized the CHARMM36 force field K + parameters to be more consistent with quantum mechanical calculations (and the polarizable Drude model force field) so that the K + ion is predominantly in the G-quadruplex channel. Our MD simulations show that the rDNA G-quadruplex have more well-defined, predominantly parallel-topology structures than rRNA and NUC 19P is more structured than NUC 23P, which features extended loops. Our study demonstrates that they are both potential targets for the design of novel chemotherapeutics.

  2. Depletion of ribosomal protein S19 causes a reduction of rRNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Juli, Giada; Gismondi, Angelo; Monteleone, Valentina; Caldarola, Sara; Iadevaia, Valentina; Aspesi, Anna; Dianzani, Irma; Proud, Christopher G.; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis plays key roles in cell growth by providing increased capacity for protein synthesis. It requires coordinated production of ribosomal proteins (RP) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), including the processing of the latter. Here, we show that, the depletion of RPS19 causes a reduction of rRNA synthesis in cell lines of both erythroid and non-erythroid origin. A similar effect is observed upon depletion of RPS6 or RPL11. The deficiency of RPS19 does not alter the stability of rRNA, but instead leads to an inhibition of RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) activity. In fact, results of nuclear run-on assays and ChIP experiments show that association of Pol I with the rRNA gene is reduced in RPS19-depleted cells. The phosphorylation of three known regulators of Pol I, CDK2, AKT and AMPK, is altered during ribosomal stress and could be involved in the observed downregulation. Finally, RNA from patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), shows, on average, a lower level of 47S precursor. This indicates that inhibition of rRNA synthesis could be one of the molecular alterations at the basis of DBA. PMID:27734913

  3. Ribosomal protein L4 is a novel regulator of the MDM2-p53 loop

    PubMed Central

    He, Xia; Li, Yuhuang; Dai, Mu-Shui; Sun, Xiao-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A number of ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to play a critical role in coordinating ribosome biogenesis with cell growth and proliferation by suppressing MDM2 to induce p53 activation. While how the MDM2-p53 pathway is regulated by multiple RPs is unclear, it remains to be interesting to identify additional RPs that can regulate this pathway. Here we report that ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) directly interacts with MDM2 at the central acidic domain and suppresses MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, leading to p53 stabilization and activation. Interestingly, overexpression of RPL4 promotes the binding of MDM2 to RPL5 and RPL11 and forms a complex with RPL5, RPL11 and MDM2 in cells. Conversely, knockdown of RPL4 also induces p53 levels and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. This p53-dependent effect requires both RPL5 and RPL11, suggesting that depletion of RPL4 triggers ribosomal stress. Together, our results reveal that balanced levels of RPL4 are critical for normal cell growth and proliferation via regulating the MDM2-p53 loop. PMID:26908445

  4. GATA1 and PU.1 Bind to Ribosomal Protein Genes in Erythroid Cells: Implications for Ribosomopathies

    PubMed Central

    Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L.; Strouboulis, John; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies. PMID:26447946

  5. GATA1 and PU.1 Bind to Ribosomal Protein Genes in Erythroid Cells: Implications for Ribosomopathies.

    PubMed

    Amanatiadou, Elsa P; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L; Strouboulis, John; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies. PMID:26447946

  6. Biogenesis of respiratory cytochromes in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Thöny-Meyer, L

    1997-01-01

    Biogenesis of respiratory cytochromes is defined as consisting of the posttranslational processes that are necessary to assemble apoprotein, heme, and sometimes additional cofactors into mature enzyme complexes with electron transfer functions. Different biochemical reactions take place during maturation: (i) targeting of the apoprotein to or through the cytoplasmic membrane to its subcellular destination; (ii) proteolytic processing of precursor forms; (iii) assembly of subunits in the membrane and oligomerization; (iv) translocation and/or modification of heme and covalent or noncovalent binding to the protein moiety; (v) transport, processing, and incorporation of other cofactors; and (vi) folding and stabilization of the protein. These steps are discussed for the maturation of different oxidoreductase complexes, and they are arranged in a linear pathway to best account for experimental findings from studies concerning cytochrome biogenesis. The example of the best-studied case, i.e., maturation of cytochrome c, appears to consist of a pathway that requires at least nine specific genes and more general cellular functions such as protein secretion or the control of the redox state in the periplasm. Covalent attachment of heme appears to be enzyme catalyzed and takes place in the periplasm after translocation of the precursor through the membrane. The genetic characterization and the putative biochemical functions of cytochrome c-specific maturation proteins suggest that they may be organized in a membrane-bound maturase complex. Formation of the multisubunit cytochrome bc, complex and several terminal oxidases of the bo3, bd, aa3, and cbb3 types is discussed in detail, and models for linear maturation pathways are proposed wherever possible. PMID:9293186

  7. Study of Phagolysosome Biogenesis in Live Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bronietzki, Marc; Kasmapour, Bahram; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Phagocytic cells play a major role in the innate immune system by removing and eliminating invading microorganisms in their phagosomes. Phagosome maturation is the complex and tightly regulated process during which a nascent phagosome undergoes drastic transformation through well-orchestrated interactions with various cellular organelles and compartments in the cytoplasm. This process, which is essential for the physiological function of phagocytic cells by endowing phagosomes with their lytic and bactericidal properties, culminates in fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes and biogenesis of phagolysosomes which is considered to be the last and critical stage of maturation for phagosomes. In this report, we describe a live cell imaging based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamic process of lysosome to phagosome content delivery, which is a hallmark of phagolysosome biogenesis. This approach uses IgG-coated microbeads as a model for phagocytosis and fluorophore-conjugated dextran molecules as a luminal lysosomal cargo probe, in order to follow the dynamic delivery of lysosmal content to the phagosomes in real time in live macrophages using time-lapse imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Here we describe in detail the background, the preparation steps and the step-by-step experimental setup to enable easy and precise deployment of this method in other labs. Our described method is simple, robust, and most importantly, can be easily adapted to study phagosomal interactions and maturation in different systems and under various experimental settings such as use of various phagocytic cells types, loss-of-function experiments, different probes, and phagocytic particles. PMID:24638150

  8. Interaction of neomycin with ribosomes and ribosomal ribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, A E; Horodyski, F; Keller, P

    1978-02-01

    Neomycin binds ribosomes and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) in vivo and in vitro producing changes detectable by increases in gel electrophoretic mobility. These changes were observed in gels that contain ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or no added magnesium ion. The progressive increase in gel electrophoretic mobility with increasing antibiotic concentrations suggests that neomycin is binding at multiple sites on RNA. The binding was reversible but sufficiently stable to survive dialysis and electrophoresis. It is proposed that bound neomycin stabilizes the ribosome and RNA structures, restricting the unfolding of the particles during electrophoresis and thus allowing for a more rapid migration in the gel. Gentamicin produced an effect similar to that of neomycin. Paromomycin, differing from neomycin by only one amino group, had considerably less effect on ribosome and rRNA mobilities. The binding of neomycin to rRNA improved the linearity of the plot of log molecular weight versus mobility and thus may be of benefit in providing a more accurate estimation of molecular weights of large RNAs.

  9. RsgA releases RbfA from 30S ribosome during a late stage of ribosome biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Simon; Kato, Shingo; Kimura, Takatsugu; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2011-01-01

    RsgA is a 30S ribosomal subunit-binding GTPase with an unknown function, shortage of which impairs maturation of the 30S subunit. We identified multiple gain-of-function mutants of Escherichia coli rbfA, the gene for a ribosome-binding factor, that suppress defects in growth and maturation of the 30S subunit of an rsgA-null strain. These mutations promote spontaneous release of RbfA from the 30S subunit, indicating that cellular disorders upon depletion of RsgA are due to prolonged retention of RbfA on the 30S subunit. We also found that RsgA enhances release of RbfA from the mature 30S subunit in a GTP-dependent manner but not from a precursor form of the 30S subunit. These findings indicate that the function of RsgA is to release RbfA from the 30S subunit during a late stage of ribosome biosynthesis. This is the first example of the action of a GTPase on the bacterial ribosome assembly described at the molecular level. PMID:21102555

  10. Function of the Caenorhabditis elegans ABC Transporter PGP-2 in the Biogenesis of a Lysosome-related Fat Storage Organelle

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Lena K.; Kremer, Susan; Kramer, Maxwell J.; Currie, Erin; Kwan, Elizabeth; Watts, Jennifer L.; Lawrenson, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are intestine specific lysosome-related organelles with birefringent and autofluorescent contents. We identified pgp-2, which encodes an ABC transporter, in screens for genes required for the proper formation of gut granules. pgp-2(−) embryos mislocalize birefringent material into the intestinal lumen and are lacking in acidified intestinal V-ATPase–containing compartments. Adults without pgp-2(+) function similarly lack organelles with gut granule characteristics. These cellular phenotypes indicate that pgp-2(−) animals are defective in gut granule biogenesis. Double mutant analysis suggests that pgp-2(+) functions in parallel with the AP-3 adaptor complex during gut granule formation. We find that pgp-2 is expressed in the intestine where it functions in gut granule biogenesis and that PGP-2 localizes to the gut granule membrane. These results support a direct role of an ABC transporter in regulating lysosome biogenesis. Previously, pgp-2(+) activity has been shown to be necessary for the accumulation of Nile Red–stained fat in C. elegans. We show that gut granules are sites of fat storage in C. elegans embryos and adults. Notably, levels of triacylglycerides are relatively normal in animals defective in the formation of gut granules. Our results provide an explanation for the loss of Nile Red–stained fat in pgp-2(−) animals as well as insight into the specialized function of this lysosome-related organelle. PMID:17202409

  11. Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in mammalian cells: New insights into the molecular mechanisms of cluster delivery.

    PubMed

    Maio, Nunziata; Rouault, Tracey A

    2015-06-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ancient, ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. The combination of the chemical reactivity of iron and sulfur, together with many variations of cluster composition, oxidation states and protein environments, enables Fe-S clusters to participate in numerous biological processes. Fe-S clusters are essential to redox catalysis in nitrogen fixation, mitochondrial respiration and photosynthesis, to regulatory sensing in key metabolic pathways (i.e. cellular iron homeostasis and oxidative stress response), and to the replication and maintenance of the nuclear genome. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is a multistep process that involves a complex sequence of catalyzed protein-protein interactions and coupled conformational changes between the components of several dedicated multimeric complexes. Intensive studies of the assembly process have clarified key points in the biogenesis of Fe-S proteins. However several critical questions still remain, such as: what is the role of frataxin? Why do some defects of Fe-S cluster biogenesis cause mitochondrial iron overload? How are specific Fe-S recipient proteins recognized in the process of Fe-S transfer? This review focuses on the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis, drawing attention to recent advances achieved on the identification of molecular features that guide selection of specific subsets of nascent Fe-S recipients by the cochaperone HSC20. Additionally, it outlines the distinctive phenotypes of human diseases due to mutations in the components of the basic pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases. PMID:25245479

  12. Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in mammalian cells: New insights into the molecular mechanisms of cluster delivery.

    PubMed

    Maio, Nunziata; Rouault, Tracey A

    2015-06-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ancient, ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. The combination of the chemical reactivity of iron and sulfur, together with many variations of cluster composition, oxidation states and protein environments, enables Fe-S clusters to participate in numerous biological processes. Fe-S clusters are essential to redox catalysis in nitrogen fixation, mitochondrial respiration and photosynthesis, to regulatory sensing in key metabolic pathways (i.e. cellular iron homeostasis and oxidative stress response), and to the replication and maintenance of the nuclear genome. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is a multistep process that involves a complex sequence of catalyzed protein-protein interactions and coupled conformational changes between the components of several dedicated multimeric complexes. Intensive studies of the assembly process have clarified key points in the biogenesis of Fe-S proteins. However several critical questions still remain, such as: what is the role of frataxin? Why do some defects of Fe-S cluster biogenesis cause mitochondrial iron overload? How are specific Fe-S recipient proteins recognized in the process of Fe-S transfer? This review focuses on the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis, drawing attention to recent advances achieved on the identification of molecular features that guide selection of specific subsets of nascent Fe-S recipients by the cochaperone HSC20. Additionally, it outlines the distinctive phenotypes of human diseases due to mutations in the components of the basic pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  13. Biogenesis of RNA polymerases II and III requires the conserved GPN small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Sean W; Filiatrault, Megan C; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport.

  14. Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Sean W.; Filiatrault, Megan C.; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. PMID:23267056

  15. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Birth Defects: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are birth defects? Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present ...

  16. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter offers an overview of the use of ribosomal RNA sequences. A history of the technology traces the evolution of techniques to measure bacterial phylogenetic relationships and recent advances in obtaining rRNA sequence information. The manual also describes procedu...

  17. All Ribosomes Are Created Equal. Really?

    PubMed

    Preiss, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Ribosomes are generally thought of as molecular machines with a constitutive rather than regulatory role during protein synthesis. A study by Slavov et al.[1] now shows that ribosomes of distinct composition and functionality exist within eukaryotic cells, giving credence to the concept of 'specialized' ribosomes.

  18. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis is a common feature to myocardial hypertrophy and end-stage ischemic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Annalinda; Cerbelli, Bruna; Perli, Elena; Pelullo, Maria; Bargelli, Valentina; Preziuso, Carmela; Mancini, Massimiliano; He, Langping; Bates, Matthew GD; Lucena, Joaquin R; Della Monica, Paola Lilla; Familiari, Giuseppe; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Nediani, Chiara; Taylor, Robert W; d’Amati, Giulia; Giordano, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA depletion and oxidative mtDNA damage have been implicated in the process of pathological cardiac remodeling. Whether these features are present in the early phase of maladaptive cardiac remodeling, that is, during compensated cardiac hypertrophy, is still unknown. We compared the morphologic and molecular features of mt biogenesis and markers of oxidative stress in human heart from adult subjects with compensated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. We have shown that mtDNA depletion is a constant feature of both conditions. A quantitative loss of mtDNA content was associated with significant down-regulation of selected modulators of mt biogenesis and decreased expression of proteins involved in mtDNA maintenance. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion characterized also the end-stage phase of cardiomyopathies due to a primary mtDNA defect. Oxidative stress damage was detected only in failing myocardium. PMID:26764143

  19. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  20. The RNA-binding protein Gemin5 binds directly to the ribosome and regulates global translation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in all organisms. The protein Gemin5 harbors two functional domains. The N-terminal domain binds to snRNAs targeting them for snRNPs assembly, while the C-terminal domain binds to IRES elements through a non-canonical RNA-binding site. Here we report a comprehensive view of the Gemin5 interactome; most partners copurified with the N-terminal domain via RNA bridges. Notably, Gemin5 sediments with the subcellular ribosome fraction, and His-Gemin5 binds to ribosome particles via its N-terminal domain. The interaction with the ribosome was lost in F381A and Y474A Gemin5 mutants, but not in W14A and Y15A. Moreover, the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 bind directly with Gemin5, and conversely, Gemin5 mutants impairing the binding to the ribosome are defective in the interaction with L3 and L4. The overall polysome profile was affected by Gemin5 depletion or overexpression, concomitant to an increase or a decrease, respectively, of global protein synthesis. Gemin5, and G5-Nter as well, were detected on the polysome fractions. These results reveal the ribosome-binding capacity of the N-ter moiety, enabling Gemin5 to control global protein synthesis. Our study uncovers a crosstalk between this protein and the ribosome, and provides support for the view that Gemin5 may control translation elongation. PMID:27507887

  1. Continued functioning of the secretory pathway is essential for ribosome synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, K; Warner, J R

    1994-01-01

    To explore the regulatory elements that maintain the balanced synthesis of the components of the ribosome, we isolated a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which transcription both of rRNA and of ribosomal protein genes is defective at the nonpermissive temperature. Temperature sensitivity for growth is recessive and segregates 2:2. A gene that complements the ts phenotype was cloned from a genomic DNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene is SLY1, encoding a protein essential for protein and vesicle transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In the strain carrying our ts allele of SLY1, accumulation of the carboxypeptidase Y precursor was detected at the nonpermissive temperature, indicating that the secretory pathway is defective. To ask whether the effect of the ts allele on ribosome synthesis was specific for sly1 or was a general result of the inactivation of the secretion pathway, we assayed the levels of mRNA for several ribosomal proteins in cells carrying ts alleles of sec1, sec7, sec11, sec14, sec18, sec53, or sec63, representing all stages of secretion. In each case, the mRNA levels were severely depressed, suggesting that this is a common feature in mutants of protein secretion. For the mutants tested, transcription of rRNA was also substantially reduced. Furthermore, treatment of a sensitive strain with brefeldin A at a concentration sufficient to block the secretion pathway also led to a decrease of the level of ribosomal protein mRNA, with kinetics suggesting that the effect of a secretion defect is manifest within 15 to 30 min. We conclude that the continued function of the entire secretion pathway is essential for the maintenance of ribosome synthesis. The apparent coupling of membrane synthesis and ribosome synthesis suggest the existence of a regulatory network that connects the production of the various structural elements of the cell. Images PMID:8139552

  2. STA1, an Arabidopsis pre-mRNA processing factor 6 homolog, is a new player involved in miRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ben Chaabane, Samir; Liu, Renyi; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Kwon, Yerim; Park, Joo-hyuk; Kim, Seo Yeon; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Yang, Seong Wook; Lee, Byeong-ha

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that have important regulatory roles in numerous developmental and metabolic processes in most eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1), HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1, SERRATE, HUA ENHANCER1 and HASTY are involved in processing of primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) to yield precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and eventually miRNAs. In addition to these components, mRNA cap-binding proteins, CBP80/ABA HYPERSENSITIVE1 and CBP20, also participate in miRNA biogenesis. Here, we show that STABILIZED1 (STA1), an Arabidopsis pre-mRNA processing factor 6 homolog, is also involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs. Similar to other miRNA biogenesis-defective mutants, sta1-1 accumulated significantly lower levels of mature miRNAs and concurrently higher levels of pri-miRNAs than wild type. The dramatic reductions of mature miRNAs were associated with the accumulation of their target gene transcripts and developmental defects. Furthermore, sta1-1 impaired splicing of intron containing pri-miRNAs and decreased transcript levels of DCL1. These results suggest that STA1 is involved in miRNA biogenesis directly by functioning in pri-miRNA splicing and indirectly by modulating the DCL1 transcript level. PMID:23268445

  3. Structure of Ribosomal Silencing Factor Bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Qingan; Jiang, Cai; Yang, Kailu; Hung, Li-Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Sacchettini, James C

    2015-10-01

    The ribosomal silencing factor RsfS slows cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis during periods of diminished nutrient availability. The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RsfS, together with the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the large subunit 50S of Mtb ribosome, reveals how inhibition of protein synthesis by RsfS occurs. RsfS binds to the 50S at L14, which, when occupied, blocks the association of the small subunit 30S. Although Mtb RsfS is a dimer in solution, only a single subunit binds to 50S. The overlap between the dimer interface and the L14 binding interface confirms that the RsfS dimer must first dissociate to a monomer in order to bind to L14. RsfS interacts primarily through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding to L14. The EM structure shows extended rRNA density that it is not found in the Escherichia coli ribosome, the most striking of these being the extended RNA helix of H54a.

  4. Characterizing inactive ribosomes in translational profiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The broad impact of translational regulation has emerged explosively in the last few years in part due to the technological advance in genome-wide interrogation of gene expression. During mRNA translation, the majority of actively translating ribosomes exist as polysomes in cells with multiple ribosomes loaded on a single transcript. The importance of the monosome, however, has been less appreciated in translational profiling analysis. Here we report that the monosome fraction isolated by sucrose sedimentation contains a large quantity of inactive ribosomes that do not engage on mRNAs to direct translation. We found that the elongation factor eEF2, but not eEF1A, stably resides in these non-translating ribosomes. This unique feature permits direct evaluation of ribosome status under various stress conditions and in the presence of translation inhibitors. Ribosome profiling reveals that the monosome has a similar but not identical pattern of ribosome footprints compared to the polysome. We show that the association of free ribosomal subunits minimally contributes to ribosome occupancy outside of the coding region. Our results not only offer a quantitative method to monitor ribosome availability, but also uncover additional layers of ribosome status needed to be considered in translational profiling analysis. PMID:27335722

  5. MICROTUBULE BIOGENESIS AND CELL SHAPE IN OCHROMONAS

    PubMed Central

    Bouck, G. Benjamin; Brown, David L.

    1973-01-01

    In the first of two companion papers which attempt to correlate microtubules and their nucleating sites with developmental and cell division patterns in the unicellular flagellate, Ochromonas, the distribution of cytoplasmic and mitotic microtubules and various kinetosome-related fibers are detailed. Of the five kinetosome-related fibers, which have been found in Ochromonas, two, the kineto-beak fibers and the rhizoplast fibers are utilized as attachment sites for distinct groups of microtubules. The set of microtubules attached to the kineto-beak fibers apparently shape the anterior beak region of the cell whereas the rhizoplast microtubules appear to extend into and shape the tail in vegetative cells. In mitotic cells a rhizoplast is found at each spindle pole apparently serving as foci for the spindle microtubules. These findings are discussed in relation to the less well defined attachment sites for vegetative and mitotic microtubules in other kinds of cells. It is noted that the effects of depolymerizing microtubules in vivo might be easily quantitated in whole populations since no external wall or pellicle contributes to the maintenance or the biogenesis of the characteristic cell form of Ochromonas. PMID:4682900

  6. Alcoholic Liver Disease and the Mitochondrial Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Alan; Sykora, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to severely compromise mitochondrial protein synthesis. Hepatic mitochondria isolated from alcoholic animals contain decreased levels of respiratory complexes and display depressed respiration rates when compared to pair-fed controls. One underlying mechanism for this involves ethanol-elicited alterations in the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial ribosome. Ethanol feeding results in ribosomal changes that include decreased sedimentation rates, larger hydrodynamic volumes, increased levels of unassociated subunits and changes in the levels of specific ribosomal proteins. The methods presented in this chapter detail how to isolate mitochondrial ribosomes, determine ribosomal activity, separate ribosomes into nucleic acid and protein, and perform two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoretic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate and subsequently identify mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:18369931

  7. The Synthesis of Ribosomes in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Britten, R. J.; McCarthy, B. J.; Roberts, R. B.

    1962-01-01

    The incorporation of C14 leucine into the protein moiety of ribosomes has been studied as a sequel to the studies of ribosomal RNA synthesis. In contrast to the latter studies, labeled leucine is incorporated directly into 50S and 30S ribosomes without measurable delay by precursor stages. There is, however, evidence of some transfer of radioactivity from the 43S group of particles to the 50S. The inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol results in the accumulation of material similar to the eosome—the primary precursor in ribosome synthesis. There is also evidence for the synthesis of some neosome. The results of the studies of ribosomal RNA and protein synthesis are combined into a model of ribosome synthesis. Finally, consideration is made of the significance of these studies of ribosome synthesis for general problems of protein synthesis and information transfer. PMID:13873182

  8. Crystal structure of the eukaryotic ribosome.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shem, Adam; Jenner, Lasse; Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2010-11-26

    Crystal structures of prokaryotic ribosomes have described in detail the universally conserved core of the translation mechanism. However, many facets of the translation process in eukaryotes are not shared with prokaryotes. The crystal structure of the yeast 80S ribosome determined at 4.15 angstrom resolution reveals the higher complexity of eukaryotic ribosomes, which are 40% larger than their bacterial counterparts. Our model shows how eukaryote-specific elements considerably expand the network of interactions within the ribosome and provides insights into eukaryote-specific features of protein synthesis. Our crystals capture the ribosome in the ratcheted state, which is essential for translocation of mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA), and in which the small ribosomal subunit has rotated with respect to the large subunit. We describe the conformational changes in both ribosomal subunits that are involved in ratcheting and their implications in coordination between the two associated subunits and in mRNA and tRNA translocation.

  9. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    PubMed

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  10. Pathways to Specialized Ribosomes: The Brussels Lecture.

    PubMed

    Dinman, Jonathan D

    2016-05-22

    "Specialized ribosomes" is a topic of intense debate and research whose provenance can be traced to the earliest days of molecular biology. Here, the history of this idea is reviewed, and critical literature in which the specialized ribosomes have come to be presently defined is discussed. An argument supporting the evolution of a variety of ribosomes with specialized functions as a consequence of selective pressures acting on a near-infinite set of possible ribosomes is presented, leading to a discussion of how this may also serve as a biological buffering mechanism. The possible relationship between specialized ribosomes and human health is explored. A set of criteria and possible approaches are also presented to help guide the definitive identification of "specialized" ribosomes, and this is followed by a discussion of how synthetic biology approaches might be used to create new types of special ribosomes.

  11. Ribosomal targets for antibiotic drug discovery

    DOEpatents

    Blanchard, Scott C.; Feldman, Michael Brian; Wang, Leyi; Doudna Cate, James H.; Pulk, Arto; Altman, Roger B.; Wasserman, Michael R

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to methods to identify molecules that binds in the neomycin binding pocket of a bacterial ribosome using structures of an intact bacterial ribosome that reveal how the ribosome binds tRNA in two functionally distinct states, determined by x-ray crystallography. One state positions tRNA in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. The second, a fully rotated state, is stabilized by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and binds tRNA in a highly bent conformation in a hybrid peptidyl/exit (P/E) site. Additionally, the invention relates to various assays, including single-molecule assay for ribosome recycling, and methods to identify compounds that interfere with ribosomal function by detecting newly identified intermediate FRET states using known and novel FRET pairs on the ribosome. The invention also provides vectors and compositions with an N-terminally tagged S13 protein.

  12. Pathways to Specialized Ribosomes: The Brussels Lecture.

    PubMed

    Dinman, Jonathan D

    2016-05-22

    "Specialized ribosomes" is a topic of intense debate and research whose provenance can be traced to the earliest days of molecular biology. Here, the history of this idea is reviewed, and critical literature in which the specialized ribosomes have come to be presently defined is discussed. An argument supporting the evolution of a variety of ribosomes with specialized functions as a consequence of selective pressures acting on a near-infinite set of possible ribosomes is presented, leading to a discussion of how this may also serve as a biological buffering mechanism. The possible relationship between specialized ribosomes and human health is explored. A set of criteria and possible approaches are also presented to help guide the definitive identification of "specialized" ribosomes, and this is followed by a discussion of how synthetic biology approaches might be used to create new types of special ribosomes. PMID:26764228

  13. [Structure and function of the eukaryotic ribosome].

    PubMed

    Bakowska-Zywicka, Kamilla; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The protein biosynthesis is a complicated process and not fully understood yet. According to smaller size and less complicated structure, understanding of prokaryotic 70S ribosomes is much more advanced. Eucaryotic 80S ribosomes are more complex and generate more difficulties in research. The morphology of 80S ribosome has been pretty well resolved and we know a lot about mechanism of functioning. Determination of the interactions between the ribosomes and the factors taking part in protein biosynthesis is still a great challenge. Dynamic changes of these interactions during particular steps of elongation cycle are quite difficult to understand. Conformational changes of the ribosome are of great functional and regulatory importance during protein biosynthesis. They are essential for the whole gene expression process. Only further research of the structure and function of the ribosome will lead us to knowledge about specificity of the mechanism of their action. In this article we present current opinions concerning structure and function of the eukaryotic ribosomes.

  14. Phylogenomics of Prokaryotic Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yutin, Natalya; Puigbò, Pere; Koonin, Eugene V.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal and bacterial ribosomes contain more than 50 proteins, including 34 that are universally conserved in the three domains of cellular life (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). Despite the high sequence conservation, annotation of ribosomal (r-) protein genes is often difficult because of their short lengths and biased sequence composition. We developed an automated computational pipeline for identification of r-protein genes and applied it to 995 completely sequenced bacterial and 87 archaeal genomes available in the RefSeq database. The pipeline employs curated seed alignments of r-proteins to run position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based BLAST searches against six-frame genome translations, mitigating possible gene annotation errors. As a result of this analysis, we performed a census of prokaryotic r-protein complements, enumerated missing and paralogous r-proteins, and analyzed the distributions of ribosomal protein genes among chromosomal partitions. Phyletic patterns of bacterial and archaeal r-protein genes were mapped to phylogenetic trees reconstructed from concatenated alignments of r-proteins to reveal the history of likely multiple independent gains and losses. These alignments, available for download, can be used as search profiles to improve genome annotation of r-proteins and for further comparative genomics studies. PMID:22615861

  15. Post-transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein genes during serum starvation in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ahamad, Jamaluddin; Ojha, Sandeep; Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2015-06-01

    Ribosome synthesis involves all three RNA polymerases which are co-ordinately regulated to produce equimolar amounts of rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (RPs). Unlike model organisms where transcription of rRNA and RP genes slows down during stress, in E. histolytica rDNA transcription continues but pre-rRNA processing slows down and unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates during serum starvation. To investigate the regulation of RP genes under stress we measured transcription of six selected RP genes from the small- and large-ribosomal subunits (RPS6, RPS3, RPS19, RPL5, RPL26, RPL30) representing the early-, mid-, and late-stages of ribosomal assembly. Transcripts of these genes persisted in growth-stressed cells. Expression of luciferase reporter under the control of two RP genes (RPS19 and RPL30) was studied during serum starvation and upon serum replenishment. Although luciferase transcript levels remained unchanged during starvation, luciferase activity steadily declined to 7.8% and 15% of control cells, respectively. After serum replenishment the activity increased to normal levels, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of these genes. Mutations in the sequence -2 to -9 upstream of AUG in the RPL30 gene resulted in the phenotype expected of post-transcriptional regulation. Transcription of luciferase reporter was unaffected in this mutant, and luciferase activity did not decline during serum starvation, showing that this sequence is required to repress translation of RPL30 mRNA, and mutations in this region relieve repression. Our data show that during serum starvation E. histolytica blocks ribosome biogenesis post-transcriptionally by inhibiting pre-rRNA processing on the one hand, and the translation of RP mRNAs on the other.

  16. Loss of Tumor Suppressor RPL5/RPL11 Does Not Induce Cell Cycle Arrest but Impedes Proliferation Due to Reduced Ribosome Content and Translation Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Teng; Mercer, Carol A.; Hexley, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Humans have evolved elaborate mechanisms to activate p53 in response to insults that lead to cancer, including the binding and inhibition of Hdm2 by the 60S ribosomal proteins (RPs) RPL5 and RPL11. This same mechanism appears to be activated upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, a risk factor for cancer initiation. As loss of RPL5/RPL11 abrogates ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis to the same extent as loss of other essential 60S RPs, we reasoned the loss of RPL5 and RPL11 would induce a p53-independent cell cycle checkpoint. Unexpectedly, we found that their depletion in primary human lung fibroblasts failed to induce cell cycle arrest but strongly suppressed cell cycle progression. We show that the effects on cell cycle progression stemmed from reduced ribosome content and translational capacity, which suppressed the accumulation of cyclins at the translational level. Thus, unlike other tumor suppressors, RPL5/RPL11 play an essential role in normal cell proliferation, a function cells have evolved to rely on in lieu of a cell cycle checkpoint. PMID:24061479

  17. l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

  18. ADAR1 Activation Drives Leukemia Stem Cell Self-Renewal by Impairing Let-7 Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zipeto, Maria Anna; Court, Angela C; Sadarangani, Anil; Delos Santos, Nathaniel P; Balaian, Larisa; Chun, Hye-Jung; Pineda, Gabriel; Morris, Sheldon R; Mason, Cayla N; Geron, Ifat; Barrett, Christian; Goff, Daniel J; Wall, Russell; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Minden, Mark; Frazer, Kelly A; Marra, Marco A; Crews, Leslie A; Jiang, Qingfei; Jamieson, Catriona H M

    2016-08-01

    Post-transcriptional adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1) promotes cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. However, ADAR1 editase-dependent mechanisms governing leukemia stem cell (LSC) generation have not been elucidated. In blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (BC CML), we show that increased JAK2 signaling and BCR-ABL1 amplification activate ADAR1. In a humanized BC CML mouse model, combined JAK2 and BCR-ABL1 inhibition prevents LSC self-renewal commensurate with ADAR1 downregulation. Lentiviral ADAR1 wild-type, but not an editing-defective ADAR1(E912A) mutant, induces self-renewal gene expression and impairs biogenesis of stem cell regulatory let-7 microRNAs. Combined RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, CLIP-ADAR1, and pri-let-7 mutagenesis data suggest that ADAR1 promotes LSC generation via let-7 pri-microRNA editing and LIN28B upregulation. A small-molecule tool compound antagonizes ADAR1's effect on LSC self-renewal in stromal co-cultures and restores let-7 biogenesis. Thus, ADAR1 activation represents a unique therapeutic vulnerability in LSCs with active JAK2 signaling. PMID:27292188

  19. Neutron scattering in the ribosome structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyuk, Igor N.

    1997-02-01

    Thermal neutron scattering has become a powerful instrument for studying the ribosome and its components. The application of neutron scattering allowed to establish some principal features of the ribosome structure: non-homogeneous distribution of the RNA and protein within ribosomal particles, the RNA role as a framework in the arrangement and maintenance of the structure of ribosomal particles, and the globular character of ribosomal proteins. The use of selective deuteration of separate ribosomal proteins in combination with the triangulation method revealed mutual spatial arrangement (the 3D-map) of all the ribosomal proteins within the small particle and in the most part of the large ribosomal particle. An essential impact has been made in the structural studies of ribosomes with the development of novel experimental approaches: triple isotopic substitution and spin contrast variation. These approaches with direct interpretation of spherical harmonics provide new possibilities for constructing models of ribosomal particles, opening principally new perspectives for joint use of X-ray synchrotron diffraction in crystals and small-angle neutron scattering in solution.

  20. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Selmer, Maria; Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2012-05-01

    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosome–GTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  1. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32

  2. Assembly of the Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-3 (BLOC-3) and Its Interaction with Rab9*

    PubMed Central

    Kloer, Daniel P.; Rojas, Raul; Ivan, Viorica; Moriyama, Kengo; van Vlijmen, Thijs; Murthy, Namita; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; van der Sluijs, Peter; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2010-01-01

    The Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic hypopigmentation and bleeding disorder caused by defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as melanosomes and platelet dense bodies. HPS arises from mutations in any of 8 genes in humans and 16 genes in mice. Two of these genes, HPS1 and HPS4, encode components of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-3 (BLOC-3). Herein we show that recombinant HPS1-HPS4 produced in insect cells can be efficiently isolated as a 1:1 heterodimer. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that this complex has a molecular mass of 146 kDa, equivalent to that of the native complex and to the sum of the predicted molecular masses of HPS1 and HPS4. This indicates that HPS1 and HPS4 interact directly in the absence of any other protein as part of BLOC-3. Limited proteolysis and deletion analyses show that both subunits interact with one another throughout most of their lengths with the sole exception of a long, unstructured loop in the central part of HPS4. An interaction screen reveals a specific and strong interaction of BLOC-3 with the GTP-bound form of the endosomal GTPase, Rab9. This interaction is mediated by HPS4 and the switch I and II regions of Rab9. These characteristics indicate that BLOC-3 might function as a Rab9 effector in the biogenesis of LROs. PMID:20048159

  3. Myosin Vc Interacts with Rab32 and Rab38 Proteins and Works in the Biogenesis and Secretion of Melanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Boyle, Judith A.; Malenke, Parker B.; Martin, Faye E.; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C.; Cheney, Richard E.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2014-01-01

    Class V myosins are actin-based motors with conserved functions in vesicle and organelle trafficking. Herein we report the discovery of a function for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis as an effector of melanosome-associated Rab GTPases. We isolated Myosin Vc in a yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with Rab38, a Rab protein involved in the biogenesis of melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles. Rab38 and its close homolog Rab32 bind to Myosin Vc but not to Myosin Va or Myosin Vb. Binding depends on residues in the switch II region of Rab32 and Rab38 and regions of the Myosin Vc coiled-coil tail domain. Myosin Vc also interacts with Rab7a and Rab8a but not with Rab11, Rab17, and Rab27. Although Myosin Vc is not particularly abundant on pigmented melanosomes, its knockdown in MNT-1 melanocytes caused defects in the trafficking of integral membrane proteins to melanosomes with substantially increased surface expression of Tyrp1, nearly complete loss of Tyrp2, and significant Vamp7 mislocalization. Knockdown of Myosin Vc in MNT-1 cells more than doubled the abundance of pigmented melanosomes but did not change the number of unpigmented melanosomes. Together the data demonstrate a novel role for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis and secretion. PMID:25324551

  4. Biogenesis of the inner membrane complex is dependent on vesicular transport by the alveolate specific GTPase Rab11B.

    PubMed

    Agop-Nersesian, Carolina; Egarter, Saskia; Langsley, Gordon; Foth, Bernardo J; Ferguson, David J P; Meissner, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites belong to a recently recognised group of protozoa referred to as Alveolata. These protists contain membranous sacs (alveoli) beneath the plasma membrane, termed the Inner Membrane Complex (IMC) in the case of Apicomplexa. During parasite replication the IMC is formed de novo within the mother cell in a process described as internal budding. We hypothesized that an alveolate specific factor is involved in the specific transport of vesicles from the Golgi to the IMC and identified the small GTPase Rab11B as an alveolate specific Rab-GTPase that localises to the growing end of the IMC during replication of Toxoplasma gondii. Conditional interference with Rab11B function leads to a profound defect in IMC biogenesis, indicating that Rab11B is required for the transport of Golgi derived vesicles to the nascent IMC of the daughter cell. Curiously, a block in IMC biogenesis did not affect formation of sub-pellicular microtubules, indicating that IMC biogenesis and formation of sub-pellicular microtubules is not mechanistically linked. We propose a model where Rab11B specifically transports vesicles derived from the Golgi to the immature IMC of the growing daughter parasites.

  5. A fail-safe system for the ribosome under zinc-limiting conditions in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yousuke; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Akanuma, Genki; Kosono, Saori; Kudo, Toshiaki; Ochi, Kozo; Kawamura, Fujio

    2007-01-01

    As zinc is an essential trace metal ion for all living cells, cells elaborate a variety of strategies to cope with zinc starvation. In Bacillus subtilis, genes encoding ribosomal proteins L31 and S14 are duplicated into two types: one type contains a zinc-binding motif (RpmE or RpsN), whereas the other does not (YtiA or YhzA). We have previously shown that displacement of RpmE (L31) by YtiA from already assembled ribosomes is controlled by zinc, and this replacement could contribute to zinc mobilization under zinc-limiting conditions. We propose here that the switch between the two types of S14 has a different significance. rpsN is indispensable for growth and depletion of RpsN results in defective 30S subunits. YhzA can functionally replace RpsN to allow continued ribosome assembly under zinc-limiting conditions. Unlike YtiA, YhzA appeared in the ribosome at a slower rate consistent with incorporation into newly synthesized, rather than pre-existing ribosomes. These results raise the possibility that YhzA is involved in a fail-safe system for the de novo synthesis of ribosomes under zinc-limiting conditions.

  6. DNA damage stress induces the expression of ribosomal protein S27a gene in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Nagisa; Kapoor, Neetu Rohit; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-03-15

    The small ribosomal protein RPS27a is known to play a role in the activation of cellular checkpoints via p53 which links ribosome biogenesis to cell cycle progression. Here, we show that RPS27a gene is a direct transcriptional target of p53 and is overexpressed in response to DNA damage. Elevated RPS27a level was associated with increased expression of p53 and its target p21(Waf1) gene. The RPS27a activity was specifically inhibited in the presence of a dominant negative mutant of p53. Down-regulation of ectopically expressed RPS27a by RNA interference blocked the activation of p21(waf1) in response to DNA damage. Thus, RPS27a appears to be a novel stress sensor in the cell which amplifies p53 response to arrest cell cycle.

  7. DNA damage stress induces the expression of ribosomal protein S27a gene in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Nagisa; Kapoor, Neetu Rohit; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-03-15

    The small ribosomal protein RPS27a is known to play a role in the activation of cellular checkpoints via p53 which links ribosome biogenesis to cell cycle progression. Here, we show that RPS27a gene is a direct transcriptional target of p53 and is overexpressed in response to DNA damage. Elevated RPS27a level was associated with increased expression of p53 and its target p21(Waf1) gene. The RPS27a activity was specifically inhibited in the presence of a dominant negative mutant of p53. Down-regulation of ectopically expressed RPS27a by RNA interference blocked the activation of p21(waf1) in response to DNA damage. Thus, RPS27a appears to be a novel stress sensor in the cell which amplifies p53 response to arrest cell cycle. PMID:25592822

  8. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the ... abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Infections during pregnancy can also result in birth defects. For most ...

  9. Specific contacts between protein S4 and ribosomal RNA are required at multiple stages of ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Megan; Woodson, Sarah A

    2013-04-01

    Assembly of bacterial 30S ribosomal subunits requires structural rearrangements to both its 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein components. Ribosomal protein S4 nucleates 30S assembly and associates rapidly with the 5' domain of the 16S rRNA. In vitro, transformation of initial S4-rRNA complexes to long-lived, mature complexes involves refolding of 16S helix 18, which forms part of the decoding center. Here we use targeted mutagenesis of Geobacillus stearothermophilus S4 to show that remodeling of S4-rRNA complexes is perturbed by ram alleles associated with reduced translational accuracy. Gel mobility shift assays, SHAPE chemical probing, and in vivo complementation show that the S4 N-terminal extension is required for RNA binding and viability. Alanine substitutions in Y47 and L51 that interact with 16S helix 18 decrease S4 affinity and destabilize the helix 18 pseudoknot. These changes to the protein-RNA interface correlate with no growth (L51A) or cold-sensitive growth, 30S assembly defects, and accumulation of 17S pre-rRNA (Y47A). A third mutation, R200A, over-stabilizes the helix 18 pseudoknot yet results in temperature-sensitive growth, indicating that complex stability is finely tuned by natural selection. Our results show that early S4-RNA interactions guide rRNA folding and impact late steps of 30S assembly.

  10. A functional relationship between helix 1 and the 900 tetraloop of 16S ribosomal RNA within the bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, François; Théberge-Julien, Gabriel; Cunningham, Philip R; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2005-06-01

    The conserved 900 tetraloop that caps helix 27 of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interacts with helix 24 of 16S rRNA and also with helix 67 of 23S rRNA, forming the intersubunit bridge B2c, proximal to the decoding center. In previous studies, we investigated how the interaction between the 900 tetraloop and helix 24 participates in subunit association and translational fidelity. In the present study, we investigated whether the 900 tetraloop is involved in other undetected interactions with different regions of the Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Using a genetic complementation approach, we selected mutations in 16S rRNA that compensate for a 900 tetraloop mutation, A900G, which severely impairs subunit association and translational fidelity. Mutations were randomly introduced in 16S rRNA, using either a mutagenic XL1-Red E. coli strain or an error-prone PCR strategy. Gain-offunction mutations were selected in vivo with a specialized ribosome system. Two mutations, the deletion of U12 and the U12C substitution, were thus independently selected in helix 1 of 16S rRNA. This helix is located in the vicinity of helix 27, but does not directly contact the 900 tetraloop in the crystal structures of the ribosome. Both mutations correct the subunit association and translational fidelity defects caused by the A900G mutation, revealing an unanticipated functional interaction between these two regions of 16S rRNA.

  11. Pseudouridines and pseudouridine synthases of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Ofengand, J; Malhotra, A; Remme, J; Gutgsell, N S; Del Campo, M; Jean-Charles, S; Peil, L; Kaya, Y

    2001-01-01

    psi are ubiquitous in ribosomal RNA. Eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes all contain psi, although their number varies widely, with eukaryotes having the most. The small ribosomal subunit can apparently do without psi in some organisms, even though others have as many as 40 or more. Large subunits appear to need at least one psi but can have up to 50-60. psi is made by a set of site-specific enzymes in eubacteria, and in eukaryotes by a single enzyme complexed with auxiliary proteins and specificity-conferring guide RNAs. The mechanism is not known in Archaea, but based on an analysis of the kinds of psi synthases found in sequenced archaeal genomes, it is likely to involve use of guide RNAs. All psi synthases can be classified into one of four related groups, virtually all of which have a conserved aspartate residue in a conserved sequence motif. The aspartate is essential for psi formation in all twelve synthases examined so far. When the need for psi in E. coli was examined, the only synthase whose absence caused a major decrease in growth rate under normal conditions was RluD, the synthase that makes psi 1911, psi 1915, and psi 1917 in the helix 69 end-loop. This growth defect was the result of a major failure in assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. The defect could be prevented by supplying the rluD structural gene in trans, and also by providing a point mutant gene that made a synthase unable to make psi. Therefore, the RluD synthase protein appears to be directly involved in 50S subunit assembly, possibly as an RNA chaperone, and this activity is independent of its ability to form psi. This result is not without precedent. Depletion of PET56, a 2'-O-methyltransferase specific for G2251 (E. coli numbering) in yeast mitochondria virtually blocks 50S subunit assembly and mitochondrial function (Sirum-Connolly et al. 1995), but the methylation activity of the enzyme is not required (T. Mason, pers. comm.). The absence of FtsJ, a heat shock protein that makes

  12. Ribosome-associated protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Brandman, Onn; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome can fail for numerous reasons including faulty mRNA, insufficient availability of charged tRNAs and genetic errors. All organisms have evolved mechanisms to recognize stalled ribosomes and initiate pathways for recycling, quality control and stress signaling. Here we review the discovery and molecular dissection of the eukaryotic ribosome-associated quality-control pathway for degradation of nascent polypeptides arising from interrupted translation. PMID:26733220

  13. Seeing is Believing in Ribosome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan R

    2016-07-14

    Many proteins have been implicated genetically and biochemically in the assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes. Now, Kornprobst et al. show us how they are put together with a cryoEM structure of the 90S processome that initiates ribosome assembly, revealing the arrangement of U3 RNA and the several UTP complexes that form a chaperone-like structure around and within the developing 40S ribosomal subunit. PMID:27419867

  14. Suppression of Myc oncogenic activity by ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Barna, Maria; Pusic, Aya; Zollo, Ornella; Costa, Maria; Kondrashov, Nadya; Rego, Eduardo; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Ruggero, Davide

    2008-12-18

    The Myc oncogene regulates the expression of several components of the protein synthetic machinery, including ribosomal proteins, initiation factors of translation, RNA polymerase III and ribosomal DNA. Whether and how increasing the cellular protein synthesis capacity affects the multistep process leading to cancer remains to be addressed. Here we use ribosomal protein heterozygote mice as a genetic tool to restore increased protein synthesis in Emu-Myc/+ transgenic mice to normal levels, and show that the oncogenic potential of Myc in this context is suppressed. Our findings demonstrate that the ability of Myc to increase protein synthesis directly augments cell size and is sufficient to accelerate cell cycle progression independently of known cell cycle targets transcriptionally regulated by Myc. In addition, when protein synthesis is restored to normal levels, Myc-overexpressing precancerous cells are more efficiently eliminated by programmed cell death. Our findings reveal a new mechanism that links increases in general protein synthesis rates downstream of an oncogenic signal to a specific molecular impairment in the modality of translation initiation used to regulate the expression of selective messenger RNAs. We show that an aberrant increase in cap-dependent translation downstream of Myc hyperactivation specifically impairs the translational switch to internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent translation that is required for accurate mitotic progression. Failure of this translational switch results in reduced mitotic-specific expression of the endogenous IRES-dependent form of Cdk11 (also known as Cdc2l and PITSLRE), which leads to cytokinesis defects and is associated with increased centrosome numbers and genome instability in Emu-Myc/+ mice. When accurate translational control is re-established in Emu-Myc/+ mice, genome instability is suppressed. Our findings demonstrate how perturbations in translational control provide a highly specific outcome

  15. Genetic Analysis of Cold-Sensitive Ribosome Maturation Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Robert E.; Sypherd, Paul S.

    1974-01-01

    Four cold-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli, which have defects in the maturation of the 50S ribosomal subunit, were isolated. Each of the mutations was shown to map at a different locus. The loci were assigned the name rim (ribosome maturation) and were shown to map as follows: rimA is co-transduced with ilvD and with pyrE; rimB is co-transduced with aroD; conjugation experiments limited rimD to a region between ilv and malB, and conjugation experiments limited rimC to the 22 to 30 min region of the chromosome. In merodiploids heterozygous for rimA, rimB, or rimD, the wild-type allele was shown to be dominant to the mutant allele. The observation that the rim loci lie outside the strA region and separate from each other, as well as the recessive character of the rim loci, suggests that the mutants may be defective in ribosome maturation factors rather than being defective in ribosomal structural proteins. PMID:4591943

  16. Scattering studies on ribosomes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.

    1986-02-01

    Ribosomes are organelles that play a central role in protein synthesis. They are complexes of protein and nucleic acid, and can be analysed as two-component systems by neutron scattering. Moreover, ribosomes can be biochemically prepared that have specific proteins deuterated. Both these properties have been exploited to study the structure of the ribosome by neutron scattering. This article reviews the studies carried out on the small ribosomal subunit, and describes a recent study that has resolved a conflict between the results of two classes of experiments.

  17. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

  18. Prokaryotic membrane vesicles: new insights on biogenesis and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Haurat, M Florencia; Elhenawy, Wael; Feldman, Mario F

    2015-02-01

    Biogenesis and trafficking of membrane vesicles are essential and well-studied processes in eukaryotes. In contrast, vesiculation in bacteria is not well understood. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in Gram-negative bacteria by blebbing of the outer membrane. In addition to the roles in pathogenesis, cell-to-cell communication and stress response, recent work has suggested that OMVs play important roles in immunomodulation and the establishment and balance of the gut microbiota. In this review we discuss the known and novel roles of OMVs and the different biogenesis models proposed, and address the evidence for cargo selection into OMVs. We also discuss the growing evidence for the existence of membrane vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria and Archaea. Due to their biological importance and promising applications in vaccinology, the biogenesis of OMVs is an important topic in microbiology.

  19. Biogenesis of the pore architecture of a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Christine; Dagcan, Alper; Roux, Benoit; Deutsch, Carol

    2011-02-22

    The pore domain of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels consists of transmembrane helices S5 and S6, the turret, the pore helix, the selectivity filter, and the loop preceding S6, with a tertiary reentrant structure between S5 and S6. Using biogenic intermediates, mass tagging (pegylation), and a molecular tape measure, we explored the possibility that the first stages of pore formation occur prior to oligomerization of the transmembrane core. Pegylation of introduced cysteines shows that the pore helix, but not the turret, forms a compact secondary structure in the terminal 20 Å of the ribosomal tunnel. We assessed the tertiary fold of the pore loop in monomeric constructs by determining the relative accessibilities of select cysteines using the kinetics of pegylation. Turret residues are accessible at the extracellular surface. In contrast, pore helix residues are less accessible. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of a single Kv monomer in a solvated lipid membrane indicate that secondary and tertiary folds are stable over 650 ns. These results are consistent with acquisition of a tertiary reentrant pore architecture at the monomer stage of Kv biogenesis and begin to define a plausible sequence of folding events in the formation of Kv channels.

  20. Biogenesis of protein bodies during vicilin accumulation in Medicago truncatula immature seeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grain legumes play a worldwide role as a source of plant proteins for feed and food. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the organisation of protein storage vacuoles (PSV) in maturing seeds remains unknown. Findings The sub-cellular events accompanying the accumulation of vicilin (globulin7S) were analysed during seed mid-maturation. Immuno-detection of vicilin in light microscopy, allowed a semi-quantitative assessment of the protein body complement. The identified populations of vicilin-containing protein bodies are distinguished by their number and size which allowed to propose a model of their biogenesis. Two distributions were detected, enabling a separation of their processing at early and mid maturation stages. The largest protein bodies, at 16 and 20 days after pollination (DAP), were formed by the fusion of small bodies. They have probably attained their final size and correspond to mature vicilin aggregations. Electron microscopic observations revealed the association of the dense protein bodies with rough endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of a ribosome layer surrounding protein bodies, would support an endoplasmic reticulum–vacuole trafficking pathway. Conclusions The stastistic analysis may be useful for screening mutations of candidate genes governing protein content. The definitive evidence for an ER-storage vacuole pathway corresponds to a challenge, for the storage of post-translationally unstable proteins. It was proposed for the accumulation of one class of storage protein, the vicilins. This alternative pathway is a matter of controversy in dicotyledonous seeds. PMID:22862819

  1. Coilin displays differential affinity for specific RNAs in vivo and is linked to telomerase RNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Broome, Hanna J.; Hebert, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Coilin is widely known as the protein marker of the Cajal body, a subnuclear domain important to the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and telomerase, complexes that are crucial to pre-messenger RNA splicing and telomere maintenance, respectively. Extensive studies have characterized the interaction between coilin and the various other protein components of CBs and related subnuclear domains, however only a few have examined interactions between coilin and nucleic acid. We have recently published that coilin is tightly associated with nucleic acid, displays RNase activity in vitro, and isre-distributed to the rRNA-rich nucleoli in cells treated with the DNA damaging agentscisplatin or etoposide. Here, we report a specific in vivo association between coilin and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), U small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and human telomerase RNA (hTR), which is altered upon treatment with DNA damaging agents. Using chromatin IP (ChIP), we provide evidence of coilin interaction with specific regions of U snRNA gene loci. We have also utilized bacterially expressed coilin fragments in order to map the region(s) important for RNA binding and RNase activity in vitro. Additionally, we provide evidence of coilin involvement in the processing of hTR both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23274112

  2. What can Rapid Terrestrial Biogenesis Tell Us about Life in the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineweaver, Charles H.; Davis, Tamara M.

    2004-06-01

    It is sometimes asserted that the rapidity of biogenesis on Earth suggests that life is common in the Universe. We critically examine the assumptions inherent in this argument. Using a lottery model for biogenesis in the Universe, we convert the observational constraints on the rapidity of biogenesis on Earth into constraints on the probability of biogenesis on other terrestrial planets. For example, if terrestrial biogenesis took less than 200 Myr (and we assume that it could have taken 1 billion years) then we find the probability of biogenesis on terrestrial planets older than ˜ 1 Gyr, is > 36% at the 95% confidence level. However, there are assumptions and selection effects that complicate this result: although we correct the analysis for the fact that biogenesis is a prerequisite for our existence, our result depends on the plausible assumption that rapid biogenesis is not such a prerequisite.

  3. Emerging properties of nuclear RNP biogenesis and export.

    PubMed

    Oeffinger, Marlene; Montpetit, Ben

    2015-06-01

    RNA biology has recently seen an explosion of data due to advances in RNA sequencing, proteomic, and RNA imaging technologies. In this review, we highlight progress that has been made using these approaches in the area of nuclear RNP biogenesis and export. Excitingly, the ability to collect quantitative data at the 'omics' scale combined with measurements of transcription, decay, and transport kinetics is providing the information needed to address RNP biogenesis at a systems level. We believe this to be a necessary and critical next step that will lead to a better understanding of how RNP quality, diversity, and fate emerge from a defined set of nuclear RNP assembly and maturation steps.

  4. The structure of Erb1-Ytm1 complex reveals the functional importance of a high-affinity binding between two β-propellers during the assembly of large ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wegrecki, Marcin; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; de la Cruz, Jesús; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-12-15

    Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most essential pathways in eukaryotes although it is still not fully characterized. Given the importance of this process in proliferating cells, it is obvious that understanding the macromolecular details of the interactions that take place between the assembly factors, ribosomal proteins and nascent pre-rRNAs is essentially required for the development of new non-genotoxic treatments for cancer. Herein, we have studied the association between the WD40-repeat domains of Erb1 and Ytm1 proteins. These are essential factors for the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes that form a heterotrimeric complex together with the also essential Nop7 protein. We provide the crystal structure of a dimer formed by the C-terminal part of Erb1 and Ytm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.1 Å resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach we show that the β-propeller domains of these proteins interact in a novel manner that leads to a high-affinity binding. We prove that a point mutation within the interface of the complex impairs the interaction between the two proteins and negatively affects growth and ribosome production in yeast. Our study suggests insights into the association of the Erb1-Ytm1 dimer with pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:26476442

  5. The structure of Erb1-Ytm1 complex reveals the functional importance of a high-affinity binding between two β-propellers during the assembly of large ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Wegrecki, Marcin; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; de la Cruz, Jesús; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most essential pathways in eukaryotes although it is still not fully characterized. Given the importance of this process in proliferating cells, it is obvious that understanding the macromolecular details of the interactions that take place between the assembly factors, ribosomal proteins and nascent pre-rRNAs is essentially required for the development of new non-genotoxic treatments for cancer. Herein, we have studied the association between the WD40-repeat domains of Erb1 and Ytm1 proteins. These are essential factors for the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes that form a heterotrimeric complex together with the also essential Nop7 protein. We provide the crystal structure of a dimer formed by the C-terminal part of Erb1 and Ytm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.1 Å resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach we show that the β-propeller domains of these proteins interact in a novel manner that leads to a high-affinity binding. We prove that a point mutation within the interface of the complex impairs the interaction between the two proteins and negatively affects growth and ribosome production in yeast. Our study suggests insights into the association of the Erb1-Ytm1 dimer with pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:26476442

  6. Structural insights into the function of a unique tandem GTPase EngA in bacterial ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Yan, Kaige; Zhang, Yixiao; Li, Ningning; Ma, Chengying; Li, Zhifei; Zhang, Yanqing; Feng, Boya; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yadong; Xu, Yanji; Lei, Jianlin; Gao, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Many ribosome-interacting GTPases, with proposed functions in ribosome biogenesis, are also implicated in the cellular regulatory coupling between ribosome assembly process and various growth control pathways. EngA is an essential GTPase in bacteria, and intriguingly, it contains two consecutive GTPase domains (GD), being one-of-a-kind among all known GTPases. EngA is required for the 50S subunit maturation. However, its molecular role remains elusive. Here, we present the structure of EngA bound to the 50S subunit. Our data show that EngA binds to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) and induces dramatic conformational changes on the 50S subunit, which virtually returns the 50S subunit to a state similar to that of the late-stage 50S assembly intermediates. Very interestingly, our data show that the two GDs exhibit a pseudo-two-fold symmetry in the 50S-bound conformation. Our results indicate that EngA recognizes certain forms of the 50S assembly intermediates, and likely facilitates the conformational maturation of the PTC of the 23S rRNA in a direct manner. Furthermore, in a broad context, our data also suggest that EngA might be a sensor of the cellular GTP/GDP ratio, endowed with multiple conformational states, in response to fluctuations in cellular nucleotide pool, to facilitate and regulate ribosome assembly. PMID:25389271

  7. Evidence for Coupled Biogenesis of Yeast Gap1 Permease and Sphingolipids: Essential Role in Transport Activity and Normal Control by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lauwers, Elsa; Grossmann, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Current models for plasma membrane organization integrate the emerging concepts that membrane proteins tightly associate with surrounding lipids and that biogenesis of surface proteins and lipids may be coupled. We show here that the yeast general amino acid permease Gap1 synthesized in the absence of sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is delivered to the cell surface but undergoes rapid and unregulated down-regulation. Furthermore, the permease produced under these conditions but blocked at the cell surface is inactive, soluble in detergent, and more sensitive to proteases. We also show that SL biogenesis is crucial during Gap1 production and secretion but that it is dispensable once Gap1 has reached the plasma membrane. Moreover, the defects displayed by cell surface Gap1 neosynthesized in the absence of SL biosynthesis are not compensated by subsequent restoration of SL production. Finally, we show that down-regulation of Gap1 caused by lack of SL biogenesis involves the ubiquitination of the protein on lysines normally not accessible to ubiquitination and close to the membrane. We propose that coupled biogenesis of Gap1 and SLs would create an SL microenvironment essential to the normal conformation, function, and control of ubiquitination of the permease. PMID:17553927

  8. Interaction of Streptococcus mutans YidC1 and YidC2 with translating and nontranslating ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zht Cheng; de Keyzer, Jeanine; Berrelkamp-Lahpor, Greetje A; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2013-10-01

    The YidC/OxaI/Alb3 family of membrane proteins is involved in the biogenesis of integral membrane proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Gram-positive bacteria often contain multiple YidC paralogs that can be subdivided into two major classes, namely, YidC1 and YidC2. The Streptococcus mutans YidC1 and YidC2 proteins possess C-terminal tails that differ in charges (+9 and + 14) and lengths (33 and 61 amino acids). The longer YidC2 C terminus bears a resemblance to the C-terminal ribosome-binding domain of the mitochondrial OxaI protein and, in contrast to the shorter YidC1 C terminus, can mediate the interaction with mitochondrial ribosomes. These observations have led to the suggestion that YidC1 and YidC2 differ in their abilities to interact with ribosomes. However, the interaction with bacterial translating ribosomes has never been addressed. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli ribosomes are able to interact with both YidC1 and YidC2. The interaction is stimulated by the presence of a nascent membrane protein substrate and abolished upon deletion of the C-terminal tail, which also abrogates the YidC-dependent membrane insertion of subunit c of the F1F0-ATPase into the membrane. It is concluded that both YidC1 and YidC2 interact with ribosomes, suggesting that the modes of membrane insertion by these membrane insertases are similar.

  9. Evolution of the ribosome at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton S.; Bernier, Chad R.; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Norris, Ashlyn M.; Kovacs, Nicholas A.; Waterbury, Chris C.; Stepanov, Victor G.; Harvey, Stephen C.; Fox, George E.; Wartell, Roger M.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2014-01-01

    The origins and evolution of the ribosome, 3–4 billion years ago, remain imprinted in the biochemistry of extant life and in the structure of the ribosome. Processes of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion can be “observed” by comparing 3D rRNA structures of bacteria (small), yeast (medium), and metazoans (large). rRNA size correlates well with species complexity. Differences in ribosomes across species reveal that rRNA expansion segments have been added to rRNAs without perturbing the preexisting core. Here we show that rRNA growth occurs by a limited number of processes that include inserting a branch helix onto a preexisting trunk helix and elongation of a helix. rRNA expansions can leave distinctive atomic resolution fingerprints, which we call “insertion fingerprints.” Observation of insertion fingerprints in the ribosomal common core allows identification of probable ancestral expansion segments. Conceptually reversing these expansions allows extrapolation backward in time to generate models of primordial ribosomes. The approach presented here provides insight to the structure of pre-last universal common ancestor rRNAs and the subsequent expansions that shaped the peptidyl transferase center and the conserved core. We infer distinct phases of ribosomal evolution through which ribosomal particles evolve, acquiring coding and translocation, and extending and elaborating the exit tunnel. PMID:24982194

  10. Ribosomes: lifting the nuclear export ban.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arlen W

    2014-02-01

    A recent study shows that nuclear export of the large ribosomal subunit is regulated by a GTPase that blocks recruitment of the nuclear export factor Nmd3 until remodeling of the pre-ribosome by the AAA-ATPase Rea1 (Midasin).

  11. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  12. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  13. Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis to overcome drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gao; Frederick, Dennie T.; Wu, Lawrence; Wei, Zhi; Krepler, Clemens; Srinivasan, Satish; Chae, Young Chan; Xu, Xiaowei; Choi, Harry; Dimwamwa, Elaida; Shannan, Batool; Basu, Devraj; Zhang, Dongmei; Guha, Manti; Xiao, Min; Randell, Sergio; Sproesser, Katrin; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jephrey; Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Gu, Mengnan; Xu, Caiyue; Ghosh, Abheek; Xu, Weiting; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jie; Zha, Shijie; Brafford, Patricia; Weeraratna, Ashani; Davies, Michael A.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Avadhani, Narayan G.; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Altieri, Dario C.; Flaherty, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting multiple components of the MAPK pathway can prolong the survival of patients with BRAFV600E melanoma. This approach is not curative, as some BRAF-mutated melanoma cells are intrinsically resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi). At the systemic level, our knowledge of how signaling pathways underlie drug resistance needs to be further expanded. Here, we have shown that intrinsically resistant BRAF-mutated melanoma cells with a low basal level of mitochondrial biogenesis depend on this process to survive MAPKi. Intrinsically resistant cells exploited an integrated stress response, exhibited an increase in mitochondrial DNA content, and required oxidative phosphorylation to meet their bioenergetic needs. We determined that intrinsically resistant cells rely on the genes encoding TFAM, which controls mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, and TRAP1, which regulates mitochondrial protein folding. Therefore, we targeted mitochondrial biogenesis with a mitochondrium-targeted, small-molecule HSP90 inhibitor (Gamitrinib), which eradicated intrinsically resistant cells and augmented the efficacy of MAPKi by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting tumor bioenergetics. A subset of tumor biopsies from patients with disease progression despite MAPKi treatment showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and tumor bioenergetics. A subset of acquired drug-resistant melanoma cell lines was sensitive to Gamitrinib. Our study establishes mitochondrial biogenesis, coupled with aberrant tumor bioenergetics, as a potential therapy escape mechanism and paves the way for a rationale-based combinatorial strategy to improve the efficacy of MAPKi. PMID:27043285

  14. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  15. Germ plasm biogenesis –an Oskar-centric perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance and protection of germ cells is well-established and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging. PMID:26970648

  16. Mechanisms of organelle biogenesis govern stochastic fluctuations in organelle abundance.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Shankar; O'Shea, Erin K

    2014-06-10

    Fluctuations in organelle abundance can profoundly limit the precision of cell biological processes from secretion to metabolism. We modeled the dynamics of organelle biogenesis and predicted that organelle abundance fluctuations depend strongly on the specific mechanisms that increase or decrease the number of a given organelle. Our model exactly predicts the size of experimentally measured Golgi apparatus and vacuole abundance fluctuations, suggesting that cells tolerate the maximum level of variability generated by the Golgi and vacuole biogenesis pathways. We observe large increases in peroxisome abundance fluctuations when cells are transferred from glucose-rich to fatty acid-rich environments. These increased fluctuations are significantly diminished in mutants lacking peroxisome fission factors, leading us to infer that peroxisome biogenesis switches from de novo synthesis to primarily fission. Our work provides a general framework for exploring stochastic organelle biogenesis and using fluctuations to quantitatively unravel the biophysical pathways that control the abundance of subcellular structures.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02678.001.

  17. PLK4 trans-Autoactivation Controls Centriole Biogenesis in Space.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla A M; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Cunha-Ferreira, Inês; Zitouni, Sihem; Bento, Inês; Duarte, Paulo; Gilberto, Samuel; Freixo, Francisco; Guerrero, Adán; Francia, Maria; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Carneiro, Jorge; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2015-10-26

    Centrioles are essential for cilia and centrosome assembly. In centriole-containing cells, centrioles always form juxtaposed to pre-existing ones, motivating a century-old debate on centriole biogenesis control. Here, we show that trans-autoactivation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the trigger of centriole biogenesis, is a critical event in the spatial control of that process. We demonstrate that centrioles promote PLK4 activation through its recruitment and local accumulation. Though centriole removal reduces the proportion of active PLK4, this is rescued by concentrating PLK4 to the peroxisome lumen. Moreover, while mild overexpression of PLK4 only triggers centriole amplification at the existing centriole, higher PLK4 levels trigger both centriolar and cytoplasmatic (de novo) biogenesis. Hence, centrioles promote their assembly locally and disfavor de novo synthesis. Similar mechanisms enforcing the local concentration and/or activity of other centriole components are likely to contribute to the spatial control of centriole biogenesis under physiological conditions.

  18. The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Schekman, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential cellular organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Patients affected by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders rarely survive their first year. Genetic screens in several model organisms have identified more than 30 PEX genes that are required for the formation of functional peroxisomes. Despite significant work on the PEX genes, the biogenic origin of peroxisomes remains controversial. For at least two decades, the prevailing model postulated that peroxisomes propagate by growth and fission of preexisting peroxisomes. In this review, we focus on the recent evidence supporting a new, semiautonomous model of peroxisomal biogenesis. According to this model, peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome by a vesicular budding, targeting, and fusion process while peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported into the organelle by an autonomous, posttranslational mechanism. We highlight the contradictory conclusions reached to answer the question of how PMPs are inserted into the ER. We then review what we know and what still remains to be elucidated about the mechanism of PMP exit from the ER and the contribution of preperoxisomal vesicles to mature peroxisomes. Finally, we discuss discrepancies in our understanding of de novo peroxisome biogenesis in wild-type cells. We anticipate that resolving these key issues will lead to a more complete picture of peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:23637287

  19. Transmembrane segments form tertiary hairpins in the folding vestibule of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Tu, Liwei; Khanna, Pooja; Deutsch, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Folding of membrane proteins begins in the ribosome as the peptide is elongated. During this process, the nascent peptide navigates along 100Å of tunnel from the peptidyltransferase center to the exit port. Proximal to the exit port is a "folding vestibule" that permits the nascent peptide to compact and explore conformational space for potential tertiary folding partners. The latter occurs for cytosolic subdomains but has not yet been shown for transmembrane segments. We now demonstrate, using an accessibility assay and an improved intramolecular crosslinking assay, that the helical transmembrane S3b-S4 hairpin ("paddle") of a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, a critical region of the Kv voltage sensor, forms in the vestibule. S3-S4 hairpin interactions are detected at an early stage of Kv biogenesis. Moreover, this vestibule hairpin is consistent with a closed-state conformation of the Kv channel in the plasma membrane.

  20. Transmembrane Segments Form Tertiary Hairpins in the Folding Vestibule of the Ribosome.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, LiWei; Khanna, Pooja; Deutsch, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Folding of membrane proteins begins in the ribosome as the peptide is elongated. During this process, the nascent peptide navigates along 100 Å of tunnel from the peptidyltransferase center to the exit port. Proximal to the exit port is a ‘folding vestibule’ that permits the nascent peptide to compact and explore conformational space for potential tertiary folding partners. The latter occurs for cytosolic subdomains, but has not yet been shown for transmembrane segments. We now demonstrate, using an accessibility assay and an improved, intramolecular crosslinking assay, that the helical transmembrane S3b-S4 hairpin (‘paddle’) of a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, a critical region of the Kv voltage sensor, forms in the vestibule. S3-S4 hairpin interactions are detected at an early stage of Kv biogenesis. Moreover, this vestibule hairpin is consistent with a closed-state conformation of the Kv channel in the plasma membrane. PMID:24055377

  1. Transmembrane segments form tertiary hairpins in the folding vestibule of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Tu, Liwei; Khanna, Pooja; Deutsch, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Folding of membrane proteins begins in the ribosome as the peptide is elongated. During this process, the nascent peptide navigates along 100Å of tunnel from the peptidyltransferase center to the exit port. Proximal to the exit port is a "folding vestibule" that permits the nascent peptide to compact and explore conformational space for potential tertiary folding partners. The latter occurs for cytosolic subdomains but has not yet been shown for transmembrane segments. We now demonstrate, using an accessibility assay and an improved intramolecular crosslinking assay, that the helical transmembrane S3b-S4 hairpin ("paddle") of a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, a critical region of the Kv voltage sensor, forms in the vestibule. S3-S4 hairpin interactions are detected at an early stage of Kv biogenesis. Moreover, this vestibule hairpin is consistent with a closed-state conformation of the Kv channel in the plasma membrane. PMID:24055377

  2. The global translation profile in a ribosomal protein mutant resembles that of an eIF3 mutant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1. Results The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded new insights into the translational regulon containing the ribosomal protein mRNAs. First, the ribosome occupancy defects in the rpl24b mutant partially overlapped with those in a previously analyzed initiation factor mutant, eif3h. Second, a group of mRNAs with incomplete coding sequences appeared to be uncoupled from the regulon, since their dependence on RPL24B differed from regular mRNAs. Third, different sister paralogs of the ribosomal proteins differed in their translation state in the wild-type. Some sister paralogs also differed in their response to the rpl24b mutation. In contrast to rpl24b, the pab2 pab8 mutant revealed few gene specific translational defects, but a group of seed storage protein mRNAs were stimulated in their ribosome occupancy. In the course of this work, while optimizing the statistical analysis of ribosome occupancy data, we collected 12 biological replicates of translation states from wild-type seedlings. We defined 20% of mRNAs as having a high variance in their translation state. Many of these mRNAs were functionally associated with responses to the environment, suggesting that subtle variation in the environmental conditions is sensed by plants and transduced to affect the translational efficiency of hundreds of mRNAs. Conclusions These data

  3. Insights into the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles from the study of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonifacino, Juan S

    2004-12-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are a family of cell-type-specific organelles that include melanosomes, platelet dense bodies, and cytotoxic T cell granules. The name, LRO, recognizes the fact that all of these organelles contain subsets of lysosomal proteins in addition to cell-type-specific proteins. The recent identification of genetic disorders that cause combined defects in several of these organelles indicates that they share common biogenetic pathways. Studies of one of these disorders, the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), have provided helpful insights into the molecular machinery involved in LRO biogenesis. HPS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in any of 7 genes in humans and 15 genes in mice. These genes encode subunits of 4 multi-protein complexes named AP-3, BLOC-1, BLOC-2 and BLOC-3, in addition to miscellaneous components of the general protein trafficking machinery. The AP-3 complex is a coat protein involved in vesicle formation and cargo selection in the endosomal-lysosomal system. One of these cargo molecules is the melanosomal enzyme, tyrosinase, the missorting of which may explain the defective melanosomes in AP-3-deficient humans and mice. The function of the BLOC complexes is unknown, although they are thought to mediate either vesicle tethering/fusion or cytoplasmic dispersal of LROs. Further studies of these complexes should contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the pathogenesis of HPS. PMID:15838104

  4. Characterization of silk gland ribosomes from a bivoltine caddisfly, Stenopsyche marmorata: translational suppression of a silk protein in cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takaomi; Ito, Miho; Kanamori, Mai; Shigeno, Yuta; Uchiumi, Toshio; Arai, Ryoichi; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Hirabayashi, Kimio; Ohkawa, Kousaku

    2016-01-01

    Larval Stenopsyche marmorata constructs food capture nets and fixed retreats underwater using self-produced proteinaceous silk fibers. In the Chikuma River (Nagano Prefecture, Japan) S. marmorata has a bivoltine life cycle; overwintering larvae grow slowly with reduced net spinning activity in winter. We recently reported constant transcript abundance of S. marmorata silk protein 1 (Smsp-1), a core S. marmorata silk fiber component, in all seasons, implying translational suppression in the silk gland during winter. Herein, we prepared and characterized silk gland ribosomes from seasonally collected S. marmorata larvae. Ribosomes from silk glands immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN2) after dissection exhibited comparable translation elongation activity in spring, summer, and autumn. Conversely, silk glands obtained in winter did not contain active ribosomes and Smsp-1. Ribosomes from silk glands immersed in ice-cold physiological saline solution for approximately 4 h were translationally inactive, despite summer collection and Smsp-1 expression. The ribosomal inactivation occurs because of defects in the formation of 80S ribosomes, presumably due to splitting of 60S subunits containing 28S rRNA with central hidden break, in response to cold stress. These results suggest a novel-type ribosome-regulated translation control mechanism. PMID:26646291

  5. Characterization of silk gland ribosomes from a bivoltine caddisfly, Stenopsyche marmorata: translational suppression of a silk protein in cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takaomi; Ito, Miho; Kanamori, Mai; Shigeno, Yuta; Uchiumi, Toshio; Arai, Ryoichi; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Hirabayashi, Kimio; Ohkawa, Kousaku

    2016-01-01

    Larval Stenopsyche marmorata constructs food capture nets and fixed retreats underwater using self-produced proteinaceous silk fibers. In the Chikuma River (Nagano Prefecture, Japan) S. marmorata has a bivoltine life cycle; overwintering larvae grow slowly with reduced net spinning activity in winter. We recently reported constant transcript abundance of S. marmorata silk protein 1 (Smsp-1), a core S. marmorata silk fiber component, in all seasons, implying translational suppression in the silk gland during winter. Herein, we prepared and characterized silk gland ribosomes from seasonally collected S. marmorata larvae. Ribosomes from silk glands immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN2) after dissection exhibited comparable translation elongation activity in spring, summer, and autumn. Conversely, silk glands obtained in winter did not contain active ribosomes and Smsp-1. Ribosomes from silk glands immersed in ice-cold physiological saline solution for approximately 4 h were translationally inactive, despite summer collection and Smsp-1 expression. The ribosomal inactivation occurs because of defects in the formation of 80S ribosomes, presumably due to splitting of 60S subunits containing 28S rRNA with central hidden break, in response to cold stress. These results suggest a novel-type ribosome-regulated translation control mechanism.

  6. Ribosome regulation by the nascent peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, P S; Rogers, E J

    1996-01-01

    Studies of bacterial and eukaryotic systems have identified two-gene operons in which the translation product of the upstream gene influences translation of the downstream gene. The upstream gene, referred to as a leader (gene) in bacterial systems or an upstream open reading frame (uORF) in eukaryotes, encodes a peptide that interferes with a function(s) of its translating ribosome. The peptides are therefore cis-acting negative regulators of translation. The inhibitory peptides typically consist of fewer than 25 residues and function prior to emergence from the ribosome. A biological role for this class of translation inhibitor is demonstrated in translation attenuation, a form or regulation that controls the inducible translation of the chloramphenicol resistance genes cat and cmlA in bacteria. Induction of cat or cmlA requires ribosome stalling at a particular codon in the leader region of the mRNA. Stalling destabilizes an adjacent, downstream mRNA secondary structure that normally sequesters the ribosome-binding site for the cat or cmlA coding regions. Genetic studies indicate that the nascent, leader-encoded peptide is the selector of the site of ribosome stalling in leader mRNA by cis interference with translation. Synthetic leader peptides inhibit ribosomal peptidyltransferase in vitro, leading to the prediction that this activity is the basis for stall site selection. Recent studies have shown that the leader peptides are rRNA-binding peptides with targets at the peptidyl transferase center of 23S rRNA. uORFs associated with several eukaryotic genes inhibit downstream translation. When inhibition depends on the specific codon sequence of the uORF, it has been proposed that the uORF-encoded nascent peptide prevents ribosome release from the mRNA at the uORF stop codon. This sets up a blockade to ribosome scanning which minimizes downstream translation. Segments within large proteins also appear to regulate ribosome activity in cis, although in most of the

  7. Arabidopsis MAS2, an Essential Gene That Encodes a Homolog of Animal NF-κ B Activating Protein, Is Involved in 45S Ribosomal DNA Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Aguilera, Verónica; Micol-Ponce, Rosa; Jover-Gil, Sara; Ponce, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires stoichiometric amounts of ribosomal proteins and rRNAs. Synthesis of rRNAs consumes most of the transcriptional activity of eukaryotic cells, but its regulation remains largely unclear in plants. We conducted a screen for ethyl methanesulfonate-induced suppressors of Arabidopsis thaliana ago1-52, a hypomorphic allele of AGO1 (ARGONAUTE1), a key gene in microRNA pathways. We identified nine extragenic suppressors as alleles of MAS2 (MORPHOLOGY OF AGO1-52 SUPPRESSED2). Positional cloning showed that MAS2 encodes the putative ortholog of NKAP (NF-κ B activating protein), a conserved eukaryotic protein involved in transcriptional repression and splicing in animals. The mas2 point mutations behave as informational suppressors of ago1 alleles that cause missplicing. MAS2 is a single-copy gene whose insertional alleles are embryonic lethal. In yeast two-hybrid assays, MAS2 interacted with splicing and ribosome biogenesis proteins, and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that MAS2 colocalizes with the 45S rDNA at the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). The artificial microRNA amiR-MAS2 partially repressed MAS2 and caused hypomethylation of 45S rDNA promoters as well as partial NOR decondensation, indicating that MAS2 negatively regulates 45S rDNA expression. Our results thus reveal a key player in the regulation of rRNA synthesis in plants. PMID:26139346

  8. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (μg), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (μgRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  9. Ribosomes and Ribosomal Protein from Neurospora crassa I. Physical, Chemical, and Immunochemical Properties1

    PubMed Central

    Alberghina, F. A. M.; Suskind, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Ribosomes from Neurospora crassa, initially characterized by ultracentrifugal and immunochemical analyses, have been used to prepare ribosomal protein for physical, chemical, and immunochemical study. The acrylamide gel disc electrophoretic profiles of Neurospora ribosomal protein exhibit a degree of heterogeneity comparable to what has been observed in other systems. Only by chemical modification or by aggregation of the protein do alterations in the profile become apparent. Disulfide-bond formation appears to play a role in the aggregation of ribosomal protein to complexes of S20,w = 200. The aggregation can be prevented by alkylation of −SH groups, and protein treated in this fashion has a subunit molecular weight of about 20,000 as determined by equilibrium centrifugation. Finger-printing of tryptic peptides indicates that more than one unique sequence of amino acids must be present in ribosomal protein, although gross primary structural heterogeneity is questioned. Antigenic heterogeneity is much less apparent; only a few precipitin bands are resolved by immunodiffusion tests, although complete reactivity of total ribosomal protein is suggested by quantitative precipitin analysis. The antigenically active ribosomal protein components appear to reside in at least two fractions; one is removed readily from the ribosome by CsC1 treatment. Ribosomal protein of N. crassa possesses antigenic determinants present in E. coli ribosomal protein as judged by spur formation in immunodiffusion tests. Images PMID:4962303

  10. Origin and evolution of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Fox, George E

    2010-09-01

    The modern ribosome was largely formed at the time of the last common ancestor, LUCA. Hence its earliest origins likely lie in the RNA world. Central to its development were RNAs that spawned the modern tRNAs and a symmetrical region deep within the large ribosomal RNA, (rRNA), where the peptidyl transferase reaction occurs. To understand pre-LUCA developments, it is argued that events that are coupled in time are especially useful if one can infer a likely order in which they occurred. Using such timing events, the relative age of various proteins and individual regions within the large rRNA are inferred. An examination of the properties of modern ribosomes strongly suggests that the initial peptides made by the primitive ribosomes were likely enriched for l-amino acids, but did not completely exclude d-amino acids. This has implications for the nature of peptides made by the first ribosomes. From the perspective of ribosome origins, the immediate question regarding coding is when did it arise rather than how did the assignments evolve. The modern ribosome is very dynamic with tRNAs moving in and out and the mRNA moving relative to the ribosome. These movements may have become possible as a result of the addition of a template to hold the tRNAs. That template would subsequently become the mRNA, thereby allowing the evolution of the code and making an RNA genome useful. Finally, a highly speculative timeline of major events in ribosome history is presented and possible future directions discussed. PMID:20534711

  11. Identification of FkpA as a Key Quality Control Factor for the Biogenesis of Outer Membrane Proteins under Heat Shock Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xi; Lyu, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacterial cells, as well as the mitochondrion and chloroplast organelles, possess unique and highly stable β-barrel structures. Biogenesis of OMPs in Escherichia coli involves such periplasmic chaperones as SurA and Skp. In this study, we found that the ΔsurA Δskp double-deletion strain of E. coli, although lethal and defective in the biogenesis of OMPs at the normal growth temperature, is viable and effective at the heat shock temperature. We identified FkpA as the multicopy suppressor for the lethal phenotype of the ΔsurA Δskp strain. We also demonstrated that the deletion of fkpA from the ΔsurA cells resulted in only a mild decrease in the levels of folded OMPs at the normal temperature but a severe decrease as well as lethality at the heat shock temperature, whereas the deletion of fkpA from the Δskp cells had no detectable effect on OMP biogenesis at either temperature. These results strongly suggest a functional redundancy between FkpA and SurA for OMP biogenesis under heat shock stress conditions. Mechanistically, we found that FkpA becomes a more efficient chaperone for OMPs under the heat shock condition, with increases in both binding rate and affinity. In light of these observations and earlier reports, we propose a temperature-responsive OMP biogenesis mechanism in which the degrees of functional importance of the three chaperones are such that SurA > Skp > FkpA at the normal temperature but FkpA ≥ SurA > Skp at the heat shock temperature. PMID:24272780

  12. Identification of FkpA as a key quality control factor for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins under heat shock conditions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xi; Lyu, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xin Sheng; Fu, Xinmiao; Chang, Zengyi

    2014-02-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacterial cells, as well as the mitochondrion and chloroplast organelles, possess unique and highly stable β-barrel structures. Biogenesis of OMPs in Escherichia coli involves such periplasmic chaperones as SurA and Skp. In this study, we found that the ΔsurA Δskp double-deletion strain of E. coli, although lethal and defective in the biogenesis of OMPs at the normal growth temperature, is viable and effective at the heat shock temperature. We identified FkpA as the multicopy suppressor for the lethal phenotype of the ΔsurA Δskp strain. We also demonstrated that the deletion of fkpA from the ΔsurA cells resulted in only a mild decrease in the levels of folded OMPs at the normal temperature but a severe decrease as well as lethality at the heat shock temperature, whereas the deletion of fkpA from the Δskp cells had no detectable effect on OMP biogenesis at either temperature. These results strongly suggest a functional redundancy between FkpA and SurA for OMP biogenesis under heat shock stress conditions. Mechanistically, we found that FkpA becomes a more efficient chaperone for OMPs under the heat shock condition, with increases in both binding rate and affinity. In light of these observations and earlier reports, we propose a temperature-responsive OMP biogenesis mechanism in which the degrees of functional importance of the three chaperones are such that SurA > Skp > FkpA at the normal temperature but FkpA ≥ SurA > Skp at the heat shock temperature.

  13. Transport on a lattice with dynamical defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turci, Francesco; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Pitard, Estelle; Romano, M. Carmen; Ciandrini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Many transport processes in nature take place on substrates, often considered as unidimensional lanes. These unidimensional substrates are typically nonstatic: Affected by a fluctuating environment, they can undergo conformational changes. This is particularly true in biological cells, where the state of the substrate is often coupled to the active motion of macromolecular complexes, such as motor proteins on microtubules or ribosomes on mRNAs, causing new interesting phenomena. Inspired by biological processes such as protein synthesis by ribosomes and motor protein transport, we introduce the concept of localized dynamical sites coupled to a driven lattice gas dynamics. We investigate the phenomenology of transport in the presence of dynamical defects and find a regime characterized by an intermittent current and subject to severe finite-size effects. Our results demonstrate the impact of the regulatory role of the dynamical defects in transport not only in biology but also in more general contexts.

  14. Identification of Novel RNA-Protein Contact in Complex of Ribosomal Protein S7 and 3'-Terminal Fragment of 16S rRNA in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Golovin, A V; Khayrullina, G A; Kraal, B; Kopylov, Capital A Cyrillic М

    2012-10-01

    For prokaryotes in vitro, 16S rRNA and 20 ribosomal proteins are capable of hierarchical self- assembly yielding a 30S ribosomal subunit. The self-assembly is initiated by interactions between 16S rRNA and three key ribosomal proteins: S4, S8, and S7. These proteins also have a regulatory function in the translation of their polycistronic operons recognizing a specific region of mRNA. Therefore, studying the RNA-protein interactions within binary complexes is obligatory for understanding ribosome biogenesis. The non-conventional RNA-protein contact within the binary complex of recombinant ribosomal protein S7 and its 16S rRNA binding site (236 nucleotides) was identified. UV-induced RNA-protein cross-links revealed that S7 cross-links to nucleotide U1321 of 16S rRNA. The careful consideration of the published RNA- protein cross-links for protein S7 within the 30S subunit and their correlation with the X-ray data for the 30S subunit have been performed. The RNA - protein cross-link within the binary complex identified in this study is not the same as the previously found cross-links for a subunit both in a solution, and in acrystal. The structure of the binary RNA-protein complex formed at the initial steps of self-assembly of the small subunit appears to be rearranged during the formation of the final structure of the subunit.

  15. Alternatively spliced forms of the P180 ribosome receptor differ in their ability to induce the proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ji-Zhong; Leung, Euphemia; Holloway, Hilary; Krissansen, Geoffrey W

    2008-05-01

    Expression of the canine 180-kDa ribosome receptor p180 in yeast induces the synthesis of RER, and increases the mRNAs of secretory pathway proteins, and protein secretion. To assess whether p180 is a master regulator of cell secretion in mammalian cells, we stably expressed red fluorescent forms of the human p180 variants p180DeltaR (no tandem repeats), p180R (26 repeats), and full-length p180FR (54 repeats) containing different lengths of the tandem repeat ribosome-binding domain in rat pancreatic RINm5F islet beta-cells. All three fluorescent p180 variants localized exclusively to the RER. Cells transfected with p180R were filled with ribosome-studded karmellae, whereas p180DeltaR and p180FR transfectants contained only increased amounts of mostly smooth ER. Unlike in yeast, over-expression of p180R failed to increase the secretory pathway proteins calnexin, SEC61beta, and calreticulin, or ribosome biogenesis. The data suggest that alternative splicing of the p180 tandem repeat domain is a means of regulating the ribosome-binding activity of p180, and potentially the secretory activity of the cell. However, p180 is not a master regulator of mammalian cell secretion as it does not concomitantly trigger the synthesis of protein machinery required to enhance protein synthesis and cell secretion. PMID:18083570

  16. Intersubunit Bridges of the Bacterial Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Fredrick, Kurt

    2016-05-22

    The ribosome is a large two-subunit ribonucleoprotein machine that translates the genetic code in all cells, synthesizing proteins according to the sequence of the mRNA template. During translation, the primary substrates, transfer RNAs, pass through binding sites formed between the two subunits. Multiple interactions between the ribosomal subunits, termed intersubunit bridges, keep the ribosome intact and at the same time govern dynamics that facilitate the various steps of translation such as transfer RNA-mRNA movement. Here, we review the molecular nature of these intersubunit bridges, how they change conformation during translation, and their functional roles in the process.

  17. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  18. The Effect of Natural LCAT Mutations on the Biogenesis of HDL.

    PubMed

    Fotakis, Panagiotis; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Dafnis, Eugene; Kardassis, Dimitris; Zannis, Vassilis I

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated how the natural LCAT[T147I] and LCAT[P274S] mutations affect the pathway of biogenesis of HDL. Gene transfer of WT LCAT in LCAT(-/-) mice increased 11.8-fold the plasma cholesterol, whereas the LCAT[T147I] and LCAT[P274S] mutants caused a 5.2- and 2.9-fold increase, respectively. The LCAT[P274S] and the WT LCAT caused a monophasic distribution of cholesterol in the HDL region, whereas the LCAT[T147I] caused a biphasic distribution of cholesterol in the LDL and HDL region. Fractionation of plasma showed that the expression of WT LCAT increased plasma apoE and apoA-IV levels and shifted the distribution of apoA-I to lower densities. The LCAT[T147I] and LCAT[P274S] mutants restored partially apoA-I in the HDL3 fraction and LCAT[T147I] increased apoE in the VLD/IDL/LDL fractions. The in vivo functionality of LCAT was further assessed based on is its ability to correct the aberrant HDL phenotype that was caused by the apoA-I[L159R]FIN mutation. Co-infection of apoA-I(-/-) mice with this apoA-I mutant and either of the two mutant LCAT forms restored only partially the HDL biogenesis defect that was caused by the apoA-I[L159R]FIN and generated a distinct aberrant HDL phenotype. PMID:25948084

  19. SORCS1 is necessary for normal insulin secretory granule biogenesis in metabolically stressed β cells.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Melkam A; Oler, Angie T; Gregg, Trillian; Balloon, Allison J; Johnson, Adam; Mitok, Kelly; Rabaglia, Mary; Schueler, Kathryn; Stapleton, Donald; Thorstenson, Candice; Wrighton, Lindsay; Floyd, Brendan J; Richards, Oliver; Raines, Summer; Eliceiri, Kevin; Seidah, Nabil G; Rhodes, Christopher; Keller, Mark P; Coon, Joshua L; Audhya, Anjon; Attie, Alan D

    2014-10-01

    We previously positionally cloned Sorcs1 as a diabetes quantitative trait locus. Sorcs1 belongs to the Vacuolar protein sorting-10 (Vps10) gene family. In yeast, Vps10 transports enzymes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuole. Whole-body Sorcs1 KO mice, when made obese with the leptin(ob) mutation (ob/ob), developed diabetes. β Cells from these mice had a severe deficiency of secretory granules (SGs) and insulin. Interestingly, a single secretagogue challenge failed to consistently elicit an insulin secretory dysfunction. However, multiple challenges of the Sorcs1 KO ob/ob islets consistently revealed an insulin secretion defect. The luminal domain of SORCS1 (Lum-Sorcs1), when expressed in a β cell line, acted as a dominant-negative, leading to SG and insulin deficiency. Using syncollin-dsRed5TIMER adenovirus, we found that the loss of Sorcs1 function greatly impairs the rapid replenishment of SGs following secretagogue challenge. Chronic exposure of islets from lean Sorcs1 KO mice to high glucose and palmitate depleted insulin content and evoked an insulin secretion defect. Thus, in metabolically stressed mice, Sorcs1 is important for SG replenishment, and under chronic challenge by insulin secretagogues, loss of Sorcs1 leads to diabetes. Overexpression of full-length SORCS1 led to a 2-fold increase in SG content, suggesting that SORCS1 is sufficient to promote SG biogenesis. PMID:25157818

  20. SORCS1 is necessary for normal insulin secretory granule biogenesis in metabolically stressed β cells

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Melkam A.; Oler, Angie T.; Gregg, Trillian; Balloon, Allison J.; Johnson, Adam; Mitok, Kelly; Rabaglia, Mary; Schueler, Kathryn; Stapleton, Donald; Thorstenson, Candice; Wrighton, Lindsay; Floyd, Brendan J.; Richards, Oliver; Raines, Summer; Eliceiri, Kevin; Seidah, Nabil G.; Rhodes, Christopher; Keller, Mark P.; Coon, Joshua L.; Audhya, Anjon; Attie, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    We previously positionally cloned Sorcs1 as a diabetes quantitative trait locus. Sorcs1 belongs to the Vacuolar protein sorting-10 (Vps10) gene family. In yeast, Vps10 transports enzymes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuole. Whole-body Sorcs1 KO mice, when made obese with the leptinob mutation (ob/ob), developed diabetes. β Cells from these mice had a severe deficiency of secretory granules (SGs) and insulin. Interestingly, a single secretagogue challenge failed to consistently elicit an insulin secretory dysfunction. However, multiple challenges of the Sorcs1 KO ob/ob islets consistently revealed an insulin secretion defect. The luminal domain of SORCS1 (Lum-Sorcs1), when expressed in a β cell line, acted as a dominant-negative, leading to SG and insulin deficiency. Using syncollin-dsRed5TIMER adenovirus, we found that the loss of Sorcs1 function greatly impairs the rapid replenishment of SGs following secretagogue challenge. Chronic exposure of islets from lean Sorcs1 KO mice to high glucose and palmitate depleted insulin content and evoked an insulin secretion defect. Thus, in metabolically stressed mice, Sorcs1 is important for SG replenishment, and under chronic challenge by insulin secretagogues, loss of Sorcs1 leads to diabetes. Overexpression of full-length SORCS1 led to a 2-fold increase in SG content, suggesting that SORCS1 is sufficient to promote SG biogenesis. PMID:25157818

  1. Centrosomal protein CP110 controls maturation of the mother centriole during cilia biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sharda Prasad; Sharma, Neel Kamal; Liu, Chunqiao; Dong, Lijin; Li, Tiansen; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in cilia centrosomal genes cause pleiotropic clinical phenotypes, collectively called ciliopathies. Cilia biogenesis is initiated by the interaction of positive and negative regulators. Centriolar coiled coil protein 110 (CP110) caps the distal end of the mother centriole and is known to act as a suppressor to control the timing of ciliogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that CP110 promotes cilia formation in vivo, in contrast to findings in cultured cells. Cp110−/− mice die shortly after birth owing to organogenesis defects as in ciliopathies. Shh signaling is impaired in null embryos and primary cilia are reduced in multiple tissues. We show that CP110 is required for anchoring of basal bodies to the membrane during cilia formation. CP110 loss resulted in an abnormal distribution of core components of subdistal appendages (SDAs) and of recycling endosomes, which may be associated with premature extension of axonemal microtubules. Our data implicate CP110 in SDA assembly and ciliary vesicle docking, two requisite early steps in cilia formation. We suggest that CP110 has unique context-dependent functions, acting as both a suppressor and a promoter of ciliogenesis. PMID:26965371

  2. Bacillithiol has a role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Rosario-Cruz, Zuelay; Chahal, Harsimranjit K.; Mike, Laura A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Boyd, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Staphylococcus aureus does not produce the low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol glutathione, but it does produce the LMW thiol bacillithiol (BSH). To better understand the roles that BSH plays in staphylococcal metabolism we constructed and examined strains lacking BSH. Phenotypic analysis found that the BSH-deficient strains cultured either aerobically or anaerobically had growth defects that were alleviated by the addition of exogenous iron (Fe) or the amino acids leucine and isoleucine. The activity of the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-dependent enzymes LeuCD and IlvD, which are required for the biosynthesis of leucine and isoleucine, were decreased in strains lacking BSH. The BSH-deficient cells also had decreased aconitase and glutamate synthase activities suggesting a general defect in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. The phenotypes of the BSH-deficient strains were exacerbated in strains lacking the Fe-S cluster carrier Nfu and partially suppressed by multicopy expression of either sufA or nfu suggesting functional overlap between BSH and Fe-S carrier proteins. Biochemical analysis found that SufA bound and transferred Fe-S clusters to apo-aconitase verifying that it serves as an Fe-S cluster carrier. The results presented are consistent with the hypothesis that BSH has roles in Fe homeostasis and the carriage of Fe-S clusters to apo-proteins in S. aureus. PMID:26135358

  3. Small G proteins in peroxisome biogenesis: the potential involvement of ADP-ribosylation factor 6

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes execute diverse and vital functions in virtually every eukaryote. New peroxisomes form by budding from pre-existing organelles or de novo by vesiculation of the ER. It has been suggested that ADP-ribosylation factors and COPI coatomer complexes are involved in these processes. Results Here we show that all viable Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in one of the small GTPases which have an important role in the regulation of vesicular transport contain functional peroxisomes, and that the number of these organelles in oleate-grown cells is significantly upregulated in the arf1 and arf3 null strains compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, we provide evidence that a portion of endogenous Arf6, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Arf3, is associated with the cytoplasmic face of rat liver peroxisomes. Despite this, ablation of Arf6 did neither influence the regulation of peroxisome abundance nor affect the localization of peroxisomal proteins in cultured fetal hepatocytes. However, co-overexpression of wild-type, GTP hydrolysis-defective or (dominant-negative) GTP binding-defective forms of Arf1 and Arf6 caused mislocalization of newly-synthesized peroxisomal proteins and resulted in an alteration of peroxisome morphology. Conclusion These observations suggest that Arf6 is a key player in mammalian peroxisome biogenesis. In addition, they also lend strong support to and extend the concept that specific Arf isoform pairs may act in tandem to regulate exclusive trafficking pathways. PMID:19686593

  4. The immunological properties of Brucella ribosomal preparations.

    PubMed

    Corbel, M J

    1976-01-01

    Ribosomes were isolated from Brucella abortus strains 19 and 45/20 by disruption of the cells followed by differential ultracentrifugation. The ribosome preparations contained 2-3 components reacting in immunodiffusion tests but were free of detectable lipopolysaccharide-protein agglutinogen. They crossreacted with antisera to Br. abortus, Br. melitensis, Br. suis and Br. ovis and elicited intradermal delayed hypersensitivity reactions in animals infected with Br. abortus, Br. melitensis or Br. suis. The ribosomes were antigenic in rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. Those from Br. abortus S19 induced agglutinins reaction with smooth brucella strains whereas those from Br. abortus 45/20 induced agglutinins reacting with rough brucella strains. Cattle vaccinated with S19 or 45/20 vaccines or infected with Br. abortus developed pricipitins to ribosomal components at an early stage in the immune response. PMID:816681

  5. The tmRNA ribosome rescue system

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian D.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial tmRNA quality control system monitors protein synthesis and recycles stalled translation complexes in a process termed “ribosome rescue”. During rescue, tmRNA acts first as a transfer RNA to bind stalled ribosomes, then as a messenger RNA to add the ssrA peptide tag to the C-terminus of the nascent polypeptide chain. The ssrA peptide targets tagged peptides for proteolysis, ensuring rapid degradation of potentially deleterious truncated polypeptides. Ribosome rescue also facilitates turnover of the damaged messages responsible for translational arrest. Thus, tmRNA increases the fidelity of gene expression by promoting the synthesis of full-length proteins. In addition to serving as a global quality control system, tmRNA also plays important roles in bacterial development, pathogenesis and environmental stress responses. This review focuses on the mechanism of tmRNA-mediated ribosome rescue and the role of tmRNA in bacterial physiology. PMID:22243584

  6. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins. PMID:27556443

  7. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  8. Biogenesis and Assembly of Eukaryotic Cytochrome c Oxidase Catalytic Core

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ileana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Liu, Jingjing; Barrientos, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. COX is a multimeric enzyme formed by subunits of dual genetic origin which assembly is intricate and highly regulated. The COX catalytic core is formed by three mitochondrial DNA encoded subunits, Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3, conserved in the bacterial enzyme. Their biogenesis requires the action of messenger-specific and subunit-specific factors which facilitate the synthesis, membrane insertion, maturation or assembly of the core subunits. The study of yeast strains and human cell lines from patients carrying mutations in structural subunits and COX assembly factors has been invaluable to identify these ancillary factors. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the biogenesis and assembly of the eukaryotic COX catalytic core and discuss the degree of conservation of the players and mechanisms operating from yeast to human. PMID:21958598

  9. Mitochondrial cytochrome c biogenesis: no longer an enigma

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; Sutherland, Molly C.; Francisco, Brian San; Mendez, Deanna L.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochromes c and c1are heme proteins that are essential for aerobic respiration. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is an important signal in apoptosis initiation. Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes involves covalent attachment of heme to two cysteines (at a conserved CXXCH sequence) in the apocytochrome. Heme attachment is catalyzed in most mitochondria by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), which is also necessary for import of apocytochrome c. Thus, HCCS affects cellular levels of cytochrome c, impacting mitochondrial physiology and cell death. Here, we review the mechanisms of HCCS function and the roles played by heme and residues in the CXXCH motif. Additionally, we consider concepts emerging within the two prokaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathways. PMID:26073510

  10. De novo peroxisome biogenesis: Evolving concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes proliferate by growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes or could arise de novo. Though the de novo pathway of peroxisome biogenesis is a more recent discovery, several studies have highlighted key mechanistic details of the pathway. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary source of lipids and proteins for the newly-formed peroxisomes. More recently, an intricate sorting process functioning at the ER has been proposed, that segregates specific PMPs first to peroxisome-specific ER domains (pER) and then assembles PMPs selectively into distinct pre-peroxisomal vesicles (ppVs) that later fuse to form import-competent peroxisomes. In addition, plausible roles of the three key peroxins Pex3, Pex16 and Pex19, which are also central to the growth and division pathway, have been suggested in the de novo process. In this review, we discuss key developments and highlight the unexplored avenues in de novo peroxisome biogenesis.

  11. Multiple crosstalks between mRNA biogenesis and SUMO.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Jérôme O; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Palancade, Benoit

    2013-10-01

    mRNA metabolism involves the orchestration of multiple nuclear events, including transcription, processing (e.g., capping, splicing, polyadenylation), and quality control. This leads to the accurate formation of messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) that are finally exported to the cytoplasm for translation. The production of defined sets of mRNAs in given environmental or physiological situations relies on multiple regulatory mechanisms that target the mRNA biogenesis machineries. Among other regulations, post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO, whose prominence in several cellular processes has been largely demonstrated, also plays a key role in mRNA biogenesis. Analysis of the multiple available SUMO proteomes and functional validations of an increasing number of sumoylated targets have revealed the key contribution of SUMO-dependent regulation in nuclear mRNA metabolism. While sumoylation of transcriptional activators and repressors is so far best documented, SUMO contribution to other stages of mRNA biogenesis is also emerging. Modification of mRNA metabolism factors by SUMO determine their subnuclear targeting and biological activity, notably by regulating their molecular interactions with nucleic acids or protein partners. In particular, sumoylation of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators interfere with their association to target sequences or chromatin modifiers. In addition, the recent identification of enzymes of the SUMO pathway within specialized mRNA biogenesis machineries may provide a further level of regulation to their specificity. These multiple crosstalks between mRNA metabolism and SUMO appear therefore as important players in cellular regulatory networks.

  12. Frozen spin targets in ribosomal structure research.

    PubMed

    Stuhrmann, H B

    1991-01-01

    Polarized neutron scattering strongly depends on nuclear spin polarisation, particularly on proton spin polarisation. A single proton in a deuterated environment then is as efficient as 10 electrons in X-ray anomalous diffraction. Neutron scattering from the nuclear spin label is controlled by the polarisation of neutron spins and nuclear spins. Pure deuteron spin labels and proton spin labels are created by NMR saturation. We report on results obtained from the large subunit of E. coli ribosomes which have been obtained at the research reactor of GKSS using the polarized target facility developed by CERN. The nuclear spins were oriented with respect to an external field by dynamic nuclear polarisation. Proton spin polarisations of more than 80% were obtained in ribosomes at temperatures below 0.5 K. At T = 130 mK the relaxation time of the polarized target is one month (frozen spin target). Polarized small-angle neutron scattering of the in situ structure of rRNA and the total ribosomal protein (TP) has been determined from the frozen spin targets of the large ribosomal subunit, which has been deuterated in the TP and rRNA respectively. The results agree with those from neutron scattering in H2O/D2O mixtures obtained at room temperature. This is a necessary prerequisite for the planned determination of the in situ structure of individual ribosomal proteins and especially of that of ribosome bound mRNA and tRNAs. PMID:1720669

  13. Stepwise and dynamic assembly of the earliest precursors of small ribosomal subunits in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liman; Wu, Chen; Cai, Gaihong; Chen, She

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is associated cotranscriptionally with numerous factors into an enormous 90S preribosomal particle that conducts early processing of small ribosomal subunits. The assembly pathway and structure of the 90S particle is poorly understood. Here, we affinity-purified and analyzed the constituents of yeast 90S particles that were assembled on a series of plasmid-encoded 3′-truncated pre-18S RNAs. We determined the assembly point of 65 proteins and the U3, U14, and snR30 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), revealing a stepwise and dynamic assembly map. The 5′ external transcribed spacer (ETS) alone can nucleate a large complex. When the 18S rRNA is nearly complete, the 90S structure undergoes a dramatic reorganization, releasing U14, snR30, and 14 protein factors that bind earlier. We also identified a reference state of 90S that is fully assembled yet has not undergone 5′ETS processing. The assembly map present here provides a new framework to understand small subunit biogenesis. PMID:26980190

  14. Stepwise and dynamic assembly of the earliest precursors of small ribosomal subunits in yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liman; Wu, Chen; Cai, Gaihong; Chen, She; Ye, Keqiong

    2016-03-15

    The eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is associated cotranscriptionally with numerous factors into an enormous 90S preribosomal particle that conducts early processing of small ribosomal subunits. The assembly pathway and structure of the 90S particle is poorly understood. Here, we affinity-purified and analyzed the constituents of yeast 90S particles that were assembled on a series of plasmid-encoded 3'-truncated pre-18S RNAs. We determined the assembly point of 65 proteins and the U3, U14, and snR30 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), revealing a stepwise and dynamic assembly map. The 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS) alone can nucleate a large complex. When the 18S rRNA is nearly complete, the 90S structure undergoes a dramatic reorganization, releasing U14, snR30, and 14 protein factors that bind earlier. We also identified a reference state of 90S that is fully assembled yet has not undergone 5'ETS processing. The assembly map present here provides a new framework to understand small subunit biogenesis. PMID:26980190

  15. Involvement of human ribosomal proteins in nucleolar structure and p53-dependent nucleolar stress

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emilien; Parisot, Pascaline; Pinto-Monteiro, Celina; de Walque, Roxane; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolus is a potent disease biomarker and a target in cancer therapy. Ribosome biogenesis is initiated in the nucleolus where most ribosomal (r-) proteins assemble onto precursor rRNAs. Here we systematically investigate how depletion of each of the 80 human r-proteins affects nucleolar structure, pre-rRNA processing, mature rRNA accumulation and p53 steady-state level. We developed an image-processing programme for qualitative and quantitative discrimination of normal from altered nucleolar morphology. Remarkably, we find that uL5 (formerly RPL11) and uL18 (RPL5) are the strongest contributors to nucleolar integrity. Together with the 5S rRNA, they form the late-assembling central protuberance on mature 60S subunits, and act as an Hdm2 trap and p53 stabilizer. Other major contributors to p53 homeostasis are also strictly late-assembling large subunit r-proteins essential to nucleolar structure. The identification of the r-proteins that specifically contribute to maintaining nucleolar structure and p53 steady-state level provides insights into fundamental aspects of cell and cancer biology. PMID:27265389

  16. Stepwise and dynamic assembly of the earliest precursors of small ribosomal subunits in yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liman; Wu, Chen; Cai, Gaihong; Chen, She; Ye, Keqiong

    2016-03-15

    The eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is associated cotranscriptionally with numerous factors into an enormous 90S preribosomal particle that conducts early processing of small ribosomal subunits. The assembly pathway and structure of the 90S particle is poorly understood. Here, we affinity-purified and analyzed the constituents of yeast 90S particles that were assembled on a series of plasmid-encoded 3'-truncated pre-18S RNAs. We determined the assembly point of 65 proteins and the U3, U14, and snR30 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), revealing a stepwise and dynamic assembly map. The 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS) alone can nucleate a large complex. When the 18S rRNA is nearly complete, the 90S structure undergoes a dramatic reorganization, releasing U14, snR30, and 14 protein factors that bind earlier. We also identified a reference state of 90S that is fully assembled yet has not undergone 5'ETS processing. The assembly map present here provides a new framework to understand small subunit biogenesis.

  17. The miRNA biogenesis in marine bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Rosani, Umberto; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs include powerful regulators of gene expression, transposon mobility and virus activity. Among the various categories, mature microRNAs (miRNAs) guide the translational repression and decay of several targeted mRNAs. The biogenesis of miRNAs depends on few gene products, essentially conserved from basal to higher metazoans, whose protein domains allow specific interactions with dsRNA. Here, we report the identification of key genes responsible of the miRNA biogenesis in 32 bivalves, with particular attention to the aquaculture species Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. In detail, we have identified and phylogenetically compared eight evolutionary conserved proteins: DROSHA, DGCR8, EXP5, RAN, DICER TARBP2, AGO and PIWI. In mussels, we recognized several other proteins participating in the miRNA biogenesis or in the subsequent RNA silencing. According to digital expression analysis, these genes display low and not inducible expression levels in adult mussels and oysters whereas they are considerably expressed during development. As miRNAs play an important role also in the antiviral responses, knowledge on their production and regulative effects can shed light on essential molecular processes and provide new hints for disease prevention in bivalves. PMID:26989613

  18. Microprocessor activity controls differential miRNA biogenesis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Marsico, Annalisa; Gehre, Maja; Orom, Ulf Andersson

    2014-10-23

    In miRNA biogenesis, pri-miRNA transcripts are converted into pre-miRNA hairpins. The in vivo properties of this process remain enigmatic. Here, we determine in vivo transcriptome-wide pri-miRNA processing using next-generation sequencing of chromatin-associated pri-miRNAs. We identify a distinctive Microprocessor signature in the transcriptome profile from which efficiency of the endogenous processing event can be accurately quantified. This analysis reveals differential susceptibility to Microprocessor cleavage as a key regulatory step in miRNA biogenesis. Processing is highly variable among pri-miRNAs and a better predictor of miRNA abundance than primary transcription itself. Processing is also largely stable across three cell lines, suggesting a major contribution of sequence determinants. On the basis of differential processing efficiencies, we define functionality for short sequence features adjacent to the pre-miRNA hairpin. In conclusion, we identify Microprocessor as the main hub for diversified miRNA output and suggest a role for uncoupling miRNA biogenesis from host gene expression.

  19. Biogenesis of Golgi Stacks in Imaginal Discs of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kondylis, Vangelis; Goulding, Sarah E.; Dunne, Jonathan C.; Rabouille, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of Golgi stack biogenesis that takes place in vivo during one of the morphogenetic events in the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. In early third-instar larvae, small clusters consisting mostly of vesicles and tubules were present in epithelial imaginal disk cells. As larvae progressed through mid- and late-third instar, these larval clusters became larger but also increasingly formed cisternae, some of which were stacked. In white pupae, the typical Golgi stack was observed. We show that larval clusters are Golgi stack precursors by 1) localizing various Golgi-specific markers to the larval clusters by electron and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, 2) driving this conversion in wild-type larvae incubated at 37°C for 2 h, and 3) showing that this conversion does not take place in an NSF1 mutant (comt 17). The biological significance of this conversion became clear when we found that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) is critically involved in this conversion. In its absence, Golgi stack biogenesis did not occur and the larval clusters remained unaltered. We showed that dGM130 and sec23p expression increases approximately three- and fivefold, respectively, when discs are exposed to ecdysone in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that we have developed an in vivo system to study the ecdysone-triggered Golgi stack biogenesis. PMID:11514618

  20. The miRNA biogenesis in marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Rosani, Umberto; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs include powerful regulators of gene expression, transposon mobility and virus activity. Among the various categories, mature microRNAs (miRNAs) guide the translational repression and decay of several targeted mRNAs. The biogenesis of miRNAs depends on few gene products, essentially conserved from basal to higher metazoans, whose protein domains allow specific interactions with dsRNA. Here, we report the identification of key genes responsible of the miRNA biogenesis in 32 bivalves, with particular attention to the aquaculture species Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. In detail, we have identified and phylogenetically compared eight evolutionary conserved proteins: DROSHA, DGCR8, EXP5, RAN, DICER TARBP2, AGO and PIWI. In mussels, we recognized several other proteins participating in the miRNA biogenesis or in the subsequent RNA silencing. According to digital expression analysis, these genes display low and not inducible expression levels in adult mussels and oysters whereas they are considerably expressed during development. As miRNAs play an important role also in the antiviral responses, knowledge on their production and regulative effects can shed light on essential molecular processes and provide new hints for disease prevention in bivalves. PMID:26989613

  1. Dissociation of ribosomes into large and small subunits.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-04-01

    Structural and functional studies of ribosomal subunits require the dissociation of intact ribosomes into individual small and large ribosomal subunits. The dissociation of the prokaryotic 70S ribosomes into the 50S and 30S subunits is achieved by dialysis against a buffer containing a lower Mg(2+) concentration. Eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are dissociated into 60S and 40S subunits by incubation in a buffer containing puromycin and higher KCl and Mg(2+) concentrations.

  2. Characterization of Yeast Extracellular Vesicles: Evidence for the Participation of Different Pathways of Cellular Traffic in Vesicle Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Luna S.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Almeida, Igor C.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles in yeast cells are involved in the molecular traffic across the cell wall. In yeast pathogens, these vesicles have been implicated in the transport of proteins, lipids, polysaccharide and pigments to the extracellular space. Cellular pathways required for the biogenesis of yeast extracellular vesicles are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized extracellular vesicle production in wild type (WT) and mutant strains of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transmission electron microscopy in combination with light scattering analysis, lipid extraction and proteomics. WT cells and mutants with defective expression of Sec4p, a secretory vesicle-associated Rab GTPase essential for Golgi-derived exocytosis, or Snf7p, which is involved in multivesicular body (MVB) formation, were analyzed in parallel. Bilayered vesicles with diameters at the 100–300 nm range were found in extracellular fractions from yeast cultures. Proteomic analysis of vesicular fractions from the cells aforementioned and additional mutants with defects in conventional secretion pathways (sec1-1, fusion of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane; bos1-1, vesicle targeting to the Golgi complex) or MVB functionality (vps23, late endosomal trafficking) revealed a complex and interrelated protein collection. Semi-quantitative analysis of protein abundance revealed that mutations in both MVB- and Golgi-derived pathways affected the composition of yeast extracellular vesicles, but none abrogated vesicle production. Lipid analysis revealed that mutants with defects in Golgi-related components of the secretory pathway had slower vesicle release kinetics, as inferred from intracellular accumulation of sterols and reduced detection of these lipids in vesicle fractions in comparison with WT cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that both conventional and unconventional pathways of secretion are required for

  3. Nuclear Export of Pre-Ribosomal Subunits Requires Dbp5, but Not as an RNA-Helicase as for mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Bettina; Wu, Haijia; Hackmann, Alexandra; Krebber, Heike

    2016-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA-helicase Dbp5/Rat8 is known for its function in nuclear mRNA export, where it displaces the export receptor Mex67 from the mRNA at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here we show that Dbp5 is also required for the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits. Yeast temperature-sensitive dbp5 mutants accumulate both ribosomal particles in their nuclei. Furthermore, Dbp5 genetically and physically interacts with known ribosomal transport factors such as Nmd3. Similar to mRNA export we show that also for ribosomal transport Dbp5 is required at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. However, unlike its role in mRNA export, Dbp5 does not seem to undergo its ATPase cycle for this function, as ATPase-deficient dbp5 mutants that selectively inhibit mRNA export do not affect ribosomal transport. Furthermore, mutants of GLE1, the ATPase stimulating factor of Dbp5, show no major ribosomal export defects. Consequently, while Dbp5 uses its ATPase cycle to displace the export receptor Mex67 from the translocated mRNAs, Mex67 remains bound to ribosomal subunits upon transit to the cytoplasm, where it is detectable on translating ribosomes. Therefore, we propose a model, in which Dbp5 supports ribosomal transport by capturing ribosomal subunits upon their cytoplasmic appearance at the NPC, possibly by binding export factors such as Mex67. Thus, our findings reveal that although different ribonucleoparticles, mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits, use shared export factors, they utilize different transport mechanisms. PMID:26872259

  4. MrpL36p, a highly diverged L31 ribosomal protein homolog with additional functional domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Elizabeth H; Perez-Martinez, Xochitl; Fox, Thomas D

    2004-01-01

    Translation in mitochondria utilizes a large complement of ribosomal proteins. Many mitochondrial ribosomal components are clearly homologous to eubacterial ribosomal proteins, but others appear unique to the mitochondrial system. A handful of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins appear to be eubacterial in origin but to have evolved additional functional domains. MrpL36p is an essential mitochondrial ribosomal large-subunit component in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Increased dosage of MRPL36 also has been shown to suppress certain types of translation defects encoded within the mitochondrial COX2 mRNA. A central domain of MrpL36p that is similar to eubacterial ribosomal large-subunit protein L31 is sufficient for general mitochondrial translation but not suppression, and proteins bearing this domain sediment with the ribosomal large subunit in sucrose gradients. In contrast, proteins lacking the L31 domain, but retaining a novel N-terminal sequence and a C-terminal sequence with weak similarity to the Escherichia coli signal recognition particle component Ffh, are sufficient for dosage suppression and do not sediment with the large subunit of the ribosome. Interestingly, the activity of MrpL36p as a dosage suppressor exhibits gene and allele specificity. We propose that MrpL36p represents a highly diverged L31 homolog with derived domains functioning in mRNA selection in yeast mitochondria. PMID:15166137

  5. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies. PMID:26716454

  6. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Andreeva, Kalina; Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies. PMID:26716454

  7. Distinct tmRNA sequence elements facilitate RNase R engagement on rescued ribosomes for selective nonstop mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Krithika; Zafar, Hina; Karzai, A Wali

    2014-01-01

    trans-Translation, orchestrated by SmpB and tmRNA, is the principal eubacterial pathway for resolving stalled translation complexes. RNase R, the leading nonstop mRNA surveillance factor, is recruited to stalled ribosomes in a trans-translation dependent process. To elucidate the contributions of SmpB and tmRNA to RNase R recruitment, we evaluated Escherichia coli-Francisella tularensis chimeric variants of tmRNA and SmpB. This evaluation showed that while the hybrid tmRNA supported nascent polypeptide tagging and ribosome rescue, it suffered defects in facilitating RNase R recruitment to stalled ribosomes. To gain further insights, we used established tmRNA and SmpB variants that impact distinct stages of the trans-translation process. Analysis of select tmRNA variants revealed that the sequence composition and positioning of the ultimate and penultimate codons of the tmRNA ORF play a crucial role in recruiting RNase R to rescued ribosomes. Evaluation of defined SmpB C-terminal tail variants highlighted the importance of establishing the tmRNA reading frame, and provided valuable clues into the timing of RNase R recruitment to rescued ribosomes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that productive RNase R-ribosomes engagement requires active trans-translation, and suggest that RNase R captures the emerging nonstop mRNA at an early stage after establishment of the tmRNA ORF as the surrogate mRNA template.

  8. Arabidopsis NMD3 Is Required for Nuclear Export of 60S Ribosomal Subunits and Affects Secondary Cell Wall Thickening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Qin; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Nan, Jie; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Qu, Hong; Lu, Cong-Ming; Sudmorgen; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2012-01-01

    NMD3 is required for nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit in yeast and vertebrate cells, but no corresponding function of NMD3 has been reported in plants. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana NMD3 (AtNMD3) showed a similar function in the nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Interference with AtNMD3 function by overexpressing a truncated dominant negative form of the protein lacking the nuclear export signal sequence caused retainment of the 60S ribosomal subunits in the nuclei. More interestingly, the transgenic Arabidopsis with dominant negative interference of AtNMD3 function showed a striking failure of secondary cell wall thickening, consistent with the altered expression of related genes and composition of cell wall components. Observation of a significant decrease of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the differentiating interfascicular fiber cells of the transgenic plant stems suggested a link between the defective nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and the abnormal formation of the secondary cell wall. These findings not only clarified the evolutionary conservation of NMD3 functions in the nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits in yeast, animals and plants, but also revealed a new facet of the regulatory mechanism underlying secondary cell wall thickening in Arabidopsis. This new facet is that the nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and the formation of RER may play regulatory roles in coordinating protein synthesis in cytoplasm and transcription in nuclei. PMID:22558264

  9. Structure of the ribosomal interacting GTPase YjeQ from the enterobacterial species Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, C. E.; Johnson, C.; Lamb, H. K.; Lockyer, M.; Charles, I. G.; Hawkins, A. R.; Stammers, D. K.

    2007-11-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the GTPase YjeQ from S. typhimurium is presented and compared with those of orthologues from T. maritima and B. subtilis. The YjeQ class of P-loop GTPases assist in ribosome biogenesis and also bind to the 30S subunit of mature ribosomes. YjeQ ribosomal binding is GTP-dependent and thought to specifically direct protein synthesis, although the nature of the upstream signal causing this event in vivo is as yet unknown. The attenuating effect of YjeQ mutants on bacterial growth in Escherichia coli makes it a potential target for novel antimicrobial agents. In order to further explore the structure and function of YjeQ, the isolation, crystallization and structure determination of YjeQ from the enterobacterial species Salmonella typhimurium (StYjeQ) is reported. Whilst the overall StYjeQ fold is similar to those of the previously reported Thematoga maritima and Bacillus subtilis orthologues, particularly the GTPase domain, there are larger differences in the three OB folds. Although the zinc-finger secondary structure is conserved, significant sequence differences alter the nature of the external surface in each case and may reflect varying signalling pathways. Therefore, it may be easier to develop YjeQ-specific inhibitors that target the N- and C-terminal regions, disrupting the metabolic connectivity rather than the GTPase activity. The availability of coordinates for StYjeQ will provide a significantly improved basis for threading Gram-negative orthologue sequences and in silico compound-screening studies, with the potential for the development of species-selective drugs.

  10. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thalianaT-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth. PMID:24176057

  11. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth.

  12. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth. PMID:24176057

  13. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-04-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of Streptococcus mutans chaperones and protein secretion machinery components on cell surface protein biogenesis, competence, and mutacin production.

    PubMed

    Crowley, P J; Brady, L J

    2016-02-01

    The respective contributions of components of the protein translocation/maturation machinery to cell surface biogenesis in Streptococcus mutans are not fully understood. Here we used a genetic approach to characterize the effects of deletion of genes encoding the ribosome-associated chaperone RopA (Trigger Factor), the surface-localized foldase PrsA, and the membrane-localized chaperone insertases YidC1 and YidC2, both singly and in combination, on bacterial growth, chain length, self-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, autolysis, and antigenicity of surface proteins P1 (AgI/II, PAc), WapA, GbpC, and GtfD. The single and double deletion mutants, as well as additional mutant strains lacking components of the signal recognition particle pathway, were also evaluated for their effects on mutacin production and genetic competence. PMID:26386361

  15. HflX is a ribosome-splitting factor rescuing stalled ribosomes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dejiu; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yan; Mi, Kaixia; Lei, Jianlin; Sanyal, Suparna; Gao, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Adverse cellular conditions often lead to nonproductive translational stalling and arrest of ribosomes on mRNAs. Here, we used fast kinetics and cryo-EM to characterize Escherichia coli HflX, a GTPase with unknown function. Our data reveal that HflX is a heat shock-induced ribosome-splitting factor capable of dissociating vacant as well as mRNA-associated ribosomes with deacylated tRNA in the peptidyl site. Structural data demonstrate that the N-terminal effector domain of HflX binds to the peptidyl transferase center in a strikingly similar manner as that of the class I release factors and induces dramatic conformational changes in central intersubunit bridges, thus promoting subunit dissociation. Accordingly, loss of HflX results in an increase in stalled ribosomes upon heat shock. These results suggest a primary role of HflX in rescuing translationally arrested ribosomes under stress conditions. PMID:26458047

  16. The structure of ribosome-lankacidin complex reveals ribosomal sites for synergistic antibiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, Tamar; Mermershtain, Inbal; Davidovich, Chen; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Wekselman, Itai; Zimmerman, Ella; Xiong, Liqun; Klepacki, Dorota; Arakawa, Kenji; Kinashi, Haruyasu; Mankin, Alexander S.; Yonath, Ada

    2010-04-26

    Crystallographic analysis revealed that the 17-member polyketide antibiotic lankacidin produced by Streptomyces rochei binds at the peptidyl transferase center of the eubacterial large ribosomal subunit. Biochemical and functional studies verified this finding and showed interference with peptide bond formation. Chemical probing indicated that the macrolide lankamycin, a second antibiotic produced by the same species, binds at a neighboring site, at the ribosome exit tunnel. These two antibiotics can bind to the ribosome simultaneously and display synergy in inhibiting bacterial growth. The binding site of lankacidin and lankamycin partially overlap with the binding site of another pair of synergistic antibiotics, the streptogramins. Thus, at least two pairs of structurally dissimilar compounds have been selected in the course of evolution to act synergistically by targeting neighboring sites in the ribosome. These results underscore the importance of the corresponding ribosomal sites for development of clinically relevant synergistic antibiotics and demonstrate the utility of structural analysis for providing new directions for drug discovery.

  17. HflX is a ribosome-splitting factor rescuing stalled ribosomes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dejiu; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yan; Mi, Kaixia; Lei, Jianlin; Sanyal, Suparna; Gao, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Adverse cellular conditions often lead to nonproductive translational stalling and arrest of ribosomes on mRNAs. Here, we used fast kinetics and cryo-EM to characterize Escherichia coli HflX, a GTPase with unknown function. Our data reveal that HflX is a heat shock-induced ribosome-splitting factor capable of dissociating vacant as well as mRNA-associated ribosomes with deacylated tRNA in the peptidyl site. Structural data demonstrate that the N-terminal effector domain of HflX binds to the peptidyl transferase center in a strikingly similar manner as that of the class I release factors and induces dramatic conformational changes in central intersubunit bridges, thus promoting subunit dissociation. Accordingly, loss of HflX results in an increase in stalled ribosomes upon heat shock. These results suggest a primary role of HflX in rescuing translationally arrested ribosomes under stress conditions.

  18. High-resolution structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Noeske, Jonas; Wasserman, Michael R.; Terry, Daniel S.; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome is highly dependent on the ionic conditions in the cellular environment, but the roles of ribosome solvation remain poorly understood. Moreover, the function of modifications to ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins are unclear. Here we present the structure of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome to 2.4 Å resolution. The structure reveals details of the ribosomal subunit interface that are conserved in all domains of life, and suggest how solvation contributes to ribosome integrity and function. The structure also suggests how the conformation of ribosomal protein uS12 likely impacts its contribution to messenger RNA decoding. This structure helps to explain the phylogenetic conservation of key elements of the ribosome, including posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications and should serve as a basis for future antibiotic development. PMID:25775265

  19. Chloroplast Biogenesis-Associated Nuclear Genes: Control by Plastid Signals Evolved Prior to Their Regulation as Part of Photomorphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Alison C.; Khan, Safina; López-Juez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of photosynthetically competent chloroplasts occurs in angiosperm seedlings when first exposed to light, and is due to the control by light of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs), also dependent upon plastid-to-nucleus “biogenic” communication signals. The relationship between light- and plastid signal-regulation of PhANGs is close but poorly understood. In contrast, many conifers green in the dark and the promoter of a pine PhANG, Lhcb, is active in the dark in tobacco. Here, we show that the activity of this promoter in tobacco is sensitive to plastid photobleaching, or to the inhibition of plastid translation in the light or the dark, and the same interventions reduce expression of the native gene in pine seedlings, demonstrating classic plastid biogenic signaling in gymnosperms. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutations causing defective plastid biogenesis suppress the effect in darkness of mutations in COP1 and DET1, repressors of photomorphogenesis, for the expression of several PhANGs but not a photosynthesis-unrelated, light-regulated gene. GLK transcriptional regulators mediate the response of LHCB but not of other tested PhANGs. We propose the ability to suppress PhANG response to positive plastid biogenic signals in the dark may have contributed to the evolution of light-controlled chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:26697036

  20. OCRL1 engages with the F-BAR protein pacsin 2 to promote biogenesis of membrane-trafficking intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Billcliff, Peter G.; Noakes, Christopher J.; Mehta, Zenobia B.; Yan, Guanhua; Mak, LokHang; Woscholski, Rudiger; Lowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL1 causes Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Loss of OCRL1 function perturbs several cellular processes, including membrane traffic, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we show that OCRL1 is part of the membrane-trafficking machinery operating at the trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosome interface. OCRL1 interacts via IPIP27A with the F-BAR protein pacsin 2. OCRL1 and IPIP27A localize to mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR)–containing trafficking intermediates, and loss of either protein leads to defective MPR carrier biogenesis at the TGN and endosomes. OCRL1 5-phosphatase activity, which is membrane curvature sensitive, is stimulated by IPIP27A-mediated engagement of OCRL1 with pacsin 2 and promotes scission of MPR-containing carriers. Our data indicate a role for OCRL1, via IPIP27A, in regulating the formation of pacsin 2–dependent trafficking intermediates and reveal a mechanism for coupling PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis with carrier biogenesis on endomembranes. PMID:26510499

  1. [Study of the surface of Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal particles by the tritium bombardment method].

    PubMed

    Iusupov, M M; Spirin, A S

    1986-11-01

    A new technique of atomic tritium bombardment has been used to study the surface topography of Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal subunits. The technique provides for the labeling of proteins exposed on the surface of ribosomal particles, the extent of protein labeling being proportional to the degree of exposure. The following proteins were considerably tritiated in the 70S ribosomes: S1, S4, S7, S9 and/or S11, S12 and/or L20, S13, S18, S20, S21, L1, L5, L6, L7/L12, L10, L11, L16, L17, L24, L26 and L27. A conclusion is drawn that these proteins are exposed on the ribosome surface to an essentially greater extent than the others. Dissociation of 70S ribosomes into the ribosomal subunits by decreasing Mg2+ concentration does not lead to the exposure of additional ribosomal proteins. This implies that there are no proteins on the contacting surfaces of the subunits. However, if a mixture of subunits has been subjected to centrifugation in a low Mg2+ concentration at high concentrations of a monovalent cation, proteins S3, S5, S7, S14, S18 and L16 are more exposed on the surface of the isolated 30S and 50S subunits than in the subunit mixture or in the 70S ribosomes. The exposure of additional proteins is explained by distortion of the native quaternary structure of ribosomal subunits as a result of the separation procedure. Reassociation of isolated subunits at high Mg2+ concentration results in shielding of proteins S3, S5, S7 and S18 and can be explained by reconstitution of the intact 30S subunit structure. PMID:3542056

  2. Aβ25-35 Suppresses Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiguo; Wang, Feng; Guo, Wanqing; Zheng, Xuehua; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Wenguang; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial content, morphology, and function. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis has been observed in Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) has been shown to cause mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured neurons, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in neurons remains poorly defined. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) are key energy-sensing molecules regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, is a target for SIRT1 deacetylase activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aβ25-35 on mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons and the underlying mechanisms. In primary hippocampal neurons, we found that 24-h incubation with Aβ25-35 suppressed both phosphorylations of AMPK and SIRT1 expression and increased PGC-1α acetylation expression. In addition, Aβ25-35 also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number, as well as decreases in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors (PGC-1α, NRF 1, NRF 2, and Tfam). Taken together, these data show that Aβ25-35 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis in hippocampal neurons. Aβ25-35-induced impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis may be associated with the inhibition of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway.

  3. Ribosomes in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Bleher, R; Martin, R

    2001-01-01

    Ribosome clusters, referred to as endoaxoplasmic plaques, were documented and quantitatively analyzed in the squid giant axon at the light and electron microscopic levels. The methods included nonspecific high affinity fluorescence staining of RNA by YOYO-1, specific immunofluorescence labeling of ribosomal RNA, electron energy loss spectroscopic mapping of ribosomal phosphorus, and conventional transmission electron microscopy. The endoaxoplasmic plaques were sharply defined, oval in shape, and less than 2 microm in diameter. While they were very numerous in the postsynaptic axonal area of the giant synapse, the frequency of occurrence was much lower in the peripheral giant axon, with a density of about 1 plaque/1000 microm3. Their distribution was random within axoplasm, with no preferential localization near the membrane. The several thousand ribosomes in a plaque usually were not membrane bound, but vesicular structures were observed in or near plaques; plaques were often surrounded by mitochondria. We conclude that ribosomes, a requisite machinery for protein synthesi